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1

Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Carotenoids  

PubMed Central

Carotenoids are natural pigments synthesized by plants and photosynthetic microorganisms, some of which, like ?-carotene, are precursors of vitamin A, and others such as lutein and lycopene might function in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration and prostate cancer, respectively. Mass spectrometry provides high sensitivity and selectivity for the identification and quantitative analysis of carotenoids in biological samples, and previous studies have described how atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) offers distinct advantages over electrospray and fast atom bombardment for the analysis of specific carotenoids. Since APCI product ion tandem mass spectra have been reported for only a few carotenoids, a detailed investigation of twelve carotenes and xanthophylls was carried out using both positive ion and negative ion APCI tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation. Using protonated molecules as precursor ions in positive ion mode and radical anions in negative ion mode, characteristic fragment ions were identified that may be used to distinguish between carotenoids. PMID:22408388

van Breemen, Richard B.; Dong, Linlin; Pajkovic, Natasa D.

2011-01-01

2

Quantitative aspects of and ionization mechanisms in positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The behavior in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of selected model polycyclic aromatic compounds, pyrene, dibenzothiophene, carbazole, and fluorenone, was studied in the solvents acetonitrile, methanol, and toluene. Relative ionization efficiency and sensitivity were highest in toluene and lowest in methanol, a mixture of molecular ions and protonated molecules was observed in most instances, and interferences between analytes were detected at higher concentrations. Such interferences were assumed to be caused by a competition among analyte molecules for a limited number of reagent ions in the plasma. The presence of both molecular ions and protonated analyte molecules can be attributed to charge-transfer from solvent radical cations and proton transfer from protonated solvent molecules, respectively. The order of ionization efficiency could be explained by incorporating the effect of solvation in the ionization reactions. Thermodynamic data, both experimental and calculated theoretically, are presented to support the proposed ionization mechanisms. The analytical implications of the results are that using acetonitrile (compared with methanol) as solvent will provide better sensitivity with fewer interferences (at low concentrations), except for analytes having high gas-phase basicities. PMID:18845448

Herrera, Lisandra Cubero; Grossert, J Stuart; Ramaley, Louis

2008-12-01

3

Fast screening of authentic ginseng products by surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry was developed as a rapid online detection technology for the chemical fingerprints of ginseng products without any sample pretreatment. More than 20 ginsenosides were detected in the ginseng tissue and identified by their tandem mass spectrometry. Data were well matched with their reference compounds. Herein, surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry was first applied to study the nonvolatile compounds in ginseng. White and red ginseng have been successfully differentiated from their counterfeits using some ginsenosides as chemical markers. Ginsenoside can be used to differentiate between white ginseng, red ginseng, unboiled ginseng, and their counterfeits. Ginsenosides Ra1-3, Rb2-3, and Rc might be used to differentiate between white ginseng and boiled ginseng. Our result showed that surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry not only could be used for fast screening authentic ginseng products but also might become a useful promising technique for the characterization of nonvolatile compounds in medicinal herbs to save researchers the laborious effort of sample pretreatment. PMID:23212787

Yue, Hao; Ma, Li; Pi, Zifeng; Chen, Huanwen; Wang, Yang; Hu, Bin; Liu, Shuying

2013-01-01

4

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APcI) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: characterization of natural antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) allows non-volatile and thermally sensitive compounds to be handled. The key feature, regarding LC flowrate and MS vacuum requirements, is the LC-MS interface system. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APcI) is a sensitive and widely applicable method which gives primarily molecular weight information with the ability to provide structural information if required.

M.-N. Maillard; P. Giampaoli; M.-E. Cuvelier

1996-01-01

5

Carbon disulfide reagent allows the characterization of nonpolar analytes by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

While atmospheric pressure ionization methodologies have revolutionized the mass spectrometric analysis of nonvolatile analytes, limitations native to the chemistry of these methodologies hinder or entirely inhibit the analysis of certain analytes, specifically, many nonpolar compounds. Examination of various analytes, including asphaltene and lignin model compounds as well as saturated hydrocarbons, demonstrates that atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) using CS(2) as the reagent produces an abundant and stable molecular ion (M(+•)) for all model compounds studied, with the exception of completely saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons and the two amino acids tested, arginine and phenylalanine. This reagent substantially broadens the applicability of mass spectrometry to nonvolatile nonpolar analytes and also facilitates the examination of radical cation chemistry by mass spectrometry. PMID:21698674

Owen, Benjamin C; Gao, Jinshan; Borton, David J; Amundson, Lucas M; Archibold, Enada F; Tan, Xiaoli; Azyat, Khalid; Tykwinski, Rik; Gray, Murray; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

2011-07-30

6

Applications of a versatile technique for trace analysis: atmospheric pressure negative chemical ionization.  

PubMed Central

The ability to use ambient air as a carrier and reagent gas in an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source allows instantaneous air analysis to be combined with hypersensitivity toward a wide variety of compounds. The TAGA (Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyser) is an instrument which is designed to use both positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) for trace gas analysis; this paper describes several applications of negative APCI which demonstrates that the technique is not limited to environmental monitoring. Examples are described which suggest that the TAGA can be used for the detection of illicit drugs and explosives, and for the analysis of breath or skin emissions, as well as for air pollution measurements. The applications are not restricted by the use of ambient air as a reagent gas; addition to the air carrier of various gases allows specific reagent ions such as Cl- or Br- to be generated. Furthermore, in certain situations pure gas carriers can be used to provide even more flexibility in the ion chemistry, with a short term absorber-desorber system used to transfer the sample from the ambient air into the ion source region. The potential uses for APCI are expanding continuously as the understanding of the complex ion-molecule chemistry grows. This paper underlines the complementary relation between the development of new negative chemical ionization (NCI) techniques and practical applications using the TAGA system. PMID:6775945

Thomson, B A; Davidson, W R; Lovett, A M

1980-01-01

7

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of fluorinated phenols in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, and ion mobility spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-mass spectrometry (MS) for fluorinated phenols (C6H5-xFxOH Where x = 0-5) in nitrogen with Cl- as the reagent ion yielded product ions of M Cl- through ion associations or (M-H)- through proton abstractions. Proton abstraction was controllable by potentials on the orifice and first lens, suggesting that some proton abstraction occurs through collision induced dissociation (CID) in the interface region. This was proven using CID of adduct ions (M Cl-) with Q2 studies where adduct ions were dissociated to Cl- or proton abstracted to (M-H)-. The extent of proton abstraction depended upon ion energy and structure in order of calculated acidities: pentafluorophenol > tetrafluorophenol > trifluorophenol > difluorophenol. Little or no proton abstraction occurred for fluorophenol, phenol, or benzyl alcohol analogs. Ion mobility spectrometry was used to determine if proton abstraction reactions passed through an adduct intermediate with thermalized ions and mobility spectra for all chemicals were obtained from 25 to 200 degrees C. Proton abstraction from M Cl- was not observed at any temperature for phenol, monofluorophenol, or difluorophenol. Mobility spectra for trifluorophenol revealed the kinetic transformations to (M-H)- either from M Cl- or from M2 Cl- directly. Proton abstraction was the predominant reaction for tetra- and penta-fluorophenols. Consequently, the evidence suggests that proton abstraction occurs from an adduct ion where the reaction barrier is reduced with increasing acidity of the O-H bond in C6H5-xFxOH.

Eiceman, G. A.; Bergloff, J. F.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Munro, W.; Karpas, Z.

1999-01-01

8

Facilities: NHMFL 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Citation: Atmospheric Pressure Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

: Atmospheric Pressure Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of atmospheric pressure laser-induced acoustic desorption chemical ionization (AP/ LIAD-CI) source. The laser a powerful new approach for the analysis of saturated hydrocarbon mixtures: atmospheric pressure laser

Weston, Ken

9

Evaluating the Utility of an Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer for Analyzing Organic Peroxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are known to affect the earth's radiation budget through its ability to scatter and absorb radiation. Consequently, the mechanisms and factors that influence SOA composition and formation are poorly understood. However, recent modeling studies coupled with smog chamber experiments suggest that organic peroxides (organic hydroperoxides and peroxyhemiacetals) might be a major component of SOA composition under low NOx conditions. This study utilized an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer (APCI-MS) in the positive mode to detect organic peroxides. Mass spectra of organic peroxides analyzed in this study show excessive fragmentation during ionization with protonated water clusters. It was believed that intact ions were not found due to decomposition in the ion source. Future work will explore new reagents for ionization to reduce fragmentation during analysis.

Jameer, A.; Hastie, D. R.

2013-12-01

10

Rapid differentiation of tea products by surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Protonated water molecules generated by an ambient corona discharge were directed to impact tea leaves for desorption/ionization at atmospheric pressure. Thus, a novel method based on surface desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometry (DAPCI-MS) has been developed for rapid analysis of tea products without any sample pretreatment. Under the optimized experimental conditions, DAPCI MS spectra of various tea samples are recorded rapidly, and the resulting mass spectra are chemical fingerprints that characterize the tea samples. On the basis of the mass spectral fingerprints, 40 tea samples including green tea, oolong tea, and jasmine tea were successfully differentiated by principal component analysis (PCA) of the mass spectral raw data. The PCA results were also validated with cluster analysis and supervised PCA analysis. The alteration of signal intensity caused by rough surfaces of tea leaves did not cause failure in the separation of the tea products. The experimental findings show that DAPCI-MS creates ions of both volatile and nonvolatile compounds in tea products at atmospheric pressure, providing a practical and convenient tool for high-throughput differentiation of tea products. PMID:18020412

Chen, Huanwen; Liang, Huazheng; Ding, Jianhua; Lai, Jinhu; Huan, Yanfu; Qiao, Xiaolin

2007-12-12

11

Thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled using proximal probe thermal desorption with electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.  

PubMed

An atmospheric pressure proximal probe thermal desorption sampling method coupled with secondary ionization by electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was demonstrated for the mass spectrometric analysis of a diverse set of compounds (dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, explosives and pesticides) separated on various high-performance thin-layer chromatography plates. Line scans along or through development lanes on the plates were carried out by moving the plate relative to a stationary heated probe positioned close to or just touching the stationary phase surface. Vapors of the compounds thermally desorbed from the surface were drawn into the ionization region of a combined electrospray ionization/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source where they merged with reagent ions and/or charged droplets from a corona discharge or an electrospray emitter and were ionized. The ionized components were then drawn through the atmospheric pressure sampling orifice into the vacuum region of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and detected using full scan, single ion monitoring, or selected reaction monitoring mode. Studies of variable parameters and performance metrics including the proximal probe temperature, gas flow rate into the ionization region, surface scan speed, read-out resolution, detection limits, and surface type are discussed. PMID:20499315

Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Van Berkel, Gary J

2010-06-30

12

Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) was successfully coupled to a conventional atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source in a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LQIT). Model compounds representing a wide variety of different types, including basic nitrogen and oxygen compounds, aromatic and aliphatic compounds, as well as unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, were tested separately and as a mixture. These model compounds were successfully evaporated into the gas phase by using LIAD and then ionized by using APCI with different reagents. Four APCI reagent systems were tested: the traditionally used mixture of methanol and water, neat benzene, neat carbon disulfide, and nitrogen gas (no liquid reagent). The mixture of methanol and water produced primarily protonated molecules, as expected. However, only the most basic compounds yielded ions under these conditions. In sharp contrast, using APCI with either neat benzene or neat carbon disulfide as the reagent resulted in the ionization of all the analytes studied to predominantly yield stable molecular ions. Benzene yielded a larger fraction of protonated molecules than carbon disulfide, which is a disadvantage. A similar amount of fragmentation was observed for these reagents. When the experiment was performed without a liquid reagent(nitrogen gas was the reagent), more fragmentation was observed. Analysis of a known mixture as well as a petroleum cut was also carried out. In summary, the new experiment presented here allows the evaporation of thermally labile compounds, both polar and nonpolar, without dissociation or aggregation, and their ionization to form stable molecular ions. PMID:21472571

Gao, Jinshan; Borton, David J.; Owen, Benjamin C.; Jin, Zhicheng; Hurt, Matt; Amundson, Lucas M.; Madden, Jeremy T.; Qian, Kuangnan; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

2010-01-01

13

Characterization of triacetone triperoxide by ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry following atmospheric pressure chemical ionization  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) with subsequent separation and detection by ion mobility spectrometry has been studied. Positive ionization with hydronium reactant ions produced only fragments of the TATP molecule, with m/z 91 ion being the most predominant species. Ionization with ammonium reactant ions produced a molecular adduct at m/z 240. The reduced mobility value of this ion was constant at 1.36 cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1} across the temperature range from 60 to 140 C. The stability of this ion was temperature dependent and did not exist at temperatures above 140 C, where only fragment ions were observed. The introduction of ammonia vapors with TATP resulted in the formation of m/z 58 ion. As the concentration of ammonia increased, this smaller ion appeared to dominate the spectra and the TATP-ammonium adduct decreased in intensity. The ion at m/z 58 has been noted by several research groups upon using ammonia reagents in chemical ionization, but the identity was unknown. Evidence presented here supports the formation of protonated 2-propanimine. A proposed mechanism involves the addition of ammonia to the TATP-ammonium adduct followed by an elimination reaction. A similar mechanism involving the chemical ionization of acetone with excess ammonia also showed the formation of m/z 58 ion. TATP vapors from a solid sample were detected with a hand-held ion mobility spectrometer operated at room temperature. The TATP-ammonium molecular adduct was observed in the presence of ammonia and TATP vapors with this spectrometer.

Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.

2011-04-28

14

Laser Microdissection and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled for Multimodal Imaging  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the coupling of ambient laser ablation surface sampling, accomplished using a laser capture microdissection system, with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry for high spatial resolution multimodal imaging. A commercial laser capture microdissection system was placed in close proximity to a modified ion source of a mass spectrometer designed to allow for sampling of laser ablated material via a transfer tube directly into the ionization region. Rhodamine 6G dye of red sharpie ink in a laser etched pattern as well as cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section were identified and imaged from full scan mass spectra. A minimal spot diameter of 8 m was achieved using the 10X microscope cutting objective with a lateral oversampling pixel resolution of about 3.7 m. Distinguishing between features approximately 13 m apart in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section was demonstrated in a multimodal fashion including co-registered optical and mass spectral chemical images.

Lorenz, Matthias [ORNL; Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2013-01-01

15

Fundamentals of ambient metastable-induced chemical ionization mass spectrometry and atmospheric pressure ion mobility spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular ionization is owed much of its development from the early implementation of electron ionization (EI). Although dramatically increasing the library of compounds discovered, an inherent problem with EI was the low abundance of molecular ions detected due to high fragmentation leading to the difficult task of the correct chemical identification after mass spectrometry (MS). These problems stimulated the research into new ionization methods which sought to "soften" the ionization process. In the late 1980s the advancements of ionization techniques was thought to have reached its pinnacle with both electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Both ionization techniques allowed for "soft" ionization of large molecular weight and/or labile compounds for intact characterization by MS. Albeit pervasive, neither ESI nor MALDI can be viewed as "magic bullet" ionization techniques. Both techniques require sample preparation which often included native sample destruction, and operation of these techniques took place in sealed enclosures and often, reduced pressure conditions. New open-air ionization techniques termed "ambient MS" enable direct analysis of samples of various physical states, sizes and shapes. One particular technique named Direct Analysis In Real Time (DART) has been steadily growing as one of the ambient tools of choice to ionize small molecular weight (< 1000 Da) molecules with a wide range of polarities. Although there is a large list of reported applications using DART as an ionization source, there have not been many studies investigating the fundamental properties of DART desorption and ionization mechanisms. The work presented in this thesis is aimed to provide in depth findings on the physicochemical phenomena during open-air DART desorption and ionization MS and current application developments. A review of recent ambient plasma-based desorption/ionization techniques for analytical MS is presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 presents the first investigations into the atmospheric pressure ion transport phenomena during DART analysis. Chapter 3 provides a comparison on the internal energy deposition processes during DART and pneumatically assisted-ESI. Chapter 4 investigates the complex spatially-dependent sampling sensitivity, dynamic range and ion suppression effects present in most DART experiments. New implementations and applications with DART are shown in Chapters 5 and 6. In Chapter 5, DART is coupled to multiplexed drift tube ion mobility spectrometry as a potential fieldable platform for the detection of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents simulants. In Chapter 6, transmission-mode DART is shown to be an effective method for reproducible sampling from materials which allow for gas to flow through it. Also, Chapter 6 provides a description of a MS imaging platform coupling infrared laser ablation and DART-like phenomena. Finally, in Chapter 7 I will provide perspective on the work completed with DART and the tasks and goals that future studies should focus on.

Harris, Glenn A.

16

Kinetic and Thermodynamic Control of Protonation in Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For p-(dimethylamino)chalcone ( p-DMAC), the N atom is the most basic site in the liquid phase, whereas the O atom possesses the highest proton affinity in the gas phase. A novel and interesting observation is reported that the N- and O-protonated p-DMAC can be competitively produced in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) with the change of solvents and ionization conditions. In neat methanol or acetonitrile, the protonation is always under thermodynamic control to form the O-protonated ion. When methanol/water or acetonitrile/water was used as the solvent, the protonation is kinetically controlled to form the N-protonated ion under conditions of relatively high infusion rate and high concentration of water in the mixed solvent. The regioselectivity of protonation of p-DMAC in APCI is probably attributed to the bulky solvent cluster reagent ions (SnH+) and the analyte having different preferred protonation sites in the liquid phase and gas phase.

Chai, Yunfeng; Hu, Nan; Pan, Yuanjiang

2013-07-01

17

An added dimension: GC atmospheric pressure chemical ionization FTICR MS and the Athabasca oil sands.  

PubMed

The Athabasca oil sands industry, an alternative source of petroleum, uses large quantities of water during processing of the oil sands. In keeping with Canadian environmental policy, the processed water cannot be released to natural waters and is thus retained on-site in large tailings ponds. There is an increasing need for further development of analytical methods for environmental monitoring. The following details the first example of the application of gas chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FTICR MS) for the study of environmental samples from the Athabasca region of Canada. APCI offers the advantages of reduced fragmentation compared to other ionization methods and is also more amenable to compounds that are inaccessible by electrospray ionization. The combination of GC with ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry can improve the characterization of complex mixtures where components cannot be resolved by GC alone. This, in turn, affords the ability to monitor extracted ion chromatograms for components of the same nominal mass and isomers in the complex mixtures. The proof of concept work described here is based upon the characterization of one oil sands process water sample and two groundwater samples in the area of oil sands activity. Using the new method, the Ox and OxS compound classes predominated, with OxS classes being particularly relevant to the oil sands industry. The potential to resolve retention times for individual components within the complex mixture, highlighting contributions from isomers, and to characterize retention time profiles for homologous series is shown, in addition to the ability to follow profiles of double bond equivalents and carbon number for a compound class as a function of retention time. The method is shown to be well-suited for environmental forensics. PMID:25036898

Barrow, Mark P; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

2014-08-19

18

Scanning Diode Laser Desorption Thin-Layer Chromatography Coupled with Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous wave diode laser is applied for desorption of an analyte from a porous surface of a thin-layer plate covered with a graphite suspension. The thermally desorbed analyte molecules are ionized in the gas phase by a corona discharge at atmospheric pressure. Therefore, both essential processes - the desorption and the ionization of analyte molecules, which are often performed in one step - are separated. Reserpine was chosen as model analyte, which is often used for specification of mass spectrometers. No fragmentation was observed because of efficient collisional cooling under atmospheric pressure. The influence of diode laser power and the composition of the graphite suspension were investigated, and a primary optimization was performed. An interface to allow online qualitative and quantitative full plate detection and analysis of compounds separated by thin-layer chromatography is presented.

Peng, Song; Ahlmann, Norman; Edler, Michael; Franzke, Joachim

19

Unusual atmospheric pressure chemical ionization conditions for detection of organic peroxides.  

PubMed

Organic peroxides such as the cumene hydroperoxide I (M(r) = 152 u), the di-tert-butyl peroxide II (M(r) = 146 u) and the tert-butyl peroxybenzoate III (M(r) = 194 u) were analyzed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a water-methanol mixture as solvent with a low flow-rate of mobile phase and unusual conditions of the source temperature (< or =50 degrees C) and probe temperature (70-200 degrees C). The mass spectra of these compounds show the formation of (i) an [M + H](+) ion (m/z 153) for the hydroperoxide I, (ii) a stable adduct [M + CH(3)OH(2)](+) ion (m/z 179) for the dialkyl peroxide II and (iii) several protonated adduct species such as protonated molecules (m/z 195) and different protonated adduct ions (m/z 227, 389 and 421) for the peroxyester III. Tandem mass spectrometric experiments, exact mass measurements and theoretical calculations were performed for characterize these gas-phase ionic species. Using the double-well energy potential model illustrating a gas-phase bimolecular reaction, three important factors are taken into account to propose a qualitative interpretation of peroxide behavior toward the CH(3)OH(2) (+), i.e. thermochemical parameters (DeltaHdegrees(reaction)) and two kinetic factors such as the capture constant of the initial stable ion-dipole and the magnitude of the rate constant of proton transfer reaction into the loose proton bond cluster. PMID:14505320

Rondeau, David; Vogel, René; Tabet, Jean-Claude

2003-09-01

20

Document authentication at molecular levels using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry imaging.  

PubMed

Molecular images of documents were obtained by sequentially scanning the surface of the document using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (DAPCI-MS), which was operated in either a gasless, solvent-free or methanol vapor-assisted mode. The decay process of the ink used for handwriting was monitored by following the signal intensities recorded by DAPCI-MS. Handwritings made using four types of inks on four kinds of paper surfaces were tested. By studying the dynamic decay of the inks, DAPCI-MS imaging differentiated a 10-min old from two 4 h old samples. Non-destructive forensic analysis of forged signatures either handwritten or computer-assisted was achieved according to the difference of the contour in DAPCI images, which was attributed to the strength personalized by different writers. Distinction of the order of writing/stamping on documents and detection of illegal printings were accomplished with a spatial resolution of about 140 µm. A Matlab® written program was developed to facilitate the visualization of the similarity between signature images obtained by DAPCI-MS. The experimental results show that DAPCI-MS imaging provides rich information at the molecular level and thus can be used for the reliable document analysis in forensic applications. PMID:24078245

Li, Ming; Jia, Bin; Ding, Liying; Hong, Feng; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Chen, Rui; Zhou, Shumin; Chen, Huanwen; Fang, Xiang

2013-09-01

21

Characterization of prenylated xanthones and flavanones by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Reversed-phase liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS) in the positive-ion mode was utilized to analyze crude ether extracts from the root bark of Maclura pomifera, a tree known to have a high content of prenylated xanthones and flavanones. Identification of three xanthones and two flavanones was based on their unique mass spectra. Under optimum conditions peaks corresponding to the [MH](+) ion and characteristic fragments for each compound were observed. (1)H NMR data were used to confirm the identities of two xanthones that had the same molecular mass and similar fragmentation patterns. Fragmentation of the analytes was achieved by application of an electrostatic potential at the entrance of the single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The optimum voltage for fragmentation was found to be related to the class of compounds analyzed and, within each class, to be dependent on the structure of the prenyl moiety. Collision-induced pathways consistent with precedent literature describing the MS characterization of similar compounds and with the observed fragmentation patterns are tentatively proposed. PMID:10797650

da Costa, C T; Dalluge, J J; Welch, M J; Coxon, B; Margolis, S A; Horton, D

2000-04-01

22

Choosing between atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and electrospray ionization interfaces for the HPLC/MS analysis of pesticides  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An evaluation of over 75 pesticides by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) clearly shows that different classes of pesticides are more sensitive using either atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or electrospray ionization (ESI). For example, neutral and basic pesticides (phenylureas, triazines) are more sensitive using APCI (especially positive ion). While cationic and anionic herbicides (bipyridylium ions, sulfonic acids) are more sensitive using ESI (especially negative ion). These data are expressed graphically in a figure called an ionization-continuum diagram, which shows that protonation in the gas phase (proton affinity) and polarity in solution, expressed as proton addition or subtraction (pKa), is useful in selecting APCI or ESI. Furthermore, sodium adduct formation commonly occurs using positive ion ESI but not using positive ion APCI, which reflects the different mechanisms of ionization and strengthens the usefulness of the ionization-continuum diagram. The data also show that the concept of "wrong-way around" ESI (the sensitivity of acidic pesticides in an acidic mobile phase) is a useful modification of simple pKa theory for mobile-phase selection. Finally, this finding is used to enhance the chromatographic separation of oxanilic and sulfonic acid herbicides while maintaining good sensitivity in LC/MS using ESI negative.

Thurman, E.M.; Ferrer, I.; Barcelo, D.

2001-01-01

23

Direct probe atmospheric pressure photoionization/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry for fast screening of flame retardants and plasticizers in products and waste.  

PubMed

In this study, we develop fast screening methods for flame retardants and plasticizers in products and waste based on direct probe (DP) atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) coupled to a high-resolution (HR) time-of-flight mass spectrometer. DP-APPI is reported for the first time in this study, and DP-APCI that has been scarcely exploited is optimized for comparison. DP-APPI was more selective than DP-APCI and also more sensitive for the most hydrophobic compounds. No sample treatment was necessary, and only a minimal amount of sample (few milligrams) was used for analysis that was performed within a few minutes. Both methods were applied to the analysis of plastic products, electronic waste, and car interiors. Polybrominated diphenylethers, new brominated flame retardants, and organophosphorus flame retardants were present in most of the samples. The combination of DP with HR mass spectra and data processing based on mass accuracy and isotopic patterns allowed the unambiguous identification of chemicals at low levels of about 0.025 % (w/w). Under untargeted screening, resorcinol bis(biphenylphosphate) and bisphenol A bis(bisphenylphosphate) were identified in many of the consumer products of which literature data are still very limited. PMID:24493336

Ballesteros-Gómez, A; Brandsma, S H; de Boer, J; Leonards, P E G

2014-04-01

24

Mass spectrometric behavior of anabolic androgenic steroids using gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. Part I: ionization.  

PubMed

The detection of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is one of the most important topics in doping control analysis. Gas chromatography coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry (GC-MS(/MS)) with electron ionization and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry have been traditionally applied for this purpose. However, both approaches still have important limitations, and, therefore, detection of all AAS is currently afforded by the combination of these strategies. Alternative ionization techniques can minimize these drawbacks and help in the implementation of a single method for the detection of AAS. In the present work, a new atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source commercialized for gas chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight analyzer has been tested to evaluate the ionization of 60 model AAS. Underivatized and trimethylsylil (TMS)-derivatized compounds have been investigated. The use of GC-APCI-MS allowed for the ionization of all AAS assayed irrespective of their structure. The presence of water in the source as modifier promoted the formation of protonated molecules ([M+H](+)), becoming the base peak of the spectrum for the majority of studied compounds. Under these conditions, [M+H](+), [M+H-H2O](+) and [M+H-2·H2O](+) for underivatized AAS and [M+H](+), [M+H-TMSOH](+) and [M+H-2·TMSOH](+) for TMS-derivatized AAS were observed as main ions in the spectra. The formed ions preserve the intact steroid skeleton, and, therefore, they might be used as specific precursors in MS/MS-based methods. Additionally, a relationship between the relative abundance of these ions and the AAS structure has been established. This relationship might be useful in the structural elucidation of unknown metabolites. PMID:24913403

Raro, M; Portolés, T; Sancho, J V; Pitarch, E; Hernández, F; Marcos, J; Ventura, R; Gómez, C; Segura, J; Pozo, O J

2014-06-01

25

A corona discharge atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source with selective NO(+) formation and its application for monoaromatic VOC detection.  

PubMed

We have developed a new type of corona discharge (CD) for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) for application in ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) as well as in mass spectrometry (MS). While the other CD-APCI sources are able to generate H3O(+)·(H2O)n as the major reactant ions in N2 or in zero air, the present CD-APCI source has the ability to generate up to 84% NO(+)·(H2O)n reactant ions in zero air. The change of the working gas from zero air to N2 allows us to change the major reactant ions from NO(+)·(H2O)n to H3O(+)·(H2O)n. In this paper we present the description of the new CD-APCI and discuss the processes associated with the NO(+) formation. The selective formation of NO(+)·(H2O)n reactant ions offers chemical ionization based on these ions which can be of great advantage for some classes of chemicals. We demonstrate here a significant increase in the sensitivity of the IMS-MS instrument for monoaromatic volatile organic compound (VOC) detection upon NO(+)·(H2O)n chemical ionization. PMID:24081306

Sabo, Martin; Matej?ík, Štefan

2013-11-21

26

Identification of milk fat triacylglycerols by capillary supercritical fluid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Identification of milk fat triacylglycerols was accomplished by capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) combined with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry [(APCI)MS]. Supercritical carbon dioxide was the carrier fluid in SFC. Ionization was achieved by introducing vapor of ammonia in methanol into the ionization chamber which resulted in the formation of abundant [M + 18]+ and [M - RCCO]+ ions of triaclyglycerols. These ions defined both the molecular weight and the fatty acid constituents of a triacylglycerol, respectively. SFC on a nonpolar stationary phase provided an efficient separation of triacylglycerols according to the combined number of carbon atoms in the acyl chains a molecule. In addition to the identification of the major chromatographic peaks representing molecules with 26-54 acyl carbons, minor peaks representing triacylglycerols with an odd number of acyl carbons were separated and identified. Furthermore, compositional information on partially separated isobaric triacylglycerols, which differed substantially in the chain length of the fatty acyl residues, was achieved within some of the peaks. A new finding of the present study was the formation of abundant [M + 18]+ ions of saturated triacylglycerols in addition to diagnostic fragment ions,being of primary importance in structure elucidation. This extends the applicability of capillary SFC-(APCI)MS in the analysis of both saturated and unsaturated triacylglycerols. PMID:9438239

Laakso, P; Manninen, P

1997-12-01

27

Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization for Atmospheric Pressure, in Vivo, and Imaging Mass  

E-print Network

Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization for Atmospheric Pressure, in Vivo, and Imaging Mass. For example, atmospheric pressure infrared MALDI (AP IR-MALDI), capable of producing ions from small ionization (DESI),5 desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI),6 and matrix- assisted laser

Vertes, Akos

28

Analysis of intact tetraether lipids in archaeal cell material and sediments by high performance liquid chromatography\\/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method combining normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) was developed for the analysis of intact glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in archaeal cell material and sediments. All GDGTs previously reported to occur in the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus could be identified based on their mass spectra and retention

J. S. Sinninghe Damsté; E. C. Hopmans; S. Schouten; R. D. Pancost; M. T. J. van der Meer

2000-01-01

29

Analysis of toxic norditerpenoid alkaloids in Delphinium species by electrospray, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and sequential tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid electrospray mass spectrometry method was developed for screening larkspur (Delphinium spp.) plant material for toxic norditerpenoid alkaloids. The method was calibrated using two standard alkaloids, methyllycaconitine (1) and deltaline (2), with a recovery of 92% from spiked samples and relative standard deviations of 6.0% and 8.1% for the two alkaloids, respectively. Thirty-three samples of plains larkspur, Delphinium geyeri, were analyzed. Methyllycaconitine (1) concentration was 0.27% +/- 0.08% during a 1-month period in 1997 establishing the relative risk of poisoning from the plant to be low. The method was also applied to the trace analysis (<1 ppm) of 1 in serum samples from sheep dosed different levels of the alkaloid. Electrospray ionization combined with sequential tandem mass spectrometry and HPLC coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry were used to detect and tentatively identify three new norditerpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium nuttallianum [bearline (6), 14-acetylbearline (7), 16-deacetylgeyerline (8)]. The tentative structure of the new alkaloids was predicted from the tandem mass spectra fragmentation patterns and assigning the substitution pattern for methoxy and acetyl groups at the C-14 and C-16 carbons. PMID:10606571

Gardner, D R; Panter, K E; Pfister, J A; Knight, A P

1999-12-01

30

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization studies of non-polar isomeric hydrocarbons using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry with different ionization techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ionization pathways were determined for sets of isomeric non-polar hydrocarbons (structural isomers, cis/trans isomers) using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry with different techniques of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization to assess the influence of structural features on ion formation. Depending on the structural features, different ions were observed using mass spectrometry. Unsaturated hydrocarbons formed mostly [M - 1]+ and [(M - 1)2H]+ ions while mainly [M - 3]+ and [(M - 3)H2O]+ ions were found for saturated cis/trans isomers using photoionization and 63Ni ionization. These ionization methods and corona discharge ionization were used for ion mobility measurements of these compounds. Different ions were detected for compounds with different structural features. 63Ni ionization and photoionization provide comparable ions for every set of isomers. The product ions formed can be clearly attributed to the structures identified. However, differences in relative abundance of product ions were found. Although corona discharge ionization permits the most sensitive detection of non-polar hydrocarbons, the spectra detected are complex and differ from those obtained with 63Ni ionization and photoionization. c. 2002 American Society for Mass Spectrometry.

Borsdorf, H.; Nazarov, E. G.; Eiceman, G. A.

2002-01-01

31

Self-Aspirated Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Source for Direct Sampling of Analytes on Surfaces and in Liquid Solutions  

SciTech Connect

A self-aspirating heated nebulizer probe is described and demonstrated for use in the direct analysis of analytes on surfaces and in liquid samples by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry. Functionality and performance of the probe as a self-aspirating APCI source is demonstrated using reserpine and progesterone as test compounds. The utility of the probe to sample analytes directly from surfaces was demonstrated first by scanning development lanes of a reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography plate in which a three-component dye mixture, viz., Fat Red 7B, Solvent Green 3, and Solvent Blue 35, was spotted and the components were separated. Development lanes were scanned by the sampling probe operated under computer control (x, y plane) while full-scan mass spectra were recorded using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. In addition, the ability to sample the surface of pharmaceutical tablets (viz., Extra Strength Tylenol(reg. sign) and Evista(reg. sign) tablets) and to detect the active ingredients (acetaminophen and raloxifene, respectively) selectively was demonstrated using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Finally, the capability to sample analyte solutions from the wells of a 384-well microtiter plate and to perform quantitative analyses using MS/MS detection was illustrated with cotinine standards spiked with cotinine-d{sub 3} as an internal standard.

Asano, Keiji G [ORNL; Ford, Michael J [ORNL; Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2005-01-01

32

Determination of triacylglycerols in donkey milk by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The separation and determination of triacylglycerols (TAGs), which are the main components of naturally occurring fats and oils, in milk fat is a challenging task due to the very complex nature of this matrix. In the present study the TAG fraction of donkey milk lipids has been characterized by using high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS). HPLC in reversed phase mode has been used for TAG separation and silver ion (Ag+) HPLC has been used as a second dimension to clarify and confirm the identification. The RP-HPLC eluate was fractionated and the fractions of interest were injected onto the Ag+-HPLC column. In both cases peak assignment was carried out by combining retention data with APCI-MS spectra information. In total, 55 TAGs in donkey milk fat were identified (without considering the positional isomers) and quantified on the basis of percentage peak areas in the RP-HPLC chromatogram (without the use of correction factors). Amongst the identified triacylglycerols, POLn, POO, PPO, CaPO, POL, and PPoO proved to be the main components of the TAG fraction of donkey milk. PMID:16013829

Dugo, Paola; Kumm, Tiina; Lo Presti, Maria; Chiofalo, Biagina; Salimei, Elisabetta; Fazio, Alessia; Cotroneo, Antonella; Mondello, Luigi

2005-06-01

33

Determination of organic acids in ground water by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Current methods of determining organic acids in ground water are labor-intensive, time-consuming and require a large volume of sample (100 milliliter to 1.0 liter). This paper reports a new method developed to determine aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic acids in ground water using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/APCI/MS). This method was shown to be fast (less than 1 hour), effective, and reproducible, requiring only 1.0 mL of ground-water sample. Ground water was pH-adjusted, filtered through 0.45 {micro}m filters and directly injected into the LC. A binary solvent system consisting of 40 mM of aqueous ammonium acetate and methanol and a C18 column were used for chromatographical separation. The APCI was operated under negative ionization mode. Selected ion monitoring (SIM) was used for detection and quantitation of the analytes. This method was applied to the analysis of organic acids in ground-water samples collected from an aquifer contaminated with JP-4 fuel hydrocarbons at Wurtsmith Air Force Base in Oscoda, Michigan. Aromatic acids identified in the contaminated ground water include o-, m-toluic acids (2- and 3-methylbenzoic acids), 2,6-dimethylbenzoic acid, 2,3,5-and 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acids and two additional trimethylbenzoic acids with unknown location of methylation. The detection of aromatic acids in groundwater from the KC-135 site provided evidence for in situ microbial degradation of hydrocarbons occurring in the aquifer.

Fang, J.; Barcelona, M.J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1999-05-01

34

Capillary electrophoresis-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry using an orthogonal interface: set-up and system parameters.  

PubMed

The feasibility of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) as an alternative ionization technique for capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) was investigated using a grounded sheath-flow CE-MS sprayer and an orthogonal APCI source. Infusion experiments indicated that highest analyte signals were achieved when the sprayer tip was in close vicinity of the vaporizer entrance. The APCI-MS set-up enabled detection of basic, neutral, and acidic compounds, whereas apolar and ionic compounds could not be detected. In the positive ion mode, analytes could be detected in the entire transfer voltage range (0-5 kV), whereas highest signal intensities were observed when the corona discharge current was between 1000 and 2000 nA. In the negative ion mode, the transfer voltage typically was 500 V and the optimum corona discharge current was 6000 nA. Analyte signals were raised with increasing nebulizing gas pressure, but the pressure was limited to 25 psi to avoid siphoning and current drops. Signal intensities appeared to be optimal and constant over a wide range of sheath liquid flow rate (5-25 microL/min) and vaporizer temperature (200-350 degrees C). APCI-MS signals were unaffected by the composition of the background electrolyte (BGE), even when it contained sodium phosphate and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Consequently, BGE composition, sheath-liquid flow rate, and vaporizer temperature can be optimized with respect to the CE separation without affecting the APCI-MS response. The analysis of a mixture of basic compounds and a steroid using volatile and nonvolatile BGEs further demonstrates the feasibility of CE-APCI-MS. Detection limits (S/N = 3) were 1.6-10 microM injected concentrations. PMID:19349196

Hommerson, Paul; Khan, Amjad M; de Jong, Gerhardus J; Somsen, Govert W

2009-07-01

35

Improved quantitative detection of 11 urinary phthalate metabolites in humans using liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalates are widely used as industrial solvents and plasticizers, with global use exceeding four million tons per year. We improved our previously developed high-performance liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC–APCI-MS\\/MS) method to measure urinary phthalate metabolites by increasing the selectivity and the sensitivity by better resolving them from the solvent front, adding three more phthalate metabolites, monomethyl phthalate

Manori J Silva; Nicole A Malek; Carolyn C Hodge; John A Reidy; Kayoko Kato; Dana B Barr; Larry L Needham; John W Brock

2003-01-01

36

Analysis of aristolochic acid in nine sources of Xixin, a traditional Chinese medicine, by liquid chromatography\\/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization\\/tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aristolochic acid I (AA-I), which is a known nephrotoxin, is found in a commonly used Chinese medicine, Xixin, that originates from nine Asarum species (Aristolochiaceae) found in China. A method has been developed using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) tandem mass spectrometry under the positive ion detection mode [LC\\/(+)APCI\\/MS\\/MS] to determine the amount of AA-I

Ting-Ting Jong; Maw-Rong Lee; Shun-Sheng Hsiao; Jar-Lung Hsai; Tian-Shung Wu; Shu Tuan Chiang; Shao-Qing Cai

2003-01-01

37

Rapid and sensitive analysis of azadirachtin and related triterpenoids from Neem ( Azadirachta indica) by high-performance liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry, a HPLC–MS method was developed to permit the rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of azadirachtin and related tetranortriterpenoids from seeds and tissue cultures of Neem (Azadirachta indica). APCI+ standard scanning mass spectra of the major Neem triterpenoids were recorded and utilized to select suitable ions

Otmar Schaaf; Andrew P Jarvis; S. Andrew van der Esch; Germina Giagnacovo; Neil J Oldham

2000-01-01

38

Sensitive and comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction.  

PubMed

A highly sensitive and specific real-time field-deployable detection technology, based on counterflow air introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, has been developed for a wide range of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprising gaseous (two blood agents, three choking agents), volatile (six nerve gases and one precursor agent, five blister agents), and nonvolatile (three lachrymators, three vomiting agents) agents in air. The approach can afford effective chemical ionization, in both positive and negative ion modes, for ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The volatile and nonvolatile CWAs tested provided characteristic ions, which were fragmented into MS(3) product ions in positive and negative ion modes. Portions of the fragment ions were assigned by laboratory hybrid mass spectrometry (MS) composed of linear ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometers. Gaseous agents were detected by MS or MS(2) in negative ion mode. The limits of detection for a 1 s measurement were typically at or below the microgram per cubic meter level except for chloropicrin (submilligram per cubic meter). Matrix effects by gasoline vapor resulted in minimal false-positive signals for all the CWAs and some signal suppression in the case of mustard gas. The moisture level did influence the measurement of the CWAs. PMID:24678766

Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Iura, Kazumitsu; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

2014-05-01

39

Liquid chromatography\\/atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry in drug metabolism studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thestudyofthemetabolicfateofdrugs isanessentialand importantpartofthedrug developmentprocess. The analysis of metabolites is a challenging task and several different analytical methods have been used in these studies. However, after the introduction of the atmospheric pressure ionization (API) technique, electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (LC\\/MS) has become an important and widely used method in the analysis of metabolites owing to its

R. Kostiainen; T. Kotiaho; T. Kuuranne; S. Auriola

2003-01-01

40

Effect of high-performance liquid chromatography mobile phase components on sensitivity in negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We have investigated the effect of several common buffers (10-mM formic acid, 10-mM ammonium acetate, and 100-mM ammonium acetate) on the ionization of a series of model compounds that are amenable to negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization to determine the extent of ionization quenching that can occur. In addition, we have compared the sensitivity of these standard mobile phases to a mobile phase that does not contain an acidic buffer component, but rather a base (N-methylmorpholine). The results showed that, as expected, the sensitivity for the test analytes was greatest in the mobile phase that lacked acidic components. In general, ionization of analytes that contained a single, more weakly acidic functional group was inhibited to a greater degree by more strongly acidic buffer components. In some cases, ionization was quenched completely by acidic buffer components, Ionization of compounds that were more strongly acidic was quite good in all mobile phases tested. Differences in the ionization efficiencies of the analytes in each mobile phase were correlated with the gas-phase reagent ions present. As a point of reference, each of the analytes also was analyzed in the positive ion mode and the signal intensities were compared to those obtained in the negative ion mode. In addition, the utility of mobile phases that contained N-methylmorpholine for chromatographic separations was demonstrated. PMID:24202887

Schaefercor, W H; Dixon, F

1996-10-01

41

Fast determination of 3-ethenylpyridine as a marker of environmental tobacco smoke at trace level using direct atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) was developed and applied to direct analysis of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS), using 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) as a vapour-phase marker. In this study, the ion source of APCI-MS/MS was modified and direct analysis of gas sample was achieved by the modified instrument. ETS samples were directly introduced, via an atmospheric pressure inlet, into the APCI source. Ionization was carried out in positive-ion APCI mode and 3-EP was identified by both full scan mode and daughter scan mode. Quantification of 3-EP was performed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curve was obtained in the range of 1-250 ng L-1 with a satisfactory regression coefficient of 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5 ng L-1 and 1.6 ng L-1, respectively. The precision of the method, calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD), was characterized by repeatability (RSD 3.92%) and reproducibility (RSD 4.81%), respectively. In real-world ETS samples analysis, compared with the conventional GC-MS method, the direct APCI-MS/MS has shown better reliability and practicability in the determination of 3-EP at trace level. The developed method is simple, fast, sensitive and repeatable; furthermore, it could provide an alternative way for the determination of other volatile pollutants in ambient air at low levels.

Jiang, Cheng-Yong; Sun, Shi-Hao; Zhang, Qi-Dong; Liu, Jun-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Xun; Zong, Yong-Li; Xie, Jian-Ping

2013-03-01

42

Medium resolution atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An atmospheric pressure ionization (API) source for a VG 7070E-HF mass spectrometer has been built and successfully operated at an accelerating potential of 6 kV. Hydrated protons and hydrated organic ions formed in the API source can be either partially or completely disaggregated by collisionally induced dissociation before entering the mass analyzer. The protonated molecular ions of pinacolone and 2,4-pentanedione can be fully separated (R=2800, m/z 101, <1% valley) at one sixth of their maximum signal strengths, and the 13C-xylene radical ion and protonated benzaldehyde can be fully separated (R=3300, m/z 107, <1% valley) at one tenth of their maximum signal strengths. With 1% transmission, the resolving power of the VG 7070E-HF operating in the API mode is estimated to be 4800 (m/z 92, 10% valley). This resolution is more than sufficient to separate two oxidized hydrocarbons whose masses differ by 0.0364 daltons, the difference between a -CH2CH2- group and a >CO group, and to permit unambiguous assignment of their molecular formulas. No other form of API mass spectrometer, including the triple quadrupole version, has this capability.

Grange, Andrew H.; O'Brien, Robert J.; Barofsky, Douglas F.

1988-04-01

43

Simultaneous detection of polar and nonpolar compounds by ambient mass spectrometry with a dual electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source.  

PubMed

A dual ionization source combining electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was developed to simultaneously ionize both polar and nonpolar compounds. The source was constructed by inserting a fused silica capillary into a stainless steel column enclosed in a glass tube. A high dc voltage was applied to a methanol solution flowing in the fused silica capillary to generate an ESI plume at the capillary tip. A high ac voltage was applied to a ring electrode attached to the glass tube to generate plasma from the nitrogen gas flowing between the glass tube and the stainless steel column. The concentric arrangement of the ESI plume and the APCI plasma in the source ensured that analytes entering the ionization region interacted with both ESI and APCI primary ion species generated in the source. Because the high voltages required for ESI and APCI were independently applied and controlled, the dual ion source could be operated in ESI-only, APCI-only, or ESI+APCI modes. Analytes were introduced into the ESI and/or APCI plumes by irradiating sample surfaces with a continuous-wavelength laser or a pulsed laser beam. Analyte ions could also be produced by directing the dual ESI+APCI source toward sample surfaces for desorption and ionization. The ionization mechanisms involved in the dual ion source include Penning ionization, ion molecule reactions, and fused-droplet electrospray ionization. Standards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, angiotensin I, lidocaine, ferrocene, diesel, and rosemary oils were used for testing. Protonated analyte ions were detected in ESI-only mode, radical cations were detected in APCI-only mode, and both types of ions were detected in ESI+APCI mode. PMID:25562530

Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Jhang, Siou-Sian; Huang, Min-Zong; Shiea, Jentaie

2015-02-01

44

Atmospheric pressure ionization and liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry—together at last  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of atmospheric pressure ionization techniques which are now routinely applied as liquid chromatograph\\/mass spectrometer\\u000a (LC\\/MS) interfaces is described. Electrospray and related methods, as well as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization combined\\u000a with the heated nebulizer interface, both began as specialized ionization techniques which became much more widely accepted\\u000a when combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Today, both are widely used

Bruce A. Thomson

1998-01-01

45

Separation of triacylglycerols in a complex lipidic matrix by using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection.  

PubMed

The present investigation describes the employment of a comprehensive 2-D HPLC system, based on the combination of a silver ion and an RP column, for the characterization of the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction of a very complex lipidic sample: donkey milk fat. The TAGs were grouped on the resulting bidimensional contour plot according to their double bond numbers (aligned along vertical bands) and according to their partition numbers (aligned along horizontal bands). Peak assignment was supported by using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric (APCI-MS) detection. The combination of the enhanced resolving power of comprehensive multidimensional LC, the formation of ordered 2-D patterns, and APCI-MS detection proved to be an effective tool for the characterization of the complex matrix, enabling the separation and identification of nearly 60 TAGs. PMID:16830730

Dugo, Paola; Kumm, Tiina; Chiofalo, Biagina; Cotroneo, Antonella; Mondello, Luigi

2006-05-01

46

Evaluation of ELISA kits followed by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry for the determination of organic pollutants in industrial effluents  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated industrial effluents often contain a variety of organic pollutants which are difficult to analyze by standard GC-MS methods since they often miss the more polar or nonvolatile of these organic compounds. The identification of highly polar analytes by chemical or rapid biological techniques is needed for characterization of the effluents. The present work evaluates the use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) kits for determining pentachlorophenol, carcinogenic PAHs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylene) among the organic analytes present in various industrial effluents from Europe. The analytical protocol applied for the evaluation of the kits was based on the use of ELISA followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the preconcentration of a variety of organic pollutants such as pentachlorophenol, phthalates, and nonylphenol and final determination with LC-MS characterization using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface in the positive and negative ionization modes. The developed protocol permitted the unequivocal identification of target analytes such as pentachlorophenol, nonylphenol, dibutylphthalate, dimethylphthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 2-methylbenzenesulfonamide, and 2,2-dimethylbenzene-sulfonamide present in industrial effluents. The advantages and limitations of the three RaPID-magnetic particle-based ELISA kits applied to the characterization of industrial effluents are also reported.

Castillo, M.; Oubina, A.; Barcelo, D. [CID-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry] [CID-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

1998-07-15

47

Potential of gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the determination of sterols in human plasma.  

PubMed

The application of Gas Chromatography (GC)-Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI)-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOF-MS) is presented for sterol analysis in human plasma. A commercial APCI interface was modified to ensure a well-defined humidity which is essential for controlled ionization. In the first step, optimization regarding flow rates of auxiliary gases was performed by using a mixture of model analytes. Secondly, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of sterols including oxysterols, cholesterol precursors, and plant sterols as trimethylsilyl-derivatives was successfully carried out. The characteristics of APCI together with the very good mass accuracy of TOF-MS data enable the reliable identification of relevant sterols in complex matrices. Linear calibration lines and plausible results for healthy volunteers and patients could be obtained whereas all mass signals were extracted with an extraction width of 20 ppm from the full mass data set. One advantage of high mass accuracy can be seen in the fact that from one recorded run any search for m/z can be performed. PMID:24463103

Matysik, S; Schmitz, G; Bauer, S; Kiermaier, J; Matysik, F-M

2014-04-11

48

Analysis of 1,2-diol diesters in vernix caseosa by high-performance liquid chromatography - atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Fatty acid diesters of long-chain 1,2-diols (1,2-DDE), or type II wax diesters, were analyzed in the vernix caseosa of a newborn girl. 1,2-DDE were isolated from the total lipid extract by the semipreparative TLC using plates coated with silica gel. Chromatographic separation of the 1,2-DDE molecular species was achieved on the non-aqueous reversed-phase HPLC with two Nova-Pak C18 columns connected in series (a total length of 45cm) and using an acetonitrile-ethyl acetate gradient. 1,2-DDE eluted from the column in the order of their equivalent chain number. The analytes were detected as ammonium adducts by an ion-trap mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. Their structures were elucidated using tandem mass spectrometry with MS, MS(2) and MS(3) steps in a data-dependent mode. More than two thousand molecular species of 1,2-DDE were identified in 141 chromatographic peaks. The most abundant 1,2-DDE were monounsaturated lipids consisting of a C22 diol and a C18:1 fatty acid together with C16:0, C14:0 or C15:0 fatty acids. The positions of double bonds were characterized by the fragmentation of [M+C3H5N](+) formed in the ion source. PMID:25555408

Šub?íková, Lenka; Hoskovec, Michal; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; ?melíková, Tereza; Háková, Eva; Míková, Radka; Coufal, Pavel; Doležal, Antonín; Plavka, Richard; Cva?ka, Josef

2015-01-23

49

Quantitation of the 5HT1D agonists MK-462 and sumatriptan in plasma by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The 5HT1D agonist sumatriptan is efficacious in the treatment of migraines. MK-462 is a drug of the same class which is under development in our laboratories. Bioanalytical methods of high efficiency, specificity and sensitivity were required to support the preclinical and clinical programs. These assays were based on HPLC with tandem MS-MS detection. MK-462 and sumatriptan were extracted using an automated solid-phase extraction technique on a C2 Varian Bond-Elut cartridge. The n-diethyl analogues of MK-462 and sumatriptan were used as internal standards. The analytes were chromatographed using reversed-phase (nitrile) columns coupled via a heated nebulizer interface to an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. The chromatographic run times were less than 7 min. Both methods were precise, accurate and selective down to plasma concentrations of 0.5 ng/ml. The assay for MK-462 was adapted to separately monitor the unlabeled and 14C-labeled species of the drug following intravenous administration of radiolabeled material to man. PMID:8900521

McLoughlin, D A; Olah, T V; Ellis, J D; Gilbert, J D; Halpin, R A

1996-03-01

50

Identification and quantification of antitumor thioproline and methylthioproline in Korean traditional foods by a liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-APCI-MS/MS) has been developed for the sensitive determination of antitumor thioproline and methylthioproline from fermented foods. Thioproline and methylthioproline were derivatized in one step with ethyl chloroformate at room temperature. These compounds were identified and quantified in various traditional Korean fermented foods by LC-APCI-MS/MS. The concentration range of thioproline of each food was found for doenjang (0.011-0.032mg/kg), gochujang (0.010-0.038mg/kg), and ganjang (0.010-0.038mg/kg). Those of methylthioproline of each food was found for doenjang (0.098-0.632mg/kg), gochujang (0.015-0.112mg/kg), and ganjang (0.023-1.468mg/kg). A prolonged aging time leads to an increase in both the thioproline and methylthioproline contents, suggesting that the storage time plays a key role in the formation of thioproline and methylthioproline in Korean traditional foods. The results here suggest that thioproline and methylthioproline are related to the biological activities of traditional Korean fermented foods. PMID:25128876

Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Shin, Ho-Sang

2014-11-01

51

Analysis of chemical warfare agents in food products by atmospheric pressure ionization-high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Flow injection high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS)-mass spectrometry (MS) methodology was developed for the detection and identification of chemical warfare (CW) agents in spiked food products. The CW agents, soman (GD), sarin (GB), tabun (GA), cyclohexyl sarin (GF), and four hydrolysis products, ethylphosphonic acid (EPA), methylphosphonic acid (MPA), pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (Pin MPA), and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) were separated and detected by positive ion and negative ion atmospheric pressure ionization-FAIMS-MS. Under optimized conditions, the compensation voltages were 7.2 V for GD, 8.0 V for GA, 7.2 V for GF, 7.6 V for GB, 18.2 V for EPA, 25.9 V for MPA, -1.9 V for PinMPA, and +6.8 V for IMPA. Sample preparation was kept to a minimum, resulting in analysis times of 3 min or less per sample. The developed methodology was evaluated by spiking bottled water, canola oil, cornmeal, and honey samples at low microgram per gram (or microg/mL) levels with the CW agents or CW agent hydrolysis products. The detection limits observed for the CW agents in the spiked food samples ranged from 3 to 15 ng/mL in bottled water, 1-33 ng/mL in canola oil, 1-34 ng/g in cornmeal, and 13-18 ng/g in honey. Detection limits were much higher for the CW agent hydrolysis products, with only MPA being detected in spiked honey samples. PMID:17896827

Kolakowski, Beata M; D'Agostino, Paul A; Chenier, Claude; Mester, Zoltán

2007-11-01

52

Profiling of triacylglycerols in plant oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmosphere pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a novel mixed-mode column.  

PubMed

In this investigation, a rapid and high-throughput method for profiling of TAGs in plant oils by liquid chromatography using a single column coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry was reported. A novel mixed-mode phenyl-hexyl chromatographic column was employed in this separation system. The phenyl-hexyl column could provide hydrophobic interactions as well as ?-? interactions. Compared with two traditionally columns used in TAG separation - the C18 column and silver-ion column, this column exhibited much higher selectivity for the separation of TAGs with great efficiency and rapid speed. By comparison with a novel mix-mode column (Ag-HiSep OTS column), which can also provide both hydrophobic interactions as well as ?-? interactions for the separation of TAGs, phenyl-hexyl column exhibited excellent stability. LC method using phenyl-hexyl column coupled with APCI-MS was successfully applied for the profiling of TAGs in soybean oils, peanut oils, corn oils, and sesame oils. 29 TAGs in peanut oils, 22 TAGs in soybean oils, 19 TAGs in corn oils, and 19 TAGs in sesame oils were determined and quantified. The LC-MS data was analyzed by barcodes and principal component analysis (PCA). The resulting barcodes constitute a simple tool to display differences between different plant oils. Results of PCA also enabled a clear identification of different plant oils. This method provided an efficient and convenient chromatographic technology for the fast characterization and quantification of complex TAGs in plant oils at high selectivity. It has great potential as a routine analytical method for analysis of edible oil quality and authenticity control. PMID:25444539

Hu, Na; Wei, Fang; Lv, Xin; Wu, Lin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Chen, Hong

2014-12-01

53

Determination of total nitrofuran metabolites in shrimp muscle using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode.  

PubMed

The method of MacMahon and Lohne for analysis of nitrofuran metabolites in shrimp was optimized to streamline the extraction processes and the LC analysis. This revised method includes 16 h of mild acid hydrolysis/derivatization followed by ethyl acetate extraction and analysis by LC/MS/MS in the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode. This revised method was validated in shrimp for concentrations of 0.25 to 2.0 ng/g. The LOQ was 0.25 ng/g for all metabolites. The LOD was 0.052 nglg for 1-aminohydantoin (AHD), 0.206 ng/g for 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), 0.108 ng/g for semicarbazide (SC), and 0.062 ng/g for 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ). The spike recoveries with RSD into negative matrix at 1 ng/g were 100.2% (3.2%) for AHD, 102.5% (1.0%) for AOZ, 103.7% (2.3%) for SC, and 104.0% (3.3%) for AMOZ. The spike recoveries at 1 ng/g into unknown samples (n=108) containing varied levels of nitrofuran metabolites were 112.6% (25.7%) for AHD, 108.1% (12.1%) for AOZ, 103.0% (12.0%) for SC, and 100.3% (6.9%) for AMOZ. Interday precision with samples containing incurred AOZ concentrations of 0.92 to 17.8 ppb performed over a year was 10.4% RSD. The method is accurate and precise for determining nitrofuran concentrations in the edible tissue of shrimp. PMID:22970594

An, Haejung; Henry, Mark; Cain, Teresa; Tran, Bichsa; Paek, Han Chol; Farley, Dennis

2012-01-01

54

Investigating the potential of high-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry as an alternative method for the speciation analysis of organotin compounds.  

PubMed

Liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) was applied for the determination of butyl- and phenyltin compounds. Chromatography was performed on a 30 x 2 mm, 3 microm C18 column, enabling the separation of mono-, di- and trisubstituted butyl- and phenyltin compounds in less than 10 min using a water/1% trifluoroacetic acid/methanol gradient. While satisfactory retention and resolution is achieved for the di- and trisubstituted butyl- and phenyltin compounds, monobutyltin and monophenyltin cannot be resolved chromatographically. Depending on the parameter values of the interface, APCI-MS detection allows both specific detection of the molecular ion or cluster ion at low to intermediate fragmentor voltages or quasi-element specific detection of the Sn+ ion released from the organotin compounds at high fragmentor voltages. The sensitivity of MS detection is similar for butyl- and phenyltin compounds, but varies largely from mono- to trisubstituted organotin compounds with tributyl- and triphenyltin being the most sensitively detectable compounds. Detection limits are in the 20-65 pg (abs.) range in SIM mode and in the 750-2000 pg (abs.) range in the scan mode for tributyl- and triphenyltin and for dibutyl- and diphenyltin, respectively. Monobutyl- and monophenyltin can be detected with much lower sensitivity which, together with their unfavorable chromatographic behavior, accounts for the fact that they cannot be analyzed at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although LC-APCI-MS is generally less sensitive than comparable GC methods, it is applicable to the analysis of environmental samples as demonstrated by the analysis of the PACS-2 sediment certified reference material. Although the derivatization of the ionic organotin compounds, which particularly in real samples is a potential source of error, is circumvented when LC-APCI-MS is used, the extraction step is still critical and may lead to underestimation when quantitation is not done by the method of standard addition. PMID:11220328

Rosenberg, E; Kmetov, V; Grasserbauer, M

2000-02-01

55

Validation of a qualitative screening method for pesticides in fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.  

PubMed

A wide-scope screening method was developed for the detection of pesticides in fruit and vegetables. The method was based on gas chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (GC-(APCI)QTOF MS). A non-target acquisition was performed through two alternating scan events: one at low collision energy and another at a higher collision energy ramp (MS(E)). In this way, both protonated molecule and/or molecular ion together with fragment ions were obtained in a single run. Validation was performed according to SANCO/12571/2013 by analysing 20 samples (10 different commodities in duplicate), fortified with a test set of 132 pesticides at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.20mg kg(-1). For screening, the detection was based on one diagnostic ion (in most cases the protonated molecule). Overall, at the 0.01mg kg(-1) level, 89% of the 2620 fortifications made were detected. The screening detection limit for individual pesticides was 0.01mg kg(-1) for 77% of the pesticides investigated. The possibilities for identification according to the SANCO criteria, requiring two ions with a mass accuracy ?±5ppm and an ion-ratio deviation ?±30%, were investigated. At the 0.01mg kg(-1) level, identification was possible for 70% of the pesticides detected during screening. This increased to 87% and 93% at the 0.05 and 0.20mg kg(-1) level, respectively. Insufficient sensitivity for the second ion was the main reason for the inability to identify detected pesticides, followed by deviations in mass accuracy and ion ratios. PMID:25064246

Portolés, T; Mol, J G J; Sancho, J V; López, Francisco J; Hernández, F

2014-08-01

56

High performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry for sensitive determination of bioactive amines in donkey milk.  

PubMed

In the present study we report on the optimization and validation of a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS) method for the determination of 8 bioactive amines (histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine) in donkey milk samples. The method involves donkey milk pre-treatment to remove proteins and pre-column dansylation of the amines. HPLC in reversed phase mode has been used for bioactive amines separation and the operating condition of the APCI-MS system proved to be powerful and very efficient for peak assignment. The separation was accomplished in a short time with an excellent resolution for all the amine peaks. Quantification was carried out by monitoring the characteristic [M+H](+) ion of each amine derivative. The method sensitivity, linearity and repeatability were assayed with satisfactory results. The detection limits of the analysed amines ranged from 0.5 microg L(-1) to 15 microg L(-1); the highest LOD was for spermine. Also remarkably good recovery values were obtained; at the lowest spiking level (1 microg L(-1)) the percent mean recoveries ranged from 77.7 to 109.7. Furthermore, as the investigations relate to a complex matrix as donkey milk, suitable studies on matrix effect were performed. Finally, the developed and validated method was applied to analyse 13 donkey milk samples. Among the identified bioactive amines, putrescine, spermine and spermidine proved to be the main amines in donkey milk. Their concentration levels in the present study were lower than the values determined in mature human, cow and sow milk. PMID:20598311

La Torre, Giovanna Loredana; Saitta, Marcello; Giorgia Potortì, Angela; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Dugo, Giacomo

2010-08-01

57

Transmission geometry laserspray ionization vacuum using an atmospheric pressure inlet.  

PubMed

This represents the first report of laserspray ionization vacuum (LSIV) with operation directly from atmospheric pressure for use in mass spectrometry. Two different types of electrospray ionization source inlets were converted to LSIV sources by equipping the entrance of the atmospheric pressure inlet aperture with a customized cone that is sealed with a removable glass plate holding the matrix/analyte sample. A laser aligned in transmission geometry (at 180° relative to the inlet) ablates the matrix/analyte sample deposited on the vacuum side of the glass slide. Laser ablation from vacuum requires lower inlet temperature relative to laser ablation at atmospheric pressure. However, higher inlet temperature is required for high-mass analytes, for example, ?-chymotrypsinogen (25.6 kDa). Labile compounds such as gangliosides and cardiolipins are detected in the negative ion mode directly from mouse brain tissue as intact doubly deprotonated ions. Multiple charging enhances the ion mobility spectrometry separation of ions derived from complex tissue samples. PMID:24896880

Lutomski, Corinne A; El-Baba, Tarick J; Inutan, Ellen D; Manly, Cory D; Wager-Miller, James; Mackie, Ken; Trimpin, Sarah

2014-07-01

58

The method for on-site determination of trace concentrations of methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide in air using a mobile mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, combined with a fast enrichment/separation system.  

PubMed

A method for fast simultaneous on-site determination of methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide in air was developed. The target compounds were actively collected on silica gel, followed by direct flash thermal desorption, fast separation on a short chromatographic column and detection by means of mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. During the sampling of ambient air, water vapor was removed with a Nafion selective membrane. A compact mass spectrometer prototype, which was designed earlier at Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, was used. The minimization of gas load of the atmospheric pressure ion source allowed reducing the power requirements and size of the vacuum system and increasing its ruggedness. The measurement cycle is about 3 min. Detection limits in a 0.6 L sample are 1 ppb for methyl mercaptan and 0.2 ppb for dimethyl sulfide. PMID:24725876

Kudryavtsev, Andrey S; Makas, Alexey L; Troshkov, Mikhail L; Grachev, Mikhail ?; Pod'yachev, Sergey P

2014-06-01

59

Atmospheric Pressure Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization in Transmission Geometry  

E-print Network

Atmospheric Pressure Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization in Transmission Geometry Marsha C, Washington, D.C. 20375 In both atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser de- sorption/ionization (AP MALDI a significant impediment. Atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI promises to eliminate the need for this step.1

Vertes, Akos

60

Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization as a plume diagnostic tool in laser evaporation methods  

E-print Network

Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization as a plume diagnostic tool introduced analytical method, atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (AP- MALDI write; Atmospheric pressure MALDI; Laser evaporation; Plume diagnostics 1. Introduction Diagnostics

Vertes, Akos

61

Determination of a novel substance P inhibitor in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection using single and triple quadrupole detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometric (MS) detection using either single (MS) or triple (MS\\/MS) quadrupole mass spectrometric detection for the determination of (2R)-[1(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethylphenyl)ethoxy]-3(S)-(4-fluoro-phenyl)morpholin-4-ylmethyl]-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazol)methyl morpholine (Aprepitant, Fig. 1) in human plasma has been developed. Aprepitant (I) and internal standard (II, Fig. 1) were isolated from the plasma matrix buffered to pH 9.8

M. L Constanzer; C. M Chavez-Eng; J Dru; W. F Kline; B. K Matuszewski

2004-01-01

62

An atmospheric pressure ion lens to improve electrospray ionization at low solution ow-rates  

E-print Network

An atmospheric pressure ion lens to improve electrospray ionization at low solution ¯ow by the addition of an atmospheric pressure ion lens near the tip of the tapered sprayer. The magnitude, but no discussion was given as to whether it increased the ion signals. Franzen used an atmospheric pressure ring

Chen, David D.Y.

63

A highly specific and sensitive quantification analysis of the sterols in silkworm larvae by high performance liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization–tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical quantification of sterols in insects has been difficult because only small amounts of tissues can be obtained from insect bodies and because sterol metabolites are structurally related. We have developed a highly specific and sensitive quantitative method for determining of the concentrations of seven sterols—7-dehydrocholesterol, desmosterol, cholesterol, ergosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and ?-sitosterol—using a high performance liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure

Fumihiko Igarashi; Juri Hikiba; Mari H. Ogihara; Takayoshi Nakaoka; Minoru Suzuki; Hiroshi Kataoka

2011-01-01

64

Separation and detection of compounds in Honeysuckle by integration of ion-exchange chromatography fractionation with reversed-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer and matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hyphenated method for the isolation and identification of components in a traditional Chinese medicine of Honeysuckle was developed. Ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) was chosen for the fractionation of Honeysuckle extract, and then followed by concentration of all the fractions with rotary vacuum evaporator. Each of the enriched fractions was then further analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass

Xueguo Chen; Lianghai Hu; Xingye Su; Liang Kong; Mingliang Ye; Hanfa Zou

2006-01-01

65

Determination of rice herbicides, their transformation products and clofibric acid using on-line solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography with diode array and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection.  

PubMed

A simultaneous method for the trace determination of acidic, neutral herbicides and their transformation products in estuarine waters has been developed through an on-line solid-phase extraction method followed by liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection. An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface was used in the negative ionization mode after optimization of the main APCI parameters. Limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 0.02 ng/ml for 50 ml of acidified estuarine waters preconcentrated into polymeric precolumns and using time-scheduled selected ion monitoring mode. Two degradation products of the acidic herbicides (4-chloro-2-methylphenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol) did not show good signal response using APCI-MS at the concentration studied due to the higher fragmentor voltage needed for their determination. For molinate and the major degradation product of propanil, 3,4-dichloroaniline, positive ion mode was needed for APCI-MS detection. The proposed method was applied to the determination of herbicides in drainage waters from rice fields of the Delta del Ebro (Spain). During the 3-month monitoring of the herbicides, 8-hydroxybentazone and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid were successively found in those samples. PMID:10870691

Santos, T C; Rocha, J C; Barceló, D

2000-05-19

66

Real-time air monitoring of mustard gas and lewisite 1 by detecting their in-line reaction products by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow ion introduction.  

PubMed

A new method enabling sensitive real-time air monitoring of highly reactive chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1), by detecting ions of their in-line reaction products instead of intact agents, is proposed. The method is based on corona discharge-initiated atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) via counterflow ion introduction. Therefore, it allows for highly sensitive and specific real-time detection of a broad range of airborne compounds. In-line chemical reactions, ionization reactions, and ion fragmentations of these agents were investigated. Mustard gas is oxygenated in small quantity by reactive oxygen species generated in the corona discharge. With increasing air humidity, the MS(2) signal intensity of protonated molecules of mono-oxygenated HD decreases but exceeds that of dominantly existing intact HD. This result can be explained in view of proton affinity. Lewisite 1 is hydrolyzed and oxidized. As the humidity increases from zero, the signal of the final product, namely, didechlorinated, dihydroxylated, and mono-oxygenated L1, quickly increases and reaches a plateau, giving the highest MS(2) and MS(3) signals among those of L1 and its reaction products. The addition of minimal moisture gives the highest signal intensity, even under low humidity. The method was demonstrated to provide sufficient analytical performance to meet the requirements concerning hygienic management and counter-terrorism. It will be the first practical method, in view of sensitivity and specificity, for real-time air monitoring of HD and L1 without sample pretreatment. PMID:25553788

Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki

2015-01-20

67

An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-ion-trap mass spectrometer for the on-line analysis of volatile compounds in foods: a tool for linking aroma release to aroma perception.  

PubMed

An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometer was set up for the on-line analysis of aroma compounds. This instrument, which has been successfully employed for some years in several in vitro and in vivo flavour release studies, is described for the first time in detail. The ion source was fashioned from polyether ether ketone and operated at ambient pressure and temperature making use of a discharge corona pin facing coaxially the capillary ion entrance of the ion-trap mass spectrometer. Linear dynamic ranges (LDR), limits of detection (LOD) and other analytical characteristics have been re-evaluated. LDRs and LODs have been found fully compatible with the concentrations of aroma compounds commonly found in foods. Thus, detection limits have been found in the low ppt range for common flavouring aroma compounds (for example 5.3?ppt (0.82?ppbV) for ethyl hexanoate and 4.8?ppt (1.0?ppbV) for 2,5-dimethylpyrazine). This makes the instrument applicable for in vitro and in vivo aroma release investigations. The use of dynamic sensory techniques such as the temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) method conducted simultaneously with in vivo aroma release measurements allowed to get some new insights in the link between flavour release and flavour perception. PMID:25230189

Le Quéré, Jean-Luc; Gierczynski, Isabelle; Sémon, Etienne

2014-09-01

68

Electron ionization and atmospheric pressure photochemical ionization in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of amino acids.  

PubMed

The mass spectra of tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives of 17 amino acids were obtained using electron ionization (EI) and atmospheric pressure photochemical ionization (APPhCI) mass spectrometry. The APPhCI mass spectra for all of the derivatives except arginine were shown to consist of only molecular [M](+.) and quasimolecular [MH](+) ions whereas, in the case of EI, the compounds in question underwent a drastic fragmentation. The application of APPhCI to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables a reliable identification of the TBDMS derivatives of amino acids in a mixture, even if its components are only partially resolved, due to the unique molecular masses for each compound. Comparison of the respective positive-ion chemical ionization (PICI) mass spectra available in the literature with APPhCI spectra has shown that, in the case of PICI, unlike APPhCI, noticeable fragmentation occurs. PMID:14624019

Revelsky, Igor A; Yashin, Yuri S; Sobolevsky, Tim G; Revelsky, Alexander I; Miller, Barbara; Oriedo, Vincent

2003-01-01

69

High-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection characterization of Delta5-polyenoic fatty acids in triacylglycerols from conifer seed oils.  

PubMed

Edible conifer seeds can serve as a source of triacylglycerols (TGs) with unusual Delta5 unsaturated polymethylene interrupted fatty acids (UPIFAs), such as cis-5,9-octadecadienoic (taxoleic), cis-5,9,12-octadecatrienoic (pinolenic), cis-5,11-eicosadienoic (keteleeronic) and cis-5,11,14-eicosatrienoic acids (sciadonic). Conifer seed oils from European Larch (Larix decidua), Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and European Silver Fir (Abies alba) have been analyzed by non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NARP-HPLC) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI)-MS detection. The influence of different positions of double bonds in Delta5-UPIFAs on the retention and fragmentation behavior is described and used for the successful identification of TGs in each oil. TGs containing Delta5-UPIFAs have a higher retention in comparison with common TGs found in plant oils with single methylene interrupted Delta6(9)-FAs and also significantly changed relative abundances of fragment ions in APCI mass spectra. Results obtained from HPLC/MS analyses are supported by validated GC/FID analyses of fatty acid methyl esters after the transesterification. The total content of Delta5-UPIFAs is about 32% for European Larch, 27% for Norway Spruce and 20% for European Silver Fir. In total, 20 FAs with acyl chain lengths from 16 to 24 carbon atoms and from 0 to 3 double bonds have been identified in 64 triacylglycerols from 3 conifer seed oils. PMID:17307191

Lísa, Miroslav; Holcapek, Michal; Rezanka, Tomás; Kabátová, Nadezda

2007-03-30

70

Quantification of ?-carotene, retinol, retinyl acetate and retinyl palmitate in enriched fruit juices using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A detailed optimization of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was carried out for developing liquid chromatographic (HPLC) techniques, using both fluorescence and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric (APCI-MS) detection, for the simultaneous analysis of preforms of vitamin A: retinol (R), retinyl acetate (RA), retinyl palmitate (RP) and ?-carotene (?-C). The HPLC analyses were carried out using a mobile phase composed of methanol and water, with gradient elution. The APCI-MS and fluorescence spectra permitted the correct identification of compounds in the analyzed samples. Parameters affecting DLLME were optimized using 2 mL of methanol (disperser solvent) containing 150 ?L carbon tetrachloride (extraction solvent). The precision ranged from 6% to 8% (RSD) and the limits of detection were between 0.03 and 1.4 ng mL(-1), depending on the compound. The enrichment factor values were in the 21-44 range. Juice samples were analyzed without saponification and no matrix effect was found when using fluorescence detection, so calibration was possible with aqueous standards. However, a matrix effect appeared with APCI-MS, in which case it was necessary to apply matrix-matched calibration. There was great variability in the forms of vitamin A present in the juices, the most abundant ester being retinyl acetate (0.04 to 3.4 ?g mL(-1)), followed by the amount of retinol (0.01 to 0.16 ?g mL(-1)), while retinyl palmitate was not detected, except in the milk-containing juice, in which RP was the main form. The representative carotenoid ?-carotene was present in the orange, peach, mango and multifruit juices in high amounts. The method was validated using two certified reference materials. PMID:23290361

Viñas, Pilar; Bravo-Bravo, María; López-García, Ignacio; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

2013-02-01

71

Identification and quantification of astaxanthin esters in shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and in a microalga (Haematococcus pluvialis) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.  

PubMed

Negative ion liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry [negative ion LC-(APCI)MS] was used for the identification of astaxanthin esters in extracts of commercial shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and dried microalga (Haematococcus pluvialis) samples. A cleanup step using a normal phase solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge was applied prior to analysis. Recovery experiments with astaxanthin oleate as model compound proved the applicability of this step (98.5 +/- 7.6%; n = 4). The assignment of astaxanthin esters in negative ion LC-(APCI)MS was based on the detection of the molecular ion (M*-) and the formation of characteristic fragment ions, resulting from the loss of one or two fatty acids. Quantification of individual astaxanthin esters was performed using an astaxanthin calibration curve, which was found to be linear over the required range (1-51 micromol/L; r2 = 0.9996). Detection limits, based on the intensity of M*-, a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, and an injection volume of 20 microL, were estimated to be 0.05 microg/mL (free astaxanthin), 0.28 microg/mL (astaxanthin-C16:0), and 0.78 microg/mL (astaxanthin-C16:0/C16:0), respectively. This LC-(APCI)MS method allows for the first time the characterization of native astaxanthin esters in P. borealis and H. pluvialis without using time-consuming isolation steps with subsequent gas chromatographic analyses of fatty acid methyl esters. The results suggest that the pattern of astaxanthin-bound polyunsaturated fatty acids of P. borealis does not reflect the respective fatty acid pattern found in triacylglycerides. Application of the presented LC-(APCI)MS technique in common astaxanthin ester analysis will forestall erroneous xanthophyll ester assignment in natural sources. PMID:15186109

Breithaupt, Dietmar E

2004-06-16

72

Transmission geometry laser desorption atmospheric pressure photochemical ionization mass spectrometry for analysis of complex organic mixtures.  

PubMed

We present laser desorption atmospheric pressure photochemical ionization mass spectrometry (LD/APPCI MS) for rapid throughput analysis of complex organic mixtures, without the need for matrix, electric discharge, secondary electrospray, or solvents/vaporizers. Analytes dried on a microscope slide are vaporized in transmission geometry by a laser beam aligned with the atmospheric pressure inlet of the mass spectrometer. The laser beam initiates a cascade of reactions in the region between the glass slide and MS inlet, leading to generation of reagent ions for chemical ionization of vaporized analyte. Positive analyte ions are generated predominantly by proton transfer, charge exchange, and hydride abstraction, whereas negative ions are generated by electron capture or proton transfer reactions, enabling simultaneous analysis of saturated, unsaturated, and heteroatom-containing hydrocarbons. The absence of matrix interference renders LD/APPCI MS particularly useful for analysis of small molecules (<2000 Da) such as those present in petroleum crude oil and petroleum deposits. [M + H](+) and M(+•) dominate the positive-ion mass spectra for olefins and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, whereas saturated hydrocarbons are observed mainly as [M - H](+) and/or M(+•). Heteroatom-containing hydrocarbons are observed predominantly as [M + H](+). [M - H](-) and M(-•) are the dominant negative ions observed for analytes of lower gas-phase basicity or higher electron affinity than O2. The source was coupled with a 9.4 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR MS) to resolve and identify thousands of peaks from Athabasca bitumen heavy vacuum gas oil distillates (400-425 and 500-538 °C), enabling simultaneous characterization of their polar and nonpolar composition. We also applied LD/APPCI FTICR MS for rapid analysis of sodium and calcium naphthenate deposits with little to no sample pretreatment to provide mass spectral fingerprints that enable reliable compositional characterization. PMID:25347814

Nyadong, Leonard; Mapolelo, Mmilili M; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

2014-11-18

73

Atmospheric pressure photo-ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric determination of aflatoxins in food.  

PubMed

A comparison between electrospray ionization (ESI) and the recent introduced atmospheric pressure photo-ionization (APPI) technique is described for the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in food. For the optimization of APPI, several APPI ion source parameters were examined. Furthermore, the chemical noise and signal suppression of ESI and APPI by sample matrix interference were investigated. The results indicated that APPI has the low chemical noise and the little signal suppression in comparison with ESI. The mean recovery of each aflatoxin from peanuts, corn, nutmeg and red pepper sample spiked at 1 ng g(-1) ranged from 89 to 105% with relative standard deviations of 3.3-5.1%. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) in all food was in the range 0.11-0.5 ng g(-1). From these studies, it is suggested that APPI can be used as an additional tool in food residue analysis. PMID:14744683

Takino, M; Tanaka, T; Yamaguchi, K; Nakahara, T

2004-01-01

74

Femtosecond Laser Ablation Particle Introduction to a Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge Ionization Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the use of a compact, liquid sampling atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) ionization source to ionize metal particles within a laser ablation aerosol. Mass analysis was performed with a Thermo Scientific Exactive Mass Spectrometer which utilizes an orbitrap mass analyzer capable of producing mass resolution exceeding M\\/M > 160,000. The LS-APGD source generates a low-power plasma between

Anthony J. Carado; C. Derrick Quarles; Andrew M. Duffin; Charles J. Barinaga; Richard Russo; R. Kenneth Marcus; Gregory C. Eiden; David W. Koppenaal

2012-01-01

75

A novel nanoflow interface for atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel spray-ionization technique for nanoflow liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (nLC/MS) has been developed by modifying the sonic spray ionization (SSI) technique. A solution from a tapered fused-silica capillary is sprayed by a gas flow coaxial to the capillary, and ions produced are analyzed with an ion-trap mass spectrometer. The ion intensity is shown to have a steep threshold at a low gas velocity and to be much less dependent on the gas velocity than that of conventional SSI, in which the ion intensity is strongly dependent on the gas velocity and reaches its maximum at sonic velocity. Thus, we conclude that the concentration of charge in the solution at the tapered capillary tip with an inner diameter of 15 microm is almost at saturation so that charged droplets are produced from the solution by electrical force, rather than by sheer stress due to the gas flow. The ions are readily produced from these charged droplets. Preliminary results are compared with results obtained with a miniaturized electrospray unit. PMID:12590386

Hirabayashi, Atsumu

2003-01-01

76

Measurement of the First Townsend's Ionization Coefficients in Helium, Air, and Nitrogen at Atmospheric Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past the first Townsend’s ionization coefficient ? could only be measured with Townsend discharge in gases at low pressure. After realizing Townsend discharge in some gases at atmospheric pressure by using dielectric barrier electrodes, we had developed a new method for measuring ? coefficient at atmospheric pressure, a new optical method based on the discharge images taken with ICCD camera. With this newly developed method ? coefficient in helium, nitrogen and air at atmospheric pressure were measured. The results were found to be in good agreement with the data obtained at lower pressure but same reduced field E/p by other groups. It seems that the value of ? coefficient is sensitive to the purity of the working gas.

Ran, Junxia; Luo, Haiyun; Yue, Yang; Wang, Xinxin

2014-07-01

77

Atmospheric Pressure Surface Sampling/Ionization Techniques for Direct Coupling of Planar Separations with Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Planar separations, which include thin layer chromatography and gel electrophoresis, are in widespread use as important and powerful tools for conducting separations of complex mixtures. To increase the utility of planar separations, new methods are needed that allow in-situ characterization of the individual components of the separated mixtures. A large number of atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques for use with mass spectrometry have emerged in the past several years, and several have been investigated as a means for mass spectrometric read-out of planar separations. In this article, we review the atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques that have been used for the read-out of planar separation media. For each technique, we briefly explain the operational basics and discuss the analyte type for which it is appropriate and some specific applications from the literature.

Pasilis, Sofie P [University of Idaho; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2010-01-01

78

Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge Ionization Source for Elemental Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, low power ionization source for elemental MS analysis of aqueous solutions is described. The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LSAPGD) operates by a process wherein the surface of the liquid emanating from a 75 m i.d. glass capillary acts as the cathode of the direct current glow discharge. Analytecontaining solutions at a flow rate of 100 L min-1

R. Kenneth Marcus; C. Derrick Quarles; Charles J. Barinaga; Anthony J. Carado; David W. Koppenaal

2011-01-01

79

Splitting and Mixing of High-Velocity Ionization-Wave-Sustained Atmospheric-Pressure Plasmas Generated With a Plasma Gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nanosecond imaging of high-velocity ionization- wave-generated plasmas using a plasma gun is presented. A circu- lar glass pipe is used to study the splitting, the propagation, and the mixing of atmospheric-pressure plasma streams ensuing from a single dielectric-barrier-discharge reactor. Index Terms—Atmospheric-pressure plasmas, gas discharge devices.

Vanessa Sarron; Eric Robert; Sébastien Dozias; Marc Vandamme; Delphine Ries; Jean Michel Pouvesle

2011-01-01

80

Analysis of derivatized and underivatized theanine enantiomers by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Theanine, a naturally occurring non-proteinic amino acid found in tea leaves, has demonstrated wide-ranging physiological activity, from lowering blood pressure to enhancing the anti-tumor activity of chemotherapeutic drugs. The chiral nature of theanine suggests that enantiospecificity plays a significant role in its various pharmacological functions. Using the Chirobiotic T (teicoplanin) chiral stationary phase, native and derivatized theanine enantiomers were separated and detected via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (API-MS). With the use of flow rates compatible with each ionization source, native theanine standards achieved excellent sensitivity and detection limits (10 ng/mL) for both atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray ionization (ESI). Optimum sensitivity and detection limits for derivatized theanine standards were achieved using ESI-MS. The enantiomeric composition of six commercially available L-theanine samples was evaluated using the high-flow APCI-MS method and confirmed with photodiode array detection. Five of the six products contained significant amounts of D-theanine. Only one product, SunTheanine, appeared to contain only the L-theanine enantiomer. PMID:14755608

Desai, Meera J; Armstrong, Daniel W

2004-01-01

81

Modern Atmospheric Pressure Surface Sampling/Ionization Techniques in Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Over the last few years, there has been a rapid increase in atmospheric pressure surface sampling/ionization techniques for mass spectrometry, dramatically expanding the range of sample types that can be analyzed. The growth in this field of mass spectrometry has also resulted in a plethora of new acronyms. In this encyclopedia article, the various techniques are first sorted into four major categories based on the method used for analyte desorption and then subcategorized by ionization method. The underlying principles of operation are explained and some representative applications are described.

Pasilis, Sofie P [University of Idaho] [University of Idaho; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

82

Understanding the Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow (FAPA) Ambient Ionization Source through Optical Means  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ADI-MS) has led to the development of a large number of atmospheric-pressure ionization sources. The largest group of such sources is based on electrical discharges; yet, the desorption and ionization processes that they employ remain largely uncharacterized. Here, the atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) and afterglow of a helium flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) ionization source were examined by optical emission spectroscopy. Spatial emission profiles of species created in the APGD and afterglow were recorded under a variety of operating conditions, including discharge current, electrode polarity, and plasma-gas flow rate. From these studies, it was found that an appreciable amount of atmospheric H2O vapor, N2, and O2 diffuses through the hole in the plate electrode into the discharge to become a major source of reagent ions in ADI-MS analyses. Spatially resolved plasma parameters, such as OH rotational temperature (Trot) and electron number density (ne), were also measured in the APGD. Maximum values for Trot and ne were found to be ~1100 K and ~4 × 1019 m-3, respectively, and were both located at the pin cathode. In the afterglow, rotational temperatures from OH and N{2/+} yielded drastically different values, with OH temperatures matching those obtained from infrared thermography measurements. The higher N{2/+} temperature is believed to be caused by charge-transfer ionization of N2 by He{2/+}. These findings are discussed in the context of previously reported ADI-MS analyses with the FAPA source.

Shelley, Jacob T.; Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

2012-02-01

83

Microplasma Discharge Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization Source for Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we demonstrate the first use of an atmospheric pressure microplasma-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization source in atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry applications. The device is a robust, easy-to-operate microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) that enables generation of VUV photons from Ne and Ne/H2 gas mixtures. Photons were detected by excitation of a microchannel plate detector and by analysis of diagnostic sample ions using a mass spectrometer. Reactive ions, charged particles, and metastables produced in the discharge were blocked from entering the ionization region by means of a lithium fluoride window, and photoionization was performed in a nitrogen-purged environment. By reducing the output pressure of the MHCD, we observed heightened production of higher-energy photons, making the photoionization source more effective. The initial performance of the MHCD VUV source has been evaluated by ionizing model analytes such as acetone, azulene, benzene, dimethylaniline, and glycine, which were introduced in solid or liquid phase. These molecules represent species with both high and low proton affinities, and ionization energies ranging from 7.12 to 9.7 eV.

Symonds, Joshua M.; Gann, Reuben N.; Fernández, Facundo M.; Orlando, Thomas M.

2014-09-01

84

Microplasma discharge vacuum ultraviolet photoionization source for atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this paper, we demonstrate the first use of an atmospheric pressure microplasma-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization source in atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry applications. The device is a robust, easy-to-operate microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) that enables generation of VUV photons from Ne and Ne/H(2) gas mixtures. Photons were detected by excitation of a microchannel plate detector and by analysis of diagnostic sample ions using a mass spectrometer. Reactive ions, charged particles, and metastables produced in the discharge were blocked from entering the ionization region by means of a lithium fluoride window, and photoionization was performed in a nitrogen-purged environment. By reducing the output pressure of the MHCD, we observed heightened production of higher-energy photons, making the photoionization source more effective. The initial performance of the MHCD VUV source has been evaluated by ionizing model analytes such as acetone, azulene, benzene, dimethylaniline, and glycine, which were introduced in solid or liquid phase. These molecules represent species with both high and low proton affinities, and ionization energies ranging from 7.12 to 9.7 eV. PMID:24990302

Symonds, Joshua M; Gann, Reuben N; Fernández, Facundo M; Orlando, Thomas M

2014-09-01

85

Capillary Atmospheric Pressure Electron Capture Ionization (cAPECI): A Highly Efficient Ionization Method for Nitroaromatic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a novel method for atmospheric pressure ionization of compounds with elevated electron affinity (e.g., nitroaromatic compounds) or gas phase acidity (e.g., phenols), respectively. The method is based on the generation of thermal electrons by the photo-electric effect, followed by electron capture of oxygen when air is the gas matrix yielding O2 - or of the analyte directly with nitrogen as matrix. Charge transfer or proton abstraction by O2 - leads to the ionization of the analytes. The interaction of UV-light with metals is a clean method for the generation of thermal electrons at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, only negative ions are generated and neutral radical formation is minimized, in contrast to discharge- or dopant assisted methods. Ionization takes place inside the transfer capillary of the mass spectrometer leading to comparably short transfer times of ions to the high vacuum region of the mass spectrometer. This strongly reduces ion transformation processes, resulting in mass spectra that more closely relate to the neutral analyte distribution. cAPECI is thus a soft and selective ionization method with detection limits in the pptV range. In comparison to standard ionization methods (e.g., PTR), cAPECI is superior with respect to both selectivity and achievable detection limits. cAPECI demonstrates to be a promising ionization method for applications in relevant fields as, for example, explosives detection and atmospheric chemistry.

Derpmann, Valerie; Mueller, David; Bejan, Iustinian; Sonderfeld, Hannah; Wilberscheid, Sonja; Koppmann, Ralf; Brockmann, Klaus J.; Benter, Thorsten

2014-03-01

86

Capillary atmospheric pressure electron capture ionization (cAPECI): a highly efficient ionization method for nitroaromatic compounds.  

PubMed

We report on a novel method for atmospheric pressure ionization of compounds with elevated electron affinity (e.g., nitroaromatic compounds) or gas phase acidity (e.g., phenols), respectively. The method is based on the generation of thermal electrons by the photo-electric effect, followed by electron capture of oxygen when air is the gas matrix yielding O2(-) or of the analyte directly with nitrogen as matrix. Charge transfer or proton abstraction by O2(-) leads to the ionization of the analytes. The interaction of UV-light with metals is a clean method for the generation of thermal electrons at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, only negative ions are generated and neutral radical formation is minimized, in contrast to discharge- or dopant assisted methods. Ionization takes place inside the transfer capillary of the mass spectrometer leading to comparably short transfer times of ions to the high vacuum region of the mass spectrometer. This strongly reduces ion transformation processes, resulting in mass spectra that more closely relate to the neutral analyte distribution. cAPECI is thus a soft and selective ionization method with detection limits in the pptV range. In comparison to standard ionization methods (e.g., PTR), cAPECI is superior with respect to both selectivity and achievable detection limits. cAPECI demonstrates to be a promising ionization method for applications in relevant fields as, for example, explosives detection and atmospheric chemistry. PMID:24399666

Derpmann, Valerie; Mueller, David; Bejan, Iustinian; Sonderfeld, Hannah; Wilberscheid, Sonja; Koppmann, Ralf; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten

2014-03-01

87

Electron density and temperature measurement by continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized atmospheric pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The electron-atom neutral bremsstrahlung continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized plasmas is investigated for electron density and temperature diagnostics. The continuum spectrum in 450–1000?nm emitted from the argon atmospheric pressure plasma is found to be in excellent agreement with the neutral bremsstrahlung formula with the electron-atom momentum transfer cross-section given by Popovi?. In 280–450?nm, however, a large discrepancy between the measured and the neutral bremsstrahlung emissivities is observed. We find that without accounting for the radiative H{sub 2} dissociation continuum, the temperature, and density measurements would be largely wrong, so that it should be taken into account for accurate measurement.

Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho, E-mail: wchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaeyoung [5771 La Jolla Corona Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

2014-02-24

88

New ionization method for analysis on atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometers requiring only vacuum and matrix assistance.  

PubMed

Matrix assisted ionization vacuum (MAIV) is a new ionization method that does not require high voltages, a laser beam, or applied heat and depends only the proper matrix, 3-nitrobenzonitrile (3-NBN), and the vacuum of the mass spectrometer to initiate ionization. Analyte ions of volatile as well as nonvolatile compounds are formed by simply exposing the matrix-analyte to the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. The reduced pressure at the inlet of an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer suffices to produce analyte ions, but unlike the previously reported matrix assisted ionization inlet method, with MAIV, heating the inlet is not necessary. Singly and multiply charged ions are formed similar to electrospray ionization but from a surface. Mass spectrometers in which a heated inlet tube is not available can be used for ionization using the 3-NBN matrix. We demonstrate rapid, high-sensitivity analyses of drugs, peptides, and proteins in the low femtomole range. The potential for high-throughput analyses is shown using multiwell plates and paper strips. PMID:23373868

Trimpin, Sarah; Inutan, Ellen D

2013-02-19

89

Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge Ionization Source for Elemental Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

A new, low power ionization source for elemental MS analysis of aqueous solutions is described. The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LSAPGD) operates by a process wherein the surface of the liquid emanating from a 75 ?m i.d. glass capillary acts as the cathode of the direct current glow discharge. Analytecontaining solutions at a flow rate of 100 ?L min-1 are vaporized by the passage of current, yielding gas phase solutes that are subsequently ionized in the < 5 W (maximum of 60 mA and 500 V), ~1 mm3 volume, plasma. The LS-APGD is mounted in place of the normal electrospray ionization source of a Thermo Scientific Exactive orbitrap mass spectrometer system. Basic operating characteristics are described, including the role of discharge power on mass spectral composition, the ability to obtain ultra-high resolution elemental isotopic patterns, and preliminary limits of detection attainable based on the injection of aliquots of multielement standards. While much optimization remains, it is believed that the LS-APGD may present a practical alternative to high-powered (>1 kW) plasma sources typically employed in elemental mass spectrometry, particularly for those cases where costs, operational overhead, and simplicity considerations are important.

Marcus, R. Kenneth; Quarles, C. Derrick; Barinaga, Charles J.; Carado, Anthony J.; Koppenaal, David W.

2011-04-01

90

Simultaneous extraction of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid from human plasma and simultaneous estimation by liquid chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/tandem mass spectrometry detection. Application to a pharmacokinetic study.  

PubMed

A simple analytical method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in atmospheric chemical ionization mode (APCI) for the simultaneous estimation of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, CAS 50-78-2) and its active metabolite salicylic acid (SA, CAS 69-72-7) in human plasma has been developed and validated. ASA and SA were analyzed simultaneously despite differences in plasma concentration ranges of ASA and SA after oral administration of ASA. In spite of having different chemical, ionization and chromatographic properties, ASA and SA were extracted simultaneously from the plasma sample using acetonitrile protein precipitation followed by liquid-liquid extraction. The analytes were separated on a reversed phase column with rapid gradient program using mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate buffer and methanol. The structural analogue diclofenac was used as an internal standard. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions m/z 179 --> 137 for ASA, m/z 137 --> 65 for SA and m/z 294 --> 250 for IS were used. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.02-10 microg/mL for ASA and 0.1-50 microg/mL for SA. The between-batch precision (%CV) ranged from 2.1 to 7.9% for ASA and from 0.2 to 5.2% for SA. The between-batch accuracy ranged from 95.4 to 96.7% for ASA and from 94.6 to 111.3% for SA. The validated method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetics of ASA after single oral administration of 650 mg test formulation versus two 325 mg reference formulations of ASA in human subjects. PMID:21755814

Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Kandikere, Vishwottam; Mudigonda, Koteshwara; Ajjala, Devender; Suraneni, Ramakrishna; Thoddi, Parthasarathi

2011-01-01

91

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry for in vivo analysis of volatile flavour release  

Microsoft Academic Search

To follow volatile flavour release in the expired air of people during eating, several physiological and analytical constraints must be observed to obtain good quality data. An interface has been developed to sample air from the nose and ionise the volatile compounds contained therein by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation. The ions formed are detected in a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The

A. J. Taylor; R. S. T. Linforth; B. A. Harvey; A. Blake

2000-01-01

92

Study of atmospheric pressure weakly ionized plasma as surface compatibilization technique for improved plastic composites loaded with cellulose based fillers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure plasmas have gained considerable interest from researchers recently for their unique prospective of engineering surfaces with plasma without the need of vacuum systems. They offer the advantage of low energy consumption, minimal capital cost and their simplicity as compared to conventional low pressure plasmas make them easy to upscale from laboratory to industry size. The present dissertation summarizes results of our attempt at applying atmospheric pressure weakly ionized plasma (APWIP) to the engineering of plastic composites filled with cellulose based substrates. An APWIP reactor was designed and built based on a multipoint-to-grounded ring and screen configurations. The carrier gas was argon and acetylene serves as the precursor molecule. The APWIP reactors showed capability of depositing plasma polymerized coating rich in carbon on substrates positioned within the electrode gap as well as downstream of the plasma discharge into the afterglow region. Our findings show that films grow by forming islands which for prolonged deposition time grow into thin films showing nodules, aggregates of nodules and microspheres. They also show chemical structure similar to films deposited from hydrocarbons with other conventional plasma techniques. The plasma polymerized deposits were used on substrates to modify their surface properties. Results show the surface of wood veneer and wood flour can be finely tuned from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. It was achieved by altering the topography of the surfaces along with their chemical composition. The wettability of wood veneer was investigated with contact angle measurements on capacitive drops and the capillary effect was utilized to assess surface properties of wood flour exposed to the discharges.

Lekobou, William Pimakouon

93

Femtosecond Laser Ablation Particle Introduction to a Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge Ionization Source  

SciTech Connect

This work describes the use of a compact, liquid sampling – atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) ionization source to ionize metal particles within a laser ablation aerosol. Mass analysis was performed with a Thermo Scientific Exactive Mass Spectrometer which utilizes an orbitrap mass analyzer capable of producing mass resolution exceeding M/?M > 160,000. The LS-APGD source generates a low-power plasma between the surface of an electrolytic solution flowing at several µl min-1 through a fused silica capillary and a counter electrode consisting of a stainless steel capillary employed to deliver the laser ablation particles into the plasma. Sample particles of approximately 100 nm were generated with an Applied Spectra femtosecond laser located remotely and transported through 25 meters of polyurethane tubing by means of argon carrier gas. Samples consisted of an oxygen free copper shard, a disk of solder, and a one-cent U.S. coin. Analyte signal onset was readily detectable relative to the background signal produced by the carrier gas alone. The high mass resolution capability of the orbitrap mass spectrometer was demonstrated on the solder sample with resolution exceeding 90,000 for Pb and 160,000 for Cu. In addition, results from a laser ablation depth-profiling experiment of a one cent coin revealed retention of the relative locations of the ~10 µm copper cladding and zinc rich bulk layers.

Carado, Anthony J.; Quarles, C. Derrick; Duffin, Andrew M.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Russo, Richard; Marcus, R. Kenneth; Eiden, Gregory C.; Koppenaal, David W.

2012-01-16

94

Determination of nitrogen monoxide in high purity nitrogen gas with an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometric (API-MS) method was studied for the determination of residual NO in high purity N2 gas. The API-MS is very sensitive to NO, but the presence of O2 interferes with the NO measurement. Nitrogen gas in cylinders as sample gas was mixed with NO standard gas and/or O2 standard gas, and then introduced into the API-MS. The calibration curves of NO and O2 has linearity in the region of 0 - 2 ppm, but the slopes changed with every cylinder. The effect of O2 on NO+ peak was additive and proportional to O2 concentration in the range of 0 - 0.5 ppm. The increase in NO+ intensity due to O2 was (0.07 - 0.13)%/O2, 1 ppm. Determination of NO and O2 was carried out by the standard addition method to eliminate the influence of variation of slopes. The interference due to O2 was estimated from the product of the O2 concentration and the ratio of slope A to Slope B. Slope A is the change in the NO+ intensity with the O2 concentration. Slope B is the intensity with O2 concentration.

Kato, K.

1985-01-01

95

Effects of easily ionizable elements on the liquid sampling atmospheric pressure glow discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of studies has been undertaken to determine the susceptibility of the liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) atomic emission source to easily ionizable element (EIE) effects. The initial portions of the study involved monitoring the voltage drop across the plasma as a function of the pH to ascertain whether or not the conductivity of the liquid eluent alters the plasma energetics and subsequently the analyte signal strength. It was found that altering the pH (0.0 to 2.0) in the sample matrix did not significantly change the discharge voltage. The emission signal intensities for Cu(I) 327.4 nm, Mo(I) 344.7 nm, Sc(I) 326.9 nm and Hg(I) 253.6 nm were measured as a function of the easily ionizable element (sodium and calcium) concentration in the injection matrix. A range of 0.0 to 0.1% (w/v) EIE in the sample matrix did not cause a significant change in the Cu, Sc, and Mo signal-to-background ratios, with only a slight change noted for Hg. In addition to this test of analyte response, the plasma energetics as a function of EIE concentration are assessed using the ratio of Mg(II) to Mg(I) (280.2 nm and 285.2 nm, respectively) intensities. The Mg(II)/Mg(I) ratio showed that the plasma energetics did not change significantly over the same range of EIE addition. These results are best explained by the electrolytic nature of the eluent acting as an ionic (and perhaps spectrochemical) buffer.

Venzie, Jacob L.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

2006-06-01

96

Surface Passivation of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

SiO2 films prepared by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) were investigated for surface passivation of crystalline Si solar cells. The passivation effects of APCVD SiO2 for p-type Si substrates were evaluated by measuring excess minority carrier lifetimes. Effective surface recombination velocities S eff were decreased by successive annealing in N2 atmosphere at 300-700 degC without the degradation of the

Ryusuke Imai; Tsukasa Ishiwata; Hitoshi Sai; Naoya Yamamoto; Koji Arafune; Yoshio Ohshita; Masafumi Yamaguchi

2006-01-01

97

Sensitive determination of RDX, nitroso-RDX metabolites, and other munitions in ground water by solid-phase extraction and isotope dilution liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent improvements in the LC–MS interface have increased the sensitivity and selectivity of this instrument in the analysis of polar and thermally-labile aqueous constituents. Determination of RDX, nitroso-RDX metabolites, and other munitions was enhanced using LC–MS with solid-phase extraction, 15N3-RDX internal standard, and electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative ion mode. ESI produced a five-fold increase in detector response over atmospheric

D. A. Cassada; S. J. Monson; D. D. Snow; R. F. Spalding

1999-01-01

98

Planar differential mobility spectrometer as a pre-filter for atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Ion filters based on planar DMS can be integrated with the inlet configuration of most mass spectrometers, and are able to enhance the quality of mass analysis and quantitative accuracy by reducing chemical noise, and by pre-separating ions of similar mass. This paper is the first in a series of three papers describing the optimization of DMS / MS instrumentation. In this paper the important physical parameters of a planar DMS-MS interface including analyzer geometry, analyzer coupling to a mass spectrometer, and transport gas flow control are considered. The goal is to optimize ion transmission and transport efficiency, provide optimal and adjustable resolution, and produce stable operation under conditions of high sample contamination. We discuss the principles of DMS separations and highlight the theoretical underpinnings. The main differences between planar and cylindrical geometries are presented, including a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of RF ion focusing. In addition, we present a description of optimization of the frequency and amplitude of the DMS fields for resolution and ion transmission, and a discussion of the influence and importance of ion residence time in DMS. We have constructed a mass spectrometer interface for planar geometries that takes advantage of atmospheric pressure gas dynamic principles, rather than ion focusing, to minimize ion losses from diffusion in the analyzer and to maximize total ion transport into the mass spectrometer. A variety of experimental results has been obtained that illustrate the performance of this type of interface, including tests of resistance to high contamination levels, and the separation of stereoisomers. In a subsequent publication the control of the chemical interactions that drive the separation process of a DMS / MS system will be considered. In a third publication we describe novel electronics designed to provide the high voltages asymmetric waveform fields (SV) required for these devices as well as the effects of different waveforms. PMID:21278836

Schneider, Bradley B; Covey, Thomas R; Coy, Stephen L; Krylov, Evgeny V; Nazarov, Erkinjon G

2010-12-01

99

Planar differential mobility spectrometer as a pre-filter for atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Ion filters based on planar DMS can be integrated with the inlet configuration of most mass spectrometers, and are able to enhance the quality of mass analysis and quantitative accuracy by reducing chemical noise, and by pre-separating ions of similar mass. This paper is the first in a series of three papers describing the optimization of DMS / MS instrumentation. In this paper the important physical parameters of a planar DMS-MS interface including analyzer geometry, analyzer coupling to a mass spectrometer, and transport gas flow control are considered. The goal is to optimize ion transmission and transport efficiency, provide optimal and adjustable resolution, and produce stable operation under conditions of high sample contamination. We discuss the principles of DMS separations and highlight the theoretical underpinnings. The main differences between planar and cylindrical geometries are presented, including a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of RF ion focusing. In addition, we present a description of optimization of the frequency and amplitude of the DMS fields for resolution and ion transmission, and a discussion of the influence and importance of ion residence time in DMS. We have constructed a mass spectrometer interface for planar geometries that takes advantage of atmospheric pressure gas dynamic principles, rather than ion focusing, to minimize ion losses from diffusion in the analyzer and to maximize total ion transport into the mass spectrometer. A variety of experimental results has been obtained that illustrate the performance of this type of interface, including tests of resistance to high contamination levels, and the separation of stereoisomers. In a subsequent publication the control of the chemical interactions that drive the separation process of a DMS / MS system will be considered. In a third publication we describe novel electronics designed to provide the high voltages asymmetric waveform fields (SV) required for these devices as well as the effects of different waveforms. PMID:21278836

Schneider, Bradley B.; Covey, Thomas R.; Coy, Stephen L.; Krylov, Evgeny V.

2010-01-01

100

Characterization of direct-current atmospheric-pressure discharges useful for ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Two relatively new ambient ionization sources, direct analysis in real time (DART) and the flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA), use direct current, atmospheric-pressure discharges to produce reagent ions for the direct ionization of a sample. Although at a first glance these two sources appear similar, a fundamental study reveals otherwise. Specifically, DART was found to operate with a corona-to-glow transition (C-G) discharge whereas the FAPA was found to operate with a glow-to-arc transition (G-A) discharge. The characteristics of both discharges were evaluated on the basis of four factors: reagent-ion production, response to a model analyte (ferrocene), infrared (IR) thermography of the gas used for desorption and ionization, and spatial emission characteristics. The G-A discharge produced a greater abundance and a wider variety of reagent ions than the C-G discharge. In addition, the discharges yielded different adducts and signal strengths for ferrocene. It was also found that the gas exiting the discharge chamber reached a maximum of 235 degrees C and 55 degrees C for the G-A and C-G discharges, respectively. Finally, spatially resolved emission maps of both discharges showed clear differences for N(2)(+) and O(I). These findings demonstrate that the discharges used by FAPA and DART are fundamentally different and should have different optimal applications for ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ADI-MS). PMID:19185515

Shelley, Jacob T; Wiley, Joshua S; Chan, George C Y; Schilling, Gregory D; Ray, Steven J; Hieftje, Gary M

2009-05-01

101

Selective ionization of dissolved organic nitrogen by positive ion atmospheric pressure photoionization coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) comprises a heterogeneous family of organic compounds that includes both well-known biomolecules such as urea or amino acids and more complex, less characterized compounds such as humic and fulvic acids. Typically, DON represents only a small fraction of the total dissolved organic carbon pool and therefore presents inherent problems for chemical analysis and characterization. Here, we demonstrate that DON may be selectively ionized by atmospheric pressure photionization (APPI) and characterized at the molecular level by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Unlike electrospray ionization (ESI), APPI ionizes polar and nonpolar compounds, and ionization efficiency is not determined by polarity. APPI is tolerant to salts, due to the thermal treatment inherent to nebulization, and thus avoids salt-adduct formation that can complicate ESI mass spectra. Here, for dissolved organic matter from various aquatic environments, we selectively ionize DON species that are not efficiently ionized by other ionization techniques and demonstrate significant signal-to-noise increase for nitrogen species by use of APPI relative to ESI. PMID:22577833

Podgorski, David C; McKenna, Amy M; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G; Cooper, William T

2012-06-01

102

Experimental investigation of atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure plasmas are frequently considered to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium due to the high frequency of collisional processes which drive the plasma state toward a Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium. However, various forms of thermodynamic, ionizational, and chemical nonequilibrium have been demonstrated and investigated in atmospheric pressure plasma environments over the last several years, and the nonequilibrium behaviour of such systems

Charles H. Kruger; Thomas G. Owano; Christophe O. Laux

1997-01-01

103

Specific Interaction Between Negative Atmospheric Ions and Organic Compounds in Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between negative atmospheric ions and various types of organic compounds were investigated using atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI) mass spectrometry. Atmospheric negative ions such as O{2/-}, HCO{3/-}, COO-(COOH), NO{2/-}, NO{3/-}, and NO{3/-}(HNO3) having different proton affinities served as the reactant ions for analyte ionization in APCDI in negative-ion mode. The individual atmospheric ions specifically ionized aliphatic and aromatic compounds with various functional groups as atmospheric ion adducts and deprotonated analytes. The formation of the atmospheric ion adducts under certain discharge conditions is most likely attributable to the affinity between the analyte and atmospheric ion and the concentration of the atmospheric ion produced under these conditions. The deprotonated analytes, in contrast, were generated from the adducts of the atmospheric ions with higher proton affinity attributable to efficient proton abstraction from the analyte by the atmospheric ion.

Sekimoto, Kanako; Sakai, Mami; Takayama, Mitsuo

2012-06-01

104

Desorption/ionization of acrylamide in aqueous solutions in atmospheric pressure air using a microdischarge with vortex focusing of ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of desorption/ionization in a microdischarge with ion vortex focusing (vortex focusing microdischarge, VFM) is suggested. A glow microdischarge is initiated in an air flow, and resulting ions act on the surface of interest. As a model compound, an aqueous solution of acrylamide is taken. Desorption/ionization taking place under atmospheric pressure is followed by the mass-spectrometric identification of the ions. The operating parameters of the VFM system are studied and optimized. Upon optimization of the system, the detection limit of acrylamide trace amounts in aqueous solutions is determined using the suggested method of desorption/ionization and analyte ion focusing with a vortex (swirling) jet. The acrylamide detection limit is found to be 2 × 10-3 g/L.

Pervukhin, V. V.; Sheven', D. G.

2014-09-01

105

Plasma ionization source for atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry imaging using near-field optical laser ablation.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) at ambient pressures with submicrometer resolution is challenging, due to the very low amount of material available for mass spectrometric analysis. In this work, we present the development and characterization of a method for MSI based on pulsed laser ablation via a scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) aperture tip. SNOM allows laser ablation of material from surfaces with submicrometer spatial resolution, which can be ionized for further chemical analysis with MS. Efficient ionization is realized here with a custom-built capillary plasma ionization source. We show the applicability of this setup for mass spectrometric analysis of three common MALDI matrices, ?-4-hydroxycyanocinnamic acid, 3-aminobenzoic acid, and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Although the ultimate goal has been to optimize sensitivity for detecting material ablated from submicrometer diameter craters, the effective lateral resolution is currently limited by the sensitivity of the MS detection system. In our case, the sensitivity of the MS was about 1 fmol, which allowed us to achieve a spatial resolution of 2 ?m. We also characterize the analytical figures of merit of our method. In particular, we demonstrate good reproducibility, a repetition rate in the range of only a few seconds, and we determined the amount of substance required to achieve optimal resolution and sensitivity. Moreover, the sample topography is available from SNOM scans, a parameter that is missing in common MSI methods. PMID:25517927

Nudnova, Maryia M; Sigg, Jérôme; Wallimann, Pascal; Zenobi, Renato

2015-01-20

106

Investigation on plasma parameters and step ionization from discharge characteristics of an atmospheric pressure Ar microplasma jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this communication, we report a technique to estimate the plasma parameters from the discharge characteristics of a microplasma device, operated in atmospheric pressure on the basis of homogeneous discharge model. By this technique, we investigate the plasma parameters of a microplasma jet produced by microplasma device consisting of coaxial capillary electrodes surrounded by dielectric tube. Our results suggest that the complex dependence of electrical discharge characteristics observed for microplasma device operated with Ar or it admixtures probably signify the existence of step ionization, which is well known in inductively coupled plasma.

Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Chuaqui, H.; Wyndham, E.; Kakati, M.

2012-06-01

107

Investigation on plasma parameters and step ionization from discharge characteristics of an atmospheric pressure Ar microplasma jet  

SciTech Connect

In this communication, we report a technique to estimate the plasma parameters from the discharge characteristics of a microplasma device, operated in atmospheric pressure on the basis of homogeneous discharge model. By this technique, we investigate the plasma parameters of a microplasma jet produced by microplasma device consisting of coaxial capillary electrodes surrounded by dielectric tube. Our results suggest that the complex dependence of electrical discharge characteristics observed for microplasma device operated with Ar or it admixtures probably signify the existence of step ionization, which is well known in inductively coupled plasma.

Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Chuaqui, H.; Wyndham, E. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Ave. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Kakati, M. [Thermal Plasma Processed Materials Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402, Assam (India)

2012-06-15

108

Atmospheric pressure ionization waves propagating through a flexible high aspect ratio capillary channel and impinging upon a target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure ionization waves (IWs) propagating in flexible capillary tubes are a unique way of transporting a plasma and its active species to remote sites for applications such as biomedical procedures, particularly in endoscopic procedures. The propagation mechanisms for such IWs in tubes having aspect ratios of hundreds to thousands are not clear. In this paper, results are discussed from a numerical investigation of the fundamental properties of ionization waves generated by nanosecond voltage pulses inside a 15 cm long, 600 µm wide (aspect ratio 250), flexible dielectric channel. The channel, filled with a Ne/Xe = 99.9/0.1 gas mixture at 1 atm, empties into a small chamber separated from a target substrate by 1 cm. The IWs propagate through the entire length of the channel while maintaining similar strength and magnitude. Upon exiting the channel into the chamber, the IW induces a second streamer discharge at the channel-chamber junction. This streamer then propagates across the chamber and impinges upon the target. The average speeds of the capillary-bounded IW are about 5 × 107 cm s-1 and 1 × 108 cm s-1 for positive and negative polarities, respectively. The propagation speed is sensitive to the curvature of the channel. In both cases, the peak in ionization tends to be located along the channel walls and alternates from side-to-side depending on the direction of the local instantaneous electric field and curvature of the channel. The ionization region following the IW extends up to several centimeters inside the channel, as opposed to being highly localized at the ionization front in unconstrained, atmospheric pressure IWs. The maximum speed of the IW in the chamber is about twice that in the channel.

Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

2012-06-01

109

Chemical modification of amino acids by atmospheric-pressure cold plasma in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma medicine is an attractive new research area, but the principles of plasma modification of biomolecules in aqueous solution remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the chemical effects of atmospheric-pressure cold plasma on 20 naturally occurring amino acids in aqueous solution. High-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that chemical modifications of 14 amino acids were observed after plasma treatment: (i) hydroxylation and nitration of aromatic rings in tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan; (ii) sulfonation and disulfide linkage formation of thiol groups in cysteine; (iii) sulfoxidation of methionine and (iv) amidation and ring-opening of five-membered rings in histidine and proline. A competitive reaction experiment using 20 amino acids demonstrated that sulfur-containing and aromatic amino acids were preferentially decreased by the plasma treatment. These data provide fundamental information for elucidating the mechanism of protein inactivation for biomedical plasma applications.

Takai, Eisuke; Kitamura, Tsuyoshi; Kuwabara, Junpei; Ikawa, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Shunsuke; Shiraki, Kentaro; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi; Kitano, Katsuhisa

2014-07-01

110

Modeling chemical vapor deposition of silicon dioxide in microreactors at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a multiphysics mathematical model for simulation of silicon dioxide Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and oxygen mixture in a microreactor at atmospheric pressure. Microfluidics is a promising technology with numerous applications in chemical synthesis due to its high heat and mass transfer efficiency and well-controlled flow parameters. Experimental studies of CVD microreactor technology are slow and expensive. Analytical solution of the governing equations is impossible due to the complexity of intertwined non-linear physical and chemical processes. Computer simulation is the most effective tool for design and optimization of microreactors. Our computational fluid dynamics model employs mass, momentum and energy balance equations for a laminar transient flow of a chemically reacting gas mixture at low Reynolds number. Simulation results show the influence of microreactor configuration and process parameters on SiO2 deposition rate and uniformity. We simulated three microreactors with the central channel diameter of 5, 10, 20 micrometers, varying gas flow rate in the range of 5-100 microliters per hour and temperature in the range of 300-800 °C. For each microchannel diameter we found an optimal set of process parameters providing the best quality of deposited material. The model will be used for optimization of the microreactor configuration and technological parameters to facilitate the experimental stage of this research.

Konakov, S. A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V. V.

2015-01-01

111

Studies of the mechanism of the cluster formation in a thermally sampling atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

In this study a thermally sampling atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer is described and characterized. The ion transfer stage offers the capability to sample cluster ions at thermal equilibrium and during this transfer fundamental processes possibly affecting the cluster distribution are also readily identified. Additionally, the transfer stage combines optional collision-induced dissociation (CID) analysis of the cluster composition with thermal equilibrium sampling of clusters. The performance of the setup is demonstrated with regard to the proton-bound water cluster system. The benefit of the studied processes is that they can help to improve future transfer stages and to understand cluster ion reactions in ion mobility tubes and high-pressure ion sources. In addition, the instrument allows for the identification of fragmentation and protonation reactions caused by CID.

Albrecht, Sascha, E-mail: s.albrecht@fz-juelich.de; Stroh, Fred, E-mail: f.stroh@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Stratosphere (IEK-7), 52428 Jülich (Germany)] [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Stratosphere (IEK-7), 52428 Jülich (Germany); Klopotowski, Sebastian, E-mail: s.klopotowski@uni-wuppertal.de; Derpmann, Valerie, E-mail: v.derpmann@uni-wuppertal.de; Klee, Sonja, E-mail: s.klee@uni-wuppertal.de; Brockmann, Klaus J., E-mail: brockma@uni-wuppertal.de; Benter, Thorsten, E-mail: tbenter@uni-wuppertal.de [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Institute for Pure and Applied Mass Spectrometry, University of Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)] [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Institute for Pure and Applied Mass Spectrometry, University of Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

2014-01-15

112

Factors affecting primary ionization in dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) for LC/MS.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) for LC/MS is generally reduced at higher solvent flow rates. Theory suggests that quenching of excited-state precursors to the dopant ions, via collisions with vaporized solvent molecules, may be one mechanism responsible for this trend. To ascertain if the primary rate of ionization is affected by quenching, experiments were performed utilizing an ionization detector to determine the primary ion current generated by irradiating vaporized mixtures of toluene dopant and methanol solvent. The results indicate that no loss of primary ion current occurs as the solvent flow is increased, provided the dopant-to-solvent ratio is held constant. Additional primary ion current can always be generated by increasing the dopant flow rate and/or the lamp power. Thus, quenching of excited-state precursors to the dopant ions, leading to a reduction in the primary rate of ionization, is not the mechanism responsible for the observed loss of sensitivity at higher liquid solvent flow rates. PMID:16413202

Robb, Damon B; Blades, Michael W

2006-02-01

113

Surface Decontamination of Chemical Agent Surrogates Using an Atmospheric Pressure Air Flow Plasma Jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator using air flow as the feedstock gas was applied to decontaminate the chemical agent surrogates on the surface of aluminum, stainless steel or iron plate painted with alkyd or PVC. The experimental results of material decontamination show that the residual chemical agent on the material is lower than the permissible value of the National Military Standard of China. In order to test the corrosion effect of the plasma jet on different material surfaces in the decontamination process, corrosion tests for the materials of polymethyl methacrylate, neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), phenolic resin, iron plate painted with alkyd, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. were carried out, and relevant parameters were examined, including etiolation index, chromatism, loss of gloss, corrosion form, etc. The results show that the plasma jet is slightly corrosive for part of the materials, but their performances are not affected. A portable calculator, computer display, mainboard, circuit board of radiogram, and a hygrometer could work normally after being treated by the plasma jet.

Li, Zhanguo; Li, Ying; Cao, Peng; Zhao, Hongjie

2013-07-01

114

Plasma-spray ionization (PLASI): a multimodal atmospheric pressure ion source for liquid stream analysis.  

PubMed

A new ion generation method, named plasma-spray ionization (PLASI) for direct analysis of liquid streams, such as in continuous infusion experiments or liquid chromatography (LC), is reported. PLASI addresses many of the analytical limitations of electrospray ionization (ESI) and has potential for real time process stream analysis and reaction monitoring under atmospheric conditions in non-ESI friendly scenarios. In PLASI-mass spectrometry (MS), the liquid stream is pneumatically nebulized and partially charged at low voltages; the resultant aerosol is thus entrained with a gaseous plasma plume from a distal glow discharge prior to MS detection. PLASI-MS not only overcomes ESI-MS limitations but also generates simpler mass spectra with minimal adduct and cluster formation. PLASI utilizes the atomization capabilities of an ESI sprayer operated below the ESI threshold to generate gas-phase aerosols that are then ionized by the plasma stream. When operated at or above the ESI threshold, ionization by traditional ESI mechanisms is achieved. The multimodal nature of the technique enables readily switching between plasma and ESI operation. It is expected that PLASI will enable analyzing a wide range of analytes in complex matrices and less-restricted solvent systems, providing more flexibility than that achievable by ESI alone. PMID:25001384

Kaylor, Adam; Dwivedi, Prabha; Pittman, Jennifer J; Monge, María Eugenia; Cheng, Guilong; Li, Shelly; Fernández, Facundo M

2014-10-01

115

Plasma-Spray Ionization (PLASI): A Multimodal Atmospheric Pressure Ion Source for Liquid Stream Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new ion generation method, named plasma-spray ionization (PLASI) for direct analysis of liquid streams, such as in continuous infusion experiments or liquid chromatography (LC), is reported. PLASI addresses many of the analytical limitations of electrospray ionization (ESI) and has potential for real time process stream analysis and reaction monitoring under atmospheric conditions in non-ESI friendly scenarios. In PLASI-mass spectrometry (MS), the liquid stream is pneumatically nebulized and partially charged at low voltages; the resultant aerosol is thus entrained with a gaseous plasma plume from a distal glow discharge prior to MS detection. PLASI-MS not only overcomes ESI-MS limitations but also generates simpler mass spectra with minimal adduct and cluster formation. PLASI utilizes the atomization capabilities of an ESI sprayer operated below the ESI threshold to generate gas-phase aerosols that are then ionized by the plasma stream. When operated at or above the ESI threshold, ionization by traditional ESI mechanisms is achieved. The multimodal nature of the technique enables readily switching between plasma and ESI operation. It is expected that PLASI will enable analyzing a wide range of analytes in complex matrices and less-restricted solvent systems, providing more flexibility than that achievable by ESI alone.

Kaylor, Adam; Dwivedi, Prabha; Pittman, Jennifer J.; Monge, María Eugenia; Cheng, Guilong; Li, Shelly; Fernández, Facundo M.

2014-10-01

116

Atmospheric pressure-thermal desorption (AP-TD)/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry for the rapid analysis of Bacillus spores.  

PubMed

A technique is described where an atmospheric pressure-thermal desorption (AP-TD) device and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) are coupled and used for the rapid analysis of Bacillus subtilis spores in complex matrices. The resulting AP-TD/ESI-MS technique combines the generation of volatile compounds and/or pyrolysis products with soft-ionization MS detection. In the AP-TD/ESI-MS approach, an electrospray solvent plume was used as the ionization vehicle of thermally desorbed neutrals at atmospheric pressure prior to mass spectrometric analysis using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The approach is quantitative with the volatile standard dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and with the use of an internal standard (diethyl methylphosphonate, DEMP). A linear response was obtained as tested in the 1-50 ppm range (R(2) = 0.991) with a standard error of the estimate of 0.193 (0.9% RSD, n = 5). Bacterial spores were detected by performing pyrolysis in situ methylation with the reagent tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) for the detection of the bacterial spore biomarker dipicolinic acid (DPA) as the dimethylated derivative (2Me-DPA). This approach allowed spore detection even in the presence of growth media in crude lyophilized samples. Repetitive analyses could be performed with a duty cycle of less than 5 min total analysis time (including sample loading, heating and data acquisition). This strategy proved successful over other direct ambient MS approaches like DESI-MS and AP-TD/ESI-MS without the in situ derivatization step to detect the dipicolinic acid biomarker from spores. A detection limit for the dimethylated DPA biomarker was estimated at 1 ppm (equivalent to 0.01 mug of DPA deposited in the thermal desorption tube), which corresponded to a calculated detection limit of 10(5) spores deposited or 0.1% by weight spore composition in solid samples (assuming a 1 mg sample size). The AP-TD/ESI source used in conjunction with the in situ methylation step allowed the differentiation of bacterial spores from other 'suspicious white powders' using a single stage for mass analysis and with minimum sample preparation, making this approach suitable for simple field-portable MS instrumentation and pattern recognition data analysis. PMID:20309450

Basile, Franco; Zhang, Shaofeng; Shin, Yong-Seung; Drolet, Barbara

2010-04-01

117

Threefold atmospheric-pressure annealing for suppressing graphene nucleation on copper in chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising method of producing a large single-crystal graphene on a catalyst, especially on copper (Cu), and a further increase in domain size is desirable for electro/optic applications. Here, we report on threefold atmospheric-pressure (ATM) annealing for suppressing graphene nucleation in atmospheric CVD. Threefold ATM annealing formed a step and terrace surface of the underlying Cu, in contrast to ATM annealing. Atomic force microscopy and Auger electron mapping revealed that Si-containing particles existed on threefold-ATM- and ATM-annealed surfaces; particles on Cu had a lower density after threefold ATM annealing than after ATM annealing. The formation of a step and terrace surface and the lower density of particles following the threefold ATM annealing would play a role in reducing graphene nucleation. By combining threefold ATM annealing and electropolishing of Cu, the nucleation of graphene was effectively suppressed, and a submillimeter-sized hexagonal single-crystal graphene was successfully obtained.

Suzuki, Seiya; Nagamori, Takashi; Matsuoka, Yuki; Yoshimura, Masamichi

2014-09-01

118

Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Iron Pyrite Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

Iron pyrite (cubic FeS{sub 2}) is a promising candidate absorber material for earth-abundant thin-film solar cells. In this report, single-phase, large-grain, and uniform polycrystalline pyrite thin films are fabricated on glass and molybdenum-coated glass substrates by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) using the reaction of iron(III) acetylacetonate and tert-butyl disulfide in argon at 300 C, followed by sulfur annealing at 500--550 C to convert marcasite impurities to pyrite. The pyrite-marcasite phase composition depends strongly on the concentration of sodium in the growth substrate and the sulfur partial pressure during annealing. Phase and elemental composition of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The in-plane electrical properties are surprisingly insensitive to phase and elemental impurities, with all films showing p-type, thermally activated transport with a small activation energy ({approx}30 meV), a room- temperature resistivity of {approx}1 {Omega} cm, and low mobility. These ubiquitous electrical properties may result from robust surface effects. These CVD pyrite thin films are well suited to fundamental electrical studies and the fabrication of pyrite photovoltaic device stacks.

Berry, Nicholas; Cheng, Ming; Perkins, Craig L.; Limpinsel, Moritz; Hemminger, John C.; Law, Matt (NREL); (UCI)

2012-10-23

119

Chemical and biomolecule patterning on 2D surfaces using atmospheric pressure microcavity plasma array devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method for chemical and biomolecule patterning on planar (2D) surfaces using atmospheric pressure microplasmas. Spatially controlled surface modification is important for the development of emerging technologies such as microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices, biosensors and other diagnostics tools. A non-fouling layer of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) aldehyde (pNIPAM-ald) polymer, grafted onto heptylamine plasma polymer (HApp) modified silicon substrates, was used to achieve this goal. The non-fouling behaviour of the pNIPAM-ald coating was investigated at a temperature below its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) using human serum albumin (HSA). XPS and ToF-SIMS were used to characterise the plasma polymer coating and its subsequent modification with pNIPAM-ald before and after HSA adsorption. A 7 x 7 microcavity plasma array device (each cavity had a 250 ?m diameter and was separated by 500 ?m) was used for microplasma patterning. In a non-contact mode, helium microplasma treatment of the pNIPAM-ald coating was carried out for 60 s. The polymer coating was removed from regions directly exposed to microplasma cavities, as shown by ToF-SIMS. Microplasma treated regions were able to support the adsorption of fluorescently-labelled streptavidin whereas the rest of the coating was still non-fouling. This approach therefore resulted in spatially separated areas of immobilised protein.

Al-Bataineh, Sameer A.; Szili, Endre J.; Desmet, Gillies; Ruschitzka, Paul; Gruner, Philipp J.; Priest, Craig; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Steele, David A.; Short, Robert D.; Griesser, Hans J.

2011-12-01

120

Atmospheric Pressure Spray Chemical Vapor Deposited CuInS2 Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells have been prepared using atmospheric pressure spray chemical vapor deposited CuInS2 absorbers. The CuInS2 films were deposited at 390 C using the single source precursor (PPh3)2CuIn(SEt)4 in an argon atmosphere. The absorber ranges in thickness from 0.75 - 1.0 micrometers, and exhibits a crystallographic gradient, with the leading edge having a (220) preferred orientation and the trailing edge having a (112) orientation. Schottky diodes prepared by thermal evaporation of aluminum contacts on to the CuInS2 yielded diodes for films that were annealed at 600 C. Solar cells were prepared using annealed films and had the (top down) composition of Al/ZnO/CdS/CuInS2/Mo/Glass. The Jsc, Voc, FF and (eta) were 6.46 mA per square centimeter, 307 mV, 24% and 0.35%, respectively for the best small area cells under simulated AM0 illumination.

Harris, J. D.; Raffaelle, R. P.; Banger, K. K.; Smith, M. A.; Scheiman, D. A.; Hepp, A. F.

2002-01-01

121

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of boron doped titanium dioxide for photocatalytic water reduction and oxidation.  

PubMed

Boron-doped titanium dioxide (B-TiO2) films were deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of titanium(iv) chloride, ethyl acetate and tri-isopropyl borate on steel and fluorine-doped-tin oxide substrates at 500, 550 and 600 °C, respectively. The films were characterised using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), which showed anatase phase TiO2 at lower deposition temperatures (500 and 550 °C) and rutile at higher deposition temperatures (600 °C). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed a dopant level of 0.9 at% B in an O-substitutional position. The ability of the films to reduce water was tested in a sacrificial system using 365 nm UV light with an irradiance of 2 mW cm(-2). Hydrogen production rates of B-TiO2 at 24 ?L cm(-2) h(-1) far exceeded undoped TiO2 at 2.6 ?L cm(-2) h(-1). The B-TiO2 samples were also shown to be active for water oxidation in a sacrificial solution. Photocurrent density tests also revealed that B-doped samples performed better, with an earlier onset of photocurrent. PMID:23999866

Carmichael, Penelope; Hazafy, David; Bhachu, Davinder S; Mills, Andrew; Darr, Jawwad A; Parkin, Ivan P

2013-10-21

122

Low temperature atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of group 14 oxide films  

SciTech Connect

Depositions of high quality SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} films from the reaction of homoleptic amido precursors M(NMe{sub 2})4 (M = Si,Sn) and oxygen were carried out in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition r. The films were deposited on silicon, glass and quartz substrates at temperatures of 250 to 450C. The silicon dioxide films are stoichiometric (O/Si = 2.0) with less than 0.2 atom % C and 0.3 atom % N and have hydrogen contents of 9 {plus_minus} 5 atom %. They are deposited with growth rates from 380 to 900 {angstrom}/min. The refractive indexes of the SiO{sub 2} films are 1.46, and infrared spectra show a possible Si-OH peak at 950 cm{sup {minus}1}. X-Ray diffraction studies reveal that the SiO{sub 2} film deposited at 350C is amorphous. The tin oxide films are stoichiometric (O/Sn = 2.0) and contain less than 0.8 atom % carbon, and 0.3 atom % N. No hydrogen was detected by elastic recoil spectroscopy. The band gap for the SnO{sub 2} films, as estimated from transmission spectra, is 3.9 eV. The resistivities of the tin oxide films are in the range 10{sup {minus}2} to 10{sup {minus}3} {Omega}cm and do not vary significantly with deposition temperature. The tin oxide film deposited at 350C is cassitterite with some (101) orientation.

Hoffman, D.M. [Houston Univ., TX (United States); Atagi, L.M. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chu, Wei-Kan; Liu, Jia-Rui; Zheng, Zongshuang [Houston Univ., TX (United States); Rubiano, R.R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Springer, R.W.; Smith, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-06-01

123

Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) with atmospheric pressure ion mobility spectrometry for drug detection.  

PubMed

Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) was coupled to an ambient pressure drift tube ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometer (IM-TOFMS) for the direct analysis of active ingredients in pharmaceutical samples. The DESI source was also coupled with a standalone IMS demonstrating potential of portable and inexpensive drug-quality testing platforms. The DESI-IMS required no sample pretreatment as ions were generated directly from tablets and cream formulations. The analysis of a range of over-the-counter and prescription tablet formations was demonstrated for amphetamine (methylphenidate), antidepressant (venlafaxine), barbiturate (Barbituric acid), depressant (alprazolam), narcotic (3-methylmorphine) and sympatholytic (propranolol) drugs. Active ingredients from soft and liquid formulations, such as Icy Hot cream (methyl salicylate) and Nyquil cold medicine (acetaminophen, dextromethorphan, doxylamine) were also detected. Increased sensitivity for selective drug responses was demonstrated through the formation of sodiated adduct ions by introducing small quantities of NaCl into the DESI solvent. Of the drugs and pharmaceuticals tested in this study, 68% (22 total samples) provided a clear ion mobility response at characteristic mobilities either as (M + H)(+), (M - H)(-), or (M + Na)(+) ions. PMID:24551872

Roscioli, Kristyn M; Tufariello, Jessica A; Zhang, Xing; Li, Shelly X; Goetz, Gilles H; Cheng, Guilong; Siems, William F; Hill, Herbert H

2014-04-01

124

Collision-Induced Dissociation Analysis of Negative Atmospheric Ion Adducts in Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed on atmospheric ion adducts [M + R]- formed between various types of organic compounds M and atmospheric negative ions R- [such as O2 -, HCO3 -, COO-(COOH), NO2 -, NO3 -, and NO3 -(HNO3)] in negative-ion mode atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI) mass spectrometry. All of the [M + R]- adducts were fragmented to form deprotonated analytes [M - H]- and/or atmospheric ions R-, whose intensities in the CID spectra were dependent on the proton affinities of the [M - H]- and R- fragments. Precursor ions [M + R]- for which R- have higher proton affinities than [M - H]- formed [M - H]- as the dominant product. Furthermore, the CID of the adducts with HCO3 - and NO3 -(HNO3) led to other product ions such as [M + HO]- and NO3 -, respectively. The fragmentation behavior of [M + R]- for each R- observed was independent of analyte type (e.g., whether the analyte was aliphatic or aromatic, or possessed certain functional groups).

Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

2013-05-01

125

Capillary electrochromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry of pesticides using a surfactant-bound monolithic column  

PubMed Central

A surfactant bound poly (11-acrylaminoundecanoic acid-ethylene dimethacrylate) (AAUA-EDMA) monolithic column was simply prepared by in-situ co-polymerization of AAUA and EDMA with 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol and water as porogens in 100 µm id fused silica capillary in one step. This column was used in capillary electrochromatography (CEC)-atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI)-mass spectrometry system for separation and detection of N-methylcarbamates (NMCs) pesticides. Numerous parameters are optimized for CEC-APPI-MS. After evaluation of the mobile phase composition, sheath liquid composition and the monolithic capillary outlet position, a fractional factorial design (FFD) was selected as a screening procedure to identify factors of ionization source parameters, such as sheath liquid flow rate, drying gas flow rate, drying gas temperature, nebulizing gas pressure, vaporizer temperature, and capillary voltage, which significantly influence APPI-MS sensitivity. A face-centered central composite design (CCD) was further utilized to optimize the most significant parameters and predict the best sensitivity. Under optimized conditions signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) around 78 were achieved for an injection of 100 ng/mL of each pesticide. Finally, this CEC-APPI-MS method was successfully applied to the analysis of nine NMCs in spiked apple juice sample after solid phase extraction with recoveries in the range of 65 to 109%. PMID:20349511

Gu, Congying; Shamsi, Shahab A.

2011-01-01

126

On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

2006-11-01

127

Generation of Charged Nanoparticles during the Synthesis of GaN Nanostructures by Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that GaN charged nanoparticles might be generated during the synthesis of GaN nanostructures was examined in an atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process using a differential mobility analyzer combined with a Faraday cup electrometer. Both positively and negatively charged nanoparticles in the size range of 10–100 nm were generated in the reactor of the CVD process using Ga2O3 precursor

Sung-Soo Lee; Chan-Soo Kim; Nong-Moon Hwang

2012-01-01

128

Rapid screening procedures for the hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents using positive and negative ion liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative screening procedures have been developed for the rapid detection and identification of the hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents in aqueous samples and extracts, using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). Previously reported screening procedures, which used positive APCI or electrospray ionisation (ESI), were modified by using LC conditions that allowed acquisition of

Robert W Read; Robin M Black

1999-01-01

129

Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge (LS-APGD) Ionization Source for Elemental Mass Spectrometry: Preliminary Parametric Evaluation and Figures of Merit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, low power ionization source for the elemental analysis of aqueous solutions has recently been described. The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) source operates at relatively low currents (<20 mA) and solution flow rates (<50 L min¹), yielding a relatively simple alternative for atomic mass spectrometry applications. The LS-APGD has been interfaced to what is otherwise an organic,

C. Derrick Quarles; Anthony J. Carado; Charles J. Barinaga; David W. Koppenaal; R. Kenneth Marcus

2012-01-01

130

Real-time explosives/narcotics vapor enhancement and collection systems for use with the atmospheric pressure ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a companion document to the Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (API TOFMS) presentation (Lee, et al., 1992). Two significant technique challenges related to design and implementation of vapor collection systems are addressed. They are as follows: (1) freeing deposited or trapped explosive material particles or vapor; and (2) transportation of sample specimen from the pickup point to the detector. Addressed in this dissertation will be both hand-held collection and air shower booth accumulation.

Hintze, M. Marx; Hansen, Byron L.; Heath, Russell L.

1992-05-01

131

Atmospheric-Pressure PECVD Coating and Plasma Chemical Etching for Continuous Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma processing at atmospheric pressure (APPlasmas) has attractions for both economic and technological reasons. Potential costs-saving factors are associated with online-processing capability and increase throughput due to high deposition rates. Capital cost savings for both equipment and line space (foot print), and relative ease of integration, are further benefits in comparison to low-pressure-technology approaches. Three types of APPlasmas are considered

Volkmar Hopfe; David W. Sheel

2007-01-01

132

Application of electrospray ionization product ion spectra for identification with atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry - a case study with seized drugs.  

PubMed

Product ion spectra obtained with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS) were applied to the identification of seized drug samples from atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization product ion spectra (AP-MALDI-MS/MS spectra). Data acquisition was performed in the information-dependent acquisition (IDA) mode, and the substance identification was based on a spectral library previously created with LC-ESI/MS/MS using protonated molecules as precursor ions. A total of 39 seized drug samples were analyzed with both AP-MALDI and LC-ESI techniques using the same triple-quadrupole instrument (AB Sciex 4000QTRAP). The study shows that ESI-MS/MS spectra can be directly utilized in AP-MALDI-MS/MS measurements as the average fit and purity score percentages with AP-MALDI were 90% and 85%, respectively, being similar to or even better than those obtained with the reference LC/ESI-MS/MS method. This fact enables the possibility to use large ESI spectral libraries, not only to ESI analyses but also to analyses with other ionization techniques which produce protonated molecules as the base peak. The data obtained shows that spectral library search works also for analytical techniques which produce multi-component mass spectra, such as AP-MALDI, unless isobaric compounds are encountered. The spectral library search was successfully applied to rapid identification of confiscated drugs by AP-MALDI-IDA-MS/MS. PMID:22987621

Östman, Pekka; Ketola, Raimo A; Ojanperä, Ilkka

2013-02-01

133

Three-dimensional modelling of horizontal chemical vapor deposition. I - MOCVD at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systematic numerical study of the MOCVD of GaAs from trimethylgallium and arsine in hydrogen or nitrogen carrier gas at atmospheric pressure is reported. Three-dimensional effects are explored for CVD reactors with large and small cross-sectional aspect ratios, and the effects on growth rate uniformity of tilting the susceptor are investigated for various input flow rates. It is found that, for light carrier gases, thermal diffusion must be included in the model. Buoyancy-driven three-dimensional flow effects can greatly influence the growth rate distribution through the reactor. The importance of the proper design of the lateral thermal boundary conditions for obtaining layers of uniform thickness is emphasized.

Ouazzani, Jalil; Rosenberger, Franz

1990-01-01

134

Application of liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry, to the analysis and identification of degradation products of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative screening procedure was developed for the detection of the hydrolysis and related products of chemical warfare agents using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation. A mixed C8\\/C18 reversed-phase column gave acceptable chromatography for the range of acidic, neutral and basic analytes. Detection limits for pure standards were less than 0.2 ng injected for the simple hydrolysis

Robin M. Black; Robert W. Read

1997-01-01

135

Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging.  

PubMed

The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order to obtain high-resolution imaging in mass and space. Sections of the rhizome were imaged with a spatial resolution of 10 ?m in the positive ion mode, and a large number of secondary metabolites were localized and identified based on their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Major tissue-specific metabolites, including free flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides and saponins, were successfully detected and visualized in images, showing their distributions at the cellular level. The analytical power of the technique was tested in the imaging of two isobaric licorice saponins with a mass difference of only 0.02 Da. With a mass resolving power of 140 000 and a bin width of 5 ppm in the image processing, the two compounds were well resolved in full-scan mode, and appeared with different distributions in the tissue sections. The identities of the compounds and their distributions were validated in a subsequent MS/MS imaging experiment, thereby confirming their identities and excluding possible analyte interference. The use of high spatial resolution, high mass resolution and tandem mass spectrometry in imaging experiments provides significant information about the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids and saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues. PMID:25040821

Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian; Römpp, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

2014-10-01

136

Chemically reactive species in liquids generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas and their roles in plasma medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasmas whose gas temperatures are close to room temperature may be generated in ambient air or a gas at atmospheric pressure with the use of low-frequency high voltage or low-power radio-frequency (RF) or microwave power applied to electrodes. Such plasmas can serve as a powerful source of free radicals and/or chemically reactive species that arise from atoms and molecules of the ambient gas. Recently use of such plasmas for medical purposes has attracted much attention as they can be implemented in possible medical devices that can cause blood coagulation, heal wounds, facilitate angiogenesis, sterilize surgical devices as well as living tissues without harming healthy cells, and selectively inactivate cancer cells. Especially of interest among reactive species generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APP) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that are generated in liquid phase. Since most living tissues and cells are immersed in liquids (such as blood or culture media), reactive species generated by APPs in the gas phase are transported to the liquid phase and possibly converted to different types of reactive species therein before causing some influence on the tissues or cells. In this study, the rate equations are solved to evaluate concentrations of various reactive species in pure water that are originated by plasma reactions in atmosphere and possible effects of such species (including ROS/RNS) on living tissues and cells are discussed.

Hamaguchi, Satoshi

2013-07-01

137

Chemically reactive species in liquids generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas and their roles in plasma medicine  

SciTech Connect

Plasmas whose gas temperatures are close to room temperature may be generated in ambient air or a gas at atmospheric pressure with the use of low-frequency high voltage or low-power radio-frequency (RF) or microwave power applied to electrodes. Such plasmas can serve as a powerful source of free radicals and/or chemically reactive species that arise from atoms and molecules of the ambient gas. Recently use of such plasmas for medical purposes has attracted much attention as they can be implemented in possible medical devices that can cause blood coagulation, heal wounds, facilitate angiogenesis, sterilize surgical devices as well as living tissues without harming healthy cells, and selectively inactivate cancer cells. Especially of interest among reactive species generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APP) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that are generated in liquid phase. Since most living tissues and cells are immersed in liquids (such as blood or culture media), reactive species generated by APPs in the gas phase are transported to the liquid phase and possibly converted to different types of reactive species therein before causing some influence on the tissues or cells. In this study, the rate equations are solved to evaluate concentrations of various reactive species in pure water that are originated by plasma reactions in atmosphere and possible effects of such species (including ROS/RNS) on living tissues and cells are discussed.

Hamaguchi, Satoshi [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2013-07-11

138

Low-Temperature Growth of Epitaxial Si Films by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Porous Carbon Electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-temperature growth of epitaxial Si films by atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition (AP-PCVD) was investigated. A 150 MHz very high frequency (VHF) power supply was used to generate an atmospheric pressure plasma of gas mixtures containing He, H2, and SiH4. Two types of electrode (i.e., cylindrical rotary and porous carbon electrodes) were used in plasma generation. When a cylindrical rotary electrode was used, polycrystalline Si growth was inevitable at the film edge on the upstream side. This is due to the variation in deposition rate along the gas flow direction, which is extremely high at the plasma/atmosphere interface on the upstream side. To solve this problem, we developed a novel porous carbon electrode where process gas molecules are directly supplied into the plasma region through a porous carbon plate a distance (0.8 mm) away from the substrate surface. Using such a porous carbon electrode, we successfully grew a defect-free epitaxial Si film on the entire surface of a 4 in. Si wafer at 600 °C. The average growth rate was 0.25-0.3 ?m/min, which is as high as that obtained by thermal CVD at 900 °C. The epitaxial Si films grown at 600 °C were characterized by various methods, including transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and selective etching. The influence of adsorbed impurities in the porous carbon material on the quality of epitaxial Si films was also investigated.

Ohmi, Hiromasa; Kakiuchi, Hiroaki; Tawara, Naotaka; Wakamiya, Takuya; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji; Yasutake, Kiyoshi

2006-10-01

139

Step-coverage simulation for tetraethoxysilane and ozone atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

A simulation model for atmospheric pressure (AP) CVD has bee developed using one-dimensional diffusion and mass conservation equations. The model was applied to trench step-coverage of the tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and O[sub 3] CVD, in which it was not necessary to consider lateral diffusion because of narrow (and deep) trenches. For nondoped silicate glass (NSG), the step-coverage of a 4.5 aspect ratio trench showed a good fit if a sticking probability of 0.0039 was assumed for the 0.6% ozone (in oxygen) deposition and of 0.0026 for the 6% ozone deposition (both 400 C). The reaction rate constant was compared with the diffusion mass-transfer coefficient, and the reaction proved to be limited by diffusion of the reactant, TEOS, which directly participated in the CVD reaction. For the 2 m/o phosphosilicate glass (PSG) step-coverage, which had a slight overhang, the model matched the obtained results well only when an active growth species with a high sticking probability of 1.0 was added to the growth species of nondoped oxide. This analytical simulation method satisfactorily explains the experimental data.

Fujino, K. (Semiconductor Process Lab., Toyko (Japan)); Egashira, Y.; Shimogaki, Y.; Komiyama, H. (Univ. of Tokyo, (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-08-01

140

Structural characterisation of unsaturated bacterial hopanoids by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The production of bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) is widespread in many different groups of prokaryotes; however, unsaturated components are less common except amongst the acetic acid bacteria. Here we describe the characterisation of mono- (Delta(6) or Delta(11)) and diunsaturated (Delta(6,11)) bacteriohopanetetrols isolated from the acetic acid bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus (formerly Acetobacter aceti ssp. xylinum) by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry (APCI-MS(n)). APCI-MS(2) spectra are compared with equivalent electron ionisation (EI) spectra and differences in fragmentation pathways are discussed. Having established characteristic spectral features for a range of unsaturated BHPs we now have the ability to rapidly detect the presence of unsaturated BHPs in both natural environmental samples (soils, sediments, water columns) as well as in microbial cultures. PMID:17443490

Talbot, Helen M; Rohmer, Michel; Farrimond, Paul

2007-01-01

141

Electrical and optical properties of doped tin and zinc oxide thin films by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide and tin oxide films have been deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. Zinc oxide films doped with fluorine have higher mobility and higher visible transmission than those doped with the Group III elements (B, Al, Ga). A ZnO:F film with a sheet resistance of 5 ?/square has an average visible absorption of about 3%. Various doped zinc oxide films were compared with each other and with SnO2:F films through their Figure of Merit, which is defined as the ratio of the conductivity over the visible absorption coefficient. Zinc oxide films doped with fluorine have the highest Figure of Merit and are very promising as transparent electrodes for solar cells with high cell efficiency.

Hu, Jianhua; Gordon, Roy G.

1992-12-01

142

A high temperature and atmospheric pressure experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modelling study of 2-methyl furan oxidation  

PubMed Central

An experimental ignition delay time study for the promising biofuel 2-methyl furan (2MF) was performed at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 for mixtures of 1% fuel in argon in the temperature range 1200–1800 K at atmospheric pressure. Laminar burning velocities were determined using the heat-flux method for mixtures of 2MF in air at equivalence ratios of 0.55–1.65, initial temperatures of 298–398 K and atmospheric pressure. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of 2059 reactions and 391 species has been constructed to describe the oxidation of 2MF and is used to simulate experiment. Accurate reproduction of the experimental data has been obtained over all conditions with the developed mechanism. Rate of production and sensitivity analyses have been carried out to identify important consumption pathways of the fuel and key kinetic parameters under these conditions. The reactions of hydrogen atom with the fuel are highlighted as important under all experimental conditions studied, with abstraction by the hydrogen atom promoting reactivity and hydrogen atom addition to the furan ring inhibiting reactivity. This work, to the authors knowledge, is the first to combine theoretical and experimental work to describe the oxidation of any of the alkylated furans. The mechanism developed herein to describe 2MF combustion should also function as a sub-mechanism to describe the oxidation of 2,5-dimethyl furan whilst also providing key insights into the oxidation of this similar biofuel candidate. PMID:23814505

Somers, Kieran P.; Simmie, John M.; Gillespie, Fiona; Burke, Ultan; Connolly, Jessica; Metcalfe, Wayne K.; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Dirrenberger, Patricia; Herbinet, Olivier; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Curran, Henry J.

2013-01-01

143

Halo-shaped Flowing Atmospheric Pressure Afterglow – a Heavenly New Design for Simplified Sample Introduction and Improved Ionization in Ambient Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) is a promising new source for atmospheric pressure, ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. However, problems exist with reproducible sample introduction into the FAPA source. To overcome this limitation, a new FAPA geometry has been developed in which concentric tubular electrodes are utilized to form a halo-shaped discharge; this geometry has been termed the halo-FAPA or h-FAPA. With this new geometry, it is still possible to achieve direct desorption and ionization from a surface; however, sample introduction through the inner capillary is also possible and improves interaction between the sample material (solution, vapor, or aerosol) and the plasma to promote desorption and ionization. The h-FAPA operates with a helium gas flow of 0.60 L/min outer, 0.30 L/min inner, applied current of 30 mA at 200 V for 6 watts of power. In addition, separation of the discharge proper and sample material prevents perturbations to the plasma. Optical-emission characterization and gas rotational temperatures reveal that the temperature of the discharge is not significantly affected (< 3% change at 450K) by water vapor during solution-aerosol sample introduction. The primary mass-spectral background species are protonated water clusters, and the primary analyte ions are protonated molecular ions (M+H+). Flexibility of the new ambient sampling source is demonstrated by coupling it with a laser ablation unit, a concentric nebulizer and a droplet-on-demand system for sample introduction. A novel arrangement is also presented in which the central channel of the h-FAPA is used as the inlet to a mass spectrometer. PMID:23808829

Pfeuffer, Kevin P.; Schaper, J. Niklas; Shelley, Jacob T.; Ray, Steven J.; Chan, George C.-Y.; Bings, Nicolas H.; Hieftje, Gary M.

2013-01-01

144

Halo-shaped flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow: a heavenly design for simplified sample introduction and improved ionization in ambient mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) is a promising new source for atmospheric-pressure, ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. However, problems exist with reproducible sample introduction into the FAPA source. To overcome this limitation, a new FAPA geometry has been developed in which concentric tubular electrodes are utilized to form a halo-shaped discharge; this geometry has been termed the halo-FAPA or h-FAPA. With this new geometry, it is still possible to achieve direct desorption and ionization from a surface; however, sample introduction through the inner capillary is also possible and improves interaction between the sample material (solution, vapor, or aerosol) and the plasma to promote desorption and ionization. The h-FAPA operates with a helium gas flow of 0.60 L/min outer, 0.30 L/min inner, and applied current of 30 mA at 200 V for 6 W of power. In addition, separation of the discharge proper and sample material prevents perturbations to the plasma. Optical-emission characterization and gas rotational temperatures reveal that the temperature of the discharge is not significantly affected (<3% change at 450 K) by water vapor during solution-aerosol sample introduction. The primary mass-spectral background species are protonated water clusters, and the primary analyte ions are protonated molecular ions (M + H(+)). Flexibility of the new ambient sampling source is demonstrated by coupling it with a laser ablation unit, a concentric nebulizer, and a droplet-on-demand system for sample introduction. A novel arrangement is also presented in which the central channel of the h-FAPA is used as the inlet to a mass spectrometer. PMID:23808829

Pfeuffer, Kevin P; Schaper, J Niklas; Shelley, Jacob T; Ray, Steven J; Chan, George C-Y; Bings, Nicolas H; Hieftje, Gary M

2013-08-01

145

Effect of Hydrogen in Size-Limited Growth of Graphene by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of graphene domain synthesis explains the main graphene growth process. Size-limited graphene growth caused by hydrogen is studied to achieve efficient graphene synthesis. Graphene synthesis on Cu foils via the chemical vapor deposition method using methane as carbon source is limited by high hydrogen concentration. Results indicate that hydrogen affects graphene nucleation, the growth rate, and the final domain size. Considering the role of hydrogen as both activator and etching reagent, we build a model to explain the cause of this low graphene growth rate for high hydrogen partial pressure. A two-step method is proposed to control the graphene nucleation and growth rate separately. Half the time is required to obtain similar domain size compared with single-step synthesis, indicating improved graphene synthesis efficiency. The change of the partial pressure and transmission time between the two steps is a factor that cannot be ignored to control the graphene growth.

Zhang, Haoran; Zhang, Yanhui; Wang, Bin; Chen, Zhiying; Sui, Yanping; Zhang, Yaqian; Tang, Chunmiao; Zhu, Bo; Xie, Xiaoming; Yu, Guanghui; Jin, Zhi; Liu, Xinyu

2015-01-01

146

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation normal phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry of chlorophyll a allomers.  

PubMed

Four oxidation products formed during the allomerisation reaction of chlorophyll a in methanol have been separated and identified using normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and photodiode array detection. Fragmentation pathways of the main stereoisomers of the four major products, Mg-purpurin-7 dimethyl phytyl ester, 15(1)-MeO-lact-chl a, 13(2)-MeO-chl a and 13(2)-HO-chl a, have been assigned using APCI-MS(n) aided by examination of deuteriated counterparts of the purpurin and the lactone. Diagnostic fragmentations have been determined, including those for Mg-purpurin-7 dimethyl phytyl ester and 15(1)-MeO-lact-chl a, which display very similar full MS and MS/MS spectra. The use of NP-HPLC offers a rapid and efficient method which, combined with MS/MS, reduces reliance on precursor ion mass for assignment of structure in the allomerisation reaction where major and minor components are often isobaric. PMID:11857734

Jie, Chi; Walker, J Stuart; Keely, Brendan J

2002-01-01

147

Determination of sulfonamides by packed column supercritical fluid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometric detection.  

PubMed

Sulfonamide antibiotics are widely used to prevent bacterial infections in livestock, and residues are commonly found in milk and meat. Packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC) with detection using ultra violet (UV) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) provides a versatile method for the detection and quantification of six major sulfonamides. The APCI mass spectra for all the sulfonamides consisted of protonated molecules at low cone voltages. Increasing the cone voltage led to informative fragmentation patterns, which provided structural information for identification purposes. The pSFC-APCI-MS technique was shown to be linear (r2 > or = 0.999) over the concentration range 0.1-50 micrograms ml-1 using total ion current. The precision and the accuracy of the system and validation of sample preparation are acceptable, with RSD < 2% and relative error 8%. Selected ion monitoring gave detection limits as follows: sulfadiazine 41, sulfamethoxazole 45, sulfamerazine 47, sulfamethizole 59, sulfamethazine 181 and sulfadimethoxine 96 micrograms l-1, which are lower than the amounts permitted in milk products. The APCI pSFC-MS system was shown to have a high degree of reproducibility. The technique was then applied to determine the above sulfonamides in milk. The results obtained show that there are no matrix effects from the milk and that the detection limits remained as stated for the standard solutions. PMID:10984919

Dost, K; Jones, D C; Davidson, G

2000-07-01

148

Desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization.  

PubMed

An ambient ionization technique for mass spectrometry, desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI), is presented, and its application to the rapid analysis of compounds of various polarities on surfaces is demonstrated. The DAPPI technique relies on a heated nebulizer microchip delivering a heated jet of vaporized solvent, e.g., toluene, and a photoionization lamp emitting 10-eV photons. The solvent jet is directed toward sample spots on a surface, causing the desorption of analytes from the surface. The photons emitted by the lamp ionize the analytes, which are then directed into the mass spectrometer. The limits of detection obtained with DAPPI were in the range of 56-670 fmol. Also, the direct analysis of pharmaceuticals from a tablet surface was successfully demonstrated. A comparison of the performance of DAPPI with that of the popular desorption electrospray ionization method was done with four standard compounds. DAPPI was shown to be equally or more sensitive especially in the case of less polar analytes. PMID:17803282

Haapala, Markus; Pól, Jaroslav; Saarela, Ville; Arvola, Ville; Kotiaho, Tapio; Ketola, Raimo A; Franssila, Sami; Kauppila, Tiina J; Kostiainen, Risto

2007-10-15

149

Selective laser-induced resonant two-photon ionization and fragmentation of substituted nitrobenzenes at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

Resonant two-photon ionization (R2RP) at 1 atm in helium is studied as a selective and specific method for softly ionizing or fragmenting substituted nitrobenzenes. R2PI at 266 nm in 1 atm He is shown to produce relatively soft ionization where either the molecular ion, M{sup {sm bullet}}{sup +}, is observed or a specific fragment ion such as (M - NO){sup +} or (M - OH){sup +}. As the laser power is increased, additional fragments may be produced; however, ions due to fragmentation of the aromatic ring are rarely observed even at the highest laser powers used (>10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}). The ions produced by R2PI are shown to depend on the laser photon energy, and it is demonstrated that by selecting specific frequencies of light, specific ions can be enhanced in the mass spectrum of a given molecule. It is also shown that under the same conditions distinctly unique ions are produced for the para, meta, and ortho isomers of p-nitroaniline, thus allowing easy discrimination among the isomers.

Zhu, Jianzhong; Lustig, D.; Sofer, I.; Lubman, D.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

1990-10-15

150

Infrared Laser Ablation Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

Infrared Laser Ablation Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Mass Spectrometry Anu Vaikkinen ablation atmo- spheric pressure photoionization (LAAPPI), a novel atmospheric pressure ion source for mass analytes are desolvated and ionized in the gas-phase by atmospheric pressure photoionization using a 10 e

Vertes, Akos

151

Analysis of wax ester molecular species by high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

High chromatographic resolution of wax esters (WEs) was achieved by non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a Nova-Pak C18 column by optimising the acetonitrile/ethyl acetate mobile phase gradient. The retention behaviour of WEs was studied in this chromatographic system. The WEs eluted according to their equivalent carbon number (ECN) values; within the group of WEs with the identical ECN, the most unsaturated species tended to elute first. The isobaric WEs with different positions of the ester moiety were separated from each other whenever the lengths of the chains were sufficiently different. The methyl-branched esters eluted at shorter retention times than the straight-chained analogues, and the resolution among methyl-branched WEs depended on the position of the branching. The analytes were detected by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) using data-dependent scanning. WEs provided simple full-scan spectra with abundant protonated molecules and low-intensity fragments. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) promoted identification of the WE molecular species. The responses of WEs were found to be dependent on the number of double bonds and on the alkyl-chain length; the limits of the detection ranged from 20micromol/L to 200nmol/L. The HPLC/APCI-MS was applied for the analysis of the WEs isolated from honeycomb beeswax, jojoba oil and human hair. Good agreement between reported results and the literature data was achieved, with several novel polyunsaturated WEs also being found. PMID:20079497

Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Urbanová, Klára; Cvacka, Josef

2010-06-18

152

Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural) within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput. PMID:21896164

2011-01-01

153

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of transparent conducting films of fluorine doped zinc oxide and their application to amorphous silicon solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent conducting ZnO:F was deposited as thin films on soda lime glass substrates by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor\\u000a deposition (CVD) deposition at substrate temperatures of 480–500 °C. The precursors diethylzinc, tetramethylethylenediamine\\u000a and benzoyl fluoride were dissolved in xylene. The solution was nebulized ultrasonically and then flash vaporized by a carrier\\u000a gas of nitrogen preheated to 150 °C. Ethanol was vaporized separately, and

Haifan Liang; Roy G. Gordon

2007-01-01

154

Performance, resolving power, and radial ion distributions of a prototype nanoelectrospray ionization resistive glass atmospheric pressure ion mobility spectrometer.  

PubMed

In this article, we describe and characterize a novel ion mobility spectrometer constructed with monolithic resistive glass desolvation and drift regions. This instrument is equipped with switchable corona discharge and nanoelectrospray ionization sources and a Faraday plate detector. Following description of the instrument, pulsing electronics, and data acquisition system, we examine the effects of drift gas flow rate and temperature, and of the aperture grid to anode distance on the observed resolving power and sensitivity. Once optimum experimental parameters are identified, different ion gate pulse lengths, and their effect on the temporal spread of the ion packet were investigated. Resolving power ranged from an average value of 50 ms/ms for a 400-micros ion gate pulse, up to an average value of 68 ms/ms for a 100-micros ion gate pulse, and a 26-cm drift tube operated at 383 V cm(-1). Following these experiments, the radial distribution of ions in the drift region of the spectrometer was studied by using anodes of varying sizes, showing that the highest ionic density was located at the center of the drift tube. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of this instrument to the study of small molecules of environmental relevance by analyzing a commercially available siderophore, deferoxamine mesylate, in both the free ligand and Fe-bound forms. Ion mobility experiments showed a dramatic shift to shorter drift times caused by conformational changes upon metal binding, in agreement with previous reversed-phase liquid chromatography observations. PMID:17854161

Kwasnik, Mark; Fuhrer, Katrin; Gonin, Marc; Barbeau, Katherine; Fernandez, Facundo M

2007-10-15

155

Environmental PAH analysis by gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure laser ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC-APLI-MS).  

PubMed

The application of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis by gas chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure laser ionization and mass spectrometry (GC-APLI-MS) to environmental samples was investigated in the study. The limit of detection for 40 PAH in a standard mixture was 5-100 fg, demonstrating GC-APLI-MS to be a highly sensitive technique and more sensitive by a factor of 100-3,500 compared to GC-MS. Acenaphthylene and cyclopenta[cd]pyrene were not detectable <2,500 fg per injection. To make use of this very high PAH sensitivity, the technique was applied to samples of environmental interest with limited available sample amounts such as particulate matter (PM), soot and a sample from a bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus. First, special sample preparation was necessary and ultrasonic extraction proved to be suitable, if a thorough clean-up was performed and plastic materials avoided. By GC-APLI-MS and GC-MS, 224 and 28 single PAH compounds were detected in PM, about 1,000 and 15 in birch soot, and 9 and 2 in worm tissue, respectively, revealing the enormous potential of the method. The selectivity of GC-APLI-MS was shown for a crude oil where >2,200 PAH were detected without any sample preparation. PMID:23852149

Stader, Christian; Beer, Fokko Tjark; Achten, Christine

2013-09-01

156

Practical considerations when using radio frequency-only quadrupole ion guide for atmospheric pressure ionization sources with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Construction details and performance evaluation of a radio frequency (rf)-only quadrupole ion guide for use with an electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer is presented in this paper. Angiotensin III and cytochrome c were used in these experiments to investigate the ion transmission properties of the rf-only quadrupole for different m/z species. In addition, influence of ion kinetic energies along with the characteristic fragmentation due to collision induced dissociation (CID) were studied. These experiments demonstrate that the transmissions of different m/z ions were not only dependent on the frequency and magnitude of the rf waveform, which is similar to a high vacuum rf-only quadrupole ion guide, but also on the pressure inside the quadrupole chamber. For the pressure range tested, low m/z ions are better focused with increasing pressure. As expected, transmission of ions are subject to space charge limitations when significant numbers of ions are focused on the axis of the quadrupole. It is also observed that CID results are related to transverse motion and longitude motion of ions inside the quadrupole region. Consequently, CID is useful for fragmentation of linear peptides and it is not effective (in present configuration) for large bulky proteins. The kinetic energy of ions that enter the repelling region of the TOFMS is ultimately determined by the ensemble effect resulting from the dc bias potential of the quadrupole (the dominant factor), skimmer-2, pressure inside the quadrupole chamber, and jet expansion. While this system is tested with an ESI source, the operational principle and design criteria are directly applicable for improving other atmospheric pressure ionization sources with time-of-flight mass analyzers such as an inductively coupled plasma ion source. PMID:12705387

Hang, Wei; Lewis, Cris; Majidi, Vahid

2003-03-01

157

Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge (LS-APGD) Ionization Source for Elemental Mass Spectrometry: Preliminary Parametric Evaluation and Figures of Merit  

SciTech Connect

A new, low power ionization source for the elemental analysis of aqueous solutions has recently been described. The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) source operates at relatively low currents (<20 mA) and solution flow rates (<50 ?L min-1), yielding a relatively simple alternative for atomic mass spectrometry applications. The LS-APGD has been interfaced to what is otherwise an organic, LC-MS mass analyzer, the Thermo Scientific Exactive Orbitrap without any modifications; other than removing the electrospray ionization (ESI) source supplied with that instrument. A glow discharge is initiated between the surface of the test solution exiting a glass capillary and a metallic counter electrode mounted at a 90° angle and separated by a distance of ~5 mm. As with any plasma-based ionization source, there are key discharge operation and ion sampling parameters that affect the intensity and composition of the derived mass spectra; including signal-to-background ratios. We describe here a preliminary parametric evaluation of the roles of discharge current, solution flow rate, argon sheath gas flow rate, and ion sampling distance as they apply on this mass analyzer system. A cursive evaluation of potential matrix effects due to the presence of easily ionized elements (EIEs) indicate that sodium concentrations of up to 500 ?g mL-1 generally cause suppressions of less than 50%, dependant upon the analyte species. Based on the results of this series of studies, preliminary limits of detection (LOD) have been established through the generation of calibration functions. Whilst solution-based concentrations LOD levels of 0.02 – 2 ?g mL-1 3 are not impressive on the surface, the fact that they are determined via discrete 5 ?L injections leads to mass-based detection limits at picogram to singlenanogram levels. The overhead costs associated with source operation (10 W d.c. power, solution flow rates of <50 ?L min-1, and gas flow rates <10 mL min-1) are very attractive. While further optimization in the source design is suggested here, it is believed that the LS-APGD ion source may present a practical alternative to inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) sources typically employed in elemental mass spectrometry.

Quarles, C. Derrick; Carado, Anthony J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

2012-01-01

158

Epitaxial growth of ZnO thin films exhibiting room-temperature ultraviolet emission by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZnO films have been grown on sapphire(0001) substrates by means of the atmospheric pressure halide vapor phase epitaxy technique using ZnI2 and O2 as starting materials. The ZnO films showed a full width at half maximum of the (0002) X-ray peak of 20.2 min and a reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern similar to that of a single crystal. A band-edge

Kazuhiko Kaiya; Kouji Omichi; Naoyuki Takahashi; Takato Nakamura; Shinji Okamoto; Hajime Yamamoto

2002-01-01

159

Experimental Investigation of Atmospheric Pressure Nonequilibrium Plasma Chemistry for Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (pacvd) of Diamond Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of boundary layer chemistry in atmospheric pressure plasma-assisted diamond deposition were studied. Two separate experimental facilities were used to study effects of reactor conditions on the quantity and quality of the films produced. The first facility, a radio frequency inductively coupled plasma torch, was used to map out the growth domain based on methane-to-hydrogen ratio and substrate temperature.

Scott Keith Baldwin Jr.

1996-01-01

160

Evaluation of different quantitative approaches for the determination of noneasily ionizable molecules by different atmospheric pressure interfaces used in liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: abamectin as case of study.  

PubMed

The liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy residue determination of compounds without any acidic or basic centers such as abamectin has been investigated. Several approaches regarding the interface used and adduct formation have been compared. The low acidity of the hydroxyl groups only made deprotonation feasible using the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface. To obtain sufficient sensitivity for residue analysis, the Ion Sabre APCI interface was necessary. However, the sensitivity attained was lower than for monitoring adducts in positive ion mode. Using electrospray ionization, different adducts with Na+, NH4+, and Li+ were tested and compared. The best results were obtained for the ammoniated adduct in electrospray ionization (ESI) because of its high sensitivity and the presence of several product ions with similar abundance. The highest sensitivity was reached using an in-source fragment as precursor ion, leading to a limit of detection (LOD) of 2 microg/L with low relative standard deviation. The relatively high abundance of other transitions allowed abamectin confirmation at concentrations close to the LOD (6 microg/L). Alkali ions were found to be a suitable alternative to determine and confirm abamectin at residue levels. The [M + Na]+ also presented various product ions with similar abundance, which allowed confirmation at LOD levels. However, this LOD was found to be almost four times higher than with [M + NH4]+ because of the poor sensitivity of the transitions obtained. Although the use of Li+ facilitated the fragmentation of the adduct [M + Li]+, with similar sensitivity to [M + NH4]+, this fragmentation preferentially generated only one product ion, which did not allow confirmation at concentration levels lower than 15 microg/L. The use of APCI for monitoring adducts was also feasible, but with less sensitivity. The sensitivity increased with the Ion Sabre APCI, although it was still five times lower than with ESI. Other adduct formers such as Co2+ and Ni2+ also were tested with unsatisfactory results. PMID:16112870

Grimalt, Susana; Pozo, Oscar J; Marín, Jose M; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Félix

2005-10-01

161

Atmospheric pressure laser desorption/ionization using a 6-7?µm-band mid-infrared tunable laser and liquid water matrix.  

PubMed

Due to the characteristic absorption peaks in the IR region, various molecules can be used as a matrix for infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (IR-MALDI). Especially in the 6-7?µm-band IR region, solvents used as the mobile phase for liquid chromatography have absorption peaks that correspond to their functional groups, such as O-H, C?O, and CH3 . Additionally, atmospheric pressure (AP) IR-MALDI, which is applicable to liquid-state samples, is a promising technique to directly analyze untreated samples. Herein we perform AP-IR-MALDI mass spectrometry of a peptide, angiotensin II, using a mid-IR tunable laser with a tunable wavelength range of 5.50-10.00?µm and several different matrices. The wavelength dependences of the ion signal intensity of [M?+?H](+) of the peptide are measured using a conventional solid matrix, ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) and a liquid matrix composed of CHCA and 3-aminoquinoline. Other than the O-H stretching and bending vibration modes, the characteristic absorption peaks are useful for AP-IR-MALDI. Peptide ions are also observed from an aqueous solution of the peptide without an additional matrix, and the highest peak intensity of [M?+?H](+) is at 6.00?µm, which is somewhat shorter than the absorption peak wavelength of liquid water corresponding to the O-H bending vibration mode. Moreover, long-lasting and stable ion signals are obtained from the aqueous solution. AP-IR-MALDI using a 6-7?µm-band IR tunable laser and solvents as the matrix may provide a novel on-line interface between liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25601676

Hiraguchi, Ryuji; Hazama, Hisanao; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Awazu, Kunio

2015-01-01

162

Evaluation of the operating parameters of the liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) ionization source for elemental mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) has been assessed as an ionization source for elemental analysis with an interdependent, parametric evaluation regarding sheath/cooling gas flow rate, discharge current, liquid flow rate, and the distance between the plasma and the sampling cone of the mass spectrometer. In order to better understand plasma processes (and different from previous reports), no form of collision/reaction processing was performed to remove molecular interferents. The evaluation was performed employing five test elements: cesium, silver, lead, lanthanum and nickel (10(-4) mol L(-1) in 1 mol L(-1) HNO3). The intensity of the atomic ions, levels of spectral background, the signal-to-background ratios, and the atomic-to-oxide/hydroxide adduct ratios were monitored in order to obtain fundamental understanding with regards to not only how each parameter effects the performance of this LS-APGD source, but also the inter-parametric effects. The results indicate that the discharge current and the liquid sampling flow rates are the key aspects that control the spectral composition. A compromise set of operating conditions was determined: sheath gas flow rate?=?0.9 L min(-1), discharge current?=?10 mA, solution flow rate?=?10 ?L min(-1), and sampling distance?=?1 cm. Limits of detection (LODs) were calculated using the SBR-RSDB (signal-to-background ratio/relative standard deviation of the background) approach under the optimized condition. The LODs for the test elementals ranged from 15 to 400 ng mL(-1) for 10 ?L injections, with absolute mass values from 0.2 to 4 ng. PMID:25002336

Zhang, Lynn X; Manard, Benjamin T; Konegger-Kappel, Stefanie; Kappel, Stefanie Konegger; Marcus, R Kenneth

2014-11-01

163

Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

DOEpatents

Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

164

Development and validation of sensitive method for determination of serum cotinine in smokers and nonsmokers by liquid chromatography\\/atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a sensitive and specific method for measur- ing cotinine in serum by HPLC coupled to an atmo- spheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spec- trometer. This method can analyze 100 samples\\/day on a routine basis, and its limit of detection of 50 ng\\/L makes it applicable to the analysis of samples from nonsmok- ers potentially exposed to environmental

John T. Bernert; Wayman E. Turner; James L. Pirkle; Connie S. Sosnoff; James R. Akins; Mary K. Waldrep; Qinghong Ann; Thomas R. Covey; Wanda E. Whitfield; Elaine W. Gunter; Barbara B. Miller; Donald G. Patterson; Larry L. Needham; W. Harry; Eric J. Sampson

165

The potential of organic (electrospray- and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation) mass spectrometric techniques coupled to liquid-phase separation for speciation analysis.  

PubMed

The use of mass spectrometry based on atmospheric pressure ionisation techniques (atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation, APCI, and electrospray ionisation, ESI) for speciation analysis is reviewed with emphasis on the literature published in and after 1999. This report accounts for the increasing interest that atmospheric pressure ionisation techniques, and in particular ESI, have found in the past years for qualitative and quantitative speciation analysis. In contrast to element-selective detectors, organic mass spectrometric techniques provide information on the intact metal species which can be used for the identification of unknown species (particularly with MS-MS detection) or the confirmation of the actual presence of species in a given sample. Due to the complexity of real samples, it is inevitable in all but the simplest cases to couple atmospheric pressure MS detection to a separation technique. Separation in the liquid phase (capillary electrophoresis or liquid chromatography in reversed phase, ion chromatographic or size-exclusion mode) is particularly suitable since the available techniques cover a very wide range of analyte polarities and molecular mass. Moreover, derivatisation can normally be avoided in liquid-phase separation. Particularly in complex environmental or biological samples, separation in one dimension is not sufficient for obtaining adequate resolution for all relevant species. In this case, multi-dimensional separation, based on orthogonal separation techniques, has proven successful. ESI-MS is also often used in parallel with inductively coupled plasma MS detection. This review is structured in two parts. In the first, the fundamentals of atmospheric pressure ionisation techniques are briefly reviewed. The second part of the review discusses recent applications including redox species, use of ESI-MS for structural elucidation of metal complexes, characterisation and quantification of small organometallic species with relevance to environment, health and food. Particular attention is given to the characterisation of biomolecules and metalloproteins (metallothioneins and phytochelatins) and to the investigation of the interaction of metals and biomolecules. Particularly in the latter field, ESI-MS is the ideal technique due to the softness of the ionisation process which allows to assume that the detected gas-phase ions are a true representation of the ions or ion-biomolecule complexes prevalent in solution. It is particularly this field, important to biochemistry, physiology and medical chemistry, where we can expect significant developments also in the future. PMID:12877203

Rosenberg, Erwin

2003-06-01

166

Chemical kinetics and reactive species in atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen plasmas with humid-air impurities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most applications helium-based plasma jets operate in an open-air environment. The presence of humid air in the plasma jet will influence the plasma chemistry and can lead to the production of a broader range of reactive species. We explore the influence of humid air on the reactive species in radio frequency (rf)-driven atmospheric-pressure helium-oxygen mixture plasmas (He-O2, helium with 5000 ppm admixture of oxygen) for wide air impurity levels of 0-500 ppm with relative humidities of from 0% to 100% using a zero-dimensional, time-dependent global model. Comparisons are made with experimental measurements in an rf-driven micro-scale atmospheric pressure plasma jet and with one-dimensional semi-kinetic simulations of the same plasma jet. These suggest that the plausible air impurity level is not more than hundreds of ppm in such systems. The evolution of species concentration is described for reactive oxygen species, metastable species, radical species and positively and negatively charged ions (and their clusters). Effects of the air impurity containing water humidity on electronegativity and overall plasma reactivity are clarified with particular emphasis on reactive oxygen species.

Murakami, Tomoyuki; Niemi, Kari; Gans, Timo; O'Connell, Deborah; Graham, William G.

2013-02-01

167

Special issue: diagnostics of atmospheric pressure microplasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades, a strong revival of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma studies has developed in the form of microplasmas. Microplasmas have typical scales of 1 mm or less and offer a very exciting research direction in the field of plasma science and technology as the discharge physics can be considerably different due to high collisionality and the importance of plasma-surface interaction. These high-pressure small-scale plasmas have a diverse range of physical and chemical properties. This diversity coincides with various applications including light/UV sources [1], material processing [2], chemical analysis [3], material synthesis [4], electromagnetics [5], combustion [6] and even medicine [7]. At atmospheric pressure, large scale plasmas have the tendency to become unstable due to the high collision rates leading to enhanced heating and ionization compared to their low-pressure counterparts. As low-pressure plasmas typically operate in reactors with sizes of tens of centimetres, scaling up the pressure to atmospheric pressure the size of the plasma reduces to typical sizes below 1 mm. A natural approach of stabilizing atmospheric pressure plasmas is thus the use of microelectrode geometries. Traditionally microplasmas have been produced in confined geometries which allow one to stabilize dc excited discharges. This stabilization is intrinsically connected to the large surface-to-volume ratio which enhances heat transfer and losses of charged and excited species to the walls. Currently challenging boundaries are pushed by producing microcavity geometries with dimensions of the order of 1 µm [8]. The subject of this special issue, diagnostics of microplasmas, is motivated by the many challenges in microplasma diagnostics in view of the complex chemistry and strong spatial (and even temporal) gradients of species densities and plasma properties. Atmospheric pressure plasmas have a very long history dating back more than 100 years, with early work of, e.g. Werner von Siemens [9], who studied a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in the context of ozone generation. DBD discharges often consist of numerous filamentary discharges which are inherently transient in nature and with a characteristic size similar to the dimensions of microplasmas. Several groups are investigating the stabilization of such plasma filaments to perform temporal and spatial resolved diagnostics. To this end and due to the many similar challenges for diagnostics, this type of discharge is also included in this special issue. Research on microplasmas is performed in many groups spread all over the world, and a biannual workshop is devoted to the topic. The 7th edition of this International Workshop on Microplasmas was held in Beijing in May 2013. Large research programs consisting of clusters of research labs such as in Japan, Germany, France and the USA have been producing a wealth of information available in the literature. As the editors of this special issue, we are very pleased to have attracted a collection of excellent papers from leading experts in the field covering most of the current diagnostics performed in microplasmas. As an introduction to the regular special issue papers, a review paper is included [10]. It describes the key characteristics of atmospheric pressure plasmas and microplasmas in particular, and reviews the state of the art in plasma diagnostics. Special attention has been given in this review to highlighting the issues and challenges to probe microplasmas. The regular papers cover a large range of different diagnostics including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) [11], (two-photon) laser induced fluorescence ((Ta)LIF) [12, 13, 18, 24], absorption spectroscopy [13-18], optical emission spectroscopy [12, 16-21, 24], imaging [22, 23], surface diagnostics [24, 25] and mass spectrometry [26, 27]. Different aspects of microplasmas are broadly investigated from a perspective of diagnostics, modelling and applications. Diagnostics are pivotal to both the development of models and the optimization and explorat

Bruggeman, Peter; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tachibana, Kunihide

2013-11-01

168

Thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled using proximal probe thermal desorption with electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemica lionization  

SciTech Connect

An atmospheric pressure proximal probe thermal desorption sampling method coupled with secondary ionization by electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was demonstrated for the mass spectrometric analysis of a diverse set of compounds (dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, explosives and pesticides) separated on various high-performance thin-layer chromatography plates. Line scans along or through development lanes on the plates were carried out by moving the plate relative to a stationary heated probe positioned close to or just touching the stationary phase surface. Vapors of the compounds thermally desorbed from the surface were drawn into the ionization region of a combined electrospray ionization/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source where they merged with reagent ions and/or charged droplets from a corona discharge or an electrospray emitter and were ionized. The ionized components were then drawn through the atmospheric pressure sampling orifice into the vacuum region of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and detected using full scan, single ion monitoring, or selected reaction monitoring mode. Studies of variable parameters and performance metrics including the proximal probe temperature, gas flow rate into the ionization region, surface scan speed, read-out resolution, detection limits, and surface type are discussed.

Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2010-01-01

169

Metabolite localization by atmospheric pressure high-resolution scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging in whole-body sections and individual organs of the rove beetle Paederus riparius.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometry imaging provides for non-targeted, label-free chemical imaging. In this study, atmospheric pressure high-resolution scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AP-SMALDI MSI) was used for the first time to describe the chemical distribution of the defensive compounds pederin, pseudopederin, and pederon in tissue sections (16 ?m thick) of the rove beetle Paederus riparius. The whole-insect tissue section was scanned with a 20-?m step size. Mass resolution of the orbital trapping mass spectrometer was set to 100,000 at m/z 200. Additionally, organ-specific compounds were identified for brain, nerve cord, eggs, gut, ovaries, and malpighian tubules. To confirm the distribution of the specific compounds, individual organs from the insect were dissected, and MSI experiments were performed on the dissected organs. Three ganglia of the nerve cord, with a dimension of 250-500 ?m, were measured with 10-?m spatial resolution. High-quality m/z images, based on high spatial resolution and high mass accuracy were generated. These features helped to assign mass spectral peaks with high confidence. Mass accuracy of the imaging experiments was <3 ppm root mean square error, and mapping of different compound classes from a single experiment was possible. This approach improved the understanding of the biochemistry of P. riparius. Concentration differences and distributions of pederin and its analogues could be visualized in the whole-insect section. Without any labeling, we assigned key lipids for specific organs to describe their location in the body and to identify morphological structures with a specificity higher than with staining or immunohistology methods. PMID:25424178

Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Schott, Matthias; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

2014-11-26

170

Probing new approaches using atmospheric pressure photo ionization for the analysis of brominated flame retardants and their related degradation products by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure photo ionisation has been evaluated for the analysis of brominated flame retardants and their related degradation products by LC–MS. Degradation mixtures obtained from the photochemical degradation of tetrabromobisphenol A and decabromodiphenylether were used as model systems for the assessment of the developed methodology. Negative ion mode gave best results for TBBPA and its degradation compounds. [M?H]? ions were

Laurent Debrauwer; Anne Riu; Majdouline Jouahri; Estelle Rathahao; Isabelle Jouanin; Jean-Philippe Antignac; Ronan Cariou; Bruno Le Bizec; Daniel Zalko

2005-01-01

171

Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

2013-01-01

172

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of 3C-SiC for silicon thin-film solar cells on various substrates.  

PubMed

The production of crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on cost effective ceramic substrates depends on a highly reliable diffusion barrier to separate the light absorbing layers from the substrate. Ideally this intermediate layer should be deposited with cost effective techniques, be conductive and should feature optical confinement. Furthermore the intermediate layer should withstand high temperatures and harsh chemical environments like they occur during solar cell processing. Especially stability against oxidizing solvents like HNO3 or inactivity during e.g., oxide removing steps with HF is required. Crystalline silicon carbide (c-SiC) deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) can match all those requirements and additionally fits the thermal properties of crystalline silicon. The c-SiC intermediate layer is deposited from methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) and H2 at 1100 degrees C. Under these conditions, growth of solely cubic 3C-SiC could be observed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Use of such intermediate layers during high temperature steps prevents diffusion of transition metals, originating from the substrates, into active silicon layers. Doping of these 3C-SiC layers with nitrogen results in specific resistivity of less than 100 ohms cm. The different potentially cost-effective substrates are made from graphite, crystalline silicon, sintered silicon carbide and sintered zircon (ZrSiO4). Surface properties of the coated substrates were investigated, explaining changes in surface roughness and influences on the solar cell processing. PMID:22097538

Schillinger, Kai; Janz, Stefan; Reber, Stefan

2011-09-01

173

Optical diagnostics of atmospheric pressure air plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure air plasmas are often thought to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium owing to fast interspecies collisional exchange at high pressure. This assumption cannot be relied upon, particularly with respect to optical diagnostics. Velocity gradients in flowing plasmas and\\/or elevated electron temperatures created by electrical discharges can result in large departures from chemical and thermal equilibrium. This paper reviews

C O Laux; T G Spence; C H Kruger; R N Zare

2003-01-01

174

Determination of hexabromocyclododecane by flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The first application of a flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow ion source for mass spectrometry (FAPA-MS) for the chemical characterization and determination of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is presented. The samples of technical HBCD and expanded polystyrene foam (EPS) containing HBCD as a flame retardant were prepared by dissolving the appropriate solids in dichloromethane. The ionization of HBCD was achieved with a prototype FAPA source. The ions were detected in the negative-ion mode. The ions corresponding to a deprotonated HBCD species (m/z 640.7) as well as chlorine (m/z 676.8), nitrite (m/z 687.8) and nitric (m/z 703.8) adducts were observed in the spectra. The observed isotope pattern is characteristic for a compound containing six bromine atoms. This technique is an effective approach to detect HBCD, which is efficiently ionized in a liquid phase, resulting in high detection efficiency and sensitivity. PMID:25059130

Smoluch, Marek; Silberring, Jerzy; Reszke, Edward; Kuc, Joanna; Grochowalski, Adam

2014-10-01

175

Identification of the double-bond position in fatty acid methyl esters by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were analysed by reversed-phase HPLC coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) mass spectrometry. The chromatographic separations of the FAMEs were optimised using acetonitrile or binary acetonitrile gradients and C18 or C30 columns. The gas-phase reactions of acetonitrile and unsaturated FAMEs in the APCI source provided [M+C(3)H(5)N](+·) adducts. When fragmented, these adducts yielded diagnostic ions, allowing the unambiguous localisation of double bonds. The formation and fragmentation of the acetonitrile-related adduct was utilised for the structural characterisation of the FAMEs separated by HPLC. The APCI-MS detection of FAMEs encompassed a full-spectrum scan (providing information on the number of carbons and double bonds) and a data-dependent MS/MS scan of the [M+C(3)H(5)N](+·) ions (the position of the double bonds). The utility of this approach was demonstrated using a mixture of FAMEs from blackcurrant-seed oil. All the unsaturated fatty acids known to exist in the sample were correctly identified and several others were newly discovered. In terms of sensitivity, HPLC/APCI-MS appeared to be comparable to GC/EI-MS. PMID:22591660

Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Cva?ka, Josef

2012-10-12

176

Determination of validamycin A in agricultural food samples by solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

For the first time, a rapid, sensitive and accurate liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS/MS) method was developed for determination of validamycin A in agricultural food samples (rice, agaric, almond, cabbage, green onion, carrot, tomato, cucumber and spinach). The validamycin A residue was extracted with methanol-water (9/1, v/v) or methanol by vortex, and a HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge was used for cleaning up the extracts. LC-APCI-MS/MS data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. A series of matrix-matched calibration solutions ranging from 2.5 to 50ngmL(-1) were used to record calibration curve. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 10?gkg(-1). The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations levels (10.0, 50.0, 100.0?gkg(-1)) were in the range 83.5-109.6%. The proposed method offers the best sensitivity and specificity for the routine analysis of validamycin A in agricultural food samples. PMID:25236210

Wang, Chuanxian; Zhang, Zhigang; Shen, Yan; Tian, Zhengan; Xu, Dunming; Han, Chao

2015-02-15

177

Scalable high-mobility MoS2 thin films fabricated by an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition process at ambient temperature.  

PubMed

Nano-scale MoS2 thin films are successfully deposited on a variety of substrates by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) at ambient temperature, followed by a two-step annealing process. These annealed MoS2 thin films are characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), micro-Raman, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-VIS-NIR spectrometry, photoluminescence (PL) and Hall Effect measurement. Key optical and electronic properties of APCVD grown MoS2 thin films are determined. This APCVD process is scalable and can be easily incorporated with conventional lithography as the deposition is taking place at room temperature. We also find that the substrate material plays a significant role in the crystalline structure formation during the annealing process and single crystalline MoS2 thin films can be achieved by using both c-plane ZnO and c-plane sapphire substrates. These APCVD grown nano-scale MoS2 thin films show great promise for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications. PMID:25226424

Huang, Chung-Che; Al-Saab, Feras; Wang, Yudong; Ou, Jun-Yu; Walker, John C; Wang, Shuncai; Gholipour, Behrad; Simpson, Robert E; Hewak, Daniel W

2014-11-01

178

Pluto's Increasing Atmospheric Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, the occultation of a V=13.2 magnitude star was successfully observed from Mt. John Observatory, Mt. Canopus Observatory and our 14-inch Meade portable system in Musselroe Bay, New Zealand. We simultaneously fit an isothermal model atmosphere (Eliot and Young, 1992) to the main drop and recovery of the observed occultation light curves to derive global atmospheric parameters and a geometric solution. The data is well fit by a spherical atmospheric model with no need to fit for an oblate profile. The isothermal atmospheric solution gives a temperature of 112 ± 1 K and a pressure of 2.4 ± 0.1 microbar at a radius of 1275 km. This is an increase in temperature of 8 K and a 28% increase in pressure at our reference radius over 13 months (the previous stellar occultation was in June 2006, Young et al. 2008) with no significant change in half-light radius. Due to the increase in temperature and hence scale height, we expect the surface pressure did not increase as dramatically. The sensitivity of atmospheric pressure to changes in isothermal temperature will be discussed. This work was supported by NASA planetary astronomy grant NNG05GF05G and NSF major research instrumentation grant AST0321338.

Olkin, Catherine B.; Young, L.; Young, E.; Buie, M.; French, R.; Howell, R.; Regester, J.; Ruhland, C.

2009-09-01

179

Laser electrospray mass spectrometry of adsorbed molecules at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure mass analysis of solid phase biomolecules is performed using laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS). A non-resonant femtosecond duration laser pulse vaporizes native samples at atmospheric pressure for subsequent electrospray ionization and transfer into a mass spectrometer. LEMS was used to detect a complex molecule (irinotecan HCl), a complex mixture (cold medicine formulation with active ingredients: acetaminophen, dextromethorphan HBr and doxylamine succinate), and a biological building block (deoxyguanosine) deposited on steel surfaces without a matrix molecule.

Brady, John J.; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Simon, Kuriakose; Levis, Robert J.

2010-02-01

180

Comparing Laser Desorption Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Coupled to Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry To Characterize Shale Oils at the Molecular Level  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laser desorption ionization (LDI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to analyze shale oils. Previous work showed that LDI is a sensitive ionization technique for assessing aromatic nitrogen compounds, and oils generated from Green River Formation oil shales are well-documented as being rich in nitrogen. The data presented here demonstrate that LDI is effective in ionizing high-double-bond-equivalent (DBE) compounds and, therefore, is a suitable method for characterizing compounds with condensed structures. Additionally, LDI generates radical cations and protonated ions concurrently, the distribution of which depends upon the molecular structures and elemental compositions, and the basicity of compounds is closely related to the generation of protonated ions. This study demonstrates that LDI FT-ICR MS is an effective ionization technique for use in the study of shale oils at the molecular level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that LDI FT-ICR MS has been applied to shale oils.

Cho, Yunjo; Jin, Jang Mi; Witt, Matthias; Birdwell, Justin E.; Na, Jeong-Geol; Roh, Nam-Sun; Kim, Sunghwan

2013-01-01

181

Constraints on Early Mars atmospheric pressure  

E-print Network

Constraints on Early Mars atmospheric pressure from small ancient craters impactors, so impact crater size is a probe of atmospheric pressure. ebar4bar Diameter (m) Fractionofcraterssmallerthan ! Atmospheric pressure upper limit

Kite, Edwin

182

An atmospheric pressure plasma source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atmospheric pressure plasma source operated by radio frequency power has been developed. This source produces a unique discharge that is volumetric and homogeneous at atmospheric pressure with a gas temperature below 300 °C. It also produces a large quantity of oxygen atoms, ~5×1015 cm-3, which has important value for materials applications. A theoretical model shows electron densities of 0.2-2×1011

Jaeyoung Park; I. Henins; H. W. Herrmann; G. S. Selwyn; J. Y. Jeong; R. F. Hicks; D. Shim; C. S. Chang

2000-01-01

183

Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

DOEpatents

Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM); Babayan, Steve E. (Huntington Beach, CA); Hicks, Robert F. (Los Angeles, CA)

2001-01-01

184

Laserspray Ionization, a New Atmospheric Pressure MALDI Method for Producing Highly Charged Gas-phase Ions of Peptides and Proteins Directly from Solid Solutions*  

PubMed Central

The first example of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) process producing multiply charged mass spectra nearly identical to those observed with electrospray ionization (ESI) is presented. MALDI is noted for its ability to produce singly charged ions, but in the experiments described here multiply charged ions are produced by laser ablation of analyte incorporated into a common MALDI matrix, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, using standard solvent-based sample preparation protocols. Laser ablation is known to produce matrix clusters in MALDI provided a threshold energy is achieved. We propose that these clusters (liquid droplets) are highly charged, and under conditions that produce sufficient matrix evaporation, ions are field-evaporated from the droplets similarly to ESI. Because of the multiple charging, advanced mass spectrometers with limited mass-to-charge range can be used for protein characterization. Thus, using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer, low femtomole quantities of proteins produce full-range mass spectra at 100,000 mass resolution with <5-ppm mass accuracy and with 1-s acquisition. Furthermore, the first example of protein fragmentation using electron transfer dissociation with MALDI is presented. PMID:19955086

Trimpin, Sarah; Inutan, Ellen D.; Herath, Thushani N.; McEwen, Charles N.

2010-01-01

185

Chemical form effects on the surface ionization of lithium halides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface ionization of lithium halides, i.e. fluoride, chloride, bromide and iodide, was studied using a mass spectrometer. In the measurements of ionization using rhenium filaments, it was found that the ionization efficiencies depend on the chemical forms of the samples. To analyze the mechanism of ionization, direct ionization by dissociative ionization is introduced in the present work. The ionization

Tatsuya Suzuki; Hideki Iwabuchi; Kazuko Takahashi; Masao Nomura; Makoto Okamoto; Yasuhiko Fujii

1995-01-01

186

Picosecond delays of light emitted by streamer in atmospheric pressure air: analysis of N2(C3  

E-print Network

Picosecond delays of light emitted by streamer in atmospheric pressure air: analysis of N2(C3 u occurring dur- ing the positive streamer propagation in atmospheric pressure air is presented. It is shown and motivation Streamer in atmospheric pressure air is a contracted ionizing wave that propagates into a low

Boyer, Edmond

187

Sub-nanosecond delays of light emitted by streamer in atmospheric pressure air: analysis of N2(C3  

E-print Network

Sub-nanosecond delays of light emitted by streamer in atmospheric pressure air: analysis of N2(C3 u propagation in atmospheric pressure air is presented. With tens-of-picoseconds and tens-of-microns precision by streamer-head electrons. 1 Introduction Streamer in atmospheric pressure air is a contracted ionizing wave

Boyer, Edmond

188

Identification of Organic Nitrates in the NO3 Radical Initiated Oxidation of ?-Pinene by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The gas-phase reactions of nitrate radicals (NO3) with biogenic organic compounds are a major sink for these organics during night-time. These reactions form secondary organic aerosols, including organic nitrates thatcanundergolongrange transport, releasing NOx downwind. We report here studies of the reaction of NO3 with R-pinene at 1 atm in dry syntheticair(relativehumidity?3%)andat298Kusingatmospheric pressurechemicalionizationtriplequadrupolemassspectrometry (APCI-MS) to identify gaseous and particulate products. The emphasis is on the identification of individual organic nitrates in the particle phase that were obtained by passing the product mixture through a denuder to remove gas-phase reactants and products prior to entering the source region of the mass spectrometer. Filter extracts were also analyzed by GCMS and by APCI time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APCI-ToFMS) with methanol as the proton source. In addition to pinonaldehyde and pinonic acid, five organic nitrates were identified in the particles as well as in the gas phase: 3-oxopinane- 2-nitrate, 2-hydroxypinane-3-nitrate, pinonaldehyde-PAN, norpinonaldehyde-PAN, and (3-acetyl-2,2-dimethyl-3-nitrooxycyclobutyl) acetaldehyde. Furthermore, therewasanadditional firstgeneration organic nitrate product tentatively identified as a carbonyl hydroxynitrate with a molecular mass of 229. These studies suggest that a variety of organic nitrates would partition between the gas phase and particles in the atmosphere, and serve as a reservoir for NO.

Perraud, Veronique M.; Bruns, Emily A.; Ezell, Michael J.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Greaves, John; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

2010-07-07

189

The analysis of salen complexes by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry provides useful structural information about salen complexes and salen-based\\u000a oxo transfer catalysts that are not appreciably soluble in organic solvents. It was discovered that initial dissolution of\\u000a these complexes in trifluoroacetic acid was crucial for producing good FAB mass spectra. Trifluoroacetic acid helps dissolve\\u000a the salen-based catalysts, concentrates the analyte molecules at the matrix

S. K. Huang; M. H. Rood; S. H. Zhao

1997-01-01

190

Microwave Atmospheric-Pressure Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes tests of microwave pressure sounder (MPS) for use in satellite measurements of atmospheric pressure. MPS is multifrequency radar operating between 25 and 80 GHz. Determines signal absorption over vertical path through atmosphere by measuring strength of echoes from ocean surface. MPS operates with cloud cover, and suitable for use on current meteorological satellites.

Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.; Bradford, W. J.

1986-01-01

191

Feasibility of using atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with ion trap mass spectrometry in the analysis of acetylated xylooligosaccharides derived from hardwoods and Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

The atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with ion trap mass spectrometry (AP-MALDI-ITMS) was investigated for its ability to analyse plant-derived oligosaccharides. The AP-MALDI-ITMS was able to detect xylooligosaccharides (XOS) with chain length of up to ten xylopyranosyl residues. Though the conventional MALDI-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (TOF/MS) showed better sensitivity at higher mass range (>m/z 2,000), the AP-MALDI-ITMS seems to be more suitable for detection of acetylated XOS, and the measurement also corresponded better than the MALDI-TOF/MS analysis to the actual compositions of the pentose- and hexose-derived oligosaccharides in a complex sample. The structures of two isomeric aldotetrauronic acids and a mixture of acidic XOS were elucidated by AP-MALDI-ITMS using multi-stages mass fragmentation up to MS(3). Thus, the AP-MALDI-ITMS demonstrated an advantage in determining both mass and structures of plant-derived oligosaccharides. In addition, the method of combining the direct endo-1,4-?-D-xylanase hydrolysis of plant material, and then followed by AP-MALDI-ITMS detection, was shown to recognize the substitution variations of glucuronoxylans in hardwood species and in Arabidopsis thaliana. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the acetylation of glucuronoxylan in A. thaliana. The method, which requires only a small amount of plant material, such as 1 to 5 mg for the A. thaliana stem material, can be applied as a high throughput fingerprinting tool for the fast comparison of glucuronoxylan structures among plant species or transformants that result from in vivo cell wall modification. PMID:21904799

Chong, Sun-Li; Nissilä, Teemu; Ketola, Raimo A; Koutaniemi, Sanna; Derba-Maceluch, Marta; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Tenkanen, Maija; Tuomainen, Päivi

2011-11-01

192

A chemical ionization mass spectrometer for continuous underway shipboard analysis of dimethylsulfide in near-surface seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact, low-cost atmospheric pressure, chemical ionization mass spectrometer ("mini-CIMS") has been developed for continuous underway shipboard measurements of dimethylsulfide (DMS) in seawater. The instrument was used to analyze DMS in air equilibrated with flowing seawater across a porous Teflon membrane equilibrator. The equilibrated gas stream was diluted with air containing an isotopically-labeled internal standard. DMS is ionized at atmospheric pressure via proton transfer from water vapor, then declustered, mass filtered via quadrupole mass spectrometry, and detected with an electron multiplier. The instrument described here is based on a low-cost residual gas analyzer (Stanford Research Systems), which has been modified for use as a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The mini-CIMS has a gas phase detection limit of 220 ppt DMS for a 1 min averaging time, which is roughly equivalent to a seawater DMS concentration of 0.1 nM DMS at 20°C. The mini-CIMS has the sensitivity, selectivity, and time response required for underway measurements of surface ocean DMS over the full range of oceanographic conditions. The simple, robust design and relatively low cost of the instrument are intended to facilitate use in process studies and surveys, with potential for long-term deployment on research vessels, ships of opportunity, and large buoys.

Saltzman, E. S.; de Bruyn, W. J.; Lawler, M. J.; Marandino, C. A.; McCormick, C. A.

2009-11-01

193

A chemical ionization mass spectrometer for continuous underway shipboard analysis of dimethylsulfide in near-surface seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact, low-cost atmospheric pressure, chemical ionization mass spectrometer ("mini-CIMS") has been developed for continuous underway shipboard measurements of dimethylsulfide (DMS) in seawater. The instrument was used to analyze DMS in air equilibrated with flowing seawater across a porous Teflon membrane equilibrator. The equilibrated gas stream was diluted with air containing an isotopically-labeled internal standard. DMS is ionized at atmospheric pressure via proton transfer from water vapor, then declustered, mass filtered via quadrupole mass spectrometry, and detected with an electron multiplier. The instrument described here is based on a low-cost residual gas analyzer (Stanford Research Systems), which has been modified for use as a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The mini-CIMS has a gas phase detection limit of 170 ppt DMS for a 1 min averaging time, which is roughly equivalent to a seawater DMS concentration of 0.1 nM DMS at 20°C. The mini-CIMS has the sensitivity, selectivity, and time response required for underway measurements of surface ocean DMS over the full range of oceanographic conditions. The simple, robust design and relatively low cost of the instrument are intended to facilitate use in process studies and surveys, with potential for long-term deployment on research vessels, ships of opportunity, and large buoys.

Saltzman, E. S.; de Bruyn, W. J.; Lawler, M. J.; Marandino, C. A.; McCormick, C. A.

2009-07-01

194

Atmospheric pressure ion focusing with a vortex stream.  

PubMed

For successful operation of ionization analysis techniques an efficient sampling and sample ion transportation into an analytical path are required. This is of particular importance for atmospheric pressure ionization sources like corona discharge, electrospray, MALDI, ionization with radioactive isotopes ((3)H, (63)Ni) that produce nonuniform spatial distribution of sample ions. The available methods of sample ion focusing with electric fields are either efficient at reduced pressure (to 1 Torr) or feature high sample losses. In this paper we suggest to use a highly whirled gas stream for atmospheric pressure ion focusing. We use a (63)Ni radioactive source to produce an ionized bipolar sample at atmospheric pressure. It is shown by experiments that compared to an aspiration method a forced highly whirled vortex stream allows one to enhance the efficiency of remote ionized sample collection at distances equal to the vortex sampler diameter by an order of magnitude. With a vortex stream, a sixfold increase in the efficiency of the radial ionized sample collection has been obtained. It may be deduced that with the vortex stream remote sampling obtains a new feature which is characterized by a considerable enhancement of the efficiency of the ionized sample collection and can be called as a "gas-dynamic" ionized sample focusing. Considered is the effect of recombination losses of the ionized sample during the remote sampling thereof with the vortex sampler. Prospects for a practical implementation of the vortex sampler for solving the problems of the customs control over the smuggling of radioactive ? and ? sources are made based on the research results. PMID:21872021

Kolomiets, Yuri N; Pervukhin, Viktor V

2011-09-30

195

The effect of oxygen-containing reagents on the crystal morphology and orientation in tungsten oxide thin films deposited via atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) on glass substrates.  

PubMed

Thin films of monoclinic WO3 and WO(3-x) have been synthesized by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition from WCl6 and three oxygen containing precursors; water, ethanol and ethanoic anhydride. A wide variation in the colour, crystal morphology and preferred orientation of the films was observed, depending on the chosen oxygen source. In particular contrast were the films formed from WCl6 and ethanol, which were blue and had needle-like crystallites, and those formed from WCl6 and water, which were yellow and had hexagonal shaped crystallites. Studies were also undertaken to form films from WCl6, ethanol and water simultaneously, in which the ratio of ethanol to water was varied, and this led to films in which the crystal morphology and orientation could be controlled. PMID:17955818

Hyett, Geoffrey; Blackman, Christopher S; Parkin, Ivan P

2007-01-01

196

GC/MS on an LC/MS instrument using atmospheric pressure photoionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure (AP) GC/MS was first introduced by Horning et al. [E.C. Horning, M.G. Horning, D.I. Carroll, I. Dzidic, R.N. Stillwell, Anal. Chem. 45 (1973) 936] using 63Ni as a beta-emitter for ionization. Because, at the time special instrumentation was required, the technique was only applied with consistency to negative ion environmental studies where high sensitivity was required [T. Kinouchi, A.T.L. Miranda, L.G. Rushing, F.A. Beland, W.A. Korfmacher, J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., Chromatogr. Commun. 13 (1990) 281]. Currently, AP ion sources are commonly available on LC/MS instruments and recently a method was reported for converting an AP-LC/MS ion source to a combination AP-LC/MS:GC/MS source [C.N. McEwen, R.G. McKay, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 16 (2005) 1730]. Here, we report the use of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) with GC/MS and compare this to AP chemical ionization (APCI) GC/MS and electron ionization (EI) GC/MS. Using a nitrogen purge gas, we observe excellent chromatographic resolution and abundant molecular M+ and MH+ ions as well as structurally significant fragment ions. Comparison of a 9.8 eV UV lamp with a 10.6 eV lamp, as expected, shows that the higher energy lamp gives more universal ionization and more fragment ions than the lower energy lamp. While there are clear differences in the fragment ions observed by APPI-MS versus EI-MS, there are also similarities. As might be expected from the ionization mechanism, APPI ionization is similar to low energy EI. These odd electron fragment ions are useful in identifying unknown compounds by comparison to mass spectra in computer libraries.

McEwen, Charles N.

2007-01-01

197

Application of Ni-63 photo and corona discharge ionization for the analysis of chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade, advances in instrumental design and refinements in the understanding of ion molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure enabled the application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) as a simple inexpensive and sensitive analytical method for the detection of organic trace compounds. Positive and negative gas-phase ions for ion mobility spectrometry have been produced by a variety of methods, including photo-ionization, laser multi photon ionization, surface ionization, corona discharge ionization. The most common ion source used in ion mobility spectrometry is a radioactive Ni-63 foil which is favored due to simplicity, stability, convenience, and high selectivity. If reactant ions like (H2O(n)H)(+) or (H2O(n)O2)(-) dominate in the reaction region, nearly all kinds of compounds with a given proton or electron affinity; are ionized. However, the radioactivity of the Ni-63 foil is one disadvantage of this ion source that stimulates the development and application of other ionization techniques. In this paper, we report analyses of old chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes using Bruker RAID ion mobility spectrometers. Due to the modular construction of the measuring cell, the spectrometers can be equipped with different ion sources. The combined use of Ni-63, photo- and corona discharge ionization allows the identification of different classes of chemical compounds and yields in most cases comparable results.

Stach, J.; Adler, J.; Brodacki, M.; Doring, H.-R.

1995-01-01

198

Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references.

Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

1984-08-01

199

Spacecraft Sterilization Using Non-Equilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a solution to chemically and thermally destructive sterilization methods currently used for spacecraft, non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas are used to treat surfaces inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans. Evidence of significant morphological changes and reduction in viability due to plasma exposure will be presented, including a 4-log reduction of B. subtilis after 2 minutes of dielectric barrier discharge treatment.

Cooper, Moogega; Vaze, Nachiket; Anderson, Shawn; Fridman, Gregory; Vasilets, Victor N.; Gutsol, Alexander; Tsapin, Alexander; Fridman, Alexander

2007-01-01

200

TOPICAL REVIEW: Non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable interest in non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges over the past decade due to the increased number of industrial applications. Diverse applications demand a solid physical and chemical understanding of the operational principals of such discharges. This paper focuses on the four most important and widely used varieties of non-thermal discharges: corona, dielectric barrier, gliding arc and spark

A. Fridman; A. Chirokov; A. Gutsol

2005-01-01

201

An Introduction to Nonequilibrium Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure  

E-print Network

Distributions Plasmas are increasingly used for chemical processing of gases such as air, combustion exhaust into specific excitations and reactions. Recent examples include the optimization of the Plasma Chemistry1 1 An Introduction to Nonequilibrium Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure Sander Nijdam, Eddie van

Ebert, Ute

202

Evaluation of the optimization space for atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in comparison with APCI.  

PubMed

The usefulness of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) is difficult to evaluate for unknowns due to the fragmented literature. Specifically, the variation of dopants with a wide set of compounds or the use of APPI in the negative mode have rarely been explored. Thirty compounds were selected that were not suitable for ESI with a wide variety of functional groups and investigated with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and APPI in the positive and negative ion modes. The influence of the mobile phase (eluents containing acetonitrile or methanol) and--for APPI--four different dopants (acetone, chlorobenzene, toluene, and toluene/anisole) were explored. Stepwise variation of the organic mobile phase allowed to elucidate the ionization mechanism. Atmospheric pressure photoionization was especially useful for compounds, where the M(?+) and not the [M?+?H](+) was formed. The dopants chlorobenzene and anisole promoted the formation of molecular ions M(?+) for about half of the compounds, and its formation was also positively influenced by the use of mobile phases containing methanol. In the negative ion mode, APPI offered no advantage toward APCI. Best results were generally achieved with the dopant chlorobenzene, establishing that this dopant is suitable for a wide set of compounds. For one quarter of the compounds, significantly better results were achieved with mobile phases containing methanol for both APPI and APCI than those with acetonitrile, but only in the positive mode. With either of the methods--APPI or APCI--about 10% of the compounds were not detected. Strategies to get results quickly with difficult unknowns will be discussed. PMID:25044900

Fredenhagen, Andreas; Kühnöl, Jürgen

2014-08-01

203

Chemical form effects on the surface ionization of lithium halides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface ionization of lithium halides, i.e. fluoride, chloride, bromide and iodide, was studied using a mass spectrometer. In the measurements of ionization using rhenium filaments, it was found that the ionization efficiencies depend on the chemical forms of the samples. To analyze the mechanism of ionization, direct ionization by dissociative ionization is introduced in the present work. The ionization parameter [var epsilon] has been experimentally shown to be [var epsilon] = [phi]DI-W, where [phi]DI is the dissociative ionization energy, and W is the work function. In conclusion, a Saha-Langmuir-type equation is applicable to the surface ionization of lithium halides using the dissociative ionization energy term instead of the ionization potential of atoms.

Suzuki, Tatsuya; Iwabuchi, Hideki; Takahashi, Kazuko; Nomura, Masao; Okamoto, Makoto; Fujii, Yasuhiko

1995-07-01

204

Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation.  

PubMed

A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (?gkg(-1) range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment and a small volume of organic solvent. Separation and quantification were performed by the developed LC-(APCI/ESI)MS/MS method. The method was validated using spiked samples of three different processed meat products. Satisfactory recoveries (50-130%) and precisions (2-23%) were obtained for eight VNA and six NVNAs with LODs generally between 0.2 and 1?gkg(-1), though for a few analyte/matrix combinations higher LODs were obtained (3 to 18?gkg(-1)). The validation results show that results obtained for one meat product is not always valid for other meat products. We were not able to obtain satisfactory results for N-nitrosohydroxyproline (NHPRO), N-nitrosodibenzylamine (NDBzA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA). Application of the APCI interface improved the sensitivity of the method, because of less matrix interference, and gave the method a wider scope, as some NAs were ionisable only by APCI. However, it was only possible to ionize N-nitroso-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA) and N-nitroso-2-methyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NMTCA) by ESI. The validated method was applied for the analysis of processed meat products and contents of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N-nitrosomethylaniline (NMA), N-nitrosoproline (NPRO), NTCA, and NMTCA were found in one or several nitrite cured meat products, whereas none were detected in non-nitrite cured bacon. PMID:24468241

Herrmann, S S; Duedahl-Olesen, L; Granby, K

2014-02-21

205

Combinatorial atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of graded TiO?-VO? mixed-phase composites and their dual functional property as self-cleaning and photochromic window coatings.  

PubMed

A combinatorial film with a phase gradient from V:TiO? (V: Ti ? 0.08), through a range of TiO?-VO? composites, to a vanadium-rich composite (V: Ti = 1.81) was grown by combinatorial atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (cAPCVD). The film was grown from the reaction of TiCl?, VCl?, ethyl acetate (EtAc), and H?O at 550 °C on glass. The gradient in gas mixtures across the reactor induced compositional film growth, producing a single film with numerous phases and compositions at different positions. Seventeen unique positions distributed evenly along a central horizontal strip were investigated. The physical properties were characterized by wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The functional properties examined included the degree of photoinduced hydrophilicity (PIH), UVC-photocatalysis, and thermochromism. Superhydrophilic contact angles could be achieved at all positions, even within a highly VO?-rich composite (V: Ti = 1.81). A maximum level of UVC photocatalysis was observed at a position bordering the solubility limit of V:TiO? (V: Ti ? 0.21) and fragmentation into a mixed-phase composite. Within the mixed-phase TiO?: VO? composition region (V: Ti = 1.09 to 1.81) a decrease in the semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature of VO? from 68 to 51 °C was observed. PMID:23688025

Wilkinson, Mia; Kafizas, Andreas; Bawaked, Salem M; Obaid, Abdullah Y; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel A; Basahel, Sulaiman N; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P

2013-06-10

206

High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of porphyrins by using an atmospheric pressure interface.  

PubMed

A method is described for the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) mass spectrometry analysis of porphyrin mixtures by using an atmospheric pressure interface, which can operate in two modes: pneumatically assisted elecrrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Optimization of the conditions and evaluation of spectral information has been carried out by using direct injection of free-base and metallo porphyrin standards. The most effective results were obtained using APCI. HPLC-APCI mass spectrometry analysis of the demetallated vanadyl porphyrin fraction from the Triassic Serpiano oil shale has allowed rapid characterization of the distribution; more than 50 significant components are present. The presence of trace amounts of high molecular weight (>C33) cycloalkano porphyrins indicates the occurrence of photic zone anoxia in the ancient water column. This example illustrates the potential of the approach for studies of porphyrin mixtures of environmental or biological significance, which should be applicable to other types of metallo and free-base components that can be separated by HPLC under normal or reversed-phase conditions. PMID:24203611

Rosell-Melé, A; Carter, J F; Maxwell, J R

1996-09-01

207

Photochemistry of limonene secondary organic aerosol studied with chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limonene is one of the most abundant monoterpenes in the atmosphere. Limonene easily reacts with gas-phase oxidants in air such as NO3, ozone and OH. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is formed when low vapor pressure products condense into particles. Chemicals in SOA particles can undergo further reactions with oxidants and with solar radiation that significantly change SOA composition over the course of several days. The goal of this work was to characterize radiation induced reaction in SOA. To perform experiments, we have designed and constructed an Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (APCIMS) coupled to a photochemical cell containing SOA samples. In APCIMS, (H2O)nH 3O+ clusters are generated in a 63Ni source and react with gaseous organic analytes. Most organic chemicals are not fragmented by the ionization process. We have focused our attention on limonene SOA prepared in two different ways. The first type of SOA is produced by oxidation of limonene by ozone; and the second type of SOA is formed by the NO3-induced oxidation of limonene. They model the SOA formed under daytime and nighttime conditions, respectively. Ozone initiated oxidation is the most important chemical sink for limonene both indoors, where it is used for cleaning purposes, and outdoors. Terpenes are primarily oxidized by reactions with NO3 at night time. We generated limonene SOA under different ozone and limonene concentrations. The resulting SOA samples were exposed to wavelength-tunable radiation in the UV-Visible range between 270 nm and 630 nm. The results show that the photodegradation rates strongly depend on radiation wavelengths. Gas phase photodegradation products such as acetone, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid were shown to have different production rates for SOA formed in different concentration conditions. Even for SOA prepared under the lowest concentrations, the SOA photodegradation was efficient. The conclusion is that exposure of SOA to solar radiation causes significant chemical aging in SOA species.

Pan, Xiang

208

Tantalum Etching with an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The APPJ is a non-thermal, atmospheric-pressure, glow discharge. A feedgas, composed of an inert carrier gas (e.g., He) and small concentrations of additives (e.g., O2, or CF4), flows between closely spaced electrodes powered at 13.56 MHz rf in a coaxial or parallel plate arrangement. The plasma has Te ˜ 2 eV and ne ˜ 10^11 cm-3. Electrons are not in thermal equilibrium with ions and neutrals: the electrons are ``hot", while the overall gas temperature is quite ``cold", typically 50-300 C. In the plasma, the gas is excited, dissociated or ionized by energetic electron impact. As the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, leaving metastables (e.g. O2*, He*) and radicals (e.g. O, F, OF, O2F, CFO). These reactive species are then directed onto a surface to be processed. The APPJ has been developed for decontaminating nuclear, chemical, and biological agents. Atomic fluorine, and possibly other reactive species, can be used to convert actinides (e.g., U and Pu), into volatile fluorides (e.g., UF6, PuF6) that can be trapped, resulting in significant volume reduction of radioactive waste. In this talk, we will present results on using Ta as a surrogate for Pu in He/O2/CF4 etching plasmas. Results of experimental measurements of Ta etch rates for various gas mixtures and plasma jet standoff distance will be compared with plasma chemistry modeling of the concentrations of several active species produced in the plasma.

Teslow, Hilary; Herrmann, Hans; Rosocha, Louis

2002-10-01

209

Leidenfrost Phenomenon-assisted Thermal Desorption (LPTD) and Its Application to Open Ion Sources at Atmospheric Pressure Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the development and application of a new thermal desorption technique that makes use of the Leidenfrost phenomenon in open ion sources at atmospheric pressure for direct mass spectrometric detection of ultratrace levels of illicit, therapeutic, and stimulant drugs, toxicants, and peptides (molecular weight above 1 kDa) in their unaltered state from complex real world samples without or with minor sample pretreatment. A low temperature dielectric barrier discharge ion source was used throughout the experiments and the analytical figures of merit of this technique were investigated. Further, this desorption technique coupled with other ionization sources such as electrospray ionization (ESI) and dc corona discharge atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in open atmosphere was also investigated. The use of the high-resolution `Exactive Orbitrap' mass spectrometer provided unambiguous identification of trace levels of the targeted compounds from complex mixtures and background noise; the limits of detection for various small organic molecules and peptides treated with this technique were at the level of parts per trillion and 10-9 M, respectively. The high sensitivity of the present technique is attributed to the spontaneous enrichment of analyte molecules during the slow evaporation of the solvent, as well as to the sequential desorption of molecules from complex mixtures based on their volatilities. This newly developed desorption technique is simple and fast, while molecular ions are observed as the major ions.

Saha, Subhrakanti; Chen, Lee Chuin; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Hiraoka, Kenzo

2013-03-01

210

Leidenfrost phenomenon-assisted thermal desorption (LPTD) and its application to open ion sources at atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This work describes the development and application of a new thermal desorption technique that makes use of the Leidenfrost phenomenon in open ion sources at atmospheric pressure for direct mass spectrometric detection of ultratrace levels of illicit, therapeutic, and stimulant drugs, toxicants, and peptides (molecular weight above 1 kDa) in their unaltered state from complex real world samples without or with minor sample pretreatment. A low temperature dielectric barrier discharge ion source was used throughout the experiments and the analytical figures of merit of this technique were investigated. Further, this desorption technique coupled with other ionization sources such as electrospray ionization (ESI) and dc corona discharge atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in open atmosphere was also investigated. The use of the high-resolution 'Exactive Orbitrap' mass spectrometer provided unambiguous identification of trace levels of the targeted compounds from complex mixtures and background noise; the limits of detection for various small organic molecules and peptides treated with this technique were at the level of parts per trillion and 10(-9)?M, respectively. The high sensitivity of the present technique is attributed to the spontaneous enrichment of analyte molecules during the slow evaporation of the solvent, as well as to the sequential desorption of molecules from complex mixtures based on their volatilities. This newly developed desorption technique is simple and fast, while molecular ions are observed as the major ions. PMID:23423791

Saha, Subhrakanti; Chen, Lee Chuin; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Hiraoka, Kenzo

2013-03-01

211

A streamer-like atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

SciTech Connect

The properties of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) are examined in a single-cell dielectric capillary configuration. In contrast to some other flow-driven APPJs, this stable, cold plasma jet is electrically driven, composed of rapidly propagating ionization fronts with speeds of the order of 10{sup 7} cm/s. Using spatially and temporally resolved optical diagnostics, it is demonstrated that the plasma jet is initiated independent of the dielectric barrier discharge inside the capillary. It is also shown that the properties and dynamics of this APPJ are directly analogous to those of positive corona streamer discharges.

Sands, Brian L. [UES, Inc., 2645 5th St., Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7251 (United States); Ganguly, Biswa N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, 2645 5th St., Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7251 (United States); Tachibana, Kunihide [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto-daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

2008-04-14

212

Dielectric barrier discharge ionization for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An atmospheric pressure microplasma ionization source based on a dielectric barrier discharge with a helium plasma cone outside the electrode region has been developed for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). For this purpose, the plasma was realized in a commercial atmospheric pressure ionization source. Dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI) was compared to conventional electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in the positive ionization mode. Therefore, a heterogeneous compound library was investigated that covered polar compounds such as amino acids, water-soluble vitamins, and nonpolar compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and functionalized hydrocarbons. It turned out that DBDI can be regarded as a soft ionization technique characterized by only minor fragmentation similar to APCI. Mainly protonated molecules were detected. Additionally, molecular ions were observed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives thereof. During DBDI, adduct formation with acetonitrile occurred. For aromatic compounds, addition of one to four oxygen atoms and to a smaller extend one nitrogen and oxygen was observed which delivered insight into the complexity of the ionization processes. In general, compounds covering a wider range of polarities can be ionized by DBDI than by ESI. Furthermore, limits of detection compared to APCI are in most cases equal or even better. PMID:19911793

Hayen, Heiko; Michels, Antje; Franzke, Joachim

2009-12-15

213

Low-voltage back-gated atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition based graphene-striped channel transistor with high-? dielectric showing room-temperature mobility > 11,000 cm(2)/V·s.  

PubMed

Utilization of graphene may help realize innovative low-power replacements for III-V materials based high electron mobility transistors while extending operational frequencies closer to the THz regime for superior wireless communications, imaging, and other novel applications. Device architectures explored to date suffer a fundamental performance roadblock due to lack of compatible deposition techniques for nanometer-scale dielectrics required to efficiently modulate graphene transconductance (gm) while maintaining low gate capacitance-voltage product (CgsVgs). Here we show integration of a scaled (10 nm) high-? gate dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD)-derived graphene channel composed of multiple 0.25 ?m stripes to repeatedly realize room-temperature mobility of 11,000 cm(2)/V·s or higher. This high performance is attributed to the APCVD graphene growth quality, excellent interfacial properties of the gate dielectric, conductivity enhancement in the graphene stripes due to low tox/Wgraphene ratio, and scaled high-? dielectric gate modulation of carrier density allowing full actuation of the device with only ±1 V applied bias. The superior drive current and conductance at Vdd = 1 V compared to other top-gated devices requiring undesirable seed (such as aluminum and poly vinyl alcohol)-assisted dielectric deposition, bottom gate devices requiring excessive gate voltage for actuation, or monolithic (nonstriped) channels suggest that this facile transistor structure provides critical insight toward future device design and process integration to maximize CVD-based graphene transistor performance. PMID:23777434

Smith, Casey; Qaisi, Ramy; Liu, Zhihong; Yu, Qingkai; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

2013-07-23

214

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

2006-09-01

215

Effect of washing on surface free energy of polystyrene plate treated by RF atmospheric pressure plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-temperature plasma can be generated at one atmospheric pressure by applying a radio frequency (RF, 13.56MHz) voltage between two parallel electrodes, and used for thin film deposition, chemical synthesis, etching, surface treatments and sterilization. The surface properties of a general purpose polystyrene (GPPS) plate treated with RF atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) can be modified by subsequent washing. In this paper,

Yan Zhao; Shen Tang; Sung-Woon Myung; Na Lu; Ho-Suk Choi

2006-01-01

216

Formation Mechanism of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet can protrude some 5.0 cm into air. It holds promise for multivarious innovative applications, but its formation mechanism remains unsettled. We show that the plasma jet is essentially a streamer corona totally independent of, but obscured by, dielectric barrier discharge. Consequently, the jets can be equally successfully generated even with one single bare metal electrode attached

Nan Jiang; Ailing Ji; Zexian Cao

2008-01-01

217

Study of atmospheric pressure glow discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) in gases such as Helium, Argon and air were studied. APGD in Helium between two parallel plane electrodes covered with dielectric plates was simulated on the basis of one-dimensional fluid model and the parameters' distributions along the discharge channel were obtained. The development of an electron avalanche in one atmosphere air

Mingze Lu; Xinxin Wang; Yikang Pu; Zhicheng Guan

2002-01-01

218

Sources of nonequilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical arc discharge in a transverse blowing gas flow [transverse arc - (TA)] and the discharge in the gas flows immersed into the liquid [discharge in the gas channel with a liquid wall - (DGCLW)] are studied as the sources of nonequilibrium plasma at the atmospheric pressure. Diagnostics of both discharges is made by optical emission spectroscopy. The population

I. Prysyazhnevych; V. Chernyak; J. D. Skalný; S. Matej?ik; V. Yukhymenko; S. Olszewsky; V. Naumov

2008-01-01

219

Determining Atmospheric Pressure Using a Water Barometer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The atmosphere is an envelope of compressible gases that surrounds Earth. Because of its compressibility and nonuniform heating by the Sun, it is in constant motion. The atmosphere exerts pressure on Earth's surface, but that pressure is in constant flux. This experiment allows students to directly measure atmospheric pressure by measuring the…

Lohrengel, C. Frederick, II; Larson, Paul R.

2012-01-01

220

Atmospheric pressure at the time of dinosaurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

From bioenergetics, fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, we show that if the atmospheric pressure was higher at the time of the dinosaurs than it is today, we would be able to resolve a number of anomalies which puzzle scientists today. These concern how a giant pterosaur (quetzalcoatlus, with a 12-15 m wingspan) had enough power to fly; also, how a giant

Octave Levenspiel

2006-01-01

221

Characterizations of atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma jets and their applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma jets (APLTPJs) driven by short pulses have recently received great attention because of their potential in biomedical and environmental applications. This potential is due to their user-friendly features, such as low temperature, low risk of arcing, operation at atmospheric pressure, easy handheld operation, and low concentration of ozone generation. Recent experimental observations indicate that an ionization wave exists and propagates along the plasma jet. The plasma jet created by this ionization wave is not a continuous medium but rather consists of a bullet-like-structure known as "Plasma Bullet". More interestingly, these plasma bullets actually have a donut-shaped makeup. The nature of the plasma bullet is especially interesting because it propagates in the ambient air at supersonic velocities without any externally applied electric field. In this dissertation, experimental insights are reported regarding the physical and chemical characteristics of the APLTPJs. The dynamics of the plasma bullet are investigated by means of a high-speed ICCD camera. A plasma bullet propagation model based on the streamer theory is confirmed with adequate explanations. It is also found that a secondary discharge, ignited by the charge accumulation on the dielectric electrode surfaces at the end of the applied voltage, interrupts the plasma bullet propagation due to an opposing current along the ionization channel. The reason for this interesting phenomenon is explained in detail. The plasma bullet comes to an end when the helium mole fraction along the ionization channel, or applied voltage, or both, are less than some critical values. The presence of an inert gas channel in the surrounding air, such as helium or argon, has a critical role in plasma bullet formation and propagation. For this reason, a fluid dynamics study is employed by a commercially available simulation software, COMSOL, based on finite element method. Spatio-temporally resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) gives the evolution of excited species along the trajectory of the plasma bullets. The APLTPJs' chemical composition includes short-lived species, such as He, N2, N+2 , and long-lived species, such as Hem (helium metastable), O3, NO, NO2. It is worth noting that metastable level excited atoms play an important role in promoting an enhanced chemistry along the plasma jet. Some of the APLTPJs' biomedical applications, such as dental hygiene applications and destruction of amyloid fibrils underlying Parkinson's disease, are explored along with an important discussion showing that the APLTPJs do not have a cytotoxic effect on living cells.

Karakas, Erdinc

2011-12-01

222

Large-Area Organosilicon Film Deposition Using Cyclonic Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclonic atmospheric pressure plasma is developed for chamberless deposition of organosilicon thin films from argon/hexamethyldisoxane (HMDSO) mixtures. The surface properties of the resulting plasma films were investigated as a function of RF plasma power. Film characterization was performed by static contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic forced microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found the RF plasma power is the key factor that to affects the film growth in the atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition process. SEM and AFM results indicated that a smooth, continuous, and uniform surface of organosilicon thin films can be formed at a relatively low plasma power input. XPS indicated that atmospheric-pressure plasma-deposited organosilicon films present mainly inorganic characteristics. This study shows a potential of chamberless film growth at atmospheric pressure to form organosilicon thin films for large-area deposition.

Lin, Jin-He; Tsai, Ching-Yuan; Liu, Wei-Ting; Syu, Yu-Kai; Huang, Chun

2013-05-01

223

Performance of a corona ion source for measurement of sulfuric acid by chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of an ion source based on corona discharge has been studied. This source is used for the detection of gaseous sulfuric acid by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) through the reaction of NO3- ions with H2SO4. The ion source is operated under atmospheric pressure and its design is similar to the one of a radioactive (americium-241) ion source which has been used previously. The results show that the detection limit for the corona ion source is sufficiently good for most applications. For an integration time of 1 min it is ~6 × 104 molecule cm-3 of H2SO4. In addition, only a small cross-sensitivity to SO2 has been observed for concentrations as high as 1 ppmv in the sample gas. This low sensitivity to SO2 is achieved even without the addition of an OH scavenger. When comparing the new corona ion source with the americium ion source for the same provided H2SO4 concentration, both ion sources yield almost identical values. These features make the corona ion source investigated here favorable over the more commonly used radioactive ion sources for most applications where H2SO4 is measured by CIMS.

Kürten, A.; Rondo, L.; Ehrhart, S.; Curtius, J.

2011-03-01

224

Marangoni flows induced by atmospheric-pressure plasma jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the interaction of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets of Ar or air with liquid films of an aliphatic hydrocarbon on moving solid substrates. The hydrodynamic jet-liquid interaction induces a track of lower film thickness. The chemical plasma-surface interaction oxidizes the liquid, leading to a local increase of the surface tension and a self-organized redistribution of the liquid film. We developed a numerical model that qualitatively reproduces the formation, instability and coarsening of the flow patterns observed in the experiments. Monitoring the liquid flow has potential as an in-situ, spatially and temporally resolved, diagnostic tool for the plasma-liquid surface interaction.

Berendsen, C. W. J.; van Veldhuizen, E. M.; Kroesen, G. M. W.; Darhuber, A. A.

2015-01-01

225

NEGATIVE CHEMICAL IONIZATION STUDIES OF HUMAN AND FOOD CHAIN CONTAMINATION WITH XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a mixture of isobutane, methylene chloride, and oxygen as the reagent gas has been used to explore contamination of environmental substrates with xenobiotic chemicals. The substrates in question, fish tissue, human seminal plasm...

226

Spectroscopic diagnosis of an atmospheric-pressure waveguide-based microwave N2–Ar plasma torch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An atmospheric-pressure N2–Ar plasma is investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopic diagnosis concerning the variation of its fundamental parameters, electron density and plasma temperature, and concentrations of ionized molecular nitrogen, atomic nitrogen, and excited argon with the tuning variables, such as the input power and the ratio of N2 in N2–Ar mixture gas, in the discharge region of the plasma torch. Moreover, qualitative discussions are delivered with respect to the mechanisms for nitrogen dissociation and influence of the Ar component on the N2 plasma discharge at atmospheric pressure.

Li, Shou-Zhe; Chen, Chuan-Jie; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jialiang; Wang, Yong-Xing

2015-04-01

227

Electron heating in radio-frequency capacitively coupled atmospheric-pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect

In atmospheric-pressure plasmas the main electron heating mechanism is Ohmic heating, which has distinct spatial and temporal evolutions in the {alpha} and {gamma} modes. In {gamma} discharges, ionizing avalanches in the sheaths are initiated not only by secondary electrons but also by metastable pooling reactions. In {alpha} discharges, heating takes place at the sheath edges and in contrast with low-pressure plasmas, close to 50% of the power absorbed by the electrons is absorbed at the edge of the retreating sheaths. This heating is due to a field enhancement caused by the large collisionality in atmospheric-pressure discharges.

Liu, D. W.; Iza, F.; Kong, M. G. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

2008-12-29

228

Research on atmospheric pressure plasma processing sewage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water pollution has become more and more serious with the industrial progress and social development, so it become a worldwide leading environmental management problem to human survival and personal health, therefore, countries are looking for the best solution. Generally speaking, in this paper the work has the following main achievements and innovation: (1) Developed a new plasma device--Plasma Water Bed. (2) At atmospheric pressure condition, use oxygen, nitrogen, argon and helium as work gas respectively, use fiber spectrometer to atmospheric pressure plasma discharge the emission spectrum of measurement, due to the different work gas producing active particle is different, so can understand discharge, different particle activity, in the treatment of wastewater, has the different degradation effects. (3) Methyl violet solution treatment by plasma water bed. Using plasma drafting make active particles and waste leachate role, observe the decolorization, measurement of ammonia nitrogen removal.

Song, Gui-cai; Na, Yan-xiang; Dong, Xiao-long; Sun, Xiao-liang

2013-08-01

229

Possible degradation\\/biotransformation of lutein in vitro and in vivo: isolation and structural elucidation of lutein metabolites by HPLC and LCMS (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolites of lutein are highly concentrated in the human macula and are known to provide protection against age-related macular degeneration. The aim of this investigation was to characterize the in vitro oxidation products of lutein obtained through photo-oxidation and to compare them with biologically transformed dietary lutein in intestine, plasma, liver, and eyes of rats. In vivo studies involved feeding

Rangaswamy Lakshminarayana; Gorusupudi Aruna; Ravi Kumar Sangeetha; Narayan Bhaskar; Sounder Divakar; Vallikannan Baskaran

2008-01-01

230

A simple, rapid atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3.  

PubMed

Vitamin D plays a vital role not only in bone health but also in pathophysiology of many other body functions. In recent years, there has been significant increase in testing of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D), a marker of vitamin D deficiency. The most commonly used methods for the measurement of 25-OH vitamin D are immunoassays and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Since immunoassays suffer from inaccuracies and interferences, LC-MS-MS is a preferred method. In LC-MS-MS methods, 25-OH vitamin D is extracted from serum or plasma by solid-phase or liquid-phase extraction. Because these extraction methods are time consuming, we developed an easy method that uses simple protein precipitation followed by injection of the supernatant to LC-MS-MS. Several mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio transitions, including commonly used transitions based on water loss, were evaluated and several tube types were tested. The optimal transitions for 25-OH vitamin D2 and D3 were 395.5 > 269.5 and 383.4 > 257.3, respectively. The reportable range of the method was 1-100 ng/mL, and repeatability (within-run) and within-laboratory imprecision were <4% and <6%, respectively. The method agreed well with the solid-phase extraction methods. PMID:23001980

Garg, Uttam; Munar, Ada; Frazee, Clinton; Scott, David

2012-09-01

231

Use of an ion-pairing reagent for high-performance liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry determination of anionic anticoagulant rodenticides in body fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The on-line combination of high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS) has become a powerful tool for trace analysis thanks to the developments in interface techniques. However, non-volatile salts such as ion-pairing reagents are considered to be incompatible with HPLC–MS systems; they cause drops in analyte signals because of contamination of mass analyzers and also because of blocking of the

Fuyu Guan; Akira Ishii; Hiroshi Seno; Kanako Watanabe-Suzuki; Takeshi Kumazawa; Osamu Suzuki

1999-01-01

232

[Spectral investigation of atmospheric pressure plasma column].  

PubMed

Atmospheric pressure plasma column has many important applications in plasma stealth for aircraft. In the present paper, a plasma column with a length of 65 cm was generated in argon at atmospheric pressure by using dielectric barrier discharge device with water electrodes in coaxial configurations. The discharge mechanism of the plasma column was studied by optical method and the result indicates that a moving layer of light emission propagates in the upstream region. The propagation velocity of the plasma bullet is about 0.6 x 10(5) m x s(-1) through optical measurement. Spectral intensity ratios as functions of the applied voltage and driving frequency were also investigated by spectroscopic method. The variation in spectral intensity ratio implies a change in the averaged electron energy. Results show that the averaged electron energy increases with the increase in the applied voltage and the driving frequency. These results have significant values for industrial applications of the atmospheric pressure discharge and have extensive application potentials in stealth for military aircraft. PMID:23016319

Li, Xue-Chen; Chang, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Long-Fei

2012-07-01

233

Atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber  

DOEpatents

An atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber is described. The apparatus is useful for decontaminating sensitive equipment and materials, such as electronics, optics and national treasures, which have been contaminated with chemical and/or biological warfare agents, such as anthrax, mustard blistering agent, VX nerve gas, and the like. There is currently no acceptable procedure for decontaminating such equipment. The apparatus may also be used for sterilization in the medical and food industries. Items to be decontaminated or sterilized are supported inside the chamber. Reactive gases containing atomic and metastable oxygen species are generated by an atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge in a He/O.sub.2 mixture and directed into the region of these items resulting in chemical reaction between the reactive species and organic substances. This reaction typically kills and/or neutralizes the contamination without damaging most equipment and materials. The plasma gases are recirculated through a closed-loop system to minimize the loss of helium and the possibility of escape of aerosolized harmful substances.

Herrmann, Hans W. (Los Alamos, NM); Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01

234

Analysis of selective androgen receptor modulators by gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometric (GC-microAPPI-MS) method was developed and used for the analysis of three 2-quinolinone-derived selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SARMs were analyzed from spiked urine samples, which were hydrolyzed and derivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide before analysis. Trimethylsilyl derivatives of SARMs formed both radical cations (M(+*)) and protonated molecules ([M + H](+)) in photoionization. Better signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) were obtained in MS/MS analysis using the M(+*) ions as precursor ions than using the [M + H](+) ions, and therefore the M(+*) ions were selected for the precursor ions in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) analysis. Limits of detection (LODs) with the method ranged from 0.01 to 1 ng/mL, which correspond to instrumental LODs of 0.2-20 pg. Limits of quantitation ranged from 0.03 to 3 ng/mL. The mass spectrometric response to the analytes was linear (R > or = 0.995) from the LOQ concentration level up to 100 ng/mL concentration, and intra-day repeatabilities were 5%-9%. In addition to the GC-microAPPI-MS study, the proof-of-principle of gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-Orbitrap MS (GC-microAPCI-Orbitrap MS) was demonstrated. PMID:20004589

Luosujärvi, Laura; Haapala, Markus; Thevis, Mario; Saarela, Ville; Franssila, Sami; Ketola, Raimo A; Kostiainen, Risto; Kotiaho, Tapio

2010-02-01

235

Formation Mechanism of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet  

E-print Network

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet can protrude some 5.0 cm into air. It holds promise for multivarious innovative applications, but its formation mechanism remains unsettled. We show that the plasma jet is essentially a streamer corona totally independent of, but obscured by, dielectric barrier discharge. Consequently, the jets can be equally successfully generated even with one single bare metal electrode attached to the tube orifice, both downstream and upstream simultaneously, and at a significantly reduced voltage. These results will help understand the underlying physics and facilitate a safer and more flexible implementation of this marvelous plasma source.

Jiang, Nan; Cao, Zexian

2008-01-01

236

Protein destruction by atmospheric pressure glow discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that atmospheric pressure glow discharges are capable of bacterial inactivation. Much less known is their ability to destruct infectious proteins, even though surgical instruments are often contaminated by both bacteria and proteinaceous matters. In this letter, the authors present a study of protein destruction using a low-temperature atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharge jet. Clear evidences of protein removal are presented with data of several complimentary experiments using scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive x-ray analysis, electrophoresis, laser-induced fluorescence microscopy, and protein reduction kinetics. Considerable degradation is observed of protein fragments that remain on their substrate surface after plasma treatment.

Deng, X. T.; Shi, J. J.; Chen, H. L.; Kong, M. G.

2007-01-01

237

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet for decontamination purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced oxidation processes, especially induced by non-thermal plasmas, are widely known for their high sanitation efficiency. The paper presents general overview of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) reactors for bactericidal decontamination purposes. In the conclusion part, the basic requirements for APPJ as a tool for biomedical applications including the treatment of living tissues are highlighted. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

Paw?at, Joanna

2013-02-01

238

MY NASA DATA: Atmospheric Pressure vs. Elevation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this data activity, students use NASA satellite measurements of atmospheric pressure to learn that pressure decreases with height in the atmosphere. Step-by-step instructions for use of the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) guide students through selecting a data set, importing the data into a spreadsheet, creating graphs, and analyzing data plots. The lesson provides detailed procedures, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes. Designed for student use, MY NASA DATA LAS samples micro datasets from large scientific data archives, and provides structured investigations engaging students in exploration of remotely-sensed data to answer real world questions.

239

Ammonia chemical ionization mass spectrometry of intact diacyl phosphatidylcholine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectra have been obtained on molecular spe- cies of intact diacyl phosphatidylcholine by means of ammonia gas-induced chemical ionization. MH+ ions were observed with all species, and other prominent ions in the spectra identified the fatty acid composition. Spectra of phosphatidylcholine con- taining deuterated methyl groups and spectra obtained using ( ''Nlammonia have allowed identification of fragments con- taining

C. G. Crawford; R. D. Plattner

240

UPTAKE OF IONIZABLE ORGANIC CHEMICALS AT FISH GILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Uptake of organic acids by fish, and their toxicity, generally decrease with increasing pH above the pK, presumably due to neutral forms of such chemicals being more readily adsorbed than their ionized forms. However, uptake usually exceeds that expected based just on the concent...

241

Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharges: A Low-Cost System for Surface Modification  

SciTech Connect

Plasma treatment is a common way for modifying the surface of a material. A simple but effective source for a low-temperature nonequilibrium plasma is dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs), also referred to as silent discharges. DBDs are characterized by the presence of at least one insulating (dielectric) layer in the discharge gap between two metal electrodes. When a high voltage is applied to the DBD configuration, tiny breakdown channels are formed in the discharge gap. These microdischarges are characterized as a weakly ionized plasma containing electrons with energies up to 10 eV and ions at room temperature. The energetic electrons provide an effective tool for chemical surface modification. Typical setups for DBD treatments consist of vacuum chambers and vacuum equipment, and so are very cost-intensive. Atmospheric pressure discharges provide a possibility for low-cost surface chemistry, because the setup consists only of the discharge set-up in normal air or in a specified inert gas atmosphere and a high-voltage amplifier coupled with a frequency generator. Silent discharges in air increase the wettability of polymer foils such as PTFE and FEP, sufficient for cell growth and further for surface-chemical binding of proteins onto the polymer. Thereby a simple and low-cost process to achieve protein chips for biomedical applications may be envisaged.

Graz, I.; Schwoediauer, R.; Bauer, S. [Soft Matter Physics, Institute of Experimental Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Gruber, H.; Romanin, C. [Institute for Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)

2005-10-17

242

Diagnostics of plasma-biological surface interactions in low pressure and atmospheric pressure plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanisms of plasma-surface interaction are required to understand in order to control the reactions precisely. Recent progress in atmospheric pressure plasma provides to apply as a tool of sterilization of contaminated foodstuffs. To use the plasma with safety and optimization, the real time in situ detection of free radicals - in particular dangling bonds by using the electron-spin-resonance (ESR) technique has been developed because the free radical plays important roles for dominantly biological reactions. First, the kinetic analysis of free radicals on biological specimens such as fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum interacted with atomic oxygen generated plasma electric discharge. We have obtained information that the in situ real time ESR signal from the spores was observed and assignable to semiquinone radical with a g-value of around 2.004 and a line width of approximately 5G. The decay of the signal was correlated with a link to the inactivation of the fungal spore. Second, we have studied to detect chemical modification of edible meat after the irradiation. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-MS) and ESR, signals give qualification results for chemical changes on edible liver meat. The in situ real-time measurements have proven to be a useful method to elucidate plasma-induced surface reactions on biological specimens.

Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru

2014-08-01

243

Nonlinear frequency coupling in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Plasma ionization, and associated mode transitions, in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas are governed through nonlinear frequency coupling in the dynamics of the plasma boundary sheath. Ionization in low-power mode is determined by the nonlinear coupling of electron heating and the momentary local plasma density. Ionization in high-power mode is driven by electron avalanches during phases of transient high electric fields within the boundary sheath. The transition between these distinctly different modes is controlled by the total voltage of both frequency components.

Waskoenig, J.; Gans, T. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2010-05-03

244

Photoemission ambient pressure ionization (PAPI) with an ultraviolet light emitting diode and detection of organic compounds.  

PubMed

The development of compact, rugged and low-power ion sources is critical for the further advancement of handheld mass analyzers. Further, there is a need to replace the common (63)Ni source used at atmospheric pressure with a non-radioactive substitute. We present here a description of a light emitting diode (LED) photoemission ionization source for use in mass spectrometry for the detection of volatile organic compounds. This technique relies upon the generation of photoelectrons from a low-work function metal via low-energy ultraviolet (UV) light (280 or 240 nm) generated by a single LED in air at atmospheric pressure. These low-energy photoelectrons result in either direct electron capture by the analyte or chemical ionization. Currently, only negative ions are demonstrated due to operation at atmospheric pressure. Ion generation occurs without use of high electric fields such as those found in corona discharge or electrospray ionization. This source is effective for measuring organic vapors from gases, liquids and surface residues via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, initiated by photoemission off a conductive surface. Several classes of organic vapors are analyzed and found to be effectively detected, including compounds that ionize via electron attachment, dissociative electron capture, proton abstraction, adduct formation and replacement ionization. PMID:21913267

Short, Luke C; Ewing, Robert G; Barinaga, Charles J

2011-10-15

245

Experimental study of a helium surface-wave discharge at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental characterization of a helium surface-wave discharge (SWD) at atmospheric pressure using spectroscopic techniques is presented. Values of plasma parameters (densities and temperatures) were obtained from these techniques and the degree of thermodynamic equilibrium was shown to be that of an ionizing plasma. The experimental values of the plasma parameters were compared to those obtained from a theoretical model developed for the same He discharge type and to those found in the literature for other noble gases (neon and argon) SWDs also generated at atmospheric pressure. These comparisons enable to infer the main cause of departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium to processes involving He molecular ions, namely, associative ionization and dissociative recombination.

Muñoz, J.; Margot, J.; Calzada, M. D.

2010-04-01

246

Microwave-excited atmospheric pressure plasma jet with wide aperture for the synthesis of carbon nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) has preferable properties to the mass production of carbon nanomaterials. Here, we describe a specially-designed microwave-excited atmospheric pressure plasma jet (MW-APPJ) with a 10-mm-wide nozzle based on microstrip line. The MW-APPJ is applied to an APCVD process and nanocrystalline diamond films are successfully deposited on silicon substrates using a mixture gas of Ar/CH4/H2 even in ambient air. The MW-APPJ technology could be suitable for the large-area APCVD system for the synthesis of carbon nanomaterials due to its arrayed configuration for the enlargement of plasma area.

Kim, Jaeho; Sakakita, Hajime; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Katsurai, Makoto

2015-01-01

247

Free radicals induced in aqueous solution by non-contact atmospheric-pressure cold plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand plasma-induced chemical processing in liquids, we investigated the formation of free radicals in aqueous solution exposed to different types of non-contact atmospheric-pressure helium plasma using the spin-trapping technique. Both hydroxyl radical (OH.) and superoxide anion radical (O2-.) adducts were observed when neutral oxygen gas was additionally supplied to the plasma. In particular, O2-. can be dominantly induced in the solution via oxygen flow into the afterglow gas of helium plasma. This type of plasma treatment can potentially be used in medical applications to control infectious diseases, because the O2-. is crucial for sterilization of liquids via atmospheric-pressure plasma.

Tani, Atsushi; Ono, Yusuke; Fukui, Satoshi; Ikawa, Satoshi; Kitano, Katsuhisa

2012-06-01

248

Stability Measurements of an Atmospheric Pressure Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on the stability of atmospheric pressure arcs have been started at PPPL to understand and improve the performance of arc furnaces used for processing applications in metallurgy and hazardous waste treatment. Previous studies have suggested that the violent instabilities in such arcs may be due to kink modes (P. M. Bellan and J. W. Higley. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 20:1026-1035, Dec. 1992.) ^, (Ben Bowman. Properties of arcs in DC furnaces. Electric Furnace Conference Proceedings, pages 111-120, 1994). A 30 kW, 500 Amp CW DC experimental arc furnace was constructed with a graphite cathode and a molten steel anode. The arc plasma is diagnosed with high-speed optical detectors, Hall probes, and voltage and current monitors. Preliminary results show an intermittent helical instability at ? 1 kHz along with lower frequency turbulence. Fluctuation data under various operating conditions will be presented.

Karasik, Max; Lemunyan, G.; Roquemore, L.; Zweben, S. J.; Wurden, G. A.

1996-11-01

249

Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure Arc Jet Velocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plasma arc jet originates at the cathode of a DC atmospheric pressure arc due to magnetic pumping(P.M. Bellan. Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3515 (1992).). This jet velocity can affect the equilibrium and stability of the arcs in electric arc furnaces used for steel recycling. Previous techniques to measure the arc jet speed included deflection of small pellets(B. Bowman. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 5, 1422 (1972)) and Doppler-shifted plasma scattering(M. Irie et al. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 10, 1599 (1977)). This poster will describe measurements of the arc jet velocity in the 200 Amp PPPL arc furnace, and compare these measurements with arc jet models.

May, Erick; Karasik, M.; Zweben, S. J.

1997-11-01

250

On the growth mode of two-lobed curvilinear graphene domains at atmospheric pressure  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of 2-lobed symmetrical curvilinear graphene domains specifically on Cu{100} surface orientations at atmospheric pressure. We utilize electron backscattered diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy to determine an as-yet unexplored growth mode producing such a shape and demonstrate how its growth and morphology are dependent on the underlying Cu crystal structure especially in the high CH4:H2 regime. We show that both monolayer and bilayer curvilinear domains are grown on Cu{100} surfaces; furthermore, we show that characteristic atmospheric pressure CVD hexagonal domains are grown on all other Cu facets with an isotropic growth rate which is more rapid than that on Cu{100}. These findings indicate that the Cu-graphene complex is predominant mechanistically at atmospheric pressure, which is an important step towards tailoring graphene properties via substrate engineering. PMID:23999168

Kumar, Kitu; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

2013-01-01

251

Generation and control of wide area, homogenous atmospheric pressure discharges for industrial coating applications.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dow Corning Plasma Solutions use diffuse atmospheric pressure plasma technology combined with a unique precursor delivery system for a new coatings approach: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Liquid Deposition. Operating at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature this process allows the use of a wide range of liquid precursors delivering high chemical functionality onto flexible substrates. Patented APPLD equipment enables plasma deposition onto wide area substrates up to 1.6m width in true reel-to-reel conditions at industrial line speeds up to 30m/min. Substrates can be either electrically insulating or conducting. Recent engineering developments addressing issues in electrode design, liquid delivery and gas retention and distribution, have significantly enhanced the stability and homogeneity of the plasma chemistry and coating performance. The process is controlled through monitoring and control of key plasma chemistry and process parameters. The process hardware and process control package will be described in detail with particular emphasis on plasma chemistry and process control tools.

Hynes, Alan; Walter, Castagna; Carr, Kieran; O'Shea, Sean; Herbert, Tony

2004-09-01

252

Deposition of superconductive YBaCuO films at atmospheric pressure by RF plasma aerosol technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconducting Y1Ba2Cu3O7-delta films were produced by a radio frequency (RF) plasma aerosol evaporation technique at atmospheric pressure without post-annealing. Aqueous solutions containing Y, Ba, and Cu were genertaed as an aerosol which was then injected into the plasma region. The ionized species were deposited onto substrates outside of both the plasma and flame regions. The substrate temperature was 400-600°C. The

H. H. Zhong; X. W. Wang; J. Hao; R. L. Synder

1991-01-01

253

Terahertz Spectroscopy of Water Vapors, Chemical Vapors and Ionized Air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, a few research groups have demonstrated that terahertz spectroscopy could be a useful tool for the identification of chemicals. However most of those demonstrations have been done with solid-phase or liquid-phase chemicals. There are little demonstrations for the detection and identification of chemicals in the gas-phase, as it is very difficult in part due to the presence of water-absorption lines in the terahertz frequency range. As the water absorption lines predominate in the 0.1 - 2THz spectral range, and can interfere with already weak terahertz signatures generated by chemical vapors, it is often very hard to obtain meaningful terahertz spectrum of chemical vapor. Regardless we recently have been able to obtain some terahertz spectra of chemical vapors and ionized air produced by several different ionization sources, including corona discharge and nuclear isotopes. Throughout data analysis we learned that water molecules, nitrogen and oxygen molecules play very important roles in these terahertz spectra. In this presentation we will discuss our experiments and the roles of these molecules.

Graber, Benjamin; Tao, Rongjia; Wu, Dong Ho

2013-03-01

254

Surface modification of PET film by a DBD device at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma treatments are used to modify surface properties of materials such as adhesivity, hydrophobicity, oleophobicity, hydrophilicity. The plasma interaction with the surface produces modifications of its chemical structure and morphology.The present work shows the surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate film (PET) after the exposure to an atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD).The treated surface has been analyzed using atomic

P. Esena; C. Riccardi; S. Zanini; M. Tontini; G. Poletti; F. Orsini

2005-01-01

255

Atmospheric pressure discharge plasma decomposition for gaseous air contaminants-trichlorotrifluoroethane and trichloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decomposition performance of gaseous environmental destructive contaminants in air by using atmospheric pressure discharge plasma including the surface discharge induced plasma chemical processing (SPCP) was examined. The main contaminants tested were chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene, typically. The discharge exciting frequency range studied was wide-50 Hz to 50 kHz. Results showed the low frequency discharge requires high voltage to inject

Tetsuji Oda; Ryuichi Yamashita; Tadashi Takahashi; Senichi Masuda

1996-01-01

256

Sterilization of Surfaces with a Handheld Atmospheric Pressure Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasmas have shown great promise for decontaminating the surfaces of materials and equipment. In this study, an atmospheric pressure, oxygen and argon plasma was investigated for the destruction of viruses, bacteria, and spores. The plasma was operated at an argon flow rate of 30 L/min, an oxygen flow rate of 20 mL/min, a power density of 101.0 W/cm^3 (beam area = 5.1 cm^2), and at a distance from the surface of 7.1 mm. An average 6log10 reduction of viable spores was obtained after only 45 seconds of exposure to the reactive gas. By contrast, it takes more than 35 minutes at 121^oC to sterilize anthrax in an autoclave. The plasma properties were investigated by numerical modeling and chemical titration with nitric oxide. The numerical model included a detailed reaction mechanism for the discharge as well as for the afterglow. It was predicted that at a delivered power density of 29.3 W/cm^3, 30 L/min argon, and 0.01 volume% O2, the plasma generated 1.9 x 10^14 cm-3 O atoms, 1.6 x 10^12 cm-3 ozone, 9.3 x 10^13 cm-3 O2(^1?g), and 2.9 x 10^12 cm-3 O2(^1?^+g) at 1 cm downstream of the source. The O atom density measured by chemical titration with NO was 6.0 x 10^14 cm-3 at the same conditions. It is believe that the oxygen atoms and the O2(^1?g) metastables were responsible for killing the anthrax and other microorganisms.

Hicks, Robert; Habib, Sara; Chan, Wai; Gonzalez, Eleazar; Tijerina, A.; Sloan, Mark

2009-10-01

257

Study of atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition by using a double discharge system for SiO x thin-film deposition with a HMDS/Ar/He/O2 gas mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SiO x thin films were deposited at atmospheric pressure by using a double discharge system composed of a remote-type dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) formed above the substrate and a direct-type DBD formed by applying an AC power to the substrate with a gas mixture of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS)/O2/He/Ar. Instead of using a single DBD, the use of the double discharge system not only showed higher SiO x thin film deposition rates but also produced fewer impurities in the deposited SiO x thin film. The improvement was partially related to the increased gas dissociation near the substrate through the direct-type DBD and to the remote-type DBD. A 7-kV, 30-kHz AC voltage was applied to the remote-type DBD and a 5-kV, 20-kHz AC voltage was applied to the direct-type DBD, with a gas mixture of HMDS (400 sccm)/O2 (20 slm)/He (5 slm)/Ar (3 slm). As a result, a SiO x deposition rate of 58.29 nm/scan could be obtained while moving the substrate at a speed of 0.25 meter/min.

Kim, Ga Young; Park, Jae Beom; Yeom, Geun Young

2012-08-01

258

Spectral diagnosis of plasma jet at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to surface modification of materials using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet at atmospheric pressure is presented in this paper. The emission spectral lines of argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure were recorded by the grating spectrograph HR2000 and computer software. The argon plasma emission spectra, whose range is from 300nm to 1000nm, were measured at different

X. L. Tang; G. Qiu; C. Li; X. P. Wang; X. P. Feng

2009-01-01

259

Investigation of Helium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet by Schlieren Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical schlieren system was used to visualize he- lium gas flow in ambient. Simultaneous photographing of gas flows and plasma plumes helps to reveal more details of atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Index Terms—Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), schlieren photography.

Nan Jiang; Jinglong Yang; Feng He; Zexian Cao

2011-01-01

260

Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is

Tonie M. vanDam; Geoffrey Blewitt; Michael B. Heflin

1994-01-01

261

Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and

Lanfang H. Levine; Patricia A. Bisbee; Jeffrey T. Richards; Michele N. Birmele; Ronald L. Prior; Michele Perchonok; Mike Dixon; Neil C. Yorio; Gary W. Stutte; Raymond M. Wheeler

2008-01-01

262

Stability measurements of PPL atmospheric pressure arc  

SciTech Connect

Experiments on the stability of atmospheric pressure arcs have been started at PPL to understand and improve the performance of arc furnaces used for processing applications in metallurgy and hazardous waste treatment. Previous studies have suggested that the violent instabilities in such arcs may be due to kink modes. A 30 kW, 500 Amp CW DC experimental arc furnace was constructed with a graphite cathode and a molten steel anode. The arc plasma is diagnosed with 4000 frames/sec digital camera, Hall probes, and voltage and current monitors. Under certain conditions, the arc exhibits an intermittent helical instability, with the helix rotating at {approx}600 Hz. The nature of the instability is investigated. A possible instability mechanism is the self-magnetic field of the arc, with saturation occurring due to inhomogeneous heating in a helical arc. The effect of external DC and AC magnetic fields on the instability is investigated. Additionally, arc deflection due to external transverse magnetic field is investigated. The deflection angle is found to be proportional to the applied field, and is in good agreement with a simple model of the {rvec J} x {rvec b} force on the arc jet.

Roquemore, L.; Zweben, S.J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Wurden, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-12-31

263

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer  

SciTech Connect

The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

Babij, Micha?; Kowalski, Zbigniew W., E-mail: zbigniew.w.kowalski@pwr.wroc.pl; Nitsch, Karol; Gotszalk, Teodor [Wroc?aw University of Technology, Wybrze?e Wyspia?skiego 27, 50-370 Wroc?aw (Poland)] [Wroc?aw University of Technology, Wybrze?e Wyspia?skiego 27, 50-370 Wroc?aw (Poland); Silberring, Jerzy [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)] [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

2014-05-15

264

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer.  

PubMed

The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet. PMID:24880391

Babij, Micha?; Kowalski, Zbigniew W; Nitsch, Karol; Silberring, Jerzy; Gotszalk, Teodor

2014-05-01

265

Methods for estimating the bioconcentration factor of ionizable organic chemicals.  

PubMed

The bioaccumulation potential is an important criterion in risk assessment of chemicals. Several regressions between bioconcentration factor (BCF) in fish and octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) have been developed for neutral organic compounds, but very few approaches address the BCF of ionizable compounds. A database with BCFs of 73 acids and 65 bases was collected from the literature. The BCF estimation method recommended by the Technical Guidance Document (TGD) for chemical risk assessment in the European Union was tested for ionizing substances using log K(OW) (corrected for the neutral species, log[ f(n) x K(OW)]) and log D (sum of log K(OW) of neutral and ionic molecule, apparent log K(OW)) as predictors. In addition, the method of Meylan et al. (Environ Toxicol Chem 1999; 18:664-672) for ionizable compounds and a dynamic cell model based on the Fick- Nernst-Planck equation were tested. Moreover, our own regressions for the BCF were established from log K(OW) and pK(a). The bioaccumulation of lipophilic compounds depends mainly on their lipophilicity, and the best predictor is log D. Dissociation, the pH-dependent ion trap, and electrical attraction of cations impact the BCF. Several methods showed acceptable results. The TGD regressions gave good predictions when log( f(n) x K(OW)) or log D were used as a predictor instead of log K(OW). The new regressions to log K(OW) and pK(a) performed similarly, with mean errors of approximately 0.4. The method of Meylan et al. did not perform as well. The cell model showed weak results for acids but was among the best methods for bases. PMID:19245273

Fu, Wenjing; Franco, Antonio; Trapp, Stefan

2009-07-01

266

Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas for Decontamination of Complex Medical Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure plasma sources produce a multiplicity of different antimicrobial agents and are applicable to even complicated geometries as well as to heat sensitive materials. Thus, atmospheric pressure plasmas have a huge potential for the decontamination of even complex medical devices like central venous catheters and endoscopes. In this paper we present practicable realizations of atmospheric pressure plasma sources, namely plasma jet, dielectric barrier discharge and microwave driven discharge that are able to penetrate fine lumen or are adaptable to difficult geometries. Furthermore, the antimicrobial efficacy of these sources is given for one example setup in each case.

Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Winter, Jörn; Polak, Martin; Ehlbeck, Jörg; von Woedtke, Thomas

267

Growth of silicon oxynitride films by atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-thin silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) layers were deposited by direct interaction of plasma species formed in an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with a silicon wafer. APPJs have been ignited in mixtures of helium (He) together with several nitrogen-based compounds. The chemical composition of the APPJ treated silicon surfaces was analysed by ultra-high vacuum x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The obtained N 1s XPS spectra showed that even 5 min of APPJ treatment is sufficient to fabricate SiOxNy films with a few nanometre thickness. A Si substrate exposed to an APPJ generated in a mixture of He/NH3 resulted in the most efficient growth of SiOxNy films, indicated by the strongest N 1s XPS signal among all studied gas mixtures. Moreover, the N 1s spectra exhibited two major characteristics of chemical bonding structures attributed to nitrogen bonded to three silicon surface atoms, N-(S)3, and nitrogen bonded to two silicon surface atoms and one oxygen atom, (Si)2-N-O.

Zhang, Xueqiang; Ptasinska, Sylwia

2014-04-01

268

Organic thin film deposition in atmospheric pressure glow discharge  

SciTech Connect

The stabilization of a homogeneous glow discharge at atmospheric pressure has been studied since 1987. On flat surfaces, various plasma surface treatments and film depositions at atmospheric pressure have been examined. A practical application of the atmospheric pressure glow plasma on inner surfaces of flexible polyvinyl chloride tubes was tested for thin film deposition of polytetrafluoroethylene. Deposited film surfaces were characterized by ESCA and FT-IR/ATR measurements. Also SEM observation was done for platelet adhesion on the plasma treated polyvinyl chloride surface. These results showed remarkable enhancement in the inhibition to platelet adhesion on the inner surface of PVC tube, and homogeneous organic film deposition was confirmed. The deposition mechanism of polytetrafluoroethylene film in atmospheric pressure glow plasma is the same as the mechanism of film formation in the low pressure glow plasma, except for radical formation source. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Okazaki, S.; Kogoma, M.; Yokoyama, T. [Sophia University, Kioi-cho 7-1, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102 (Japan); Kodama, M. [Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi 1-1-4, Tsukuba-shi, Ibarki-k en 305 (Japan); Nomiyama, H.; Ichinohe, K. [Kawasumi Laboratories, Inc., Tamada 7-1, Miemachi, Ohno-gun, Ohita-ken 879-71 (Japan)

1996-01-01

269

Investigating Atmospheric Pressure with a Cup, Straw and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a reinforcement lab activity where students experiment with ways to get water to flow out of a cup and up a straw causing an imbalance in the atmospheric pressure surrounding the water.

270

EDITORIAL: Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas for processing and other applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest has grown over the past few years in applying atmospheric pressure plasmas to plasma processing for the benefits this can offer to existing and potential new processes, because they do not require expensive vacuum systems and batch processing. There have been considerable efforts to efficiently generate large volumes of homogeneous atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas to develop environmentally friendly alternatives for surface treatment, thin film coating, sterilization, decontamination, etc. Many interesting questions have arisen that are related to both fundamental and applied research in this field. Many concern the generation of a large volume discharge which remains stable and uniform at atmospheric pressure. At this pressure, depending on the experimental conditions, either streamer or Townsend breakdown may occur. They respectively lead to micro-discharges or to one large radius discharge, Townsend or glow. However, the complexity arises from the formation of large radius streamers due to avalanche coupling and from the constriction of the glow discharge due to too low a current. Another difficulty is to visually distinguish many micro-discharges from one large radius discharge. Other questions relate to key chemical reactions in the plasma and at the surface. Experimental characterization and modelling also need to be developed to answer these questions. This cluster collects up-to-date research results related to the understanding of different discharges working at atmospheric pressure and the application to polymer surface activation and thin film coating. It presents different solutions for generating and sustaining diffuse discharges at atmospheric pressure. DC, low-frequency and radio-frequency excitations are considered in noble gases, nitrogen or air. Two specific methods developed to understand the transition from Townsend to streamer breakdown are also presented. They are based on the cross-correlation spectroscopy and an electrical model.

Massines, Françoise

2005-02-01

271

Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12kPa,

Lanfang H. Levine; Patricia A. Bisbee; Jeffrey T. Richards; Michele N. Birmele; Ronald L. Prior; Michele Perchonok; Mike Dixon; Neil C. Yorio; Gary W. Stutte; Raymond M. Wheeler

2008-01-01

272

Requirements for plasma synthesis of nanocrystals at atmospheric pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While well-defined high quality semiconductor nanocrystals have been synthesized successfully in low pressure nonthermal plasmas, moving the field of plasma nanoparticle synthesis to atmospheric pressures is important for lowering its cost and making the process attractive for some industrial applications. Here we present a heating and charging model for silicon nanoparticles during their synthesis in plasmas maintained over a wide range of pressures (10 ? 105 Pa). We consider three collisionality regimes and determine the dominant contribution of each regime to heating and charging of nanoparticles under various plasma conditions. For plasmas maintained at atmospheric pressures we find that the ion current is mainly due to the collisional hydrodynamic contribution. Based on the model, we predict that the formation of nanocrystals at atmospheric pressure requires significantly higher plasma densities than those at low pressures. Strong nanoparticle cooling at atmospheric pressures necessitates high ion densities to reach temperatures required for crystallization of nanoparticles. Using experimentally determined plasma properties from the literature we estimate the nanoparticle temperature that can be achieved during synthesis at atmospheric pressures and predict that temperatures well above those required for crystallization can be achieved. Based on these results we suggest design principles for nanocrystal synthesis at atmospheric pressures.

Kramer, N. J.; Aydil, E. S.; Kortshagen, U. R.

2015-01-01

273

Effect of sample compositions on chemical analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) is an effective ionization technique for mass spectrometry. It take advantages of some unique properties of certain organic chemicals to provide entrapment, isolation, vaporization, and ionization of the analyte of interest. While the main application of the MALDI technique is currently in the area of biological molecule analysis, it is possible to use this technique

David Schriemer; Yuqin Dai; Liang Li

1996-01-01

274

Deposition of HMDSO-based coatings on PET substrates using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results on the formation of coatings in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge using hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as gaseous precursor. Plasma-polymerized films are deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films using argon and argon\\/air mixtures as carrier gases. The chemical and physical properties of the obtained coatings are discussed in detail using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron

R. Morent; N. De Geyter; S. Van Vlierberghe; P. Dubruel; C. Leys; L. Gengembre; E. Schacht; E. Payen

2009-01-01

275

Dynamics and particle fluxes in atmospheric-pressure electronegative radio frequency microplasmas  

SciTech Connect

We report on intricate dynamics observed in atmospheric-pressure rf electronegative discharges where electrons and anions are separated due to their different mobilities. This results in the formation of positively charged regions between an electronegative plasma core and an oscillating electron ensemble. It is found that for a given input power, the electron, ion (both positive and negative) and neutral fluxes increase as the gap size is reduced, resulting in a more efficient delivery of chemical species to a treated target.

McKay, K.; Iza, F.; Kong, M. G. [School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11-3TU (United Kingdom); Liu, D. X.; Rong, M. Z. [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2011-08-29

276

Ozone production by nanoporous dielectric barrier glow discharge in atmospheric pressure air  

SciTech Connect

This study is aimed at demonstrating plasma-chemical ozone production based on low temperature atmospheric pressure glow discharge through nanoporous dielectric barriers. The 20 kHz ac driven discharge is formed in air or oxygen gas flowing in the axial direction of the cylindrical plasma reactor containing four parallel aluminum rods covered with nanoporous alumina films. The discharge utilizing nanoporous dielectric barrier is more uniform and more energy efficient in ozone generation than the discharge through smooth-surface dielectric barriers.

Cho, J. H.; Koo, I. G.; Choi, M. Y.; Lee, W. M. [Department of Chemistry and Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-03-10

277

Genetic effects of radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges with helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to low gas temperatures and high densities of active species, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges (APGDs) would have potential applications in the fields of plasma-based sterilization, gene mutation, etc. In this letter, the genetic effects of helium radio-frequency APGD plasmas with the plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide as the treated biomaterials are presented. The experimental results show that it is the chemically

Guo Li; He-Ping Li; Li-Yan Wang; Sen Wang; Hong-Xin Zhao; Wen-Ting Sun; Xin-Hui Xing; Cheng-Yu Bao

2008-01-01

278

Non-Thermal Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Possible Application in Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma, also named cold plasma, is defined as a partly ionized gas. Therefore, it cannot be equated with plasma from blood; it is not biological in nature. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma is a new innovative approach in medicine not only for the treatment of wounds, but with a wide-range of other applications, as e.g. topical treatment of other skin diseases with microbial involvement or treatment of cancer diseases. This review emphasizes plasma effects on wound healing. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma can support wound healing by its antiseptic effects, by stimulation of proliferation and migration of wound relating skin cells, by activation or inhibition of integrin receptors on the cell surface or by its pro-angiogenic effect. We summarize the effects of plasma on eukaryotic cells, especially on keratinocytes in terms of viability, proliferation, DNA, adhesion molecules and angiogenesis together with the role of reactive oxygen species and other components of plasma. The outcome of first clinical trials regarding wound healing is pointed out. PMID:25489414

Haertel, Beate; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Lindequist, Ulrike

2014-01-01

279

Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma possible application in wound healing.  

PubMed

Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma, also named cold plasma, is defined as a partly ionized gas. Therefore, it cannot be equated with plasma from blood; it is not biological in nature. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma is a new innovative approach in medicine not only for the treatment of wounds, but with a wide-range of other applications, as e.g. topical treatment of other skin diseases with microbial involvement or treatment of cancer diseases. This review emphasizes plasma effects on wound healing. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma can support wound healing by its antiseptic effects, by stimulation of proliferation and migration of wound relating skin cells, by activation or inhibition of integrin receptors on the cell surface or by its pro-angiogenic effect. We summarize the effects of plasma on eukaryotic cells, especially on keratinocytes in terms of viability, proliferation, DNA, adhesion molecules and angiogenesis together with the role of reactive oxygen species and other components of plasma. The outcome of first clinical trials regarding wound healing is pointed out. PMID:25489414

Haertel, Beate; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Lindequist, Ulrike

2014-11-01

280

Characterization of a steam plasma jet at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An atmospheric steam plasma jet generated by an original dc water plasma torch is investigated using electrical and spectroscopic techniques. Because it directly uses the water used for cooling electrodes as the plasma-forming gas, the water plasma torch has high thermal efficiency and a compact structure. The operational features of the water plasma torch and the generation of the steam plasma jet are analyzed based on the temporal evolution of voltage, current and steam pressure in the arc chamber. The influence of the output characteristics of the power source, the fluctuation of the arc and current intensity on the unsteadiness of the steam plasma jet is studied. The restrike mode is identified as the fluctuation characteristic of the steam arc, which contributes significantly to the instabilities of the steam plasma jet. In addition, the emission spectroscopic technique is employed to diagnose the steam plasma. The axial distributions of plasma parameters in the steam plasma jet, such as gas temperature, excitation temperature and electron number density, are determined by the diatomic molecule OH fitting method, Boltzmann slope method and H? Stark broadening, respectively. The steam plasma jet at atmospheric pressure is found to be close to the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state by comparing the measured electron density with the threshold value of electron density for the LTE state. Moreover, based on the assumption of LTE, the axial distributions of reactive species in the steam plasma jet are estimated, which indicates that the steam plasma has high chemical activity.

Ni, Guohua; Zhao, Peng; Cheng, Cheng; Song, Ye; Toyoda, Hirotaka; Meng, Yuedong

2012-02-01

281

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ) and Dielectric Barrier Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge (DB-APGD) in Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work two prominent types of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma sources are compared. First, a plane-parallel 13.56 MHz RF-excited atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) operated with 2 m3\\/h helium feed gas containing 0.5 % molecular oxygen is investigated. Its stainless steel electrodes' area measures 8 x 4 cm2 and the discharge gap is 1.1 mm. The effluent leaving

S. Reuter; V. Schulz-von der Gathen; H. F. Döbele

2007-01-01

282

Plate-like Dusty Structures in an e-Beam Sustained Glow Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure  

SciTech Connect

The paper is devoted to studying the dusty plasma created by the injection of dust particles into the atmospheric pressure gas ionized by an electron beam of 85-120 keV energy. The beam current density was varied within 0.1-1.0 mA/cm2. The electron gun operated in the stationary regime. The behavior of dusty particles lighted by a laser 'knife' was observed with a digital video camera. Stable plate-like structures were observed in the cathode sheath of non-self-sustained discharge. Numerical simulation was performed by using the non-local model of the non-self-sustained discharge.

Filippov, Anatoly V.; Babichev, Valery N.; Pal', Alexander F.; Starostin, Andrey N. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142190 SRC RF TRINITI, TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

2005-10-31

283

Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

Johansen, Michael R.

2014-01-01

284

Atmospheric Pressure Mass Spectrometry: A New Analytical  

E-print Network

acid) and to reduced N standards (allylurea; caffeine; imidazole; and N-2-propenylurea) occurred is an efficient removal mechanism for water- soluble chemical substances in the atmosphere. Since the early 1980s

Seitzinger, Sybil

285

Matrix Assisted Ionization in Vacuum, a Sensitive and Widely Applicable Ionization Method for Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An astonishingly simple new method to produce gas-phase ions of small molecules as well as proteins from the solid state under cold vacuum conditions is described. This matrix assisted ionization vacuum (MAIV) mass spectrometry (MS) method produces multiply charged ions similar to those that typify electrospray ionization (ESI) and uses sample preparation methods that are nearly identical to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Unlike these established methods, MAIV does not require a laser or voltage for ionization, and unlike the recently introduced matrix assisted ionization inlet method, does not require added heat. MAIV-MS requires only introduction of a crystalline mixture of the analyte incorporated with a suitable small molecule matrix compound such as 3-nitrobenzonitrile directly to the vacuum of the mass spectrometer. Vacuum intermediate pressure MALDI sources and modified ESI sources successfully produce ions for analysis by MS with this method. As in ESI-MS, ion formation is continuous and, without a laser, little chemical background is observed. MAIV, operating from a surface offers the possibility of significantly improved sensitivity relative to atmospheric pressure ionization because ions are produced in the vacuum region of the mass spectrometer eliminating losses associated with ion transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum. Mechanistic aspects and potential applications for this new ionization method are discussed.

Trimpin, Sarah; Inutan, Ellen D.

2013-05-01

286

Ammonia chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry in structural determination of alkaloids.  

E-print Network

Ammonia chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry in structural determination of alkaloids. II 7 June 2001 Chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (CI-MS/MS) of alkaloids with ammonia alkaloids in extracts from six pseudomyrmecine ants of the genus Tetraponera. The MS/MS techniques along

287

Free radicals induced in aqueous solution by non-contact atmospheric-pressure cold plasma  

SciTech Connect

To understand plasma-induced chemical processing in liquids, we investigated the formation of free radicals in aqueous solution exposed to different types of non-contact atmospheric-pressure helium plasma using the spin-trapping technique. Both hydroxyl radical (OH{center_dot}) and superoxide anion radical (O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot}) adducts were observed when neutral oxygen gas was additionally supplied to the plasma. In particular, O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot} can be dominantly induced in the solution via oxygen flow into the afterglow gas of helium plasma. This type of plasma treatment can potentially be used in medical applications to control infectious diseases, because the O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot} is crucial for sterilization of liquids via atmospheric-pressure plasma.

Tani, Atsushi; Fukui, Satoshi [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ono, Yusuke; Kitano, Katsuhisa [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ikawa, Satoshi [Technology Research Institute of Osaka Prefecture, Izumi, Osaka 594-1157 (Japan)

2012-06-18

288

[Characterization of an atmospheric pressure DC microplasma jet].  

PubMed

In the present work, a simply designed and easy made micrometer plasma jet device operating under atmospheric pressure was characterized. The microplasma jet operates in many kinds of working gas at atmospheric pressure, such as Ar, He, N2 etc, and is powered by a direct current power source. It can generate high current density glow discharge. In order to identify various excited species generated by the direct current microplasma jet device, the optical emission spectra of the jet with argon or nitrogen as working gas were studied. Based on the optical emission spectroscopy analysis of argon microplasma jet, the electron excitation temperature was determined to be about 3 000 K by the intensity ratio of two spectral lines. It is much lower than the electron excitation temperature of atmospheric pressure plasma torch, and hints that the atmospheric pressure direct current microplasma jet is cold compared with the atmospheric pressure plasma torch. The emission spectra of the N2 second positive band system were used to determine the vibrational temperature of the atmospheric pressure direct current microplasma jet. The experimental result shows that the molecular vibrational temperature of N2 is about 2 500 K. The electron density of the microplasma jet is about 10(13) cm(-3), which can be estimated from the electrical parameters of the discharge in the microplasma jet. A simple example of application of the microplasma jet is given. General print paper surface was modified with the microplasma jet and afterwards a droplet test was carried out. It was shown that the microplasma jet is more efficient in changing the hydrophilicity of general print paper. PMID:19445187

Zheng, Pei-Chao; Wang, Hong-Mei; Li, Jian-Quan; Han, Hai-Yan; Xu, Guo-Hua; Shen, Cheng-Yin; Chu, Yan-Nan

2009-02-01

289

Free-floating atmospheric pressure ball plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-lived (0.3 second, 10-20 cm diameter) ball plasma floating in the air above a water surface has been formed and studied in the laboratory. A 0.4 - 1 mF capacitor is charged to 4-5 kV, and subsequently discharged (30-60 Amps, 20-50 msec duration) into central copper cathode held fixed just below the surface of a bucket of water (with a weak solution of various salts in distilled water, such as CuSO4 or CuCl2, LiCl or NaCl). An underwater ring anode completes the circuit. A bubble of hot vapor from the water surface rises up in the first few milliseconds, and changes from a mushroom cloud with stalk, to a detached quasi-spherical object, finally evolving into a vortex ring. The plasma consists of ionized water vapor, with positive salts and OH- radicals, as well as molecular species, and it completely excludes nitrogen or oxygen from the rising plasma structure. A fine boundary layer is visible in orange, in contrast to a green ball interior when using Cu/CuSO4, and filamentary structures are visible at late times. Finally, a whisp of smoke ring is observed as a residue. A variety of visible and infrared imaging (both video and still cameras) are used, along with 200-800 nm time & space resolved spectroscopy, to identify features of this laboratory analog to ball lightning. Possible applications include a windowless ball- plasma powered pulsed copper vapor laser operating at 510 nm.

Wurden, G. A.; Ticos, C.; Wang, Z.; Wurden, C. J. V.

2007-11-01

290

Diffuse ?-mode atmospheric pressure radio-frequency discharge in neon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a radio-frequency (RF) atmospheric pressure glow discharge burning in neon between planar metal electrodes is achieved for the first time. The RF discharge can operate in two stable modes: in a diffuse ?-mode with uniformly covered electrode surfaces and in a constricted ?-mode. Similarities are revealed when the discharge is compared against the RF atmospheric pressure glow discharge in helium, namely both discharges show a discontinuity and a hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristic at the mode transition; the spatio-temporal profiles of the light emission in the ?-mode from neon, helium and atomic oxygen are also similar.

Navrátil, Z.; Dosoudilová, L.; Josepson, R.; Dvo?ák, P.; Trunec, D.

2014-08-01

291

Long term properties of monthly atmospheric pressure fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess the statistical properties of atmospheric pressure time series retrieved from a large database of monthly records. We analyze the short and long term properties of the time series including possible trends, persistence and antipersistence. We also analyze times series of climatic indices which are based on the atmospheric pressure fields, such as the North Atlantic oscillation index and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation index. Acknowledgment: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided financial support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

Giannoulis, S.; Ioannou, C.; Karantinos, E.; Malatesta, L.; Theodoropoulos, G.; Tsekouras, G.; Venediki, A.; Dimitriadis, P.; Papalexiou, S. M.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

2012-04-01

292

Peptide Fragmentation Induced by Radicals at Atmospheric Pressure  

PubMed Central

A novel ion dissociation technique, which is capable of providing an efficient fragmentation of peptides at essentially atmospheric pressure conditions, is developed. The fragmentation patterns observed often contain c-type fragments that are specific to ECD/ETD, along with the y-/b- fragments that are specific to CAD. In the presented experimental setup, ion fragmentation takes place within a flow reactor located in the atmospheric pressure region between the ion source and the mass spectrometer. According to a proposed mechanism, the fragmentation results from the interaction of ESI-generated analyte ions with the gas-phase radical species produced by a corona discharge source. PMID:19034885

Vilkov, Andrey N.; Laiko, Victor V.; Doroshenko, Vladimir M.

2009-01-01

293

Novel applications of atmospheric pressure plasma on textile materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various applications of atmospheric pressure plasma are investigated in conjunction with polymeric materials including paper, polypropylene non-woven fabric, and cotton. The effect of plasma on bulk and surface properties is examined by treating both cellulosic pulp and prefabricated paper with various plasma-gas compositions. After treatment, pulp is processed into paper and the properties are compared. The method of pulp preparation is found to be more significant than the plasma, but differences in density, strength, and surface roughness are apparent for the pulp vs. paper plasma treatments. The plasma is also used to remove sizes of PVA and starch from poly/cotton and cotton fabric respectively. In both cases plasma successfully removes a significant amount of size, but complete size removal is not achieved. Subsequent washes (PVA) or scouring (cotton) to remove the size are less successful than a control, suggesting the plasma is crosslinking the size that is not etched away. However, at short durations in cold water using an oxygen plasma, slightly more PVA is removed than with a control. For the starch sized samples, plasma and scouring are never as successful at removing starch as a conventional enzyme, but plasma improves dyeability without need for scouring. Plasma is also used to graft chemicals to the surface of polypropylene and cotton fabric. HTCC, an antimicrobial is grafted to polypropylene with successful grafting indicated by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), dye tests, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Antimicrobial activity of the grafted samples is also characterized. 3ATAC, a vinyl monomer is also grafted to polypropylene and to cotton. Additives including Mohr's salt, potassium persulfate, and diacrylate are assessed to increase yield. Successful grafting of 3ATAC is confirmed by XPS and dye testing. A combination of all three additives is identified as optimum for maximizing graft yield.

Cornelius, Carrie Elizabeth

294

Use of flow injection atmospheric pressure photoionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for fast olive oil fingerprinting.  

PubMed

The recently introduced technique of an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QqTOFMS) has been applied to fast olive oil fingerprinting on the basis of the accurate mass measurements obtained with this instrumentation. The key compounds can be characterized as [M+H]+ (produced by proton transfer) or as [M]+* (by charge transfer) ions in the mass spectra. [M+H]+ ions, however, show higher abundance, especially for triacylglycerols. Other ions present in APPI-MS are the acylium ion [RiCO]+ and [RiCO-H2O]+. This latter ion is absent in the electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS spectra, and this represents valuable complementary information. Several critical parameters in the APPI source were optimized such as LC eluent composition, ion spray voltage and, especially, declustering potential. APPI-QqTOFMS allows easy discrimination among different edible oils: olive, extra virgin olive, olive-pomace, hazelnut, sunflower, corn and several mixed oils, with high throughput (approximately 1 min per sample). Cluster analysis was applied to obtain the best experimental conditions for oil discrimination on the basis of declustering potential. Principal components analyses of these APPI-MS spectra show that the approach can be used for studies of olive oil adulteration with other oils, even in the case of hazelnut oil that exhibits a high chemical similarity with olive oil. PMID:16541407

Gómez-Ariza, J L; Arias-Borrego, A; García-Barrera, T

2006-01-01

295

Plasma formation in atmospheric pressure helium discharges under different background air pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure glow discharges generated between parallel-plate electrodes in helium have been characterized using temporally resolved emission spectra. The variation of typical spectral lines over time has been analyzed. In helium with a low concentration of N2, the emission of He at 706.5 nm is dominant and appears 500 ns earlier than N2+ first negative bands, indicating low reaction rates of Penning ionization and charge transfer in the initial stage. During the decay, it is the Penning ionization caused by He metastables with a long lifetime rather than the charge transfer reaction that leads to the long decay of N2+ emissions. When helium contains a higher concentration of N2 molecules, the N2+ first negative bands become the most intense, and emissions from He, N2+, and O exhibit similar behavior as they increase. The emissions last for a shorter time under such conditions because of rapid consumption of He metastables and He2+.

Liu, Yaoge; Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin

2012-09-01

296

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Treatment of Polyethylene Surfaces for  

E-print Network

, composite materials and metals need a pretreatment step before adhesive bonding or painting.[1 analysis and adhesive bonding experiments. The plasma is characterized by optical emission spectroscopy) samples were activated by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The improvement in adhesive bond strength

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

297

Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods ( P < 0.001), and may explain the clustering of suicide attempts. Men seem to be more vulnerable to attempt suicide under low atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

2012-11-01

298

The Water Table As Affected by Atmospheric Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the common situation where air is entrapped in the water, the water table height will vary with atmospheric pressure. The magnitude of this effect must be known before water-table changes can be related with any precision to other factors such as evapo- transpiration, infiltration, and drainage. A theory of this effect is developed and the influences of hysteresis and

A. J. Peck

1960-01-01

299

Gravity and Atmospheric Pressure Effects on Crater Formation in Sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of varying gravity and atmospheric pressure on the size of small explosion craters formed in cohesionless sand. The explosives used were commercially available squibs and caps and a linear detonating cord. Gravity was varied by flying the test container in an aircraft through carefully controlled maneuvers to simulate 0.17, 0.38, and

S. W. Johnson; J. A. Smith; E. G. Franklin; L. K. Moraski; D. J. Teal

1969-01-01

300

Global Atmospheric Pressure Effects of the October 30, 1961, Explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmospheric pressure waves set off by the explosion of October 30, 1961, were traced over a large portion of the world, including the antipodes in the Antarctic, by means of analyses of available ordinary microbarograph records. The observed geographic variations in propagation speed and maximum amplitude are examined with the aid of air density and wind analyses. Comparison is

H. Wexler; W. A. Hass

1962-01-01

301

Effects of atmospheric pressure on the survival of photosynthetic microorganisms  

E-print Network

Effects of atmospheric pressure on the survival of photosynthetic microorganisms during simulations of Mars. The combination of low temperature, low pressure, high ultraviolet flux and extreme aridity would and heterotrophic bacteria could sur- vive under simulated ecopoesis conditions of pure CO2 at 100 mbar pressure

Thomas, Dave

302

Cold atmospheric pressure air plasma jet for medical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

By flowing atmospheric pressure air through a direct current powered microhollow cathode discharge, we were able to generate a 2 cm long plasma jet. With increasing flow rate, the flow becomes turbulent and temperatures of the jet are reduced to values close to room temperature. Utilizing the jet, yeast grown on agar can be eradicated with a treatment of only

J. F. Kolb; A.-A H. Mohamed; R. O. Price; R. J. Swanson; A. Bowman; R. L. Chiavarini; M. Stacey; K. H. Schoenbach

2008-01-01

303

Air plasma jet with hollow electrodes at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet with air is produced through hollow electrodes and dielectric with a hole of 1 mm diam. The plasma jet device is operated by injecting pressurized air into the electrode hole. The air plasma jet device at average powers less than 5 W exhibits a cold plasma jet of about 2 cm in length and near the room

Yong Cheol Hong; Han Sup Uhm

2007-01-01

304

Bacterial Inactivation by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli seeded in two media (agar and filter papers) were exposed to after-glow plasma emitted from a atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator in open air with a temperature of about 30-80 °C. In order to estimate the inactivation of microorganism using DBD plasma jet, various plasma conditions (such as treatment time and

Sanxi Deng; Cheng Cheng; Guohua Ni; Yuedong Meng; Hua Chen

2008-01-01

305

Controlling the NO production of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of NO radicals by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet has been investigated by means of absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region (IR) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the ultraviolet (UV) part of the spectrum. The plasma jet investigated here operates in argon with air admixtures up to 1%. The study shows that OES can be used to

A V Pipa; S Reuter; R Foest; K-D Weltmann

2012-01-01

306

Atmospheric-pressure cold plasma jet for medical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atmospheric-pressure plasma jet operated with air is presented. The plasma jet device is composed of a porous alumina dielectric element, an outer electrode, and a hollow inner electrode. Microdischarges in the porous alumina evolve to form a plasma jet that reaches lengths up to several tens of millimeters as the flow rate of the working gas increases. The discharge

Won-Seok Kang; Yong-Cheol Hong; Yoo-Beom Hong; Jae-Ho Kim; Han Sup Uhm

2010-01-01

307

ANNUAL REPORT. ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE PLASMA CLEANING OF CONTAMINATED SURFACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this work is to demonstrate a practical, atmospheric pressure plasma tool for the surface decontamination of nuclear waste. Decontamination of radioactive materials that have accumulated on the surfaces of equipment and structures is a challenging and costly unde...

308

Bacterial Inactivation Using an RF-Powered Atmospheric Pressure Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells of Escherichia coli were exposed to a downstream plasma afterglow plume emitted from a slotted plasma device operating in open air at atmospheric pressure. Various feed-gas mixtures were capacitively excited, as they flowed into open air past radio frequency-powered electrodes. To estimate the underlying inactivation pathways, various experimental conditions were tested by incorporating ultraviolet filters, varying parameters such as

A. Sharma; A. Pruden; O. Stan; G. J. Collins

2006-01-01

309

Application of Relationship Between Groundwater Level and Atmospheric Pressure Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Change in atmospheric pressure affects ground water levels. Barometric efficiency, which is an indicator for different exposure to the atmospheric pressure of observation well and adjacent ground cover, can be used as an effective tool for estimating some groundwater properties. If the top of an observation well is sealed and contact with the atmosphere is blocked, there would be no pressure difference between the well and adjacent ground cover. As a result, the difference between barometric efficiency values of sealed and unsealed well of identical condition can indicates the effect of atmospheric pressure changes on the groundwater level. One month observation data of hydraulic head and atmospheric pressure at Wonju-si in Gangwon-do, Korea are used. Two different methods, Clark's method and graphical method, are adopted to estimate the barometric efficiency. Because the efficiency has implication on the properties of aquifer covering condition, mapping of this efficiency might be used for estimating groundwater vulnerability of contamination from surface-loaded sources.

Kim, S. J.; Lee, K.

2013-12-01

310

Optical and Electrical Measurements in Atmospheric Pressure Arcs: a Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure arcs are investigated by emission spectroscopy and electric exploration techniques. Temperature maps for arc currents in the range 100-200 A show good agreement with previously published data. An extended study on Langmuir probes in arcs has been performed and a multi-wire apparatus was constructed. The probes characteristic curve is distorted at high pressure and as a consistent theory

Carlo Fanara; Louriel Oliveira Vilarinho

2002-01-01

311

Atmospheric Pressure Infrared MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry for Plant Metabolomics  

E-print Network

in the citric acid cycle. Key components of the glycolysis pathway occurring in the plant cytosol were found#12;Atmospheric Pressure Infrared MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry for Plant Metabolomics Yue Li MALDI mass spectrometry (AP IR-MALDI) was assessed for plant metabolomics studies. Tissue sections from

Vertes, Akos

312

Excitation dynamics of micro-structured atmospheric pressure plasma arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial dynamics of the optical emission from an array of 50 times 50 individual microcavity plasma devices is investigated. The array is operated in argon and argon-neon mixtures close to atmospheric pressure with an ac voltage. The optical emission is analysed with phase and space resolution. It has been found that the emission is not continuous over the entire

H. Boettner; J. Waskoenig; D. O'Connell; T. L. Kim; P. A. Tchertchian; J. Winter; V. Schulz-von der Gathen

2010-01-01

313

Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

Rice, Gary (Gloucester, VA); D'Silva, Arthur P. (Ames, IA); Fassel, Velmer A. (Ames, IA)

1986-05-06

314

Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency, electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

Rice, G.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

1985-04-05

315

A study of the tropospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

E-print Network

The mechanisms and kinetics of reactions important to the troposphere have been investigated using a high pressure, turbulent, discharge-flow technique coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The ability to ...

Broekhuizen, Keith Edward, 1974-

2002-01-01

316

Chemical ionization mass spectrometry of trimethylsilylated carbohydrates and organic acids retained in uremic serum.  

PubMed

After appropriate sample pretreatment and derivatization, uremic serum was investigated by combined high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, using both electron impact and chemical ionization methods. Electron impact and chemical ionization spectra of a number of identified (trimethylsilylated) carbohydrates and organic acids are compared. The utilization of chemical ionization mass spectrometry, with isobutane as the reagent gas, is discussed in detail. The influence of the reagent gas pressure on the total ion current and on the spectral appearance was studied. The identification of compounds, based on electron impact mass spectral data, was confirmed and often aided appreciably by using this technique. The chemical ionization spectra of trimethylsilyated alditols and aldonic acids, as well as of other organic acids showed protonated molecular ions, whereas aldoses did not. Differences with electron impact spectra are found mainly in the high mass region. The loss of one or more trimethylsilanol groups becomes the predominating fragmentation route at higher reagent gas pressures. PMID:534687

Schoots, A C; Leclercq, P A

1979-11-01

317

Flow injection of liquid samples to a mass spectrometer with ionization under vacuum conditions: a combined ion source for single-photon and electron impact ionization.  

PubMed

Electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photo-ionization (APPI) are the most important techniques for the ionization of liquid samples. However, working under atmospheric pressure conditions, all these techniques involve some chemical rather than purely physical processes, and therefore, side reactions often yield to matrix-dependent ionization efficiencies. Here, a system is presented that combines both soft single-photon ionization (SPI) and hard 70 eV electron impact ionization (EI) of dissolved compounds under vacuum conditions. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was modified to enable direct EI, a technique developed by Cappiello et al. to obtain library-searchable EI mass spectra as well as soft SPI mass spectra of sample solutions. An electron beam-pumped rare gas excimer lamp working at 126 nm was used as well as a focusable vacuum UV light source for single-photon ionization. Both techniques, EI and SPI, were applied successfully for flow injection experiments providing library-matchable EI fragment mass spectra and soft SPI mass spectra, showing dominant signals for the molecular ion. Four model compounds were analyzed: hexadecane, propofol, chlorpropham, and eugenol, with detection limits in the picomolar range. This novel combination of EI and SPI promises great analytical benefits, thanks to the possibility of combining database alignment for EI data and molecular mass information provided by SPI. Possible applications for the presented ionization technology system are a matrix-effect-free detection and a rapid screening of different complex mixtures without time-consuming sample preparation or separation techniques (e.g., for analysis of reaction solutions in combinatorial chemistry) or a switchable hard (EI) and soft (SPI) MS method as detection step for liquid chromatography. PMID:23812882

Schepler, Claudia; Sklorz, Martin; Passig, Johannes; Famiglini, Giorgio; Cappiello, Achille; Zimmermann, Ralf

2013-09-01

318

Assessment of the various ionization methods in the analysis of metal salen complexes by mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Metal salen complexes are one of the most frequently used catalysts in enantioselective organic synthesis. In the present work, we compare a series of ionization methods that can be used for the mass spectral analysis of two types of metalosalens: ionic complexes (abbreviated as Com(+)X(-)) and neutral complexes (NCom). These methods include electron ionization and field desorption (FD) which can be applied to pure samples and atmospheric pressure ionization techniques: electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) which are suitable for solutions. We found that FD is a method of choice for recording molecular ions of the complexes containing even loosely bonded ligands. The results obtained using atmospheric pressure ionization methods show that the results depend mainly on the structure of metal salen complex and the ionization method. In ESI spectra, Com(+) ions were observed, while in APCI and APPI spectra both Com(+) and [Com?+?H](+) ions are observed in the ratio depending on the structure of the metal salen complex and the solvent used in the analysis. For complexes with tetrafluoroborate counterion, an elimination of BF3 took place, and ions corresponding to complexes with fluoride counterion were observed. Experiments comparing the relative sensitivity of ESI, APCI and APPI (with and without a dopant) methods showed that for the majority of the studied complexes ESI is the most sensitive one; however, the sensitivity of APCI is usually less than two times lower and for some compounds is even higher than the sensitivity of ESI. Both methods show very high linearity of the calibration curve in a range of about 3 orders of magnitude of the sample concentration. PMID:24809900

S?omi?ska, Beata; Cha?adaj, Wojciech; Danikiewicz, Witold

2014-05-01

319

Surface properties and hydrophobic recovery of polymers treated by atmospheric-pressure plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an analysis on the relation between plasma effects on polymers exposed to inert gas atmospheric-pressure plasma, polymer structure characteristics and surface recovery during post-processing ageing. Polymers offering variety of structure, functionality, degree of oxidation, polarity, crystallinity are tested, using contact angle, XPS, XRD and solvent absorption measurement, thus exploring the relationship linking the surface polarity, the chemical structure and composition contribution in the combined functionalization/crosslinking surface modification mechanisms of plasma-exposed polymers. The limiting level of modification attainable, the surface stability and the factors controlling these are examined, concluding on the plasma capacity to provide operational stability for modified polymer surfaces.

Borcia, C.; Punga, I. L.; Borcia, G.

2014-10-01

320

Genetic effects of radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges with helium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to low gas temperatures and high densities of active species, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges (APGDs) would have potential applications in the fields of plasma-based sterilization, gene mutation, etc. In this letter, the genetic effects of helium radio-frequency APGD plasmas with the plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide as the treated biomaterials are presented. The experimental results show that it is the chemically active species, instead of heat, ultraviolet radiation, intense electric field, and/or charged particles, that break the double chains of the plasmid DNA. The genetic effects depend on the plasma operating parameters, e.g., power input, helium flow rate, processing distance, time, etc.

Li, Guo; Li, He-Ping; Wang, Li-Yan; Wang, Sen; Zhao, Hong-Xin; Sun, Wen-Ting; Xing, Xin-Hui; Bao, Cheng-Yu

2008-06-01

321

Genetic effects of radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges with helium  

SciTech Connect

Due to low gas temperatures and high densities of active species, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges (APGDs) would have potential applications in the fields of plasma-based sterilization, gene mutation, etc. In this letter, the genetic effects of helium radio-frequency APGD plasmas with the plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide as the treated biomaterials are presented. The experimental results show that it is the chemically active species, instead of heat, ultraviolet radiation, intense electric field, and/or charged particles, that break the double chains of the plasmid DNA. The genetic effects depend on the plasma operating parameters, e.g., power input, helium flow rate, processing distance, time, etc.

Li Guo; Li Heping; Wang Sen; Sun Wenting; Bao Chengyu [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Liyan; Zhao Hongxin; Xing Xinhui [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2008-06-02

322

Application of an atmospheric pressure sampling mass spectrometer to chlorination reactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An atmospheric pressure mass spectrometric sampling system, based on a free jet expansion was used to study certain M-Cl-O reactions at high temperatures. The apparatus enables the volatile species from a 1-atm chemical process to be directly identified with a mass spectrometer which operates at approx. 10 to the minus 8th power torr. Studies for both pure metals and alloys are discussed. It is shown that this mass spectrometer system aids in identifying the volatile species, and provides fundamental information on the reaction mechanism.

Jacobson, N. S.

1986-01-01

323

Self-pulsing discharges in pre-heated air at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents investigations of self-pulsing discharges in atmospheric pressure air pre-heated to 300–1000 K. Despite using a direct-current power supply, two self-pulsing discharge regimes, a repetitive transient spark (TS) and a repetitive streamer (RS) were generated. The pulse repetition frequency, on the order of a few kHz, can be controlled by adjusting the generator voltage. The TS is a discharge initiated by a streamer, followed by a short (tens of ns) spark current pulse (? 1 A), associated with the total discharging of the internal capacity of the electric circuit. The TS is suitable for the study of ‘memory’ effects (pre-heating, pre-ionization) on the mechanisms of streamer-to-spark transition and electrical breakdown in atmospheric pressure air. The TS regime was stable below ?600 K. Above ?600 K, a stable repetitive streamer (RS) regime was observed. In this regime, the breakdown and spark did not occur. After the initial streamer, the internal capacity of the electrical circuit discharged partially. With further pre-heating of the gas, the stable TS appeared again at ?1000 K.

Janda, Mário; Machala, Zdenko; Dvon?, Lukáš; Lacoste, Deanna; Laux, Christophe O.

2015-01-01

324

Atmospheric pressure imaging mass spectrometry of drugs with various ablating lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric pressure mass spectrometric detection efficiency of organic species (tofisopam and verapamil) was measured by means of the laser ablation of dried solution drops containing known amount of the analyte. Ablated molecules were ionized by an atmospheric pressure laser plasma cell and then introduced in the TOF mass-spectrometer. The spot was formed by dripping 2 ?l of solution on the stainless steel substrate and consequent drying. Then it was scanned by an intense ablating beam of various lasers (CO2, Nd:YAG and femtosecond fiber laser) until the spot was completely eroded during the non-stop MS-analysis of ablated material. The sensitivity was defined as the ratio of the total ion current integral of the relevant mass peaks to the amount of molecules in the spot. All the tested lasers are suitable for the ablation and subsequent MS-detection of organic species in dried solution spots given enough power deposition is provided. The measured sensitivity values reach 0.1 ions/fg of tested analytes.

Moshkunov, K. A.; Alimpiev, S. S.; Grechnikov, A. A.; Nikifirov, S. M.; Pento, A. V.; Simanovsky, Ya O.

2014-12-01

325

Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

SciTech Connect

Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

Kim, Kangil; Sik Yang, Sang, E-mail: jsjlee@ajou.ac.kr, E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jun Ahn, Hak; Lee, Jong-Soo, E-mail: jsjlee@ajou.ac.kr, E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biological Sciences, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-06

326

Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption  

SciTech Connect

The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp. [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Matrali, S. H. [Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Gazeli, K. [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); IPREM-LCABIE, Plasmas et Applications, UPPA, 64000 Pau (France); Clement, F. [IPREM-LCABIE, Plasmas et Applications, UPPA, 64000 Pau (France); Antimisiaris, S. G. [Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (ICES)-FORTH, Rion 26504 (Greece)

2012-12-24

327

Production of titanium dioxide powders by atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiO2 powders have been successfully synthesized by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), which operates by feeding air between two coaxial electrodes that are driven by a 20.8kHz power source. Tetrachloride titanium is mixed with the effluent of the plasma jet in deferent regions to produce TiO2 powders. The synthesized samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy

Zhongwei Liu; Qiang Chen; Zhengduo Wang; Lizhen Yang; Chuanyue Wang

2011-01-01

328

Imaging of atmospheric pressure glow discharges in helium and argon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present images of atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) in pure noble gases, helium and argon, for a needle-plane (N-P) electrode geometry. The images have been obtained using an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) digital camera, at nanosecond exposure times. We present time-dependence of discharge images perpendicular and parallel to the interelectrode gap for both helium and argon.

I. Radu; R. Bartnikas; M. R. Wertheimer

2005-01-01

329

Plasma sterilization using glow discharge at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent development of atmospheric pressure glow discharge was compared with the performance of an apparatus used in the first APG experiment, in terms of sterilization of newly classified biological indicator: Bacillus atrophaeus, former Bacillus subtilis var. niger and Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Stabilization was attained by controlling the experimental conditions, at low frequency: 100 kHz and Radio Frequency: 13.56 MHz, water vapor\\/He

Tetsuya Akitsu; Hiroshi Ohkawa; Masao Tsuji; Hideo Kimura; Masuhiro Kogoma

2005-01-01

330

Double streamer phenomena in atmospheric pressure low frequency corona plasma  

SciTech Connect

Time-resolved images of an atmospheric pressure corona discharge, generated at 50 kHz in a single pin electrode source, show unique positive and negative corona discharge features: a streamer for the positive period and a glow for the negative period. However, unlike in previous reports of dc pulse and low frequency corona discharges, multistreamers were observed at the initial time stage of the positive corona. A possible physical mechanism for the multistreamers is suggested.

Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-07-15

331

Atmospheric pressure fluctuations and oxygen enrichment in waste tanks  

SciTech Connect

During In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) processing radiolytic decomposition of tetraphenylborate and water can produce benzene and hydrogen, which, given sufficiently high oxygen concentrations, can deflagrate. To prevent accumulations of benzene and hydrogen and avoid deflagration, continuous nitrogen purging is maintained. If the nitrogen purging is interrupted by, for example, a power failure, outside air will begin to seep into the tank through vent holes and cracks. Eventually a flammable mixture of benzene, hydrogen, and oxygen will occur (deflagration). However, this process is slow under steady-state conditions (constant pressure) and mechanisms to increase the exchange rate with the outside atmosphere must be considered. The most important mechanism of this kind is from atmospheric pressure fluctuations in which an increase in atmospheric pressure forces air into the tank which then mixes with the hydrogen-benzene mixture. The subsequent decrease in atmospheric pressure causes venting from the tank of the mixture -- the net effect being an increase in the tank`s oxygen concentration. Thus, enrichment occurs when the atmospheric pressure increases but not when the pressure decreases. Moreover, this natural atmospheric {open_quotes}pumping{close_quotes} is only important if the pressure fluctuations take place on a time scale longer than the characteristic mixing time scale (CMT) of the tank. If pressure fluctuations have a significantly higher frequency than the CMT, outside air will be forced into the tank and then out again before any significant mixing can occur. The CMT is not known for certain, but is estimated to be between 8 and 24 hours. The purpose of this report is to analyze yearly pressure fluctuations for a five year period to determine their statistical properties over 8 and 24-hour periods. The analysis also includes a special breakdown into summer and winter seasons and an analysis of 15-minute data from the SRTC Climatology Site.

Kurzeja, R.J.; Weber, A.H.

1993-07-01

332

Stimulation of wound healing by helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New experiments using atmospheric pressure plasma have found large application in treatment of living cells or tissues, wound healing, cancerous cell apoptosis, blood coagulation on wounds, bone tissue modification, sterilization and decontamination. In this study an atmospheric pressure plasma jet generated using a cylindrical dielectric-barrier discharge was applied for treatment of burned wounds on Wistar rats' skin. The low temperature plasma jet works in helium and is driven by high voltage pulses. Oxygen and nitrogen based impurities are identified in the jet by emission spectroscopy. This paper analyses the natural epithelization of the rats' skin wounds and two methods of assisted epithelization, a classical one using polyurethane wound dressing and a new one using daily atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of wounds. Systemic and local medical data, such as haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, were monitored during entire period of study. Increased oxidative stress was observed for plasma treated wound. This result can be related to the presence in the plasma volume of active species, such as O and OH radicals. Both methods, wound dressing and plasma-assisted epithelization, provided positive medical results related to the recovery process of burned wounds. The dynamics of the skin regeneration process was modified: the epidermis re-epitelization was accelerated, while the recovery of superficial dermis was slowed down.

Vasile Nastuta, Andrei; Topala, Ionut; Grigoras, Constantin; Pohoata, Valentin; Popa, Gheorghe

2011-03-01

333

Plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures: potential molecular responses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is an increasing realization that it may be impossible to attain Earth normal atmospheric pressures in orbital, lunar, or Martian greenhouses, simply because the construction materials do not exist to meet the extraordinary constraints imposed by balancing high engineering requirements against high lift costs. This equation essentially dictates that NASA have in place the capability to grow plants at reduced atmospheric pressure. Yet current understanding of plant growth at low pressures is limited to just a few experiments and relatively rudimentary assessments of plant vigor and growth. The tools now exist, however, to make rapid progress toward understanding the fundamental nature of plant responses and adaptations to low pressures, and to develop strategies for mitigating detrimental effects by engineering the growth conditions or by engineering the plants themselves. The genomes of rice and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have recently been sequenced in their entirety, and public sector and commercial DNA chips are becoming available such that thousands of genes can be assayed at once. A fundamental understanding of plant responses and adaptation to low pressures can now be approached and translated into procedures and engineering considerations to enhance plant growth at low atmospheric pressures. In anticipation of such studies, we present here the background arguments supporting these contentions, as well as informed speculation about the kinds of molecular physiological responses that might be expected of plants in low-pressure environments.

Ferl, Robert J.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Gurley, William B.; Corey, Kenneth; Bucklin, Ray

2002-01-01

334

NO production in an RF plasma jet at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A time modulated RF atmospheric pressure plasma jet, operated in ambient air with a flow of argon with a few per cent of air, N2 or O2, was characterized by measuring the gas temperature with Rayleigh scattering, the absolute NO density with laser-induced fluorescence, and the emission of NO A and N2 C with time resolved optical emission spectroscopy. The gas temperature, NO density and the emission measurements are carried out both time and spatially resolved. The atmospheric pressure plasma jet has the advantage that the plasma dissipated power can be measured, and it was found that the gas temperature depends on the power, rather than the gas mixture. The NO density increases with increasing plasma power, and was found to have a maximum around 1.5 × 1021 m-3 at an air admixture of 2%. The N2 C emission is modulated by the 13.9 MHz RF frequency, while the NO A emission front increases with much slower velocity during the 20 kHz duty cycle, which gives an insight into the excitation mechanisms in the plasma. Through the addition of either N2 or O2 to the plasma it was experimentally confirmed that the production of atomic N radicals are of key importance for the NO production in this atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

van Gessel, A. F. H.; Alards, K. M. J.; Bruggeman, P. J.

2013-07-01

335

Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12 kPa, respectively. Plants were harvested at 21 days after planting, with aerial shoots and swollen hypocotyls (edible portion of the radish referred to as the “root” hereafter) separated immediately upon removal from the chambers. Samples were subsequently evaluated for their sensory characteristics (color, taste, overall appearance, and texture), taste-determining factors (glucosinolate and soluble carbohydrate content and myrosinase activity), proximate nutrients (protein, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) and potential health benefit attributes (antioxidant capacity). In roots of control plants, concentrations of glucosinolate, total soluble sugar, and nitrate, as well as myrosinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (measured as ORACFL), were 2.9, 20, 5.1, 9.4, and 1.9 times greater than the amount in leaves, respectively. There was no significant difference in total antioxidant capacity, sensory characteristics, carbohydrate composition, or proximate nutrient content among the three pressure treatments. However, glucosinolate content in the root and nitrate concentration in the leaf declined as the atmospheric pressure decreased, suggesting perturbation to some nitrogen-related metabolism.

Levine, Lanfang H.; Bisbee, Patricia A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Birmele, Michele N.; Prior, Ronald L.; Perchonok, Michele; Dixon, Mike; Yorio, Neil C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

336

Model of a stationary microwave argon discharge at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

The many applications of microwave gas discharges at atmospheric pressure in various fields of science, technology and medicine require an adequate model of these discharges. Such a model is based on the electromagnetic wave's propagation properties and on the elementary processes in the discharge bulk. In contrast to the microwave discharges at low-gas pressures, where many elementary processes might be ignored because of their negligible contribution to the electron and heavy particle's balance equations, for such discharges at atmospheric pressure the consideration of a large number of collisional processes is mandatory. For the build of a successful discharge-column model one needs three important quantities, notably the power {theta} necessary for sustaining an electron - ion pair, electron - neutral collision frequency for momentum transfer v{sub en}, and gas temperature T{sub g}. The first two key parameters are obtained by a collisional-radiative model of the argon at atmospheric pressure, while the microwave frequency {omega}/2{pi} = 2.45 GHz, plasma column radius R, gas pressure p and gas temperature T{sub g} are fixed external parameters determined by the experimental conditions. Here, we present a model of a capillary argon microwave plasma column with a length L {approx_equal} 14 cm, sustained by wave power of 110 W - the model yields the longitudinal distributions of the plasma density, expended wave power, wave electric field magnitude, and complex wave number.

Zhelyazkov, I. [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Pencheva, M.; Benova, E. [Department for Language Teaching and International Students, Sofia University, BG-1111 Sofia (Bulgaria)

2008-03-19

337

Influence of Atmospheric Pressure and Composition on LIBS  

SciTech Connect

Most LIBS experiments are conducted at standard atmospheric pressure in air. However, there are LIBS studies that vary the pressure and composition of the gas. These studies have provided insights into fundamentals of the mechanisms that lead to the emission and methods for improving the quality of LIBS spectra. These atmospheric studies are difficult because the effects of pressure and gas composition and interconnected, making interpretation of the results difficult. The influence of pressures below and above 760 Torr have been explored. Performing LIBS on a surface at reduced pressures (<760 Torr) can result in enhanced spectra due to higher resolution, increased intensity, improved signal-to-noise (S/N), and increased ablation. Lower pressures produce increased resolution because the line width in LIBS spectra is predominantly due to Stark and Doppler broadening. Stark broadening is primarily caused from collisions between electrons and atoms, while Doppler broadening is proportional to the plasma temperature. Close examination using a high resolution spectrometer reveals that spectra show significant peak broadening and self-absorption as pressures increase, especially for pressures >760 Torr. During LIBS plasma expansion, energy is lost to the surrounding atmosphere, which reduces the lifetime of the laser plasma. Therefore, reducing the pressure increases the lifetime of the plasma, allowing more light from the laser plasma to be collected; thus, increasing the observed signal intensity. However, if pressures are too low (<10 Torr), then there is a steep drop in LIBS spectral intensity. This loss in intensity is mostly due to a disordered plasma that results from the lack of sufficient atmosphere to provide adequate confinement. At reduced pressures, the plasma expands into a less dense atmosphere, which results in a less dense shock wave. The reduced density in the shock wave results in reduced plasma shielding, allowing more photons to reach the sample. Increasing the number of photons interacting with the sample surface results in increased ablation, which can lead to increased intensity. The composition of the background gas has been shown to greatly influence the observed LIBS spectra by altering the plasma temperature, electron density, mass removal, and plasma shielding that impact the emission intensity and peak resolution. It has been reported that atmospheric Ar results in the highest plasma temperature and electron density, while a He atmosphere results in the lowest plasma temperatures and electron density. Studying temporal data, it was also found that Ar had the slowest decay of both electron density and plasma temperature, while He had the fastest decay in both parameters. The higher plasma temperature and electron density results in an increase in line broadenin, or poor resolution, for Ar compared to He. A rapidly developing LIBS plasma with a sufficient amount of electrons can absorb a significant portion of the laser pulse through inverse Bremsstahlung. Ar (15.8 eV ) is more easily ionized than He (24.4 eV). The breakdown threshold for He at 760 Torr is approximately 3 times greater than Ar and approximately 5 times greater at 100 Torr. The lower breakdown threshold in Ar, compared to He, creates an environment favorable for plasma shielding, which reduces sample vaporization and leads to a weaker LIBS signal.

Jeremy J. Hatch [Pacific Univ., Forest Grove, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Jill R. Scott [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Chemical and Radiation Measurement; Effenberger, A. J. Jr. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Center for Energy Research

2014-03-01

338

Phase explosion in atmospheric pressure infrared laser ablation from water-rich targets  

E-print Network

Phase explosion in atmospheric pressure infrared laser ablation from water-rich targets Zhaoyang for preparative, medical,13 and analytical applications11 e.g., atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser at atmospheric pressure in the presence of phase ex- plosion. Compared to laser ablation in vacuum, in a back

Vertes, Akos

339

Simulation of a direct current microplasma discharge in helium at atmospheric pressure  

E-print Network

Simulation of a direct current microplasma discharge in helium at atmospheric pressure Qiang Wang at atmospheric pressure was performed based on a one-dimensional fluid model. The microdischarge was found dc atmospheric pressure He microdischarge were presented, as well as successful comparisons

Economou, Demetre J.

340

Influence of dissociative recombination on the LTE of argon high-frequency plasmas at atmospheric pressure  

E-print Network

at atmospheric pressure A. Sáinz1 , J. Margot2 , M. C. García1 , M. D. Calzada1 1 Grupo de Espectroscopía de+ ) are also expected to play an important role in the discharge kinetics. At atmospheric pressure obeys the Saha-Boltzmann distribution. However, at atmospheric pressure, molecular recombination

Boyer, Edmond

341

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet: Effect of electrode configuration, discharge behavior, and its formation mechanism  

E-print Network

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet: Effect of electrode configuration, discharge behavior, and its 2008; accepted 8 June 2009; published online 10 July 2009 Atmospheric pressure plasma jet APPJ can The atmospheric pressure plasma is much advantageous over low pressure plasmas in various aspects. It can be dis

Zexian, Cao

342

Video Article Atmospheric-pressure Molecular Imaging of Biological Tissues and Biofilms by  

E-print Network

Video Article Atmospheric-pressure Molecular Imaging of Biological Tissues and Biofilms by LAESI.3791/2097 Citation: Nemes P., Vertes A. (2010). Atmospheric-pressure Molecular Imaging of Biological Tissues with an atmospheric-pressure ion source interface is employed to analyze and record the composition of the released

Vertes, Akos

343

Dynamics of pulse phenomena in helium dielectric-barrier atmospheric-pressure glow discharges  

E-print Network

Dynamics of pulse phenomena in helium dielectric-barrier atmospheric-pressure glow discharges of pulse phenomena in conventional parallel-plate dielectric-barrier controlled atmospheric-pressure glow. DOI: 10.1063/1.1625414 I. INTRODUCTION There is rapidly growing interest in atmospheric- pressure glow

Raja, Laxminarayan L.

344

Role of trace impurities in large-volume noble gas atmospheric-pressure glow discharges  

E-print Network

Role of trace impurities in large-volume noble gas atmospheric-pressure glow discharges Xiaohui 2002 A computational study of capacitively coupled atmospheric-pressure glow discharges in high atmospheric-pressure glow discharges. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1497445 Several

Raja, Laxminarayan L.

345

Diode laser absorption and emission spectroscopy of a streamer discharge in an atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) that are initiated via a self-sustaining streamer discharge has recently been driven by both their potential for applications to nonthermal material processing, and fundamental questions regarding the basic discharge mechanisms that drive this remarkably stable atmospheric pressure discharge. We have characterized a streamer-initiated atmospheric pressure plasma jet in a 5% Ar \\/ 95%

B. L. Sands; R. J. Leiweke; B. N. Ganguly

2010-01-01

346

Cooperative biological effects between ionizing radiation and other physical and chemical agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), at environmentally and therapeutically relevant doses or as a result of diagnostics or accidents, causes cyto- and genotoxic damage. However, exposure to IR alone is a rare event as it occurs in spatial and temporal combination with several physico-chemical agents. Some of these are of known noxiousness, as is the case with chemical compounds at

Lorenzo Manti; Annalisa D’Arco

2010-01-01

347

Dynamics of a guided streamer (‘plasma bullet’) in a helium jet in air at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been demonstrated experimentally that a non-equilibrium plasma column can be generated by discharge pulses in a helium jet surrounded by atmospheric-pressure air. The ‘plasma jet’ can be longer than 10 cm and fast imaging shows that most of the light emitted by the plasma jet is produced in a small ‘plasma bullet’ that propagates along the helium jet at speeds of several tens of km s-1. With the help of a simple fluid model of the discharge, we show that the plasma jet is very similar to a cathode streamer (ionization wave) guided by the helium jet. We discuss the properties of the helium streamer and of the plasma channel behind the streamer head as a function of parameters such as electrode geometry, voltage pulse waveform and preionization density. The model can reproduce qualitatively and explain most of the features observed experimentally.

Boeuf, J.-P.; Yang, L. L.; Pitchford, L. C.

2013-01-01

348

Characteristics of atmospheric-pressure, radio-frequency glow discharges operated with argon added ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rf, atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasmas with bare metal electrodes have promising prospects in the fields of plasma-aided etching, thin film deposition, disinfection and sterilization, etc. In this paper, the discharge characteristics are presented for the rf APGD plasmas generated with pure argon or argon-ethanol mixture as the plasma-forming gas and using water-cooled, bare copper electrodes. The experimental results show that the breakdown voltage can be reduced significantly when a small amount of ethanol is added into argon, probably due to the fact that the Penning ionization process is involved, and a pure ?-mode discharge can be produced more easily with the help of ethanol. The uniformity of the rf APGDs of pure argon or argon-ethanol mixtures using bare metallic electrodes is identified with the aid of the intensified charge coupled device images.

Sun, Wen-Ting; Li, Guo; Li, He-Ping; Bao, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Hua-Bo; Zeng, Shi; Gao, Xing; Luo, Hui-Ying

2007-06-01

349

Characteristics of atmospheric-pressure, radio-frequency glow discharges operated with argon added ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Rf, atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasmas with bare metal electrodes have promising prospects in the fields of plasma-aided etching, thin film deposition, disinfection and sterilization, etc. In this paper, the discharge characteristics are presented for the rf APGD plasmas generated with pure argon or argon-ethanol mixture as the plasma-forming gas and using water-cooled, bare copper electrodes. The experimental results show that the breakdown voltage can be reduced significantly when a small amount of ethanol is added into argon, probably due to the fact that the Penning ionization process is involved, and a pure {alpha}-mode discharge can be produced more easily with the help of ethanol. The uniformity of the rf APGDs of pure argon or argon-ethanol mixtures using bare metallic electrodes is identified with the aid of the intensified charge coupled device images.

Sun Wenting; Li Guo; Li Heping; Bao Chengyu; Wang Huabo; Zeng Shi; Gao Xing; Luo Huiying [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100069 (China); Beijing Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Beijing 100013 (China)

2007-06-15

350

Simulations of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharges in atmospheric pressure air  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes simulations of nanosecond pulse plasma formation between planer electrodes covered by dielectric barriers in air at atmospheric pressure and 340 K. The plasma formation process starts as electrons detach from negative ions of molecular oxygen that are produced from the previous discharge pulse. An ionization front is found to form close to the positively biased electrode and then strengthens and propagates towards the grounded electrode with increasing gap voltage. Charge accumulation and secondary emission from the grounded electrode eventually lead to sheath collapse. One interesting feature is a predicted reversal in gap potential due to the accumulated charge, even when there is no reversal in applied potential. The simulation results are compared to recent measurement of mid-gap electric field under the same discharge conditions [Ito et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 065002 (2011)].

Soo Bak, Moon; Cappelli, Mark A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2013-03-21

351

Atmospheric Pressure Humid Argon DBD Plasma for the Application of Sterilization -Measurement and Simulation of Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Hydrogen  

E-print Network

Atmospheric Pressure Humid Argon DBD Plasma for the Application of Sterilization - Measurement peroxide have been measured downstream of an atmospheric pressure humid argon dielectric barrier discharge, sterilization I. INTRODUCTION Non-thermal plasma technology at atmospheric pressure using oxygen

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

352

Atmospheric pressure plasma CVD as a tool to functionalise wound dressings.  

PubMed

The main goal of this investigation was the preparation of an antibacterial layer system for additional modification of wound dressings with atmospheric plasma. Furthermore, the modified wound dressings were checked on there bactericidal and cytotoxic activity. The layer system was applied by using a novel atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapour deposition technique on a variety of textile substrates which are suitable as wound dressing materials. The layer system composed of silicon dioxide with in situ generated embedded silver nanoparticles. The bactericidal activity of the produced wound dressings was investigated against different bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae while the cytotoxic potential of the coated wound dressings was verified using human keratinocytes. Even at low concentrations of silver precursor a strong antibacterial effect was observed in direct contact with S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. Furthermore, extractions produced from the coated textiles showed a good antibacterial effect. By means of optimised coating parameters a therapeutic window for those wound dressings could be identified. Consequently, the atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapour deposition technique promise an effective and low cost modification of wound dressing materials. PMID:25631274

Spange, Sebastian; Pfuch, Andreas; Wiegand, Cornelia; Beier, Oliver; Hipler, Uta C; Grünler, Bernd

2015-02-01

353

Reduced atmospheric pressure in Radish: Alteration of NCER and transpiration at decreased oxygen partial pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental to the future of space exploration is the development of advanced life support systems capable of maintaining crews for significant periods without re-supply from Earth. Significant research is focused on the development of bioregenerative life support systems to be used in conjunction with the current physico-chemical methods. These bioregenerative life support systems harness natural ecosystem processes and employ plant photosynthesis and transpiration to produce food, oxygen and regenerate water while consuming carbon dioxide. The forthcoming exploration of the Moon and Mars has prompted interest into the effects of hypobaria on plant development. Reduced atmospheric pressures will lessen the pressure gradient between the structure and the local environment thereby decreasing gas leakage and possibly the structural mass of the plant growth facility. In order to establish the optimal specifications for reduced pressure plant growth structures it is essential to determine the atmospheric pressure limits required for conventional plant development and growth. Due to its physiological importance, oxygen will compose a significant portion of these minimal environments. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced atmospheric pressure and decreased oxygen partial pressures had no effect on radish productivity. Radishes (Raphanus sativa L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) were grown from seed in the University of Guelph's Hypobaric Plant Growth Chambers for a period of 21 days. Treatments included total pressures of 10, 33, 66 and 96 kPa and oxygen partial pressures of 2, 7, 14 and 20 kPa. Experiments demonstrated that reduced partial pressures of oxygen had a greater effect on radish growth than hypobaria. Results showed a reduction in net carbon exchange rate and transpiration with decreasing oxygen partial pressures leading to diminished productivity. Keywords: hypobaric, radish, oxygen partial pressure, variable pressure chamber, bioregenerative life support

Wehkamp, Cara Ann; Stasiak, Michael; Wheeler, Raymond; Dixon, Mike

354

Investigation of spectrochemical matrix effects in the liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) microplasma was evaluated with regard to its spectrochemical robustness in its application as a miniaturized optical emission spectroscopy (OES) source for liquid samples. The susceptibility to perturbations in excitation/ionization conditions was probed across a wide range test species, including transition metals, easily ionized elements (group I), and elements with low second ionization potentials (group II). Spectrochemical metrics included the plasma excitation temperature (Texc), ionization temperatures (Tion), and magnesium (Mg) ionic:atomic (Mg II:Mg I) ratios. The introduction of the 11 different matrix elements into the LS-APGD at concentrations of 500 ?g mL- 1 yielded no significant changes in the optically-determined plasma characteristics, indicating a relative immunity to spectrochemical matrix effects. Texe values for the plasma, using He I as the spectrometric species averaged 2769 ± 79 K across the test matrix, with Mg-based ionization temperature values centered at 6665 ± 151 K. Typical Mg II:Mg I ratios (the so-called robustness parameter) were 0.95 ± 0.3. The lack of appreciable perturbation in excitation/ionization conditions observed here is also manifested in virtually no changes in the probe Mg II and I species' intensities, even at matrix loadings of up to 1000 ?g mL- 1 of Ba. These observations indicate that the LS-APGD could serve as an OES source for the analysis of diverse aqueous samples without appreciable spectroscopic matrix effects, though potential physical matrix effects including vaporization effects must be evaluated.

Manard, Benjamin T.; Gonzalez, Jhanis J.; Sarkar, Arnab; Mao, Xianglei; Zhang, Lynn X.; Konegger-Kappel, Stefanie; Marcus, R. Kenneth; Russo, Richard E.

2014-10-01

355

[Spectral diagnosis of plasma jet at atmospheric pressure].  

PubMed

A new approach to surface modification of materials using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet at atmospheric pressure is presented in the present paper. The emission spectral lines of argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure were recorded by the grating spectrograph HR2000 and computer software. The argon plasma emission spectra, ranging from 300nm to 1000 nm, were measured at different applied voltage. Compared to air plasma emission spectra under the same circumstance, it is shown that all of the spectral lines are attributed to neutral argon atoms. The spectral lines 763.51 and 772.42 nm were chosen to estimate the electron excitation temperature. The purpose of the study is to research the relationship between the applied voltage and temperature to control the process of materials' surface modification promptly. The results show that electron excitation temperature is in the range of 0.1-0.5 eV and increases with increasing applied voltage. In the process of surface modification under the plasma jet, the infrared radiation thermometer was used to measure the material surface temperature under the plasma jet. The results show that the material surface temperature is in the range of 50-100 degrees C and it also increases with increasing applied voltage. Because the material surface was under the plasma jet and its temperature was decided by the plasma, and the material surface temperature increased with increasing the macro-temperature of plasma jet, the relationship between the surface temperature and applied voltage indicates the relationship between the macro-temperature of the plasma jet and the applied voltage approximately. The experimental results indicate that DBD plasma jet at atmospheric pressure is a new approach to improving the quality of materials' surface modification, and spectral diagnosis has proved to be a kind of workable method by choosing suitable applied voltage. PMID:19248476

Li, Chi; Tang, Xiao-liang; Qiu, Gao

2008-12-01

356

On the permanent hip-stabilizing effect of atmospheric pressure.  

PubMed

Hip joint dislocations related to total hip arthroplasty (THA) are a common complication especially in the early postoperative course. The surgical approach, the alignment of the prosthetic components, the range of motion and the muscle tone are known factors influencing the risk of dislocation. A further factor that is discussed until today is atmospheric pressure which is not taken into account in the present THA concepts. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of atmospheric pressure on hip joint stability. Five joint models (Ø 28-44 mm), consisting of THA components were hermetically sealed with a rubber capsule, filled with a defined amount of fluid and exposed to varying ambient pressure. Displacement and pressure sensors were used to record the extent of dislocation related to intraarticular and ambient pressure. In 200 experiments spontaneous dislocations of the different sized joint models were reliably observed once the ambient pressure was lower than 6.0 kPa. Increasing the ambient pressure above 6.0 kPa immediately and persistently reduced the joint models until the ambient pressure was lowered again. Displacement always exceeded half the diameter of the joint model and was independent of gravity effects. This experimental study gives strong evidence that the hip joint is permanently stabilized by atmospheric pressure, confirming the theories of Weber and Weber (1836). On basis of these findings the use of larger prosthetic heads, capsular repair and the deployment of an intracapsular Redon drain are proposed to substantially decrease the risk of dislocation after THA. PMID:24938930

Prietzel, Torsten; Hammer, Niels; Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Kaßebaum, Eric; Farag, Mohamed; von Salis-Soglio, Georg

2014-08-22

357

Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy  

SciTech Connect

A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O{sub 2} (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

Sun Peng; Wu Haiyan [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sun Yi; Liu Wei; Li Ruoyu [Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Peking Univ. 1st Hospital and Research Center for Medical Mycology, Peking Univ., Beijing 100034 (China); Zhu Weidong; Lopez, Jose L. [Department of Applied Science and Technology and Center for Microplasma Science and Technology, Saint Peter's College, Jersey City, New Jersey 07306 (United States); Zhang Jue; Fang Jing [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2011-01-10

358

Heat transport of nitrogen in helium atmospheric pressure microplasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable DC atmospheric pressure normal glow discharges in ambient air were produced between the water surface and the metallic capillary coupled with influx of helium gas. Multiple independent repeated trials indicated that vibrational temperature of nitrogen rises from 3200 to 4622 K, and rotational temperature of nitrogen decreases from 1270 to 570 K as gas flux increasing from 20 to 80 sccm and discharge current decreasing from 11 to 3 mA. Furthermore, it was found that the vibrational degree of the nitrogen molecule has priority to gain energy than the rotational degree of nitrogen molecule in nonequilibrium helium microplasma.

Xu, S. F.; Zhong, X. X.

2013-07-01

359

Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air  

SciTech Connect

The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed.

Stephan, Karl D. [Department of Engineering and Technology, Texas State University-San Marcos, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States) and Process Energetics Laboratory, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

2006-11-15

360

Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air.  

PubMed

The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed. PMID:17279961

Stephan, Karl D

2006-11-01

361

Cold atmospheric pressure air plasma jet for medical applications  

SciTech Connect

By flowing atmospheric pressure air through a direct current powered microhollow cathode discharge, we were able to generate a 2 cm long plasma jet. With increasing flow rate, the flow becomes turbulent and temperatures of the jet are reduced to values close to room temperature. Utilizing the jet, yeast grown on agar can be eradicated with a treatment of only a few seconds. Conversely, animal studies show no skin damage even with exposures ten times longer than needed for pathogen extermination. This cold plasma jet provides an effective mode of treatment for yeast infections of the skin.

Kolb, J. F.; Price, R. O.; Bowman, A.; Chiavarini, R. L.; Stacey, M.; Schoenbach, K. H. [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23510 (United States); Mohamed, A.-A H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt); Swanson, R. J. [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23510 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

2008-06-16

362

Air plasma jet with hollow electrodes at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet with air is produced through hollow electrodes and dielectric with a hole of 1 mm diam. The plasma jet device is operated by injecting pressurized air into the electrode hole. The air plasma jet device at average powers less than 5 W exhibits a cold plasma jet of about 2 cm in length and near the room temperature, being low enough to treat thermally sensitive materials. Preliminary studies on the discharge characteristics and application tests are also presented by comparing the air plasma jet with the nitrogen and argon plasma jet.

Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, San 5, Wonchon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-05-15

363

Driven Motion and Instability of an Atmospheric Pressure Arc  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure arcs are used extensively in applications such as welding and metallurgy. However, comparatively little is known of the physics of such arcs in external magnetic fields and the mechanisms of the instabilities present. In order to address questions of equilibrium and stability of such arcs, an experimental arc furnace is constructed and operated in air with graphite cathode and steel anode at currents 100-250 A. The arc is diagnosed with a gated intensified camera and a collimated photodiode array, as well as fast voltage and current probes.

Max Karasik

1999-12-01

364

Electrical characteristics and formation mechanism of atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of atmospheric pressure plasma jet produced by a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge in helium in external electrostatic and magnetic field is investigated. Net negative charges in the plasma jet outside the tube were detected. The deflection of the plume in the external field was observed. The plasma jet is suggested to be formed by the electron beam from the temporal cathode which is accelerated by a longitudinal field induced by the surface charges on the dielectric tube or interface between the helium and ambient air. The helium flow is necessary for the jet formation in the surrounding air.

Liu, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Weijing; Meng, Ying; Ouyang, Jiting

2014-06-01

365

Electrode erosion in arc discharges at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was performed in an effort to measure and increase lifetime of electrodes in an arcjet thruster. The electrode erosion of various anode and cathode materials was measured after tests in an atmospheric pressure nitrogen arc discharge at powers less than 1 kW. A free-burning arc configuration and a constricted arc configuration were used to test the materials. Lanthanum hexboride and thoriated tungsten had low cathode erosion rates while thoriated tungsten and pure tungsten had the lowest anode erosion rates of the materials tested. Anode cooling, reverse gas flow, an external magnetic fields were all found to reduce electrode mass loss.

Hardy, T. L.

1985-01-01

366

Study of a dual frequency atmospheric pressure corona plasma  

SciTech Connect

Radio frequency mixing of 2 and 13.56 MHz was investigated by performing experimental measurements on the atmospheric pressure corona plasma. As a result of the dual frequency, length, current density, and electron excitation temperature of the plasma were increased, while the gas temperature was maintained at roughly the same level when compared to the respective single frequency plasmas. Moreover, observation of time-resolved images revealed that the dual frequency plasma has a discharge mode of 2 MHz positive streamer, 2 MHz negative glow, and 13.56 MHz continuous glow.

Kim, Dan Bee; Moon, S. Y.; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

367

Electrode erosion in arc discharges at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was performed in an effort to measure and increase lifetime of electrodes in an arcjet thruster. The electrode erosion of various anode and cathode materials was measured after tests in an atmospheric pressure nitrogen arc discharge at powers less than 1 kW. A free-burning arc configuration and a constricted arc configuration were used to test the materials. Lanthanum hexaboride and thoriated tungsten had low cathode erosion rates while thoriated tungsten and pure tungsten had the lowest anode erosion rates of the materials tested. Anode cooling, reverse gas flow, and external magnetic fields were all found to reduce electrode mass loss.

Hardy, T. L.

1985-01-01

368

Experimental Investigation Of Atmospheric Pressure Surface Wave Discharges  

SciTech Connect

Microwave atmospheric pressure discharge in neon sustained by surface waves in a dielectric tube is considered. The plasma column length was measured versus absorbed microwave power for different discharge conditions. This gives a view on the wave propagation characteristics. The predicted dependence of discharge length on the total flux of wave power based on the modified model of non-equilibrium plasma is compared with experimental values. Moreover, we present results of spectroscopic investigations of the electron density. The electron density was determined using the method based on the Stark broadening of H{beta} spectral line. The spectroscopic results we shall use developing of a model of propagation of surface wave.

Czylkowski, D.; Jasinski, M.; Nowakowska, H.; Zakrzewski, Z. [The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-231 Gdansk (Poland)

2006-01-15

369

Electrical characteristics and formation mechanism of atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of atmospheric pressure plasma jet produced by a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge in helium in external electrostatic and magnetic field is investigated. Net negative charges in the plasma jet outside the tube were detected. The deflection of the plume in the external field was observed. The plasma jet is suggested to be formed by the electron beam from the temporal cathode which is accelerated by a longitudinal field induced by the surface charges on the dielectric tube or interface between the helium and ambient air. The helium flow is necessary for the jet formation in the surrounding air.

Liu, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Weijing; Meng, Ying; Ouyang, Jiting, E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

2014-06-16

370

Validation study of a method for assaying DE-310, a macromolecular carrier conjugate containing an anti-tumor camptothecin derivative, and the free drug in tumor tissue by high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

DE-310 is a macromolecular carrier conjugate containing an anti-tumor camptothecin derivative, DX-8951, which is conjugated to a water-soluble polymer via a peptide spacer. Assay methods have been developed for the determination of a polymer-bonded DX-8951 conjugate, DX-8951, and Glycyl-DX-8951 concentrations in murine Meth A tumor tissue. Free DX-8951 and Glycyl-DX-8951 were extracted from tumor tissue homogenates by protein precipitation and analyzed by LC/MS/MS (method I). Conjugated DX-8951 was isolated by solid-phase extraction after digestion with a thermolysin. The productive phenylalanyl-glycyl-DX-8951 was analyzed by LC/MS/MS (method II). The lower limits of quantitation of DX-8951, Glycyl-DX-8951, and conjugated DX-8951 were 1.36, 1.34 and 73.7 ng/g (as DX-8951 equivalent). These two methods showed satisfactory sensitivity, precision and accuracy. To study the pharmacokinetics of DE-310, it would be of great help to assay the polymer-bonded DX-8951 and its released drugs in tumor tissue. PMID:15484225

Oguma, Toshihiro; Morikawa, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Daisuke; Atsumi, Ryo

2005-01-01

371

Hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films by high-temperature annealing at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-temperature procedure to hydrogenate diamond films using molecular hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was explored. Undoped and doped chemical vapour deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films were treated according to our annealing method using a H2 gas flow down to ˜50 ml/min (STP) at ˜850 °C. The films were extensively evaluated by surface wettability, electron affinity, elemental composition, photoconductivity, and redox studies. In addition, electrografting experiments were performed. The surface characteristics as well as the optoelectronic and redox properties of the annealed films were found to be very similar to hydrogen plasma-treated films. Moreover, the presented method is compatible with atmospheric pressure and provides a low-cost solution to hydrogenate CVD diamond, which makes it interesting for industrial applications. The plausible mechanism for the hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films is based on the formation of surface carbon dangling bonds and carbon-carbon unsaturated bonds at the applied tempera-ture, which react with molecular hydrogen to produce a hydrogen-terminated surface.

Seshan, V.; Ullien, D.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Sachdeva, S.; Murthy, D. H. K.; Savenije, T. J.; Ahmad, H. A.; Nunney, T. S.; Janssens, S. D.; Haenen, K.; Nesládek, M.; van der Zant, H. S. J.; Sudhölter, E. J. R.; de Smet, L. C. P. M.

2013-06-01

372

A theoretical insight into low-temperature atmospheric-pressure He+H2 plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H2-containing low-temperature plasmas are used in a wide range of industrial applications. In recent decades, efforts have been made to understand and improve the performance of these plasmas, mainly when operated at low and medium pressures. Studies of hydrogen-containing plasmas at atmospheric pressure, however, are scarce despite the potential advantage of operation in a vacuum-free environment. Here the chemistry of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure He + H2 plasmas is studied by means of a global model that incorporates 20 species and 168 reactions. It is found that for a fixed average input power the plasma density decreases sharply when the H2 concentration is higher than ˜0.2%, whereas the atomic H density peaks at a H2 concentration of ˜2%. Operation at larger H2 concentrations leads to lower plasma densities and lower H concentrations because at high H2 concentrations significant power is dissipated via vibrational excitation of H2 and there is an increasing presence of negative ions (H-). Key plasma species and chemical processes are identified and reduced sets of reactions that capture the main physicochemical processes of the discharge are proposed for use in computationally demanding models. The actual waveform of the input power is found to affect the average density of electrons, ions and metastables but it has little influence on the density of species requiring low energy for their formation, such as atomic hydrogen and vibrational states of hydrogen.

Liu, Ding-Xin; Iza, Felipe; Wang, Xiao-Hua; Ma, Zhi-Zhen; Rong, Ming-Zhe; Kong, Michael G.

2013-10-01

373

Treatment of polycarbonate by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally most plastic materials are intrinsically hydrophobic, low surface energy materials, and thus do not adhere well to other substances. Surface treatment of polymers by discharge plasmas is of great and increasing industrial application because it can uniformly modify the surface of sample without changing the material bulk properties and is environmentally friendly. The plasma processes that can be conducted under ambient pressure and temperature conditions have attracted special attention because of their easy implementation in industrial processing. Present work deals with surface modification of polycarbonate (PC) by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure. The treatment was performed in a parallel plate reactor driven by a 60Hz power supply. The DBD plasmas at atmospheric pressure were generated in air and nitrogen. Material characterization was carried out by contact angle measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface energy of the polymer surface was calculated from contact angle data by Owens-Wendt method using distilled water and diiodomethane as test liquids. The plasma-induced chemical modifications are associated with incorporation of polar oxygen and nitrogen containing groups on the polymer surface. Due to these surface modifications the DBD-treated polymers become more hydrophilic. Aging behavior of the treated samples revealed that the polymer surfaces were prone to hydrophobic recovery although they did not completely recover their original wetting properties.

Kostov, K. G.; Hamia, Y. A. A.; Mota, R. P.; dos Santos, A. L. R.; Nascente, P. A. P.

2014-05-01

374

High-Spatial-Resolution Machining Utilizing Atmospheric Pressure Plasma: Machining Characteristics of Silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By applying atmospheric-pressure plasma, we have developed a new ultraprecision machining method named plasma chemical vaporization machining (PCVM). In this method, several types of rotary or pipe electrode are prepared for optimizing the required machining characteristics. In particular, by rotating the electrodes in a high-pressure environment, both the supply of reactive species to the machining point and the exhaust of reaction products are effectively performed. To realize high-efficiency ultraprecision machining, optimum removal that corresponds to various spatial wavelengths should be performed. The spatial resolution range of the rotary electrode is 10-20 mm, and that of the pipe electrode is 1-2 mm. Therefore, the development of a new machining method that has a spatial resolution on the submillimeter order is required. In this paper, we propose a new machining method in which reactive species generated in atmospheric-pressure plasma are supplied to the workpiece surface through a small orifice with a diameter of 10 ?m. We also report the machining characteristics of Si.

Yamamura, Kazuya; Kato, Kunihito; Sano, Yasuhisa; Shibahara, Masafumi; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Mori, Yuzo

2006-10-01

375

Surface modification of cellulosic substrates via atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of acrylic acid: Structure and properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface chemical modification of cellulose-based substrates has been carried out by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD) of acrylic acid. The structure/properties relationship of the samples was studied as a function of the plasma experimental conditions. Acrylic acid monomer/helium ratio and treatment speed clearly influences the wettability properties of the paper substrate: advancing contact angle values were reduced to the half if compare to non-treated paper. Surface morphology of the films did not greatly vary at short polymerization times but fibers were covered by a poly(acrylic acid) film at longer times. FTIR and XPS techniques allowed detecting the retention of carboxylic acid groups/moieties. The possibility to quickly design architectures with tunable carboxylic functions by modifying the plasma processing parameters is shown.

Garcia-Torres, Jose; Sylla, Dioulde; Molina, Laura; Crespo, Eulalia; Mota, Jordi; Bautista, Llorenç

2014-06-01

376

The gas conversion of methane with oxygen at atmospheric pressure using a cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion of methane to useful chemicals and liquid fuels currently requires steam reforming, which requires great amounts of energy input. We are currently investigating the possibilities of using a plasma activated system for this gas conversion. Due to the pulsed nature and the low operating temperature capabilities, we have chosen the atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge as a setup to investigate whether it can be used as a more efficient gas conversion reactor. For this purpose we have developed a CH4/O2 chemical reaction set and used it in a 2D fluid model of a cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge, in which we also incorporate the influence of the gas flow. In this way we investigate whether we can optimize the production of methanol or formaldehyde. The parameters under study are the CH4/O2 ratio, the applied voltage characteristics, the gap width and the gas flow rate.

Martens, Tom; Petrovic, Dragana; de Bie, Christophe; Bogaerts, Annemie; Brok, Wouter; van Dijk, Jan

2008-10-01

377

Generation and characteristic survey of atmospheric-pressure dry, vapor, mist plasma jet using high-frequency high-voltage power supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet has attracted in the various fields for example surface treatment of materials, bacterial killing and so on. The reasons why the plasma used these applications are because it is a non-thermal, high pressure, uniform glow plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. While passing through the plasma, the feed gas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits, the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains neutral metastable species and radicals. In our previous study, GFP-7R proteins were promoted delivering into the HeLa cells by dry plasma jet. In this case, we irradiated dry plasma jet only the surface of cell suspension. Therefore, it may be expected that raising the ratio of surface area/volume exposed to plasma by to mist the cell suspension causes further improvement of protein transduction efficiency by irradiating plasma. In this study, we investigated the optimal driving parameters of the plasma jets. The length of dry, vapor, and mist plasma jets and the generated chemical species of each plasma jet will be introduced at the conference.

Takamura, Norimitsu; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori

2012-10-01

378

Inactivation of Escherichia coli using atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An atmospheric-pressure argon (Ar) plasma jet was applied to the inactivation of Escherichia coli. The Ar plasma jet was generated at a frequency of 10 kHz, an applied voltage of 10 kV, and an Ar gas flow rate of 10 L/min at atmospheric pressure. E. coli cells seeded on an agar medium in a Petri dish were inactivated by Ar plasma jet irradiation for 1 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that E. coli cells were killed because their cell wall and membrane were disrupted. To determine the causes of the disruption of the cell wall and membrane of E. coli, we performed the following experiments: the measurement of the surface temperature of an agar medium using a thermograph, the analysis of an emission spectrum of a plasma jet obtained using a multichannel spectrometer, and the determination of the distribution of the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated on an agar medium by plasma jet irradiation using semiquantitative test strips. Moreover, H2O2 solutions of different concentrations were dropped onto an agar medium seeded with E. coli cells to examine the contribution of H2O2 to the death of E. coli. The results of these experiments showed that the cell wall and membrane of E. coli were disrupted by electrons in the plasma jet, as well as by electroneutral excited nitrogen molecules (N2) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals in the periphery of the plasma jet.

Kuwahata, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ohyama, Ryu-ichiro; Ito, Atsushi

2015-01-01

379

Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a practical, environmentally benigh technology for the surface decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive waste. A low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed with initial support from the DOE, Environmental Management Sciences Program. This devise selectively etches radioactive metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. The technology shows a great potential for accelerating the clean-up effort for the equipment and structures contaminated with radioactive materials within the DOE complex. The viability of this technology has been demonstrated by selectively and rapidly stripping uranium from stainless steel surfaces at low temperature. Studies on uranium oxide have shown that etch rates of 4.0 microns per minute can be achieved at temperature below 473 K. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the atmospheric pressure plasma source. We are now able to scale up the plasma source to treat large surface areas.

Robert F. Hicks; Hans W. Herrmann

2003-12-15

380

Pluto's insolation history: Latitudinal variations and effects on atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since previous long-term insolation modeling in the early 1990s, new atmospheric pressure data, increased computational power, and the upcoming flyby of the Pluto system by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft have generated new motivation and increased capabilities for the study of Pluto's complex long-term (million-years) insolation history. The two primary topics of interest in studying Pluto's insolation history are the variations in insolation patterns when integrated over different intervals and the evolution of diurnal insolation patterns over the last several decades. We find latitudinal dichotomies when comparing average insolation over timescales of days, decades, centuries, and millennia, where all timescales we consider are short relative to the predicted timescales for Pluto's chaotic orbit. Depending on the timescales of volatile migration, some consequences of these insolation patterns may be manifested in the surface features revealed by New Horizons. We find the Maximum Diurnal Insolation (MDI) at any latitude is driven most strongly when Pluto's obliquity creates a long arctic summer (or "midnight sun") beginning just after perihelion. Pluto's atmospheric pressure, as measured through stellar occultation observations during the past three decades, shows a circumstantial correlation with this midnight sun scenario as quantified by the MDI parameter.

Earle, Alissa M.; Binzel, Richard P.

2015-04-01

381

High-Resolution Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Chemical Characterization of Organic Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the chemical composition and chemical transformations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is both a major challenge and the area of greatest uncertainty in current aerosol research. This study presents the first application of desorption electrospray ionization combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for detailed chemical characterization and studies of chemical aging of OA collected on Teflon substrates. DESI-MS offers unique advantages both for detailed characterization of chemically labile components in OA that cannot be detected using more traditional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and for studying chemical aging of OA. DESI-MS enables rapid characterization of OA samples collected on substrates by eliminating the sample preparation stage. In addition, it enables detection and structural characterization of chemically labile molecules in OA samples by minimizing the residence time of analyte in the solvent. SOA produced by the ozonolysis of limonene (LSOA) was allowed to react with gaseous ammonia. Chemical aging resulted in measurable changes in the optical properties of LSOA observed using UV- visible spectroscopy. DESI-MS combined with tandem mass spectrometry experiments (MS/MS) enabled identification of species in aged LSOA responsible for absorption of the visible light. Detailed analysis of the experimental data allowed us to identify chemical changes induced by reactions of LSOA constituents with ammonia and distinguish between different mechanisms of chemical aging.

Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Roach, Patrick J.; Slysz, Gordon W.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Bones, David L.; Nguyen, Lucas

2010-03-01

382

PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN THE ENVIRONMENT: EVIDENCE FOR ITS ORIGIN FROM COMMERCIAL PENTACHLOROPHENOL BY NEGATIVE CHEMICAL IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Commercial pentachlorophenol (PCP) contains significant quantities of tetrachlorophenol (TCP). The occurrence of TCP in environmental samples provides a chemical marker for PCP originating from commercial formulations. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry has been used ...

383

PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN THE ENVIRONMENT. EVIDENCE FOR ITS ORIGIN FROM COMMERCIAL PENTACHLOROPHENOL BY NEGATIVE CHEMICAL IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Commercial pentachlorophenol (PCP) contains significant quantities of tetrachlorophenol (TCP). The occurrence of TCP in environmental samples provides a chemical marker for PCP originating from commercial formulations. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry has been used ...

384

Plasma-Assisted Reaction Chemical Ionization for Elemental Mass Spectrometry of Organohalogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present plasma-assisted reaction chemical ionization (PARCI) for elemental analysis of halogens in organic compounds. Organohalogens are broken down to simple halogen-containing molecules (e.g., HBr) in a helium microwave-induced plasma followed by negative mode chemical ionization (CI) in the afterglow region. The reagent ions for CI originate from penning ionization of gases (e.g., N2) introduced into the afterglow region. The performance of PARCI-mass spectrometry (MS) is evaluated using flow injection analyses of organobromines, demonstrating 5-8 times better sensitivities compared with inductively coupled plasma MS. We show that compound-dependent sensitivities in PARCI-MS mainly arise from sample introduction biases.

Wang, Haopeng; Lin, Ninghang; Kahen, Kaveh; Badiei, Hamid; Jorabchi, Kaveh

2014-04-01

385

Metastable high-spin states in chemical ionization in hydrocarbon combustion  

SciTech Connect

The chemical ionization mechanism for HCO{sub 2}{sup +} is considered from MINDO/3 CI calculations and ones on the spin-orbit interaction elements, which has been employed in examining the sections of the potential-energy surfaces along the reaction coordinates in the formation of HCO{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}} and HCO{sub 2}{sup +}.

Minaev, B.F.; Ivanova, N.M.; Serov, V.V.

1992-05-01

386

Analysis of anabolic steroids in urine by gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry with chlorobenzene as dopant.  

PubMed

A gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-?APPI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of anabolic androgenic steroids in urine as their trimethylsilyl derivatives. The method utilizes a heated nebulizer microchip in atmospheric pressure photoionization mode (?APPI) with chlorobenzene as dopant, which provides high ionization efficiency by producing abundant radical cations with minimal fragmentation. The performance of GC-?APPI-MS/MS was evaluated with respect to repeatability, linearity, linear range, and limit of detection (LOD). The results confirmed the potential of the method for doping control analysis of anabolic steroids. Repeatability (RSD<10%), linearity (R(2)?0.996) and sensitivity (LODs 0.05-0.1ng/mL) were acceptable. Quantitative performance of the method was tested and compared with that of conventional GC-electron ionization-MS, and the results were in good agreement. PMID:24041507

Hintikka, Laura; Haapala, Markus; Kuuranne, Tiia; Leinonen, Antti; Kostiainen, Risto

2013-10-18

387

Experimental study of unconfined surface wave discharges at atmospheric pressure by optical emission spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A surface wave discharge (SWD) in argon at atmospheric pressure generated by a surfatron device was studied by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Two distinct situations were investigated; (i) a discharge plasma in open air and (ii) a discharge plasma totally confined in a quartz tube. The electron density ne, electron temperature Te and gas temperature Tg were investigated as a function of applied power and gas flow rate. The self-absorbing method was used to estimate the population of the metastable state Ar(1s5). These physical quantities were determined through optical measurements along the plasma axis of symmetry. The profile of the electron density presented a maximum value under certain conditions, in contrast with typical electron density profiles of SWDs which are usually monotonically decreasing. A correlation between the electron density and the metastable state Ar(1s5) was found in one of these cases, suggesting that stepwise ionization from metastable states and non-local kinetics play an important role on the unexpected increase in ionization degree along the discharge.

Ridenti, M. A.; Souza-Corrêa, J. A.; Amorim, J.

2014-01-01

388

Plasma formation in atmospheric pressure helium discharges under different background air pressures  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure glow discharges generated between parallel-plate electrodes in helium have been characterized using temporally resolved emission spectra. The variation of typical spectral lines over time has been analyzed. In helium with a low concentration of N{sub 2}, the emission of He at 706.5 nm is dominant and appears 500 ns earlier than N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative bands, indicating low reaction rates of Penning ionization and charge transfer in the initial stage. During the decay, it is the Penning ionization caused by He metastables with a long lifetime rather than the charge transfer reaction that leads to the long decay of N{sub 2}{sup +} emissions. When helium contains a higher concentration of N{sub 2} molecules, the N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative bands become the most intense, and emissions from He, N{sub 2}{sup +}, and O exhibit similar behavior as they increase. The emissions last for a shorter time under such conditions because of rapid consumption of He metastables and He{sub 2}{sup +}.

Liu Yaoge; Hao Yanpeng; Zheng Bin [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

2012-09-15

389

Atmospheric pressure He-air plasma jet: Breakdown process and propagation phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper He-discharge (plasma jet/bullet) in atmospheric pressure air and its progression phenomenon has been studied experimentally using ICCD camera, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and calibrated dielectric probe measurements. The repetitive nanosecond pulse has applied to a plasma pencil to generate discharge in the helium gas channel. The discharge propagation speed was measured from the ICCD images. The axial electric field distribution in the plasma jet is inferred from the optical emission spectroscopic data and from the probe measurement. The correlation between the jet velocities, jet length with the pulse duration is established. It shows that the plasma jet is not isolated from the input voltage along its propagation path. The discharge propagation speed, the electron density and the local and average electric field distribution along the plasma jet axis predicted from the experimental results are in good agreement with the data predicted by numerical simulation of the streamer propagation presented in different literatures. The ionization phenomenon of the discharge predicts the key ionization parameters, such as speed, peak electric field in the front, and electron density. The maximum local electric field measured by OES is 95 kV/cm at 1.3 cm of the jet axis, and average EF measured by probe is 24 kV/cm at the same place of the jet. The average and local electron density estimated are in the order of 1011 cm-3 and it reaches to the maximum of 1012 cm-3.

Begum, Asma; Laroussi, Mounir; Pervez, Mohammad Rasel

2013-06-01

390

Atmospheric pressure plasma jets interacting with liquid covered tissue: touching and not-touching the liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the use of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in biological applications, the plasma-produced charged and neutral species in the plume of the jet often interact with a thin layer of liquid covering the tissue being treated. The plasma-produced reactivity must then penetrate through the liquid layer to reach the tissue. In this computational investigation, a plasma jet created by a single discharge pulse at three different voltages was directed onto a 200?µm water layer covering tissue followed by a 10?s afterglow. The magnitude of the voltage and its pulse length determined if the ionization wave producing the plasma plume reached the surface of the liquid. When the ionization wave touches the surface, significantly more charged species were created in the water layer with H3O+aq, O3?aq, and O2?aq being the dominant terminal species. More aqueous OHaq, H2O2aq, and O3aq were also formed when the plasma plume touches the surface. The single pulse examined here corresponds to a low repetition rate plasma jet where reactive species would be blown out of the volume between pulses and there is not recirculation of flow or turbulence. For these conditions, NxOy species do not accumulate in the volume. As a result, aqueous nitrites, nitrates, and peroxynitrite, and the HNO3aq and HOONOaq, which trace their origin to solvated NxOy, have low densities.

Norberg, Seth A.; Tian, Wei; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

2014-11-01

391

Chiral micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CMEKC)-atmospheric pressure photoionization of benzoin derivatives using mixed molecular micelles  

PubMed Central

In the present work we report, for the first time, the successful on-line coupling of chiral micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CMEKC) to atmospheric pressure photo-ionization mass spectrometry (APPI-MS). Four structurally similar neutral test solutes (e.g., benzoin derivatives) were successfully ionized by APPI-MS. The mass spectra in the positive ion mode showed that the protonated molecular ions of benzoins are not the most abundant fragment ions. Simultaneous enantioseparation by CMEKC and on-line APPI-MS detection of four photoinitiators: hydrobenzoin (HBNZ), benzoin (BNZ), benzoin methyl ether (BME), benzoin ethyl ether (BEE), were achieved using an optimized molar ratio of mixed molecular micelle of two polymeric chiral surfactants (polysodium N-undecenoxy carbonyl-L-leucinate and polysodium N-undecenoyl-L,L-leucylvalinate). The CMEKC conditions, such as voltage, chiral polymeric surfactant concentration, buffer pH, and BGE concentration, were optimized using a multivariate central composite design (CCD). The sheath liquid composition (involving % v/v methanol, dopant concentration, electrolyte additive concentration, and flow rate) and spray chamber parameters (drying gas flow rate, drying gas temperature, and vaporizer temperature) were also optimized with CCD. Models built based on the CCD results and response surface method was used to analyze the interactions between factors and their effects on the responses. The final overall optimum conditions for CMEKC-APPI-MS were also predicted and found in agreement with the experimentally optimized parameters. PMID:21500208

He, Jun; Shamsi, Shahab A.

2012-01-01

392

Ionization mechanisms related to negative Ion APPI, APCI, and DART  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent report found that negative ion atmospheric pressure photoionization (Ni-APPI) and direct analysis in real time (Ni-DART)\\u000a ionize compounds by electron capture, dissociative electron capture, proton abstraction, and anion adduction. The authors\\u000a of this report suggested that the common ionization of Ni-APPI and Ni-DART demonstrated that these techniques ionize a wider\\u000a array of compounds than negative ion atmospheric pressure

Charles N. McEwen; Barbara S. Larsen

2009-01-01

393

Controlling the NO production of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of NO radicals by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet has been investigated by means of absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region (IR) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the ultraviolet (UV) part of the spectrum. The plasma jet investigated here operates in argon with air admixtures up to 1%. The study shows that OES can be used to characterize the relative NO production at small air admixtures. The Production of NO radicals can be controlled by variation of air admixture. Important to note—especially for operation in ambient conditions—is that a small addition of water vapour strongly affects the production of NO radicals especially at higher air admixtures (greater than 0.2%).

Pipa, A. V.; Reuter, S.; Foest, R.; Weltmann, K.-D.

2012-02-01

394

Influence of Atmospheric Pressure Torch Plasma Irradiation on Plant Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth stimulation characteristics of plants seeds are investigated by an atmospheric discharge irradiation into plasma seeds. Atmospheric pressure plasma torch is consisted of alumina ceramics tube and the steel mesh electrodes wind inside and outside of the tube. When AC high voltage (8 kHz) is applied to the electrode gap, the barrier discharge plasma is produced inside the alumina ceramics tube. The barrier discharge plasma is blown outside with the gas flow in ceramics tube. Radish sprouts seeds locate at 1 cm from the torch edge. The growth stimulation was observed in the length of a stem and a root after the plasma irradiation. The stem length increases approximately 2.8 times at the cultivation time of 24 h. And the growth stimulation effect is found to be maintained for 40 h, after sowing seeds. The mechanism of the growth stimulation would be the redox reaction inside plant cells induced by oxygen radicals.

Akiyoshi, Yusuke; Hayashi, Nobuya; Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

2011-11-01

395

Efficacy of Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Tooth Bleaching  

PubMed Central

The conventional light source used for tooth bleaching has the potential to cause thermal damage, and the actual role of the light source is doubtful. In this study, we evaluated bleaching efficacy, temperature, and morphological safety after tooth bleaching with nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma. Tooth bleaching combined with plasma had improved efficacy in providing a higher level of brightness. The temperature of the pulp chamber was maintained around 37°C, indicating that the plasma does not cause any thermal damage. The morphological results of tooth bleaching with plasma did not affect mineral composition under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations. On the basis of these results, the application of plasma and low concentration of 15% carbamide peroxide (CP) has a high capability for effective tooth bleaching. It can be documented that plasma is a safe energe source, which has no deleterious effects on the tooth surface.

Nam, Seoul Hee; Lee, Hae June; Hong, Jin Woo; Kim, Gyoo Cheon

2015-01-01

396

Time and space variability of spectral estimates of atmospheric pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The temporal and spatial behaviors of atmospheric pressure spectra over the northern Italy and the Alpine massif were analyzed using data on surface pressure measurements carried out at two microbarograph stations in the Po Valley, one 50 km south of the Alps, the other in the foothills of the Dolomites. The first 15 days of the study overlapped with the Alpex Intensive Observation Period. The pressure records were found to be intrinsically nonstationary and were found to display substantial time variability, implying that the statistical moments depend on time. The shape and the energy content of spectra depended on different time segments. In addition, important differences existed between spectra obtained at the two stations, indicating a substantial effect of topography, particularly for periods less than 40 min.

Canavero, Flavio G.; Einaudi, Franco

1987-01-01

397

Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Project was to develop a low-cost, environmentally benign technology for the decontamination and decommissioning of transuranic waste. With the invention of the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet the goal was achieved. This device selectively etches heavy metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. Studies on tantalum, a surrogate material for plutonium, have shown that etch rate of 6.0 microns per minute can be achieved under mild conditions. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the plasma jet. It may now be operated for hundreds of hours and not undergo any degradation in performance. Furthermore, small compact units have been developed, which are easily deployed in the field.

Robert F. Hicks; Gary S. Selwyn

2001-01-09

398

Development of a Compact Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open plasma sources working at atmospheric pressure have a variety of uses, including applications in both the medical [1] and industrial realms [2]. We will be reporting on the development of a compact RF-driven plasma source. Operation of the system will utilize common mono- and diatomic atmospheric gases [3]. Further diagnostics, including UV-VIS emission spectra and in-situ probing, will be performed and presented. [4pt] [1] Plasma Medicine: Applications of Low-Temperature Gas Plasmas in Medicine and Biology, Ed. M. Laroussi, M. G. Kong, G. Morfill, and W. Stolz, Cambridge Press, 2012.[0pt] [2] A. Fridman, Plasma Chemistry, Cambridge Press, 2008.[0pt] [3] M. Capitelly, C.M. Ferreira, B.F. Gordiets, and A.I. Osipov, Plasma Kinetics in Atmospheric Gases, Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics, 2000.

Hyde, Alexander; Kamieneski, Richard; Batishchev, Oleg

2012-10-01

399

Development of ac corona discharge modes at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corona discharges in gases exist under several distinctive forms. In this paper, a survey study has been made of ac corona discharge modes generated in some different gases fed in a wire-duct reactor with a constant rate of flowing at atmospheric pressure. The properties of different corona modes are analyzed under some condition transitions from Trichel pulses to a steady glow. In the course of the presented experimental work, numerous apparent contradictions with earlier observations necessitated further study and are given to provide more information on the physical mechanisms of the ac corona discharges. Furthermore, we have gained insight into some new technologies and applications of the environmentally friendly corona and plasma discharges.

El-Koramy, Reda Ahmed; Yehia, Ashraf; Omer, Mohamed

2011-02-01

400

Decomposition of Glycerine by Water Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High concentration of aqueous glycerine was decomposed using a direct current (DC) plasma torch at atmospheric pressure. The torch can generate the plasma with water as the plasma-supporting gas in the absence of any additional gas supply system and cooling devices. The results indicated that 5 mol% glycerine was completely decomposed by water plasmas at arc powers of 0.55~1.05 kW. The major products in the effluent gas were H2 (68.9%~71.1%), CO2 (18.9%~23.0%), and CO (0.2%~0.6%). However, trace levels of formic acid (HCOOH) and formaldehyde (HCHO) were observed in the liquid effluent. The results indicated that the water plasma waste treatment process is capable of being an alternative green technology for organic waste decomposition.

Takayuki, Watanabe; Narengerile

2013-04-01

401

Optical and Electrical Measurements in Atmospheric Pressure Arcs: a Comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure arcs are investigated by emission spectroscopy and electric exploration techniques. Temperature maps for arc currents in the range 100-200 A show good agreement with previously published data. An extended study on Langmuir probes in arcs has been performed and a multi-wire apparatus was constructed. The probes characteristic curve is distorted at high pressure and as a consistent theory is lacking, interpretation difficulties are outlined. Comparison with temperatures obtained from optical spectroscopy is made in order to correct for 'cooler' probe temperatures. Arc radii in biased and floating conditions are examined and estimates of the axial electric field are presented. Data from carbon diamond partially coated probes suggest a differential charge capture. The investigation of the anode region can be performed using a split-anode' technique and the prototype is described of a modified apparatus, which avoids the two-dimensional Abel inversion needed to reconstruct local information.

Fanara, Carlo; Oliveira Vilarinho, Louriel

2002-10-01

402

Phenomena of oscillations in atmospheric pressure direct current glow discharges  

SciTech Connect

Self-sustained oscillations in a dc glow discharge with a semiconductor layer at atmospheric pressure were investigated by means of a one-dimensional fluid model. It is found that the dc glow discharge initially becomes unstable in the subnormal glow region and gives rise to oscillations of plasma parameters. A variety of oscillations with one or more frequencies have been observed under different conditions. The discharge oscillates between the glow discharge mode and the Townsend discharge mode in the oscillations with large amplitude while operates in the subnormal glow discharge mode all the while in the oscillations with small amplitude. Fourier Transform spectra of oscillations reveal the transition mechanism between different oscillations. The effects of semiconductor conductivity on the oscillation frequency of the dominant mode, gas voltage, as well as the discharge current have also been analyzed.

Liu, Fu-cheng [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)] [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Yan, Wen; Wang, De-zhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2013-12-15

403

Development of ac corona discharge modes at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

Corona discharges in gases exist under several distinctive forms. In this paper, a survey study has been made of ac corona discharge modes generated in some different gases fed in a wire-duct reactor with a constant rate of flowing at atmospheric pressure. The properties of different corona modes are analyzed under some condition transitions from Trichel pulses to a steady glow. In the course of the presented experimental work, numerous apparent contradictions with earlier observations necessitated further study and are given to provide more information on the physical mechanisms of the ac corona discharges. Furthermore, we have gained insight into some new technologies and applications of the environmentally friendly corona and plasma discharges.

El-Koramy, Reda Ahmed; Yehia, Ashraf; Omer, Mohamed [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, 71516 Assiut (Egypt)

2011-02-15

404

Electron Density in Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Surface Wave Discharges  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present results of the spectroscopic measurements of the electron density in a microwave surface wave sustained discharges in Ar and Ne at atmospheric pressure. The discharge in the form of a plasma column was generated inside a quartz tube cooled with a dielectric liquid. The microwave power delivered to the discharge via rectangular waveguide was applied in the range of 200-1500 W. In all investigations presented in this paper, the gas flow rate was relatively low (0.5 l/min), so the plasma column was generated in the form of a single filament, and the lengths of the upstream and downstream plasma columns were almost the same. The electron density in the plasma columns was determined using the method based on the Stark broadening of H{sub {beta}} spectral line, including plasma region inside the waveguide which was not investigated earlier.

Jasinski, M.; Zakrzewski, Z. [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Mizeraczyk, J. [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Department of Marine Electronics, Gdynia Martime University, Morska 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

2008-03-19

405

Atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet using a cylindrical piezoelectric transformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-voltage atmospheric pressure nonthermal argon plasma jet using a circular piezoelectric transducer is proposed. An Ar plasma flame is generated at an input voltage of 87 V. The consumed power is 2 W. The electrical and optical properties of the jet are analyzed. In particular, the transient Ar discharge ignition and evolution including the so-called plasma bullet phenomenon is examined temporally resolved with the aid of a fast camera. It is found that four discharge phases can be identified, designated as ignition, extension, self-propagation, and attenuation. The plasma bullet is launched while the electric field in the discharge space is decreasing. The average bullet velocity is 23 km/s.

Kim, Hyun; Brockhaus, Albrecht; Engemann, Jürgen

2009-11-01

406

Reduction of surface gravity data from global atmospheric pressure loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides solid Earth and ocean tides, atmospheric pressure variations are one of the major sources of surface gravity perturbations. As shown by previous studies (Merriam 1992; Mukai et al. 1995; Boy et al. 1998), the usual pressure correction with the help of local pressure measurements and the barometric admittance (a simple transfer function between pressure and gravity, both measured locally) does not allow an adequate estimation of global atmospheric loading. We express the response of the Earth to pressure forcing using a Green's function formalism (Farrell 1972). The atmosphere acts on surface gravity through two effects: first, a direct gravitational attraction by air masses which is sensitive to regional (about 1000 km around the gravimeter) pressure variations; second, an elastic process induced by the Earth's surface deformation and mass redistribution which is sensitive to large scale pressure variations (wavelengths greater than 4000 km). We estimate atmospheric loading using Green's functions and global pressure charts provided by meteorological centres. We introduce different hypotheses on the atmospheric thickness and atmospheric density variations with altitude for the modelling of the direct Newtonian attraction. All computations are compared to gravity data provided by superconducting gravimeters of the GGP (Global Geodynamics Project) network. We show the improvement by modelling global pressure versus the local estimates in terms of reduction of the variance of gravity residuals. We can also validate the inverted barometer (IB) hypothesis as the oceanic response to pressure forcing for periods exceeding one week. The non-inverted barometer (NIB) hypothesis is shown to be definitely an inadequate assumption for describing the oceanic response to atmospheric pressure at seasonal timescales.

Boy, Jean-Paul; Gegout, Pascal; Hinderer, Jacques

2002-05-01

407

Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

1994-01-01

408

Cell immobilization on polymer by air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of cell immobilization on delicate polymer by an air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (AAPPJ) is required for its medical application. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether AAPPJ treatment induce cell immobilization effect on delicate polymers without significant change of surface roughness by AAPPJ treatment. After surface roughness, dynamic contact angle, and chemical characteristics were investigated, the immobilization effect was evaluated with the mouse fibroblast L929 cell line. Surface roughness change was not observed (P > 0.05) in either delicate dental wax or polystyrene plate (PSP) as advancing and receding contact angles significantly decreased (P < 0.05), thanks to decreased hydrocarbon and formation of oxygen-related functional groups in treated PSP. Adherent L929 cells with elongated morphology were found in treated PSP along with the formation of immobilization markers vinculin and actin cytoskeleton. Increased PTK2 gene expression upregulated these markers on treated PSP.

Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Om, Ji-yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

2014-08-01

409

Controlling hydrophilicity of polymer film by altering gas flow rate in atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on controlling the hydrophilicity of polyimide films using atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasmas by changing only the gas flow rate. The gas flow changed the discharge atmosphere by mixing the feed gas with ambient air because of the particular geometry of the reactor developed for the study, and a low gas flow rate was found to be favorable because it generated abundant nitrogen or oxygen species that served as sources of hydrophilic functional groups over the polymer surface. After low-gas-flow plasma treatment, the polymer surface exhibited hydrophilic characteristics with increased surface roughness and enhanced chemical properties owing to the surface addition of functional groups. Without adding any reactive gases or requiring high plasma power and longer treatment time, the developed reactor with low-gas-flow operation offered effective and economical wettability control of polyimide films.

Kang, Woo Seok; Hur, Min; Lee, Jae-Ok; Song, Young-Hoon

2014-03-01

410

Fragmentation of Allylmethylsulfide by Chemical Ionization: Dependence on Humidity and Inhibiting Role of Water  

PubMed Central

We report on a previously unknown reaction mechanism involving water in the fragmentation reaction following chemical ionization. This result stems from a study presented here on the humidity-dependent and energy-dependent endoergic fragmentation of allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) upon protonation in a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). The fragmentation pathways were studied with experimental (PTR-MS) and quantum chemical methods (polarizable continuum model (PCM), microhydration, studied at the MP2/6-311+G(3df,2p)//MP2/6-31G(d,p) level of theory). We report in detail on the energy profiles, reaction mechanisms, and proton affinities (G4MP2 calculations). In the discovered reaction mechanism, water reduces the fragmentation of protonated species in chemical ionization. It does so by direct interaction with the protonated species via covalent binding (C3H5+) or via association (AMS·H+). This stabilizes intermediate complexes and thus overall increases the activation energy for fragmentation. Water thereby acts as a reusable inhibitor (anticatalyst) in chemical ionization. Moreover, according to the quantum chemical (QC) results, when water is present in abundance it has the opposite effect and enhances fragmentation. The underlying reason is a concentration-dependent change in the reaction principle from active inhibition of fragmentation to solvation, which then enhances fragmentation. This amphoteric behavior of water is found for the fragmentation of C3H5+ to C3H3+, and similarly for the fragmentation of AMS·H+ to C3H5+. The results support humidity-dependent quantification efforts for PTR-MS and chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS). Moreover, the results should allow for a better understanding of ion-chemistry in the presence of water. PMID:23682687

2013-01-01

411

Influence of ionization on the Gupta and on the Park chemical models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is an extension of former works by the present authors, in which the influence of the chemical models by Gupta and by Park was evaluated on thermo-fluid-dynamic parameters in the flow field, including transport coefficients, related characteristic numbers and heat flux on two current capsules (EXPERT and Orion) during the high altitude re-entry path. The results verified that the models, even computing different air compositions in the flow field, compute only slight different compositions on the capsule surface, therefore the difference in the heat flux is not very relevant. In the above mentioned studies, ionization was neglected because the velocities of the capsules (about 5000 m/s for EXPERT and about 7600 m/s for Orion) were not high enough to activate meaningful ionization. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the incidence of ionization, linked to the chemical models by Gupta and by Park, on both heat flux and thermo fluid-dynamic parameters. The present computer tests were carried out by a direct simulation Monte Carlo code (DS2V) in the velocity interval 7600-12000 m/s, considering only the Orion capsule at an altitude of 85 km. The results verified what already found namely when ionization is not considered, the chemical models compute only a slight different gas composition in the core of the shock wave and practically the same composition on the surface therefore the same heat flux. On the opposite, the results verified that when ionization is considered, the chemical models compute different compositions in the whole shock layer and on the surface therefore different heat flux. The analysis of the results relies on a qualitative and a quantitative evaluation of the effects of ionization on both chemical models. The main result of the study is that when ionization is taken into account, the Park model is more reactive than the Gupta model; consequently, the heat flux computed by Park is lower than the one computed by Gupta; using the Gupta model, in the design of a thermal protection system, is recommended.

Morsa, Luigi; Zuppardi, Gennaro

2014-12-01

412

Theory and Modeling of Self-Organization and Propagation of Filamentary Plasma Arrays in Microwave Breakdown at Atmospheric Pressure  

SciTech Connect

High power microwave breakdown at atmospheric pressure leads to the formation of filamentary plasma arrays that propagate toward the source. A two-dimensional model coupling Maxwell equations with plasma fluid equations is used to describe the formation of patterns under conditions similar to recent experiments and for a wave electric field perpendicular to the simulation domain or in the simulation domain. The calculated patterns are in excellent qualitative agreement with the experiments, with good quantitative agreement of the propagation speed of the filaments. The propagation of the plasma filaments is due to the combination of diffusion and ionization. Emphasis is put on the fact that free electron diffusion (and not ambipolar diffusion) associated with ionization is responsible for the propagation of the front.

Boeuf, Jean-Pierre [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Chaudhury, Bhaskar; Zhu Guoqiang [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)

2010-01-08

413