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1

Comparison of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization for determining estrogenic chemicals in water by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with chemical derivatizations.  

PubMed

This study compared the sensitivities and matrix effects of four ionization modes and four reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (LC) systems on analyzing estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA) and their derivatives of dansyl chloride or pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBBr) in water matrixes using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The four probes were electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and APCI/APPI; the four LC systems were ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with or without post-column split, a mixed-mode column and two-dimensional LC (2D-LC). Dansylated compounds with ESI at UPLC condition had the most intense signals and less matrix effects of the various combinations of ionization and LC systems. The on-column limits of detection (LODs) of dansylated estrogens by SRM were 0.05-0.20 pg, and the LODs in sewage treatment plant effluent and in river water were 0.23-0.52 and 0.56-0.91 ng/L, respectively. The LODs using selected ion monitoring (SIM) reached low ng/L levels in real samples and measured concentrations were comparable with those of SRM. PMID:19118834

Lien, Guang-Wen; Chen, Chia-Yang; Wang, Gen-Shuh

2008-12-24

2

Determination of stigmasterol and cholesterol oxides using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new sensitive HPLC–MS method for the detection of sterol oxidation products was developed. The method was developed and optimized with commercially available cholesterol oxidation products. MS detection was carried out with an ion-trap mass spectrometer using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in positive ion mode. With this new method, both primary and secondary oxidation products of cholesterol and stigmasterol, including

Suvi Kemmo; Velimatti Ollilainen; Anna-Maija Lampi; Vieno Piironen

2007-01-01

3

Analysis and characterization of sophorolipids by liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method combined with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass\\u000a detection (LC\\/APCI-MS) has been developed for the separation and analysis of sophorolipids produced byC. bombicola when grown on fatty acid mixtures. Using this method it was found that the incorporation of palmitic, linoleic, and linolenic\\u000a acids into the sophorolipid structure was dependent on the initial

A. Nuñez; R. Ashby; T. A. Foglia; D. K. Y. Solaiman

2001-01-01

4

Characteristics of low-temperature plasma ionization for ambient mass spectrometry compared to electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.  

PubMed

Ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ADI-MS) is an attractive method for direct analysis with applications in homeland security, forensics, and human health. For example, low-temperature plasma probe (LTP) ionization was successfully used to detect, e.g., explosives, drugs, and pesticides directly on the target. Despite the fact that the field is gaining significant attention, few attempts have been made to classify ambient ionization techniques based on their ionization characteristics and performance compared to conventional ionization sources used in mass spectrometry. In the present study, relative ionization efficiencies (RIEs) for a large group of compound families were determined with LTP-Orbitrap-MS and compared to those obtained with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). RIEs were normalized against one reference compound used across all methods to ensure comparability of the results. Typically, LTP analyte ionization through protonation/deprotonation (e.g., 4-acetamidophenol) was observed; in some cases (e.g., acenaphthene) radicals were formed. Amines, amides, and aldehydes were ionized successfully with LTP. A benefit of LTP over conventional methods is the possibility to successfully ionize PAHs and imides. Here, the studied model compounds could be detected by neither APCI nor ESI. LTP is a relatively soft ionization method because little fragmentation of model compounds was observed. It is considered to be an attractive method for the ionization of low molecular weight compounds over a relatively wide polarity range. PMID:23134531

Albert, Anastasia; Engelhard, Carsten

2012-11-26

5

Carbon disulfide reagent allows the characterization of nonpolar analytes by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

While atmospheric pressure ionization methodologies have revolutionized the mass spectrometric analysis of nonvolatile analytes, limitations native to the chemistry of these methodologies hinder or entirely inhibit the analysis of certain analytes, specifically, many nonpolar compounds. Examination of various analytes, including asphaltene and lignin model compounds as well as saturated hydrocarbons, demonstrates that atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) using CS(2) as the reagent produces an abundant and stable molecular ion (M(+•)) for all model compounds studied, with the exception of completely saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons and the two amino acids tested, arginine and phenylalanine. This reagent substantially broadens the applicability of mass spectrometry to nonvolatile nonpolar analytes and also facilitates the examination of radical cation chemistry by mass spectrometry. PMID:21698674

Owen, Benjamin C; Gao, Jinshan; Borton, David J; Amundson, Lucas M; Archibold, Enada F; Tan, Xiaoli; Azyat, Khalid; Tykwinski, Rik; Gray, Murray; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

2011-07-30

6

Comparison of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and atmospheric pressure photoionization for the analysis of dinitropyrene and aminonitropyrene LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

The only relevant source for human exposure to dinitropyrenes is diesel engine emissions. Due to this specificity, dinitropyrenes may be used as biomarkers for monitoring human exposure to diesel engine emissions. Only few analytical methods have been described for the quantitation of dinitropyrenes and their metabolites, aminonitropyrenes, and diaminopyrenes. Therefore, for dinitropyrenes, aminonitropyrenes, and diaminopyrenes were selected as model compounds for the development of a sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method (high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry) was to quantify polyaromatic amines and nitroarenes in biological matrices was developed optimal methods by comparing electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. Dinitropyrene was not effectively ionized and diaminopyrene yielded mainly [M(.)](+) ions by electrospray ionization. With APCI and APPI, precursor ions of diaminopyrene and aminonitropyrene were [M + H](+) and [M(.)](-) for dinitropyrene. Precursor ions with [M - 30(.)](-) for dinitropyrene and [M - 30 + H](+) for aminonitropyrene were observed. Reversed and normal phase HPLC-MS/MS with ESI, APCI and APPI were optimized separately with respect to unequivocal analyte identification and sensitivity. Normal phase HPLC coupled to APPI-MS/MS gave the highest precision and sensitivity for aminonitropyrene (6%/0.2 pg on column) and dinitropyrene (9%/0.5 pg on column). The limit of detection in spiked rat plasma was 5 pg/100 microL for aminonitropyrene (accuracy 82%) and 10 pg/100 microL for dinitropyrene (accuracy 105%). In plasma of rats treated with dinitropyrene by oral administration, no detectable levels of dinitropyrene but higher aminonitropyrene levels compared with intratracheal instillation were observed. These findings clearly demonstrate that dinitropyrene was absorbed after oral and intratracheal application and that a reduction of nitro groups occurs to a high extent in the reductive environment of the intestine. To our knowledge, this is the first time that aminonitropyrene was observed in plasma after intratracheal or oral administration directly demonstrating the reductive metabolism of dinitropyrene in vivo. PMID:15589761

Straube, Ellen A; Dekant, Wolfgang; Völkel, Wolfgang

2004-12-01

7

Atmospheric pressure-ion drift chemical ionization mass spectrometry for detection of trace gas species.  

PubMed

This paper describes atmospheric pressure-ion drift chemical ionization mass spectrometry (AP-ID-CIMS) for monitoring of ambient trace species. Operation of the drift tube at atmospheric pressure allows a significantly longer ion-molecule reaction time and eliminates dilution of the ambient samples, while a well-defined electric field inside the drift tube provides the benefits to confine the flight path and velocity of reagent/product ions, to break down ion clusters, and to control the ion-molecule reaction time. The AP-ID-CIMS exhibits advantages over the conventional low pressure ID-CIMS and flow tube AP-CIMS, improving the detection sensitivity by 3 orders of magnitude and a factor of 3, respectively. We demonstrate that the AP-ID-CIMS allows quantification of sulfuric acid concentrations and is capable of detecting gaseous sulfuric acid with a detection limit of less than 10(5) molecules cm(-3), on the basis of 3sigma of the baseline noise and an integration time of 12 s. A field evaluation of the AP-ID-CIMS is presented for ambient H(2)SO(4) measurements. PMID:20695435

Zheng, Jun; Khalizov, Alexei; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Renyi

2010-09-01

8

Thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled using proximal probe thermal desorption with electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.  

PubMed

An atmospheric pressure proximal probe thermal desorption sampling method coupled with secondary ionization by electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was demonstrated for the mass spectrometric analysis of a diverse set of compounds (dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, explosives and pesticides) separated on various high-performance thin-layer chromatography plates. Line scans along or through development lanes on the plates were carried out by moving the plate relative to a stationary heated probe positioned close to or just touching the stationary phase surface. Vapors of the compounds thermally desorbed from the surface were drawn into the ionization region of a combined electrospray ionization/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source where they merged with reagent ions and/or charged droplets from a corona discharge or an electrospray emitter and were ionized. The ionized components were then drawn through the atmospheric pressure sampling orifice into the vacuum region of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and detected using full scan, single ion monitoring, or selected reaction monitoring mode. Studies of variable parameters and performance metrics including the proximal probe temperature, gas flow rate into the ionization region, surface scan speed, read-out resolution, detection limits, and surface type are discussed. PMID:20499315

Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Van Berkel, Gary J

2010-06-30

9

Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) was successfully coupled to a conventional atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source in a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LQIT). Model compounds representing a wide variety of different types, including basic nitrogen and oxygen compounds, aromatic and aliphatic compounds, as well as unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, were tested separately and as a mixture. These model compounds were successfully evaporated into the gas phase by using LIAD and then ionized by using APCI with different reagents. Four APCI reagent systems were tested: the traditionally used mixture of methanol and water, neat benzene, neat carbon disulfide, and nitrogen gas (no liquid reagent). The mixture of methanol and water produced primarily protonated molecules, as expected. However, only the most basic compounds yielded ions under these conditions. In sharp contrast, using APCI with either neat benzene or neat carbon disulfide as the reagent resulted in the ionization of all the analytes studied to predominantly yield stable molecular ions. Benzene yielded a larger fraction of protonated molecules than carbon disulfide, which is a disadvantage. A similar amount of fragmentation was observed for these reagents. When the experiment was performed without a liquid reagent(nitrogen gas was the reagent), more fragmentation was observed. Analysis of a known mixture as well as a petroleum cut was also carried out. In summary, the new experiment presented here allows the evaporation of thermally labile compounds, both polar and nonpolar, without dissociation or aggregation, and their ionization to form stable molecular ions.

Gao, Jinshan; Borton, David J.; Owen, Benjamin C.; Jin, Zhicheng; Hurt, Matt; Amundson, Lucas M.; Madden, Jeremy T.; Qian, Kuangnan; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

2010-01-01

10

Characterization of triacetone triperoxide by ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry following atmospheric pressure chemical ionization  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) with subsequent separation and detection by ion mobility spectrometry has been studied. Positive ionization with hydronium reactant ions produced only fragments of the TATP molecule, with m/z 91 ion being the most predominant species. Ionization with ammonium reactant ions produced a molecular adduct at m/z 240. The reduced mobility value of this ion was constant at 1.36 cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1} across the temperature range from 60 to 140 C. The stability of this ion was temperature dependent and did not exist at temperatures above 140 C, where only fragment ions were observed. The introduction of ammonia vapors with TATP resulted in the formation of m/z 58 ion. As the concentration of ammonia increased, this smaller ion appeared to dominate the spectra and the TATP-ammonium adduct decreased in intensity. The ion at m/z 58 has been noted by several research groups upon using ammonia reagents in chemical ionization, but the identity was unknown. Evidence presented here supports the formation of protonated 2-propanimine. A proposed mechanism involves the addition of ammonia to the TATP-ammonium adduct followed by an elimination reaction. A similar mechanism involving the chemical ionization of acetone with excess ammonia also showed the formation of m/z 58 ion. TATP vapors from a solid sample were detected with a hand-held ion mobility spectrometer operated at room temperature. The TATP-ammonium molecular adduct was observed in the presence of ammonia and TATP vapors with this spectrometer.

Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.

2011-04-28

11

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry of pyridine and isoprene: potential breath exposure and disease biomarkers.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled human breath can serve as potential disease-specific and exposure biomarkers and therefore can reveal information about a subject's health and environment. Pyridine, a VOC marker for exposure to tobacco smoke, and isoprene, a liver disease biomarker, were studied using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). While both molecules could be detected in low-ppb levels, interactions of the ionized analytes with their neutral forms and ambient air led to unusual ion/molecule chemistry. The result was a highly dynamic system and a nonlinear response to changes in analyte concentration. Increased presence of ambient water was found to greatly enhance the detection limit of pyridine and only slightly decrease that of isoprene. APCI-MS is shown to be a promising analytical tool in breath analysis with good detection limits, but its application requires a better understanding of the ion/molecule chemistry that may affect VOC quantification from a chemically complex system such as human breath. PMID:23579200

Kapishon, Vitaliy; Koyanagi, Gregory K; Blagojevic, Voislav; Bohme, Diethard K

2013-04-12

12

Determination of glucosinolates in rapeseed and Thlaspi caerulescens plants by liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry was used to identify glucosinolates in plant extracts. Optimization of the analytical conditions and the determination of the method detection limit was performed using commercial 2-propenylglucosinolate (sinigrin). Optimal values for the following parameters were determined: nebulization pressure, gas temperature, flux of drying gas, capillar voltage, corona current and fragmentor conditions. The method detection

Roser P. Tolrà; Rosa Alonso; Charlotte Poschenrieder; Damià Barceló; Juan Barceló

2000-01-01

13

Kinetic and thermodynamic control of protonation in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.  

PubMed

For p-(dimethylamino)chalcone (p-DMAC), the N atom is the most basic site in the liquid phase, whereas the O atom possesses the highest proton affinity in the gas phase. A novel and interesting observation is reported that the N- and O-protonated p-DMAC can be competitively produced in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) with the change of solvents and ionization conditions. In neat methanol or acetonitrile, the protonation is always under thermodynamic control to form the O-protonated ion. When methanol/water or acetonitrile/water was used as the solvent, the protonation is kinetically controlled to form the N-protonated ion under conditions of relatively high infusion rate and high concentration of water in the mixed solvent. The regioselectivity of protonation of p-DMAC in APCI is probably attributed to the bulky solvent cluster reagent ions (S(n)H(+)) and the analyte having different preferred protonation sites in the liquid phase and gas phase. PMID:23633014

Chai, Yunfeng; Hu, Nan; Pan, Yuanjiang

2013-04-30

14

Kinetic and Thermodynamic Control of Protonation in Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For p-(dimethylamino)chalcone (p-DMAC), the N atom is the most basic site in the liquid phase, whereas the O atom possesses the highest proton affinity in the gas phase. A novel and interesting observation is reported that the N- and O-protonated p-DMAC can be competitively produced in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) with the change of solvents and ionization conditions. In neat methanol or acetonitrile, the protonation is always under thermodynamic control to form the O-protonated ion. When methanol/water or acetonitrile/water was used as the solvent, the protonation is kinetically controlled to form the N-protonated ion under conditions of relatively high infusion rate and high concentration of water in the mixed solvent. The regioselectivity of protonation of p-DMAC in APCI is probably attributed to the bulky solvent cluster reagent ions (SnH+) and the analyte having different preferred protonation sites in the liquid phase and gas phase.

Chai, Yunfeng; Hu, Nan; Pan, Yuanjiang

2013-04-01

15

Kinetic and Thermodynamic Control of Protonation in Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For p-(dimethylamino)chalcone ( p-DMAC), the N atom is the most basic site in the liquid phase, whereas the O atom possesses the highest proton affinity in the gas phase. A novel and interesting observation is reported that the N- and O-protonated p-DMAC can be competitively produced in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) with the change of solvents and ionization conditions. In neat methanol or acetonitrile, the protonation is always under thermodynamic control to form the O-protonated ion. When methanol/water or acetonitrile/water was used as the solvent, the protonation is kinetically controlled to form the N-protonated ion under conditions of relatively high infusion rate and high concentration of water in the mixed solvent. The regioselectivity of protonation of p-DMAC in APCI is probably attributed to the bulky solvent cluster reagent ions (SnH+) and the analyte having different preferred protonation sites in the liquid phase and gas phase.

Chai, Yunfeng; Hu, Nan; Pan, Yuanjiang

2013-07-01

16

Scanning Diode Laser Desorption Thin-Layer Chromatography Coupled with Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous wave diode laser is applied for desorption of an analyte from a porous surface of a thin-layer plate covered with a graphite suspension. The thermally desorbed analyte molecules are ionized in the gas phase by a corona discharge at atmospheric pressure. Therefore, both essential processes - the desorption and the ionization of analyte molecules, which are often performed in one step - are separated. Reserpine was chosen as model analyte, which is often used for specification of mass spectrometers. No fragmentation was observed because of efficient collisional cooling under atmospheric pressure. The influence of diode laser power and the composition of the graphite suspension were investigated, and a primary optimization was performed. An interface to allow online qualitative and quantitative full plate detection and analysis of compounds separated by thin-layer chromatography is presented.

Peng, Song; Ahlmann, Norman; Edler, Michael; Franzke, Joachim

17

A simplified chemical kinetic model for slightly ionized, atmospheric pressure nitrogen plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen plasmas at atmospheric pressure produced by 2.45 GHz microwaves at a power density of approximately 10 MW m-3 have a degree of ionization less than about 10-7. Nevertheless they have interesting and potentially important effects on polymer and metal surfaces exposed to them. An experimental programme is underway to identify the active species in the plasma and its afterglow.

J. Hugill; T. Saktioto

2001-01-01

18

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry method to improve the determination of dansylated polyamines.  

PubMed

Determination of polyamine pools is still a step impossible to circumvent in studies aimed at determining the pathophysiological role of natural polyamines. In addition, polyamine measurement in biological fluids and tissues may have clinical relevance, especially in cancer patients. Among the wide panel of analytical methods developed for the quantification of polyamines, high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation of polyamines after derivatization with dansyl chloride remains the most commonly used method. In this work, we show that atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (MS) can be used to detect and quantify biologically relevant polyamines after dansylation, without chromatographic separation. Positive-ion mass spectra for each dansylated polyamine were generated after optimization by flow injection analysis (FIA). FIA coupled with MS detection by selected ion monitoring greatly increased the sensitivity of the polyamine detection. The method is linear over a wide range of polyamine concentrations and allows detection of quantities as low as 5 fmol. The FIA/MS method is about 50-fold more sensitive than the conventional HPLC/fluorimetry procedure. A good correlation (r>0.98) between these two methods was observed. The FIA/MS method notably reduces the time of analysis per sample to 1.5 min and turns out to be rapid, efficient, cost saving, reproducible, and sufficiently simple to allow its routine application. PMID:12814624

Gaboriau, François; Havouis, René; Moulinoux, Jacques-Philippe; Delcros, Jean-Guy

2003-07-15

19

Document authentication at molecular levels using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry imaging.  

PubMed

Molecular images of documents were obtained by sequentially scanning the surface of the document using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (DAPCI-MS), which was operated in either a gasless, solvent-free or methanol vapor-assisted mode. The decay process of the ink used for handwriting was monitored by following the signal intensities recorded by DAPCI-MS. Handwritings made using four types of inks on four kinds of paper surfaces were tested. By studying the dynamic decay of the inks, DAPCI-MS imaging differentiated a 10-min old from two 4 h old samples. Non-destructive forensic analysis of forged signatures either handwritten or computer-assisted was achieved according to the difference of the contour in DAPCI images, which was attributed to the strength personalized by different writers. Distinction of the order of writing/stamping on documents and detection of illegal printings were accomplished with a spatial resolution of about 140 µm. A Matlab® written program was developed to facilitate the visualization of the similarity between signature images obtained by DAPCI-MS. The experimental results show that DAPCI-MS imaging provides rich information at the molecular level and thus can be used for the reliable document analysis in forensic applications. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24078245

Li, Ming; Jia, Bin; Ding, Liying; Hong, Feng; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Chen, Rui; Zhou, Shumin; Chen, Huanwen; Fang, Xiang

2013-09-01

20

Determination of patulin in apple juice by high-performance liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An HPLC–MS–MS method with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) for the determination of patulin in apple juice samples is described. Mass spectrometric detection was accomplished following atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in both positive and negative ion modes. Collision induced dissociation (CID) of the protonated molecular ion led initially to the loss of H2O (fragment m\\/z 137). At higher energies CO

V Sewram; J. J Nair; T. W Nieuwoudt; N. L Leggott; G. S Shephard

2000-01-01

21

Determination of Organic Acids in Ground Water by Liquid Chromatography\\/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization\\/Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current methods of determining organic acids in ground water are labor-intensive, time-consuming and require a large volume of sample (100 milliliter to 1.0 liter). This paper reports a new method developed to determine aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic acids in ground water using liquid chromatography\\/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization\\/mass spectrometry (LC\\/APCI\\/MS). This method was shown to be fast (less than 1 hour),

Jiasong Fang; Michael J. Barcelona

1999-01-01

22

Potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source in GC-QTOF MS for pesticide residue analysis.  

PubMed

The potential applications of a new atmospheric pressure source for GC-MS analysis have been investigated in this work. A list of around 100 GC-amenable pesticides, which includes organochlorine, organophosphorus and organonitrogenated compounds, has been used to evaluate their behavior in the new source. Favoring the major formation of the molecular ion in the source has been the main goal due to the wide-scope screening possibilities that this fact brings in comparison with the traditional, highly fragmented electron ionization spectra. Thus, the addition of water as modifier has been tested as a way to promote the generation of protonated molecules. Pesticides investigated have been classified into six groups according to their ionization/fragmentation behavior. Four of them are characterized by the abundant formation of the protonated molecule in the atmospheric pressure source, mostly being the base peak of the spectrum. These results show that wide-scope screening could be easily performed with this source by investigating the presence of the protonated molecule ion, MH+. The developed procedure has been applied to pesticide screening in different food samples (nectarine, orange and spinach) and it has allowed the presence of several pesticides to be confirmed such as chlorpyriphos ethyl, deltamethrin and endosulfan sulfate. The availability of a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument made it feasible to perform additional MS/MS experiments for both standards and samples to go further in the confirmation of the identity of the detected compounds. Results shown in this paper have been obtained using a prototype source which exhibits promising features that could be applied to other analytical problems apart from those illustrated in this work. PMID:20641006

Portolés, T; Sancho, J V; Hernández, F; Newton, A; Hancock, P

2010-08-01

23

Development of liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of halogenated flame retardants in wastewater.  

PubMed

Until recently, atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) has typically been used for the determination of non-polar halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) by liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) tandem mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS/MS) for analysis of 38 HFRs. This developed method offered three advantages: simplicity, rapidity, and high sensitivity. Compared with APPI, APCI does not require a UV lamp and a dopant reagent to assist atmospheric pressure ionization. All the isomers and the isobaric compounds were well resolved within 14-min LC separation time. Excellent instrument detection limits (6.1 pg on average with 2.0 muL injection) were observed. The APCI mechanism was also investigated. The method developed has been applied to the screening of wastewater samples for screening purpose, with concentrations determined by LC-APCI-MS/MS agreeing with data obtained via gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry. PMID:19957077

Zhou, Simon Ningsun; Reiner, Eric J; Marvin, Chris; Helm, Paul; Riddell, Nicole; Dorman, Frank; Misselwitz, Michelle; Shen, Li; Crozier, Patrick; Macpherson, Karen; Brindle, Ian D

2009-12-02

24

Determination of urinary phytoestrogens by HPLC–MS\\/MS: A comparison of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray ionization (ESI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of the analytical performance of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) for the quantitative determination of six urinary phytoestrogens (daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, equol, enterodiol, enterolactone and genistein) by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS\\/MS) is presented here. Both APCI and ESI were suitable for the analysis of these compounds; however, ESI did improve measurement imprecision and

Michael E. Rybak; Daniel L. Parker; Christine M. Pfeiffer

2008-01-01

25

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization studies of non-polar isomeric hydrocarbons using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry with different ionization techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionization pathways were determined for sets of isomeric non-polar hydrocarbons (structural isomers, cis\\/trans isomers)\\u000a using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry with different techniques of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization\\u000a to assess the influence of structural features on ion formation. Depending on the structural features, different ions were\\u000a observed using mass spectrometry. Unsaturated hydrocarbons formed mostly [M ? 1]+ and

H. Borsdorf; E. G. Nazarov; G. A. Eiceman

2002-01-01

26

Combined Chemical and Topographic Imaging at Atmospheric Pressure via Microprobe Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry-Atomic Force Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The operational characteristics and imaging performance are described for a new instrument comprising an atomic force microscope (AFM) coupled with a pulsed laser and a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. The AFM operating mode is used to produce topographic surface images having nanometer-scale spatial and height resolution. Spatially resolved mass spectra of ions, produced from the same surface via microprobe-mode laser desorption/ionization at atmospheric pressure, are then used to create a 100 x 100 m chemical image. The effective spatial resolution of the image (~2 m) was constrained by the limit of detection (estimated to be 109 1010 ions) rather than by the diameter of the focused laser spot or the step size of the AFM sample stage. Thus, it is expected that improvements in imaging performance can be realized by implementation of post-ionization methods.

Bradshaw, James A [ORNL; Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Meyer, Kent A [ORNL; Goeringer, Doug [ORNL

2009-01-01

27

Production and Utilization of CO3- Produced by a Corona Discharge in Air for Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization is a multistep ionization process used in mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry. The formation of product ions depends upon interactions with the analyte and the reactant ion species formed in the ionization source. The predominant reactant ion observed in a point-to-plane corona discharge in air occurs at m/z 60. There have been multiple references in the literature to the identity of this ion with some disagreement. It was postulated to be either CO3- or N2O2-. The identity of this ion is important as it is a key to the ionization of analytes. It was determined here to be CO3- through the use of 18O labeled oxygen. Further confirmation was provided through MS/MS studies. The ionization of nitroglycerine (NG) with CO3- produced the adduct NG•CO3-. This was compared to ionization with NO3- and Cl- reactant ions that also formed adducts with NG. The fragmentation patterns of these three adducts provides insight into the charge distribution and indicates that CO3- has a relatively high electron affinity similar to that of nitrate.

Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.

2010-12-14

28

A corona discharge atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source with selective NO(+) formation and its application for monoaromatic VOC detection.  

PubMed

We have developed a new type of corona discharge (CD) for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) for application in ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) as well as in mass spectrometry (MS). While the other CD-APCI sources are able to generate H3O(+)·(H2O)n as the major reactant ions in N2 or in zero air, the present CD-APCI source has the ability to generate up to 84% NO(+)·(H2O)n reactant ions in zero air. The change of the working gas from zero air to N2 allows us to change the major reactant ions from NO(+)·(H2O)n to H3O(+)·(H2O)n. In this paper we present the description of the new CD-APCI and discuss the processes associated with the NO(+) formation. The selective formation of NO(+)·(H2O)n reactant ions offers chemical ionization based on these ions which can be of great advantage for some classes of chemicals. We demonstrate here a significant increase in the sensitivity of the IMS-MS instrument for monoaromatic volatile organic compound (VOC) detection upon NO(+)·(H2O)n chemical ionization. PMID:24081306

Sabo, Martin; Matej?ík, Stefan

2013-10-15

29

Comparative analysis of different plant oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Different vegetable oil samples (almond, avocado, corngerm, grapeseed, linseed, olive, peanut, pumpkin seed, soybean, sunflower, walnut, wheatgerm) were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. A gradient elution technique was applied using acetone-acetonitrile eluent systems on an ODS column (Purospher, RP-18e, 125 x 4 mm, 5 microm). Identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) was based on the pseudomolecular ion [M+1]+ and the diacylglycerol fragments. The positional isomers of triacylglycerol were identified from the relative intensities of the [M-RCO2]+ fragments. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a common multivariate mathematical-statistical calculation was successfully used to distinguish the oils based on their TAG composition. LDA showed that 97.6% of the samples were classified correctly. PMID:12462617

Jakab, Annamaria; Héberger, Károly; Forgács, Esther

2002-11-01

30

Differentiation of various kinds of Fructus schisandrae by surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry combined with Principal Component Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various kinds of Fructus schisandrae were studied by surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (DAPCI-MS) without any sample pretreatment. The volatile components in F. schisandrae were detected in the ambient environment and the analytical time for each sample was only 30s. F. schisandrae are produced mainly in 5 different geographical regions (Elunchun, Mudanjiang, Tonghua, Tieling and Shangluo), and

Zifeng Pi; Hao Yue; Li Ma; Liying Ding; Zhiqiang Liu; Shuying Liu

2011-01-01

31

Detection of non-prescription heroin markers in urine with liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The planned introduction of a prescription heroin program in Germany created a need for differentiation between non-prescription and prescribed diamorphine use. The following substances were chosen as markers of non-prescription heroin: acetylcodeine (AC); its metabolites codeine (C) and codeine 6-glucuronide (C6G); papaverine (P); and noscapine (N). Typical heroin markers diamorphine (DAM) and its metabolites monoacetylmorphine (MAM) and morphine (M) were also determined. The drugs were extracted from urine samples with solid-phase extraction (C18) using standard 200-mg columns and 96-well microplates (100 mg). The extracts were examined with liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (positive ionization) in two isocratic systems. Selected ion monitoring procedures were applied for protonated molecular masses and characteristic fragments of drugs involved. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.5-1 ng/mL urine. The occurrence of selected heroin markers was investigated in 25 urine samples collected from heroin abusers (road traffic offenders and overdosed patients). C6G was found in all samples, C in 24 samples, N in 22 samples, MAM in 16 samples, P in 14 samples, DAM in 12 samples, and AC in 4 samples. The appearance of these compounds in urine reflects their pharmacokinetic properties and the composition of non-prescription heroin. PMID:11550816

Bogusz, M J; Maier, R D; Erkens, M; Kohls, U

2001-09-01

32

Differentiation of human kidney stones induced by melamine and uric acid using surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Clinically obtained human kidney stones of different pathogenesis were dissolved in acetic acid/methanol solutions and then rapidly analyzed by surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (SDAPCI-MS) without any desalination treatment. The mass spectral fingerprints of six groups of kidney stone samples were rapidly recorded in the mass range of m/z 50-400. A set of ten melamine-induced kidney stone samples and nine uric acid derived kidney stone samples were successfully differentiated from other groups by principal component analysis of SDAPCI-MS fingerprints upon positive-ion detection mode. In contrast, the mass spectra recorded using negative-ion detection mode did not give enough information to differentiate those stone samples. The results showed that in addition to the melamine, the chemical compounds enwrapped in the melamine-induced kidney stone samples differed from other kidney stone samples, providing useful hints for studying on the formation mechanisms of melamine-induced kidney stones. This study also provides useful information on establishing a MS-based platform for rapid analysis of the melamine-induced human kidney stones at molecular levels. PMID:21394847

Jia, Bin; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Sodhi, Rana N S; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Jianqiang; Chen, Huanwen

2011-03-01

33

Rapid quantitation of plasma 2?-deoxyuridine by high-performance liquid chromatography\\/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and its application to pharmacodynamic studies in cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method employing high-performance liquid chromatograph–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) has been developed and validated for the quantitation of plasma 2?-deoxyuridine (UdR). It involves a plasma clean-up step with strong anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SAX-SPE) followed by HPLC separation and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detection (APCI–MS) in a selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The ionization conditions were optimised in negative ion

Kong M. Li; Laurent P. Rivory; Stephen J. Clarke

2005-01-01

34

Self-Aspirated Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Source for Direct Sampling of Analytes on Surfaces and in Liquid Solutions  

SciTech Connect

A self-aspirating heated nebulizer probe is described and demonstrated for use in the direct analysis of analytes on surfaces and in liquid samples by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry. Functionality and performance of the probe as a self-aspirating APCI source is demonstrated using reserpine and progesterone as test compounds. The utility of the probe to sample analytes directly from surfaces was demonstrated first by scanning development lanes of a reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography plate in which a three-component dye mixture, viz., Fat Red 7B, Solvent Green 3, and Solvent Blue 35, was spotted and the components were separated. Development lanes were scanned by the sampling probe operated under computer control (x, y plane) while full-scan mass spectra were recorded using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. In addition, the ability to sample the surface of pharmaceutical tablets (viz., Extra Strength Tylenol(reg. sign) and Evista(reg. sign) tablets) and to detect the active ingredients (acetaminophen and raloxifene, respectively) selectively was demonstrated using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Finally, the capability to sample analyte solutions from the wells of a 384-well microtiter plate and to perform quantitative analyses using MS/MS detection was illustrated with cotinine standards spiked with cotinine-d{sub 3} as an internal standard.

Asano, Keiji G [ORNL; Ford, Michael J [ORNL; Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2005-01-01

35

Liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of pregabalin in human plasma.  

PubMed

A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of pregabalin in human plasma. Following liquid-liquid extraction, the analyte was separated using an isocratic mobile phase on a reverse-phase column and analyzed by MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode using the respective [M+H](+) ions, m/z 160-142 for pregabalin and m/z 482-258 for the internal standard. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 1-10,000ng/mL for pregabalin in human plasma. The lower limit of quantification was 1ng/mL with a relative standard deviation of less than 11.4%. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve range. A run time of 4.0min for each sample made it possible to analyze more than 300 human plasma samples per day. The validated method has been successfully used to analyze human plasma samples for application in pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:19837015

Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Kandikere, Vishwottam; Mudigonda, Koteshwara; Komarneni, Prashanth; Aleti, Raghupathi

2009-10-08

36

Self-aspirating atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for direct sampling of analytes on surfaces and in liquid solutions.  

PubMed

A self-aspirating heated nebulizer probe is described and demonstrated for use in the direct analysis of analytes on surfaces and in liquid samples by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry. Functionality and performance of the probe as a self-aspirating APCI source is demonstrated using reserpine and progesterone as test compounds. The utility of the probe to sample analytes directly from surfaces was demonstrated first by scanning development lanes of a reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography plate in which a three-component dye mixture, viz., Fat Red 7B, Solvent Green 3, and Solvent Blue 35, was spotted and the components were separated. Development lanes were scanned by the sampling probe operated under computer control (x, y plane) while full-scan mass spectra were recorded using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. In addition, the ability to sample the surface of pharmaceutical tablets (viz., Extra Strength Tylenol and Evista tablets) and to detect the active ingredients (acetaminophen and raloxifene, respectively) selectively was demonstrated using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Finally, the capability to sample analyte solutions from the wells of a 384-well microtiter plate and to perform quantitative analyses using MS/MS detection was illustrated with cotinine standards spiked with cotinine-d3 as an internal standard. PMID:16021617

Asano, Keiji G; Ford, Michael J; Tomkins, Bruce A; Van Berkel, Gary J

2005-01-01

37

Analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood by capillary electrochromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work, an on-line preconcentration capillary electrochromatographic (CEC) separation coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) was used for 16 PAHs analyses, in which poly(stearyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene) (poly(SMA-DVB)) monolith was used as the separation column. With variations in the effective length of poly(SMA-DVB) monolith as well as the volume fraction of acetonitrile (ACN) in the mobile phase, both separation and resolution were improved. A poly(SMA-DVB) monolith of 50-cm effective length (i.e. 50-cm column length filled with polymer) and a two-step step-gradient elution (by changing the ACN levels of the mobile phase starting with an initial of 70% up to 80% with 30-min time interval), which provided baseline separation for PAHs solutes (except for chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene) within 50min, were employed as the optimal chromatographic conditions. In contrast to the other mass spectrometer parameters (nebulizer gas pressure, vaporizer temperature, corona current) as well as on-line preconcentration parameter (the ACN level in the sample matrix), the sheath liquid composition (methanol/water in the ratio of 3:1) and the sample injection time (40min) were found as the predominant factors that control the sensitivity of PAHs determination. Finally, this on-line preconcentration CEC-APCI-MS method determined PAH residues in seafood samples successfully with as low as 10ng/g level. PMID:23992841

Cheng, Yi-Jie; Huang, Sing-Hao; Chiu, Ju-Yin; Liu, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hsi-Ya

2013-08-16

38

Eddy Correlation Measurements of the Air/Sea Flux of DMS Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical and chemical processes controlling gas exchange across the air/sea interface are not well understood. Many laboratory and field studies of the physical controls on gas exchange have been performed using indirect mass balance measurement techniques, but there have been few direct gas flux measurements over the ocean. Eddy correlation is a micrometeorological technique, which can measure fluxes directly. The use of this technique for trace gas flux measurements has been limited in part due to the lack of sufficiently sensitive, fast-response gas detectors. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (API/CIMS) is a highly sensitive, fast response detection method. We carried out a field study at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography pier to test the use of API/CIMS for eddy correlation flux measurements of dimethylsulfide (DMS). Cospectra of vertical winds and DMS demonstrate that flux from the sea surface was routinely detected. The API/CIMS detected atmospheric fluctuations less than 0.5 Hz. This frequency cut-off probably reflects attenuation in the inlet tubing rather than in the detector itself. The partial pressure of DMS in surface seawater was also determined using the API/CIMS, after equilibration with N2 in a continuous flow membrane equilibrator. Gas exchange coefficients were computed from the flux and air/sea concentration gradient. Gas transfer coefficients determined in this study ranged from 0.66 cm/hr to 38.43 cm/hr, for mean horizontal wind speeds ranging from 1 to 6 m/s. The gas transfer coefficients are positively correlated with wind speed, but are significantly greater than current estimates of gas transfer coefficients at similar wind speeds over the ocean. These elevated gas transfer coefficients probably reflect enhanced water-side turbulence induced by the interaction of wave motion with the shallow bottom at this site.

Marandino, C. A.; Debruyn, W. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

2003-12-01

39

Analysis of gaseous toxic industrial compounds and chemical warfare agent simulants by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The suitability of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry as sensing instrumentation for the real-time monitoring of low levels of toxic compounds is assessed, especially with respect to public safety applications. Gaseous samples of nine toxic industrial compounds, NH3, H2S, Cl2, CS2, SO2, C2H4O, HBr, C6H6 and AsH3, and two chemical warfare agent simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and methyl salicylate (MeS), were studied. API-MS proves highly suited to this application, with speedy analysis times (<30 seconds), high sensitivity, high selectivity towards analytes, good precision, dynamic range and accuracy. Tandem MS methods were implemented in selected cases for improved selectivity, sensitivity, and limits of detection. Limits of detection in the parts-per-billion and parts-per-trillion range were achieved for this set of analytes. In all cases detection limits were well below the compounds' permissible exposure limits (PELs), even in the presence of added complex mixtures of alkanes. Linear responses, up to several orders of magnitude, were obtained over the concentration ranges studied (sub-ppb to ppm), with relative standard deviations less than 3%, regardless of the presence of alkane interferents. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are presented to show the performance trade-off between sensitivity, probability of correct detection, and false positive rate. A dynamic sample preparation system for the production of gas phase analyte concentrations ranging from 100 pptr to 100 ppm and capable of admixing gaseous matrix compounds and control of relative humidity and temperature is also described. PMID:16568176

Cotte-Rodríguez, Ismael; Justes, Dina R; Nanita, Sergio C; Noll, Robert J; Mulligan, Christopher C; Sanders, Nathaniel L; Cooks, R Graham

2006-01-18

40

A novel method for analyzing solanesyl esters in tobacco leaves using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

A direct and simple method for analyzing solanesyl esters found in tobacco leaves was developed. Sample preparation was performed by accelerated solvent extractor 200 (ASE200) using n-hexane followed by evaporating solution in vacuo and dissolving residue with acetone. The separation of analytes was conducted through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with an SIL-C18/5C column and the non-aqueous reversed phase chromatography (NARP) technique using acetone and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with a linear gradient. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometer (APCI/MS) in positive mode was used to detect solanesyl esters in the following conditions: capillary voltage 4000 V, corona current 10 microA, drying gas flow 5 mL/min, fragmentor voltage 200 V, nebulizer pressure 60 psi, and vaporizer temperature 500 degrees C. Each solanesyl ester was identified by the comparison of analyte with synthesized solanesyl esters. Quantification was conducted by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode in order to detect the specific product ion (613.6 m/z) fragmented from solanesyl ester. The calibration curve was made in the range of 0.1-40 microg/mL with a regression coefficient over 0.999 on almost all solanesyl esters. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.01 to 0.05 microg/mL and from 0.03 to 0.15 microg/mL, respectively, on the SIM mode of MS for quantification. Recovery (%) ranged from about 80 to 120%. The direct quantification using the developed method succeeded in showing a different amount and composition of solanesyl esters among various tobacco leaves. PMID:20691974

Ishida, Naoyuki

2010-07-21

41

Determination of morphine and its 3- and 6-glucuronides, codeine, codeine-glucuronide and 6-monoacetylmorphine in body fluids by liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selective assay of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), morphine, codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide (C6G) and 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) based on liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC–APCI–MS) is described. The drugs were extracted from serum, autopsy blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid or vitreous humor using C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges and subjected to LC–APCI–MS analysis. The separation was performed on an ODS column

Maciej J Bogusz; Rolf-Dieter Maier; Manfred Erkens; Sarah Driessen

1997-01-01

42

Screening, library-assisted identification and validated quantification of oral antidiabetics of the sulfonylurea-type in plasma by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatographic–mass spectrometric (APCI–LC–MS) LC–MS assay is presented for fast and reliable screening and identification as well as precise and sensitive quantification of oral antidiabetics of the sulfonylurea-type (OADs) in plasma. It allowed the specific diagnosis of an overdose situation or a Munchausen syndrome caused by ingestion of OADs. After liquid–liquid extraction, the OADs glibenclamide,

Hans H Maurer; Carsten Kratzsch; Thomas Kraemer; Frank T Peters; Armin A Weber

2002-01-01

43

Rapid and sensitive analysis of azadirachtin and related triterpenoids from Neem ( Azadirachta indica) by high-performance liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry, a HPLC–MS method was developed to permit the rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of azadirachtin and related tetranortriterpenoids from seeds and tissue cultures of Neem (Azadirachta indica). APCI+ standard scanning mass spectra of the major Neem triterpenoids were recorded and utilized to select suitable ions

Otmar Schaaf; Andrew P Jarvis; S. Andrew van der Esch; Germina Giagnacovo; Neil J Oldham

2000-01-01

44

Alternately Pulsed Nano-electrospray Ionization/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization for Ion/Ion Reactions in an Electrodynamic Ion Trap  

PubMed Central

The alternate operation of nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), using a common atmosphere/vacuum interface and ion path, has been implemented to facilitate ion/ion reaction experiments in a linear ion trap-based tandem mass spectrometer. The ion sources are operated in opposite polarity modes whereby one of the ion sources is used to form analyte ions while the other is used to form reagent ions of opposite polarity. This combination of ion sources is well-suited to implementation of experiments involving multiply charged ions in reaction with singly charged ions of opposite polarity. Three analytically useful ion/ion reactions types are illustrated: the partial deprotonation of a multiply protonated protein, the partial protonation of a multiply deprotonated oligonucleotide, and electron transfer to a multiply protonated peptide. The approach described herein is attractive in that it enables both single proton transfer and single electron transfer ion/ion reaction experiments to be implemented without requiring major modifications to the tandem mass spectrometer hardware. Furthermore, a wide range of reactant ions can be formed with these ionization methods and the pulsed nature of operation appears to lead to no significant compromise in the performance of either ion source.

Liang, Xiaorong; Xia, Yu; McLuckey, Scott A.

2008-01-01

45

Atmospheric pressure thermospray ionization using a heated microchip nebulizer.  

PubMed

When a standard atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) ion source is used without applying the corona discharge or photoirradiation, atmospheric pressure thermospray ionization (APTSI) of various compounds can be achieved. Although largely ignored, this phenomenon has recently gained interest as an alternative ionization technique. In this study, this technique is performed for the first time on a miniaturized scale using a microchip nebulizer. Sample ionization with the presented microchip-APTSI (microAPTSI) is achieved by applying only heat and gas flow to a nebulizer chip, without any other methods to promote gas-phase ionization. To evaluate the performance of the described microAPTSI setup, ionization efficiency for a set of test compounds was monitored as the microchip positioning, temperature, nebulizer gas flow rate, sample solution composition, and solvent flow rate were varied. The microAPTSI mass spectra of the test compounds were also compared to those obtained with ESI and APCI. The microAPTSI produces ESI-like spectra with low background noise, favoring the formation of protonated or deprotonated molecules of compounds that are ionizable in solution. Multiple charging of peptides without in-source fragmentation was also observed. Unlike ESI, however, the microAPTSI source can tolerate the presence of mobile phase additives like trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) without significant ion suppression. The microAPTSI source can be used with standard mass spectrometer ion source hardware, being a unique alternative to the present interfacing techniques. PMID:19760642

Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Haapala, Markus; Saarela, Ville; Franssila, Sami; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto; Auriola, Seppo

2009-10-30

46

Atmospheric pressure covalent adduct chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry for double bond localization in monoene- and diene-containing triacylglycerols.  

PubMed

We report a method to elucidate the structure of triacyl-glycerols (TAGs) containing monoene or diene fatty acyl groups by atmospheric pressure covalent adduct chemical ionization (APCACI) tandem mass spectrometry using acetonitrile as an adduct formation reagent. TAGs were synthesized with the structures ABB and BAB, where A is palmitate (C16:0) and B is an isomeric C18 monoene unsaturated at position 9, 11, or 13 or an isomeric diene unsaturated at positions 9 and 11, 10 and 12, or 9 and 12. In addition to the species at m/z 54 observed in previous CI studies of fatty acid methyl esters, we also found that ions at m/z 42, 81, and 95 undergo covalent reaction with TAGs containing double bonds to yield ions at m/z 40, 54, 81, and 95 units greater than that of the parent TAG: [M + 40]+, [M + 54]+, [M + 81]+, and [M + 95]+ ions. When collisionally dissociated, these ions fragment to produce two or three diagnostic ions that locate the double bonds in the TAG. In addition, ions [RCH=C=O + 40]+ and [RCH=C=O + 54]+ formed from collisional dissociation are of strong abundance in MS/MS spectra, and collisional activation of these ions produces two intense confirmatory diagnostic ions in the MS3 spectra. Fragment ions reflecting neutral loss of an sn-1-acyl group from [M + 40]+ and [M + 54]+ are more abundant than those reflecting neutral loss of an sn-2-acyl group, analogous to previous reports for protonated TAGs. The position of each acyl group on the glycerol backbone is thus determined by the relative abundances of these ions. Under the conditions in our instrument, the [M + 40]+ adduct is at the highest signal and also yields all information about the double bond position and TAG stereochemistry. With the exception of geometries about the double bonds, racemic TAG isomers containing two monoenes or dienes and a saturate can be fully characterized by APCACI-MS/MS/MS. PMID:17279727

Xu, Yichuan; Brenna, J Thomas

2007-02-06

47

Analysis of nucleosides using the atmospheric-pressure solids analysis probe for ionization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleosides are polar molecules and generally considered to be non-volatile. Therefore, electrospray ionization is the method of choice for analysis of these compounds by mass spectrometry. In this work, we demonstrate that the atmospheric-pressure solids analysis probe can be used to ionize modified and non-modified nucleosides. Analogously to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, this ionization technique utilizes heat to vaporize the

Jef Rozenski

2011-01-01

48

Fast determination of 3-ethenylpyridine as a marker of environmental tobacco smoke at trace level using direct atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) was developed and applied to direct analysis of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS), using 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) as a vapour-phase marker. In this study, the ion source of APCI-MS/MS was modified and direct analysis of gas sample was achieved by the modified instrument. ETS samples were directly introduced, via an atmospheric pressure inlet, into the APCI source. Ionization was carried out in positive-ion APCI mode and 3-EP was identified by both full scan mode and daughter scan mode. Quantification of 3-EP was performed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curve was obtained in the range of 1-250 ng L-1 with a satisfactory regression coefficient of 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5 ng L-1 and 1.6 ng L-1, respectively. The precision of the method, calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD), was characterized by repeatability (RSD 3.92%) and reproducibility (RSD 4.81%), respectively. In real-world ETS samples analysis, compared with the conventional GC-MS method, the direct APCI-MS/MS has shown better reliability and practicability in the determination of 3-EP at trace level. The developed method is simple, fast, sensitive and repeatable; furthermore, it could provide an alternative way for the determination of other volatile pollutants in ambient air at low levels.

Jiang, Cheng-Yong; Sun, Shi-Hao; Zhang, Qi-Dong; Liu, Jun-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Xun; Zong, Yong-Li; Xie, Jian-Ping

2013-03-01

49

Direct detection of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene at trace levels in ambient air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization using a handheld mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

The capabilities of a portable mass spectrometer for real-time monitoring of trace levels of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene in air are illustrated. An atmospheric pressure interface was built to implement atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for direct analysis of gas-phase samples on a previously described miniature mass spectrometer (Gao et al. Anal. Chem.2006, 78, 5994-6002). Linear dynamic ranges, limits of detection and other analytical figures of merit were evaluated: for benzene, a limit of detection of 0.2 parts-per-billion was achieved for air samples without any sample preconcentration. The corresponding limits of detection for toluene and ethylbenzene were 0.5 parts-per-billion and 0.7 parts-per-billion, respectively. These detection limits are well below the compounds' permissible exposure levels, even in the presence of added complex mixtures of organics at levels exceeding the parts-per-million level. The linear dynamic ranges of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene are limited to approximately two orders of magnitude by saturation of the detection electronics. PMID:19879158

Huang, Guangming; Gao, Liang; Duncan, Jason; Harper, Jason D; Sanders, Nathaniel L; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

2009-09-30

50

High-throughput walkthrough detection portal for counter terrorism: detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) vapor by atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

With the aim of improving security, a high-throughput portal system for detecting triacetone triperoxide (TATP) vapor emitted from passengers and luggage was developed. The portal system consists of a push-pull air sampler, an atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ion source, and an explosives detector based on mass spectrometry. To improve the sensitivity of the explosives detector, a novel linear ion trap mass spectrometer with wire electrodes (wire-LIT) is installed in the portal system. TATP signals were clearly obtained 2?s after the subject under detection passed through the portal system. Preliminary results on sensitivity and throughput show that the portal system is a useful tool for preventing the use of TATP-based improvised explosive devices by screening persons in places where many people are coming and going. PMID:21818804

Takada, Yasuaki; Nagano, Hisashi; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Sugiyama, Masuyuki; Nakajima, Eri; Hashimoto, Yuichiro; Sakairi, Minoru

2011-09-15

51

Application of gas chromatography-(triple quadrupole) mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the determination of multiclass pesticides in fruits and vegetables.  

PubMed

A multi-residue method for the determination of 142 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables has been developed using a new atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source for coupling gas chromatography (GC) to tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode has been applied, acquiring three transitions for each compound. In contrast to the extensive fragmentation typically obtained in classical electron ionization (EI), the soft APCI ionization allowed the selection of highly abundant protonated molecules ([M+H](+)) as precursor ions for most compounds. This was favorable for both sensitivity and selectivity. Validation of the method was performed in which both quantitative and qualitative parameters were assessed using orange, tomato and carrot samples spiked at two levels, 0.01 and 0.1mg/kg. The QuEChERS method was used for sample preparation, followed by a 10-fold dilution of the final acetonitrile extract with a mixture of hexane and acetone. Recovery and precision were satisfactory in the three matrices, at both concentration levels. Very low limits of detection (down 0.01?g/kg for the most sensitive compounds) were achieved. Ion ratios were consistent and identification according to EU criteria was possible in 80% (0.01mg/kg) to 96% (0.1mg/kg) of the pesticide/matrix combinations. The method was applied to the analysis of various fruits and vegetables from the Mediterranean region of Spain. PMID:24070626

Cherta, Laura; Portolés, Tania; Beltran, Joaquim; Pitarch, Elena; Mol, Johannes G J; Hernández, Félix

2013-09-11

52

[Isolation and purification of solanesol from potato leaves by high-speed counter-current chromatography and identification by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

Preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for the isolation and purification of solanesol from potato leaves. Experimental conditions of the extraction of solanesol from potato leaves have been optimized. An ultrafine extraction method was applied in this study. The efficiency using an ultrafine extraction was found to be improved in the investigation, the yields of solanesol by different extraction methods were 0.083% by ultrafine extraction and 0.050% by ultrasonic extraction. Using n-hexane-methanol (10:7, v/v) as the two-phase solvent system, preparative HSCCC was successfully performed with the yield of 5 mg solanesol at 98.7% of purity from 60 mg of crude extract in the one-step separation. The mobile phase was the lower phase and operated at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, while the apparatus rotated at 800 r/min. The solanesol was identified by the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). The ionization and cleavage mechanisms of solanesol in APCI-MS and APCI-MS/MS are discussed. PMID:17970112

Hu, Jiangyong; Liang, Yong; Xie, Ya; Huang, Zhaofeng; Zhong, Hanzuo

2007-07-01

53

Characterization of triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol composition of plant oils using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Triacylglycerols (TGs) and diacylglycerols (DGs) in 16 plant oil samples (hazelnut, pistachio, poppy-seed, almond, palm, Brazil-nut, rapeseed, macadamia, soyabean, sunflower, linseed, Dracocephalum moldavica, evening primrose, corn, amaranth, Silybum arianum) were analyzed by HPLC-MS with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and UV detection at 205 nm on two Nova-Pak C18 chromatographic columns connected in series. A single chromatographic column and non-aqueous ethanol-acetonitrile gradient system was used as a compromise between the analysis time and the resolution for the characterization of TG composition of five plant oils. APCI mass spectra were applied for the identification of all TGs and other acylglycerols. The isobaric positional isomers can be distinguished on the basis of different relative abundances of the fragment ions formed by preferred losses of the fatty acid from sn-1(3) positions compared to the sn-2 position. Excellent chromatographic resolution and broad retention window together with APCI mass spectra enabled positive identification of TGs containing fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms such as margaric (C17:0) and heptadecanoic (C17:1) acids. The general fragmentation patterns of TGs in both APCI and electrospray ionization mass spectra were proposed on the basis of MSn spectra measured with an ion trap analyzer. The relative concentrations of particular TGs in the analyzed plant oils were estimated on the basis of relative peak areas measured with UV detection at 205 nm. PMID:12974290

Holcapek, Michal; Jandera, Pavel; Zderadicka, Petr; Hrubá, Lucie

2003-08-29

54

Performance evaluation of gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for metabolic fingerprinting and profiling.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography-atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-TOFMS) was compared to GC × GC-electron ionization (EI)-TOFMS, GC-EI-TOFMS, GC-chemical ionization (CI)-quadrupole mass spectrometry (qMS), and GC-EI-qMS in terms of reproducibility, dynamic range, limit of detection, and quantification using a mix of 43 metabolites and 12 stable isotope-labeled standards. Lower limits of quantification for GC-APCI-TOFMS ranged between 0.06 and 7.81 ?M, and relative standard deviations for calibration replicates were between 0.4% and 8.7%. For all compounds and techniques, except in four cases, R(2) values were above 0.99. Regarding limits of quantification, GC-APCI-TOFMS was inferior to only GC × GC-EI-TOFMS, but outperformed all other techniques tested. GC-APCI-TOFMS was further applied to the metabolic fingerprinting of two Escherichia coli strains. Of 45 features that differed significantly (false discovery rate < 0.05) between the strains, 25 metabolites were identified through highly accurate and reproducible (?m ± SD below 5 mDa over m/z 190-722) mass measurements. Starting from the quasimolecular ion, six additional metabolites were identified that had not been found in a previous study using GC × GC-EI-TOFMS and an EI mass spectral library for identification purposes. Silylation adducts formed in the APCI source assisted the identification of unknown compounds, as their formation is structure-dependent and is not observed for compounds lacking a carboxylic group. PMID:21859117

Wachsmuth, Christian J; Almstetter, Martin F; Waldhier, Magdalena C; Gruber, Michael A; Nürnberger, Nadine; Oefner, Peter J; Dettmer, Katja

2011-09-09

55

Characterization of gamma-irradiated polyethylene terephthalate by liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC MS) with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-molecular-weight (low-MW) constituents of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), irradiated with 60Co gamma rays at 25 and 50 kGy, were analyzed by HPLC MS with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Consistent with earlier results, the concentrations of the major compounds that are present in the non-irradiated PET do not change perceptibly. However, we find a small but significant increase in terephthalic acid ethylester, from less than 1 mg/kg in the non-irradiated control to ca. 2 mg/kg after 50 kGy, which has not been described before. The finding is important because it gives an impression of the sensitivity of the analytical method. Additionally, it shows that even very radiation-resistant polymers can form measurable amounts of low-MW radiolysis products. The potential and limitations of LC MS for the analysis of radiolysis products and unidentified migrants are briefly discussed in the context of the question: How can we validate our analytical methods for unknown analytes?

Buchalla, Rainer; Begley, Timothy H.

2006-01-01

56

Ultra-fast analysis of anatoxin-A using laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry: validation and resolution from phenylalanine.  

PubMed

A novel approach for the analysis of the cyanobacterial toxin, anatoxin-a (ANA-a), in an environmentally relevant matrix, using laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-MS/MS) is presented. The ultra-fast analysis time (15 s/sample) provided by the LDTD-APCI interface is strengthened by its ability to remove interference from phenylalanine (PHE), an isobaric interference in ANA-a analysis by MS/MS. Thus the LDTD-APCI interface avoids the time consuming steps of derivatization, chromatographic separation or solid-phase extraction prior to analysis. Method development and instrumental parameter optimizations were focused toward signal enhancement of ANA-a, and signal removal of a PHE interference as high as 500 ?g/L. External calibration in a complex matrix gave detection and quantification limit values of 1 and 3 ?g/L respectively, as well as good linearity (R(2) > 0.999) over nearly two orders of magnitude. Internal calibration with clomiphene (CLO) is possible and method performance was similar to that obtained by external calibration. This work demonstrated the utility of the LDTD-APCI source for ultra-fast detection and quantification of ANA-a in environmental aqueous matrices, and confirmed its ability to suppress the interference of PHE without sample preparation or chromatographic separation. PMID:23159398

Lemoine, Pascal; Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Prévost, Michèle; Tremblay, Patrice; Solliec, Morgan; Sauvé, Sébastien

2012-11-14

57

Carbamazepine in municipal wastewater and wastewater sludge: ultrafast quantification by laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this study, the distribution of the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) in wastewater (WW) and aqueous and solid phases of wastewater sludge (WWS) was carried out. A rapid and reliable method enabling high-throughput sample analysis for quicker data generation, detection, and monitoring of CBZ in WW and WWS was developed and validated. The ultrafast method (15s per sample) is based on the laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LDTD-APCI) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The optimization of instrumental parameters and method application for environmental analysis are presented. The performance of the novel method was evaluated by estimation of extraction recovery, linearity, precision and detection limit. The method detection limits was 12 ng L(-1) in WW and 3.4 ng g(-1) in WWS. The intra- and inter-day precisions were 8% and 11% in WW and 6% and 9% in WWS, respectively. Furthermore, three extraction methods, ultrasonic extraction (USE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with three different solvent condition such as methanol, acetone and acetonitrile:ethyle acetate (5:1, v/v) were compared on the basis of procedural blank and method recovery. Overall, ASE showed the best extraction efficiency with methanol as compared to USE and MAE. Furthermore, the quantification of CBZ in WW and WWS samples showed the presence of contaminant in all stages of the treatment plant. PMID:22967548

Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Picard, P; Surampalli, R Y

2012-05-29

58

High-throughput trace analysis of explosives in water by laser diode thermal desorption/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Harmful explosives can accumulate in natural waters in the long term during their testing, usage, storage, and dumping and can pose a health risk to humans and the environment. For the first time, attachment of small anions to neutral molecules in laser diode thermal desorption/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was systematically investigated for the direct determination of trace nitroaromatics, nitrate esters, and nitramine explosives in water. Using ammonium chloride as an additive improved the instrument response for all the explosives tested and promoted the formation of several characteristic adduct ions. The method performs well achieving good linearity over at least 2 orders of magnitude, with coefficients of determination greater than 0.995. The resulting limits of detection are in the range of 0.009-0.092 ?g/L. River water samples were successfully analyzed by the proposed method with accuracy in the range of 96-98% and a response time of 15 s, without any further pretreatment or chromatographic separation. PMID:22746321

Badjagbo, Koffi; Sauvé, Sébastien

2012-06-12

59

Liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry of bilobalide in plasma and brain of rats after oral administration of its phospholipidic complex.  

PubMed

Standardized extracts of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves are widely used in clinical practice for the symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate dementia syndromes, cerebral insufficiency and for the enhancement of cognitive function. The main active components present in G. biloba extracts are flavonol-glycosides and terpene-lactones. In recent investigations, the sesquiterpene trilactone bilobalide has been described to exert an interesting neuroprotective effect when administered systemically to experimental animals. Oral administration of terpene-lactones either as standardized extracts or purified products is characterized by a low bioavailability. While preparing phospholipidic complex of G. biloba extracts or bilobalide, plasma levels of terpenes and sesquiterpene increase. In the present study, phospholipidic complex of bilobalide (IDN 5604) has been administered orally to rats and bilobalide levels have been determined in plasma and brain by means of a validated method based on liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-ITMS). Due to its sensitivity (about 3pmol/ml) and specificity, LC/APCI-ITMS method proved to be a very powerful tool for pharmacokinetic studies of Ginkgo terpene-lactones. The results of the present study clearly confirm the improvement of oral bioavailability of bilobalide administered as phospholipidic complex and, for the first time, demonstrate the detection of significative amounts of bilobalide in brain. This last finding agrees with the neuroprotective activity observed for bilobalide. PMID:19473802

Rossi, Rossana; Basilico, Fabrizio; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Mauri, Pier Luigi

2009-05-03

60

A fast method for determining low-molecular-mass aliphatic carboxylic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A fast quantitative high-performance liquid chromatographic separation method with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-APCI-MS) was developed for the determination of low-molecular-mass aliphatic mono- and dicarboxylic acids typically present in different industrial process waters. A mixture of glycolic, lactic, a-glucoisosaccharinic, oxalic, maleic, fumaric, succinic, malic, glutaric, methylsuccinic, and adipic acids was separated using an RP chromatographic system. Adipic acid was used as an internal standard to calculate correlation coefficients for the acids studied. The chromatographic analysis of these acids was primarily carried out by means of gradient elution with an aqueous formic acid solution (0.15%, pH 2.5) and methanol using a modified C18 stationary phase. Good acid separation could be obtained for all acids by optimizing the chromatographic conditions. The method provides a simple sample preparation and faster analysis time compared to the traditional gas chromatographic methods, thus enabling almost real-time monitoring of these acids. Finally, the method developed was applied to the analysis of a complex mixture of aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids, which are formed as alkaline degradation products of carbohydrates during wood delignification and are present in the cooking spent liquor (black liquor). PMID:17017012

Käkölä, Jaana; Alén, Raimo

2006-08-01

61

Trace determination of 1-aminopropanone, a potential marker for wastewater contamination by liquid chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

1-Aminopropanone (APR) is a volatile aminoketone of human origin that has been identified in raw sewage and surface waters. However, the traditional methodology for the determination of APR is extremely complicated and requires a skilled chemist to achieve consistent results. This investigation presents a novel and simple method for the analysis of APR by direct derivatization in aqueous media. APR is synthesized as its hydrochloride and derivatized using mercaptoethanol and o-phthalaldehyde. The product of reaction is separated on a 15 cm x 4.6 mm Luna C-18 column (1 mL/min, 45:55 acetonitrile: Water) and detected using a single quadrupole mass spectrometer detector operated in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mode. Method detection limits as low as 100 nM were routinely obtained with a precision of 1.7%. Recoveries of APR were always found to be greater then 88% in surface and wastewater samples fortified at three different levels. However, despite the robustness of the method and the fact that APR was consistently detected in urine it was not present in a variety surface or wastewaters analyzed during the course of the study. These results pose a critical question on the use of APR as a tracer for human derived wastewaters. PMID:16443254

Singh, Simrat P; Gardinali, Piero R

2006-01-26

62

Eddy Correlation Measurements of the Air\\/Sea Flux of DMS Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and chemical processes controlling gas exchange across the air\\/sea interface are not well understood. Many laboratory and field studies of the physical controls on gas exchange have been performed using indirect mass balance measurement techniques, but there have been few direct gas flux measurements over the ocean. Eddy correlation is a micrometeorological technique, which can measure fluxes directly.

C. A. Marandino; W. J. Debruyn; E. S. Saltzman

2003-01-01

63

Determination of talinolol in human plasma using automated on-line solid phase extraction combined with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A specific LC-MS/MS assay was developed for the automated determination of talinolol in human plasma, using on-line solid phase extraction system (prospekt 2) combined with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) tandem mass spectrometry. The method involved simple precipitation of plasma proteins with perchloric acid (contained propranolol) as the internal standard (IS) and injection of the supernatant onto a C8 End Capped (10 mmx2 mm) cartridge without any evaporation step. Using the back-flush mode, the analytes were transferred onto an analytical column (XTerra C18, 50 mmx4.6 mm) for chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry detection. One of the particularities of the assay is that the SPE cartridge is used as a column switching device and not as an SPE cartridge. Therefore, the same SPE cartridge could be used more than 28 times, significantly reducing the analysis cost. APCI ionization was selected to overcome any potential matrix suppression effects because the analyte and IS co-eluted. The mean precision and accuracy in the concentration range 2.5-200 ng/mL was found to be 103% and 7.4%, respectively. The data was assessed from QC samples during the validation phase of the assay. The lower limit of quantification was 2.5 ng/mL, using a 250 microL plasma aliquot. The LC-MS/MS method provided the requisite selectivity, sensitivity, robustness accuracy and precision to assess pharmacokinetics of the compound in several hundred human plasma samples. PMID:15866498

Bourgogne, Emmanuel; Grivet, Chantal; Hopfgartner, Gérard

2005-04-11

64

Analysis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids by chiral liquid chromatography/electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using [13C]-analog internal standards  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) is thought to be mediated primarily by the cytochromes P450 (P450s) from the 2 family (2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 2J2). In contrast, P450s of the 4 family are primarily involved in omega oxidation of AA (4A11 and 4A22). The ability to determine enantioselective formation of the regioisomeric EETs is important in order to establish their potential biological activities and to asses which P450 isoforms are involved in their formation. It has been extremely difficult to analyze individual EET enantiomers in biological fluids because they are present in only trace amounts and they are extremely difficult to separate from each other. In addition, the deuterium-labeled internal standards that are commonly used for stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analyses have different LC retention times when compared with the corresponding protium forms. Therefore, quantification by LC/MS-based methodology can be compromised by differential suppression of ionization of the closely eluting isomers. We report the preparation of [13C20]-EET analog internal standards and the use of a validated high-sensitivity chiral LC/electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ECAPCI)-MS method for the trace analysis of endogenous EETs as their pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) ester derivatives. The assay was then used to show the exquisite enantioselectivity of P4502C19-, P4502D6-, P4501A1-, and P4501B1-mediated conversion of AA into EETs and to quantify the enantioselective formation of EETs produced by AA metabolism in a mouse epithelial hepatoma (Hepa) cell line.

Mesaros, Clementina; Lee, Seon Hwa; Blair, Ian A.

2012-01-01

65

Atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry applied to petroleum samples analysis: comparison with electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization methods.  

PubMed

The analysis of crude oil samples remains a tough challenge due to the complexity of the matrix and the broad range of physical and chemical properties of the various individual compounds present. In this work, atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) is utilized as a complementary tool to other ionization techniques for crude oil analysis. Mass spectra obtained with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) are compared. APLI is primarily sensitive towards non-polar aromatic hydrocarbons, which are generally present in high amounts especially in heavy crude oil samples. The ionization mechanisms of APLI vs. APPI are further investigated. The results indicate the advantages of APLI over established methods like ESI and APPI. The application of APLI in combination with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) is thus demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the analysis of aromatic species in complex crude oil fractions. PMID:21769956

Panda, Saroj K; Brockmann, Klaus-J; Benter, Thorsten; Schrader, Wolfgang

2011-08-30

66

Development and Comparison of Three Liquid Chromatography-Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization/Mass Spectrometry Methods for Determining Vitamin D Metabolites in Human Serum  

PubMed Central

Liquid chromatographic methods with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry were developed for the determination of the vitamin D metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), and 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (3-epi-25(OH)D3) in the four Levels of SRM 972, Vitamin D in Human Serum. One method utilized a C18 column, which separates 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3, and one method utilized a CN column that also resolves the diastereomers 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3. Both methods utilized stable isotope labeled internal standards for quantitation of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3. These methods were subsequently used to evaluate SRM 909c Human Serum, and 25(OH)D3 was the only vitamin D metabolite detected in this material. However, SRM 909c samples contained matrix peaks that interfered with the determination of the [2H6]-25(OH)D3 peak area. The chromatographic conditions for the C18 column were modified to remove this interference, but conditions that separated the matrix peaks from [2H6]-25(OH)D3 on the CN column could not be identified. The alternate internal standard [2H3]-25(OH)D3 did not suffer from matrix interferences and was used for quantitation of 25(OH)D3 in SRM 909c. During the evaluation of SRM 909c samples, a third method was developed using a pentafluorophenylpropyl column that also separates the diastereomers 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3. The 25(OH)D3 was measured in SRM 909c using all three methods, and the results were compared.

Bedner, Mary; Phinney, Karen W.

2012-01-01

67

(+)-Silybin, a pharmacologically active constituent of Silybum marianum: fragmentation studies by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The fragmentation behavior of (+)-silybin (1) and (+)-deuterosilybin (2), as well as of their flavanone-3-ol-type building blocks, such as 3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-phenyl-4-chromanone (3) and 2-(1,4-benzodioxolanyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4-chromanone (4), were investigated by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization quadropole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode (APCI(+)-QqTOF MS/MS). The product ion spectra of the protonated molecules of 1 revealed a rather complicated fragmentation pattern with product ions originating from consecutive and competitive loss of small molecules such as H2O, CO, CH2O, CH3OH and 2-methoxyphenol, along with the A+- and B+-type ions arising from the cleavage of the C-ring of the flavanone-3-ol moiety. The elucidation of the fragmentation behavior of 1 was facilitated by acquiring information on the fragmentation characteristics of the flavanone-3-ol moieties and 2. The capability of the accurate mass measurement on the quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer allowed us to determine the elemental composition of each major product ion. Second-generation product ion spectra obtained by combination of in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) with selective CID (pseudo-MS(3)) was also helpful in elaborating the fragmentation pathways and mechanism. Based on the experimental results, a fragmentation mechanism as well as fragmentation pathways for 1 and its flavanone-3-ol building blocks (3, 4) are proposed and discussed. PMID:17569099

Kéki, Sándor; Tóth, Katalin; Zsuga, Miklós; Ferenczi, Renáta; Antus, Sándor

2007-01-01

68

Screening for library-assisted identification and fully validated quantification of 22 beta-blockers in blood plasma by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid chromatographic–mass spectrometric assay with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC–APCI–MS) is presented for screening for, library-assisted identification (both in scan mode) and quantification (selected-ion mode) of the beta-blockers acebutolol, diacetolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bupranolol, carazolol, carteolol, carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, metoprolol, nadolol, nebivolol, oxprenolol, penbutolol, propranolol, sotalol, talinolol and timolol in blood plasma after mixed-mode (HCX) solid-phase extraction

Hans H. Maurer; Oliver Tenberken; Carsten Kratzsch; Armin A. Weber; Frank T. Peters

2004-01-01

69

Simultaneous determination by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of nitrated and oxygenated PAHs found in air and soot particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultra-performance liquid chromatographic-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric (UPLC-APCIToFMS)\\u000a method for rapid analysis of twelve nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and nine oxygenated polycyclic aromatic\\u000a hydrocarbons (OPAHs) in particle samples has been developed. The extraction step using pressurized liquid extraction was optimized\\u000a by experimental design methods and the concentrated extracts were analyzed without further clean-up. Matrix effects resulting

Giovanni Mirivel; Véronique Riffault; Jean-Claude Galloo

2010-01-01

70

High-Throughput Walkthrough Detection Portal as a Measure for Counter Terrorism: Design of a Vapor Sampler for Detecting Triacetone Triperoxide Vapor by Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical-Ionization Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming to prevent terrorist attacks in places where many people are coming and going, we have been developing a “high-throughput detection portal system.” The portal system consists of a vapor sampler, an atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization ion source, and an explosives detector based on ion-trap mass spectrometry. The vapor sampler was designed to be installed in an automated ticket gate of a

Yasuaki Takada; Yasutaka Suzuki; Hisashi Nagano; Masuyuki Sugiyama; Eri Nakajima; Masakazu Sugaya; Yuichiro Hashimoto; Minoru Sakairi

2012-01-01

71

Atmospheric pressure ionization and gas phase ion mobility studies of isomeric dihalogenated benzenes using different ionization techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) featuring different ionization techniques was used to analyze isomeric ortho-, meta- and para-dihalogenated benzenes in order to assess how structural features affect ion formation and drift behavior. The structure of the product ions formed was investigated by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) and IMS-MS coupling. Photoionization provided [M]+ ions for chlorinated and fluorinated

H. Borsdorf; E. G. Nazarov; G. A. Eiceman

2004-01-01

72

Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of benzimidazole compounds in milk samples.  

PubMed

In this work the atmospheric pressure ionization behavior and the tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation of 19 benzimidazoles was studied. Several atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources (ESI, APCI and APPI) were evaluated showing that APCI was the best option, mainly for KETO-TCB that provided a 20 times improvement versus ESI. From the studies of tandem mass spectrometry, fragmentation pathways were proposed thus characterizing the most abundant and interesting product ions and selecting the most abundant and selective ones for the confirmatory quantitative method performed in SRM mode in a triple quadrupole mass analyzer. For quantitative analysis, the 19 benzimidazoles were separated in less than 7min using a C18 column packed with superficially porous particles providing high efficiency within the range of UHPLC. A QuEChERS-like sample treatment was applied to milk samples before the UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS determination providing method limits of quantitation that ranged from 0.6 to 3?gkg(-1) and showing good repeatability (RSD: 2-18%) and accuracy (relative errors: 1-23%) suitable for using this method for routine analysis. PMID:24035105

Martínez-Villalba, Anna; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, Maria Teresa

2013-08-30

73

Characterizing Electrospray Ionization Using Atmospheric Pressure Ion Mobility Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Reduced flow-rate electrospray ionization has been proven to provide improved sensitivity, less background noise, and improved limits of detections for ESI-MS analysis. Miniaturizing the ESI source from conventional electrospray to micro-electrospray and further down to nano-electrospray has resulted in higher and higher sensitivity. However, when effects of flow rate were investigated for atmospheric pressure ESI-IMS using a nanospray emitter, a striking opposite result was observed. The general tendency we observed in ESI-IMS was that higher flow rate offered higher ion signal intensity throughout a variety of conditions investigated. Thus further efforts were undertaken to rationalize these contradictory results. It is well accepted that decreased flow rate increases both ionization efficiency and transmission efficiency thus improves ion signal in ESI-MS. However, our study revealed that decreased flow rate results in decreased ion signal because ion transfer is constant no matter how flow rate changes in ESI-IMS. Since ion transfer is constant in atmospheric pressure ESI-IMS, ionization efficiency can be studied independently, which otherwise is not possible in ESI-MS where both ionization efficiency and transmission efficiency vary as conditions alter. In this report, we present a systematic study on signal intensity and ionization efficiency at various experimental conditions using ESI-IMS and demonstrated the ionization efficiency as a function of flow rate, analyte concentration, and solvent composition.

Tang, Xiaoting; Bruce, James E.; Hill, Herbert H.

2013-01-01

74

Online profiling of triacylglycerols in plant oils by two-dimensional liquid chromatography using a single column coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The complexity of natural triacylglycerols (TAGs) in various edible oils is high because of the hundreds of TAG compositions, which makes the profiling of TAGs quite difficult. In this investigation, a rapid and high-throughput method for online profiling of TAGs in plant oils by two-dimensional (2D) liquid chromatography using a single column coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry was reported. A novel mixed-mode 2D chromatographic column packed with silver-ion-modified octyl and sulfonic co-bonded silica was employed in this online 2D separation system. This novel 2D column combined the features of C8 column and silver-ion. In comparison with the traditional C18 column and silver-ion column, which are the two main columns used for the separation of complex TAGs in natural oil samples, this novel 2D column, could provide hydrophobic interactions as well as ?-complexation interactions. It exhibited much higher selectivity for the separation of TAGs, and the separation was rapid. This online 2D separation system was successful in the separation of a large number of TAG solutes, and the TAG structures were evaluated by analyzing their APCI mass spectra information. This system was applied for the profiling of TAGs in peanut oils, corn oils, and soybean oils. 30 TAGs in peanut oils, 18 TAGs in corn oils, and 21 TAGs in soybean oils were determined and quantified. The highest relative content of TAGs was LLL, which was found in corn oil with the relative content up to 45.43 (%, w/w), and the lowest relative content of TAGs was LLS and OSS, which was found in soybean oil and corn oil respectively, with the relative content only 0.01 (%, w/w). In addition, the TAG data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Results of PCA enabled a clear identification of different plant oils. This method provided an efficient and convenient chromatographic technology for the fast characterization and quantification of complex TAGs in plant oils at high selectivity. It has great potential as a routine analytical method for analysis of edible oil quality and authenticity control. PMID:24034135

Wei, Fang; Ji, Shu-Xian; Hu, Na; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Chen, Hong

2013-09-05

75

Evaluation of gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry as an alternative to gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectrometry: Avocado fruit as example.  

PubMed

Although GC-APCI-MS was developed more than 40 years ago this coupling is still far from being a routine technique. One of the reasons explaining the limited use of GC-APCI so far is the lack of spectral database which facilitates the identification of the compounds under study. The first application of a very recently developed GC-APCI database to identify as many compounds as possible in a complex matrix such as avocado fruit is presented here. The results achieved by using this database has been checked against those obtained using traditional GC-EI-MS and a comparison of the MS signals observed in both ionization sources has been carried out. 100 compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified in the matrix under study. Considering the results of this study, the wide range of application (in terms of polarity and size of analytes) and the robustness of APCI as interface, the high quality of TOF spectra, and our library as a publicly available resource, GC-APCI-TOF MS is definitively a valuable addition to the "metabolomics toolbox". PMID:24054422

Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Pacchiarotta, Tiziana; Longueira-Suárez, Enrique; Mayboroda, Oleg A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

2013-08-30

76

Fragmentation energy index for universalization of fragmentation energy in ion trap mass spectrometers for the analysis of chemical weapon convention related chemicals by atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

The use of mass spectra generated at 70 eV in electron ionization (EI) as a universal standard for EI has helped in the generation of searchable library databases and had a profound influence on the analytical applications of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), similarly for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), suggesting a novel method to normalize the collisional energy for the universalization of fragmentation energy for the analysis of Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC)-related chemicals by atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (API-MS(n)) using three-dimensional (3D) ion trap instruments. For normalizing fragmentation energy a "fragmentation energy index" (FEI) is proposed which is an arbitrary scale based on the fact of specific MS/MS fragmentation obtained at different collisional energies for the reference chemicals which are not CWC scheduled compounds. FEI 6 for the generation of an MS(n) library-searchable mass spectral database is recommended. PMID:19331429

Palit, Meehir; Mallard, Gary

2009-04-01

77

Dual parallel electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (MS), MS/MS and MS/MS/MS for the analysis of triacylglycerols and triacylglycerol oxidation products.  

PubMed

Two mass spectrometers, in parallel, were employed simultaneously for analysis of triacylglycerols in canola oil, for analysis of triolein oxidation products, and for analysis of triacylglycerol positional isomers separated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was interfaced via an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface to two reversed-phase liquid chromatographic columns in series. An ion trap mass spectrometer was coupled to the same two columns using an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface, with ammonium formate added as electrolyte. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) under these conditions produced abundant ammonium adduct ions from triacylglycerols, which were then fragmented to produce MS/MS spectra and then fragmented further to produce MS/MS/MS spectra. ESI-MS/MS of the ammoniated adduct ions gave product ion mass spectra which were similar to mass spectra obtained by APCI-MS. ESI-MS/MS produced diacylglycerol fragment ions, and additional fragmentation (MS/MS/MS) produced [RCO](+) (acylium) ions, [RCOO+58](+) ions, and other related ions which allowed assignment of individual acyl chain identities. APCI-MS of triacylglycerol oxidation products produced spectra like those reported previously using APCI-MS. APCI-MS/MS produced ions related to individual fatty acid chains. ESI-MS of triacylglycerol oxidation products produced abundant ammonium adduct ions, even for those molecules which previously produced little or no intact molecular ions under APCI-MS conditions. Fragmentation (MS/MS) of the [M+NH(4)](+) ions produced results similar to those obtained by APCI-MS. Further fragmentation (MS/MS/MS) of the diacylglycerol fragments of oxidation products provided information on the oxidized individual fatty acyl chains. ESI-MS and APCI-MS were found to be complementary techniques, which together contributed to a better understanding of the identities of the products formed by oxidation of triacylglycerols. PMID:11816045

Byrdwell, Wm Craig; Neff, William E

2002-01-01

78

Chemical machining of Zerodur material with atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material of Zerodur is widely used in high performance optics because of its excellent thermal stability characteristics. This paper deals with the development of an APPJ (Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet) chemical machining process for defect free and high efficiency machining of Zerodur. The APPJ chemical machining mechanism for multi-phase multi-composite materials is presented. The chemical property of the plasma

Y. X. Yao; B. Wang; J. H. Wang; H. L. Jin; Y. F. Zhang; S. Dong

2010-01-01

79

Screening for library-assisted identification and fully validated quantification of 22 beta-blockers in blood plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC-APCI-MS) is presented for screening for, library-assisted identification (both in scan mode) and quantification (selected-ion mode) of the beta-blockers acebutolol, diacetolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bupranolol, carazolol, carteolol, carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, metoprolol, nadolol, nebivolol, oxprenolol, penbutolol, propranolol, sotalol, talinolol and timolol in blood plasma after mixed-mode (HCX) solid-phase extraction (SPE) and separation by reverse-phase liquid chromatography with gradient elution. The validation data were within the required limits. The assay was successfully applied to authentic plasma samples allowing confirmation of diagnosis of overdose situations as well as monitoring of patients' compliance. PMID:15595665

Maurer, Hans H; Tenberken, Oliver; Kratzsch, Carsten; Weber, Armin A; Peters, Frank T

2004-11-26

80

Novel Analytical Methods for Flame Retardants and Plasticizers Based on Gas Chromatography, Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography, and Direct Probe Coupled to Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-High Resolution Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this study, we assess the applicability of different analytical techniques, namely, direct probe (DP), gas chromatography (GC), and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) with a high resolution (HR)-time-of-flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) for the analysis of flame retardants and plasticizers in electronic waste and car interiors. APCI-HRTOFMS is a combination scarcely exploited yet with GC or with a direct probe for screening purposes and to the best of our knowledge, never with GC × GC to provide comprehensive information. Because of the increasing number of flame retardants and questions about their environmental fate, there is a need for the development of wider target and untargeted screening techniques to assess human exposure to these compounds. With the use of the APCI source, we took the advantage of using a soft ionization technique that provides mainly molecular ions, in addition to the accuracy of HRMS for identification. The direct probe provided a very easy and inexpensive method for the identification of flame retardants without any sample preparation. This technique seems extremely useful for the screening of solid materials such as electrical devices, electronics and other waste. GC-APCI-HRTOF-MS appeared to be more sensitive compared to liquid chromatography (LC)-APCI/atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI)-HRTOF-MS for a wider range of flame retardants with absolute detection limits in the range of 0.5-25 pg. A variety of tri- to decabromodiphenyl ethers, phosphorus flame retardants and new flame retardants were found in the samples at levels from microgram per gram to milligram per gram levels. PMID:24016281

Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; de Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim E G

2013-09-24

81

Simultaneous determination by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of nitrated and oxygenated PAHs found in air and soot particles.  

PubMed

An ultra-performance liquid chromatographic-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric (UPLC-APCIToFMS) method for rapid analysis of twelve nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and nine oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) in particle samples has been developed. The extraction step using pressurized liquid extraction was optimized by experimental design methods and the concentrated extracts were analyzed without further clean-up. Matrix effects resulting in suppression or enhancement of the response during the ionization step were not observed. The suitability of the developed method is demonstrated by analysis of six different particle samples including standard reference materials, atmospheric particles collected by a high-volume sampler at an urban background site, and a soot sample from a burner. Results from these measurements showed clear differences between the different kinds of samples. Concentrations from reference materials are in good agreement with those from previous studies. Additionally a clear seasonal trend could be observed in atmospheric NPAH and OPAH concentrations found in real samples, with higher concentrations in winter. PMID:20101503

Mirivel, Giovanni; Riffault, Véronique; Galloo, Jean-Claude

2010-01-26

82

Quantitative analysis of cortisol and 6?-hydroxycortisol in urine by fully automated SPE and ultra-performance LC coupled with electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ESCi)-TOF-MS.  

PubMed

An ultra-performance LC TOF MS method for quantitative analysis of cortisol and 6?-hydroxycortisol in urine was developed. The method was used for determination of the ratio between 6?-hydroxycortisol and cortisol in urine received from autopsy cases and living persons as a measure of cytochrome P450 3A enzyme activity. Urine samples (0.25 mL) were extracted with an in-house developed fully automated 96-well SPE system. The compounds were quantified using a Waters ACQUITY UPLC system coupled to a Waters SYNAPT G2. The MS sensitivity was optimized by using negative ionization in sensitivity mode (resolution >10 000 full-width at half-maximum), and further optimized by using the enhanced duty cycle around the 410 m/z. ESCi (simultaneous electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization) mode was used to compensate for the matrix effects of postmortem urine. Finally, the SYNAPT G2 was tested as a quantitative instrument. The developed method has a measurement range from 2.5-300 ng/mL for cortisol to 10-1200 ng/mL for 6?-hydroxycortisol. Mean overall process efficiencies were 29.4 and 23.0% for cortisol and 6?-hydroxycortisol, respectively. In 20 forensic reference cases, the range of the 6?-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio was 0.29-14.2 with a median of 3.04. PMID:23255186

Lang, Lotte M; Dalsgaard, Petur W; Linnet, Kristian

2012-12-15

83

Analysis of secondary organic aerosol using a Micro-Orifice Volatilization Impactor (MOVI) coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI-IT/MS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development and characterization of a Micro-Orifice Volatilization Impactor (MOVI) which is coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI-IT/MS), and its application in laboratory and field measurements. The MOVI-APCI-IT/MS allows the quantification of organic acids and other oxidation products of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) on a semi-continuous basis. Furthermore, the vapor pressure and saturation concentration of the particle components can be estimated. The MOVI was first described in 2010 by Yatavelli and Thornton (Yatavelli and Thornton, 2010). It is a single stage, multi-nozzle impactor with 100 nozzles, each having a diameter of 150 ?m. At a flow-rate of 10 L·min-1 air is drawn through the MOVI and particles are collected on a deposition plate. The cut-point diameter (d50, diameter of 50% collection efficiency) is at 130 nm. A low pressure-drop of only 5.3% of atmospheric pressure behind the nozzles allows collecting not only low-volatile but even semi-volatile compounds, which are an important part of SOA. After collecting particles hydrocarbon-free synthetic air is led over the collection surface into the APCI-IT/MS and the collection surface is heated up to 120 ° C in less than 200 s, volatilizing the sampled SOA. The vaporized compounds are transferred into the ion source and subsequently analyzed by mass spectrometry. Due to the soft ionization at atmospheric pressure the obtained mass spectra show only low fragmentations and can easily be interpreted. In laboratory experiments the MOVI-APCI-IT/MS was used for the chemical analysis of SOA generated from ?-pinene-ozonolysis in a smog chamber. The limit of detection was found at 7.3 ng for pinic acid. The vapor pressure log p0 and the saturation concentration C25* for pinic acid were calculated from the desorption temperature using the method presented by Faulhaber et al. (Faulhaber et al., 2009). Furthermore, in summer 2011 the MOVI-APCI-IT/MS was successfully tested in field measurements during the "Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study" (BEACHON-RoMBAS) in a ponderosa pine woodland in the southern Rocky Mountains of North America. The study was focused on understanding the formation, growth and properties of biogenic organic aerosol. We measured the composition of the aerosol particles and determined the concentration of pinic acid and isobaric substances. By means of intercomparison studies with other instruments like an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a MOVI coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) we could validate our measurements.

Brueggemann, M.; Vogel, A.; Hoffmann, T.

2012-04-01

84

Analysis of aldehydes in beer by gas-diffusion microextraction: characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work, a recently developed extraction technique for sample preparation aiming the analysis of volatile and semi-volatile compounds named gas-diffusion microextraction (GDME) is applied in the chromatographic analysis of aldehydes in beer. Aldehydes-namely acetaldehyde (AA), methylpropanal (MA) and furfural (FA)-were simultaneously extracted and derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), then the derivatives were separated and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection (HPLC-UV). The identity of the eluted compounds was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass-spectrometry detection in the negative ion mode (HPLC-APCI-MS). The developed methodology showed good repeatability (ca. 5%) and linearity as well as good limits of detection (AA-12.3, FA-1.5 and MA 5.4microgL(-1)) and quantification (AA-41, FA-4.9 and MA 18microgL(-1)); it also appears to be competitive in terms of speed and cost of analysis. PMID:20451914

Gonçalves, Luís Moreira; Magalhães, Paulo Jorge; Valente, Inês Maria; Pacheco, João Grosso; Dostálek, Pavel; Sýkora, David; Rodrigues, José António; Barros, Aquiles Araújo

2010-04-09

85

Determination of azolic fungicides in wine by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for simultaneous analysis of eight azolic fungicides: cyproconazole, diniconazole, tetraconazole, thiabendazole, flusilazole, triadimenol, triadimefon, carbendazim and the degradation product 2-aminobenzimidazole in wine samples is described. The compounds are isolated from the samples and concentrated by solid-phase extraction on polymeric cartridges. The determination is carried out by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection in positive ionization and selected ion monitoring modes. The influence of parameters such as the mobile phase composition, column temperature, corona current and fragmentor voltage is studied and the proposed method is validated. Recoveries of the nine compounds added to wine samples range from 83 to 109%, with relative standard deviations below 10%. The quantitation limits are between 9 and 31 microg/L. Real wine samples are analyzed by the proposed method, also. PMID:15974073

Nozal, Maria J; Bernal, J L; Jiménez, J J; Martín, Maria T; Bernal, J

2005-05-27

86

Quantitative determination of perfluorooctanoic acid ammonium salt in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive, specific, accurate and reproducible analytical method was developed and validated to quantify perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in human serum. After initial extraction with an ion-paring reagent, the procedure for quantifying PFOA is based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interfaced to negative ion tandem mass spectrometry, operating in selected ion monitoring mode. The retention times of PFOA and its internal standard (D,L-malic acid) were 5.85 and 1.70 min, respectively. The assay was linear over the range 0-500 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification (LOQ) of 25 ng/mL, and with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 7.3%. The lower limit of detection (LOD) was assessed as 10 ng/mL. The overall precision and accuracy were assessed on three different days. The within- and between-day precision was < or =9.7 and 6.8%, respectively, and the accuracy was in the range 96-114%. The mean extracted recovery assessed at three different concentrations (100, 250, and 500 ng/mL) was always more than 85%. With this method no derivatization procedure was needed, thus avoiding possible thermal and chemical decomposition reactions of PFOA. The assay was applied to quantify perfluorooctanoic acid in serum from employees exposed to fluorochemicals commonly used in industrial applications for polymer production. The quantitative results for PFOA blood levels were found to vary between 100 and 982 ng/mL. PMID:11921242

Sottani, Cristina; Minoia, Claudio

2002-01-01

87

Established and Emerging Atmospheric Pressure Surface Sampling/Ionization Techniques for Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The number and type of atmospheric pressure techniques suitable for sampling analytes from surfaces, forming ions from those analytes, and subsequently transporting those ions into vacuum for interrogation by mass spectrometry has rapidly expanded over the last several years. Moreover, the literature in this area is complicated by an explosion in acronyms for these techniques, many of which provide no information relating to the chemical or physical processes involved. In this review, we sort this vast array of techniques into a relatively few categories on the basis of the approaches used for surface sampling and ionization. For each technique, we explain, as best known, many of the underlying principles of operation, describe representative applications, and in some cases, discuss needed research or advancements and attempt to forecast their future analytical utility.

Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Pasilis, Sofie P [ORNL; Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL

2008-01-01

88

Quantification of ?-carotene, retinol, retinyl acetate and retinyl palmitate in enriched fruit juices using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A detailed optimization of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was carried out for developing liquid chromatographic (HPLC) techniques, using both fluorescence and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric (APCI-MS) detection, for the simultaneous analysis of preforms of vitamin A: retinol (R), retinyl acetate (RA), retinyl palmitate (RP) and ?-carotene (?-C). The HPLC analyses were carried out using a mobile phase composed of methanol and water, with gradient elution. The APCI-MS and fluorescence spectra permitted the correct identification of compounds in the analyzed samples. Parameters affecting DLLME were optimized using 2 mL of methanol (disperser solvent) containing 150 ?L carbon tetrachloride (extraction solvent). The precision ranged from 6% to 8% (RSD) and the limits of detection were between 0.03 and 1.4 ng mL(-1), depending on the compound. The enrichment factor values were in the 21-44 range. Juice samples were analyzed without saponification and no matrix effect was found when using fluorescence detection, so calibration was possible with aqueous standards. However, a matrix effect appeared with APCI-MS, in which case it was necessary to apply matrix-matched calibration. There was great variability in the forms of vitamin A present in the juices, the most abundant ester being retinyl acetate (0.04 to 3.4 ?g mL(-1)), followed by the amount of retinol (0.01 to 0.16 ?g mL(-1)), while retinyl palmitate was not detected, except in the milk-containing juice, in which RP was the main form. The representative carotenoid ?-carotene was present in the orange, peach, mango and multifruit juices in high amounts. The method was validated using two certified reference materials. PMID:23290361

Viñas, Pilar; Bravo-Bravo, María; López-García, Ignacio; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

2012-12-19

89

Screening, library-assisted identification and validated quantification of 23 benzodiazepines, flumazenil, zaleplone, zolpidem and zopiclone in plasma by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric assay with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC/APCI-MS) is presented for fast and reliable screening and identification and also for precise and sensitive quantification in plasma of the 23 benzodiazepines alprazolam, bromazepam, brotizolam, camazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clobazam, clonazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, desalkylflurazepam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, medazepam, metaclazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, nordazepam, oxazepam, prazepam, temazepam and tetrazepam, triazolam, their antagonist flumazenil and the benzodiazepine BZ1 (omega 1) receptor agonists zaleplone, zolpidem and zopiclone. It allows confirmation of the diagnosis of an overdose situation and monitoring of psychiatric patients' compliance. The analytes were isolated from plasma using liquid-liquid extraction and were separated on a Merck LiChroCART column with Superspher 60 RP Select B as the stationary phase. Gradient elution was performed using aqueous ammonium formate and acetonitrile. After screening and identification in the scan mode using the authors' LC/MS library, the analytes were quantified in the selected-ion monitoring mode. The quantification assay was fully validated. It was found to be selective proved to be linear from sub-therapeutic to over therapeutic concentrations for all analytes, except bromazepam. The corresponding reference levels the assay's accuracy and precision data for all studied substances are listed. The accuracy and precision data were within the required limits with the exception of those for bromazepam. The analytes were stable in frozen plasma for at least 1 month. The validated assay was successfully applied to several authentic plasma samples from patients treated or intoxicated with various benzodiazepines or with zaleplone, zolpidem or zopiclone. It has proven to be appropriate for the isolation, separation, screening, identification and quantification of the drugs mentioned above in plasma for clinical toxicology, e.g. in cases of poisoning, and forensic toxicology, e.g. in cases of driving under the influence of drugs. PMID:15329838

Kratzsch, Carsten; Tenberken, Oliver; Peters, Frank T; Weber, Armin A; Kraemer, Thomas; Maurer, Hans H

2004-08-01

90

Screening, library-assisted identification and validated quantification of fifteen neuroleptics and three of their metabolites in plasma by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric assay with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI-LC/MS) is presented for the fast and reliable screening and identification and for the precise and sensitive quantification of 15 neuroleptic (antipsychotic) drugs and three of their relevant metabolites in plasma. It allows confirmation of the diagnosis of a neuroleptic overdose and monitoring of psychiatric patients' compliance. The neuroleptics amisulpride, bromperidol, clozapine, droperidol, flupenthixol, fluphenazine, haloperidol, melperone, olanzapine, perazine, pimozide, risperidone, sulpiride, zotepine and zuclopenthixol and the pharmacologically active metabolites norclozapine, clozapine N-oxide and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were extracted from plasma using solid-phase extraction and were separated on a Merck LiChroCART column with Superspher 60 RP Select B as the stationary phase. Gradient elution was performed using aqueous ammonium formate and acetonitrile. After screening and identification in the scan mode using the authors' new LC/MS library, the neuroleptics were quantified in the selected-ion mode. The quantification assay was fully validated. It was found to be selective and proved to be linear from sub-therapeutic to over therapeutic concentrations for all analytes. The corresponding reference levels are listed. The accuracy and precision data were within the required limits. The analytes were stable in frozen plasma for at least 1 month. The method was successfully applied to several authentic plasma samples from patients treated or intoxicated with various neuroleptics. The validated LC/MS assay has proved to be appropriate for the isolation, separation, screening, identification and quantification of various neuroleptics in plasma for clinical toxicology and therapeutic drug monitoring purposes. PMID:12644990

Kratzsch, Carsten; Peters, Frank T; Kraemer, Thomas; Weber, Armin A; Maurer, Hans H

2003-03-01

91

Femtosecond Laser Ablation Particle Introduction to a Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge Ionization Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the use of a compact, liquid sampling atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) ionization source to ionize metal particles within a laser ablation aerosol. Mass analysis was performed with a Thermo Scientific Exactive Mass Spectrometer which utilizes an orbitrap mass analyzer capable of producing mass resolution exceeding M\\/M > 160,000. The LS-APGD source generates a low-power plasma between

Anthony J. Carado; C. Derrick Quarles; Andrew M. Duffin; Charles J. Barinaga; Richard Russo; R. Kenneth Marcus; Gregory C. Eiden; David W. Koppenaal

2012-01-01

92

Comparison of the structures of triacylglycerols from native and transgenic medium-chain fatty acid-enriched rape seed oil by liquid chromatography--atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-ITMS).  

PubMed

The sn position of fatty acids in seed oil lipids affects physiological function in pharmaceutical and dietary applications. In this study the composition of acyl-chain substituents in the sn positions of glycerol backbones in triacylglycerols (TAG) have been compared. TAG from native and transgenic medium-chain fatty acid-enriched rape seed oil were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with online atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. The transformation of summer rape with thioesterase and 3-ketoacyl-[ACP]-synthase genes of Cuphea lanceolata led to increased expression of 1.5% (w/w) caprylic acid (8:0), 6.7% (w/w) capric acid (10:0), 0.9% (w/w) lauric acid (12:0), and 0.2% (w/w) myristic acid (14:0). In contrast, linoleic (18:2n6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n3) levels decreased compared with the original seed oil. The TAG sn position distribution of fatty acids was also modified. The original oil included eleven unique TAG species whereas the transgenic oil contained sixty. Twenty species were common to both oils. The transgenic oil included trioctadecenoyl-glycerol (18:1/18:1/18:1) and trioctadecatrienoyl-glycerol (18:3/18:3/18:3) whereas the native oil included only the latter. The transgenic TAG were dominated by combinations of caprylic, capric, lauric, myrisitic, palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1n9), linoleic, arachidic (20:0), behenic (22:0), and lignoceric acids (24:0), which accounted for 52% of the total fat. In the original TAG palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids accounted for 50% of the total fat. Medium-chain triacylglycerols with capric and lauric acids combined with stearic, oleic, linoleic, alpha-linolenic, arachidic, and gondoic acids (20:1n9) accounted for 25% of the transgenic oil. The medium-chain fatty acids were mainly integrated into the sn-1/3 position combined with the essential linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids at the sn-2 position. Eight species contained caprylic, capric, and lauric acids in the sn-2 position. The appearance of new TAG in the transgenic oil illustrates the extensive effect of genetic modification on fat metabolism by transformed plants and offers interesting possibilities for improved enteral applications. PMID:17406932

Beermann, Christopher; Winterling, Nadine; Green, Angelika; Möbius, Michael; Schmitt, Joachim J; Boehm, Günther

2007-01-27

93

Atmospheric Pressure Surface Sampling/Ionization Techniques for Direct Coupling of Planar Separations with Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Planar separations, which include thin layer chromatography and gel electrophoresis, are in widespread use as important and powerful tools for conducting separations of complex mixtures. To increase the utility of planar separations, new methods are needed that allow in-situ characterization of the individual components of the separated mixtures. A large number of atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques for use with mass spectrometry have emerged in the past several years, and several have been investigated as a means for mass spectrometric read-out of planar separations. In this article, we review the atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques that have been used for the read-out of planar separation media. For each technique, we briefly explain the operational basics and discuss the analyte type for which it is appropriate and some specific applications from the literature.

Pasilis, Sofie P [University of Idaho; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2010-01-01

94

Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge Ionization Source for Elemental Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, low power ionization source for elemental MS analysis of aqueous solutions is described. The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LSAPGD) operates by a process wherein the surface of the liquid emanating from a 75 m i.d. glass capillary acts as the cathode of the direct current glow discharge. Analytecontaining solutions at a flow rate of 100 L min-1

R. Kenneth Marcus; C. Derrick Quarles; Charles J. Barinaga; Anthony J. Carado; David W. Koppenaal

2011-01-01

95

FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Effects of Penning ionization on the discharge patterns of atmospheric pressure plasma jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure plasma jets, generated in a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge configuration, have been investigated with different flowing gases. Discharge patterns in different tube regions were compared in the flowing gases of helium, neon and krypton. To explain the difference of these discharge patterns, a theoretical analysis is presented to reveal the possible basic processes. A comparison of experimental and theoretical results identifies that Penning ionization is mainly responsible for the discharge patterns of helium and neon plasma jets.

Li, Qing; Zhu, Wen-Chao; Zhu, Xi-Ming; Pu, Yi-Kang

2010-09-01

96

Splitting and Mixing of High-Velocity Ionization-Wave-Sustained Atmospheric-Pressure Plasmas Generated With a Plasma Gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nanosecond imaging of high-velocity ionization- wave-generated plasmas using a plasma gun is presented. A circu- lar glass pipe is used to study the splitting, the propagation, and the mixing of atmospheric-pressure plasma streams ensuing from a single dielectric-barrier-discharge reactor. Index Terms—Atmospheric-pressure plasmas, gas discharge devices.

Vanessa Sarron; Eric Robert; Sébastien Dozias; Marc Vandamme; Delphine Ries; Jean Michel Pouvesle

2011-01-01

97

Identification of unknowns in atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry using a mass to structure search engine.  

PubMed

This study evaluates a new model for identifying unknown compounds in atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry based on a mass-to-structure (MTS) paradigm. In this method, rudimentary ESI spectrum interpretation is required to recognize key spectral features such as MH (+), MNa (+), and MNH 4 (+), which lead to the unknown's monoisotopic mass. The unknown's mass is associated directly with known organic compounds using an Access 2003 database containing records of 19,438 substances assembled from common sources such as the Merck Index, pesticide and pharmaceutical compilations, and chemical catalogues. A user-defined mass tolerance (+/-0.001-0.5 Da) is set according to the instrument mass accuracyunit mass resolution data require a wide mass tolerance ( approximately 0.5 Da) while tolerances for accurate mass data can be as narrow as +/-0.001 Da. Candidate structures retrieved with the MTS Search Engine appear in a report window providing formulas, mass error, and Internet links. This paper provides examples of structure elucidation with 15 organic compounds based on ESI mass spectra from both unit mass resolution (e.g., quadrupole ion trap and triple-stage quadrupole) and accurate mass instruments (e.g., TOF and Q-TOF). Orthogonal information (e.g., isotope ratios and fragmentation data) is complementary and useful for ranking candidates and confirming assignments. The MTS Search Engine identifies unknowns quickly and efficiently, and supplements existing interpretation schemes for unknown identification. PMID:18811180

Liao, Wenta; Draper, William M; Perera, S Kusum

2008-09-24

98

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Borophosphosilicate Glass Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) films have been grown on silicon wafers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure (AP-PECVD). Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), triethylborate (TEB), and trimethylphosphite (TMPI) were adopted as precursors, and argon and oxygen were respectively used as the carrier and reactive gases to produce stable plasma at atmospheric pressure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),

Minghui Yin; Lingli Zhao; Xiangyu Xu; Shouguo Wang

2008-01-01

99

Ionization by bulk heating of electrons in capacitive radio frequency atmospheric pressure microplasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron heating and ionization dynamics in capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF) atmospheric pressure microplasmas operated in helium are investigated by particle-in-cell simulations and semi-analytical modeling. A strong heating of electrons and ionization in the plasma bulk due to high bulk electric fields are observed at distinct times within the RF period. Based on the model the electric field is identified to be a drift field caused by a low electrical conductivity due to the high electron-neutral collision frequency at atmospheric pressure. Thus, the ionization is mainly caused by ohmic heating in this ‘?-mode’. The phase of strongest bulk electric field and ionization is affected by the driving voltage amplitude. At high amplitudes, the plasma density is high, so that the sheath impedance is comparable to the bulk resistance. Thus, voltage and current are about 45° out of phase and maximum ionization is observed during sheath expansion with local maxima at the sheath edges. At low driving voltages, the plasma density is low and the discharge becomes more resistive, resulting in a smaller phase shift of about 4°. Thus, maximum ionization occurs later within the RF period with a maximum at the discharge center. Significant analogies to electronegative low-pressure macroscopic discharges operated in the drift-ambipolar mode are found, where similar mechanisms induced by a high electronegativity instead of a high collision frequency have been identified.

Hemke, T.; Eremin, D.; Mussenbrock, T.; Derzsi, A.; Donkó, Z.; Dittmann, K.; Meichsner, J.; Schulze, J.

2013-02-01

100

Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Titanium Nitride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium nitride (TiN) is a technologically important material due to its chemical inertness, high melting point, hardness, and electrical and optical properties. The low resistivity and chemical inertness make TiN the material of choice for diffusion barriers in microelectronic applications. Thin films (<800A) of TiN were grown by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD) from tetrakis(dimethylamido) titanium (TDMAT) or tetrakis(diethylamido) titanium (TDEAT) with and without ammonia. Depositions were conducted under cold wall reactor and laminar flow conditions in a belt furnace at low temperatures (190^circ C-420^circC). Films were characterized by four point probe, Rutherford Backscattering, Forward Recoil, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopies. Films grown from TDMAT and TDEAT in the absence of ammonia were substoichiometric (N/Ti < 0.76), highly resistive (rho > 2.2 times 10^4 muOmega-cm), and contained carbon (C/Ti = 0.15-0.45), oxygen (O/Ti = 0.7-1.3), and hydrogen. TDMAT was more reactive than TDEAT, depositing films at lower temperatures and lower ammonia concentrations. TiN deposition rates ranged from 10A/min (280^ circ, TDEAT) to 190A/min (420^ circC, TDMAT) in the absence of ammonia. Film stoichiometries improved dramatically with the addition of ammonia (NH_3/TDMAT >=q 1; NH_3/TDEAT >=q 4). N/Ti ranged from 0.9-1.1, increasing with the ammonia concentration. Oxygen and carbon concentrations fell to 0.5 and <0.1 respectively, relative to the titanium content. Nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon concentrations were insensitive to temperature when ammonia was coreacted with the metal precursor. Hydrogen concentration continued to fall with increasing ammonia partial pressure. Film growth rates (220-300 A/min) were only weakly dependent on temperature or ammonia concentration, except for TDMAT at 420^circC. Ammonia reduced the film growth rate at these conditions. Lowest resistivities were obtained at 370^circ under high ammonia concentrations (NH_3 /TDMAT = 26, rho = 1500 muOmega-cm; NH_3/TDEAT = 110, rho = 660 mu Omega-cm). Though less reactive, TDEAT had a higher conversion rate of titanium atoms (gas phase)/titanium atoms (deposited film) of 35% than TDMAT (10%), probably due to excessive dust formation from TDMAT. Preliminary conformality measurements suggest that TDEAT films have better step coverage than films from TDMAT.

Musher, Joshua N.

101

Analytical methods for the determination of sterigmatocystin in cheese, bread and corn products using HPLC with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods have been developed for the determination of sterigmatocystin in bread, maize and cheese using HPLC linked to mass spectrometry (MS) atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for detection and concurrent confirmation of sterigmatocystin at levels down to less than 5 ?g\\/kg. Candidate extraction methods were initially checked for recovery and reproducibility by spiking commodities at a level of 200 ?g\\/kg of

Keith A. Scudamore; Michael T. Hetmanski; Philip A. Clarke; Karen A. Barnes; James R. Startin

1996-01-01

102

Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Permanent Magnet Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A new Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometer based on a permanent magnet with an atmospheric pressure ionization source was designed and constructed. A mass resolving power (full-width-at-half-maximum) of up to 80,000 in the electron ionization mode and 25,000 in the electrospray mode was obtained. Also, a mass measurement accuracy at low-ppm level has been demonstrated for peptide mixtures in a mass range of up to 1,200 m/z in the isotopically resolved mass spectra.

Vilkov, Andrey N.; Gamage, Chaminda M.; Misharin, Alexander S.; Doroshenko, Vladimir M.; Tolmachev, Dmitry A.; Tarasova, Irina A.; Kharybin, Oleg N.; Novoselov, Konstantin P.; Gorshkov, Michael V.

2007-01-01

103

Understanding the Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow (FAPA) Ambient Ionization Source through Optical Means  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ADI-MS) has led to the development of a large number of atmospheric-pressure ionization sources. The largest group of such sources is based on electrical discharges; yet, the desorption and ionization processes that they employ remain largely uncharacterized. Here, the atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) and afterglow of a helium flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) ionization source were examined by optical emission spectroscopy. Spatial emission profiles of species created in the APGD and afterglow were recorded under a variety of operating conditions, including discharge current, electrode polarity, and plasma-gas flow rate. From these studies, it was found that an appreciable amount of atmospheric H2O vapor, N2, and O2 diffuses through the hole in the plate electrode into the discharge to become a major source of reagent ions in ADI-MS analyses. Spatially resolved plasma parameters, such as OH rotational temperature (Trot) and electron number density (ne), were also measured in the APGD. Maximum values for Trot and ne were found to be ~1100 K and ~4 × 1019 m-3, respectively, and were both located at the pin cathode. In the afterglow, rotational temperatures from OH and N{2/+} yielded drastically different values, with OH temperatures matching those obtained from infrared thermography measurements. The higher N{2/+} temperature is believed to be caused by charge-transfer ionization of N2 by He{2/+}. These findings are discussed in the context of previously reported ADI-MS analyses with the FAPA source.

Shelley, Jacob T.; Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

2012-02-01

104

Excited level populations and excitation kinetics of nonequilibrium ionizing argon discharge plasma of atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

Population densities of excited states of argon atoms are theoretically examined for ionizing argon plasma in a state of nonequilibrium under atmospheric pressure from the viewpoint of elementary processes with collisional radiative model. The dependence of excited state populations on the electron and gas temperatures is discussed. Two electron density regimes are found, which are distinguished by the population and depopulation mechanisms for the excited states in problem. When the electron impact excitation frequency for the population or depopulation is lower than the atomic impact one, the electron density of the plasma is considered as low to estimate the population and depopulation processes. Some remarkable characteristics of population and depopulation mechanisms are found for the low electron density atmospheric plasma, where thermal relaxation by atomic collisions becomes the predominant process within the group of close-energy states in the ionizing plasma of atmospheric pressure, and the excitation temperature is almost the same as the gas temperature. In addition to the collisional relaxation by argon atoms, electron impact excitation from the ground state is also an essential population mechanism. The ratios of population density of the levels pairs, between which exists a large energy gap, include information on the electron collisional kinetics. For high electron density, the effect of atomic collisional relaxation becomes weak. For this case, the excitation mechanism is explained as electron impact ladderlike excitation similar to low-pressure ionizing plasma, since the electron collision becomes the dominant process for the population and depopulation kinetics.

Akatsuka, Hiroshi [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-10, O-Okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2009-04-15

105

Chemical Ionization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mass spectrometrists have ever been searching for ionization methods softer than EI, because molecular weight determination\\u000a is key for structure elucidation. Chemical ionization (CI) is the first of the so-called soft ionization methods we are going to discuss (cf. Fig. 1.2).

Jürgen H. Gross; Mass Spectrometry

106

The design of an atmospheric pressure ionization\\/time-of-flight mass spectrometer using a beam deflection method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer configuration has been designed which can be interfaced to a continuous ion beam source produced by atmospheric pressure ionization. The TOF device uses a beam deflection method to sweep the ion beam past a slit placed near the ionization source in order to generate a start pulse for TOF detection. The beam sweep technique

Ce Ma; Steven M. Michael; Mingta Chien; Jianzhong Zhu; David M. Lubman

1992-01-01

107

Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge Ionization Source for Elemental Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

A new, low power ionization source for elemental MS analysis of aqueous solutions is described. The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LSAPGD) operates by a process wherein the surface of the liquid emanating from a 75 ?m i.d. glass capillary acts as the cathode of the direct current glow discharge. Analytecontaining solutions at a flow rate of 100 ?L min-1 are vaporized by the passage of current, yielding gas phase solutes that are subsequently ionized in the < 5 W (maximum of 60 mA and 500 V), ~1 mm3 volume, plasma. The LS-APGD is mounted in place of the normal electrospray ionization source of a Thermo Scientific Exactive orbitrap mass spectrometer system. Basic operating characteristics are described, including the role of discharge power on mass spectral composition, the ability to obtain ultra-high resolution elemental isotopic patterns, and preliminary limits of detection attainable based on the injection of aliquots of multielement standards. While much optimization remains, it is believed that the LS-APGD may present a practical alternative to high-powered (>1 kW) plasma sources typically employed in elemental mass spectrometry, particularly for those cases where costs, operational overhead, and simplicity considerations are important.

Marcus, R. Kenneth; Quarles, C. Derrick; Barinaga, Charles J.; Carado, Anthony J.; Koppenaal, David W.

2011-04-01

108

Simultaneous extraction of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid from human plasma and simultaneous estimation by liquid chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/tandem mass spectrometry detection. Application to a pharmacokinetic study.  

PubMed

A simple analytical method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in atmospheric chemical ionization mode (APCI) for the simultaneous estimation of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, CAS 50-78-2) and its active metabolite salicylic acid (SA, CAS 69-72-7) in human plasma has been developed and validated. ASA and SA were analyzed simultaneously despite differences in plasma concentration ranges of ASA and SA after oral administration of ASA. In spite of having different chemical, ionization and chromatographic properties, ASA and SA were extracted simultaneously from the plasma sample using acetonitrile protein precipitation followed by liquid-liquid extraction. The analytes were separated on a reversed phase column with rapid gradient program using mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate buffer and methanol. The structural analogue diclofenac was used as an internal standard. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions m/z 179 --> 137 for ASA, m/z 137 --> 65 for SA and m/z 294 --> 250 for IS were used. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.02-10 microg/mL for ASA and 0.1-50 microg/mL for SA. The between-batch precision (%CV) ranged from 2.1 to 7.9% for ASA and from 0.2 to 5.2% for SA. The between-batch accuracy ranged from 95.4 to 96.7% for ASA and from 94.6 to 111.3% for SA. The validated method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetics of ASA after single oral administration of 650 mg test formulation versus two 325 mg reference formulations of ASA in human subjects. PMID:21755814

Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Kandikere, Vishwottam; Mudigonda, Koteshwara; Ajjala, Devender; Suraneni, Ramakrishna; Thoddi, Parthasarathi

2011-01-01

109

On-Line Coating of Glass with Tin Oxide by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The ...

A. H. McDaniel J. F. Sopko M. Allendorf M. Li W. G. Houf Y. Chae

2006-01-01

110

Comparison of sonic spray lonization with atmospheric pressure chemical lonization as an interface of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of some local anesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Sonic spray ionization (SSI) was compared with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) as an interface for liquid\\u000a chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) for the analysis of some local anesthetics. Peaks at [M+H]+ constituted the base peaks for all compounds by both SSI and APCI, except for prilocaine. The sensitivities by SSI for tetracaine,\\u000a benzoxinate, dibucaine, bupivacaine and mepivacaine were 4–16 times

T. Arinobu; H. Hattori; A. Ishii; T. Kumazawa; X.-P. Lee; O. Suzuki; H. Seno

2003-01-01

111

Femtosecond Laser Ablation Particle Introduction to a Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge Ionization Source  

SciTech Connect

This work describes the use of a compact, liquid sampling – atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) ionization source to ionize metal particles within a laser ablation aerosol. Mass analysis was performed with a Thermo Scientific Exactive Mass Spectrometer which utilizes an orbitrap mass analyzer capable of producing mass resolution exceeding M/?M > 160,000. The LS-APGD source generates a low-power plasma between the surface of an electrolytic solution flowing at several µl min-1 through a fused silica capillary and a counter electrode consisting of a stainless steel capillary employed to deliver the laser ablation particles into the plasma. Sample particles of approximately 100 nm were generated with an Applied Spectra femtosecond laser located remotely and transported through 25 meters of polyurethane tubing by means of argon carrier gas. Samples consisted of an oxygen free copper shard, a disk of solder, and a one-cent U.S. coin. Analyte signal onset was readily detectable relative to the background signal produced by the carrier gas alone. The high mass resolution capability of the orbitrap mass spectrometer was demonstrated on the solder sample with resolution exceeding 90,000 for Pb and 160,000 for Cu. In addition, results from a laser ablation depth-profiling experiment of a one cent coin revealed retention of the relative locations of the ~10 µm copper cladding and zinc rich bulk layers.

Carado, Anthony J.; Quarles, C. Derrick; Duffin, Andrew M.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Russo, Richard; Marcus, R. Kenneth; Eiden, Gregory C.; Koppenaal, David W.

2012-01-16

112

Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) [A. Sch{umlt u}tze {ital et al.}, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. {bold 26}, 1685 (1998)] is a nonthermal, high pressure, uniform glow plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O), which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz rf. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains neutral metastable species (e.g., O{sub 2}{sup {asterisk}}, He{sup {asterisk}}) and radicals (e.g., O, OH). This reactive effluent has been shown to be an effective neutralizer of surrogates for anthrax spores and mustard blister agent. Unlike conventional wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion and it does not destroy wiring, electronics, or most plastics, making it highly suitable for decontamination of sensitive equipment and interior spaces. Furthermore, the reactive species in the effluent rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful by-products. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Herrmann, H.W.; Henins, I.; Park, J.; Selwyn, G.S. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1999-05-01

113

Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) [A. Schütze et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1685 (1998)] is a nonthermal, high pressure, uniform glow plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He/O2/H2O), which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz rf. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains neutral metastable species (e.g., O2*, He*) and radicals (e.g., O, OH). This reactive effluent has been shown to be an effective neutralizer of surrogates for anthrax spores and mustard blister agent. Unlike conventional wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion and it does not destroy wiring, electronics, or most plastics, making it highly suitable for decontamination of sensitive equipment and interior spaces. Furthermore, the reactive species in the effluent rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful by-products.

Herrmann, H. W.; Henins, I.; Park, J.; Selwyn, G. S.

1999-05-01

114

Decontamination of Chemical/Biological Warfare (CBW) Agents Using an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a non-thermal, high pressure, uniform glow discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g. He/O_2/H_2O) which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz RF. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains metastables (e.g. O2*, He*) and radicals (e.g. O, OH). These reactive species have been shown to be effective neutralizers of surrogates for anthrax spores, mustard blister agent and VX nerve gas. Unlike conventional, wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion of most surfaces and does not damage wiring, electronics, nor most plastics. This makes it highly suitable for decontamination of high value sensitive equipment such as is found in vehicle interiors (i.e. tanks, planes...) for which there is currently no good decontamination technique. Furthermore, the reactive species rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful byproducts. Physics of the APPJ will be discussed and results of surface decontamination experiments using simulant and actual CBW agents will be presented.

Herrmann, Hans W.

1998-11-01

115

Atmospheric Pressure Photo Ionization Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry—a Method to Differentiate Isomers by Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, a method for in-source hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange at atmospheric pressure is reported. The method was named atmospheric pressure photo ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (APPI HDX MS). H/D exchange was performed by mixing samples dissolved in toluene with CH3OD solvent and analyzing the mixture using atmospheric pressure photo ionization mass spectrometry (APPI-MS). The APPI HDX spectra obtained with contact times between the analyte solution and methanol-OD (CH3OD) of < 0.5 s or 1 h showed the same pattern of H/D exchange. Therefore, it was concluded that APPI HDX occurred in the source but not in the solution. The proposed method does not require a specific type of mass spectrometer and can be performed at atmospheric pressure. H/D exchange can be performed in any laboratory with a mass spectrometer and a commercial APPI source. Using this method, multiple H/D exchanges of aromatic hydrogen and/or H/D exchange of active hydrogen were observed. These results demonstrated that H/D exchange can be used to distinguish between isomers containing primary, secondary, and tertiary amines, as well as pyridine and pyrrole functional groups.

Ahmed, Arif; Kim, Sunghwan

2013-09-01

116

Decontamination of Chemical\\/Biological Warfare (CBW) Agents Using an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a non-thermal, high pressure, uniform glow discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g. He\\/O_2\\/H_2O) which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz RF. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas

Hans W. Herrmann

1998-01-01

117

Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) [A. Schütze et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1685 (1998)] is a nonthermal, high pressure, uniform glow plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He\\/O2\\/H2O), which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode

H. W. Herrmann; I. Henins; G. S. Selwyn

1999-01-01

118

Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) [A. Schu¨tze &etal;, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1685 (1998)] is a nonthermal, high pressure, uniform glow plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He\\/O2\\/H2O), which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered

H. W. Herrmann; I. Henins; G. S. Selwyn

1999-01-01

119

Factors affecting primary ionization in dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) for LC\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) for LC\\/MS is generally reduced at higher\\u000a solvent flow rates. Theory suggests that quenching of excited-state precursors to the dopant ions, via collisions with vaporized\\u000a solvent molecules, may be one mechanism responsible for this trend. To ascertain if the primary rate of ionization is affected\\u000a by quenching, experiments were performed utilizing an

Damon B. Robb; Michael W. Blades

2006-01-01

120

Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Spectra by Helium Ionization Mass Spectrometry (HIMS) on a Modified Atmospheric-Pressure Source Designed for Electrospray Ionization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical-ionization techniques that use metastable species to ionize analytes traditionally use a flat pin or a sharp solid\\u000a needle onto which the high potential needed to generate the discharge plasma is applied. We report here that direct analysis\\u000a of samples containing volatile and semivolatile compounds, including saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, can\\u000a be achieved on any electrospray-ionization mass spectrometer by

Zhihua Yang; Athula B. Attygalle

2011-01-01

121

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Borophosphosilicate Glass Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) films have been grown on silicon wafers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure (AP-PECVD). Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), triethylborate (TEB), and trimethylphosphite (TMPI) were adopted as precursors, and argon and oxygen were respectively used as the carrier and reactive gases to produce stable plasma at atmospheric pressure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and refractive index and stress measurements were employed to characterize BPSG films. The effects of input radio-frequency (RF) power and precursor (TEB and TMPI) flow rate on deposition rate were studied. Results indicated that the deposition rate of BPSG films increases with increasing input RF power and precursor flow rate. In addition, reactive gaseous species were detected by optical emission spectroscopy to reveal the possible reaction process of BPSG film deposition.

Yin, Minghui; Zhao, Lingli; Xu, Xiangyu; Wang, Shouguo

2008-03-01

122

Zno-based thin films synthesized by atmospheric pressure mist chemical vapor deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atmospheric pressure mist chemical vapor deposition (mist-CVD) system has been developed to prepare zinc oxide (ZnO)-based thin films. This is a promising method for large-area deposition at low temperatures taking into account of its simplicity, inexpensiveness, and safety. Nominally pure ZnO, Al-doped n-type ZnO (ZnO:Al), and N-doped p-type ZnO (ZnO:N) thin films, as well as Zn1?xCdxO and Zn1?yMgyO alloy

J. G. Lu; T. Kawaharamura; H. Nishinaka; Y. Kamada; T. Ohshima; S. Fujita

2007-01-01

123

Use of an ambient ionization flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow source for elemental analysis through hydride generation  

SciTech Connect

An ambient mass spectrometry ionization source based on an atmospheric-pressure flowing afterglow has been coupled to a Mattauch-Herzog mass spectrograph capable of simultaneous acquisition of a range of mass-to-charge values by means of a Faraday-strip array detector. The flowing afterglow was used as the ionization pathway for species produced by hydride generation. This ionization strategy circumvents problems, such as discharge instabilities or memory effects, induced by introducing the gaseous sample into the discharge. The generated spectra show both atomic and molecular peaks; calibration curves were calculated for both peak types with limits of detection for arsenic below 10 ppb. This study demonstrates the ability to use an ambient mass spectrometry source, commonly used for molecular analyses, for the detection of gas phase elemental species with the possibilty of performing speciation by coupling with a separation technique.

Schilling, G. D.; Shelley, Jacob T.; Broekaert, Jose AC; Sperline, Roger P.; Denton, M. Bonner; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

2009-01-01

124

The effects of added hydrogen on a helium atmospheric-pressure plasma jet ambient desorption/ionization source.  

PubMed

We present mass spectrometric data demonstrating the effect that hydrogen has on a helium-based dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) atmospheric-pressure plasma jet used as an ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) source. The addition of 0.9 % hydrogen to the helium support gas in a 35-W plasma jet increased signals for a range of test analytes, with enhancement factors of up to 68, without proportional increases in background levels. The changes in signal levels result from a combination of changes in the desorption kinetics from the surface and increased ion production in the gas phase. The enhancement in ADI-MS performance despite the quenching of key plasma species reported in earlier studies suggests that ionization with a H2/He plasma jet is the result of an alternate mechanism involving the direct generation of ionized hydrogen. PMID:23393059

Wright, Jonathan P; Heywood, Matthew S; Thurston, Glen K; Farnsworth, Paul B

2013-02-08

125

Investigation on plasma parameters and step ionization from discharge characteristics of an atmospheric pressure Ar microplasma jet  

SciTech Connect

In this communication, we report a technique to estimate the plasma parameters from the discharge characteristics of a microplasma device, operated in atmospheric pressure on the basis of homogeneous discharge model. By this technique, we investigate the plasma parameters of a microplasma jet produced by microplasma device consisting of coaxial capillary electrodes surrounded by dielectric tube. Our results suggest that the complex dependence of electrical discharge characteristics observed for microplasma device operated with Ar or it admixtures probably signify the existence of step ionization, which is well known in inductively coupled plasma.

Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Chuaqui, H.; Wyndham, E. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Ave. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Kakati, M. [Thermal Plasma Processed Materials Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402, Assam (India)

2012-06-15

126

Dominant Overall Chemical Reaction in a Chlorine Trifluoride Silicon Nitrogen System at Atmospheric Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the overall chemical reaction in a chlorine trifluoride silicon nitrogen system at atmospheric pressure, based on the observation of the dominant chemical species in the gas phase using a quadrupole mass spectra analyzer coupled with a horizontal cold-wall single-wafer epitaxial reactor. Chlorine trifluoride gas etches the silicon surface, producing two major products, silicon tetrafluoride gas and chlorine gas, at room temperature and 530 K. The production of chlorosilanes was not observed in this study. The results obtained in this study indicate that the dominant overall chemical reaction in a chlorine trifluoride silicon nitrogen system is 3Si + 4ClF3 ?3SiF4 ?+ 2Cl2 ?.

Habuka, Hitoshi; Otsuka, Toru; Qu, Wei-Feng

1999-11-01

127

Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Spectra by Helium Ionization Mass Spectrometry (HIMS) on a Modified Atmospheric-Pressure Source Designed for Electrospray Ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical-ionization techniques that use metastable species to ionize analytes traditionally use a flat pin or a sharp solid needle onto which the high potential needed to generate the discharge plasma is applied. We report here that direct analysis of samples containing volatile and semivolatile compounds, including saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, can be achieved on any electrospray-ionization mass spectrometer by passing helium though the sample delivery metal capillary held at a high potential. In the helium plasma ionization source (HPIS) described here, the typical helium flow required (about 20-30 mL/min), was significantly lower than that needed for other helium-ionization sources. By this procedure, positive ions were generated by nominal hydride ion removal from molecules emanating from heated saturated hydrocarbons as large as tetratetracontane (C44H90), at capillary voltages ranging from 2.0 to 4.0 kV. Unsaturated hydrocarbons, on the other hand, underwent facile protonation under much lower capillary voltages (0.9 to 2.0 kV). Although saturated and monounsaturated hydrocarbons bearing the same number of carbon atoms generate ions of the same m/z ratio, a gas-phase deuterium exchange method is described to ascertain the identity of these isomeric ions originating from either protonation or hydride abstraction mechanisms. Moreover, mass spectrometric results obtained by exposing unsaturated hydrocarbons to D2O vapor in an HPIS-MS instrument confirmed that the proton donor for ionization of unsaturated hydrocarbons is protonated water.

Yang, Zhihua; Attygalle, Athula B.

2011-08-01

128

Chemically non-equilibrium modelling of N2 thermal ICP at atmospheric pressure using reaction kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for an N2 inductively coupled thermal plasma (ICTP or thermal ICP) at atmospheric pressure was developed using reaction rates without the chemical equilibrium (CE) assumption. Particle composition distribution in the N2 ICTP was derived by solving the mass conservation equations for each of the particles, considering diffusion, convection and production terms. The electrical conductivity, mass density and diffusion coefficient were calculated at each of the calculation steps with the derived particle composition distributions. Using this model, the influence of gas flow rate on chemical composition distribution was investigated. The dependence of mass flow of N atom on gas flow rate was obtained. From the result, a large deviation from CE in the distribution of the particle composition was found, especially near the wall of the ICTP.

Tanaka, Y.; Sakuta, T.

2002-03-01

129

Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with analysis by ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The use of an atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (AP-MALDI) source was employed with an atmospheric pressure ion mobility spectrometer (APIMS) and an orthogonal acceleration reflector time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) to analyze dipeptide and biogenic amine mixtures from a liquid glycerol 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) matrix. Improved sensitivities were obtained by the addition of a localized electrical (corona) discharge in conjunction with the AP-MALDI source. Enhanced sample ionization efficiency created by this combination provided an overall elevation in signal intensity of approximately 1.3 orders in magnitude. Combinations of three dipeptides (Gly-Lys, Ala-Lys, and Val-Lys) and nine biogenic amines (dopamine, serotonin, B-phenylethylamine, tyramine, octopamine, histamine, tryptamine, spermidine, and spermine) were resolved in less than 18 ms. In many cases, reduced mobility constants (K(o)) were determined for these analytes for the first time. Ion mobility drift times, flight times, arbitrary signal intensities, and collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation product signatures are reported for each of the samples. PMID:15095357

Steiner, Wes E; Clowers, Brian H; English, William A; Hill, Herbert H

2004-01-01

130

Characterization of the atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometric process obtained using a fused-silica emitter with the high voltage applied upstream  

PubMed

The atmospheric pressure ionization process obtained when a mixture of methanol and water (90:10, v/v) also containing 50 microM sodium hydroxide is dispersed from a fused-silica emitter was studied. A combination of a high electric field and a nebulizer gas with the high voltage applied upstream in the liquid flow was utilized to facilitate the spray process. By comparing the dependences of the spray current and ion signals on the spray potential, it was found that electrical corona discharges were obtained for potentials higher than about 2.6 kV, which resulted in a mixed electrospray and chemical ionization process. By introducing vapour from a solvent, such as benzene or toluene, with a low ionization energy into the nebulizing gas, it was found that the appearance of the corresponding molecular ion was correlated with a change in the slope of the spray current-potential curve. This indicates that the breakpoints in the spray current-potential curves observed were correlated with the onsets of corona discharges. It was shown that the mixed ionization process gives rise to increased amounts of protonated solvent molecules and assists in the formation of sodiated adduct ions from an uncharged fatty acid methyl ester. PMID:10767761

Sjoberg; Nyholm; Markides

2000-03-01

131

Analysis of phospholipid molecular species by liquid chromatography — atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry of diacylglycerol nicotinates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method using liquid chromatography — atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry was evaluated for determining the molecular species composition of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholines from soybean, egg yolk and bovine liver) after conversion to diacylglycerol nicotinate derivatives. The structures could be deduced from pseudo-molecular ions ([MH-123]+) and three pairs of monoacyl containing fragment ions. All molecular species in mixed peaks were

Gary Dobson; Nigel Deighton

2001-01-01

132

Surface Decontamination of Chemical Agent Surrogates Using an Atmospheric Pressure Air Flow Plasma Jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator using air flow as the feedstock gas was applied to decontaminate the chemical agent surrogates on the surface of aluminum, stainless steel or iron plate painted with alkyd or PVC. The experimental results of material decontamination show that the residual chemical agent on the material is lower than the permissible value of the National Military Standard of China. In order to test the corrosion effect of the plasma jet on different material surfaces in the decontamination process, corrosion tests for the materials of polymethyl methacrylate, neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), phenolic resin, iron plate painted with alkyd, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. were carried out, and relevant parameters were examined, including etiolation index, chromatism, loss of gloss, corrosion form, etc. The results show that the plasma jet is slightly corrosive for part of the materials, but their performances are not affected. A portable calculator, computer display, mainboard, circuit board of radiogram, and a hygrometer could work normally after being treated by the plasma jet.

Li, Zhanguo; Li, Ying; Cao, Peng; Zhao, Hongjie

2013-07-01

133

Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Iron Pyrite Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

Iron pyrite (cubic FeS{sub 2}) is a promising candidate absorber material for earth-abundant thin-film solar cells. In this report, single-phase, large-grain, and uniform polycrystalline pyrite thin films are fabricated on glass and molybdenum-coated glass substrates by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) using the reaction of iron(III) acetylacetonate and tert-butyl disulfide in argon at 300 C, followed by sulfur annealing at 500--550 C to convert marcasite impurities to pyrite. The pyrite-marcasite phase composition depends strongly on the concentration of sodium in the growth substrate and the sulfur partial pressure during annealing. Phase and elemental composition of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The in-plane electrical properties are surprisingly insensitive to phase and elemental impurities, with all films showing p-type, thermally activated transport with a small activation energy ({approx}30 meV), a room- temperature resistivity of {approx}1 {Omega} cm, and low mobility. These ubiquitous electrical properties may result from robust surface effects. These CVD pyrite thin films are well suited to fundamental electrical studies and the fabrication of pyrite photovoltaic device stacks.

Berry, Nicholas; Cheng, Ming; Perkins, Craig L.; Limpinsel, Moritz; Hemminger, John C.; Law, Matt (NREL); (UCI)

2012-10-23

134

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of boron doped titanium dioxide for photocatalytic water reduction and oxidation.  

PubMed

Boron-doped titanium dioxide (B-TiO2) films were deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of titanium(iv) chloride, ethyl acetate and tri-isopropyl borate on steel and fluorine-doped-tin oxide substrates at 500, 550 and 600 °C, respectively. The films were characterised using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), which showed anatase phase TiO2 at lower deposition temperatures (500 and 550 °C) and rutile at higher deposition temperatures (600 °C). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed a dopant level of 0.9 at% B in an O-substitutional position. The ability of the films to reduce water was tested in a sacrificial system using 365 nm UV light with an irradiance of 2 mW cm(-2). Hydrogen production rates of B-TiO2 at 24 ?L cm(-2) h(-1) far exceeded undoped TiO2 at 2.6 ?L cm(-2) h(-1). The B-TiO2 samples were also shown to be active for water oxidation in a sacrificial solution. Photocurrent density tests also revealed that B-doped samples performed better, with an earlier onset of photocurrent. PMID:23999866

Carmichael, Penelope; Hazafy, David; Bhachu, Davinder S; Mills, Andrew; Darr, Jawwad A; Parkin, Ivan P

2013-09-02

135

Fabrication of Whitely Luminescent Silicon-Rich Nitride Films by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon-rich nitride (SRN) films that can exhibit an intense white-light emission were fabricated by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. SRN films were deposited on Si substrates using gaseous SiH2Cl2 (DCS) and NH3 as the source materials for Si and N, respectively. The deposition temperature was kept at 850 °C, and H2 was used as the carrier gas with its flow rate modulated to maintain chamber pressure at 1 atm during the deposition. The optical properties of films obtained at various deposition times from 15 to 60 min were examined by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. An intense luminescence band (1.5-3.5 eV) was observed by the naked eye for all as-deposited samples. Besides, time-resolved PL exhibited a short radiative lifetime of about 1 ns for SRN films. Moreover, high resolution plan-view transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the existence of Si dots in SRN films with the dot sizes ranging from 2 to 6 nm and a dot density of about 4× 1012/cm2. On the basis of the results obtained, we considered that the related luminescence mechanism for SRN films is connected to crystalline Si dots produced therein.

Lin, Chia-Hung; Uen, Wu-Yih; Huang, Yen-Chin; Li, Zhen-Yu; Liao, Sen-Mao; Yang, Tsun-Neng; Lan, Shan-Ming; Huang, Yu-Hsiang

2008-06-01

136

Impurity Measurement in Specialty Gases Using an Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometer with a Two-Compartment Ion Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer (APIMS) with a two-compartment ion source, impurity in specialty gases (CH4, SiH4, GeH4) is measured due to a stable ionization reaction with a detection limit of approximately 0.1 to 1 parts per billion (ppb). The form in which the impurity exists in these gases has been clarified. In the case of SiH4, the main impurity is disiloxane (SiH3-O-SiH3). We have also established a method for obtaining the SiH3-O-SiH3 calibration curve standardized for a known concentration of SiH3-O-SiH3 generated from the reaction of SiH4 with H2O@. In the case of CH4 and GeH4, the main impurity is moisture (H2O) and it is quantified from the plotted H2O calibration curve.

Kitano, Masafumi; Shirai, Yasuyuki; Ohki, Atsushi; Babasaki, Shinichi; Ohmi, Tadahiro

2001-04-01

137

Chemical kinetics of radio-frequency driven atmospheric-pressure helium-oxygen plasmas in humid air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the chemical kinetics of radio-frequency (rf) driven atmospheric-pressure helium-based plasmas in ambient air as determined through a zero-dimensional time-dependent global model. The effects of humid-air admixtures on the plasma-induced chemical reactions and the evolution of species concentrations in the helium-oxygen mixture (He-O2, helium with 5000 ppm admixture of oxygen) are studied for wide air impurity levels of 1-5000 ppm with the relative humidity of 0-100%. Comparisons made with experiments using an rf driven micro-scale atmospheric pressure plasma jet and one-dimensional simulations suggest that the plausible air impurity level in the experiments is not more than hundreds ppm. Effects of the air impurity containing water-humidity on electro-negativity and chemical activity are clarified with particular emphasis on reactive oxygen species.

Murakami, Tomoyuki; Niemi, Kari; Gans, Timo; O'Connell, Deborah; Graham, William

2011-11-01

138

Simultaneous Imaging of Small Metabolites and Lipids in Rat Brain Tissues at Atmospheric Pressure by Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Atmospheric pressure imaging mass spectrometry is a rapidly expanding field that offers advantages in the ability to study biological systems in their native condition, simplified sample preparation, and high-throughput experiments. In laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAE-SI), the native water molecules in biological tissues facilitate sampling by a focused mid-infrared laser beam. The ionization of the ablated material is accomplished by electrospray postionization. In this work, we demonstrate that the imaging variant of LAESI simultaneously provides lateral distributions for small metabolites and lipids directly in rat brain sections. To cope with the fragile nature and potential dehydration of the brain tissue due to drying in the ambient environment as well as to minimize analyte redistribution, a Peltier cooling stage is integrated into the LAESI imaging system. We demonstrate the utility of high-resolution (m/?m > 6000) time-of-flight mass spectrometry with LAESI to deconvolute spatial distributions of different chemical species with identical nominal mass. To help with the evaluation of the massive data sets, Pearson colocalization maps are calculated for selected small metabolites and lipids. We show that this approach reveals biologically meaningful correlations between these two classes of biomolecules.

Nemes, Peter; Woods, Amina S.; Vertes, Akos

2010-01-01

139

Low temperature atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of group 14 oxide films  

SciTech Connect

Depositions of high quality SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} films from the reaction of homoleptic amido precursors M(NMe{sub 2})4 (M = Si,Sn) and oxygen were carried out in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition r. The films were deposited on silicon, glass and quartz substrates at temperatures of 250 to 450C. The silicon dioxide films are stoichiometric (O/Si = 2.0) with less than 0.2 atom % C and 0.3 atom % N and have hydrogen contents of 9 {plus_minus} 5 atom %. They are deposited with growth rates from 380 to 900 {angstrom}/min. The refractive indexes of the SiO{sub 2} films are 1.46, and infrared spectra show a possible Si-OH peak at 950 cm{sup {minus}1}. X-Ray diffraction studies reveal that the SiO{sub 2} film deposited at 350C is amorphous. The tin oxide films are stoichiometric (O/Sn = 2.0) and contain less than 0.8 atom % carbon, and 0.3 atom % N. No hydrogen was detected by elastic recoil spectroscopy. The band gap for the SnO{sub 2} films, as estimated from transmission spectra, is 3.9 eV. The resistivities of the tin oxide films are in the range 10{sup {minus}2} to 10{sup {minus}3} {Omega}cm and do not vary significantly with deposition temperature. The tin oxide film deposited at 350C is cassitterite with some (101) orientation.

Hoffman, D.M. [Houston Univ., TX (United States); Atagi, L.M. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chu, Wei-Kan; Liu, Jia-Rui; Zheng, Zongshuang [Houston Univ., TX (United States); Rubiano, R.R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Springer, R.W.; Smith, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-06-01

140

Capillary electrochromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry of pesticides using a surfactant-bound monolithic column  

PubMed Central

A surfactant bound poly (11-acrylaminoundecanoic acid-ethylene dimethacrylate) (AAUA-EDMA) monolithic column was simply prepared by in-situ co-polymerization of AAUA and EDMA with 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol and water as porogens in 100 µm id fused silica capillary in one step. This column was used in capillary electrochromatography (CEC)-atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI)-mass spectrometry system for separation and detection of N-methylcarbamates (NMCs) pesticides. Numerous parameters are optimized for CEC-APPI-MS. After evaluation of the mobile phase composition, sheath liquid composition and the monolithic capillary outlet position, a fractional factorial design (FFD) was selected as a screening procedure to identify factors of ionization source parameters, such as sheath liquid flow rate, drying gas flow rate, drying gas temperature, nebulizing gas pressure, vaporizer temperature, and capillary voltage, which significantly influence APPI-MS sensitivity. A face-centered central composite design (CCD) was further utilized to optimize the most significant parameters and predict the best sensitivity. Under optimized conditions signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) around 78 were achieved for an injection of 100 ng/mL of each pesticide. Finally, this CEC-APPI-MS method was successfully applied to the analysis of nine NMCs in spiked apple juice sample after solid phase extraction with recoveries in the range of 65 to 109%.

Gu, Congying; Shamsi, Shahab A.

2011-01-01

141

Detection of cyclic lipopeptide biomarkers from Bacillus species using atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel approach to microbial detection using atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with an ion trap mass spectrometer to analyze whole cell bacteria is introduced. This new approach was tested with lyophilized spores and cultures of Bacillus globigii (BG) grown on agar media for 4 days or longer. At each stage of growth, it was found that biomarkers, identified as cyclic lipopeptides known as fengycin and surfactin, could be detected by pulsed ultraviolet laser irradiation of intact BG cells (approximately 5 mg) cocrystallized with alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid. Furthermore, definitive amino acid sequence information was obtained by performing tandem mass spectrometry on the precursor ions of the cyclic lipopeptides. The investigation was broadened to include the examination of aerosolized BG spores collected from the atmosphere and directly deposited onto double-sided tape. Subsequent analysis of the recovered spores resulted in the production of mass peaks consistent with fengycin. Other Bacillus species were analyzed for comparison and showed mass spectral peaks also identified as originating from various cyclic lipopeptides. Further studies were conducted using a pulsed infrared laser as the excitation source to analyze BG cells (approximately 5 mg) suspended in a matrix of 0.03 M ammonium citrate and glycerol resulting in the production of ions characteristic of fengycin and surfactin. PMID:12705595

Madonna, Angelo J; Voorhees, Kent J; Taranenko, Nelli I; Laiko, Victor V; Doroshenko, Vladimir M

2003-04-01

142

On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

2006-11-01

143

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of textured zinc oxide, doped titanium dioxide, and doped zinc oxide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of several thin film materials is described. Textured ZnO films were deposited as a textured antireflection layer on polysilicon solar cells using diethylzinc and water as the precursors. We were able to deposit textured ZnO films of high optical transmittance at a low temperature (250sp°C) with high growth rates (up to 4000A\\/minute), and good uniformity

Haifan Liang

1998-01-01

144

Characterisation of humic substances using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry combined with size-exclusion chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humic substances were analysed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) and electrospray ionisation (ESI) mass spectrometry in positive and negative modes. Using APCI the average m\\/z range of humic substances was reduced 5-fold compared to ESI. High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed the formation of multiply charged molecules in the ESI mode. Moreover, it was possible to obtain daughter ion mass

Thomas Pfeifer; Uwe Klaus; Ralf Hoffmann; Michael Spiteller

2001-01-01

145

Decontamination of chemical warefare agent simulator Dimethyl Methylphosphonate (DMMP) using RF large area non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results of the treatment of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), which is a chemical stimulant of the sarin gas, are reported. The plasma used for the experiment was a large area non-thermal RF atmospheric pressure plasma produced in the ambient air, of which size was 15times100 mm2. Previously measured current and gas temperature were low enough for thermally-sensitive material treatments, and

Dan Bee Kim; B. Gweon; S. Y. Moon; W. Choe

2008-01-01

146

The application of atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization to the analysis of long-term cryopreserved serum peptidome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers come equipped with vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization (MALDI) sources, the atmospheric pressure MALDI (API–MALDI) source is an attractive option because of its ability to be coupled to a wide range of analyzers. This article describes the use of an API–MALDI source coupled to a TOF mass spectrometer for evaluation of the effects of medium-

Rosa Mangerini; Paolo Romano; Angelo Facchiano; Gianluca Damonte; Marco Muselli; Mattia Rocco; Francesco Boccardo; Aldo Profumo

2011-01-01

147

Liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry for the determination of chloro- and nitrophenolic compounds in tap water and sea water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric-pressure ionization mass spectrometry (LC-API-MS) with negative ion detection was studied for the determination of a variety of phenolic compounds in environmental waters. An isocratic mobile phase of 0.05% acetic acid-acetonitrile (50:50, v\\/v) was used. The influence of post-column addition of different bases on the sensitivity of the detection in electrospray (ES) was studied. The [M-H]?

O. Jáuregui; E. Moyano; M. T. Galceran

1997-01-01

148

Real-time explosives/narcotics vapor enhancement and collection systems for use with the atmospheric pressure ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a companion document to the Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (API TOFMS) presentation (Lee, et al., 1992). Two significant technique challenges related to design and implementation of vapor collection systems are addressed. They are as follows: (1) freeing deposited or trapped explosive material particles or vapor; and (2) transportation of sample specimen from the pickup point to the detector. Addressed in this dissertation will be both hand-held collection and air shower booth accumulation.

Hintze, M. Marx; Hansen, Byron L.; Heath, Russell L.

1992-05-01

149

Quantitation of lysergic acid diethylamide in urine using atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization ion trap mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative method was developed for analysis of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in urine using atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (AP MALDI-ITMS). Following solid-phase extraction of LSD from urine samples, extracts were analyzed by AP MALDI-ITMS. The identity of LSD was confirmed by fragmentation of the [M + H]+ ion using tandem mass spectrometry. The quantification

Meng Cui; Margaret A. McCooeye; Catharine Fraser; Zoltán Mester

2004-01-01

150

Liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray mass spectrometry determination of "hallucinogenic designer drugs" in urine of consumers.  

PubMed

A procedure based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is described for determination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl-phenethylamine (2C-D), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (2C-B), 1-(8-bromo-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b'] difuran-4-yl)-2-aminoethane (2C-B-Fly), 4-ethylthio-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (2C-T-2), 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (2C-I), and 4-ethyl-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (2C-E), 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (m-CPP), 4-hydroxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (4-OH-DIPT) and 4-acetoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (4-acetoxy-DIPT) in urine of consumers using 3,4 methylendioxypropylamphetamine (MDPA) as internal standard. Sample preparation involved a solid-phase extraction procedure at pH 6 of both non-hydrolyzed and enzymatically hydrolyzed urine samples. Chromatography was performed on a C(18) reversed-phase column using a linear gradient of 10mM ammonium bicarbonate, pH 7.3 and acetonitrile as a mobile phase. Separated analytes were determined in LC-MS single ion monitoring mode using an atmospheric pressure ionization-electrospray ionization (ESI) interface. The assay was tested on urine samples from consumers of compounds under investigation (n=32). Limits of quantification varied between 20 and 60 ng/mL for the different analytes under investigation. Calibration curves were linear to 2000 ng/mL for all the substances under investigation, with a minimum r(2)>0.99. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic range of the assay, mean recoveries ranged between 55.4 and 95.6% for the different analytes. Higher analytes concentrations in hydrolyzed samples showed the presence of conjugated compounds in urine. PMID:18262381

Pichini, Simona; Pujadas, Mitona; Marchei, Emilia; Pellegrini, Manuela; Fiz, Jimena; Pacifici, Roberta; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Farré, Magi; de la Torre, Rafael

2008-01-04

151

Properties of TCO anodes deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition and their application to OLED lighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Doped ZnO is one of the materials currently being considered in commercial optoelectronic applications as a potential indium tin oxide (ITO) replacement for the transparent conducting oxide (TCO). The properties of doped ZnO anodes prepared at Arkema Inc. are analyzed using spectroscopic ellipsometer (230 to 1700 nm) and Hall-effect. The modeling of the refractive indexes is conducted using a double oscillator model. The model parameters are tested on a double layer: undoped and doped structure deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) on glass substrates. Excellent correlation between calculated and experimental parameters was obtained.

Korotkov, R. Y.

2012-02-01

152

Preparation of ZrC nano-particles reinforced amorphous carbon composite coating by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

To eliminate cracks caused by thermal expansion mismatch between ZrC coating and carbon–carbon composites, a kind of ZrC\\/C composite coating was designed as an interlayer. The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition was used as a method to achieve co-deposition of ZrC and C from ZrCl4–C3H6–H2–Ar source. Zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl4) powder carrier was especially made to control accurately the flow rate.

W. Sun; X. Xiong; B. Y. Huang; G. D. Li; H. B. Zhang; P. Xiao; Z. K. Chen; X. L. Zheng

2009-01-01

153

Development of normal phase-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospherical pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry method for the study of 6,6'-bis-(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-benzo[1,2,4]-triazin-3-yl)-[2,2']-bipyridine hydrolytic degradation.  

PubMed

In the field of nuclear waste management, the 6,6'-bis-(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-benzo[1,2,4]-triazin-3-yl)-[2,2']-bipyridine (CyMe(4)BTBP) is a polycyclic N-based molecule eligible to remove actinides from spent nuclear fuel by liquid-liquid extraction processes. In such processes, the organic phase containing the extracting molecules will undergo hydrolysis and radiolysis, involving degradation products. The purpose of this work was to develop a normal phase chromatography (NP-HPLC) coupled to atmospherical pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) method to separate and identify degradation products of CyMe(4)BTBP dissolved in octanol, submitted to HNO(3) hydrolysis. 1 mol L(-1) HNO(3) hydrolysis conditions were used regarding the selective actinides extraction (SANEX) process, while 3 mol L(-1) HNO(3) conditions were applied for the group actinide extraction (GANEX) process. The first step consisted in optimizing the chromatographic separation conditions using a diode array detection (DAD). Retention behavior of a non hydrolyzed mixture of N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dioctyl-hexyloxyethyl-malonamide (DMDOHEMA), a malonamide used in the SANEX process to increase the kinetic of extraction, and CyMe(4)BTBP were investigated on diol-, cyano-, and amino-bonded stationary phases using different mobile phase compositions. These latter were hexane with different polar modifiers, i.e. dioxane, isopropanol, ethanol and methylene chloride/methanol. The different retention processes in NP-HPLC were highlighted when using various stationary and mobile phases. The second step was the setting-up of the NP-HPLC-APCI-MS coupling and the use of the low-energy collision dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) of the precursor protonated molecules that allowed the separation and the characterization of the main hydrolytic CyMe(4)BTBP degradation product under a 3 mol L(-1) HNO(3) concentration. Investigation of the CID-MS/MS fragmentation pattern was used to suggest the potential ways leading to this hydrolysis degradation product. This NP-HPLC-APCI-MS method development is described for the first time for the CyMe(4)BTBP and should provide separation methods regarding the analysis of polycyclic N-based extracting molecules and more generally for the investigation of the organic phase coming from liquid-liquid extraction processes used in nuclear fuel reprocessing. PMID:21802688

Nicolas, Grégory; Jankowski, Christopher K; Lucas-Lamouroux, Christine; Bresson, Carole

2011-07-08

154

Step-coverage simulation for tetraethoxysilane and ozone atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

A simulation model for atmospheric pressure (AP) CVD has bee developed using one-dimensional diffusion and mass conservation equations. The model was applied to trench step-coverage of the tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and O[sub 3] CVD, in which it was not necessary to consider lateral diffusion because of narrow (and deep) trenches. For nondoped silicate glass (NSG), the step-coverage of a 4.5 aspect ratio trench showed a good fit if a sticking probability of 0.0039 was assumed for the 0.6% ozone (in oxygen) deposition and of 0.0026 for the 6% ozone deposition (both 400 C). The reaction rate constant was compared with the diffusion mass-transfer coefficient, and the reaction proved to be limited by diffusion of the reactant, TEOS, which directly participated in the CVD reaction. For the 2 m/o phosphosilicate glass (PSG) step-coverage, which had a slight overhang, the model matched the obtained results well only when an active growth species with a high sticking probability of 1.0 was added to the growth species of nondoped oxide. This analytical simulation method satisfactorily explains the experimental data.

Fujino, K. (Semiconductor Process Lab., Toyko (Japan)); Egashira, Y.; Shimogaki, Y.; Komiyama, H. (Univ. of Tokyo, (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-08-01

155

Direct atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry for aroma analysis: Speed, sensitivity and resolution of isobaric compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) sources were developed for real time analysis of volatile release from foods using an ion trap (IT) mass spectrometer (MS). Key objectives were spectral simplicity (minimal fragmentation), response time and signal to noise ratio. The benefits of APCI-IT-MS were assessed by comparing the performance for in vivo and headspace analyses with that obtained using APCI coupled to a quadrupole mass analyser. Using MS-MS, direct APCI-IT-MS was able to differentiate mixtures of some C6 and terpene isobaric aroma compounds. Resolution could be achieved for some compounds by monitoring specific secondary ions. Direct resolution was also achieved with two of the three isobaric compounds released from chocolate with time as the sample was eaten.

Jublot, Lionel; Linforth, Robert S. T.; Taylor, Andrew J.

2005-06-01

156

Evaluation of Parameters in Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Borophosphosilicate Glass Using Tetraethylorthosilicate and Ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective parameters for the atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and ozone were evaluated by designing an experiment. Source efficiencies of the deposition and doping were evaluated at constant boron and phosphorus concentrations. Each parameter was also characterized in terms of uniformity and film properties, such as thermal shrinkage and wet etch rate. Interactions between boron and phosphorus were discussed in terms of the difference in influential parameters and reaction rates. The deposition was controlled by the deposition temperature and the deposition rate, which are the dominant parameters of the film quality and deposition efficiency. The balance between gas flow rate and temperature is important to improve deposition and doping uniformity.

Nishimoto, Yuko; Tokumasu, Noboru; Maeda, Kazuo

2001-10-01

157

Analysis of lipids with desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS) and desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS).  

PubMed

In this article, the effect of spray solvent on the analysis of selected lipids including fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, triacylglycerols, steroids, phospholipids, and sphingolipids has been studied by two different ambient mass spectrometry (MS) methods, desorption electrospray ionization-MS (DESI-MS) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-MS (DAPPI-MS). The ionization of the lipids with DESI and DAPPI was strongly dependent on the spray solvent. In most cases, the lipids were detected as protonated or deprotonated molecules; however, other ions were also formed, such as adduct ions (in DESI), [M-H](+) ions (in DESI and DAPPI), radical ions (in DAPPI), and abundant oxidation products (in DESI and DAPPI). DAPPI provided efficient desorption and ionization for neutral and less polar as well as for ionic lipids but caused extensive fragmentation for larger and more labile compounds because of a thermal desorption process. DESI was more suitable for the analysis of the large and labile lipids, but the ionization efficiency for less polar lipids was poor. Both methods were successfully applied to the direct analysis of lipids from pharmaceutical and food products. Although DESI and DAPPI provide efficient analysis of lipids, the multiple and largely unpredictable ionization reactions may set challenges for routine lipid analysis with these methods. PMID:22576874

Suni, Niina M; Aalto, Henni; Kauppila, Tiina J; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

2012-05-01

158

Separation efficiency of a chemical warfare agent simulant in an atmospheric pressure ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometer (IM(tof)MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrospray ionization atmospheric pressure ion mobility orthogonal reflector time-of-flight mass spectrometer (IM(tof)MS) that routinely achieves mobility and mass separation efficiencies in line with theoretical limits is reported. The maximum IM(tof)MS efficiency for a given instrumental design depends widely upon the various key parameters such as voltage, temperature, initial pulse width, interface and reflectron energies. Optimization of the current IM(tof)MS

Wes E. Steiner; William A. English; Herbert H. Hill

2005-01-01

159

Plasma decontamination of chemical & biological warfare agents by a cold arc plasma jet at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cold arc plasma jet was introduced to decontaminate chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents for the application of a portable CBW decontamination system. The cold arc plasma jet is a low temperature, high density plasma that produces highly reactive species such as oxygen atoms and ozone. Moreover, it is possible to maintain stable plasma without He or Ar. The

Man Hyeop Han; Joo Hyun Noh; Ki Wan Park; Hyeon Seok Hwang; Hong Koo Baik

2008-01-01

160

Chemical kinetics simulation for atmospheric pressure air plasmas in a streamer regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a theoretical analysis of air discharges at high pressure which operates in a streamer regime. The aim is to provide a simplified framework to study the chemical kinetics in the discharge gas phase. We have tried to model the characteristics of actually existing devices, such as dc and ac discharges in sharp point-plane, point to point, or coaxial

R. Barni; P. Esena; C. Riccardi

2005-01-01

161

Application of atmospheric pressure photo ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange high-resolution mass spectrometry for the molecular level speciation of nitrogen compounds in heavy crude oils.  

PubMed

We report here for the first time the application of atmospheric pressure photo ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange (APPI HDX) coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for molecular level speciation of nitrogen containing compounds in crude oils. The speciation was done based on different combinations of ions produced from nitrogen containing compounds with various functional groups. To prove the concept, 20 nitrogen containing standard compounds were analyzed. As a result, it was shown that the nitrogen containing compound (M) with a primary amine functional group mainly produced a combination of [M - 2H + 2D](•+) and ([M - 2H + 2D] + D)(+) ions, one with a secondary amine including alkylated or phenylated pyrrole a combination of [M - H + D](•+) and ([M - H + D] + D)(+), one with a tertiary amine including N-alkylated or phenylated pyrrole a combination of [M](•+) and [M + D](+), and one with a pyridine functional group mostly [M + D](+) ions. The concept was successfully applied to do nitrogen speciation of resins fractions of two oil samples. Combined with the subsequent investigation of double bond equivalence distribution, it was shown that resins of Qinhuangdao crude oil sample contained mostly alkylated pyrrole and N-alkylated pyrrole type compounds but resins of shale oil extract contained mostly pyridine type nitrogen compounds. It was also shown that the speciation of individual elemental composition was also possible by use of this method. Overall, this study clearly shows that atmospheric pressure photo ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange (APPI HDX) coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry is a powerful analytical method to do nitrogen speciation of crude oil compounds at the molecular level. PMID:24033284

Cho, Yunju; Ahmed, Arif; Kim, Sunghwan

2013-09-30

162

Influence of substrates on the formation of the TiSi nanowire by atmosphere pressure chemical vapor deposition.  

PubMed

TiSi nanowires were deposited on both Si(111) and glass substrates by using SiH4, TiCl4 and N2 as the Si, Ti precursors and diluted gas respectively through atmosphere pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) method. Effects of the substrates on formation of the nanowires were investigated. The results show that the nanowires can be formed on both Si(111) and glass substrates at ratio of SiH4/TiCl4 of 4. However, the quantities of the TiSi nanowires that formed with glass substrate are less than that with Si(111) substrate. The nanowires formed with glass substrate has length of 2-3 microm and diameters of 15-25 nm while that is 4-5 microm and 25-35 nm respectively with Si(111) substrate. Great quantities of the titanium silicide nanowires with relative higher contents of the C54 TiSi2 crystalline phase underneath can be obtained through improving the deposition conditions. PMID:22409075

Ren, Zhaodi; Shen, Mei; Han, Gaorong; Weng, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Du, Piyi

2011-12-01

163

Characteristics of Silicon Dioxide Film Prepared by Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Tetraethoxysilane and Ozone with Alcohol Addition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the characteristics of silicon dioxide film deposited by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) using tetraethoxysilane and ozone ( TEOS/O3) with alcohol addition and the role of the alcohol in the reaction system using ethanol- D6. The deuterium substituted ethanol, like normal ethanol, decreases the effective ozone concentration. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis detects a uniform distribution of hydrogen and deuterium incorporated into the deposited film. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra show the relationship between the content of the terminal groups in the film and the effective ozone concentration. Three states in thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) spectra are characterized: water absorbed after film deposition, water absorbed during film deposition, and terminal groups (i.e., Si-H and Si-OH) in the film in order of annealing temperature. Moreover, it is found that the third state contains two peaks due to deuterium substitution. One of the peaks in the third state is associated with the flowing-like profile formation.

Ikeda, Koichi; Nakayama, Satoshi; Maeda, Masahiko

1995-04-01

164

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) for the preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramics derived from paper.  

PubMed

Chemical Vapor Infiltration of biological structures such as paper is used here to produce biomorphic SiC ceramics with high temperature resistance. The biological substrate materials are infiltrated with tetramethylsilane (TMS) at atmospheric pressure and elevated temperatures of 790 degrees C. A simple tube furnace (hot-wall reactor) is used for the infiltration process. As result, porous SiC-ceramics are grown which are around 20% smaller and 70% lighter than the initial substrates. This can be explained by the pyrolytic reaction of the substrates while heating them up to 790 degrees C, which is necessary for the infiltration process. Nevertheless, besides the shrinking of the substrates the geometrical form remains nearly unchanged. The resulting materials were heated up to 1000 degrees C in oxygen atmosphere in order to analyze their resistance against oxidation. After this treatment, all of them were still mechanically stable and of unchanged shape while a further mass loss was observed. This confirms the high temperature stability of the prepared materials. PMID:22097596

Pflitsch, Christian; Curdts, Benjamin; Atakan, Burak

2011-09-01

165

IR/THz Double Resonance Spectroscopy Approach for Remote Chemical Detection at Atmospheric Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remote sensing methodology based on infrared/terahertz (IR/THz) double resonance (DR) spectroscopy is shown to overcome limitations traditionally associated with either IR or THz spectroscopic approaches for detecting trace gases in an atmosphere. The applicability of IR/THz DR spectroscopy is explored by estimating the IR and THz power requirements for detecting a 100 part-per-million-meter cloud of methyl fluoride, methyl chloride, or methyl bromide at ranges up to 1km in three atmospheric windows below 0.3 THz. These prototypical molecules are used to ascertain the dependence of the DR signal-to-noise ratio on IR and THz beam power. A line-tunable CO_2 laser with 100 ps pulse duration generates a DR signature in four rotational transitions on a time scale commensurate with collisional relaxations caused by atmospheric N_2 and O_2. A continuous wave THz beam is frequency tuned to probe one of these rotational transitions so that laser-induced absorption variations in the analyte cloud are detected as temporal power fluctuations synchronized with the laser pulses. A combination of molecule-specific physics and scenario-dependent atmospheric conditions are used to predict the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for detecting an analyte as a function of cloud column density. A methodology is presented by which the optimal IR/THz pump/probe frequencies are identified. These estimates show the potential for low concentration chemical detection in a challenging atmospheric scenario with currently available or near term hardware components.

Tanner, Elizabeth A.; Phillips, Dane J.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Everitt, Henry O.

2013-06-01

166

Atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry for analysis of fatty acid and acylglycerol lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we optimize parameters and conditions for analysis of fatty acid ester and acylglycerol lipids by atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (APPI-MS). The investigated parameters include atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) nebulizer\\/vaporizer physical orientation and APPI lamp face position, solvent selections, mobile phase compositions and flow rates, cone voltages and probe temperatures. APPI sensitivity is found to be highly

Sheng-Suan Cai; Jack A. Syage

2006-01-01

167

Detection of chemical warfare agent degradation products in foods using liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following work presents the exploration of three chromatographic separations in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the analysis of chemical warfare agent degradation products (CWADPs). The robust ionization of ICP is virtually matrix independent thus enabling the examination of sample matrices generally considered too complicated for analysis by electrospray ionization (ESI) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

Kevin M. Kubachka; Douglas D. Richardson; Douglas T. Heitkemper; Joseph A. Caruso

2008-01-01

168

On OH production in water containing atmospheric pressure plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper radical production in atmospheric pressure water containing plasmas is discussed. As OH is often an important radical in these discharges the paper focuses on OH production. Besides nanosecond pulsed coronas and diffusive glow discharges, several other atmospheric pressure plasmas which are of interest nowadays have a typical electron temperature in the range 1-2 eV and an ionization degree of 10-5-10-4. These properties are quite different from the typical plasma properties known from low pressure gas discharges. In the plasma physics literature OH production is primarily ascribed to be due to electron, metastable induced or thermal dissociation of water, processes which are dominant in (low pressure) gas discharges and in combustion and hot flames. It is shown in this paper that for several atmospheric pressure plasmas also dissociative recombination can be an effective method of OH radical production. Several examples are presented in detail. This paper provides a basic framework for OH production in atmospheric pressure plasmas and shows that accurate knowledge of ne, Te, Tg, the dominant ionic species, radical and neutral species are indispensable to obtain a complete view on the chemical kinetics in these challenging complex atmospheric pressure plasmas. A few relevant plasma diagnostics together with their limitations are also briefly discussed in this context.

Bruggeman, Peter; Schram, Daan C.

2010-08-01

169

Determination of alpha-tocopherol in infant foods by liquid chromatography combined with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel, sensitive and specific method for the quantification of alpha-tocopherol in two infant foods (milk and cereals) using liquid chromatography on-line with positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry detection (LC/APCI-MS) has been developed. The samples were first saponified in order to eliminate fats and to transform tocopherol esters into free tocopherol, followed up by a liquid-liquid extraction of the analyte in petroleum benzine/diisopropyl ether (75:25, v/v) prior to injection onto the LC system. For the quantification, deuterium-labelled tocopherol was used as internal standard and the samples were monitored in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Calibration curves between 1-40 microg/mL of alpha-tocopherol showed a good linear correlation (r(2) = 0.99994), and the detection limit was determined to be 2.5 ng/mL. The within-day and between-day precision were determined for several dietetic infant formulae and certified reference samples, and found to be below 3.5%. The accuracy determined on a Nestlé reference sample (milk powder) was calculated to be 115.2 +/- 1.2%, which confirms the robustness of the proposed method. This study shows that single quadrupole LC/MS can be applied for the quantification of vitamins in food and the method offers better sensitivity and selectivity than traditional method such as LC-UV. This would simplify the preparation of the food samples and consequently enhance the vitamin analysis throughput in the food area. PMID:12661027

Kalman, Andras; Mujahid, Claudia; Mottier, Pascal; Heudi, Olivier

2003-01-01

170

Determination of pesticides in soil samples by supercritical fluid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometric detection.  

PubMed

This paper presents an analytical technique for the determination of pesticides in soil by packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography interfaced with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (pSFC-APCI-MS). The technique provides a versatile method for the detection and quantification of pesticides belonging to three different commonly used classes, triazines (ametryne, atrazine), carbamates (carbofuran) and sulfonylureas (chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron methyl and benzsulfuron methyl). The APCI mass spectra for all the pesticides studied consisted of protonated molecule ions as the most abundant ion at low cone voltages, except for metsulfuron methyl and benzsulfuron methyl, which gave a fragment ion as the most abundant ion with the protonated molecule ion at low intensity. Increasing the cone voltage provided informative fragmentation patterns for all species. The technique shows good linearity over the concentration range of 0.1-50 micrograms ml-1, with r2 values as follows: atrazine 0.997, ametryne 0.995, carbofuran 0.999, benzsulfuron methyl 0.999, chlorsulfuron 0.995 and metsulfuron methyl 0.997. The detection limits in the selected ion mode were atrazine 201, ametryne 144 and carbofuran 385 pg, which were calculated by using the standard solution, and benzsulfuron methyl 2.045, chlorsulfuron 1.435 and metsulfuron methyl 2.414 ng, which were determined by using spiked soil samples. The pSFC-MS system was shown to have a high degree of reproducibility. The technique was then applied to the determination of the above pesticides in soil samples. The results obtained show that there is no matrix effect from the soil and that the detection limits for all pesticides in soil were similar to those found for the standard solutions. PMID:11070543

Dost, K; Jones, D C; Auerbach, R; Davidson, G

2000-10-01

171

Performance of a corona ion source for measurement of sulfuric acid by chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an ion source based on corona discharge has been studied. This source is used for the detection of gaseous sulfuric acid by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) through the reaction of NO3- ions with H2SO4. The ion source is operated under atmospheric pressure and its design is similar to the one of a radioactive (Americium 241) ion

A. Kürten; L. Rondo; S. Ehrhart; J. Curtius

2010-01-01

172

Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of CdTe for High-Efficiency Thin-Film PV Devices; Annual Report, 26 January 1998-25 January 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

ITN's 3-year project, titled ''Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD) of CdTe for High-Efficiency Thin-Film Photovoltaic (PV) Devices,'' has the overall objectives of improving thin-film CdTe PV manufacturing technology and increasing CdTe PV device power conversion efficiency. CdTe deposition by APCVD employs the same reaction chemistry as has been used to deposit 16%-efficient CdTe PV films, i.e., close-spaced sublimation, but

P. V. Meyers; R. Kee; C. Wolden; L. Raja; V. Kaydanov; T. Ohno; R. Collins; M. Aire; J. Kestner; A. Fahrenbruch

1999-01-01

173

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of CdTe for high efficiency thin film PV devices: Annual subcontract report, 26 January 1999--25 January 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

ITN's three year project Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD) of CdTe for High Efficiency Thin Film PV Devices has the overall objectives of improving thin film CdTe PV manufacturing technology and increasing CdTe PV device power conversion efficiency. CdTe deposition by APCVD employs the same reaction chemistry as has been used to deposit 16% efficient CdTe PV films, i.e.,

P. V. Meyers; R. Kee; C. Wolden; J. Kestner; L. Raja; V. Kaydanov; T. Ohno; R. Collins; A. Fahrenbruch

2000-01-01

174

Decontamination of the chemical warfare agent simulant dimethyl methylphosphonate by means of large-area low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a chemical simulant of the nerve gas GB, was decontaminated with a nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma. The decontamination efficiency was measured qualitatively by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy and quantitatively by means of gas chromatography. With helium gas only, 10g\\/m2 of DMMP on an aluminum surface was 99.9% decontaminated in 2min, furthermore, with the addition of 5%

Dan Bee Kim; B. Gweon; S. Y. Moon; W. Choe

2009-01-01

175

Elucidation of the composition of bovine milk fat triacylglycerols using high-performance liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine milk fat triacylglycerols (TAGs) have been characterised using high-performance liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC–APCI-MS) and high-temperature gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The complex nature of the fat meant that prefractionation was necessary to provide simpler fractions for more detailed molecular analyses. Silica thin-layer chromatography gave rise to two fractions, one of which contained predominantly butyric acid containing

Hazel R. Mottram; Richard P. Evershed

2001-01-01

176

Estimation of ranolazine and eleven Phase I metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of ranolazine, a novel piperazine derivative, and eleven of its Phase I metabolites has been undertaken by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS). Plasma samples, taken on day 5 of a multiple-dose study, were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysed, using a gradient HPLC system coupled to the APCI source of a Finnigan MAT TSQ

W. J. Herron; J. Eadie; A. D. Penman

1995-01-01

177

Analysis of intact bacteriohopanepolyols from methanotrophic bacteria by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct detection of most intact biohopanoids is not possible using conventional GC–MS techniques due to their highly functionalised and amphiphilic nature. Here we report the application of a new reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the direct analysis of acetylated, intact bacteriohopanepolyols in solvent extracts of methanotrophic bacteria. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometric detection provides structural information relating to

Helen M. Talbot; Diane F. Watson; J. Colin Murrell; James F. Carter; Paul Farrimond

2001-01-01

178

Capillary supercritical fluid chromatography combined with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry for the investigation of photoproduct formation in the sunscreen absorber 2-ethylhexyl- p-methoxycinnamate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photoproducts formed on ultraviolet irradiation of the sunscreen absorber trans-2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate, were separated and characterised using a new combined technique, capillary supercritical fluid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. Using this technique the commercially available trans-isomer was found to photoisomerise on irradiation at wavelengths greater than 300 nm. Photodimers were also separated and identified, and indicate that the sunscreen absorber

Kane K. Broadbent; Bice S. Martincigh; Mark W. Raynor; Leo F. Salter; Robert Moulder; Per Sjöberg; Karin E. Markides

1996-01-01

179

Determination of the sum of malachite green and leucomalachite green in salmon muscle by liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive method for the determination and confirmation of the sum of malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG) in salmon muscle has been developed. It is based on the use of an oxidative pre-column reaction which converts LMG into MG previous to liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation–mass spectrometry (LC–APCI–MS) analysis. The determination of both compounds together constitutes a good

Luis Valle; Cecilia Díaz; Antonio L. Zanocco; Pablo Richter

2005-01-01

180

Identification of main corticosteroids as illegal feed additives in milk replacers by liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticosteroids were proposed as growth promoting agents to improve commercial quality of meat. We developed a liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (LC–APCI-MS) method able to identify the presence in milk replacers, when given by mouth, of dexamethasone, betamethasone, flumethasone, triamcinolone, prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, fludrocortisone and beclomethasone, at levels in the range of 20–100 ppb. C18 solid-phase extraction, LC-RP

Maurizio Fiori; Elio Pierdominici; Francesca Longo; Gianfranco Brambilla

1998-01-01

181

Vanadium(IV) oxide thin films on glass and silicon from the atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition reaction of VOCl 3 and water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dual source atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) reaction of VOCl3 and H2O was used to prepare thin films of vanadium oxides on glass and silicon substrates. The thin films were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. At reactor temperatures above 600 °C with a gas-phase excess of water over VOCl3, vanadium(IV)

Troy D. Manning; Ivan P. Parkin

2004-01-01

182

Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural) within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput.

2011-01-01

183

Negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation low-energy collision activation mass spectrometry for the characterisation of flavonoids in extracts of fresh herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flavonoid composition of commonly eaten fresh herbs such as dill, oregano and parsley was analysed by combined LC, MS and low-energy collision induced dissociation (CID) MS–MS. Negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) MS and MS–MS were used to provide molecular mass information and product-ion spectra of the glycosyl compounds. The most prominent fragment was found to arise from the

Ulla Justesen

2000-01-01

184

Optimization of ultraviolet emission and chemical species generation from a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the attractive features of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasmas is the ability to achieve enhanced gas phase chemistry without the need for elevated gas temperatures. This attractive characteristic recently led to their extensive use in applications that require low temperatures, such as material processing and biomedical applications. The agents responsible for the efficient plasma reactivity are the ultraviolet (UV)

Xinpei Lu; Mounir Laroussi

2005-01-01

185

Performance, resolving power, and radial ion distributions of a prototype nanoelectrospray ionization resistive glass atmospheric pressure ion mobility spectrometer.  

PubMed

In this article, we describe and characterize a novel ion mobility spectrometer constructed with monolithic resistive glass desolvation and drift regions. This instrument is equipped with switchable corona discharge and nanoelectrospray ionization sources and a Faraday plate detector. Following description of the instrument, pulsing electronics, and data acquisition system, we examine the effects of drift gas flow rate and temperature, and of the aperture grid to anode distance on the observed resolving power and sensitivity. Once optimum experimental parameters are identified, different ion gate pulse lengths, and their effect on the temporal spread of the ion packet were investigated. Resolving power ranged from an average value of 50 ms/ms for a 400-micros ion gate pulse, up to an average value of 68 ms/ms for a 100-micros ion gate pulse, and a 26-cm drift tube operated at 383 V cm(-1). Following these experiments, the radial distribution of ions in the drift region of the spectrometer was studied by using anodes of varying sizes, showing that the highest ionic density was located at the center of the drift tube. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of this instrument to the study of small molecules of environmental relevance by analyzing a commercially available siderophore, deferoxamine mesylate, in both the free ligand and Fe-bound forms. Ion mobility experiments showed a dramatic shift to shorter drift times caused by conformational changes upon metal binding, in agreement with previous reversed-phase liquid chromatography observations. PMID:17854161

Kwasnik, Mark; Fuhrer, Katrin; Gonin, Marc; Barbeau, Katherine; Fernandez, Facundo M

2007-09-14

186

Environmental PAH analysis by gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure laser ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC-APLI-MS).  

PubMed

The application of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis by gas chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure laser ionization and mass spectrometry (GC-APLI-MS) to environmental samples was investigated in the study. The limit of detection for 40 PAH in a standard mixture was 5-100 fg, demonstrating GC-APLI-MS to be a highly sensitive technique and more sensitive by a factor of 100-3,500 compared to GC-MS. Acenaphthylene and cyclopenta[cd]pyrene were not detectable <2,500 fg per injection. To make use of this very high PAH sensitivity, the technique was applied to samples of environmental interest with limited available sample amounts such as particulate matter (PM), soot and a sample from a bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus. First, special sample preparation was necessary and ultrasonic extraction proved to be suitable, if a thorough clean-up was performed and plastic materials avoided. By GC-APLI-MS and GC-MS, 224 and 28 single PAH compounds were detected in PM, about 1,000 and 15 in birch soot, and 9 and 2 in worm tissue, respectively, revealing the enormous potential of the method. The selectivity of GC-APLI-MS was shown for a crude oil where >2,200 PAH were detected without any sample preparation. PMID:23852149

Stader, Christian; Beer, Fokko Tjark; Achten, Christine

2013-07-14

187

Practical considerations when using radio frequency-only quadrupole ion guide for atmospheric pressure ionization sources with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Construction details and performance evaluation of a radio frequency (rf)-only quadrupole ion guide for use with an electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer is presented in this paper. Angiotensin III and cytochrome c were used in these experiments to investigate the ion transmission properties of the rf-only quadrupole for different m/z species. In addition, influence of ion kinetic energies along with the characteristic fragmentation due to collision induced dissociation (CID) were studied. These experiments demonstrate that the transmissions of different m/z ions were not only dependent on the frequency and magnitude of the rf waveform, which is similar to a high vacuum rf-only quadrupole ion guide, but also on the pressure inside the quadrupole chamber. For the pressure range tested, low m/z ions are better focused with increasing pressure. As expected, transmission of ions are subject to space charge limitations when significant numbers of ions are focused on the axis of the quadrupole. It is also observed that CID results are related to transverse motion and longitude motion of ions inside the quadrupole region. Consequently, CID is useful for fragmentation of linear peptides and it is not effective (in present configuration) for large bulky proteins. The kinetic energy of ions that enter the repelling region of the TOFMS is ultimately determined by the ensemble effect resulting from the dc bias potential of the quadrupole (the dominant factor), skimmer-2, pressure inside the quadrupole chamber, and jet expansion. While this system is tested with an ESI source, the operational principle and design criteria are directly applicable for improving other atmospheric pressure ionization sources with time-of-flight mass analyzers such as an inductively coupled plasma ion source. PMID:12705387

Hang, Wei; Lewis, Cris; Majidi, Vahid

2003-03-01

188

Experimental Investigation of Atmospheric Pressure Nonequilibrium Plasma Chemistry for Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (pacvd) of Diamond Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of boundary layer chemistry in atmospheric pressure plasma-assisted diamond deposition were studied. Two separate experimental facilities were used to study effects of reactor conditions on the quantity and quality of the films produced. The first facility, a radio frequency inductively coupled plasma torch, was used to map out the growth domain based on methane-to-hydrogen ratio and substrate temperature.

Scott Keith Baldwin Jr.

1996-01-01

189

Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge (LS-APGD) Ionization Source for Elemental Mass Spectrometry: Preliminary Parametric Evaluation and Figures of Merit  

SciTech Connect

A new, low power ionization source for the elemental analysis of aqueous solutions has recently been described. The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) source operates at relatively low currents (<20 mA) and solution flow rates (<50 {mu}L min{sup -1}), yielding a relatively simple alternative for atomic mass spectrometry applications. The LS-APGD has been interfaced to what is otherwise an organic, LC-MS mass analyzer, the Thermo Scientific Exactive Orbitrap without any modifications; other than removing the electrospray ionization (ESI) source supplied with that instrument. A glow discharge is initiated between the surface of the test solution exiting a glass capillary and a metallic counter electrode mounted at a 90{sup o} angle and separated by a distance of {approx}5 mm. As with any plasma-based ionization source, there are key discharge operation and ion sampling parameters that affect the intensity and composition of the derived mass spectra; including signal-to-background ratios. We describe here a preliminary parametric evaluation of the roles of discharge current, solution flow rate, argon sheath gas flow rate, and ion sampling distance as they apply on this mass analyzer system. A cursive evaluation of potential matrix effects due to the presence of easily ionized elements (EIEs) indicate that sodium concentrations of up to 50 {mu}g mL{sup -1} generally cause suppressions of less than 50%, dependant upon the analyte species. Based on the results of this series of studies, preliminary limits of detection (LOD) have been established through the generation of calibration functions. Whilst solution-based concentrations LOD levels of 0.02-2 {mu}g mL{sup -1} are not impressive on the surface, the fact that they are determined via discrete 5 {mu}L injections leads to mass-based detection limits at picogram to single-nanogram levels. The overhead costs associated with source operation (10 W d.c. power, solution flow rates of <50 {mu}L min{sup -1}, and gas flow rates <10 mL min{sup -1}) are very attractive. While further optimization in the source design is suggested here, it is believed that the LS-APGD ion source may present a practical alternative to inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) sources typically employed in elemental mass spectrometry.

Quarles, C. Derrick; Carado, Anthony J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

2012-01-01

190

Comparison of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and atmospheric pressure photoionization for the analysis of dinitropyrene and aminonitropyrene LCMS\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only relevant source for human exposure to dinitropyrenes is diesel engine emissions. Due to this specificity, dinitropyrenes\\u000a may be used as biomarkers for monitoring human exposure to diesel engine emissions. Only few analytical methods have been\\u000a described for the quantitation of dinitropyrenes and their metabolites, aminonitropyrenes, and diaminopyrenes. Therefore,\\u000a for dinitropyrenes, aminonitropyrenes, and diaminopyrenes were selected as model compounds

Ellen A. Straube; Wolfgang Dekant; Wolfgang Völkel

2004-01-01

191

Electron heating in atmospheric pressure glow discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of nanosecond voltage pulses to weakly ionized atmospheric pressure plasmas allows heating the electrons without considerably increasing the gas temperature, provided that the duration of the pulses is less than the critical time for the development of glow-to-arc transitions. The shift in the electron energy distribution towards higher energies causes a temporary increase in the ionization rate, and

Robert H. Stark; Karl H. Schoenbach

2001-01-01

192

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of BPSG films from TEOS, 03, TMB, TMPI: Determination of a chemical mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

APCVD of boro-phospho silicate glass from mixtures of TEOS, TMB and TMP, has been analysed then modelled in a continuous reactor. A reduced chemical mechanism has been developed and the corresponding rate constants have been identified. The first results obtained are encouraging and suggest that the very simple gas phase chemistry selected could be precise enough to represent the main

J.-P. Nieto; B. Caussat; J.-P. Couderc; I. Orain; L. Jeannerot

2002-01-01

193

Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

DOEpatents

Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

194

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a non-thermal, high pressure plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g. He\\/O2\\/H2 O) which flows between two concentric cylindrical electrodes: an outer grounded electrode and an inner electrode powered at 13.56 MHz RF. While

H. W. Herrmann; L. Henins; G. S. Selwyn

1998-01-01

195

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of BPSG films from TEOS, 03, TMB, TMPI: Determination of a chemical mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

APCVD of boro-phospho silicate glass from mixtures of TEOS, TMB and TMP, has been analysed then modelled in a continuous reactor. A reduced chemical mechanism has been developed and the corresponding rate constants have been identified. The first results obtained are encouraging and suggest that the very simple gas phase chemistry selected could be precise enough to represent the main trends of this very complex deposition procedure.

Nieto, J.-P.; Caussat, B.; Couderc, J.-P.; Orain', I.; Jeannerot, L.

2002-06-01

196

Chemical Protection Against Ionizing Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the ty...

J. C. Livesey D. J. Reed L. F. Adamson

1984-01-01

197

Chemical kinetics and reactive species in atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen plasmas with humid-air impurities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most applications helium-based plasma jets operate in an open-air environment. The presence of humid air in the plasma jet will influence the plasma chemistry and can lead to the production of a broader range of reactive species. We explore the influence of humid air on the reactive species in radio frequency (rf)-driven atmospheric-pressure helium-oxygen mixture plasmas (He-O2, helium with 5000 ppm admixture of oxygen) for wide air impurity levels of 0-500 ppm with relative humidities of from 0% to 100% using a zero-dimensional, time-dependent global model. Comparisons are made with experimental measurements in an rf-driven micro-scale atmospheric pressure plasma jet and with one-dimensional semi-kinetic simulations of the same plasma jet. These suggest that the plausible air impurity level is not more than hundreds of ppm in such systems. The evolution of species concentration is described for reactive oxygen species, metastable species, radical species and positively and negatively charged ions (and their clusters). Effects of the air impurity containing water humidity on electronegativity and overall plasma reactivity are clarified with particular emphasis on reactive oxygen species.

Murakami, Tomoyuki; Niemi, Kari; Gans, Timo; O'Connell, Deborah; Graham, William G.

2013-02-01

198

An aerosol-process for the synthesis of nanostructured molybdenum oxide catalysts by integrated chemical vapour synthesis/chemical vapour deposition at atmospheric pressure.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis of composite nanoparticles by an integrated CVS/CVD process at atmospheric pressure. Iron oxide and silica support particles were generated by chemical vapour synthesis (CVS), using Fe(CO)5 and Si(OC2H5)4 and were directly coated in the aerosol state with molybdenum oxide by chemical vapour deposition of Mo(CO)6. Depending on the CVS temperature hematite (600 degrees C) or maghemite (1500 degrees C) iron oxide phases were determined by XRD and FTIR. Core-shell structures with a coating thickness in the lower nm range were obtained for CVD temperatures below 150 degrees C. Complete encapsulation of the core particles and uniform elemental distribution is shown by TEM and EELS measurements. Higher CVD temperatures lead to unwanted homogenous decomposition of the molybdenum precursor. Additional aerosol temperature treatment was used to reach further oxidation and the formation of a mixed oxide shell, indicated by FTIR measurements. The results show the potential of the process for the synthesis of structured core-shell nanoparticles. PMID:22097575

Weis, Frederik; Gao, Kun; Seipenbusch, Martin; Kasper, Gerhard

2011-09-01

199

Formation of fractal structures from silicon dioxide nanoparticles synthesized by RF atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.  

PubMed

Fractal structures were formed on silicon substrates from SiO2 nanoparticles homogeneously synthesized in low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). RF discharge (power absorbed was about 10 W) sustained between two parallel mesh electrodes was used to generate plasma. The average size of nanoparticles was in the range of 8-20 nm and was determined by process parameters. The obtained products were analyzed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Values of fractal dimension parameter of bidimensionals agglomerates formed on the substrate surface from nanoparticles were calculated with the use of Gwyddion and others. It was found that values of this parameter of the deposited structures varied in the range of 1.48-2 and were determined by combination of the process parameters. An empirical model explaining mechanism of the fractal structures formation and variation of the fractal dimension parameter with the process parameters was proposed. PMID:22097514

Alexandrov, S E; Kretusheva, I V; Mishin, M V; Yasenovets, G M

2011-09-01

200

Thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled using proximal probe thermal desorption with electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemica lionization  

SciTech Connect

An atmospheric pressure proximal probe thermal desorption sampling method coupled with secondary ionization by electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was demonstrated for the mass spectrometric analysis of a diverse set of compounds (dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, explosives and pesticides) separated on various high-performance thin-layer chromatography plates. Line scans along or through development lanes on the plates were carried out by moving the plate relative to a stationary heated probe positioned close to or just touching the stationary phase surface. Vapors of the compounds thermally desorbed from the surface were drawn into the ionization region of a combined electrospray ionization/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source where they merged with reagent ions and/or charged droplets from a corona discharge or an electrospray emitter and were ionized. The ionized components were then drawn through the atmospheric pressure sampling orifice into the vacuum region of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and detected using full scan, single ion monitoring, or selected reaction monitoring mode. Studies of variable parameters and performance metrics including the proximal probe temperature, gas flow rate into the ionization region, surface scan speed, read-out resolution, detection limits, and surface type are discussed.

Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2010-01-01

201

Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

SciTech Connect

A {gamma}-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250 C at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region there between. A jet of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

Selwyn, G.S.

1999-10-05

202

Performance of a corona ion source for measurement of sulfuric acid by chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an ion source based on corona discharge has been studied. This source is used for the detection of gaseous sulfuric acid by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) through the reaction of NO3- ions with H2SO4. The ion source is operated under atmospheric pressure and its design is similar to the one of a radioactive (americium-241) ion source

A. Kürten; L. Rondo; S. Ehrhart; J. Curtius

2011-01-01

203

Chemically induced hyperthermal surface ionization  

SciTech Connect

Hyperthermal beams of cyclohexane and carbon tetrachloride were scattered from a 2% W-Th filament. Chlorine negative ions generated by chemically induced hyperthermal surface ionization were monitored by quadrupole mass spectrometer. The surface temperature of the filament was 2400K. (AIP)

Danon, A.; Amirav, A. (School of Chemistry, Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Israel (IL))

1990-06-01

204

Chemical protection against ionizing radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the problems related to chemical protection against ionizing radiation are discussed with emphasis on : definition, classification, degree of protection, mechanisms of action and toxicity. Results on the biological response modifyers (BRMs) and on the combination of nontoxic (i.e. low) doses of sulphydryl radioprotectors and BRMs are presented.

Maisin, J. R.

205

Comparing magnetotransport and surface magnetic properties of half-metallic CrO2 films grown by low pressure and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CrO2 films prepared by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) using Cr(CO)6 precursor have been investigated and compared with epitaxial half metallic CrO2 films prepared at atmospheric pressure (APCVD) using CrO3 precursor for their magnetotransport and surface magnetic properties. LPCVD films showed higher resistivity than APCVD epitaxial (100) CrO2 films prepared on (100) TiO2 substrates. Magnetoresistance of LPCVD films is comparable to that of APCVD films. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism suggests a reduced surface magnetic moment for LPCVD films. This reduced magnetic moment is attributed to antiferromagnetic alignment of the uncompensated Cr spins in the Cr2O3 surface layer.

Pathak, M.; Zhong, X.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.; Klein, T. M.; Leclair, P.; Gupta, A.

2010-03-01

206

Numerical Simulations of Films Formed by Cluster/Particle Co-Deposition in Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Process Using Organic Silicon Vapors and Ozone Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to confirm the previously developed numerical simulation for film formation by cluster/particle co-deposition in the atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition [Fujimoto ?l.: J. Appl. Phys. 85 (1999) 4196], simulation results were compared with experimentally obtained growth rates and surface morphologies of films prepared from four organic silicon vapors [tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), triethoxysilane (TRIES), tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS), and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS)] and ozone gas using a flow-type vertical tube reactor. For TEOS, TRIES and TMOS, the simulation results could explain reasonably experimentally determined film growth rate, particle deposition rate and surface morphology of film when natural convection did not occur in the reactor. However, the numerical simulation could not estimate film formation from OMCTS.

Adachi, Motoaki; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Okuyama, Kikuo

2000-06-01

207

Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

2013-01-01

208

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition: an alternative route to large-scale MoS2 and WS2 inorganic fullerene-like nanostructures and nanoflowers.  

PubMed

Large-scale MoS2 and WS2 inorganic fullerene-like (IF) nanostructures (onionlike nanoparticles, nanotubes) and elegant three-dimensional nanoflowers (NF) have been selectively prepared through an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process with the reaction of chlorides and sulfur. The morphologies were controlled by adjusting the deposition position, the deposition temperature, and the flux of the carrier gas. All of the nanostructures have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A reaction mechanism is proposed based on the experimental results. The surface area of MoS2 IF nanoparticles and the field-emission effect of as-prepared WS2 nanoflowers is reported. PMID:15515074

Li, Xiao-Lin; Ge, Jian-Ping; Li, Ya-Dong

2004-11-19

209

Determination of aldehydes and ketones using derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (APPI-MS) is used for the analysis of aldehydes and ketones after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and liquid chromatographic separation. In the negative ion mode, the [M ? H]? pseudomolecular ions are most abundant for the carbonyls. Compared with the established atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-MS, limits of detection are typically lower using similar conditions. Automobile exhaust

Suze M. van Leeuwen; Laurens Hendriksen; Uwe Karst

2004-01-01

210

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of 3C-SiC for silicon thin-film solar cells on various substrates.  

PubMed

The production of crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on cost effective ceramic substrates depends on a highly reliable diffusion barrier to separate the light absorbing layers from the substrate. Ideally this intermediate layer should be deposited with cost effective techniques, be conductive and should feature optical confinement. Furthermore the intermediate layer should withstand high temperatures and harsh chemical environments like they occur during solar cell processing. Especially stability against oxidizing solvents like HNO3 or inactivity during e.g., oxide removing steps with HF is required. Crystalline silicon carbide (c-SiC) deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) can match all those requirements and additionally fits the thermal properties of crystalline silicon. The c-SiC intermediate layer is deposited from methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) and H2 at 1100 degrees C. Under these conditions, growth of solely cubic 3C-SiC could be observed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Use of such intermediate layers during high temperature steps prevents diffusion of transition metals, originating from the substrates, into active silicon layers. Doping of these 3C-SiC layers with nitrogen results in specific resistivity of less than 100 ohms cm. The different potentially cost-effective substrates are made from graphite, crystalline silicon, sintered silicon carbide and sintered zircon (ZrSiO4). Surface properties of the coated substrates were investigated, explaining changes in surface roughness and influences on the solar cell processing. PMID:22097538

Schillinger, Kai; Janz, Stefan; Reber, Stefan

2011-09-01

211

Optical diagnostics of atmospheric pressure air plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure air plasmas are often thought to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium owing to fast interspecies collisional exchange at high pressure. This assumption cannot be relied upon, particularly with respect to optical diagnostics. Velocity gradients in flowing plasmas and\\/or elevated electron temperatures created by electrical discharges can result in large departures from chemical and thermal equilibrium. This paper reviews

C O Laux; T G Spence; C H Kruger; R N Zare

2003-01-01

212

Electrodeless microwave plasma torch at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. Environmental clean-up and energy efficiency enhancement utilize plasma generated from air at the atmospheric pressure. Perfluorocompounds (PFC's), which have long lifetimes and large global warming potentials, are widely used during plasma etching and plasma-assisted chamber cleaning processes in metal and dielectric film chemical vapor deposition (CVD) systems. Electrodes of the arc plasma torches oxidize

J. H. Kim; Y. C. Hong; H. S. Uhm

2002-01-01

213

Ion suppression in the determination of clenbuterol in urine by solid-phase extraction atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion-trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Ion suppression effects were observed during the determination of clenbuterol in urine with solid-phase extraction/multiple-stage ion-trap mass spectrometry (SPE/MS(3)), despite the use of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation. During SPE, a polymeric stationary phase (polydivinylbenzene) was applied. Post-cartridge infusion of analyte to the SPE eluate after the extraction of blank urine was performed to obtain a profile of the suppression. Single and multiple-stage MS were performed to provide insight in the suppressing compounds. The ion suppression was mainly ascribed to two m/z values, but still no identification of the compounds was achieved from the multiple-stage MS data. No ionisable and non-ionisable complexes and/or precipitation of clenbuterol with matrix compounds were observed. A concentration dependence of the percentage of suppression was observed. Up to 70% of the signal was suppressed upon post-cartridge infusion of 0.22 microg/mL (at 5 microL/min) clenbuterol into the eluate, and this decreased to about 4% at infusion of 22 microg/mL clenbuterol. Molecularly imprinted polymers were used to enhance the selectivity of the extraction. Although matrix components were still present after extraction, no interference of these compounds with the analyte was observed. However, the bleeding of the imprint from the polymer (brombuterol) caused significant ion suppression. PMID:12539191

van Hout, M W J; Niederländer, H A G; de Zeeuw, R A; de Jong, G J

2003-01-01

214

Atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of a-SiCN:H films: role of precursors on the film growth and properties.  

PubMed

Atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD) using Surfx Atomflow(TM) 250D APPJ was utilized to synthesize amorphous silicon carbonitride coatings using tetramethyldisilizane (TMDZ) and hexamethyldisilizane (HMDZ) as the single source precursors. The effect of precursor chemistry and substrate temperature (T(s)) on the properties of a-SiCN:H films were evaluated, while nitrogen was used as the reactive gas. Surface morphology of the films was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM); chemical properties were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); thickness and optical properties were determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry and mechanical properties were determined using nanoindentation. In general, films deposited at substrate temperature (T(s)) < 200 °C contained organic moieties, while the films deposited at T(s) > 200 °C depicted strong Si-N and Si-CN absorption. Refractive indices (n) of the thin films showed values between 1.5 and 2.0, depending on the deposition parameters. Mechanical properties of the films determined using nanoindentation revealed that these films have hardness between 0.5 GPa and 15 GPa, depending on the T(s) value. AFM evaluation of the films showed high roughness (R(a)) values of 2-3 nm for the films grown at low T(s) (<250 °C) while the films grown at T(s) ? 300 °C exhibited atomically smooth surface with R(a) of ~0.5 nm. Based on the gas-phase (plasma) chemistry, precursor chemistry and the other experimental observations, a possible growth model that prevails in the AP-PECVD of a-SiCN:H thin films is proposed. PMID:22979919

Guruvenket, Srinivasan; Andrie, Steven; Simon, Mark; Johnson, Kyle W; Sailer, Robert A

2012-09-28

215

Laser electrospray mass spectrometry of adsorbed molecules at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure mass analysis of solid phase biomolecules is performed using laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS). A non-resonant femtosecond duration laser pulse vaporizes native samples at atmospheric pressure for subsequent electrospray ionization and transfer into a mass spectrometer. LEMS was used to detect a complex molecule (irinotecan HCl), a complex mixture (cold medicine formulation with active ingredients: acetaminophen, dextromethorphan HBr and doxylamine succinate), and a biological building block (deoxyguanosine) deposited on steel surfaces without a matrix molecule.

Brady, John J.; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Simon, Kuriakose; Levis, Robert J.

2010-02-01

216

Influence of free-standing GaN substrate on ultraviolet light-emitting-diodes by atmospheric-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reported the influence of free-standing (FS) GaN substrate on ultraviolet light-emitting-diodes (UV LEDs) by atmospheric-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCVD). The Raman spectrum shows the in-plane compressive stress of the GaN epitaxial structures grown on FS GaN substrate. Besides, the Raman spectrum reveals the relation between the crystal quality and the carrier localization degree in multi-quantum wells (MQWs). High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analysis results show that the In0.025Ga0.975N/Al0.08Ga0.92N MQWs grown on FS GaN substrate has higher indium mole fraction than sapphire at the same growth conditions. The higher indium incorporation is corresponding with the red-shift 6 nm (387 nm) of the room temperature photoluminescence (PL) peak. The full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of omega-scan rocking curve in (002) and (102) reflectance on FS GaN substrate (83 arcsec and 77 arcsec) are narrower than UV LEDs grown on sapphire (288 arcsec and 446 arcsec). This superior quality may attribute to homoepitaxial growth structure and better strain relaxation in the FS GaN substrate. An anomalous temperature behavior of PL in UV LEDs designated as an S-shaped peak position dependence and W-shaped linewidth dependence indicate that exciton/carrier motion occurs via photon-assisted tunneling through localized states, what results in incomplete thermalization of localized excitons at low temperature. The Gaussian broadening parameters of carrier localization is about 16.98 meV from the temperature dependent photoluminescence (TDPL) measurement. The saturation temperature from the TDPL linewidth of UV LEDs on FS GaN substrate at about 175 K represents a crossover from a nonthermalized to thermalized energy distribution of excitons.

Shieh, C. Y.; Li, Z. Y.; Chiu, C. H.; Tu, P. M.; Kuo, H. C.; Chi, G. C.

2013-03-01

217

Surface physical–morphological and chemical changes leading to performance enhancement of atmospheric pressure plasma treated polyester fabrics for inkjet printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without any preprocessing, polyester fabric has lower ability to hold on water due to the smooth morphology and chemistry property of polyester fibers. Therefore, patterns directly printed with pigment inks have poor color yields and easily bleed. In this paper, atmospheric pressure plasma was used to pretreat polyester fabric in order to provide an active surface for the inkjet printing.

Kuanjun Fang; Chunming Zhang

2009-01-01

218

Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Process and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those ...

P. Kong

2006-01-01

219

Direct coupling of normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to atmospheric pressure laser ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for the characterization of crude oil.  

PubMed

The high complexity of crude oil makes the use of chromatographic separation an important tool especially for sample simplification. The coupling of normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a polar aminocyano column to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer offers the best attributes of good separation prior to ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (MS) detection. Atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) was used as an ionization technique to analyze the nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds in a deasphalted crude oil due to its unique selectivity toward aromatic compounds and also due to its sensitivity. Two main chromatographic peaks were observed during this separation indicating a class-based separation. Mass spectra obtained from fractions were collected along the entire retention time and compared with each other to assign the unique constituents. By coupling the HPLC system directly to the FTICR mass spectrometer, comparable ion and UV chromatograms were obtained, reflecting the scan-to-scan sensitivity of the coupling system. The results show that it is possible to calculate reconstructed class chromatograms (RCC), allowing differences in class composition to be traced along the retention time. As an example, radical and protonated nitrogen species generated by APLI were detected along the retention time which enabled a differentiation between basic and nonbasic species in the same polar peak, thus overcoming the limitation of chromatographic resolution. This report represents the first online LC-FTICR MS coupling in the field of crude oil analysis. PMID:24063573

Lababidi, Sami; Panda, Saroj K; Andersson, Jan T; Schrader, Wolfgang

2013-09-24

220

Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical

Selwyn; Gary S

1999-01-01

221

The application of gas chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry to impurity identification in Pharmaceutical Development.  

PubMed

Accurate mass measurement (used to determine elemental formulae) is an essential tool for impurity identification in pharmaceutical development for process understanding. Accurate mass liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is used widely for these types of analyses; however, there are still many occasions when gas chromatography (GC)/MS is the appropriate technique. Therefore, the provision of robust technology to provide accurate mass GC/MS (and GC/MS/MS) for this type of activity is essential. In this report we describe the optimisation and application of a newly available atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) interface to couple GC to time-of-flight (TOF) MS.To fully test the potential of the new interface the APCI source conditions were optimised, using a number of standard compounds, with a variety of structures, as used in synthesis at AstraZeneca. These compounds were subsequently analysed by GC/APCI-TOF MS. This study was carried out to evaluate the range of compounds that are amenable to analysis using this technique. The range of compounds that can be detected and characterised using the technique was found to be extremely broad and include apolar hydrocarbons such as toluene. Both protonated molecules ([M + H](+)) and radical cations (M(+.)) were observed in the mass spectra produced by APCI, along with additional ion signals such as [M + H + O](+).The technique has been successfully applied to the identification of impurities in reaction mixtures from organic synthesis in process development. A typical mass accuracy of 1-2 mm/zunits (m/z 80-500) was achieved allowing the reaction impurities to be identified based on their elemental formulae. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of the technique as a tool for problem solving and process understanding in pharmaceutical development. The reaction mixtures were also analysed by GC/electron ionisation (EI)-MS and GC/chemical ionisation (CI)-MS to understand the capability of GC/APCI-MS relative to these two firmly established techniques. PMID:20486265

Bristow, Tony; Harrison, Mark; Sims, Martin

2010-06-15

222

Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

DOEpatents

Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM); Babayan, Steve E. (Huntington Beach, CA); Hicks, Robert F. (Los Angeles, CA)

2001-01-01

223

Effect of eluent on the ionization process in liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most widely used ionization techniques in liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) are electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). All three provide user friendly coupling of LC to MS. Achieving optimal LC–MS conditions is not always easy, however, owing to the complexity of ionization processes and the many parameters affecting mass spectrometric sensitivity and

Risto Kostiainen; Tiina J. Kauppila

2009-01-01

224

Multi-atmospheric pressure ionisation interface for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the structure of a multi-atmospheric pressure ionisation (multi-API) interface for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). This interface includes five modes of atmospheric pressure spray with electron impact ionisation (APEI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), atmospheric pressure spray ionisation (APSI), electrospray ionisation (ESI) and sonic spray ionisation (SSI). This LC–MS system was realised by developing an APEI interface which resembles

Minoru Sakairi; Yoshiaki Kato

1998-01-01

225

Microplasma jet at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

A nitrogen microplasma jet operated at atmospheric pressure was developed for treating thermally sensitive materials. For example, the plasma sources in treatment of vulnerable biological materials must operate near the room temperature at the atmospheric pressure, without any risk of arcing or electrical shock. The microplasma jet device operated by an electrical power less than 10 W exhibited a long plasma jet of about 6.5 cm with temperature near 300 K, not causing any harm to human skin. Optical emission measured at the wide range of 280-800 nm indicated various reactive species produced by the plasma jet.

Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, San 5, Wonchon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-11-27

226

Investigation on the role of pneumatic aspects in electrospray, desorption electrospray surface ionization and surface activated chemical ionization.  

PubMed

This review reports the results of some studies carried out by us on the role of pneumatic aspects in electrospray and desorption electrospray surface ionization, with the aim to propose some relevant aspects of the mechanisms involved in these ionization methods. Electrospray ion sources, with the exception of the nano- electrospray source, operate with the concurrent action of a strong electrical field and a supplementary coaxial gas flow. The electrical field is responsible for electrospraying of the analyte solution but the use of a coaxial gas flow leads to a significant increase of the analyte signal and allows the use of higher solution flows. However, by employing capillary voltages much lower than those necessary to activate the electrospray phenomenon, analyte ions are still observed and this indicates that different mechanisms must be operative for ion production. Under these conditions, ion generation could take place from the neutral pneumatically sprayed droplet by field-induced droplet ionization. Also in the case of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), and without any voltage on the spraying capillary as well as on the surface of interest, ions of analytes present on the surface become detectable and this shows that desorption/ionization of analytes occurs by neutral droplets impinging the surface. Consequently, the pneumatic effect of the impinging droplets plays a relevant role, and for these reasons the method has been called pneumatic assisted desorption (PAD). Some analogies existing between PAD and surface activated chemical ionization (SACI), based on the insertion of a metallic surface inside an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operating without corona discharge, are discussed. PMID:22641720

Seraglia, Roberta; Molin, Laura; Isak, Ilena; Traldi, Pietro

2012-01-01

227

Combined barrier discharge in atmospheric-pressure air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined (dual) barrier electric discharge in atmospheric-pressure air is investigated. The discharge is induced in a discharge chamber with two pairs of electrodes of different configurations. The electrodes are connected to two independent high voltage power supplies. The plasma-chemical synthesis of ozone was studied in atmospheric pressure air depending on the parameters of each discharge contour. The analysis was performed in terms of efficiency and practical application of a combined barrier discharge.

Andreev, V. V.; Pichugin, Yu. P.; Telegin, V. G.; Telegin, G. G.

2012-12-01

228

The manipulation of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier plasma jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure plasma jets offer a unique route to transport reactive chemical species generated under highly non-equilibrium conditions to a remote downstream sample; as such, they have become the device of choice in many biological and materials processing applications. This contribution explores techniques to manipulate the propagation dynamics of the fast moving ionization front generated in a dielectric barrier plasma jet, after it is launched from the powered electrode. To achieve this, the electric field in the region through which the ionization front propagates is manipulated on a sub-microsecond timescale. It is demonstrated that the application of voltage pulses of varying duration and delay to supplementary electrodes placed along the axis of propagation and tangential to it facilitates a considerable level of control over the velocity, intensity and direction of the ionization front. In doing so, the flux of reactive species transported to a specific point on a downstream substrate can be electrically modulated on a pulse to pulse basis, a finding that could significantly extend the application scope of plasma jet devices.

Walsh, J. L.; Olszewski, P.; Bradley, J. W.

2012-06-01

229

High electron density, atmospheric pressure air glow discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulsed electron heating effect has been studied on an atmospheric pressure air glow discharge. Application of a high voltage pulse causes a shift in the electron energy distribution function to higher energies. This causes a temporary increase of the ionization rate and consequently an increase of the electron density. The electron density after a 10 ns pulse application to

Frank Leipold; Abdel-Aleam H. Mohamed; Karl H. Schoenbach

2002-01-01

230

Synthesis of TiC from porous carbon coating on Si–C–O (Nicalon) fibres by reactive chemical vapour deposition in pressure-pulsed mode or at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiC coatings were synthesised on NL202 Nicalon fibres through the treatment of a porous carbon coating at the surface of the\\u000a fibres by thermal reactive chemical vapour deposition (RCVD) either in pressure-pulsed (P-RCVD) mode at low pressure or at\\u000a atmospheric pressure (AP-RCVD) with a H2\\/TiCl4 gaseous mixture. The conversion rate of C into TiC was studied as a function of

I. Jouanny; S. Jacques; P. Weisbecker; C. Labrugère; M. Lahaye; L. Maillé; R. Pailler

2010-01-01

231

Chemical Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume generalizes the theoretical and experimental material that has been accumulated during recent years in the field of chemical dosimetry. Attention is focused on the justification for the use of chemical-dosimetry methods to solve problems that ...

A. M. Kabakchi Y. I. Lavrentovich V. V. Penkovskii

1966-01-01

232

Ion chemistry in gaseous discharges at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of ions in plasma chemistry is briefly reviewed on the basis of recent literature reports. In addition, different chemical processes induced by gaseous discharges at atmospheric pressure are discussed here, with particular emphasis on the elucidation of some aspects of the ion chemistry occurring in benzene/air dielectric barrier and corona discharges. Through a multi-technique approach relying on gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, spectroscopic and computational analyses, we have been able to reveal subtle mechanistic aspects involved in the ionic processes leading to the synthesis of covalent adducts. In particular, we report here the experimental conditions and the thermochemical reasons whereby we can access the synthesis (i) of benzenediazonium ion {\\rmC}_6H_{5}N_2^+ from the reaction of phenylium ion C_6H_5^+ with N2, (ii) of protonated biphenyl ions C_12H_{11}^+ from electrophilic aromatic attack of phenylium ion on C6H6, (iii) of phenol radical cations C6H5OH+. via O radical addition on the benzene ring followed by ionization of the neutral product and finally (iv) of biphenyl-oxonium ions C12H11O+ and hydroxylbiphenyl-oxonium ions C_12H_{11}O_2^+ as end-products of the electrophilic attack of phenol ions on benzene and phenol, respectively. Finally, intriguing chemical paths involved in the corona discharge ionization of acetonitrile are also discussed.

Tosi, Paolo; Ascenzi, Daniela; Franceschi, Pietro; Guella, Graziano

2009-08-01

233

Analysis of degradation products of organophosphorus chemical warfare agents and related compounds by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry using electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative screening procedure was developed for the detection and identification of phosphonic acid hydrolysis products of organophosphorus chemical warfare agents, using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (LC–ESP-MS). A mixed C8\\/C18 reversed-phase column with gradient elution gave good chromatography for a series of phosphonic acids. Detection limits for aqueous solutions of standards were <50 ng\\/ml (<0.25 ng injected), providing

Robin M Black; Robert W Read

1998-01-01

234

CHEMICAL PROTECTION AGAINST IONIZING RADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on chemical protection against radiation effects in mammals ; is reviewed, especially with respect to whole-body exposure to external radiation. ; This survey shows that many explanations are being offered to account for the ; action of radioprotective agents. In general, the proposed mechanisms are ; concerned with inactivation of radicals and other chemical intermediates, ; depletion of

R. L. Straube; H. M. Patt

1963-01-01

235

Interactions between atmospheric pressure plasma jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas offer a unique environment for treatments of soft materials. Here we investigate the possibility of exploiting the interaction of two or more atmospheric pressure plasma jets for increased control and manipulation. The interaction zone itself offers the possibility of a more controllable gentle environment for delicate treatments. The interaction between two counter-streaming atmospheric pressure plasma jets

Qais Th. Algwari; Colm O'Neill; Deborah O'Connell

2009-01-01

236

Comparison of Deposition Characteristics between Triethyl and Trimethyl Borates in an Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Equipment with Tetraethyl Orthosilicate and O3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deposition characteristics of triethyl borate (TEB) and trimethyl borate (TMB) vapors are compared to investigate of boron concentration uniformity and profiles in borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) films. Film deposition is carried out in an atmospheric pressure equipment with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and ozone (O3) under at standard condition and four process parameters are varied around the standard condition. Uniformity values obtained with the TMB vapor at a bubbling temperature of 10°C are one-third that with the TEB vapor at the same bubbling temperature, and uniformity changes due to process parameter variations from the standard condition with the TMB vapor are also smaller since the TEB vapor is cleaved by O3 at lower temperature. These results indicate that the deposition characteristics for uniformity using TMB vapor are much better. However, a decrease in the boron concentration profile in films with the TMB vapor is observed between a silicon and silicon-dioxide interface. This decrease is estimated to be due to the fact that TMB bubbling N2 flow rate to suppress the vaporization rate with TMB's higher vapor pressure is one order of magnitude lower than TEB bubbling N2 flow rate. Suppression of TMB vapor to a desired vapor pressure was achieved by cooling the TMB bubbler at -25°C. Then, a uniform profile of the TMB vapor was obtained, which was equivalent to the results at 10°C.

Yamamoto, Yoshito; Ikakura, Hiroshi; Ohgawara, Shoji; Furukawa, Masakazu

1999-09-01

237

Atmospheric pressure ion focusing with a vortex stream.  

PubMed

For successful operation of ionization analysis techniques an efficient sampling and sample ion transportation into an analytical path are required. This is of particular importance for atmospheric pressure ionization sources like corona discharge, electrospray, MALDI, ionization with radioactive isotopes ((3)H, (63)Ni) that produce nonuniform spatial distribution of sample ions. The available methods of sample ion focusing with electric fields are either efficient at reduced pressure (to 1 Torr) or feature high sample losses. In this paper we suggest to use a highly whirled gas stream for atmospheric pressure ion focusing. We use a (63)Ni radioactive source to produce an ionized bipolar sample at atmospheric pressure. It is shown by experiments that compared to an aspiration method a forced highly whirled vortex stream allows one to enhance the efficiency of remote ionized sample collection at distances equal to the vortex sampler diameter by an order of magnitude. With a vortex stream, a sixfold increase in the efficiency of the radial ionized sample collection has been obtained. It may be deduced that with the vortex stream remote sampling obtains a new feature which is characterized by a considerable enhancement of the efficiency of the ionized sample collection and can be called as a "gas-dynamic" ionized sample focusing. Considered is the effect of recombination losses of the ionized sample during the remote sampling thereof with the vortex sampler. Prospects for a practical implementation of the vortex sampler for solving the problems of the customs control over the smuggling of radioactive ? and ? sources are made based on the research results. PMID:21872021

Kolomiets, Yuri N; Pervukhin, Viktor V

2011-07-12

238

A chemical ionization mass spectrometer for continuous underway shipboard analysis of dimethylsulfide in near-surface seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact, low-cost atmospheric pressure, chemical ionization mass spectrometer ("mini-CIMS") has been developed for continuous underway shipboard measurements of dimethylsulfide (DMS) in seawater. The instrument was used to analyze DMS in air equilibrated with flowing seawater across a porous Teflon membrane equilibrator. The equilibrated gas stream was diluted with air containing an isotopically-labeled internal standard. DMS is ionized at atmospheric pressure via proton transfer from water vapor, then declustered, mass filtered via quadrupole mass spectrometry, and detected with an electron multiplier. The instrument described here is based on a low-cost residual gas analyzer (Stanford Research Systems), which has been modified for use as a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The mini-CIMS has a gas phase detection limit of 170 ppt DMS for a 1 min averaging time, which is roughly equivalent to a seawater DMS concentration of 0.1 nM DMS at 20°C. The mini-CIMS has the sensitivity, selectivity, and time response required for underway measurements of surface ocean DMS over the full range of oceanographic conditions. The simple, robust design and relatively low cost of the instrument are intended to facilitate use in process studies and surveys, with potential for long-term deployment on research vessels, ships of opportunity, and large buoys.

Saltzman, E. S.; de Bruyn, W. J.; Lawler, M. J.; Marandino, C. A.; McCormick, C. A.

2009-07-01

239

A chemical ionization mass spectrometer for continuous underway shipboard analysis of dimethylsulfide in near-surface seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact, low-cost atmospheric pressure, chemical ionization mass spectrometer ("mini-CIMS") has been developed for continuous underway shipboard measurements of dimethylsulfide (DMS) in seawater. The instrument was used to analyze DMS in air equilibrated with flowing seawater across a porous Teflon membrane equilibrator. The equilibrated gas stream was diluted with air containing an isotopically-labeled internal standard. DMS is ionized at atmospheric pressure via proton transfer from water vapor, then declustered, mass filtered via quadrupole mass spectrometry, and detected with an electron multiplier. The instrument described here is based on a low-cost residual gas analyzer (Stanford Research Systems), which has been modified for use as a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The mini-CIMS has a gas phase detection limit of 220 ppt DMS for a 1 min averaging time, which is roughly equivalent to a seawater DMS concentration of 0.1 nM DMS at 20°C. The mini-CIMS has the sensitivity, selectivity, and time response required for underway measurements of surface ocean DMS over the full range of oceanographic conditions. The simple, robust design and relatively low cost of the instrument are intended to facilitate use in process studies and surveys, with potential for long-term deployment on research vessels, ships of opportunity, and large buoys.

Saltzman, E. S.; de Bruyn, W. J.; Lawler, M. J.; Marandino, C. A.; McCormick, C. A.

2009-11-01

240

Direct-current glow discharges in atmospheric pressure air plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations have been conducted to experimentally validate the mechanisms of ionization in two-temperature atmospheric pressure air plasmas in which the electron temperature is elevated with respect to the gas temperature. To test a predicted S-shaped dependence of steady-state electron number density on the electron temperature and its macroscopic interpretation in terms of current density versus electric field, direct-current (dc) glow

Lan Yu; Christophe O. Laux; Denis M. Packan; Charles H. Kruger

2002-01-01

241

A streamer-like atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) are examined in a single-cell dielectric capillary configuration. In contrast to some other flow-driven APPJs, this stable, cold plasma jet is electrically driven, composed of rapidly propagating ionization fronts with speeds of the order of 107 cm?s. Using spatially and temporally resolved optical diagnostics, it is demonstrated that the plasma jet

Brian L. Sands; Biswa N. Ganguly; Kunihide Tachibana

2008-01-01

242

A streamer-like atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) are examined in a single-cell dielectric capillary configuration. In contrast to some other flow-driven APPJs, this stable, cold plasma jet is electrically driven, composed of rapidly propagating ionization fronts with speeds of the order of 107 cm\\/s. Using spatially and temporally resolved optical diagnostics, it is demonstrated that the plasma jet

Brian L. Sands; Biswa N. Ganguly; Kunihide Tachibana

2008-01-01

243

Protein patterning by atmospheric-pressure plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-frequency (LF) atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) jets have been used for patterning of thin fibronectin films deposited on a silicon (Si) wafer with the use of a metal stencil mask. Since fibronectin is an adhesion protein that can be found in the extracellular matrix (ECM), a micro-patterned fibronectin film may be used for arranging living cells in a desired pattern on a surface. Removal of fibronectin from the surface by plasma application was observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It has been found that removal of fibronectin takes place even in the location away from the direct plasma jet application spot, which indicates that desorption of fibronectin is likely to be caused by chemically reactive charge-neutral species that can diffuse away from the plasma without emitting visible light.

Ando, A.; Sayed, M. A.; Asano, T.; Tero, R.; Kitano, K.; Urisu, T.; Hamaguchi, S.

2010-06-01

244

Infrared laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this paper we introduce laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization (LAAPPI), a novel atmospheric pressure ion source for mass spectrometry. In LAAPPI the analytes are ablated from water-rich solid samples or from aqueous solutions with an infrared (IR) laser running at 2.94 ?m wavelength. Approximately 12 mm above the sample surface, the ablation plume is intercepted with an orthogonal hot solvent (e.g., toluene or anisole) jet, which is generated by a heated nebulizer microchip and directed toward the mass spectrometer inlet. The ablated analytes are desolvated and ionized in the gas-phase by atmospheric pressure photoionization using a 10 eV vacuum ultraviolet krypton discharge lamp. The effect of operational parameters and spray solvent on the performance of LAAPPI is studied. LAAPPI offers ~300 ?m lateral resolution comparable to, e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization. In addition to polar compounds, LAAPPI efficiently ionizes neutral and nonpolar compounds. The bioanalytical application of the method is demonstrated by the direct LAAPPI analysis of rat brain tissue sections and sour orange (Citrus aurantium) leaves. PMID:22242626

Vaikkinen, Anu; Shrestha, Bindesh; Kauppila, Tiina J; Vertes, Akos; Kostiainen, Risto

2012-01-19

245

Double-Layered Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a double-layered atmospheric pressure plasma jet (DLAPPJ) that is expected to improve conventional single-layered atmospheric pressure plasma jets. With the additional introduction of nitrogen gas into the outer nozzle between the inner and outer tubes, the plasma plume is boosted, resulting in a brighter and longer plasma torch, which may have more radicals and which

Jaegu Choi; Keita Matsuo; Hidekazu Yoshida; Takao Namihira; Sunao Katsuki; Hidenori Akiyama

2009-01-01

246

Photoluminescence of multilayer GaSb\\/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate photoluminescence from multilayer GaSb self-assembled quantum dots embedded in GaAs grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The spectra show the emission from quantum dots at about 1.09 eV and from the wetting layer at 1.39 eV. With increasing temperature the wetting layer emission quenches faster than the quantum dot emission. We also observe a decrease of the quantum

Motlan; E. M. Goldys

2001-01-01

247

Combinatorial atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of graded TiO?-VO? mixed-phase composites and their dual functional property as self-cleaning and photochromic window coatings.  

PubMed

A combinatorial film with a phase gradient from V:TiO? (V: Ti ? 0.08), through a range of TiO?-VO? composites, to a vanadium-rich composite (V: Ti = 1.81) was grown by combinatorial atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (cAPCVD). The film was grown from the reaction of TiCl?, VCl?, ethyl acetate (EtAc), and H?O at 550 °C on glass. The gradient in gas mixtures across the reactor induced compositional film growth, producing a single film with numerous phases and compositions at different positions. Seventeen unique positions distributed evenly along a central horizontal strip were investigated. The physical properties were characterized by wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The functional properties examined included the degree of photoinduced hydrophilicity (PIH), UVC-photocatalysis, and thermochromism. Superhydrophilic contact angles could be achieved at all positions, even within a highly VO?-rich composite (V: Ti = 1.81). A maximum level of UVC photocatalysis was observed at a position bordering the solubility limit of V:TiO? (V: Ti ? 0.21) and fragmentation into a mixed-phase composite. Within the mixed-phase TiO?: VO? composition region (V: Ti = 1.09 to 1.81) a decrease in the semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature of VO? from 68 to 51 °C was observed. PMID:23688025

Wilkinson, Mia; Kafizas, Andreas; Bawaked, Salem M; Obaid, Abdullah Y; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel A; Basahel, Sulaiman N; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P

2013-05-28

248

Thermal desorption spectra of SiO2 films deposited on Si and on thermal SiO2 by tetraethylorthosilicate/O3 atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SiO2 films deposited on Si and on thermal SiO2 by tetraethylorthosilicate [TEOS, Si(OC2H5)4]/O3 atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) were analyzed by thermal desorption spectra (TDS). The TDS results show that more silanols were incorporated during deposition and more water was absorbed during and after deposition in films deposited on Si substrates than on thermal oxide substrates. The latter result indicates that the elimination of water by-products is not the limiting step in TEOS/O3 APCVD. Based on the former result, a silanol model was proposed for the surface processes. On surfaces with a uniform and high density of silanol sites, or on which silanols readily form under TEOS/O3 APCVD conditions, the active silanol groups in the gas phase contribute to film formation and replenish silanol sites, resulting in continuous, high growth rates. On surfaces with few silanol sites, it is difficult to form silanol sites and the nonsilanol-containing polysiloxanes contribute to film formation, resulting in continuous, low growth rate. This model explains well both the surface dependence and the memory effect of TEOS/O3 APCVD.

Cheng, Degang; Tsukamoto, Koji; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Nishimoto, Yuko; Tokumasu, Noboru; Maeda, Kazuo

1999-05-01

249

Topographic and Atmospheric Pressure Mapping of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based near-infrared images and spectral observations of Mars are shown to provide relatively detailed topographic images of the martian surface and may be used to obtain martian atmospheric pressure system information.

Chamberlain, S.; Bailey, J.; Crisp, D.; Walter, M.

2006-03-01

250

Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel

Gary S. Selwyn; Ivars Henins; Steve E. Babayan; Robert F. Hicks

2001-01-01

251

Generation Of Atmospheric Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma By Diffusive And Constricted Discharges In Rest And Flowing Gases (Air And Nitrogen)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weekly ionized non-thermal plasma (NTP) is of great interest for many applications because of its strong non-equilibrium state wherein an average electron energy Te exceeds markedly gas temperature Tg, i.e. electrons in the NTP are strongly overheated compared to neutral gas. Energetic electrons due to frequent collisions with the neutrals excite and dissociate effectively atoms and molecules of the plasma-forming gas that results in a creation of physically-, and bio-chemically active gaseous medium in a practically cold background gas. At present there are many kinds of plasma sources working at low and atmospheric pressure and using MW, RF, low frequency, pulsed and DC power supplies for NTP generation. The NTP at atmospheric pressure is of considerable interest for practice. A reason is that sustaining the NTP at atmospheric pressure at first allows us to avoid the use of expensive vacuum equipment and second gives opportunity to use the NTP for treatment of the exhausted gases and polluted liquids. The second opportunity cannot be realized at all with use of the NTP at low pressure. Main subject of this talk is low current atmospheric pressure gas discharges powering with DC power supplies. Plasma forming gases are air and nitrogen which are much cheaper compared to rare gases like He or Ar. Besides, great interest to molecular nitrogen as plasma forming gas is caused first of all its unique capability to accumulate huge energy in vibration, electron (metastables) and dissociated (atomic) states providing high chemical reactivity of the activated nitrogen. All active particles mentioned above have a long lifetime, and they can be therefore transported for a long distance away from place of their generation. Different current modes (diffusive and constricted) of these discharges are discussed. Experimental and numerical results on generation of chemically active species in the diffusive and constricted mode are presented. Some data on the usage of the atmospheric pressure NTP for gas cleanup, surface treatment and sterilization are given.

Akishev, Y.; Grushin, M.; Karalnik, V.; Kochetov, I.; Napartovich A.; Trushkin N.

2010-07-01

252

A streamer-like atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

SciTech Connect

The properties of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) are examined in a single-cell dielectric capillary configuration. In contrast to some other flow-driven APPJs, this stable, cold plasma jet is electrically driven, composed of rapidly propagating ionization fronts with speeds of the order of 10{sup 7} cm/s. Using spatially and temporally resolved optical diagnostics, it is demonstrated that the plasma jet is initiated independent of the dielectric barrier discharge inside the capillary. It is also shown that the properties and dynamics of this APPJ are directly analogous to those of positive corona streamer discharges.

Sands, Brian L. [UES, Inc., 2645 5th St., Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7251 (United States); Ganguly, Biswa N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, 2645 5th St., Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7251 (United States); Tachibana, Kunihide [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto-daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

2008-04-14

253

Photochemistry of limonene secondary organic aerosol studied with chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limonene is one of the most abundant monoterpenes in the atmosphere. Limonene easily reacts with gas-phase oxidants in air such as NO3, ozone and OH. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is formed when low vapor pressure products condense into particles. Chemicals in SOA particles can undergo further reactions with oxidants and with solar radiation that significantly change SOA composition over the course of several days. The goal of this work was to characterize radiation induced reaction in SOA. To perform experiments, we have designed and constructed an Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (APCIMS) coupled to a photochemical cell containing SOA samples. In APCIMS, (H2O)nH 3O+ clusters are generated in a 63Ni source and react with gaseous organic analytes. Most organic chemicals are not fragmented by the ionization process. We have focused our attention on limonene SOA prepared in two different ways. The first type of SOA is produced by oxidation of limonene by ozone; and the second type of SOA is formed by the NO3-induced oxidation of limonene. They model the SOA formed under daytime and nighttime conditions, respectively. Ozone initiated oxidation is the most important chemical sink for limonene both indoors, where it is used for cleaning purposes, and outdoors. Terpenes are primarily oxidized by reactions with NO3 at night time. We generated limonene SOA under different ozone and limonene concentrations. The resulting SOA samples were exposed to wavelength-tunable radiation in the UV-Visible range between 270 nm and 630 nm. The results show that the photodegradation rates strongly depend on radiation wavelengths. Gas phase photodegradation products such as acetone, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid were shown to have different production rates for SOA formed in different concentration conditions. Even for SOA prepared under the lowest concentrations, the SOA photodegradation was efficient. The conclusion is that exposure of SOA to solar radiation causes significant chemical aging in SOA species.

Pan, Xiang

254

Dielectric barrier discharge ionization for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An atmospheric pressure microplasma ionization source based on a dielectric barrier discharge with a helium plasma cone outside the electrode region has been developed for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). For this purpose, the plasma was realized in a commercial atmospheric pressure ionization source. Dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI) was compared to conventional electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in the positive ionization mode. Therefore, a heterogeneous compound library was investigated that covered polar compounds such as amino acids, water-soluble vitamins, and nonpolar compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and functionalized hydrocarbons. It turned out that DBDI can be regarded as a soft ionization technique characterized by only minor fragmentation similar to APCI. Mainly protonated molecules were detected. Additionally, molecular ions were observed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives thereof. During DBDI, adduct formation with acetonitrile occurred. For aromatic compounds, addition of one to four oxygen atoms and to a smaller extend one nitrogen and oxygen was observed which delivered insight into the complexity of the ionization processes. In general, compounds covering a wider range of polarities can be ionized by DBDI than by ESI. Furthermore, limits of detection compared to APCI are in most cases equal or even better. PMID:19911793

Hayen, Heiko; Michels, Antje; Franzke, Joachim

2009-12-15

255

Evaporation of urea at atmospheric pressure.  

PubMed

Aqueous urea solution is widely used as reducing agent in the selective catalytic reduction of NO(x) (SCR). Because reports of urea vapor at atmospheric pressure are rare, gaseous urea is usually neglected in computational models used for designing SCR systems. In this study, urea evaporation was investigated under flow reactor conditions, and a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of gaseous urea was recorded at atmospheric pressure for the first time. The spectrum was compared to literature data under vacuum conditions and with theoretical spectra of monomolecular and dimeric urea in the gas phase calculated with the density functional theory (DFT) method. Comparison of the spectra indicates that urea vapor is in the monomolecular form at atmospheric pressure. The measured vapor pressure of urea agrees with the thermodynamic data obtained under vacuum reported in the literature. Our results indicate that considering gaseous urea will improve the computational modeling of urea SCR systems. PMID:21381736

Bernhard, Andreas M; Czekaj, Izabela; Elsener, Martin; Wokaun, Alexander; Kröcher, Oliver

2011-03-07

256

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

2006-09-01

257

Seasonal Behaviour of Atmospheric Pressure Oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is well known that the atmospheric pressure at any given point does not remain constant in time and is subject to periodic and non-periodic fluctuations. Statistical analyses have been used to establish them and many investigations have been published. This communication reports the results of a spectral density analysis performed for the barometric pressure data at the Langmuir Laboratory

Bhartendu; J. A. Allen; G. W. Paltridge; M. H. Wilkening

1967-01-01

258

DIAGNOSTICS OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AIR PLASMAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure air plasmas are often thought to be in Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium (LTE) owing to fast interspecies collisional exchanges at high pressure. As will be seen here, this assumption cannot be relied upon, particularly with respect to optical diagnostics. Large velocity gradients in flowing plasmas and\\/or elevated electron temperatures created by electrical discharges can result in large departures from

C. O. Laux; C. H. Kruger; R. N. Zare

259

Determining Atmospheric Pressure Using a Water Barometer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The atmosphere is an envelope of compressible gases that surrounds Earth. Because of its compressibility and nonuniform heating by the Sun, it is in constant motion. The atmosphere exerts pressure on Earth's surface, but that pressure is in constant flux. This experiment allows students to directly measure atmospheric pressure by measuring the…

Lohrengel, C. Frederick, II; Larson, Paul R.

2012-01-01

260

Formation Mechanism of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet can protrude some 5.0 cm into air. It holds promise for multivarious innovative applications, but its formation mechanism remains unsettled. We show that the plasma jet is essentially a streamer corona totally independent of, but obscured by, dielectric barrier discharge. Consequently, the jets can be equally successfully generated even with one single bare metal electrode attached

Nan Jiang; Ailing Ji; Zexian Cao

2008-01-01

261

Diagnostics on an atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a homogeneous non-equilibrium discharge at ambient pressure. It operates with a noble base gas and a percentage-volume admixture of a molecular gas. Applications of the discharge are mainly based on reactive species in the effluent. The effluent region of a discharge operated in helium with an oxygen admixture has been investigated. The optical

K. Niemi; St. Reuter; L. Schaper; N. Knake; V. Schulz-von der Gathen; T. Gans

2007-01-01

262

Atmospheric Pressure Fluidized Bed Coal Combustion Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot plant is realized for the combustion of coal in a fluidized bed at atmospheric pressure, with a bed cooled by immersed exchangers. Technological devices and the associated operating conditions are developed. In particular, pre-heating of the bed, ...

N. Meysson B. Grue

1982-01-01

263

Analysis on the material removal stability for the finishing of the optical surface using atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure plasma processing is a method using chemical reaction between active radicals excited by plasma and workpiece surface atoms, which cannot damage the optical surface. A novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet generator has been designed based parallel plate electrode capacitive coupled, in which active fluorine atoms are excited from sulfur hexafluoride when helium acted as plasma generate gas and

Yanfu Zhang; Bo Wang; Shen Dong; Ye Yuan

2010-01-01

264

Performance of a corona ion source for measurement of sulfuric acid by chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of an ion source based on corona discharge has been studied. This source is used for the detection of gaseous sulfuric acid by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) through the reaction of NO3- ions with H2SO4. The ion source is operated under atmospheric pressure and its design is similar to the one of a radioactive (americium-241) ion source which has been used previously. The results show that the detection limit for the corona ion source is sufficiently good for most applications. For an integration time of 1 min it is ~6 × 104 molecule cm-3 of H2SO4. In addition, only a small cross-sensitivity to SO2 has been observed for concentrations as high as 1 ppmv in the sample gas. This low sensitivity to SO2 is achieved even without the addition of an OH scavenger. When comparing the new corona ion source with the americium ion source for the same provided H2SO4 concentration, both ion sources yield almost identical values. These features make the corona ion source investigated here favorable over the more commonly used radioactive ion sources for most applications where H2SO4 is measured by CIMS.

Kürten, A.; Rondo, L.; Ehrhart, S.; Curtius, J.

2011-03-01

265

Performance of a corona ion source for measurement of sulfuric acid by chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of an ion source based on corona discharge has been studied. This source is used for the detection of gaseous sulfuric acid by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) through the reaction of NO3- ions with H2SO4. The ion source is operated under atmospheric pressure and its design is similar to the one of a radioactive (Americium 241) ion source which has been used previously. Our results show that the detection limit for the corona ion source is sufficiently good for most applications. For an integration time of one minute it is ~6 × 104 molecules of H2SO4 per cm3. In addition, only a small cross-sensitivity to SO2 has been observed for concentrations as high as 1 ppmv in the sample gas. This low sensitivity to SO2 is achieved even without the addition of an OH scavenger. When comparing the new corona ion source with the americium ion source for the same provided H2SO4 concentration, both ion sources yield almost identical values. These features make the corona ion source investigated here favorable over the more commonly used radioactive ion sources for most applications where H2SO4 is measured by CIMS.

Kürten, A.; Rondo, L.; Ehrhart, S.; Curtius, J.

2010-11-01

266

Fragmentation of phosphopeptides by atmospheric pressure MALDI and ESI\\/ion trap mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of phosphate loss from phosphopeptide ions was conducted, using both atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted\\u000a laser desorption\\/ionization (AP MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS).\\u000a These experiments were carried out on a number of phosphorylated peptides in order to investigate gas phase dephosphorylation\\u000a patterns associated with phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, and phosphotyrosine residues. In particular, we

Susanne C. Moyer; Robert J. Cotter; Amina S. Woods

2002-01-01

267

BRIEF COMMUNICATION: An alternative source for generating atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This communication presents an alternative source for the generation of non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure. It is based on a very simple electric diagram that generates, on the plasma electrode, an electric field sufficiently high to ionize various gases (helium, argon or even air), which flow at atmospheric pressure. The dc power supply is lower than 10 V, the frequency of the electric field is in the range 0.1-1 MHz and the plasma power is less than 1 W. The plasma is generated using only one electrode. It has all the characteristics of non-thermal plasmas.

Anghel, S. D.; Simon, A.

2007-08-01

268

Research on atmospheric pressure plasma processing sewage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water pollution has become more and more serious with the industrial progress and social development, so it become a worldwide leading environmental management problem to human survival and personal health, therefore, countries are looking for the best solution. Generally speaking, in this paper the work has the following main achievements and innovation: (1) Developed a new plasma device--Plasma Water Bed. (2) At atmospheric pressure condition, use oxygen, nitrogen, argon and helium as work gas respectively, use fiber spectrometer to atmospheric pressure plasma discharge the emission spectrum of measurement, due to the different work gas producing active particle is different, so can understand discharge, different particle activity, in the treatment of wastewater, has the different degradation effects. (3) Methyl violet solution treatment by plasma water bed. Using plasma drafting make active particles and waste leachate role, observe the decolorization, measurement of ammonia nitrogen removal.

Song, Gui-cai; Na, Yan-xiang; Dong, Xiao-long; Sun, Xiao-liang

2013-08-01

269

Physiological Action of Diminished Atmospheric Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

WITH reference to the effect of diminished atmospheric pressure on the vital powers, alluded to in Prof. Bonney's review of Mr. Whymper's ``Travels among the Great Andes of the Equator'' (NATURE, April 14, p. 561), I do not know whether it is worth while recalling the well-known fact that numerous passes in the Himalayas, ranging from 17,000 to 19,000 feet,

F. R. Mallet

1892-01-01

270

Reverse Propagation of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bullet-like propagation of individual bright spots has been observed using photomultiplier tubes in helium atmospheric pressure plasma jets with dielectric barrier discharges. Under typical discharge conditions, such optical-emission spots in plasma jets (also known as ``plasma bullets'') are known to propagate in the direction of the applied electric field. Results of this study show that similar optical-emission spots can also

Tsuyohito Ito; Aurélien Raddenzati; Artabaze Shams; Satoshi Hamaguchi

2010-01-01

271

Evaluation of resin and fatty acid concentration levels by online sample enrichment followed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  In papermaking, there is a continuous interest both to minimize fresh water consumption and to reduce discharges into the\\u000a environment. These general trends mean an increase in the amounts of detrimental substances, such as resin and fatty acids,\\u000a in papermaking process waters. Resin acids, in particular, are responsible for much of the toxicity typically present in paper

Piia Valto; Juha Knuutinen; Raimo Alén

2009-01-01

272

NEGATIVE CHEMICAL IONIZATION STUDIES OF HUMAN AND FOOD CHAIN CONTAMINATION WITH XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a mixture of isobutane, methylene chloride, and oxygen as the reagent gas has been used to explore contamination of environmental substrates with xenobiotic chemicals. The substrates in question, fish tissue, human seminal plasm...

273

Ionization equilibrium and equation of state of partially ionized hydrogen plasmas: Pseudopotential approach in chemical picture  

SciTech Connect

Starting from the Bogolyubov hierarchy for the equilibrium distribution functions, a novel approach to the chemical model of partially ionized plasmas is proposed. Unlike the ordinary chemical picture it allows one to determine, in a self-consistent manner, both the ionization equilibrium and correlation functions as well. It is shown that the charged and neutral components of the plasma are closely interrelated and, as a consequence, the short-range order formation turns possible. The equation of state of partially ionized hydrogen plasmas is studied and detailed comparison with an exact quantum-mechanical expansion is made. The approach developed is quite analogous to the Debye-Hueckel theory of weakly coupled fully ionized plasmas and includes it as a limiting case.

Arkhipov, Yu.V.; Baimbetov, F.B.; Davletov, A.E. [Department of Physics, Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96, 480012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

2005-08-15

274

IONIZATION MECHANISMS IN TWO-TEMPERATURE AIR PLASMAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations have been conducted to understand and experimentally validate the mechanisms of ioniz a- tion in two-temperature atmospheric pressure air plasmas in which the electron temperature is elevated with respect to the gas temperature. The first part of the paper reports the results of numerical simulations pe r- formed with a new two-temperature chemical kinetic model, with reaction rate coefficients

Christophe O. Laux; Lan Yu; Denis M. Packan; Richard J. Gessman; Laurent Pierrot; Charles H. Kruger; Richard N. Zare

275

A dielectric barrier discharge in neon at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dielectric barrier discharge in neon at atmospheric pressure is investigated with electrical measurement and fast photography. It is found that a stable diffuse discharge can be easily generated in a gap with a gap space of 0.5-6 mm and is identified with a glow discharge. The first breakdown voltage of the gap is considerably higher than that of the same gap working in a stable diffuse discharge mode, which indicates that Penning ionization of neon metastables from the previous discharge with inevitable gas impurities plays an important role in the decrease in the breakdown voltage. Discharge patterns are observed in a gap shorter than 1 mm. From the experiments with a wedge-like gap, it is found that the discharge patterns are formed in the area with a higher applied electric field, which suggests that a higher applied electric field may cause a transition from a diffuse glow to discharge patterns.

Ran, Junxia; Luo, Haiyun; Wang, Xinxin

2011-08-01

276

Atmospheric pressure plasma analysis by modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Fractional number density measurements for a rf plasma 'needle' operating at atmospheric pressure have been obtained using a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) system designed for diagnostics of atmospheric plasmas. The MBMS system comprises three differentially pumped stages and a mass/energy analyzer and includes an automated beam-to-background measurement facility in the form of a software-controlled chopper mechanism. The automation of the beam modulation allows the neutral components in the plasma to be rapidly and accurately measured using the mass spectrometer by threshold ionization techniques. Data are reported for plasma generated by a needle plasma source operated using a helium/air mixture. In particular, data for the conversion of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen into nitric oxide are discussed with reference to its significance for medical applications such as disinfecting wounds and dental cavities and for microsurgery.

Aranda Gonzalvo, Y.; Whitmore, T.D.; Rees, J.A.; Seymour, D.L.; Stoffels, E. [Hiden Analytical Ltd., 420 Europa Boulevard, Warrington WA5 7UN (United Kingdom); Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2006-05-15

277

Bacillus subtilis devitalization mechanism of atmosphere pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-applications of atmospheric pressure plasma have been widely studied in recent years. However, the devitalization mechanisms of micro-organisms by atmosphere pressure plasma have not been clearly explained. This paper was to find the possible sterilization mechanisms and define the major sterilization factors with the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. For the sterilization target, the Bacillus subtilis was selected. In this paper,

Sanxi Deng; Cheng Cheng; Guohua Ni; Yuedong Meng; Hua Chen

2010-01-01

278

Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to identify the key physics and chemistry underlying the use of atmospheric pressure plasmas for etching removal of actinides and actinide surrogates. This includes understanding of basic discharge mechanism at atmospheric pressure, gas and surface phase chemistry, and optimization and scale-up effort of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ).

Hicks, Robert F.; Selwyn, Gary

1999-06-01

279

Ambient analysis by thermal desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization.  

PubMed

Ambient mass spectrometry has attracted substantial attention in recent years. Among ambient ionization methods, thermal desorption ionization stands out because of two attributes: (1) simplicity, rendering the technique suitable for in-field applications, and (2) ability to couple with a variety of gas-phase ionization methods thereby broadening the range of molecules that can be analyzed with this method. Here, we report on improving the performance of a direct analysis in real time (DART) source by implementing atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) downstream of the desorption region. At identical desorption and ion sampling conditions, APPI leads to detection of radical molecular ions from non-polar compounds that are absent from the spectra generated by DART alone. Moreover, a factor of 3-5 improvement in sensitivity is observed using APPI for positive ions commonly detected by DART and DART-APPI. Using helium and nitrogen as desorption gases, APPI shows identical performance regardless of desorption gas type. In contrast, a dramatic decrease in sensitivity is observed for DART operated with nitrogen compared to DART with helium. Comparable performance for DART and DART-APPI are observed in negative ion mode, although both show a drastic improvement in the absence of the Vapur interface. This interface creates a differentially pumped chamber prior to inlet of the mass spectrometer and reduces the mass spectrometer gas load when helium is used as desorption gas. PMID:23180079

Jorabchi, Kaveh; Hanold, Karl; Syage, Jack

2012-11-23

280

Atmospheric pressure scanning transmission electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images of gold nanoparticles (2.1 nm average diameter) at atmospheric pressure have been recorded through a 0.36 mm thick mixture of CO, O2 and He. This was accomplished using a reaction cell consisting of two electron-transparent silicon nitride membranes mounted on a specially designed specimen rod. Gas flow occurred through plastic tubing from the outside of the microscope to the specimen region and back. Gold nanoparticles of a full width half maximum diameter of 1.0 nm were visible above the background noise and the achieved resolution was 0.5 nm in accordance with calculations of the beam broadening.

De Jonge, Niels [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Bigelow, Wilbur C [ORNL

2010-01-01

281

Characteristics of atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma torch has been designed and built. The plasma optical and electrical characteristic have been investigated. The data has been compared with the kHz frequency rf torch. Electron temperature, density and gas temperatures are measured for different flow rates and for different gases. Optical emission spectrometer and ICCD camera are used to measure the argon and helium plasma characteristics and the results are compared for both designs. This Work has been supported by TUBITAK TEYDEB project no:9100036

Bozduman, Ferhat; Teke, Erdogan; Gulec, Ali; Oksuz, Lutfi

2012-10-01

282

Determining Atmospheric Pressure Using a Water Barometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmosphere is an envelope of compressible gases that surrounds Earth. Because of its compressibility and nonuniform heating by the Sun, it is in constant motion. The atmosphere exerts pressure on Earth's surface, but that pressure is in constant flux. This experiment allows students to directly measure atmospheric pressure by measuring the mass of the water that is used as the fluid medium in the barometer. Simple calculations based upon the mass of water collected from the barometer yield the mass of the atmosphere per square unit of area at the site where the experiment is conducted.

Lohrengel, C. Frederick; Larson, Paul R.

2012-12-01

283

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet for decontamination purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced oxidation processes, especially induced by non-thermal plasmas, are widely known for their high sanitation efficiency. The paper presents general overview of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) reactors for bactericidal decontamination purposes. In the conclusion part, the basic requirements for APPJ as a tool for biomedical applications including the treatment of living tissues are highlighted. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

Paw?at, Joanna

2013-02-01

284

Protein destruction by atmospheric pressure glow discharges  

SciTech Connect

It is well established that atmospheric pressure glow discharges are capable of bacterial inactivation. Much less known is their ability to destruct infectious proteins, even though surgical instruments are often contaminated by both bacteria and proteinaceous matters. In this letter, the authors present a study of protein destruction using a low-temperature atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharge jet. Clear evidences of protein removal are presented with data of several complimentary experiments using scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive x-ray analysis, electrophoresis, laser-induced fluorescence microscopy, and protein reduction kinetics. Considerable degradation is observed of protein fragments that remain on their substrate surface after plasma treatment.

Deng, X. T.; Shi, J. J.; Chen, H. L.; Kong, M. G. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Leicester, Leicestershire LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

2007-01-01

285

Self-consistent two-dimensional modeling of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jets/bullets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computational modeling study of streamer propagation in a cold, atmospheric-pressure, helium jet in ambient air is presented. A self-consistent, multi-species, multi-temperature plasma model with detailed finite-rate chemistry and photoionization effects is used to provide fundamental insights into the structure and dynamics of the streamers. A parametric study of the streamer properties as a function of important discharge geometric and operating conditions is performed. The fluid mechanical mixing layer between the helium jet core and the ambient air is instrumental in guiding the propagation direction of the streamer and gives the plasma jet a visibly collimated appearance. The key chemical reactions which drive the streamer propagation are electron-impact ionization of helium neutral and nitrogen molecules. Photoionization plays a role in enhancing the propagation speed of the streamer, but is not necessary to sustain the streamer. The streamer yields a large radical concentration through chemical reactions in the streamer head and the body. The streamer propagation speed increases with reduced helium jet radius and increased helium-air mixing layer width. Impurities in the helium jet result in a significant increase in the discharge propagation speed within the tube through photoionization, but not after the streamer propagates into the open ambient region. It is also observed that thinner electrodes produce stronger electric-field concentrations that increase discharge propagation speeds within the tube but have a smaller influence on the discharge after it emerges out of the tube as a streamer.

Breden, D.; Miki, K.; Raja, L. L.

2012-06-01

286

UPTAKE OF IONIZABLE ORGANIC CHEMICALS AT FISH GILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Uptake of organic acids by fish, and their toxicity, generally decrease with increasing pH above the pK, presumably due to neutral forms of such chemicals being more readily adsorbed than their ionized forms. However, uptake usually exceeds that expected based just on the concent...

287

EDITORIAL Metal vapour in atmospheric-pressure arcs Metal vapour in atmospheric-pressure arcs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal vapour has a significant, and in some cases dominant, influence in many applications of atmospheric-pressure plasmas, including arc welding, circuit interruption and mineral processing. While the influence of metal vapour has long been recognized, it is only recently that diagnostic and computational tools have been sufficiently well-developed to allow this influence to be more thoroughly examined and understood. Some

Anthony B. Murphy

2010-01-01

288

Study of Atmospheric Pressure Abnormal Glow Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure abnormal glow discharge (APAGD) was carried out simply with a transformer of 1: 500 driven by a alternating current with a frequency of 50 Hz. Typical stable discharge parameters, namely voltage of 400 V to 850 V and current of 60 mA to 110 mA were measured by oscillograph. Simulation of the discharge process suggested that the stable discharge was supported by the impedance from the secondary coil of the transformer, which offered a negative feedback to prevent the discharge from turning into an arc. An interpretation was given for the oscillogram of the sinuous discharge current and square voltage. Furthermore, the electron temperature and electron density averaged in the discharge channel of APAGD were estimated.

Li, Xiang; Tang, Changjian; Dai, Xiaoyan; Yin, Yongxiang

2008-04-01

289

SIMION ion optics simulations at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

A method for simulating the motions of charged particles in atmospheric pressure conditions in electrostatic and magnetic fields has been developed and implemented in a user program for SIMION 7.0 and the predictive capability of the model tested against experiment. The SDS (Statistical Diffusion Simulation) user program avoids the computationally intensive issues of high collision rates by employing collision statistics to simulate the effects of millions of collisions per time step. Ion motions are simulated by a combined viscous ion mobility and random ion jumping approach. Comparison of the model predictions against measurement of Cs+ transport through room air, N2, Xe, Ar, and He collision gases in a simple drift cell at pressures from 6 Torr to 640 Torr are favorable and provide confidence that the approach is viable.

anthony d appelhans; david a dahl

2005-06-01

290

State-of-the-art in atmospheric pressure photoionization for LC\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review presents our perspective on the state-of-the-art of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) for LC\\/MS. Its focus is on APPI's capabilities and how to utilize them fully. The introduction includes a brief recounting of the history of APPI's development, as well as a summary of its operating principles and current position in the field. The primary ionization mechanisms in APPI

Damon B. Robb; Michael W. Blades

2008-01-01

291

Fat Liquefaction of Adipose Tissue Using Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquefaction of fat in adipose tissue for potential medical applications was achieved by direct irradiation using an atmospheric-pressure plasma source and a catheter-type apparatus. When fat was irradiated with plasma generated from a catheter tip, it was liquefied through ozonolysis, although little production and diffusion of ozone originating from the collision/ionization of gas molecules was observed in preliminary experiments. Furthermore, surface damage to fat cells, such as thermal carbonization or electric shock injuries, was not observed.

Hirata, Takamichi; Tsutsui, Chihiro; Kishimoto, Takumi; Mori, Akira; Akiya, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Toshiaki; Taguchi, Akira

2011-08-01

292

Calculations of Electrical Breakdown in Air at Near-Atmospheric Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program based on the Townsend avalanche model, but explicitly including space charge, has been used to calculate electrical breakdown in air at near-atmospheric pressure. A good fit to Bandel's experimental temporal-current-growth curves may be obtained by using a secondary ionization coefficient that includes 10% ion and 90% photon portions. Only a poorer fit could be obtained when using

A. L. Ward

1965-01-01

293

Protein patterning utilizing region-specific control of wettability by surface modification under atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wettability control can be crucial in improving the uniformity of selective protein immobilization in high-density microarrays. In this study, we propose an atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD)-based method in conjunction with photolithography to implement region-specific control of wettability on Si substrate. The proposed PECVD method under atmospheric pressure condition would be a useful alternative of conventional reactive plasma-based treatments methods requiring vacuum condition for uniform protein patterning. Layers with dissimilar wettability and roughness prepared by AP-PECVD process using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) or TEOS-O2 as precursors could realize uniform protein patterning in a micrometer-scale.

Lee, Donghee; Kwon, Min-Sung; Hyun, Ji-Chul; Jun, Chang-Duk; Chung, Euiheon; Yang, Sung

2013-09-01

294

Free radicals induced in aqueous solution by non-contact atmospheric-pressure cold plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand plasma-induced chemical processing in liquids, we investigated the formation of free radicals in aqueous solution exposed to different types of non-contact atmospheric-pressure helium plasma using the spin-trapping technique. Both hydroxyl radical (OH.) and superoxide anion radical (O2-.) adducts were observed when neutral oxygen gas was additionally supplied to the plasma. In particular, O2-. can be dominantly induced in the solution via oxygen flow into the afterglow gas of helium plasma. This type of plasma treatment can potentially be used in medical applications to control infectious diseases, because the O2-. is crucial for sterilization of liquids via atmospheric-pressure plasma.

Tani, Atsushi; Ono, Yusuke; Fukui, Satoshi; Ikawa, Satoshi; Kitano, Katsuhisa

2012-06-01

295

Epoxy Resin Surface Functionalization Using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) of N2 has been applied to promote adhesion between the epoxy resin post and composite core material due to the chemical active functional groups created. The APPJ was proved to be able to improve adhesive ability of the epoxy resin through the polar groups such as carbonyl group on its surface revealed by decreasing contact angle. The jet was generated from N2/Ar and N2/He gas mixture with ratio as low as 0.40--0.44 vol %, respectively. The optical emission spectrometry showed that the active species which could react with the substrate surface are nitrogen molecules and nitrogen molecules ion. The radial distribution functions (RDFs) calculations indicated that the most probable position of nitrogen active species reacting on the epoxy surface is at hydroxyl group with hydrogen bonding distance less than 35 nm.

Sangprasert, Waleepan; Nimmanpipug, Piyarat; Yavirach, Piriya; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Boonyawan, Dheerawan

2012-01-01

296

Experimental investigation of ionizational nonequilibrium in atmospheric pressure air plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. In air plasmas, the presence of molecular ions, electronegative species, dissociative recombination, charge exchange, and finite-rate heavy-particle chemistry produces a complex situation in which the balance between these various effects is not currently well understood, mainly because of a lack of understanding of the dominant mechanisms and the large differences between the reaction rates proposed in

C. O. Laux; R. J. Gessman; D. M. Packan; L. Yu; C. H. Kruger; R. N. Zare

1998-01-01

297

Surface modification of PET film by a DBD device at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma treatments are used to modify surface properties of materials such as adhesivity, hydrophobicity, oleophobicity, hydrophilicity. The plasma interaction with the surface produces modifications of its chemical structure and morphology.The present work shows the surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate film (PET) after the exposure to an atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD).The treated surface has been analyzed using atomic

P. Esena; C. Riccardi; S. Zanini; M. Tontini; G. Poletti; F. Orsini

2005-01-01

298

Control of polishing of diamond films using microactuation and an atmospheric pressure plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the diamond deposited by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is polished using an atmospheric pressure plasma. In order to position the film relative to the plasma, a microactuator system is designed using a stack of domed piezoelectric actuators. A dynamic model based on the physical system is developed and the model parameters are measured experimentally. A

Matt S. Detrick; G. N. Washington; Vish V. Subramaniam

2003-01-01

299

Parametric effects on thin film growth and uniformity in an atmospheric pressure impinging jet CVD reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic parametric study has been performed to study the effects of various geometrical parameters on the growth rate and growth rate uniformity in a jet impingement chemical vapor deposition reactor operated at atmospheric pressure. A previously validated two-dimensional axisymmetric computational model is used to numerically solve the equations governing variable density flow, and energy and species transport. Buoyancy-induced secondary

S. P. Vanka; G. Luo; N. G. Glumac

2004-01-01

300

Effect on surface roughness of zerodur material in atmospheric pressure plasma jet processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zerodur material is considered as the ideal material in the high performance optic systems because of its excellent thermal stability characteristics. This paper deals with the impacting factors on the zerodur material surface roughness during atmospheric pressure plasma jet(APPJ) processing. At first, based on multiphase and multi-component in zerodur material, the effect on the zerodur surface chemical components and surface

H. L. Jin; B. Wang; F. H. Zhang

2010-01-01

301

Simulation of N-atom production in dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plasma-chemical model of atomic nitrogen production in a Townsend dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure is presented. On the basis of the comparison with measured densities, a significant discrepancy between the calculated and the measured production rate of nitrogen atoms is observed and discussed.

Tsyganov, Dmitry; Pancheshnyi, Sergey

2012-12-01

302

Low-temperature and low atmospheric pressure infrared reflectance spectroscopy of Mars soil analog materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared reflectance spectra of carefully selected Mars soil analog materials have been measured under low atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Chemically altered montmorillonites containing ferrihydrite and hydrated ferric sulfate complexes are examined, as well as synthetic ferrihydrite and a palagonitic soil from Haleakala, Maui. Reflectance spectra of these analog materials exhibit subtle visible to near-infrared features, which are indicative of nanophase

Janice L. Bishop; Carlé M. Pieters

1995-01-01

303

Low-temperature and low atmospheric pressure infrared reflectance spectroscopy of Mars soil analog materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared reflectance spectra of carefully selected Mars soil analog materials have been measured under low atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Chemically altered montmorillonites containing ferrihydrite and hydrated ferric sulfate complexes are examined, as well as synthetic ferrihydrate and a palagonitic soil from Haleakala, Maui. Reflectance spectra of these analog materials exhibit subtle visible to near-infrared features, which are indicative of nanophase

Janice L. Bishop; Carle M. Pieters

1995-01-01

304

Destruction of bacteria using an atmospheric-pressure dielectric capillary electrode discharge plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The interaction of plasmas with chemical and biological agents, in particular in the context of sterilization and decontamination has received much attention in recent years. Particular emphasis has been on the utilization of atmospheric-pressure plasmas as they do not require operation in costly vacuum enclosures and thus facilitate the convenient and low-cost treatment of large surface

K. Becker; N. Abramzon; N. S. Panikov; R. Crowe; P. J. Ricatto; C. Christodoulatos

2002-01-01

305

Study of atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition by using a double discharge system for SiO x thin-film deposition with a HMDS/Ar/He/O2 gas mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SiO x thin films were deposited at atmospheric pressure by using a double discharge system composed of a remote-type dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) formed above the substrate and a direct-type DBD formed by applying an AC power to the substrate with a gas mixture of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS)/O2/He/Ar. Instead of using a single DBD, the use of the double discharge system not only showed higher SiO x thin film deposition rates but also produced fewer impurities in the deposited SiO x thin film. The improvement was partially related to the increased gas dissociation near the substrate through the direct-type DBD and to the remote-type DBD. A 7-kV, 30-kHz AC voltage was applied to the remote-type DBD and a 5-kV, 20-kHz AC voltage was applied to the direct-type DBD, with a gas mixture of HMDS (400 sccm)/O2 (20 slm)/He (5 slm)/Ar (3 slm). As a result, a SiO x deposition rate of 58.29 nm/scan could be obtained while moving the substrate at a speed of 0.25 meter/min.

Kim, Ga Young; Park, Jae Beom; Yeom, Geun Young

2012-08-01

306

Charge Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Droplets  

PubMed Central

We propose and evaluate a new mechanism to account for analyte ion signal enhancement in ultraviolet-laser desorption mass spectrometry of droplets in the presence of corona ions. Our new insights are based on timing control of corona ion production, laser desorption, and peptide ion extraction achieved by a novel pulsed corona apparatus. We demonstrate that droplet charging rather than gas-phase ion-neutral reactions is the major contributor to analyte ion generation from an electrically isolated droplet. Implications of the new mechanism, termed charge assisted laser desorption/ionization (CALDI), are discussed and contrasted to those of the laser desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization method (LD-APCI). It is also demonstrated that analyte ion generation in CALDI occurs with external electric fields about one order of magnitude lower than those needed for atmospheric pressure matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization or electrospray ionization of droplets.

Jorabchi, Kaveh; Westphall, Michael S.; Smith, Lloyd M.

2008-01-01

307

Self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A simple renormalization theory of plasma particle interactions is proposed. It primarily stems from generic properties of equilibrium distribution functions and allows one to obtain the so-called generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation for an effective interaction potential of two chosen particles in the presence of a third one. The same equation is then strictly derived from the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy for equilibrium distribution functions in the pair correlation approximation. This enables one to construct a self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas, correctly accounting for the close interrelation of charged and neutral components thereof. Minimization of the system free energy provides ionization equilibrium and, thus, permits one to study the plasma composition in a wide range of its parameters. Unlike standard chemical models, the proposed one allows one to study the system correlation functions and thereby to obtain an equation of state which agrees well with exact results of quantum-mechanical activity expansions. It is shown that the plasma and neutral components are strongly interrelated, which results in the short-range order formation in the corresponding subsystem. The mathematical form of the results obtained enables one to both firmly establish this fact and to determine a characteristic length of the structure formation. Since the cornerstone of the proposed self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas is an effective pairwise interaction potential, it immediately provides quite an efficient calculation scheme not only for thermodynamical functions but for transport coefficients as well.

Arkhipov, Yu. V.; Baimbetov, F. B.; Davletov, A. E. [Department of Physics, Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96, Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan)

2011-01-15

308

Self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas.  

PubMed

A simple renormalization theory of plasma particle interactions is proposed. It primarily stems from generic properties of equilibrium distribution functions and allows one to obtain the so-called generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation for an effective interaction potential of two chosen particles in the presence of a third one. The same equation is then strictly derived from the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy for equilibrium distribution functions in the pair correlation approximation. This enables one to construct a self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas, correctly accounting for the close interrelation of charged and neutral components thereof. Minimization of the system free energy provides ionization equilibrium and, thus, permits one to study the plasma composition in a wide range of its parameters. Unlike standard chemical models, the proposed one allows one to study the system correlation functions and thereby to obtain an equation of state which agrees well with exact results of quantum-mechanical activity expansions. It is shown that the plasma and neutral components are strongly interrelated, which results in the short-range order formation in the corresponding subsystem. The mathematical form of the results obtained enables one to both firmly establish this fact and to determine a characteristic length of the structure formation. Since the cornerstone of the proposed self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas is an effective pairwise interaction potential, it immediately provides quite an efficient calculation scheme not only for thermodynamical functions but for transport coefficients as well. PMID:21405782

Arkhipov, Yu V; Baimbetov, F B; Davletov, A E

2011-01-21

309

Radiative ion-ion neutralization: a new gas-phase atmospheric pressure ion transduction mechanism.  

PubMed

All atmospheric pressure ion detectors, including photo ionization detectors, flame ionization detectors, electron capture detectors, and ion mobility spectrometers, utilize Faraday plate designs in which ionic charge is collected and amplified. The sensitivity of these Faraday plate ion detectors are limited by thermal (Johnson) noise in the associated electronics. Thus approximately 10(6) ions per second are required for a minimal detection. This is not the case for ion detection under vacuum conditions where secondary electron multipliers (SEMs) can be used. SEMs produce a cascade of approximately 10(6) electrons per ion impinging on the conversion dynode. Similarly, photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) can generate approximately 10(6) electrons per photon. Unlike SEMs, however, PMTs are evacuated and sealed so that they are commonly used under atmospheric pressure conditions. This paper describes an atmospheric pressure ion detector based on coupling a PMT with light emitted from ion-ion neutralization reactions. The normal Faraday plate collector electrode was replaced with an electrode "needle" used to concentrate the anions as they were drawn to the tip of the needle by a strong focusing electric field. Light was emitted near the surface of the electrode when analyte ions were neutralized with cations produced from the anode. Although radiative-ion-ion recombination has been previously reported, this is the first time ions from separate ionization sources have been combined to produce light. The light from this radiative-ion-ion-neutralization (RIIN) was detected using a photon multiplier such that an ion mobility spectrum was obtained by monitoring the light emitted from mobility separated ions. An IMS spectrum of nitroglycerin (NG) was obtained utilizing RIIN for tranducing the mobility separated ions into an analytical signal. The implications of this novel ion transduction method are the potential for counting ions at atmospheric pressure and for obtaining ion specific emission spectra for mobility separated ions. PMID:22548633

Davis, Eric J; Siems, William F; Hill, Herbert H

2012-05-11

310

Study of atmospheric pressure Capillary Plasma Electrode Discharge (CPED)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure plasmas, like dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) or coronas, have long been used for a variety of industrial applications. Capillary Plasma Electrode Discharge (CPED) developed at Stevens Institute of Technology is a novel atmospheric pressure type discharge with a major potential for applications in surface cleaning, sterilization and VOC destruction. Capillary discharge is more stable, provides higher electron densities

Lukasz Moskwinski

2009-01-01

311

Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is

Tonie M. vanDam; Geoffrey Blewitt; Michael B. Heflin

1994-01-01

312

Simulation of a helium\\/oxygen atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) has attracted a great deal of attention recently because its atmospheric pressure operation minimize the need for high cost vacuum system and thus allows a wide range of applications, e.g., surface modification, thin film synthesis, and bio-medical treatments, etc., at low cost. Although experimental works have been demonstrated extensively, along with numerical simulation using global

P.-W. Yu; F.-W. Gu; K.-C. Leou; M.-W. Wu; C.-F. Ai

2010-01-01

313

Investigation of Helium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet by Schlieren Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical schlieren system was used to visualize he- lium gas flow in ambient. Simultaneous photographing of gas flows and plasma plumes helps to reveal more details of atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Index Terms—Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), schlieren photography.

Nan Jiang; Jinglong Yang; Feng He; Zexian Cao

2011-01-01

314

Spectral diagnosis of plasma jet at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to surface modification of materials using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet at atmospheric pressure is presented in this paper. The emission spectral lines of argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure were recorded by the grating spectrograph HR2000 and computer software. The argon plasma emission spectra, whose range is from 300nm to 1000nm, were measured at different

X. L. Tang; G. Qiu; C. Li; X. P. Wang; X. P. Feng

2009-01-01

315

Tooth bleaching with nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma.  

PubMed

We demonstrated that room temperature plasma could be used for tooth bleaching. A nonthermal, atmospheric pressure, helium plasma jet device was developed to enhance the tooth bleaching effect of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). All teeth were sectioned sagittally into halves, which were assigned randomly to either the experimental group or the control group. The experimental group was treated with H(2)O(2) (28%, 20 microL every 30 seconds) plus plasma (5 W) for 10 minutes; the control group was treated with H(2)O(2) alone for the same duration. Removal of the tooth surface protein was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy images and Ponceau staining. Production of hydroxyl radicals (.OH) was measured by using electron spin resonance spin-trapping. Combining plasma and H(2)O(2) improved the bleaching efficacy by a factor of 3 compared with using H(2)O(2) alone. Tooth surface proteins were noticeably removed by plasma treatment. When a piece of tooth was added to a solution of H(2)O(2) as a catalyst, production of *OH after plasma treatment was 1.9 times greater than when using H(2)O(2) alone. We suggest that the improvement in tooth bleaching induced by plasma is due to the removal of tooth surface proteins and to increased *OH production. PMID:19345811

Lee, Hyun Woo; Kim, Gon Jun; Kim, Jae Moon; Park, Jeong Kil; Lee, Jae Koo; Kim, Gyoo Cheon

2009-04-01

316

Chaos in atmospheric-pressure plasma jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report detailed characterization of a low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma jet that exhibits regimes of periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic behaviors. Power spectra, phase portraits, stroboscopic section and bifurcation diagram of the discharge current combine to comprehensively demonstrate the existence of chaos, and this evidence is strengthened with a nonlinear dynamics analysis using two control parameters that maps out periodic, period-multiplication, and chaotic regimes over a wide range of the input voltage and gas flow rate. In addition, optical emission signatures of excited plasma species are used as the second and independent observable to demonstrate the presence of chaos and period-doubling in both the concentrations and composition of plasma species, suggesting a similar array of periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic regimes in plasma chemistry. The presence of quasi-periodic and chaotic regimes in structurally unbounded low-temperature atmospheric plasmas not only is important as a fundamental scientific topic but also has interesting implications for their numerous applications. Chaos may be undesirable for industrial applications where cycle-to-cycle reproducibility is important, yet for treatment of cell-containing materials including living tissues it may offer a novel route to combat some of the major challenges in medicine such as drug resistance. Chaos in low-temperature atmospheric plasmas and its effective control are likely to open up new vistas for medical technologies.

Walsh, J. L.; Iza, F.; Janson, N. B.; Kong, M. G.

2012-06-01

317

Dynamics behavior of homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study on the dynamics behavior of homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge (HDBD) at atmospheric pressure is described in this paper. Two kinds of discharge mode, glow and Townsend discharge modes, can be easily identified according to the differential conductivity of current-voltage relationship in the ascent stage of discharge current for the atmospheric HDBD. A (three-dimensional) 3D phase space made by discharge current, gas gap voltage, and charge density of dielectric-plate surface was utilized in the study. By projecting the discharge evolution trajectory in the 3D space, the 3D trajectory of multiple current peaks discharge in atmospheric helium shows a limited cycle with convolutions and undergoes a series of bifurcation process; however, the 3D trajectory of atmospheric N{sub 2} HDBD is a limited cycle without any convolution and bifurcation process. In addition, the first ionization coefficient of working gas plays a key role to determine the discharge mode of atmospheric HDBD, the transition of discharge mode and the dynamics stability of atmospheric HDBD.

Zhang Yan [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Henan 454000 (China); Gu Biao [State Key Laboratory for Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang Wenchun; Wang Dezhen; Peng Xuwen [State Key Laboratory for Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2009-07-15

318

Comparison of direct and alternating current vacuum ultraviolet lamps in atmospheric pressure photoionization.  

PubMed

A direct current induced vacuum ultraviolet (dc-VUV) krypton discharge lamp and an alternating current, radio frequency (rf) induced VUV lamp that are essentially similar to lamps in commercial atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) ion sources were compared. The emission distributions along the diameter of the lamp exit window were measured, and they showed that the beam of the rf lamp is much wider than that of the dc lamp. Thus, the rf lamp has larger efficient ionization area, and it also emits more photons than the dc lamp. The ionization efficiencies of the lamps were compared using identical spray geometries with both lamps in microchip APPI mass spectrometry (?APPI-MS) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS). A comprehensive view on the ionization was gained by studying six different ?APPI solvent compositions, five DAPPI spray solvents, and completely solvent-free DAPPI. The observed reactant ions for each solvent composition were very similar with both lamps except for toluene, which showed a higher amount of solvent originating oxidation products with the rf lamp than with the dc lamp in ?APPI. Moreover, the same analyte ions were detected with both lamps, and thus, the ionization mechanisms with both lamps are similar. The rf lamp showed a higher ionization efficiency than the dc lamp in all experiments. The difference between the lamp ionization efficiencies was greatest when high ionization energy (IE) solvent compositions (IEs above 10 eV), i.e., hexane, methanol, and methanol/water, (1:1 v:v) were used. The higher ionization efficiency of the rf lamp is likely due to the larger area of high intensity light emission, and the resulting larger efficient ionization area and higher amount of photons emitted. These result in higher solvent reactant ion production, which in turn enables more efficient analyte ion production. PMID:22229729

Vaikkinen, Anu; Haapala, Markus; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten; Kostiainen, Risto; Kauppila, Tiina J

2012-01-23

319

Application of computer pattern recognition to metal ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first application of computer pattern recognition to the analysis of low pressure transition metal ion chemical ionization (MICI) data is described. The data have been collected using a conventional ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometer and a Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS) equipped with laser ionization sources. Chemical ionization data for organic compounds of several classes with various transition

1986-01-01

320

Cold plasma brush generated at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

A cold plasma brush is generated at atmospheric pressure with low power consumption in the level of several watts (as low as 4 W) up to tens of watts (up to 45 W). The plasma can be ignited and sustained in both continuous and pulsed modes with different plasma gases such as argon or helium, but argon was selected as a primary gas for use in this work. The brush-shaped plasma is formed and extended outside of the discharge chamber with typical dimension of 10-15 mm in width and less than 1.0 mm in thickness, which are adjustable by changing the discharge chamber design and operating conditions. The brush-shaped plasma provides some unique features and distinct nonequilibrium plasma characteristics. Temperature measurements using a thermocouple thermometer showed that the gas phase temperatures of the plasma brush are close to room temperature (as low as 42 deg. C) when running with a relatively high gas flow rate of about 3500 ml/min. For an argon plasma brush, the operating voltage from less than 500 V to about 2500 V was tested, with an argon gas flow rate varied from less than 1000 to 3500 ml/min. The cold plasma brush can most efficiently use the discharge power as well as the plasma gas for material and surface treatment. The very low power consumption of such an atmospheric argon plasma brush provides many unique advantages in practical applications including battery-powered operation and use in large-scale applications. Several polymer film samples were tested for surface treatment with the newly developed device, and successful changes of the wettability property from hydrophobic to hydrophilic were achieved within a few seconds.

Duan Yixiang; Huang, C.; Yu, Q. S. [C-CSE, MS K484, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Surface Science and Plasma Technology, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

2007-01-15

321

Comparison of amino acid sequence analysis by electron ionization and negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The positive electron ionization and negative chemical ionization mass spectra of 15 different derivatives of the tripeptide Phe-Ala-Leu have been compared. Total ion currents and ion currents of sequence-characterizing ions have been measured and compared. The negative-ion spectra, using 10% carbon dioxide in argon as moderator gas, proved to be simpler and contained more abundant sequence ions than the positive electron ionization spectra. PMID:2520233

Reinhard, H; Lauber, R; Schlunegger, U P

1989-04-01

322

Elucidation of the complex molecular structure of wheat straw lignin polymer by atmospheric pressure photoionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Wheat straw lignin was extracted using the novel CIMV procedure which selectively separates the cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Solid-state (13)C NMR experiments using cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) were carried out on the extracted wheat straw lignin and some structural indices were revealed. Atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry (APPI-MS) has proven to be a powerful analytical tool capable of ionizing small to large lignin oligomers, which cannot be ionized efficiently by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray ionization (ESI). The APPI mass spectra of the extracted wheat straw lignin were recorded in the positive and negative ion modes. Positive ion mode APPI-MS indicated the exact presence of 39 specific oligomeric ions. Negative ion APPI-MS indicated the additional presence of at least 18 specific oligomeric ions. The structural characterization of this novel and complete series of 57 specific related oligomers was achieved by calculating the exact molecular masses measured by high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QqToF-MS). Some oligomeric species photoionized in both the positive and negative ion modes to form the respective protonated and deprotonated molecules. Low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometric analyses performed with a QqToF-MS/MS hybrid instrument provided unique dissociation patterns of the complete series of novel precursor ions. These MS/MS analyses provided diagnostic product ions, which enabled us to determine the exact molecular structures and arrangement of the selected 57 different related ionic species. PMID:17663498

Banoub, Joseph H; Benjelloun-Mlayah, Bouchra; Ziarelli, Fabio; Joly, Nicolas; Delmas, Michel

2007-01-01

323

Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometric Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) is a versatile, fast and sensitive method for the detection of atmospheric trace gases, which play key roles in atmospheric chemistry and climate. A combination of different types of mass spectrometers, ion sources and inlet configurations are deployed by IPA. Sophisticated calibration techniques and in-flight calibration systems are developed to ensure high data quality. The CIMS instruments are employed preferably on research aircraft; in addition, observations are performed on ships, ground based sites and in laboratory scenarios including atmospheric chambers.

Aufmhoff, Heinfried; Schäuble, Dominik; Roiger, Anke; Arnold, Frank; Jurkat, Tina; Voigt, Christiane; Schlager, Hans

324

Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas for Decontamination of Complex Medical Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure plasma sources produce a multiplicity of different antimicrobial agents and are applicable to even complicated geometries as well as to heat sensitive materials. Thus, atmospheric pressure plasmas have a huge potential for the decontamination of even complex medical devices like central venous catheters and endoscopes. In this paper we present practicable realizations of atmospheric pressure plasma sources, namely plasma jet, dielectric barrier discharge and microwave driven discharge that are able to penetrate fine lumen or are adaptable to difficult geometries. Furthermore, the antimicrobial efficacy of these sources is given for one example setup in each case.

Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Winter, Jörn; Polak, Martin; Ehlbeck, Jörg; von Woedtke, Thomas

325

A pulsed triple ionization source for sequential ion\\/ion reactions in an electrodynamic ion trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pulsed triple ionization source, using a common atmosphere\\/vacuum interface and ion path, has been developed to generate\\u000a different types of ions for sequential ion\\/ion reaction experiments in a linear ion trap-based tandem mass spectrometer. The\\u000a triple ionization source typically consists of a nano-electrospray emitter for analyte formation and two other emitters, an\\u000a electrospray emitter and an atmospheric pressure chemical

Xiaorong Liang; Hongling Han; Yu Xia; Scott A. McLuckey

2007-01-01

326

Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this work is to demonstrate a practical, atmospheric pressure plasma tool for the surface decontamination of heavy metal waste. Decontamination of radioactive materials that have accumulated on the surfaces of equipment and structures is ...

R. F. Hicks H. W. Hermann

2004-01-01

327

Analysis of Sterilization Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Pulsed Plasma  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new technology, the High Voltage Atmospheric Pressure Pulsed Plasma (HVAPPP), for bacteria killing. The aim of this paper is to present a simple device to generate plasma able to kill efficiently bacteria.

Ekem, N.; Akan, T.; Pat, S. [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Physics department, Eskisehir (Turkey); Akgun, Y.; Kiremitci, A. [Eskisehir Osmangazi University Microbiology department, Eskisehir (Turkey); Musa, G. [National Institute for Laser Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania)

2007-04-23

328

Streamer-Like Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (Postprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The properties of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) are examined in a single-cell dielectric capillary configuration. In contrast to some other flow-driven APPJs, this stable, cold plasma jet is electrically driven, composed of rapidly propagating...

B. L. Sands B. N. Ganguly K. Tachibana

2008-01-01

329

The chemical composition of ionized gas in galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active star formation in galaxies takes place in HII regions harbouring young massive stars within an extended ionized gaseous component. Their relative structural simplicity andcharacteristic emission line spectrum make them ideal laboratories to study the physical properties and chemical composition of gas and stars in galaxies. Chemical abundancescan be derived for Galactic and relatively nearby extragalactic HII regions, as well as for distant galaxies, applying different techniques. In this talk an overview of the derivation of chemical abundances for HII regions in galaxies is presented, with an emphasis on the different domains of spatial resolution covered by the data, from spatially resolved integral field spectra of HII regions in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies to integrated spectra of more distant galaxies.With the upcome of the new integral field spectrographs a wide coverage at good spatial sampling of galaxies and HII complexes is now possible. This new 2D spectroscopy provides us more realistic information and useful constrains to study the chemical enrichment process of the interstellar medium and some of the fundamental relations governing galaxy evolution.

Vilchez, J. M.

2011-11-01

330

The atmospheric-pressure plasma jet: A review and comparison to other plasma sources  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric-pressure plasmas are used in a variety of materials processes. Traditional sources include transferred arcs, plasma torches, corona discharges, and dielectric barrier discharges. In arcs and torches, the electron and neutral temperatures exceed 3000 C and the densities of charge species range from 10{sup 16}--10{sup 19} cm{sup {minus}3}. Due to the high gas temperature, these plasmas are used primarily in metallurgy. Corona and dielectric barrier discharges produce nonequilibrium plasmas with gas temperatures between 50--400 C and densities of charged species typical of weakly ionized gases. However, since these discharges are nonuniform, their use in materials processing is limited. Recently, an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet has been developed, which exhibits many characteristics of a conventional low-pressure glow discharge. In the jet, the gas temperature ranges from 25--200 C., charged-particle densities are 10{sup 11}--10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}3}, and reactive species are present in high concentrations, i.e., 10--100 ppm. Since this source may be scaled to treat large areas, it could be used in applications which have been restricted to vacuum. In this paper, the physics and chemistry of the plasma jet and other atmospheric-pressure sources are reviewed.

Schuetz, A.; Jeong, J.Y.; Babayan, S.E.; Hicks, R.F. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of chemical Engineering; Park, J.; Selwyn, G.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-12-01

331

Atmospheric pressure microwave torch for synthesis of carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microwave (mw) plasma torch at atmospheric pressure has been studied for carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis. The depositions were carried out on silicon substrates with 5 15 nm thin iron catalytic overlayers from the mixture of argon, hydrogen and methane. The optical emission spectroscopy of the torch showed the presence of C2 and CH radicals as well as carbon and hydrogen excited atoms. The vicinity of the substrate influenced the relative intensities and increased the emission of C2. For fixed mw power, the temperature of the substrate strongly depended on its position with respect to the nozzle electrode and on the gas mixture, particularly the amount of H2. The speed of the substrate heating during an early deposition phase had a significant effect on the CNT synthesis. An abrupt increase of the temperature at the beginning increased the efficiency of the CNT synthesis. Areas of dense straight standing CNTs, 30 nm in average diameter, with approximately the same sized iron nanoparticles on their tops were found in accordance with the model of growth by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. However, the deposit was not uniform and a place with only several nanometres thick CNTs grown on much larger iron particles was also found. Here, taking into account the gas temperature in the torch, 3100 3900 K, we can see similarities with the 'dissolution precipitation' model of the CNT growth by high temperature methods, arc or laser ablation.

Zajícková, L.; Eliás, M.; Jasek, O.; Kudrle, V.; Frgala, Z.; Matejková, J.; Bursík, J.; Kadlecíková, M.

2005-12-01

332

Analysis of Ternary InGaN Layers Grown By Atmospheric Pressure Vertical MOVPE  

SciTech Connect

We present a study on the n-type ternary InGaN layers grown by atmospheric pressure vertical metal organic chemical vapor deposition on GaN template/(0001) sapphire substrate. An investigation in the different growth conditions on n-type of the InxGa1-xN, alloys was made for three series samples. Structural, electrical and optical properties were characterized by High X-Ray Diffraction, Hall effect and Photoluminescence respectively.

Yildiz, A.; Ozturk, M. K.; Kasap, M. [Department of Physics, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

2007-04-23

333

Identification of volatile and semivolatile compounds in chemical ionization GC-MS using a mass-to-structure (MTS) Search Engine with integral isotope pattern ranking.  

PubMed

The mass-to-structure or MTS Search Engine is an Access 2010 database containing theoretical molecular mass information for 19,438 compounds assembled from common sources such as the Merck Index, pesticide and pharmaceutical compilations, and chemical catalogues. This database, which contains no experimental mass spectral data, was developed as an aid to identification of compounds in atmospheric pressure ionization (API)-LC-MS. This paper describes a powerful upgrade to this database, a fully integrated utility for filtering or ranking candidates based on isotope ratios and patterns. The new MTS Search Engine is applied here to the identification of volatile and semivolatile compounds including pesticides, nitrosoamines and other pollutants. Methane and isobutane chemical ionization (CI) GC-MS spectra were obtained from unit mass resolution mass spectrometers to determine MH(+) masses and isotope ratios. Isotopes were measured accurately with errors of <4% and <6%, respectively, for A + 1 and A + 2 peaks. Deconvolution of interfering isotope clusters (e.g., M(+) and [M - H](+)) was required for accurate determination of the A + 1 isotope in halogenated compounds. Integrating the isotope data greatly improved the speed and accuracy of the database identifications. The database accurately identified unknowns from isobutane CI spectra in 100% of cases where as many as 40 candidates satisfied the mass tolerance. The paper describes the development and basic operation of the new MTS Search Engine and details performance testing with over 50 model compounds. PMID:23248816

Liao, Wenta; Draper, William M

2013-02-21

334

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ) and Dielectric Barrier Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge (DB-APGD) in Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work two prominent types of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma sources are compared. First, a plane-parallel 13.56 MHz RF-excited atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) operated with 2 m3\\/h helium feed gas containing 0.5 % molecular oxygen is investigated. Its stainless steel electrodes' area measures 8 x 4 cm2 and the discharge gap is 1.1 mm. The effluent leaving

S. Reuter; V. Schulz-von der Gathen; H. F. Döbele

2007-01-01

335

Quantification of hydroxyacetone and glycolaldehyde using chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) enables online, fast, in situ detection and quantification of hydroxyacetone and glycolaldehyde. Two different CIMS approaches are demonstrated employing the strengths of single quadrupole mass spectrometry and triple quadrupole (tandem) mass spectrometry. Both methods are capable of the measurement of hydroxyacetone, an analyte with minimal isobaric interferences. Tandem mass spectrometry provides direct separation of the isobaric compounds glycolaldehyde and acetic acid using distinct, collision-induced dissociation daughter ions. Measurement of hydroxyacetone and glycolaldehyde by these methods was demonstrated during the ARCTAS-CARB 2008 campaign and the BEARPEX 2009 campaign. Enhancement ratios of these compounds in ambient biomass burning plumes are reported for the ARCTAS-CARB campaign. BEARPEX observations are compared to simple photochemical box model predictions of biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation at the site.

Spencer, K. M.; Beaver, M. R.; St. Clair, J. M.; Crounse, J. D.; Paulot, F.; Wennberg, P. O.

2011-08-01

336

Film deposition on the inner surface of tubes using atmospheric-pressure Ar-CH4, Ar-C2H2 and Ar-C2H2-H2 plasmas: interpretation of film properties from plasma-chemical kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hard hydrocarbon film is deposited on the inner surface of glass tubes using a filamentary discharge at atmospheric pressure in Ar-C2H2-H2 and Ar-CH4 mixtures. Under similar conditions, a soft film is deposited with a high deposition rate in an Ar-C2H2 mixture. These differences in film hardness and deposition rate are interpreted on the basis of carbon and hydrogen elemental composition in the plasma. The deposition rate is varied along the axis of the tubes in the Ar-C2H2-H2 plasma. This can be controlled by controlling the substrate (tube) temperature. Chemical erosion of the deposited film by hydrogen atoms is the probable reason for this effect. The plasma conditions (gas temperature, electron distribution function and electron density) are characterized by applying optical emission spectroscopy (OES), microphotography and numerical simulation for all three gas mixtures. The density of hydrogen atoms in the inter-electrode region of the tube is determined by applying OES in all gas mixtures. The rates of precursor molecule excitation and follow-up plasma-chemical reactions are calculated on the basis of the determined plasma parameters. Correlations between plasma conditions and film properties are discussed.

Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Engelhardt, Max; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

2012-08-01

337

Matrix assisted ionization in vacuum, a sensitive and widely applicable ionization method for mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An astonishingly simple new method to produce gas-phase ions of small molecules as well as proteins from the solid state under cold vacuum conditions is described. This matrix assisted ionization vacuum (MAIV) mass spectrometry (MS) method produces multiply charged ions similar to those that typify electrospray ionization (ESI) and uses sample preparation methods that are nearly identical to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Unlike these established methods, MAIV does not require a laser or voltage for ionization, and unlike the recently introduced matrix assisted ionization inlet method, does not require added heat. MAIV-MS requires only introduction of a crystalline mixture of the analyte incorporated with a suitable small molecule matrix compound such as 3-nitrobenzonitrile directly to the vacuum of the mass spectrometer. Vacuum intermediate pressure MALDI sources and modified ESI sources successfully produce ions for analysis by MS with this method. As in ESI-MS, ion formation is continuous and, without a laser, little chemical background is observed. MAIV, operating from a surface offers the possibility of significantly improved sensitivity relative to atmospheric pressure ionization because ions are produced in the vacuum region of the mass spectrometer eliminating losses associated with ion transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum. Mechanistic aspects and potential applications for this new ionization method are discussed. PMID:23526166

Trimpin, Sarah; Inutan, Ellen D

2013-03-23

338

Free radicals induced in aqueous solution by non-contact atmospheric-pressure cold plasma  

SciTech Connect

To understand plasma-induced chemical processing in liquids, we investigated the formation of free radicals in aqueous solution exposed to different types of non-contact atmospheric-pressure helium plasma using the spin-trapping technique. Both hydroxyl radical (OH{center_dot}) and superoxide anion radical (O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot}) adducts were observed when neutral oxygen gas was additionally supplied to the plasma. In particular, O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot} can be dominantly induced in the solution via oxygen flow into the afterglow gas of helium plasma. This type of plasma treatment can potentially be used in medical applications to control infectious diseases, because the O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot} is crucial for sterilization of liquids via atmospheric-pressure plasma.

Tani, Atsushi; Fukui, Satoshi [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ono, Yusuke; Kitano, Katsuhisa [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ikawa, Satoshi [Technology Research Institute of Osaka Prefecture, Izumi, Osaka 594-1157 (Japan)

2012-06-18

339

Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 ?l took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to < 1 s in the untreated samples. The plasma modified samples showed water contact angle of around 134°. Both top and bottom sides of the fabric showed similar hydrophobic results in terms of water absorbency and contact angle. The results may be attributed to chemical reaction of butadiene with the cellulosic textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under <100 nm. The results showed that atmospheric pressure plasma can be successfully used for carrying out reaction of 1,3-butadiene with cellulosic textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

Samanta, Kartick K.; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K.

2010-02-01

340

Chemical aspects of the extractive methods of ambient ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Ambient ionization techniques allow complex chemical samples to be analyzed in their native state with minimal sample preparation. This brings the obvious advantages of simplicity, speed, and versatility to mass spectrometry: Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), for example, is used in chemical imaging for tumor margin diagnosis. This review on the extractive methods of ambient ionization focuses on chemical aspects, mechanistic considerations, and the accelerated chemical reactions occurring in charged liquid droplets generated in the spray process. DESI uses high-velocity solvent droplets to extract analytes from surfaces. Nano-DESI employs liquid microjunctions for analyte dissolution, whereas paper-spray ionization uses DC potentials applied to wet porous material such as paper or biological tissue to field emit charged analyte-containing solvent droplets. These methods also operate in a reactive mode in which added reagents allow derivatization during ionization. The accelerated reaction rates seen in charged microdroplets are useful in small-scale rapid chemical synthesis. PMID:23331308

Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Eberlin, Livia S; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

2013-01-16

341

Free-floating atmospheric pressure ball plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-lived (0.3 second, 10-20 cm diameter) ball plasma floating in the air above a water surface has been formed and studied in the laboratory. A 0.4 - 1 mF capacitor is charged to 4-5 kV, and subsequently discharged (30-60 Amps, 20-50 msec duration) into central copper cathode held fixed just below the surface of a bucket of water (with a weak solution of various salts in distilled water, such as CuSO4 or CuCl2, LiCl or NaCl). An underwater ring anode completes the circuit. A bubble of hot vapor from the water surface rises up in the first few milliseconds, and changes from a mushroom cloud with stalk, to a detached quasi-spherical object, finally evolving into a vortex ring. The plasma consists of ionized water vapor, with positive salts and OH- radicals, as well as molecular species, and it completely excludes nitrogen or oxygen from the rising plasma structure. A fine boundary layer is visible in orange, in contrast to a green ball interior when using Cu/CuSO4, and filamentary structures are visible at late times. Finally, a whisp of smoke ring is observed as a residue. A variety of visible and infrared imaging (both video and still cameras) are used, along with 200-800 nm time & space resolved spectroscopy, to identify features of this laboratory analog to ball lightning. Possible applications include a windowless ball- plasma powered pulsed copper vapor laser operating at 510 nm.

Wurden, G. A.; Ticos, C.; Wang, Z.; Wurden, C. J. V.

2007-11-01

342

[Characterization of an atmospheric pressure DC microplasma jet].  

PubMed

In the present work, a simply designed and easy made micrometer plasma jet device operating under atmospheric pressure was characterized. The microplasma jet operates in many kinds of working gas at atmospheric pressure, such as Ar, He, N2 etc, and is powered by a direct current power source. It can generate high current density glow discharge. In order to identify various excited species generated by the direct current microplasma jet device, the optical emission spectra of the jet with argon or nitrogen as working gas were studied. Based on the optical emission spectroscopy analysis of argon microplasma jet, the electron excitation temperature was determined to be about 3 000 K by the intensity ratio of two spectral lines. It is much lower than the electron excitation temperature of atmospheric pressure plasma torch, and hints that the atmospheric pressure direct current microplasma jet is cold compared with the atmospheric pressure plasma torch. The emission spectra of the N2 second positive band system were used to determine the vibrational temperature of the atmospheric pressure direct current microplasma jet. The experimental result shows that the molecular vibrational temperature of N2 is about 2 500 K. The electron density of the microplasma jet is about 10(13) cm(-3), which can be estimated from the electrical parameters of the discharge in the microplasma jet. A simple example of application of the microplasma jet is given. General print paper surface was modified with the microplasma jet and afterwards a droplet test was carried out. It was shown that the microplasma jet is more efficient in changing the hydrophilicity of general print paper. PMID:19445187

Zheng, Pei-Chao; Wang, Hong-Mei; Li, Jian-Quan; Han, Hai-Yan; Xu, Guo-Hua; Shen, Cheng-Yin; Chu, Yan-Nan

2009-02-01

343

RF-powered atmospheric pressure plasma jet for surface treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was developed for decontamination purposes. Features of the device are ability to work with various feed-gases at the atmospheric pressure in several gas-flow, frequency and current-voltage regimes. LabVIEW virtual measurement sub-system for monitoring and measurement process through subsequent setting of electrical and gas-flow parameters (digital control of flow-meters), conditioning and amplification of electrical signals and collection of the data from peripheral measuring devices was applied. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

Paw?at, Joanna; Samo?, Rados?aw; Stryczewska, Henryka D.; Diatczyk, Jaros?aw; Gi?ewski, Tomasz

2013-02-01

344

Long term properties of monthly atmospheric pressure fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess the statistical properties of atmospheric pressure time series retrieved from a large database of monthly records. We analyze the short and long term properties of the time series including possible trends, persistence and antipersistence. We also analyze times series of climatic indices which are based on the atmospheric pressure fields, such as the North Atlantic oscillation index and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation index. Acknowledgment: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided financial support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

Giannoulis, S.; Ioannou, C.; Karantinos, E.; Malatesta, L.; Theodoropoulos, G.; Tsekouras, G.; Venediki, A.; Dimitriadis, P.; Papalexiou, S. M.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

2012-04-01

345

Atmospheric pressure photoionization using tunable VUV synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the first coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source with a synchrotron radiation beamline in the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV). A commercial APPI source of a QStar Pulsar i from AB Sciex was modified to receive photons from the DISCO beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility. Photons are delivered at atmospheric pressure in the 4-20 eV range. The advantages of this new set up, termed SR-APPI, over classical APPI are spectral purity and continuous tunability. The technique may also be used to perform tunable photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile compounds difficult to vaporize by classical methods.

Giuliani, A.; Giorgetta, J.-L.; Ricaud, J.-P.; Jamme, F.; Rouam, V.; Wien, F.; Laprévote, O.; Réfrégiers, M.

2012-05-01

346

Development of compact ion gun under atmospheric pressure X-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly efficient and highly stable compact ion gun (less than 10 × 10 × 5 cm) operable under atmospheric pressure was developed for environmental measurements and materials technology applications. Soft X-ray ionization was used as an ion source. In this work, soft X-rays were generated from a beryllium/titanium target irradiated by 9 keV thermal electrons. For a nitrogen assist gas flow rate of 500 ml/min and an acceleration voltage of 3.9 kV, the highest average ion current was 1.34 nA and a current stability of ±6% over 10 min was obtained. A high frequency electric field was applied to the electrode in the X-ray ionization chamber in order to enhance the ion current. The ion current increased by a factor of 1.6 compared to the current in the absence of the high frequency electric field. The ion gun developed here was employed to deposit a silicon carbonitride (SiCN) film on silicon and copper substrates by using nitrogen ions and hexamethyldisilane under atmospheric pressure conditions. The deposition of a hydrogenated SiCO and SiCN mixture film was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Hana, Nurul; Tsutsui, Hidenori; Matsutani, Takaomi; Hosokawa, Yoshinori

2012-02-01

347

Novel applications of atmospheric pressure plasma on textile materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various applications of atmospheric pressure plasma are investigated in conjunction with polymeric materials including paper, polypropylene non-woven fabric, and cotton. The effect of plasma on bulk and surface properties is examined by treating both cellulosic pulp and prefabricated paper with various plasma-gas compositions. After treatment, pulp is processed into paper and the properties are compared. The method of pulp preparation is found to be more significant than the plasma, but differences in density, strength, and surface roughness are apparent for the pulp vs. paper plasma treatments. The plasma is also used to remove sizes of PVA and starch from poly/cotton and cotton fabric respectively. In both cases plasma successfully removes a significant amount of size, but complete size removal is not achieved. Subsequent washes (PVA) or scouring (cotton) to remove the size are less successful than a control, suggesting the plasma is crosslinking the size that is not etched away. However, at short durations in cold water using an oxygen plasma, slightly more PVA is removed than with a control. For the starch sized samples, plasma and scouring are never as successful at removing starch as a conventional enzyme, but plasma improves dyeability without need for scouring. Plasma is also used to graft chemicals to the surface of polypropylene and cotton fabric. HTCC, an antimicrobial is grafted to polypropylene with successful grafting indicated by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), dye tests, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Antimicrobial activity of the grafted samples is also characterized. 3ATAC, a vinyl monomer is also grafted to polypropylene and to cotton. Additives including Mohr's salt, potassium persulfate, and diacrylate are assessed to increase yield. Successful grafting of 3ATAC is confirmed by XPS and dye testing. A combination of all three additives is identified as optimum for maximizing graft yield.

Cornelius, Carrie Elizabeth

348

Tailoring non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas for healthcare technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-equilibrium plasmas operated at ambient atmospheric pressure are very efficient sources for energy transport through reactive neutral particles (radicals and metastables), charged particles (ions and electrons), UV radiation, and electro-magnetic fields. This includes the unique opportunity to deliver short-lived highly reactive species such as atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can initiate a wide range of reactions in biochemical systems, both therapeutic and toxic. The toxicological implications are not clear, e.g. potential risks through DNA damage. It is anticipated that interactions with biological systems will be governed through synergies between two or more species. Suitable optimized plasma sources are improbable through empirical investigations. Quantifying the power dissipation and energy transport mechanisms through the different interfaces from the plasma regime to ambient air, towards the liquid interface and associated impact on the biological system through a new regime of liquid chemistry initiated by the synergy of delivering multiple energy carrying species, is crucial. The major challenge to overcome the obstacles of quantifying energy transport and controlling power dissipation has been the severe lack of suitable plasma sources and diagnostic techniques. Diagnostics and simulations of this plasma regime are very challenging; the highly pronounced collision dominated plasma dynamics at very small dimensions requires extraordinary high resolution - simultaneously in space (microns) and time (picoseconds). Numerical simulations are equally challenging due to the inherent multi-scale character with very rapid electron collisions on the one extreme and the transport of chemically stable species characterizing completely different domains. This presentation will discuss our recent progress actively combining both advance optical diagnostics and multi-scale computer simulations.

Gans, Timo

2012-10-01

349

Experimental and modeling study of lean premixed atmospheric-pressure propane\\/O 2\\/N 2 flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

A better knowledge of the combustion chemistry in very lean flames is required to improve flame stability and control the presence of oxygenated species as final products. In this work, the chemical structure of lean premixed propane–oxygen–nitrogen flames stabilized on a flat flame burner at atmospheric pressure was determined experimentally. The species mole fraction profiles were also computed by the

Joffrey Biet; Jean-Louis Delfau; Abdoulaye Seydi; Christian Vovelle

2005-01-01

350

Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric (LC- ESI-MS) and Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric (DESI-MS) Identification of Chemical Warfare Agents in Consumer Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Terrorist use of chemical warfare agents could involve contamination of consumer products with chemical warfare agents or other toxic chemicals. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and desorption electrospray ioniza...

C. L. Chenier P. A. D'Agostino

2007-01-01

351

The evolution of atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma jets: jet current measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we report insights into the dynamics of atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma jets (APLTPJs). The plasma jet current was measured by a Pearson current monitor for different operating conditions. These jet current measurements confirmed a proposed photo-ionization model based on streamer theory. Our results are supported by intensified charged-couple device camera observations. It was found that a secondary discharge ignition, arising from the positive high-voltage electrode, causes the inhibition of plasma bullet propagation. Our observations also showed the existence of an ionization channel between the APLTPJ reactor and the plasma bullet. In addition, the maximum electron density along the plasma jet was estimated using Ohm's law, and an empirical relationship was derived between the plasma bullet velocity and the plasma bullet area.

Karakas, Erdinc; Arda Akman, Mehmet; Laroussi, Mounir

2012-06-01

352

Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization as a Powerful Tool for Large-Scale Lipidomic Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lipidomic studies often use liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) for separation, identification, and quantification. However, due to the wide structural diversity of lipids, the most apolar part of the lipidome is often detected with low sensitivity in ESI. Atmospheric pressure (APPI) can be an alternative ionization source since normal-phase solvents are known to enhance photoionization of these classes. In this paper, we intend to show the efficiency of APPI to identify different lipid classes, with a special interest on sphingolipids. In-source APPI fragmentation appears to be an added value for the structural analysis of lipids. It provides a detailed characterization of both the polar head and the non polar moiety of most lipid classes, and it makes possible the detection of all lipids in both polarities, which is not always possible with ESI.

Gaudin, Mathieu; Imbert, Laurent; Libong, Danielle; Chaminade, Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David; Laprévote, Olivier

2012-05-01

353

Efforts to improve detection sensitivity for capillary electrophoresis coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Electrospray ionization performs best with volatile buffers. However, generally the best separation performance for capillary electrophoresis (CE) is achieved with non-volatile buffers. Hyphenation of CE with mass spectrometry (MS) utilizing atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) enables use of a wider range of separation buffers without compromising detection sensitivity. As APPI is considered to be mass flow sensitive, the use of a larger inner diameter separation capillary (75 microm) allows larger volumes to be injected, without decreased separation performance, thus providing improved sensitivity (approx. a factor of 10), compared to the use of a 25 microm capillary. However, nebulizing gas flow and position of capillary tip in the sprayer have to be carefully optimized to prevent excessive band broadening. Further improvement in sensitivity (approx. a factor of 2) was obtained by decreasing the distance between the sprayer and ionization region, indicating that a specially designed CE/APPI-MS interface for low flow rates will be favourable. PMID:20391596

Axén, Jakob; Malmström, David; Axelsson, Bengt-Olof; Petersson, Patrik; Sjöberg, Per J R

2010-05-15

354

Surface Modification of Plasma Polymer Thin Films for DNA Fixation by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on plasma polymer thin films was investigated to control the immobilization of DNA alignment. The amine groups of aminopropyltriethoxysilane have been generally used for the fixation of DNA on the substrate. However, it is easily influenced by humidity, and so it is hard to control precisely the formation of the self-assembled monolayer. The plasma polymer thin films with the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment are expected to be hardly influenced by humidity. Moreover, the densities of the amine groups are expected to be controlled by the treatment. In this work, organic and organic-inorganic hybrid plasma polymer thin films were formed on Si(100) by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using methylcyclohexane and tetraethylorthosilane (TEOS), and the amine groups were formed on the surfaces by N2 atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy showed that the amine groups were increased with the treatment. The surface densities of the amine groups were obtained from averaged extinction coefficients of UV--visible absorption spectra. DNA fixation was successfully performed with a tilting method for aligning well stretched DNAs on the surfaces, through optimization of the surface condition in the treatment.

Cho, Sang-Jin; Nam, Sang-Hun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Hong, Byungyou; Boo, Jin-Hyo

2012-08-01

355

Numerical and experimental investigation of light emissions of a planar nitrogen atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge due to addition of ammonia considering oxygen impurity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the mechanisms of light emissions, including NO-?, NO-? and N2-SPS, produced in a N2/NH3 atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge considering realistic oxygen impurity (30 ppm) are investigated numerically and experimentally. Self-consistent, one-dimensional fluid modeling is used to numerically simulate the discharge process with 48 species and 235 reaction channels. An optical emission spectrometer (OES) is used to measure the relative intensities of the light emission. The simulations of the light emission intensities for the above-mentioned OES lines generally reproduce the trends observed in the experiments caused by changes in the NH3 concentration. All of the predicted intensities of NO-?, NO-? and N2-SPS decrease with increasing amount of NH3 caused by various reaction mechanisms. The former is due to the loss of N2(A) and NO(A) by the reaction of NH3 with N2(A) and NO(A), respectively. The decrease in NO-? is due to the depletion of N and O because of NH3, and the decrease in N2-SPS is due to electron attachment to NH3 and a weaker metastable–metastable associative ionization of N2. All of the simulated results demonstrate that the discharges are typically Townsend-like because the ions outnumber the electrons and the electric field across the gap is distorted only slightly by the charged particles during the breakdown. Finally, a reduced chemical kinetics model for a planar atmospheric-pressure N2/O2/NH3 dielectric barrier discharge is proposed and validated by benchmarking against the above complete chemical kinetics. This results in a reduced chemical kinetics consisting of 33 species and 87 reactions with a very limited loss of accuracy of discharge properties, while it is 2.1 times faster in computational time as compared with the complete version.

Li, F.-L.; Hung, C.-T.; Lin, K.-M.; Wei, T.-C.; Wu, J.-S.

2013-12-01

356

Direct Analysis of Single Cells by Mass Spectrometry at Atmospheric Pressure  

PubMed Central

Analysis of biochemicals in single cells is important for understanding cell metabolism, cell cycle, adaptation, disease states, etc. Even the same cell types exhibit heterogeneous biochemical makeup depending on their physiological conditions and interactions with the environment. Conventional methods of mass spectrometry (MS) used for the analysis of biomolecules in single cells rely on extensive sample preparation. Removing the cells from their natural environment and extensive sample processing could lead to changes in the cellular composition. Ambient ionization methods enable the analysis of samples in their native environment and without extensive sample preparation.1 The techniques based on the mid infrared (mid-IR) laser ablation of biological materials at 2.94 ?m wavelength utilize the sudden excitation of water that results in phase explosion.2 Ambient ionization techniques based on mid-IR laser radiation, such as laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) and atmospheric pressure infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (AP IR-MALDI), have successfully demonstrated the ability to directly analyze water-rich tissues and biofluids at atmospheric pressure.3-11 In LAESI the mid-IR laser ablation plume that mostly consists of neutral particulate matter from the sample coalesces with highly charged electrospray droplets to produce ions. Recently, mid-IR ablation of single cells was performed by delivering the mid-IR radiation through an etched fiber. The plume generated from this ablation was postionized by an electrospray enabling the analysis of diverse metabolites in single cells by LAESI-MS.12 This article describes the detailed protocol for single cell analysis using LAESI-MS. The presented video demonstrates the analysis of a single epidermal cell from the skin of an Allium cepa bulb. The schematic of the system is shown in Figure 1. A representative example of single cell ablation and a LAESI mass spectrum from the cell are provided in Figure 2.

Shrestha, Bindesh; Vertes, Akos

2010-01-01

357

Effect of the atmospheric pressure on surface displacements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure variations with periods of some days and months can be considered as loading functions on the Earth's surface and can induce quasi-periodic surface deformations. The influence of such surface displacements is calculated by performing a convolution sum between the mass loading Green's functions and the local and regional barometric pressure data (geographically distribution in a 1° × 1°

H.-P. Sun; B. Ducarme; V. Dehant

1995-01-01

358

Alternating-current glow and pseudoglow discharges in atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilization and control of alternating-current glow and pseudoglow discharges have been studied in atmospheric pressure static air and methane flow gas by a pin-to-pin configuration. The electrode configuration and input power control the amplitude and duration of the discharge current and current pulses. Glow and pseudoglow discharges have been applied to the methane conversion.

Yun Yang

2003-01-01

359

Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency, electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

Rice, G.; D' Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

1985-04-05

360

Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

Rice, Gary (Gloucester, VA); D' Silva, Arthur P. (Ames, IA); Fassel, Velmer A. (Ames, IA)

1986-05-06

361

VUV emission from dielectric surface flashover at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopic measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) regime are difficult to make due to extremely large absorption of VUV radiation in most materials. This paper describes an experimental setup designed for studying the optical emission during pulsed surface flashover for the wavelength range between 115 nm to 180 nm at atmospheric pressures with a focus on the scheme used to

G. Rogers; A. Neuber; G. Laity; J. Dickens; K. Frank; T. Schramm

2009-01-01

362

Basalt vesicularity as a measure of atmospheric pressure and palaeoelevation  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE pressure in, and thus the size of, a bubble in a lava flow is determined by the atmospheric pressure and the hydrostatic pressure of the overlying lava. If atmospheric sea-level pressure is known (or assumed), vesicle size distributions in basalt flows can thus be used as an indicator of the palaeoelevation of emplacement1. Here we show by analysis of

Dork L. Sahagian; Joseph E. Maus

1994-01-01

363

Ice Shelf Elevation Changes due to Atmospheric Pressure Variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floating ice shelves undergo vertical motion as a result of the response of the underlying ocean to changes in atmospheric pressure (Pair). This response is known as the inverse barometer effect (IBE). Open-ocean measurements of Pair and sea level agree with the theoretical response of 1 cm per millibar for low frequency variability of Pair. Here we demonstrate, using simultaneous

L. Padman; M. King; H. A. Fricker

2002-01-01

364

Estimating atmospheric pressure loading regression coefficients from GPS observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loading exerted by atmospheric pressure on the surface of the Earth causes deformations, mainly in vertical direction. Consequently, these deformations are also subject to pressure variations. At present this effect is only modeled by a few research groups in the post-processing of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and global positioning system (GPS) observations. As the displacements may clearly exceed

Klaus Kaniuth; Sandra Vetter

2006-01-01

365

Correcting for Atmospheric Pressure Loading in GPS Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure loading effects are calculated for more than 70 worldwide IGS permanent GPS stations using the atmospheric surface pressure data given by the ECMWF on a grid of 1o by 1o. These loading effects are then compared to timeseries of height coordinates determined by different GPS processing centers. We found high correlations between the two time series, especially for

T. VanDam; M. Brondeel; A. De Wulf

2002-01-01

366

Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to develop a low-cost, environmentally benign technology for the decontamination and decommissioning of transuranic waste. This goal has been achieved with the invention of the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. This device s...

R. F. Hicks G. S. Selwyn

1999-01-01

367

Investigation on Spurt Length of Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three kinds of electrode configurations are employed for studying the spurt length of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs). The influences of Ar flow rate, applied voltage, and electrode width on APPJ length are investigated. It is found that, for all the electrode configurations, the maximal length of the APPJ is achieved at 3 L\\/min of flow rate. With the increase of

Xian-Jun Shao; Guan-Jun Zhang; Jiang-Yang Zhan; Hai-Bao Mu

2011-01-01

368

Three distinct modes in a cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold atmospheric pressure helium plasma jets are increasingly used in many processing applications, due to a distinct combination of their inherent plasma stability with excellent reaction chemistry often enhanced downstream. Despite their widespread usage, it remains largely unknown whether cold atmospheric plasma jets maintain similar characteristics from breakdown to arcing or whether they possess different operating modes. In addition to

J. L. Walsh; F. Iza; N. B. Janson; V. J. Law; M. G. Kong

2010-01-01

369

Development of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet with Slit Nozzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide flame atmospheric pressure plasma jet has been developed by using a slit nozzle for large area treatment of surfaces. The width of the plasma treated surfaces has been broadened to more than 5 times that obtained by conventional nozzle. The proper function of the slit nozzle towards surface treatment is confirmed by evaluating contact angles of water on

Nobuaki Oshima; Ryuji Takada; Yusuke Kubota; Petros Abraha; Tamio Hara

2011-01-01

370

Electrodeless microwave plasma-torch at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Increasing environmental awareness and regulation have motivated research into new methods to remediate toxins from atmospheric pressure gas streams. Plasma remediation was identified as a promising technology treating contaminated gas streams and air. Plasma remediation of toxic gas streams from mobile emitting sources (i.e., Nox, Sox, soot emission from diesel truck engines) and cleaning processes (i.e.,

Y. C. Hong; H. S. Uhm

2001-01-01

371

Low and atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of natural textile fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution we report on plasma modification of natural textile fibres, like raw wool and wool yarn and cotton wool and cotton yarn. Radiofrequency plasmas (13.56 MHz) generated in parallel plate configuration at low pressure and in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) configuration at atmospheric pressure have been used. At low pressure the samples were treated at different times (1-30

I. Luciu; B. Mitu; V. Satulu; A. Matei; G. Dinescu

2008-01-01

372

Underground cavern storage for liquefied gases near atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

An underground chamber is described for storing liquid gases at substantially atmospheric pressure and cryogenic temperatures. An inclined adit has its upper end at ground level and its lower end suspends into a rock-enclosed cavern. Means are provided at the adit for sealing the cavern from the passage of liquid or vapor into or out of the cavern. Sealing means

A. R. Khan; B. E. Eakin; P. J. Anderson

1968-01-01

373

Mechanisms for negative reactant ion formation in an atmospheric pressure corona discharge  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to better understand the formation of negative reactant ions in air produced by an atmospheric pressure corona discharge source, the neutral vapors generated by the corona were introduced in varying amounts into the ionization region of an ion mobility spectrometer/mass spectrometer containing a 63Ni ionization source. With no discharge gas the predominant ions were O2- , however, upon the introduction of low levels of discharge gas the NO2- ion quickly became the dominant species. As the amount of discharge gas increased the appearance of CO3- was observed followed by the appearance of NO3-. At very high levels, NO3- species became effectively the only ion present and appeared as two peaks in the IMS spectrum, NO3- and the NO3-•HNO3 adduct, with separate mobilities. Since explosive compounds typically ionize in the presence of negative reactant ions, the ionization of an explosive, RDX, was examined in order to investigate the ionization properties with these three primary ions. It was found that RDX forms a strong adduct with both NO2- and NO3- with reduced mobility values of 1.49 and 1.44 cm2V-1s-1, respectively. No adduct was observed for RDX with CO3- although this adduct has been observed with a corona discharge mass spectrometer. It is believed that this adduct, although formed, does not have a sufficiently long lifetime (greater than 10 ms) to be observed in an ion mobility spectrometer.

Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.

2009-06-02

374

Determination of double bond position in conjugated dienes by chemical ionization mass spectrometry with isobutane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical ionization (CI) mass spectra of a series of functionalized conjugated dienes, including aldehydes, alcohols, formates, acetates, and hydrocarbons were investigated to determine whether fragmentations occur that are characteristic of the position of the conjugated system within the hydrocarbon chain. CI with isobutane as ionizing gas produces structure-specific fragment ions with m\\/z ratios that can be used to locate

Robert E. Doolittle; J. H. Tumlinson; A. Proveaux

1985-01-01

375

Flow injection of liquid samples to a mass spectrometer with ionization under vacuum conditions: a combined ion source for single-photon and electron impact ionization.  

PubMed

Electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photo-ionization (APPI) are the most important techniques for the ionization of liquid samples. However, working under atmospheric pressure conditions, all these techniques involve some chemical rather than purely physical processes, and therefore, side reactions often yield to matrix-dependent ionization efficiencies. Here, a system is presented that combines both soft single-photon ionization (SPI) and hard 70 eV electron impact ionization (EI) of dissolved compounds under vacuum conditions. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was modified to enable direct EI, a technique developed by Cappiello et al. to obtain library-searchable EI mass spectra as well as soft SPI mass spectra of sample solutions. An electron beam-pumped rare gas excimer lamp working at 126 nm was used as well as a focusable vacuum UV light source for single-photon ionization. Both techniques, EI and SPI, were applied successfully for flow injection experiments providing library-matchable EI fragment mass spectra and soft SPI mass spectra, showing dominant signals for the molecular ion. Four model compounds were analyzed: hexadecane, propofol, chlorpropham, and eugenol, with detection limits in the picomolar range. This novel combination of EI and SPI promises great analytical benefits, thanks to the possibility of combining database alignment for EI data and molecular mass information provided by SPI. Possible applications for the presented ionization technology system are a matrix-effect-free detection and a rapid screening of different complex mixtures without time-consuming sample preparation or separation techniques (e.g., for analysis of reaction solutions in combinatorial chemistry) or a switchable hard (EI) and soft (SPI) MS method as detection step for liquid chromatography. PMID:23812882

Schepler, Claudia; Sklorz, Martin; Passig, Johannes; Famiglini, Giorgio; Cappiello, Achille; Zimmermann, Ralf

2013-06-30

376

Negative chemical ionization studied of human and food chain contamination with xenobiotic chemicals.  

PubMed Central

Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a mixture of isobutane, methylene chloride, and oxygen as the reagent gas has been used to explore contamination of environmental substrates with xenobiotic chemicals. The substrates in question, fish tissue, human seminal plasma, and human adipose tissue, were cleaned up by one of the following three cleanup procedures: (1) continuous liquid-liquid extraction steam distillation; (2) gel-permeation chromatography; and (3) adsorption on activated carbon followed by elution with toluene. The third procedure was used only for the examination of planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples. Using these techniques, we have found evidence for contamination of fish samples with polychloronaphthalenes, polychlorostyrenes, polychlorobiphenyls, polychlorodibenzofurans, and polychlorodibenzodioxins among other chemicals. The polychlorodibenzodioxins appeared only in the spectra of extracts of fish obtained from the Tittabawassee River at Midland Michigan. The polychlorodibenzofuran ions appeared in NCI mass spectra of fish that were significantly contaminated (above 2 ppm) with polychlorobiphenyls. Toxic substances occurring in human seminal plasma included pentachlorophenol, hexachlorobenzene, DDT metabolites, and polychlorobiphenyls. We have investigated toxic substances in human seminal plasma because of the apparent decrease in sperm density in U.S. males over the last 30 years. Results of screening human adipose tissue for contamination with xenobiotic chemicals have been largely coincident with result of the EPA human monitoring program. Polychlorobiphenyls, DDT metabolites, nonachlor, and chlordane have appeared in most samples examined. Detection limits for all of these chemicals were of the order of 1 ppb.

Dougherty, R C; Whitaker, M J; Smith, L M; Stalling, D L; Kuehl, D W

1980-01-01

377

Negative (CCl sub 4 ) and Positive (NH Sub 3 ) Chemical Ionization of the Explosive Hexanitrostilbene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of mass spectrometry in the analysis and characterization of explosives and explosive residues has steadily been increasing over the last decade; as a result, positive and negative ion electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectra of many c...

R. O. Yelton

1982-01-01

378

PULSED POSITIVE ION NEGATIVE ION CHEMICAL IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRIC APPLICATONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The simultaneous acquisition of both positive ion and negative ion data under chemical ionization mass spectrometric conditions can aid in the confirmation of assignments made by electron impact gas chromatography mass spectrometry or electron capture gas chromatography. Pulsed p...

379

Fabrication of transparent antifouling thin films with fractal structure by atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition.  

PubMed

Antifouling surface with both superhydrophobicity and oil-repellency has been fabricated on glass substrate by forming fractal microstructure(s). The fractal microstructure was constituted by transparent silica particles of 100 nm diameter and transparent zinc-oxide columns grown on silica particles by atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition. The sample surface was coated with a chemically adsorbed monomolecular layer. We found that one sample has the superhydrophobic ability with a water droplet contact angle of more than 150°, while another sample has a high transmittance of more than 85% in a wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm. PMID:23186100

Miyagawa, Hayato; Yamauchi, Koji; Kim, Yoon-Kee; Ogawa, Kazufumi; Yamaguchi, Kenzo; Suzaki, Yoshifumi

2012-12-13

380

Genetic effects of radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges with helium  

SciTech Connect

Due to low gas temperatures and high densities of active species, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges (APGDs) would have potential applications in the fields of plasma-based sterilization, gene mutation, etc. In this letter, the genetic effects of helium radio-frequency APGD plasmas with the plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide as the treated biomaterials are presented. The experimental results show that it is the chemically active species, instead of heat, ultraviolet radiation, intense electric field, and/or charged particles, that break the double chains of the plasmid DNA. The genetic effects depend on the plasma operating parameters, e.g., power input, helium flow rate, processing distance, time, etc.

Li Guo; Li Heping; Wang Sen; Sun Wenting; Bao Chengyu [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Liyan; Zhao Hongxin; Xing Xinhui [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2008-06-02

381

Atmospheric pressure Eberlin transacetalization reactions in the heterogeneous liquid/gas phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eberlin reaction, the ionic transacetalization of cyclic acetals and analogues with acylium and related ions, is demonstrated in the course of ion/molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure. Selected gaseous acetals (1,3-dioxolane, 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane, 4-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, 2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane, 1,3-dioxane, and 1,3,5-trioxane) react efficiently with the (CH3)2NCO+ acylium ion, generated by electrosonic spray ionization (ESSI) of an aqueous/methanol solution of tetramethylurea (TMU), to furnish the characteristic cyclic ionic acetals, the Eberlin products, in moderate to high yields. It is proposed that acylium ions on the surface of the ESSI-generated droplets interact with gaseous neutral reagentsE The Eberlin products dissociate exclusively to re-form the reactant (CH3)2NCO+ acylium ion upon collision-induced dissociation (CID), confirming their structures. The intact adduct, i.e., acylium ion plus neutral reagent (the stable precursor of the Eberlin product), is observed in these experiments whereas it is not observed in studies of the same Eberlin reactions under conventional reduced pressure ion/molecule reaction conditions. It is suggested that under atmospheric pressure conditions these intact adducts are likely stabilized through deactivation via collision with buffer gas.

Augusti, Rodinei; Chen, Hao; Eberlin, Livia Schiavinato; Nefliu, Marcela; Cooks, R. Graham

2006-07-01

382

Visualization of volatile substances in different organelles with an atmospheric-pressure mass microscope.  

PubMed

We have developed a mass microscope (mass spectrometry imager with spatial resolution higher than the naked eye) equipped with an atmospheric pressure ion-source chamber for laser desorption/ionization (AP-LDI) and a quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight (QIT-TOF) analyzer. The optical microscope combined with the mass spectrometer permitted us to precisely determine the relevant tissue region prior to performing imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). An ultraviolet laser tightly focused with a triplet lens was used to achieve high spatial resolution. An atmospheric pressure ion-source chamber enables us to analyze fresh samples with minimal loss of intrinsic water or volatile compounds. Mass-microscopic AP-LDI imaging of freshly cut ginger rhizome sections revealed that 6-gingerol ([M + K](+)at m/z 333.15, positive mode; [M - H](-) at m/z 293.17, negative mode) and the monoterpene ([M + K](+) at m/z 191.09), which are the compounds related to pungency and flavor, respectively, were localized in oil drop-containing organelles. AP-LDI-tandem MS/MS analyses were applied to compare authentic signals from freshly cut ginger directly with the standard reagent. Thus, our atmosphere-imaging mass spectrometer enabled us to monitor a quality of plants at the organelle level. PMID:19788281

Harada, Takahiro; Yuba-Kubo, Akiko; Sugiura, Yuki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Wakui, Masatoshi; Suematsu, Makoto; Takeshita, Kengo; Ogawa, Kiyoshi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Setou, Mitsutoshi

2009-11-01

383

ECD-like peptide fragmentation at atmospheric pressure  

PubMed Central

Fragmentation of multiply-charged peptide ions via interaction with products of gas discharge at atmospheric pressure conditions was studied using ion mobility separation – fragmentation cell - linear ion trap mass spectrometer. The observed fragmentation spectra mainly consisted of c- type ions that are specific to electron capture dissociation. Experiments with different gases flowing through the discharge and different discharge polarities suggested that fragmentation proceeds via capture of free electrons. Fragmentation of a model phosphorylated peptide using this technique produced c- type fragments with an intact phosphorylation group. High field asymmetric waveform ion mobility separation of a peptide mixture prior to the fragmentation cell demonstrated the feasibility of conducting MS/MS-like experiments at atmospheric pressure conditions.

Berkout, Vadym D.; Doroshenko, Vladimir M.

2012-01-01

384

Removal of paper microbial contamination by atmospheric pressure DBD discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the removal of the microbial contamination from paper material using the plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure is investigated. The Aspergillus niger has been chosen as a bio-indicator enabling to evaluate the effect of plasma assisted microbial inactivation. Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated at atmospheric pressure was used for the paper sterilization. The working gas (nitrogen, argon and helium), plasma exposition time and the plasma power density were varied in order to see the effect of the plasma treatment on the fungi removal. After the treatment, the microbial abatement was evaluated by the standard plate count method. This proved a positive effect of the DBD plasma treatment on fungi removal. Morphological and colorimetric changes of paper substrate after plasma treatment were also investigated.

Vrajova, J.; Chalupova, L.; Novotny, O.; Cech, J.; Krcma, F.; Stahel, P.

2009-08-01

385

The study of atmospheric pressure plasma for surface cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, capillary dielectric-covered dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate atmospheric pressure plasmas. The effect of various gas combinations such as He+O2, (He+O2)\\/Ar, and (He+O2)\\/SF6 was studied with respect to the changes in contact angle, surface energy and photoresist etch rate (ER). By adding a small percentage of O2 (40 sccm) to He (4 slm), we observed the

C. H. Yi; Y. H. Lee; G. Y. Yeom

2002-01-01

386

Capacitively Coupled Microplasma Source on a Chip at Atmospheric Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small-scale and low-power 13.56 MHz capacitively coupled plasma is generated in a capillary, whose cross section is 65--500× 500--5000 mum, on a quartz chip of 20× 20 mm at atmospheric pressure. The capillary is sandwiched between parallel-plate electrodes which are externally located on a chip. A pi-type matching network is miniaturized and appropriately designed to satisfy the resonance condition

Hiroyuki Yoshiki; Yasuhiro Horiike

2001-01-01

387

Atmospheric pressure plasma processing with microstructure electrodes and microplanar reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure plasmas can be generated, if the distance between the plasma generating electrodes is in the range of 100 ?m, and radio-frequencies of 13.56 or 27.12 MHz are applied. Such small dimensioned plasmas are only of interest for industrial plasma applications if larger areas can be processed. It will be shown that both with microstructure electrodes as with microplanar-reactor,

H. Schlemm; D. Roth

2001-01-01

388

RF from two pulse laser plasmas in atmospheric pressure gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. We have measured the production of RF produced by a mode-locked (M-L) CO2 laser (100 mJ macro pulse, 3 ns pulselets @ 25 Mhz) focused onto a target of copper in a background of atmospheric pressure N2 and He. Prior to the arrival of the M-L laser pulse, a small (few mm to cm) “vacuum bubble”

G. K. Chawla

1997-01-01

389

Beta-type Stirling engine operating at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a beta-type Stirling engine, with a 192 cc total swept-volume, was manufactured and its performance tested at atmospheric pressure. The hot-source temperature is chosen as a fundamental parameter of the experimental study. Experiments were performed with an electrical heater at 800, 900 and 1000 °C temperatures. Torque and output-power variations were obtained for different engine speeds. The

Serdar Yucesu; Tolga Topgul; Melih Okur

2005-01-01

390

Ice-shelf elevation changes due to atmospheric pressure variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inverse barometer effect (IBE) is the isostatic response of ocean surface height to changes in atmospheric pressure (Pair) at a rate of about 1cm hPa-1. The IBE is a significant contributor to variability of ice-shelf surface elevation (etaice), as we demonstrate with simultaneous global positioning system measurements of etaice and local measurements of Pair from the Amery, Brunt and

Laurie Padman; Matt King; Derek Goring; Hugh Corr; Richard Coleman

2003-01-01

391

Growth of wheat under one tenth of the atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat plants were grown in twin closed growth chambers under normal and reduced atmospheric pressures. For the first 22 days from sowing, the reduced pressure was maintained at 200 hPa, and at 100 hPa for the remaining 27 days until harvest. These pressures were obtained by evacuation of the chamber and adding oxygen (170 and 79 hPa respectively) and carbon

D. Massimino; M. André

1999-01-01

392

Effect of cosmic rays on atmospheric pressure under mountain conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenological model of condensation interaction between galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and water vapor, which makes it\\u000a possible to estimate atmospheric pressure variations at different altitudes with changing GCR flux, has been developed. It\\u000a has been indicated that pressure should increase at all altitudes in the considered interval (0–5 km above sea level) during\\u000a Forbush decreases. Therefore, the correlation between

M. B. Bogdanov; A. N. Surkov; A. V. Fedorenko

2006-01-01

393

Atmospheric pressure fluctuations and oxygen enrichment in waste tanks  

SciTech Connect

During In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) processing radiolytic decomposition of tetraphenylborate and water can produce benzene and hydrogen, which, given sufficiently high oxygen concentrations, can deflagrate. To prevent accumulations of benzene and hydrogen and avoid deflagration, continuous nitrogen purging is maintained. If the nitrogen purging is interrupted by, for example, a power failure, outside air will begin to seep into the tank through vent holes and cracks. Eventually a flammable mixture of benzene, hydrogen, and oxygen will occur (deflagration). However, this process is slow under steady-state conditions (constant pressure) and mechanisms to increase the exchange rate with the outside atmosphere must be considered. The most important mechanism of this kind is from atmospheric pressure fluctuations in which an increase in atmospheric pressure forces air into the tank which then mixes with the hydrogen-benzene mixture. The subsequent decrease in atmospheric pressure causes venting from the tank of the mixture -- the net effect being an increase in the tank`s oxygen concentration. Thus, enrichment occurs when the atmospheric pressure increases but not when the pressure decreases. Moreover, this natural atmospheric {open_quotes}pumping{close_quotes} is only important if the pressure fluctuations take place on a time scale longer than the characteristic mixing time scale (CMT) of the tank. If pressure fluctuations have a significantly higher frequency than the CMT, outside air will be forced into the tank and then out again before any significant mixing can occur. The CMT is not known for certain, but is estimated to be between 8 and 24 hours. The purpose of this report is to analyze yearly pressure fluctuations for a five year period to determine their statistical properties over 8 and 24-hour periods. The analysis also includes a special breakdown into summer and winter seasons and an analysis of 15-minute data from the SRTC Climatology Site.

Kurzeja, R.J.; Weber, A.H.

1993-07-01

394

Spatiotemporal behavior of a dielectric capillary atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied an atmospheric pressure plasma jet utilizing time- and space-resolved emission spectroscopy by flowing helium\\/argon gas mixtures through a cylindrical glass capillary energized using a deltatrise ˜ 15 ns high voltage pulse. Emission measurements from Ar 2p1--1s2 were acquired from both the inner capillary DBD and the outer plasma jet. Just outside the capillary, the jet emission was

Brian Sands; Biswa Ganguly; Kunihide Tachibana

2007-01-01

395

Interactions of cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets with plasmid DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas offer a unique environment for treatments of soft materials, including bio-materials and living tissue. Single plasma devices can be as small as micro-meters allowing very precise treatments reducing damage to surrounding healthy living cells. It is essential to correlate direct plasma parameters with effects on bio-materials. There are various energy carrying species

D. O'Connell; L. Cox; W. Hyland; S. McMahon; B. Graham; T. Gans; F. Currell

2010-01-01

396

Materials processing with atmospheric-pressure plasma jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets can be used for a wide range of materials processing applications, including surface cleaning and modification, selective etching, and thin-film deposition. The plasma source consists of two closely spaced electrodes through which helium and other gases flow (O2, CF4, etc.). A variety of electrode configurations can be used, and the source is suitable

R. Hicks; J. Jeong; S. Babayan; A. Schuetze; Jaeyoung Park; H. Herrmann; I. Henins; G. Selwyn

1998-01-01

397

Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to develop a low-cost, environmentally benign technology for the decontamination and decommissioning of transuranic waste. In order to accomplish this goal, an understanding of the scientific principles of operating the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet must be achieved. This knowledge can then be applied to the design of a working tool for D & D applications within DOE.

Hicks, Robert F.; Selwyn, Gary S.

2000-06-01

398

Production of titanium dioxide powders by atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiO2 powders have been successfully synthesized by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), which operates by feeding air between two coaxial electrodes that are driven by a 20.8kHz power source. Tetrachloride titanium is mixed with the effluent of the plasma jet in deferent regions to produce TiO2 powders. The synthesized samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy

Zhongwei Liu; Qiang Chen; Zhengduo Wang; Lizhen Yang; Chuanyue Wang

2011-01-01

399

Thin film deposition on powder surfaces using atmospheric pressure discharge  

SciTech Connect

The deposition of SiOx containing films on NaCl and KBr particles in dielectric barrier discharge under atmospheric pressure was investigated. As precursor hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in argon-oxygen gas mixtures were used. The deposited layers were studied by means of light microscopy, SEM and XPS investigations. The particles could be completely covered by SiOx. With increasing oxygen content in the coating the carbon content decreases.

Brueser, V.; Haehnel, M.; Kersten, H. [Institute for Low Temperature Plasma Physics, F.-L.-Jahn-Str.19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

2005-10-31

400

Reaction mechanism of TEOS and O3 atmospheric pressure CVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction mechanism of TEOS\\/O3 atmospheric pressure CVD was studied for dependence of deposition rate on base material, and for step coverage. Base material dependence of TEOS\\/USG, PSG, BSG and BPSG (on silicon and thermal oxide) was studied. Lower deposition rates and poorer quality of TEOS\\/USG films have been obtained on more hydrophilic substrate surface with high ozone concentration. The

K. Fujino; Y. Nishimoto; N. Tokumasu; K. Maeda

1991-01-01

401

Ir/thz Double Resonance Signatures at Atmospheric Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IR/THz double resonance (DR) spectroscopy, historically used to investigate molecular collision dynamics and THz molecular lasers at low pressures (< 1 Torr), shows promise for trace gas remote sensing at atmospheric pressure. Molecular specificity is obtained through the rare coincidence(s) between molecule-specific ro-vibrational energy levels and CO2 laser lines. The resulting molecule-specific, DR-induced, THz spectroscopic signatures strongly depend on the type of ro-vibrational transition involved (P, Q, or R), the type of vibrational level excited (stretching or bending), and the molecular mass. To illustrate these sensitivities, calculated DR spectra of prototypical molecules such as methyl fluoride, methyl chloride, and methyl cyanide will be discussed. Although atmospheric pressure broadening obfuscates pure rotational spectra, we show how it can enhance the DR signature in two ways: by relaxing the pump coincidence requirement and by adding the DR signatures of multiple nearby transitions. We will present estimates of this enhancement, including cases where the coincidences that produce the strongest DR signatures at atmospheric pressure do not exist at low pressures.

Phillips, Dane J.; Tanner, Elizabeth A.; Everitt, Henry O.; Medvedev, Ivan R.; Neese, Christopher F.; Holt, Jennifer; De Lucia, Frank C.

2010-06-01

402

Stimulation of wound healing by helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New experiments using atmospheric pressure plasma have found large application in treatment of living cells or tissues, wound healing, cancerous cell apoptosis, blood coagulation on wounds, bone tissue modification, sterilization and decontamination. In this study an atmospheric pressure plasma jet generated using a cylindrical dielectric-barrier discharge was applied for treatment of burned wounds on Wistar rats' skin. The low temperature plasma jet works in helium and is driven by high voltage pulses. Oxygen and nitrogen based impurities are identified in the jet by emission spectroscopy. This paper analyses the natural epithelization of the rats' skin wounds and two methods of assisted epithelization, a classical one using polyurethane wound dressing and a new one using daily atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of wounds. Systemic and local medical data, such as haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, were monitored during entire period of study. Increased oxidative stress was observed for plasma treated wound. This result can be related to the presence in the plasma volume of active species, such as O and OH radicals. Both methods, wound dressing and plasma-assisted epithelization, provided positive medical results related to the recovery process of burned wounds. The dynamics of the skin regeneration process was modified: the epidermis re-epitelization was accelerated, while the recovery of superficial dermis was slowed down.

Vasile Nastuta, Andrei; Topala, Ionut; Grigoras, Constantin; Pohoata, Valentin; Popa, Gheorghe

2011-03-01

403

Plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures: potential molecular responses.  

PubMed

There is an increasing realization that it may be impossible to attain Earth normal atmospheric pressures in orbital, lunar, or Martian greenhouses, simply because the construction materials do not exist to meet the extraordinary constraints imposed by balancing high engineering requirements against high lift costs. This equation essentially dictates that NASA have in place the capability to grow plants at reduced atmospheric pressure. Yet current understanding of plant growth at low pressures is limited to just a few experiments and relatively rudimentary assessments of plant vigor and growth. The tools now exist, however, to make rapid progress toward understanding the fundamental nature of plant responses and adaptations to low pressures, and to develop strategies for mitigating detrimental effects by engineering the growth conditions or by engineering the plants themselves. The genomes of rice and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have recently been sequenced in their entirety, and public sector and commercial DNA chips are becoming available such that thousands of genes can be assayed at once. A fundamental understanding of plant responses and adaptation to low pressures can now be approached and translated into procedures and engineering considerations to enhance plant growth at low atmospheric pressures. In anticipation of such studies, we present here the background arguments supporting these contentions, as well as informed speculation about the kinds of molecular physiological responses that might be expected of plants in low-pressure environments. PMID:11987308

Ferl, Robert J; Schuerger, Andrew C; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Gurley, William B; Corey, Kenneth; Bucklin, Ray

2002-01-01

404

Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12 kPa, respectively. Plants were harvested at 21 days after planting, with aerial shoots and swollen hypocotyls (edible portion of the radish referred to as the “root” hereafter) separated immediately upon removal from the chambers. Samples were subsequently evaluated for their sensory characteristics (color, taste, overall appearance, and texture), taste-determining factors (glucosinolate and soluble carbohydrate content and myrosinase activity), proximate nutrients (protein, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) and potential health benefit attributes (antioxidant capacity). In roots of control plants, concentrations of glucosinolate, total soluble sugar, and nitrate, as well as myrosinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (measured as ORACFL), were 2.9, 20, 5.1, 9.4, and 1.9 times greater than the amount in leaves, respectively. There was no significant difference in total antioxidant capacity, sensory characteristics, carbohydrate composition, or proximate nutrient content among the three pressure treatments. However, glucosinolate content in the root and nitrate concentration in the leaf declined as the atmospheric pressure decreased, suggesting perturbation to some nitrogen-related metabolism.

Levine, Lanfang H.; Bisbee, Patricia A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Birmele, Michele N.; Prior, Ronald L.; Perchonok, Michele; Dixon, Mike; Yorio, Neil C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

405

Characteristics of atmospheric-pressure, radio-frequency glow discharges operated with argon added ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Rf, atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasmas with bare metal electrodes have promising prospects in the fields of plasma-aided etching, thin film deposition, disinfection and sterilization, etc. In this paper, the discharge characteristics are presented for the rf APGD plasmas generated with pure argon or argon-ethanol mixture as the plasma-forming gas and using water-cooled, bare copper electrodes. The experimental results show that the breakdown voltage can be reduced significantly when a small amount of ethanol is added into argon, probably due to the fact that the Penning ionization process is involved, and a pure {alpha}-mode discharge can be produced more easily with the help of ethanol. The uniformity of the rf APGDs of pure argon or argon-ethanol mixtures using bare metallic electrodes is identified with the aid of the intensified charge coupled device images.

Sun Wenting; Li Guo; Li Heping; Bao Chengyu; Wang Huabo; Zeng Shi; Gao Xing; Luo Huiying [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100069 (China); Beijing Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Beijing 100013 (China)

2007-06-15

406

Non-vacuum field desorption ion source implemented under super-atmospheric pressure.  

PubMed

Standard field desorption (FD) ionization is implemented under high vacuum condition. In this paper, non-vacuum FD is performed under a super-atmospheric pressure environment using untreated tungsten wires as FD emitter, and the ion source was coupled to a commercial linear ion trap mass spectrometer. The operating pressure of the ion source was 6 bars which was high enough to provide sufficient dielectric strength to the working gas so that the high voltage that was required for FD could be applied to the emitter without occurrence of electrical discharge. Non-volatile sample deposited on the bare tungsten wire FD emitter was heated by flowing direct current through the emitter. Similar to vacuum FD, the formation of conical protrusion of the liquefied sample layer under the strong electric field was also observed. Using the present ion source, high pressure field-desorption of polar neutral compounds, organic salts and ionic liquids is demonstrated. PMID:22899518

Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

2012-08-01

407

Direct measurements of soil-gas entry into an experimental basement driven by atmospheric pressure fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the importance of changes in atmospheric pressure on radon entry into houses, we have simultaneously measured the soil-gas entry into an experimental basement structure and the fluctuations in atmospheric pressure. Small amplitude (?10 Pa), rapid (?20 min) fluctuations in atmospheric pressure were an important driving force for soil-gas entry because 1) the characteristic time for the propagation of

Allen L. Robinson; Richard G. Sextro

1995-01-01

408

Direct measurements of soil-gas entry into an experimental basement driven by atmospheric pressure fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the importance of changes in atmospheric pressure on radon entry into houses, we have simultaneously measured the soil-gas entry into an experimental basement structure and the fluctuations in atmospheric pressure. Small amplitude (~10 Pa), rapid (~20 min) fluctuations in atmospheric pressure were an important driving force for soil-gas entry because 1) the characteristic time for the propagation of

Allen L. Robinson; Richard G. Sextro

1995-01-01

409

Diode laser absorption and emission spectroscopy of a streamer discharge in an atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) that are initiated via a self-sustaining streamer discharge has recently been driven by both their potential for applications to nonthermal material processing, and fundamental questions regarding the basic discharge mechanisms that drive this remarkably stable atmospheric pressure discharge. We have characterized a streamer-initiated atmospheric pressure plasma jet in a 5% Ar \\/ 95%

B. L. Sands; R. J. Leiweke; B. N. Ganguly

2010-01-01

410

A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rayleigh scattering radiance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) depends on the surface atmospheric pressure. In processing the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery, Gordon et al. (Applied Optics, 27, 862–871, 1988) developed a simple formula to account for the Rayleigh radiance changes with the variation of the surface atmospheric pressure. For the atmospheric pressure changes within ±3%,

Menghua Wang

2005-01-01

411

Characterization of fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition in animal fats using silver-ion and non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography\\/flame ionization detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TG) composition of natural oils and fats intake in the diet has a strong influence on the human health and chronic diseases. In this work, non-aqueous reversed-phase (NARP) and silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detection and gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC\\/FID) and mass spectrometry detection are used for

Miroslav Lísa; Kate?ina Netušilová; Lukáš Fran?k; Hana Dvo?áková; Vladimír Vrkoslav; Michal Hol?apek

2011-01-01

412

Growth of carbon nanowalls at atmospheric pressure for one-step gas sensor fabrication  

PubMed Central

Carbon nanowalls (CNWs), two-dimensional "graphitic" platelets that are typically oriented vertically on a substrate, can exhibit similar properties as graphene. Growth of CNWs reported to date was exclusively carried out at a low pressure. Here, we report on the synthesis of CNWs at atmosphere pressure using "direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition" by taking advantage of the high electric field generated in a pin-plate dc glow discharge. CNWs were grown on silicon, stainless steel, and copper substrates without deliberate introduction of catalysts. The as-grown CNW material was mainly mono- and few-layer graphene having patches of O-containing functional groups. However, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies confirmed that most of the oxygen groups could be removed by thermal annealing. A gas-sensing device based on such CNWs was fabricated on metal electrodes through direct growth. The sensor responded to relatively low concentrations of NO2 (g) and NH3 (g), thus suggesting high-quality CNWs that are useful for room temperature gas sensors. PACS: Graphene (81.05.ue), Chemical vapor deposition (81.15.Gh), Gas sensors (07.07.Df), Atmospheric pressure (92.60.hv)

2011-01-01

413

Effect on surface roughness of zerodur material in atmospheric pressure plasma jet processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zerodur material is considered as the ideal material in the high performance optic systems because of its excellent thermal stability characteristics. This paper deals with the impacting factors on the zerodur material surface roughness during atmospheric pressure plasma jet(APPJ) processing. At first, based on multiphase and multi-component in zerodur material, the effect on the zerodur surface chemical components and surface roughness is studied when the element contained Si is etched during the chemical machining process. The change of surface microcosmic topography is observed, it is proved that the technology of atmospheric pressure plasma jet can modify the surface roughness of zerodur material. Moreover, in consideration of the re-deposition phenomenon in the machining process, the composition of the re-deposition are studied and the genesis of the re-deposition were analysed. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) were utilized to obtain the elemental composition of the sample powder residuum on zerodur surface. The relationship between substrate roughness and the process parameters is established based on the experimental results. Experimental results indicate that it is beneficial to add certain amount O2 to modify the surface roughness of zerodur material. This finding provides an important basis for the improvement of surface roughness in APPJ of zerodur material.

Jin, H. L.; Wang, B.; Zhang, F. H.

2010-05-01

414

Reduced atmospheric pressure in Radish: Alteration of NCER and transpiration at decreased oxygen partial pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental to the future of space exploration is the development of advanced life support systems capable of maintaining crews for significant periods without re-supply from Earth. Significant research is focused on the development of bioregenerative life support systems to be used in conjunction with the current physico-chemical methods. These bioregenerative life support systems harness natural ecosystem processes and employ plant photosynthesis and transpiration to produce food, oxygen and regenerate water while consuming carbon dioxide. The forthcoming exploration of the Moon and Mars has prompted interest into the effects of hypobaria on plant development. Reduced atmospheric pressures will lessen the pressure gradient between the structure and the local environment thereby decreasing gas leakage and possibly the structural mass of the plant growth facility. In order to establish the optimal specifications for reduced pressure plant growth structures it is essential to determine the atmospheric pressure limits required for conventional plant development and growth. Due to its physiological importance, oxygen will compose a significant portion of these minimal environments. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced atmospheric pressure and decreased oxygen partial pressures had no effect on radish productivity. Radishes (Raphanus sativa L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) were grown from seed in the University of Guelph's Hypobaric Plant Growth Chambers for a period of 21 days. Treatments included total pressures of 10, 33, 66 and 96 kPa and oxygen partial pressures of 2, 7, 14 and 20 kPa. Experiments demonstrated that reduced partial pressures of oxygen had a greater effect on radish growth than hypobaria. Results showed a reduction in net carbon exchange rate and transpiration with decreasing oxygen partial pressures leading to diminished productivity. Keywords: hypobaric, radish, oxygen partial pressure, variable pressure chamber, bioregenerative life support

Wehkamp, Cara Ann; Stasiak, Michael; Wheeler, Raymond; Dixon, Mike

415

Detection of chemical weapon agents and simulants using chemical ionization reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Chemical ionization reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CIR-TOF-MS) has been used for the analysis of prepared mixtures of chemical weapon agents (CWAs) sarin and sulfur mustard. Detection of the CWA simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, triethyl phosphate, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate has also been investigated. Chemical ionization of all the agents and simulants was shown to be possible using the CIR-TOF-MS technique with a variety of reagent ions, and the sensitivity was optimized by variation of instrument parameters. The ionization process was found to be largely unaffected by sample humidity levels, demonstrating the potential suitability of the method to a range of environmental conditions, including the analysis of CWAs in air and in the breath of exposed individuals. PMID:17894471

Cordell, Rebecca L; Willis, Kerry A; Wyche, Kevin P; Blake, Robert S; Ellis, Andrew M; Monks, Paul S

2007-09-26

416

State-of-the-art in atmospheric pressure photoionization for LC/MS.  

PubMed

This review presents our perspective on the state-of-the-art of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) for LC/MS. Its focus is on APPI's capabilities and how to utilize them fully. The introduction includes a brief recounting of the history of APPI's development, as well as a summary of its operating principles and current position in the field. The primary ionization mechanisms in APPI are then addressed, including direct analyte photoionization (PI), dopant/solvent PI, and thermospray. Next a summary of the ion-molecule reaction pathways available for analyte ionization is presented, along with the conditions required for activating them. APPI's performance characteristics are then examined. In effect, this review is an interim report on progress made since Rafaelli and Saba concluded that "The ability...to direct the preferential ion formation towards one particular type...can be extremely useful for qualitative and quantitative determinations. For this purpose, a better insight in the processes involved in the ionization step is strongly needed" [A. Raffaelli, A. Saba, Mass Spectrom. Rev. 22 (2003) 318]. In the conclusion, we focus on areas of APPI technology identified as being either unoptimized or largely unexplored, and having the potential to be improved upon-the crux being that with further research and development improvements in the performance, capabilities, and ease-of-use of APPI may reasonably be anticipated. PMID:18790126

Robb, Damon B; Blades, Michael W

2008-06-11

417

Electron impact, electron capture negative ionization and positive chemical ionization mass spectra of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers.  

PubMed

Phosphate esters are important commercial products that have been used both as flame retardants and as plasticizers. To analyze these compounds by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry, it is important to understand the mass spectra of these compounds using various ionization modes. This paper is a systematic overview of the electron impact (EI), electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) and positive chemical ionization (PCI) mass spectra of 13 organophosphate esters. These data are useful for developing and optimizing analytical measurements. The EI spectra of these 13 compounds are dominated by ions such as H4 PO4 (+) , (M?-?Cl)(+) , (M?-?CH2 Cl)(+) or (M)(+) depending on specific chemical structures. The ECNI spectra are generally dominated by (M?-?R)(-) . The PCI spectra are mainly dominated by the protonated molecular ion (M?+?H)(+) . The branching of the alkyl substituents, the halogenation of the substituents and, for aromatic phosphate esters, ortho alkylation of the ring are all significant factors controlling the details of the fragmentation processes. EI provides the best sensitivity for the quantitative measurement of these compounds, but PCI and ECNI both have considerable qualitative selectivity. PMID:23893640

Ma, Yuning; Hites, Ronald A

2013-08-01

418

[Spectral diagnosis of plasma jet at atmospheric pressure].  

PubMed

A new approach to surface modification of materials using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet at atmospheric pressure is presented in the present paper. The emission spectral lines of argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure were recorded by the grating spectrograph HR2000 and computer software. The argon plasma emission spectra, ranging from 300nm to 1000 nm, were measured at different applied voltage. Compared to air plasma emission spectra under the same circumstance, it is shown that all of the spectral lines are attributed to neutral argon atoms. The spectral lines 763.51 and 772.42 nm were chosen to estimate the electron excitation temperature. The purpose of the study is to research the relationship between the applied voltage and temperature to control the process of materials' surface modification promptly. The results show that electron excitation temperature is in the range of 0.1-0.5 eV and increases with increasing applied voltage. In the process of surface modification under the plasma jet, the infrared radiation thermometer was used to measure the material surface temperature under the plasma jet. The results show that the material surface temperature is in the range of 50-100 degrees C and it also increases with increasing applied voltage. Because the material surface was under the plasma jet and its temperature was decided by the plasma, and the material surface temperature increased with increasing the macro-temperature of plasma jet, the relationship between the surface temperature and applied voltage indicates the relationship between the macro-temperature of the plasma jet and the applied voltage approximately. The experimental results indicate that DBD plasma jet at atmospheric pressure is a new approach to improving the quality of materials' surface modification, and spectral diagnosis has proved to be a kind of workable method by choosing suitable applied voltage. PMID:19248476

Li, Chi; Tang, Xiao-liang; Qiu, Gao

2008-12-01

419

Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed.

Stephan, Karl D.

2006-11-01

420

Cold atmospheric pressure air plasma jet for medical applications  

SciTech Connect

By flowing atmospheric pressure air through a direct current powered microhollow cathode discharge, we were able to generate a 2 cm long plasma jet. With increasing flow rate, the flow becomes turbulent and temperatures of the jet are reduced to values close to room temperature. Utilizing the jet, yeast grown on agar can be eradicated with a treatment of only a few seconds. Conversely, animal studies show no skin damage even with exposures ten times longer than needed for pathogen extermination. This cold plasma jet provides an effective mode of treatment for yeast infections of the skin.

Kolb, J. F.; Price, R. O.; Bowman, A.; Chiavarini, R. L.; Stacey, M.; Schoenbach, K. H. [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23510 (United States); Mohamed, A.-A H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt); Swanson, R. J. [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23510 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

2008-06-16