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Sample records for atom ssa dan

  1. GHRS Ssa Peakup - 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, David

    1991-07-01

    Flight software 4.0 includes an important new capability for the GHRS--return to brightest point following a spiral search. This is now the default target acquisition mode. A successful test of this capability has permitted another important new capability to be implemented--the SSA PEAKUP. The SSA PEAKUP allows for centering of a target in the SSA--this capability had been lost due to the spherically-aberrated PSF being much larger than the SSA. Now, by using the return to brightest point algorithm, a spiral search of small size will be used to 'find' the center of the target image and place it in the center of the SSA. This proposal is a slight modification of the sensitivity monitoring proposal (4124). In this version we include duplicated LSA and SSA exposures to define the SSA photometric sensitivity.

  2. Transverse SSA in inclusive DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitonyak, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We analyze the transverse single spin asymmetry (SSA) in inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS), which requires a two-photon exchange to generate a non-zero effect. We present numerical results for the SSA that allow us to comment on the so-called "sign mismatch" issue invloving the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman (ETQS) function TF(x,x). In particular, we discuss how our results indicate a collinear twist-3 Sivers-type effect may not be the main cause of the SSAs seen in proton-proton (pp) collisions.

  3. NASA SSA for Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri K.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) activities as preparation for robotic missions and Goddard's role in this work. The presentation includes the preparations that Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has made to provide consolidated space systems protection indluding consolidating GSFC support for Orbit Debris analysis, conjunction assessment and collision avoidance, commercial and foreign support, and protection of GSFC managed missions.

  4. AFSPC A5CS SSA Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacher, H.

    2011-09-01

    With the signing of the National Space Policy in June of 2010 and the National Security Space Strategy in January of this year, the Department of Defense and the Air Force have clear direction to preserve vital national security capabilities in space. The ever-growing population of resident space objects necessitates improved Space Situational Awareness (SSA) to ensure safety of flight and enable defensive actions when necessary. The Air Force, through Air Force Space Command, has placed a particular emphasis on increasing National SSA capabilities in the Deep Space environment by fielding technologically advanced systems, seeking partnership opportunities, and identifying areas where data exploitation and technology advancements are needed. This presentation will discuss space and groundbased optical SSA sensor capabilities recently fielded to close key SSA capability gaps, describe how these sensors are being used to develop new tactics, techniques and procedures for conducting SSA and discuss activities underway to further exploit these new capabilities. The presentation will also discuss areas ripe for partnership with industry and other government agencies to tap into non-traditional SSA data sources to improve SSA capabilities while reducing overall cost. This could include opportunities to exploit inherent capabilities of existing systems or to enhance SSA capabilities through system modification. Finally, the presentation will identify where Air Force Space Command sees potential for capability advancement such as self aware SSA technologies and potential exploitation of space-based infrared collections. The presentation will close by challenging the audience to help meet National SSA objectives by developing new, innovative capabilities and techniques for SSA.

  5. The Case for GEO Hosted SSA Payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, C.; Armand, B.; Repp, M.; Robinson, A.

    2014-09-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) in the geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) belt presents unique challenges, and given the national importance and high value of GEO satellites, is increasingly critical as space becomes more congested and contested. Space situational awareness capabilities can serve as an effective deterrent against potential adversaries if they provide accurate, timely, and persistent information and are resilient to the threat environment. This paper will demonstrate how simple optical SSA payloads hosted on GEO commercial and government satellites can complement the SSA mission and data provided by Space-Based Space Surveillance (SBSS) and the Geosynchronous Space Situational Awareness Program (GSSAP). GSSAP is built by Orbital Sciences Corporation and launched on July 28, 2014. Analysis performed for this paper will show how GEO hosted SSA payloads, working in combination with SBSS and GSSAP, can increase persistence and timely coverage of high value assets in the GEO belt. The potential to further increase GEO object identification and tracking accuracy by integrating SSA data from multiple sources across different viewing angles including GEO hosted SSA sources will be addressed. Hosting SSA payloads on GEO platforms also increases SSA mission architecture resiliency as the sensors are by distributed across multiple platforms including commercial platforms. This distributed architecture presents a challenging target for an adversary to attempt to degrade or disable. We will present a viable concept of operations to show how data from hosted SSA sensors could be integrated with SBSS and GSSAP data to present a comprehensive and more accurate data set to users. Lastly, we will present an acquisition approach using commercial practices and building on lessons learned from the Commercially Hosted Infra Red Payload CHIRP to demonstrate the affordability of GEO hosted SSA payloads.

  6. An Update on SSA in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsam, G.; Gordon, N.

    2011-09-01

    At AMOS 2008 the first author presented a review of surveillance of space activities in Australia up to that date: this paper reviews significant initiatives and events that have taken place since then. In summary some major policy commitments to Space Situational Awareness (SSA) have been made and some sizeable new R&D programs have been launched to develop nascent Australian SSA capabilities. Australia has still to settle on its national requirements for SSA and space generally, however, so these initiatives have yet to evolve into substantial, enduring programs of record. In more detail, the communiqués issued at the annual Australian-US ministerial consultations in November 2010 announced an in-principle commitment to Defence collaboration on SSA and to establishing a joint space tracking facility in Western Australia: Defence in Australia is now working through setting up this facility and how it will move into SSA generally. These are part of a larger national re-engagement with space: in particular in 2009 Australia committed to developing a national space policy and allocated A40 million of funding to a new Australian Space Research Program (ASRP) to boost space research. Over 5 million from this program has been awarded to projects centred on SSA, primarily to enhance EOS’ satellite laser tracking system. In addition to these projects, the partners in an allied Defence R&D agreement that includes DSTO have agreed to a joint experiment that will fly a small formation of suitably instrumented CubeSats with the aim of, inter alia, providing ground truth for testing SSA capabilities. More generally DSTO has been supporting various aspects of Defence’s engagement with SSA, including identification of S&T in which Australia has particular expertise that could be deployed on SSA given the necessary direction. The paper outlines these recent developments, reviews relevant Australian expertise in one particular field, tracking and sensor fusion (the second

  7. BOREAS TGB-9 Above-canopy NMHC at SSA-OBS, SSA-OJP, and SSA-OA Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keiser, B. N.; Niki, H.; Young, V. L.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-9 team collected data in order to inventory and quantify the anthropogenic and biogenic NMHCs over the BOREAS study areas. This data set contains concentration and mixing ratio values for several NMHCs collected at the BOREAS SSA from 27-May-1994 to 15-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files.

  8. BMDS/SSA Integrated Sensing Demonstration (BISD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, T.; Springford, K.; Grimaldi, L.

    2011-09-01

    This demonstration is intended to provide a near-term prototype, leave-behind capability for integrating Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) ground sensors for use in the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) mission. Closed-loop tasking and cueing capability will be implemented, and a demonstration of net-centric space data dissemination using the BMDS sensors will be undertaken using various SSA mission threads. The demonstration is designed to highlight the implications of modifying software and/or hardware at the BMDS command and control node so that cost, risk, and schedule for an operational implementation can be fully understood. Additionally, this demonstration is intended to assess the impacts to both mission areas as a multi-mission, non-traditional sensor capability is integrated into the SSA mission. A successful demonstration will have many leave-behind capabilities and first-of-its-kind achievements to include: a) an extensible SSA operational prototype configuration for BMDS X-Band radars such as AN/TPY-2 and Sea-Based X-Band (SBX) b) a prototype SSA tasking and cueing capability between the Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC Space) Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) and the Command, Control, Battle Management, and Communications (C2BMC) Experimental Laboratory (X-Lab), extensible to the Combatant Commands (COCOMS), and out to BMDS sensors c) a capability for a twoway, net-centric, interface for JSpOC space operations, to include translation from net-centric communications to legacy systems and d) processing of BMDS X-Band Radar tracks in the Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC).

  9. Evolution of ESA's SSA Conjunction Prediction Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, D.; Sancho, A. Tirado, J.; Agueda, A.; Martin, L.; Luque, F.; Fletcher, E.; Navarro, V.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents the recent evolution of ESA's SSA Conjunction Prediction Service (CPS) as a result of an on-going activity in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The CPS is one of a number of precursor services being developed as part of the SST segment. It has been implemented as a service to provide external users with web-based access to conjunction information and designed with a service-oriented architecture. The paper encompasses the following topics: service functionality enhancements, integration with a live objects catalogue, all vs. all analyses supporting an operational concept based on low and high fidelity screenings, and finally conjunction detection and probability algorithms.

  10. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) research findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, D.

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is the foundation for space superiority and has become a national priority. Providing full SSA requires knowledge of space and ground assets along with communication links between these assets. It also requires an understanding of potential events and threats that may affect these assets. This paper summarizes the findings resulting from a research environment established to explore SSA issues. Non-traditional data sources available on the internet are identified along with methods to mine relevant data. Algorithms to augment this data with value added processing were evaluated and key features are presented. These include all-on-all conjunction analysis utilizing analytical distributed processing approaches and maneuver detection utilizing an approach described in the AMOS 2007 paper "Satellite Maneuver Detection Using Two-line Elements". Data fusion techniques are presented which were utilized to evaluate space launches, enhance maneuver detection capabilities, characterize events and determine possible intent. Several visualization approaches were explored and the key features/limitations are discussed to include performance consideration, event models between visualization components, and data needs at the tactical, operational, and strategic levels. Data dissemination approaches utilizing a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) are highlighted along with challenges such as Multiple Levels of Security associated with the data. Dependencies between visualization and dissemination that impact the system's performance are discussed. Alternatives to balance system performance and application of a User Defined Operational Picture (UDOP) are explored.

  11. BOREAS TE-21 SSA Site Characteristics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Robert; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-20 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets for use in developing and testing models of forest ecosystem dynamics. This data set contains measurements of site characteristics conducted in the Southern Study Area (SSA) from 18 Jul 1994 to 30 Jul 1994. The data are stored in CSV files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  12. Prion-impairing mutations in Hsp70 chaperone Ssa1

    PubMed Central

    Needham, Patrick G.; Masison, Daniel C.

    2008-01-01

    We previously described many Hsp70 Ssa1p mutants that impair [PSI+] prion propagation in yeast without affecting cell growth. To determine how the mutations alter Hsp70 we analyzed biochemically the substrate-binding domain (SBD) mutant L483W and the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) mutants A17V and R34K. Ssa1L483W ATPase activity was elevated 10-fold and was least stimulated by substrates or Hsp40 co-chaperones. Ssa1A17V and Ssa1R34K ATPase activities were nearly wild type but both showed increased stimulation by substrates. Peptide binding and reactivation of denatured luciferase were enhanced in Ssa1A17V and Ssa1R34K but compromised in Ssa1L483W. The nucleotide exchange factor Fes1 influenced ATPase of wild type Ssa1 and each mutant differently. Partial protease digestion uncovered similar and distinct conformational changes of the substrate-binding domain among the three mutants. Our data suggest that prion-impairing mutations of Ssa1 can increase or decrease substrate interactions, alter the Hsp70 reaction cycle at different points and impair normal NBD-SBD cooperation. PMID:18706386

  13. Dynamique et interférence de paquets d'ondes dans les atomes et dimères d'alcalins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchene, M. A.

    2002-11-01

    (saturation regime, chirped pulse, ...) that allow us to determine the advantages and limits of this technique. In the case of molecules, the interaction of the two-pulse sequence leads to the interference of vibrational wave packets. We analyse and discuss in this case the effects of a thermal distribution of initial states on the temporal coherent control signal. Ce travail porte sur l'étude expérimentale résolue en temps de la dynamique atomique et moléculaire prenant place sur une échelle de temps femtoseconde. Il présente deux orientations distinctes et complémentaires. La première concerne l'étude de la dynamique de paquets d'ondes dans des atomes et dimères d'alcalins (K, K2) par des méthodes pompe-sonde. Dans le cas du potassium atomique le paquet d'ondes est une superposition des états de structure fine de l'état 4p et représente un paquet de spin électronique. Nous observons la dynamique de ce paquet d'ondes au cours du temps et montrons que celle-ci correspond à une inversion du sens d'orientation du spin. Le formalisme théorique des états brillants et noirs est particulièrement adapté à la description de ce type de dynamique. Nous présentons alors une méthode originale qui, tirant avantage du mouvement d'inversion du spin, permet de produire des électrons polarisés en spin à l'échelle femtoseconde. Dans le cas des molécules, le paquet d'ondes créé est une superposition d'états vibrationnels. Nous présentons les résultats d'une étude systématique de la dynamique de paquet d'ondes vibrationnel dans les états électroniques A^1Σ^+_u et 2^1Pi_g. Le signal pompe-sonde dépend alors de la compétition entre les dynamiques associées aux paquets d'ondes créés dans les deux états électroniques. La deuxième partie traite d'expériences d'interférences de paquets d'ondes dans des systèmes similaires (K, Cs, Cs2). Cette technique, complémentaire de la première, consiste à faire interagir une séquence de deux impulsions

  14. BOREAS TE-1 SSA Soil Lab Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Nerbas, Tim; Anderson, Darwin

    2000-01-01

    This data set was collected by TE-1 to provide a set of soil properties for BOREAS investigators in the SSA. The soil samples were collected at sets of soil pits in 1993 and 1994. Each set of soil pits was in the vicinity of one of the five flux towers in the BOREAS SSA. The collected soil samples were sent to a lab, where the major soil properties were determined. These properties include, but are not limited to, soil horizon; dry soil color; pH; bulk density; total, organic, and inorganic carbon; electric conductivity; cation exchange capacity; exchangeable sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and hydrogen; water content at 0.01, 0.033, and 1.5 MPascals; nitrogen; phosphorus; particle size distribution; texture; pH of the mineral soil and of the organic soil; extractable acid; and sulfur. The data are stored in tabular ASCII text files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  15. 20 CFR 403.155 - Does SSA certify records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does SSA certify records? 403.155 Section 403.155 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES AND THE PRODUCTION OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 403.155 Does SSA certify records? We can certify the authenticity of copies of records we...

  16. Ro/SSA inhibits the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Karsh, J; Harley, J B; Goldstein, R; Lazarovits, A I

    1993-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the Ro/SSA autoantigen can be recognized as antigenic by the human immune system, lymphocytes obtained from normal volunteers were used in in vitro assays evaluating the ability of Ro/SSA (mol. wt 60 kD) to induce B and/or T cell responses. Bovine Ro/SSA strongly inhibited the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction in a dose-dependent manner without similar effects on concurrently performed allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions or T cell proliferation induced by phytohaemagglutinin. Using three colour FACS analysis, Ro/SSA was found to decrease the percentage of CD4+CD45+RA+ T cells in the proliferative, S+(G2+M), phase of the cell cycle. Associated with the decrease in the percentage of suppressor-inducer cells, was the finding that Ro/SSA was able to augment RF production in pokeweed mitogen stimulated cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes. PMID:7678209

  17. BOREAS TE-12 SSA Shoot Geometry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.; Cheng, L.; Yang, Litao

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected shoot geometry data in 1993 and 1994 from aspen, jack pine, and black spruce trees. Collections were made at the Southern Study Area Nipawin Fen Site (SSA FEN), Young Jack Pine (YJP), Old Jack Pine (OJP), Old Aspen (OA), Young Aspen (YA), Mixed Site (MIX), and Old Black Spruce (OBS) sites. A caliper was used to measure shoot and needle lengths and widths. A volume displacement procedure was used to measure the weight of the shoot or twig submerged in water. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  18. COMPARISON OF LAPAROSCOPIC SKILLS PERFORMANCE USING SINGLE-SITE ACCESS (SSA) DEVICES VS. AN INDEPENDENT-PORT SSA APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Schill, Matthew R.; Varela, J. Esteban; Frisella, Margaret M.; Brunt, L. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared performance of validated laparoscopic tasks on four commercially available single site access (SSA) access devices (AD) versus an independent port (IP) SSA set-up. Methods A prospective, randomized comparison of laparoscopic skills performance on four AD (GelPOINT™, SILS™ Port, SSL Access System™, TriPort™) and one IP SSA set-up was conducted. Eighteen medical students (2nd–4th year), four surgical residents, and five attending surgeons were trained to proficiency in multi-port laparoscopy using four laparoscopic drills (peg transfer, bean drop, pattern cutting, extracorporeal suturing) in a laparoscopic trainer box. Drills were then performed in random order on each IP-SSA and AD-SSA set-up using straight laparoscopic instruments. Repetitions were timed and errors recorded. Data are mean ± SD, and statistical analysis was by two-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post-hoc tests. Results Attending surgeons had significantly faster total task times than residents or students (p< 0.001), but the difference between residents and students was NS. Pair-wise comparisons revealed significantly faster total task times for the IP-SSA set-up compared to all four AD-SSA’s within the student group only (p<0.05). Total task times for residents and attending surgeons showed a similar profile, but the differences were NS. When data for the three groups was combined, the total task time was less for the IP-SSA set-up than for each of the four AD-SSA set-ups (p < 0.001). Similarly,, the IP-SSA set-up was significantly faster than 3 of 4 AD-SSA set-ups for peg transfer, 3 of 4 for pattern cutting, and 2 of 4 for suturing. No significant differences in error rates between IP-SSA and AD-SSA set-ups were detected. Conclusions When compared to an IP-SSA laparoscopic set-up, single site access devices are associated with longer task performance times in a trainer box model, independent of level of training. Task performance was similar across different SSA

  19. ESA-SSA Review of Space Weather Measurement Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain

    2012-07-01

    The ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme was started in 2009. The objective of the programme is to support the European independent utilisation of and access to space. The first phase of the ESA SSA system development will be finished in 2012 and the next phase is foreseen to be started after the ESA Ministerial Council meeting in November 2012. The definition of measurement requirements for the Space Weather Segment (SWE) of the ESA SSA system has been based on the space weather service requirements defined the by expected users of the system. This document, SSA SWE Customer Requirements Document (CRD), has been defined in a iterative process together with the members of the SSA User Representative Group (URG) and the delegates representing the European states participating the programme. Based on the SWE CRD, ESA with the support of the European industry has produced two documents: SSA SWE System Requirements Document (SRD) and SSA SWE Product Specification (PS). SWE PS contains the requirements for the measurements data required by the SSA SWE system. The SWE PS document has been recently rigorously reviewed by the SSA URG in the framework of the SSA System Requirements Review (SRR). The support provided by the Steering Board of the ESA Space Weather Working Team (SWWT) in this review was extremely useful. The members of the SWWT SB representing the scientific community and the provisional service providers were able to give very detailed comments regarding the measurement requirements for accuracy, cadence, timeliness, etc. As these parameters will be provisional design and cost drivers for the ESA SSA system, definition of the appropriate values at this point in the programme is crucial. This paper provides an overview of the measurement requirements for the SWE Segment of the ESA SSA Programme. The paper discusses the requirement definition process, the customer and service provider inputs, and the critical requirements as they have

  20. The development of the MELiSSA Pilot Plant Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godia, Francesc; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Dixon, Mike; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Lamaze, Brigitte; Brunet, Jean; Demey, Dries; Mas-Albaigès, Joan L.

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a closed artificial ecosystem intended as a tool for the development of a bio-regenerative life support system for longterm manned missions. The MELiSSA loop is formed by five interconnected compartments, organized in three different loops (solid, liquid and gas). This compartments are microbial bioreactors and higher plant chambers. The MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility has been designed to achieve the preliminary terrestrial demonstration of the MELiSSA concept at pilot scale, using animals as a model for the crew compartent. The experience gained in the operation of such a facility will be highly relevant for planning future life support systems in Space. In this communication, the latests developments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant will be reported. Particularly, the completion of the design phase and instalation of all the different compartments will be discussed in detail. Each of the compartments had to be designed and constructed according to very specific characteristics, associated to the biological systems to be cultured, as part of the complete MELiSSA loop (anerobic, oxygenic, thermophilic, heterotrophic, autotrophic, axenic, photosynthetic, etc.). Additionally, the sizing of each reactor (ranging from 8 to 100 Liters, depending of each particular compartment) should compile with the global integration scenario proposed, and with the final goal of connection of all compartments to provide a demonstration of the MELiSSA concept, and generate data for the design and operation of future biological life support systems.

  1. Adding the "Local" Layer to the SSA Picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, F.; Duckett, M.

    2012-09-01

    The heritage of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has been limited to Earth based observation of space to support collision avoidance and space object identification. In part, this has led to reliance on multiple CONUS locations for optical and non-optical ground based observation. It has also led to the specialization of many fields and industries, which are highlighted at conferences like AMOS through discussion of state-of-the-art of observation capabilities. This paradigm alone no longer addresses the current needs for situational awareness of space assets in the changing space culture. Events in recent years have shown that space based sensing capabilities are increasingly critical as complements to ground based radar and optical systems. The SSA community would be better served by adopting the concept of "local" SSA and proliferating technologies to accomplish this. The traditional definition of SSA would expand to encompass an understanding of the immediate natural and manmade environment of the satellite. Multiple insights would be enabled, including baseline trending to support anomaly identification and resolution, catastrophic failure investigation, and anomaly and/or failure attribution. Additionally, protection measures could potentially be enabled to ensure space asset availability. Moving forward with a combination of traditional SSA and "local" SSA capabilities would allow a potential "global" SSA picture to be developed. This enhanced understanding would consist of ground observations in addition to the satellite's "first person" perspective. The potential for an exponentially increased comprehension of SSA is created by this powerful combination. The first step toward demonstrating this combination of SSA knowledge has been achieved with data from the SASSA Technology Demonstration.

  2. BOREAS RSS-1 PARABOLA SSA Surface Reflectance and Transmittance Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Deering, Donald D.; Eck, Thomas F.; Banerjee, Babu

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-1 team collected surface reflectance and transmittance data from three forested sites in the SSA. This data set contains averaged reflectance factors and transmitted radiances measured by the PARABOLA instrument at selected sites in the BOREAS SSA at different view angles and at three wavelength bands throughout the day. PARABOLA measurements were made during each of the three BOREAS IFCs during the growing season of 1994 at three SSA tower flux sites as well as during the FFC-T. Additional measurements were made in early and mid-1996 during the FFC-W and during IFC-2. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  3. Differences in the strength of cortical and brainstem inputs to SSA and non-SSA neurons in the inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Yaneri A.; Udeh, Adanna; Dutta, Kelsey; Bishop, Deborah; Malmierca, Manuel S.; Oliver, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    In an ever changing auditory scene, change detection is an ongoing task performed by the auditory brain. Neurons in the midbrain and auditory cortex that exhibit stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) may contribute to this process. Those neurons adapt to frequent sounds while retaining their excitability to rare sounds. Here, we test whether neurons exhibiting SSA and those without are part of the same networks in the inferior colliculus (IC). We recorded the responses to frequent and rare sounds and then marked the sites of these neurons with a retrograde tracer to correlate the source of projections with the physiological response. SSA neurons were confined to the non-lemniscal subdivisions and exhibited broad receptive fields, while the non-SSA were confined to the central nucleus and displayed narrow receptive fields. SSA neurons receive strong inputs from auditory cortical areas and very poor or even absent projections from the brainstem nuclei. On the contrary, the major sources of inputs to the neurons that lacked SSA were from the brainstem nuclei. These findings demonstrate that auditory cortical inputs are biased in favor of IC synaptic domains that are populated by SSA neurons enabling them to compare top-down signals with incoming sensory information from lower areas. PMID:25993334

  4. Remote Control Southern Hemisphere SSA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, I.; Pearson, M.; Sang, J.

    2013-09-01

    EOS Space Systems (EOSSS) is a research and development company which has developed custom observatories, camera and telescope systems for space surveillance since 1996, as well as creating several evolutions of systems control software for control of observatories and laser tracking systems. Our primary reserach observatory is the Space Reserach Centre (SRC) at Mount Stromlo Asutralia. The current SRC control systems are designed such that remote control can be offered for real time data collection, noise filtering and flexible session management. Several imaging fields of view are available simultaneously for tracking orbiting objects, with real time imaging to Mag 18. Orbiting objects can have the centroids post processed into orbital determination/ orbital projection (OD/OP) elements. With or without laser tracking of orbiting objects, they can be tracked in terminator conditions and their OD/OP data created, then enhanced by proprietary methods involving ballistic coefficient estimation and OD convergence pinning, using a priori radar elements. Sensors in development include a thermal imager for satellite thermal signature detection. Extending laser tracking range by use of adaptive optics beam control is also in development now. This Southern Hemisphere observatory is in a unique position to facilitate the study of space debris, either stand-alone or as part of a network such as Falcon. Current national and international contracts will enhance the remote control capabilities further, creating a resource ready to go for a wide variety of SSA missions.

  5. BOREAS TF-9 SSA-OBS Branch Level Flux Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayment, Mark B.; Jarvis, Paul G.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-9 team collected data that describe carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes from foliage at the BOREAS SSA-OBS site from 07-April through 23-November-1996. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  6. BOREAS TF-11 SSA-Fen Leaf Gas Exchange Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkebauer, Timothy J.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-11 team gathered a variety of data to complement its tower flux measurements collected at the SSA-Fen site. This data set contains single-leaf gas exchange data from the SSA-Fen site during 1994 and 1995. These leaf gas exchange properties were measured for the dominant vascular plants using portable gas exchange systems. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  7. Science opportunities offered by the European SSA-NEO segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolshagen, Gerhard; Koschny, Detlef; Bobrinsky, Nicolas

    The new ESA programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) initially consists of 3 segments: Space Surveillance and Tracking, Space Weather and Near-Earth Objects (NEO). The scope of the SSA-NEO segment includes the assessment of the impact risk with Earth from known NEOs, observations of NEO objects and the support of related international co-operations and mitigation measures. To fulfill its objectives the SSA-NEO system will , inter alia, support the detection and tracking of all NEOs above a given size or risk threshold, and determine the orbit state and physical parameters of NEOs and their associated uncertainties. It is also foreseen that the SSA-NEO system keeps a record of all larger fireballs and provides statistical information and predictions on meteoroid fluxes. The SSA-NEO segment offers numerous opportunities for scientific studies on small bodies in the solar system. Examples are: 1. Observations of asteroids and NEOs 2. Study of non-gravitational perturbing forces 3. New methods for precise determination of orbits and their evolution 4. Physical characterization of NEOs (Albedo, mass, density, composition, light curves, rotation rate, etc) 5. Fluxes of larger meteoroids This paper gives an overview of the SSA-NEO segment and discusses scientific opportunities offered by this programme.

  8. B-RAF mutation and accumulated gene methylation in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) and cancer in SSA/P

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, A; Okamoto, K; Fujino, Y; Nakagawa, T; Muguruma, N; Sannomiya, K; Mitsui, Y; Takaoka, T; Kitamura, S; Miyamoto, H; Okahisa, T; Fujimori, T; Imoto, I; Takayama, T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) are a putative precursor of colon cancer with microsatellite instability (MSI). However, the developmental mechanism of SSA/P remains unknown. We performed genetic analysis and genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), SSA/P, and cancer in SSA/P specimens to show a close association between ACF and the SSA/P-cancer sequence. We also evaluated the prevalence and number of ACF in SSA/P patients. Methods: ACF in the right-side colon were observed in 36 patients with SSA/Ps alone, 2 with cancers in SSA/P, and 20 normal subjects and biopsied under magnifying endoscopy. B-RAF mutation and MSI were analysed by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR–SSCP, respectively, in 15 ACF, 20 SSA/P, and 2 cancer specimens. DNA methylation array analysis of seven ACF, seven SSA/P, and two cancer in SSA/P specimens was performed using the microarray-based integrated analysis of methylation by isochizomers (MIAMI) method. Results: B-RAF mutations were frequently detected in ACF, SSA/P, and cancer in SSA/P tissues. The number of methylated genes increased significantly in the order of ACF<SSA/PSSA/P were PQLC1, HDHD3, RASL10B, FLI1, GJA3, and SLC26A2. Some of these genes were methylated in ACF, whereas all genes were methylated in cancers. Immunohistochemistry revealed their silenced expression. Microsatellite instability and MLH1 methylation were observed only in cancer. The prevalence and number of ACF were significantly higher in SSA/P patients than in normal subjects. A significant correlation was seen between the numbers of SSA/P and ACF in SSA/P patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that ACF are precursor lesions of the SSA/P-cancer sequence in patients with SSA/P, where ACF arise by B-RAF mutation and methylation of some of the six identified genes and develop into SSA/Ps through accumulated methylation of these genes. PMID

  9. BOREAS TGB-8 Photosynthetic Rate Data over the SSA-OBS and the SSA-OJP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor); Lerdau, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-8 team collected data to investigate the controls over NMHC fluxes from boreal forest tree species. This data set includes measurements of photosynthetic rates at mature jack pine and black spruce sites. The data were collected at the OJP and OBS tower flux locations in the BOREAS SSA. These areas contained mature stands of jack pine and black spruce and were the focal sites in the BOREAS program for studies of biosphere/atmosphere exchange from these two habitat types. The OBS site is situated in a black spruce/sphagnum bog with the largest trees 155 years old and 10-15 m tall. The OJP site is in a jack pine forest, 80 to 120 years old, which lies on a sandy bench of glacial outwash with the largest tree standing 15 m tall. Temporally, the data cover the period of 24-May-1994 to 19-Sep-1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  10. Synthesis of multi-functionalized benzofurans through the condensation of ninhydrin and phenols using SSA as a recyclable heterogeneous acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Ashis; Pramanik, Animesh

    2016-08-01

    A simple and efficient one-pot methodology has been developed for the synthesis of biologically important multi-functionalized 3-(2[Formula: see text]-hydroxyaryl)-2-(2[Formula: see text]-carboxyphenyl)benzofurans using silica sulfuric acid (SSA) as a heterogeneous acid catalyst in DMF medium. The significant advantages of this methodology are the use of SSA as a recyclable solid acid catalyst, operational simplicity, easy availability of the starting materials, and good yield of the products with high atom-economy. PMID:26829938

  11. Preliminary approach of the MELiSSA loop energy balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, Lucie; Lamaze, Brigitte; Lebrun, Jean

    Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require a huge amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen). Current rockets are at the moment unable to launch such a mass from Earth. Consequently Regenerative Life Support Systems are necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling rates and so reduce the launched mass. Thus the European and Canadian research has been concentrating on the MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) project over the last 20 years. MELiSSA is an Environmental Controlled Life Support System (ECLSS), i.e. a closed regenerative loop inspired of a lake ecosystem. Using light as a source of energy, MELiSSA's goal is the recovery of food, water and oxygen from CO2 and organic wastes, using microorganisms and higher plants. The architecture of a ECLSS depends widely on the mission scenario. To compare several ECLSS architectures and in order to be able to evaluate them, ESA is developing a multi criteria evaluation tool: ALISSE (Advanced LIfe Support System Evaluator). One of these criteria is the energy needed to operate the ECLSS. Unlike other criteria like the physical mass, the energy criterion has not been investigated yet and needs hence a detailed analysis. It will consequently be the focus of this study. The main objective of the work presented here is to develop a dynamic tool able to estimate the energy balance for several configurations of the MELiSSA loop. The first step consists in establishing the energy balance using concrete figures from the MELiSSA Pilot Plant (MPP). This facility located at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) is aimed at the ground demonstration of the MELiSSA loop. The MELiSSA loop is structured on several subsystems; each of them is characterized by supplies, exhausts and process reactions. For the purpose of this study (i.e. a generic tool) the solver EES (Engineering

  12. BOREAS TGB-8 Starch Concentration Data Over the SSA-OBS and the SSA-OJP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerdau, Manuel; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-8 team collected data to investigate the controls over NMHC fluxes from boreal forest tree species. This data set includes measurements of starch concentrations in foliar samples at mature jack pine and black spruce sites. The data were collected at the OJP and OBS tower flux locations in the BOREAS SSA. These areas contained mature stands of jack pine and black spruce and were the focal sites in the BOREAS program for studies of biosphere/atmosphere exchange from these two habitat types. The OBS site is situated in a black spruce/sphagnum bog with the largest trees 155 years old and 10-15 m tall. The OJP site is in a jack pine forest, 80 to 120 years old, which lies on a sandy bench of glacial outwash with the largest tree standing 15 m tall. Temporally, the data cover the period of 24-May-1994 to 19-Sep-1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  13. 20 CFR 411.630 - Is SSA's decision final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is SSA's decision final? 411.630 Section 411.630 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Ticket to Work Program Dispute Resolution Disputes Between Beneficiaries and Employment Networks §...

  14. 20 CFR 411.660 - Is SSA's decision final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is SSA's decision final? 411.660 Section 411.660 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Ticket to Work Program Dispute Resolution Disputes Between Employment Networks and Program Managers §...

  15. 20 CFR 411.660 - Is SSA's decision final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is SSA's decision final? 411.660 Section 411.660 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Ticket to Work Program Dispute Resolution Disputes Between Employment Networks and Program Managers §...

  16. 20 CFR 411.630 - Is SSA's decision final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is SSA's decision final? 411.630 Section 411.630 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Ticket to Work Program Dispute Resolution Disputes Between Beneficiaries and Employment Networks §...

  17. 20 CFR 411.630 - Is SSA's decision final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is SSA's decision final? 411.630 Section 411.630 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Ticket to Work Program Dispute Resolution Disputes Between Beneficiaries and Employment Networks §...

  18. 20 CFR 411.660 - Is SSA's decision final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Is SSA's decision final? 411.660 Section 411.660 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Ticket to Work Program Dispute Resolution Disputes Between Employment Networks and Program Managers §...

  19. 20 CFR 411.630 - Is SSA's decision final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Is SSA's decision final? 411.630 Section 411.630 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Ticket to Work Program Dispute Resolution Disputes Between Beneficiaries and Employment Networks §...

  20. 20 CFR 411.660 - Is SSA's decision final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is SSA's decision final? 411.660 Section 411.660 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Ticket to Work Program Dispute Resolution Disputes Between Employment Networks and Program Managers §...

  1. 20 CFR 411.630 - Is SSA's decision final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is SSA's decision final? 411.630 Section 411.630 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Ticket to Work Program Dispute Resolution Disputes Between Beneficiaries and Employment Networks §...

  2. 20 CFR 411.660 - Is SSA's decision final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is SSA's decision final? 411.660 Section 411.660 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Ticket to Work Program Dispute Resolution Disputes Between Employment Networks and Program Managers §...

  3. BOREAS TGB-10 Volatile Organic Carbon Data over the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westberg, Hal; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor); Hall, Brad; Jackson, Andrea V.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-10 team collected several trace gas data sets in its efforts to determine the role of biogenic hydrocarbon emissions with respect to boreal forest carbon cycles. This data set contains measured VOC concentrations. These data were obtained at the SSA-OJP site from May to September 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  4. 76 FR 41685 - Electronic Substitutions for Form SSA-538

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 416 RIN 0960-AH02 Electronic Substitutions for Form SSA-538 AGENCY: Social Security... our use of electronic case processing at the initial and reconsideration levels of our administrative... improve our efficiency by increasing our use of electronic resources. DATES: These rules are effective...

  5. The Benefits Trap: Barriers to Employment Experienced by SSA Beneficiaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olney, Marjorie F.; Lyle, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    In the first of two rounds of interviews, 12 Social Security Administration (SSA) beneficiaries, all of whom professed a desire to work, discussed their perspectives on barriers to employment. Two years later, 8 of the 12 engaged in a second round of interviews. Only 1 of the 8 participants had succeeded in becoming self-supporting. After a review…

  6. 20 CFR 422.710 - Procedures SSA will follow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... written certification of need to the Commissioner of Social Security or designee at least 30 days before... 422.710 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES Use of SSA... information on the following: the operational need for listening-in to or recording telephone...

  7. BOREAS TF-1 SSA-OA Soil Characteristics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Z; Nesic, Z.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-1 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret soil information at the SSA-OA tower site in 1994 as part of BOREAS. Data sets collected include soil respiration, temperature, moisture, and gravimetric data. The data are stored in tabular ASCII format.

  8. 20 CFR 403.155 - Does SSA certify records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... authenticity of copies of records we disclose pursuant to 20 CFR parts 401 and 402, and this part. We will... certification are set forth in 20 CFR 402.165(e). ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does SSA certify records? 403.155 Section...

  9. 20 CFR 403.155 - Does SSA certify records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... authenticity of copies of records we disclose pursuant to 20 CFR parts 401 and 402, and this part. We will... certification are set forth in 20 CFR 402.165(e). ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does SSA certify records? 403.155 Section...

  10. 77 FR 38880 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Railroad Retirement Board (SSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    .... Specified Data Elements We will conduct the computer match using each individual's Social Security Number... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/ Railroad Retirement Board...

  11. BOREAS TE-18 Biomass Density Image of the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team focused its efforts on using remotely sensed data to characterize the successional and disturbance dynamics of the boreal forest for use in carbon modeling. This biomass density image covers almost the entire BOREAS SSA. The pixels for which biomass density is computed include areas, that are in conifer land cover classes only. The biomass density values represent the amount of overstory biomass (i.e., tree biomass only) per unit area. It is derived from a Landsat-5 TM image collected on 02-Sep-1994. The technique that was used to create this image is very similar to the technique that was as used to create the physical classification of the SSA. The data are provided in a binary image file format. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  12. International and NASA SSA and Safety of Flight Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas K,

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reviews the international and NASA interests in Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and space debris as it affects space flight safety. The international interesrt has increased since the collision of the Iridium and Cosmos satellites in 2009. The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN COPUOS) has commenced a multi-year effort to review the long-term sustainability of outer space activities.

  13. Direct interactions between molecular chaperones heat-shock protein (Hsp) 70 and Hsp40: yeast Hsp70 Ssa1 binds the extreme C-terminal region of yeast Hsp40 Sis1.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinguo; Hou, Wenbo; Zhengang, Li; Sha, Bingdong

    2002-01-01

    Heat-shock protein 40 (Hsp40) enables Hsp70 to play critical roles in a number of cellular processes, such as protein folding, assembly, degradation and translocation in vivo. Hsp40 recognizes and binds non-native polypeptides and delivers them to Hsp70. Then Hsp40 stimulates the ATPase activity of Hsp70 to fold the polypeptides. By using yeast Hsp40 Sis1 and yeast Hsp70 Ssa1 as our model proteins, we found that the Sis1 peptide-binding fragment interacts directly with the full-length Ssa1 in vitro. Further studies showed that the C-terminal lid domain of Ssa1 could interact with Sis1 peptide-binding domain physically in vitro. The Sis1 peptide-binding fragment forms a stable complex with the Ssa1 C-terminal lid domain in solution. The interactions between these two proteins appear to be charge-charge interactions because high-ionic-strength buffer can dissociate the complex. Further mapping studies showed that the Sis1 peptide-binding fragment binds the extreme C-terminal 15 amino acid residues of Ssa1. A flexible glycine-rich region is followed by these 15 residues in the Ssa1 primary sequence. Atomic force microscopy of the Sis1-Ssa1 complex showed that only one end of the Ssa1 lid domain binds the Sis1 peptide-binding-fragment dimer at the upper level of the huge groove within the Sis1 dimer. Based on the data, we propose an "anchoring and docking" model to illustrate the mechanisms by which Hsp40 interacts with Hsp70 and delivers the non-native polypeptide to Hsp70. PMID:11743879

  14. BOREAS TE-12 SSA Leaf Water Potential Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.; Chen, L.; Yang, Litao

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected water potential data in 1993 and 1994 from aspen, jack pine, and black spruce leaves/needles. Collections were made at the Southern Study Area Nipawin Fen Site (SSA FEN), Young Jack Pine (YJP), Young Aspen (YA), Old Aspen (OA), and Old Black Spruce (OBS) sites. Measurements were made using a pressure chamber on a platform in the field. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  15. BOREAS TF-11 Decomposition Data over the SSA-Fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, David W.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-11 team collected several data sets in its efforts to fully describe the flux and site characteristics at the SSA-Fen site. This data set contains decomposition rates of a standard substrate (wheat straw) across treatments. The measurements were conducted in 1994 as part of a 2 x 2 factorial experiment in which we added carbon (300 g/sq m as wheat straw) and nitrogen (6 g/sq m as urea) to four replicate locations in the vicinity of the TF-11 tower. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  16. BOREAS TF-11 Biomass Data over the SSA-Fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, David W.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-11 team collected several data sets in its efforts to fully describe the flux and site characteristics at the SSA-Fen site. This data set contains plant cover, standing crop of plant biomass, and estimated net primary productivity at each chamber site at the end of the 1994 field season. The measurements were conducted as part of a 2 x 2 factorial experiment in which we added carbon (300 g/sq m as wheat straw) and nitrogen (6 g/sq m as urea) to four replicate locations in the vicinity of the TF-11 tower. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  17. Flexible Next-Generation Space-Based SSA Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A.; Haley, C.; Rowlands, N.

    2014-09-01

    COM DEVs compact Sapphire optical payload is currently providing Space Situational Awareness in a dedicated low earth orbit mission to better than 16th visual magnitude. This LEO instrument is sufficient for imaging the vast majority of large GEO satellites, but misses a significant population of fainter uncatalogued deep space objects with median apparent brightness near 18th magnitude. Modern detector technology allows significant increases in sensitivity that will enable future Sapphire variants to catalogue this population within the same compact volume envelope. This enhanced SSA mission could provide a low cost revenue stream to a GEOsat operator with spare resources to act as a host. It could also operate as a dedicated microsatellite mission. Unfortunately, both options typically require costly attitude control system upgrades to provide the pointing stability necessary for deep SSA. We present a compact, high frame-rate hosted payload architecture that requires no optimization for host jitter or fine pointing drift, and assess its expected performance relative to the Sapphire optical payload.

  18. BOREAS TE-1 SSA-Fen Soil Profile Nutrient Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papagno, Andrea; Anderson, Darwin; Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-1 team collected various data to characterize the soil-plant systems in the BOREAS SSA. Particular emphasis was placed on nutrient biochemistry, the stores and transfers of organic carbon, and how the characteristics were related to measured methane fluxes. The overall traniect in the Prince Albert National Park (Saskatchewan, Canada) included the major plant communities and related soils that occurred in that section of the boreal forest. Soil physical, chemical, and biological measurements along the transect were used to characterize the static environment, which allowed them to be related to methane fluxes. Chamber techniques were used to provide a measure of methane production/uptake. Chamber measurements coupled with flask sampling were used to determine the seasonality of methane fluxes. This particular data set contains soil profile measurements of various nutrients at the SSA-Fen site. The data were collected from 23-May to 21-Oct- 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  19. 20 CFR 411.330 - How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance? 411.330 Section 411.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Networks § 411.330 How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance? (a) We...

  20. 20 CFR 411.330 - How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance? 411.330 Section 411.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Networks § 411.330 How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance? (a) We...

  1. 20 CFR 411.330 - How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance? 411.330 Section 411.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Networks § 411.330 How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance? (a) We...

  2. 20 CFR 411.330 - How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance? 411.330 Section 411.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Networks § 411.330 How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance? (a) We...

  3. 20 CFR 411.330 - How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance? 411.330 Section 411.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Networks § 411.330 How will SSA evaluate an EN's performance? (a) We...

  4. 20 CFR 439.400 - What are my responsibilities as an SSA awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are my responsibilities as an SSA awarding official? 439.400 Section 439.400 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Responsibilities of SSA...

  5. The organic fraction of bubble-generated, accumulation mode Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modini, R. L.; Harris, B.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies have detected a dominant accumulation mode (~100 nm) in the Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA) number distribution. There is evidence to suggest that particles in this mode are composed primarily of organics. To investigate this hypothesis we conducted experiments on NaCl, artificial SSA and natural SSA particles with a Volatility-Hygroscopicity-Tandem-Differential-Mobility-Analyser (VH-TDMA). NaCl particles were atomiser generated and a bubble generator was constructed to produce artificial and natural SSA particles. Natural seawater samples for use in the bubble generator were collected from biologically active, terrestrially-affected coastal water in Moreton Bay, Australia. Differences in the VH-TDMA-measured volatility curves of artificial and natural SSA particles were used to investigate and quantify the organic fraction of natural SSA particles. Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF) data, also obtained by the VH-TDMA, were used to confirm the conclusions drawn from the volatility data. Both datasets indicated that the organic fraction of our natural SSA particles evaporated in the VH-TDMA over the temperature range 170-200 °C. The organic volume fraction for 71-77 nm natural SSA particles was 8±6%. Organic volume fraction did not vary significantly with varying water residence time (40 s to 24 h) in the bubble generator or SSA particle diameter in the range 38-173 nm. At room temperature we measured shape- and Kelvin-corrected HGF at 90% RH of 2.46±0.02 for NaCl, 2.35±0.02 for artifical SSA and 2.26±0.02 for natural SSA particles. Overall, these results suggest that the natural accumulation mode SSA particles produced in these experiments contained only a minor organic fraction, which had little effect on hygroscopic growth. Our measurement of 8±6% is an order of magnitude below two previous measurements of the organic fraction in SSA particles of comparable sizes. We stress that our results were obtained using coastal seawater and they can't necessarily

  6. The organic fraction of bubble-generated, accumulation mode Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modini, R. L.; Harris, B.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have detected a dominant accumulation mode (~100 nm) in the Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA) number distribution. There is evidence to suggest that particles in this mode are composed primarily of organics. To investigate this hypothesis we conducted experiments on NaCl, artificial SSA and natural SSA particles with a Volatility-Hygroscopicity-Tandem-Differential-Mobility-Analyser (VH-TDMA). NaCl particles were atomiser generated and a bubble generator was constructed to produce artificial and natural SSA particles. Natural seawater samples for use in the bubble generator were collected from biologically active, terrestrially-affected coastal water in Moreton Bay, Australia. Differences in the VH-TDMA-measured volatility curves of artificial and natural SSA particles were used to investigate and quantify the organic fraction of natural SSA particles. Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF) data, also obtained by the VH-TDMA, were used to confirm the conclusions drawn from the volatility data. Both datasets indicated that the organic fraction of our natural SSA particles evaporated in the VH-TDMA over the temperature range 170-200°C. The organic volume fraction for 71-77 nm natural SSA particles was 8±6%. Organic volume fraction did not vary significantly with varying water residence time (40 s0 to 24 h) in the bubble generator or SSA particle diameter in the range 38-173 nm. At room temperature we measured shape- and Kelvin-corrected HGF at 90% RH of 2.46±0.02 for NaCl, 2.35±0.02 for artifical SSA and 2.26±0.02 for natural SSA particles. Overall, these results suggest that the natural accumulation mode SSA particles produced in these experiments contained only a minor organic fraction, which had little effect on hygroscopic growth. Our measurement of 8±6% is an order of magnitude below two previous measurements of the organic fraction in SSA particles of comparable sizes. Further studies with a variety of different seawaters are required to better quantify how

  7. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    Higher plants play an important role in closed ecological life support systems as oxygen pro-ducers, carbon dioxide and water recyclers, and as a food source. For an integration of higher plant chambers into the MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) loop, a detailed characterization and optimization of the full food production and preparation chain is needed. This implies the prediction and control of the nutritional quality of the final products consumed by the crew, the prediction of the wastes quality and quantity produced along the chain for further waste treatment (MELiSSA waste treatment) and the optimization of overall efficiencies. To reach this goal several issues have to be studied in an integrated manner: the physiological responses of crops to a range of environmental parameters, crop yield efficiencies and respective ratio and composition of edible and inedible biomass, the processability and storability of the produced food and last but not least composition of wastes in view of further degradation (fiber content). Within the Food Characterization (FC) project several compar-ative plant growth bench tests were carried out to obtain preliminary data regarding these aspects. Four pre-selected cultivars of each of the four energy-rich crops with worldwide usage -wheat, durum wheat, potato and soybean -were grown under well-characterized environmental conditions. The different cultivars of each species are screened for their performance in view of a closed loop application by parameter ranking. This comprises the characterization of edi-ble/inedible biomass ratio, nutritional quality, processability and overall performance under the specific conditions of hydroponic cultivation and artificial illumination. A second closely linked goal of the FC project is to develop a mechanistic physiological plant model, which will ease the integration of higher plants compartments in the MELiSSA concept by virtue of its predictive abilities

  8. Human Decision Processes: Implications for SSA Support Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picciano, P.

    2013-09-01

    Despite significant advances in computing power and artificial intelligence (AI), few critical decisions are made without a human decision maker in the loop. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) missions are both critical and complex, typically adhering to the human-in-the-loop (HITL) model. The collection of human operators injects a needed diversity of expert knowledge, experience, and authority required to successfully fulfill SSA tasking. A wealth of literature on human decision making exists citing myriad empirical studies and offering a varied set of prescriptive and descriptive models of judgment and decision making (Hastie & Dawes, 2001; Baron, 2000). Many findings have been proven sufficiently robust to allow information architects or system/interface designers to take action to improve decision processes. For the purpose of discussion, these concepts are bifurcated in two groups: 1) vulnerabilities to mitigate, and 2) capabilities to augment. These vulnerabilities and capabilities refer specifically to the decision process and should not be confused with a shortcoming or skill of a specific human operator. Thus the framing of questions and orders, the automated tools with which to collaborate, priming and contextual data, and the delivery of information all play a critical role in human judgment and choice. Evaluating the merits of any decision can be elusive; in order to constrain this discussion, ‘rational choice' will tend toward the economic model characteristics such as maximizing utility and selection consistency (e.g., if A preferred to B, and B preferred to C, than A should be preferred to C). Simple decision models often encourage one to list the pros and cons of a decision, perhaps use a weighting schema, but one way or another weigh the future benefit (or harm) of making a selection. The result (sought by the rationalist models) should drive toward higher utility. Despite notable differences in researchers' theses (to be discussed in the full

  9. [Congenital heart block associated with maternal anti SSA/SSB antibodies :a report of four cases].

    PubMed

    Ayed, K; Gorgi, Y; Sfar, I; Khrouf, M

    2004-04-01

    Congenital heart block (CHB) associated with maternal anti-SSA/SSB antibodies: a report of four cases. CHB detected in utero is strongly associated with maternal antibodies to SSA (Ro) and SSB (La). Their pathogenic role in the development of CHB has been established in several studies. The mothers of affected infants frequently had autoimmune disease (systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome) or were entirely asymptomatic. It is very difficult to identify pregnant asymptomatic mothers carrying anti-SSA/SSB antibodies. We report four cases of infants born to asymptomatic mothers with anti-SSA/SSB antibodies, three of them developed isolated congenital cardiac heart block and one with no evidence of CHB. All three CHB are detected during pregnancy between 16 and 24 weeks of gestation. All maternal sera contained antibodies to SSA alone or the both SSA and SSB. Three of four subsequent pregnancies were complicated by heart block. One child affected died in utero. While the two other newborns with CHB required pacemaker insertion during the first 3 months of life. Although the association of anti-SSA/SSB with CHB is widely accepted, the precise mechanism by which these antibodies cause cardiac conduction abnormalities remains to be defined. Antibodies to SSA/SSB have been proposed to be a serologic marker for neonatal lupus syndrome and CHB. Fetal and neonatal diseases are presumed to be due to the transplacental passage of these IgG autoantibodies from the mother into the fetal circulation. Since these antibodies may have a pathogenic role in CHB, screening of infants with isolated CHB or neonatal lupus and their mothers for the presence of anti-SSA and anti-SSB is strongly recommended. PMID:15063933

  10. Results and Analysis of the ESA SSA Radar Tracking Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontdecaba Baig, Jordi; Martinerie, Francis; Sutter, Moise; Martinot, Vincent; Ameline, Patrick; Blazejczak, Eric; Fletcher, Emmet

    2013-08-01

    Following the decision at the Ministerial Council 2008 to initiate a Preparatory Programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA), the European Space Agency started a series of activities together with industry, implementing both classical design approaches: bottom-up and top-down. For the Space Surveillance and Tracking segment of the programme, the bottom-up approach was initially addressed through various activities to evaluate the potential performance of contemporary European resources. One element of this investigation was the assessment of the existing European assets that can be used to generate tracking data on Earth orbiting objects at all altitudes between LEO and the GEO graveyard orbits. The study addressed both the technical performances of the assets and the identification of the operational constraints characteristic for each sensor. In this context, a paper was presented at the 2011 European Space Surveillance Conference in Madrid, Spain that discussed the results obtained using two existing European radars: EISCAT and Chilbolton. The emphasis of this new paper is to analyse the results obtained from a third asset: the BEM Monge, a measurement and test vessel of the French Navy operated for the French Direction Générale de l'Armement (DGA). The Monge's three primary radars were designed with the specific mission to detect and characterise the trajectory of missiles as part of France's national missile defence programme, however the radar on-board the Monge are also able to detect and track Earth-orbiting objects. Even though this role is not the primary one for the system, the achieved accuracy of the orbital tracks and resulting orbit determination is several orders of magnitude better than radars that have been developed for other uses. The evaluation carried out in the frame of the SSA programme helped demonstrate that the systems provided by the Monge are able to perform orbital tracking within the performance requirements of a federated SSA

  11. BOREAS TGB-10 Oxidant Flux Data over the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor); Westberg, Hal; Hall, Brad; Jackson, Andrea V.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-10 team collected several trace gas data sets in its efforts to determine the role of biogenic hydrocarbon emissions with respect to boreal forest carbon cycles. This oxidant data set contains measured peroxide (H2O2 and total organic peroxides (ROOH)) and ozone concentrations as well as H2O2 and ROOH deposition velocities. These data were obtained at the SSA-OJP site during the summer of 1994. Measurements were made from May to September 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. Some important results were: (1) Ozone concentrations were consistently low, 20-30 ppb, during the summer of 1994. (2) Peroxide concentrations showed a seasonal variation with highest concentrations occurring in July (IFC-2). (3) Midday H2O2 levels averaged around 1.4 ppb during IFC-2 and 0.4 - 0.5 ppb during IFC's 1 and 3. (4) Midday organic peroxide concentrations were lower, averaging 0.8 ppb during IFC-2, and 0.4 - 0.5 ppb during IFC's 1 and 3. (5) The rough pine forest canopy serves as a significant sink for H2O2. (6) Midday H2O2 deposition velocities averaged 4 - 7 cm/s. (7) Organic peroxide deposition velocities (measured as total ROOH) were approximately 40% as large as those of H2O2.

  12. BOREAS TGB-10 Oxidant Concentration Data over the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor); Westberg, Hal; Hall, Brad; Jackson, Andrea V.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-10 team collected several trace gas data sets in its efforts to determine the role of biogenic hydrocarbon emissions with respect to boreal forest carbon cycles. This data set contains measured peroxide (H2O2 and total organic peroxides (ROOH)) and ozone concentrations as well as H2O2 and ROOH deposition velocities. These data were obtained at the SSA-OJP site from May to September 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. Some important results were: (1) Ozone concentrations were consistently low, 20-30 ppb, during the summer of 1994. (2) Peroxide concentrations showed a seasonal variation with highest concentrations occurring in July (IFC-2). (3) Midday H2O2 levels averaged around 1.4 ppb during IFC-2 and 0.4 - 0.5 ppb during IFC's 1 and 3. (4) Midday organic peroxide concentrations were lower, averaging 0.8 ppb during IFC-2, and 0.4 - 0.5 ppb during IFC's 1 and 3. (5) The rough pine forest canopy serves as a significant sink for H2O2. (6) Midday H2O2 deposition velocities averaged 4 - 7 cm/s. (7) Organic peroxide deposition velocities (measured as total ROOH) were approximately 40% as large as those of H2O2.

  13. BOREAS TE-12 Leaf Optical Data for SSA Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.; Chen, L.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-12 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the reflectance, transmittance, and gas exchange of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of hemispherical spectral reflectance and transmittance factors of individual leaves, needles (ages: current and past 2 years' growth, i.e., for 1993, the growing seasons of 1993, 1992, and 1991 were measured; in 1994, the growing seasons of 1994, 1993, and 1992 were measured), twigs (reflectance only), and substrate at near-normal incidence measured using a LI-COR LI-1800-12 integrating sphere attached to a Spectron Engineering SE590 spectroradiometer. Procedures of Daughtry et a]. (1989) were followed. These procedures permitted measurement of samples that: (1) filled the entire integrating sphere sample port; and (2) were narrow with a length greater than the sample port diameter. Optical properties were measured in 1993 and 1994 at the SSA Fen, YJP, YA, and OBS sites. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  14. The SSA Technique as a Means to Reflect Pre-Post Workshop's Modifications in Medical Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Sophia; Neumann, Lily

    1987-01-01

    Smallest space analysis (SSA), a nonmetric multidimensional scaling procedure, was used to examine the effects of a four-day medical faculty workshop on the classroom verbal activities of medical faculty and students in an Israeli university. (Author/MSE)

  15. BOREAS TF-11 SSA-Fen Soil Surface CO2 Flux Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkebauer, Timothy J.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-11 team gathered a variety of data to complement its tower flux measurements collected at the SSA-Fen site. These data are soil surface CO 2 flux data at the SSA-Fen site from 27- May-1994 to 23-Sep-1994 and from 13-May-1995 to 03-Oct-1995. A portable gas exchange system was used to make these measurements. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  16. BOREAS TF-1 SSA-OA Weekly Tower CH4 and N2O Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurtell, George; Edwards, Grant; Simpson, George; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-1 team collected various trace gas and energy flux data in its efforts to characterize the temporal energy and gas exchanges that occurred over the SSA-OA site. This data set contains methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes that were measured at the BOREAS SSA-OA site. These fluxes were measured from 16-Apr to 16-Sep-1994. The data were averaged to weekly values and are available in tabular ASCII files.

  17. The location of a disease-associated polymorphism and genomic structure of the human 52-kDa Ro/SSA locus (SSA1)

    SciTech Connect

    Tsugu, H.; Horowitz, R.; Gibson, N.

    1994-12-01

    Sera from approximately 30% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) contain high titers of autoantibodies that bind to the 52-kDa Ro/SSA protein. We previously detected polymorphisms in the 52-kDa Ro/SSA gene (SSA1) with restriction enzymes, one of which is strongly associated with the presence of SLE (P < 0.0005) in African Americans. A higher disease frequency and more severe forms of the disease are commonly noted among these female patients. To determine the location and nature of this polymorphism, we obtained two clones that span 8.5 kb of the 52-kDa Ro/SSA locus including its upstream regulatory region. Six exons were identified, and their nucleotide sequences plus adjacent noncoding regions were determined. No differences were found between these exons and the coding region of one of the reported cDNAs. The disease-associated polymorphic site suggested by a restriction enzyme map and confirmed by DNA amplification and nucleotide sequencing was present upstream of exon 1. This polymorphism may be a genetic marker for a disease-related variation in the coding region for the protein or in the upstream regulatory region of this gene. Although this RFLP is present in Japanese, it is not associated with lupus in this race. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Application of Use Case Scenarios to Support the Development of a Future SSA Governance and Data Policy in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, Juan-Luis; Albani, Sergio; Gallardo, Beatriz; Matute, Jacobo; O'Dwyer, Anthony

    2013-08-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) refers to the knowledge of location and function of space objects and of the space environment, including operational satellites, space debris, near Earth objects and space weather. The development of a European SSA system will underpin the exploitation of European space assets, representing a key capability contributing to the autonomous access to space for Europe. [1] The European Union Satellite Centre (EU SatCen), through the "Support to Precursor space situational Awareness services" (SPA) project, has backed SSA activities in Europe by providing a set of suggestions and recommendations to support decision-making regarding the development of SSA Governance and Data Policy. [10

  19. Retrieval of snow Specific Surface Area (SSA) from MODIS data in mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mary, A.; Dumont, M.; Dedieu, J.-P.; Durand, Y.; Sirguey, P.; Milhem, H.; Mestre, O.; Negi, H. S.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    This study describes a method to retrieve snow specific surface area (SSA) from satellite radiance reasurements in mountainous terrain. It aims at comparing different retrieval methods and at addressing topographic corrections of reflectance, namely slope and aspect of terrain and multiple reflections on neighbouring slopes. We use an iterative algorithm to compute reflectance from radiance of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) with a comprehensive correction of local illumination with regards to topography. The retrieved SSA is compared to the results of the snowpack model Crocus, fed by driving data from the SAFRAN meteorological analysis, over a large domain in the French Alps. We compared SSA retrievals with and without topographic or anisotropy correction, and with a spherical or non-spherical snow reflectance model. The topographic correction enables SSA to be retrieved in better agreement with those from SAFRAN-Crocus. The root mean square deviation is 10.0 m2 kg-1 and the bias is -0.6 m2 kg-1, over 3829 pixels representing seven different dates and snow conditions. The standard deviation of MODIS retrieved data, larger than the one of SAFRAN-Crocus estimates, is responsible for half this RMSD. It is due to the topographic classes used by SAFRAN-Crocus. In addition, MODIS retrieved data show SSA gradients with elevation and solar exposition, physically consistent and in good agreement with SAFRAN-Crocus.

  20. RFI suppression in SAR based on filtering interpretation of SSA and fast implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Weidong; Qi, Xiangyang; Liu, Yue

    2012-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has proven to be a powerful remote sensing instrument for underground and obscured object detection. However, SAR echoes are often contaminated by radio frequency interferences (RFI) from multiple broadcasting stations. Essentially, RFI suppression problem is one-dimensional stationary time series denoising problem. This article proposed a novel RFI suppression algorithm based on singular spectral analysis (SSA) from a linear invariant systems perspective. It can be seen that SSA algorithm has an equivalence relation with finite impulse response (FIR) filter banks. Besides, this article first introduce two approximated methods which can remarkably speed up spectral decomposition--Nyström method and Column-Sampling approximation--to obtain the coefficients of above SSA-FIR-filter. Simulation results and imaging results of measured data have proved the efficiency and validity of this algorithm.

  1. Monte Carlo SSA: Detecting irregular oscillations in the Presence of Colored Noise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Myles R.; Smith, Leonard A.

    1996-12-01

    Singular systems (or singular spectrum) analysis (SSA) was originally proposed for noise reduction in the analysis of experimental data and is now becoming widely used to identify intermittent or modulated oscillations in geophysical and climatic time series. Progress has been hindered by a lack of effective statistical tests to discriminate between potential oscillations and anything but the simplest form of noise, that is, `white' (independent, identically distributed) noise, in which power is independent of frequency. The authors show how the basic formalism of SSA provides a natural test for modulated oscillations against an arbitrary `colored noise' null hypothesis. This test, Monte Carlo SSA, is illustrated using synthetic data in three situations: (i) where there is prior knowledge of the power-spectral characteristics of the noise, a situation expected in some laboratory and engineering applications, or when the `noise' against which the data is being tested consists of the output of an independently specified model, such as a climate model; (ii) where a simple hypothetical noise model is tested, namely, that the data consists only of white or colored noise; and (iii) where a composite hypothetical noise model is tested, assuming some deterministic components have already been found in the data, such as a trend or annual cycle, and it needs to be established whether the remainder may be attributed to noise. The authors examine two historical temperature records and show that the strength of the evidence provided by SSA for interannual and interdecadal climate oscillations in such data has been considerably overestimated. In contrast, multiple inter- and subannual oscillatory components are identified in an extended Southern Oscillation index at a high significance level. The authors explore a number of variations on the Monte Carlo SSA algorithm and note that it is readily applicable to multivariate series, covering standard empirical orthogonal functions

  2. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) associated with SSA antibody in primary Sjögren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nishinarita, M; Nakagawa, M; Tanaka, E

    2000-06-01

    Abstract A 33-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) in 1995. At this time, SSA antibody had not been detected by the Oucterlony or EIA methods. Two years later, the patient developed dyspnea. A chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly. An echocardiogram indicated severe diffuse hypokynesis of the cardiac wall with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 32%. Positive SSA antibody (over 500 u/ml) was noted in her serum as measured by the EIA method. We considered her cardiac manifestation to be dilated cardiomyopathy associated with primary SS. PMID:24383566

  3. An expanded phenotype of maternal SSA/SSB antibody-associated fetal cardiac disease

    PubMed Central

    CUNEO, BETTINA F.; STRASBURGER, JANETTE F.; NIKSCH, ALISA; OVADIA, MARC; WAKAI, RONALD T.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Conventional manifestations of fetal Sjögren’s antibodies (SSA/SSB) associated cardiac disease include atrio-ventricular block (AVB), transient sinus bradycardia, endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) and dilated cardiomyopathy. We describe other manifestations of cardiac disease. Methods We describe three fetuses with unique myocardial and conduction system disease. Results One had isolated EFE with subsequent mitral and tricuspid valve chordal avulsion, the second had sinoatrial and infrahissian conduction system disease, and in both, neonatal progression to life threatening disease occurred. The third had sinus node dysfunction and atrial flutter. Conclusion These findings expand the clinical phenotype of maternal SSA/SSB antibody associated fetal cardiac disease. PMID:19330707

  4. BOREAS TE-1 Soils Data Over The SSA Tower Sites in Raster Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Anderson, Darwin; Knapp, David E.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-1 team collected various data to characterize the soil-plant systems in the BOREAS SSA. This data set was gridded from vector layers of soil maps that were received from Dr. Darwin Anderson (TE-1), who did the original soil mapping in the field during 1994. The vector layers were gridded into raster files that cover approximately 1 square kilometer over each of the tower sites in the SSA. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  5. 75 FR 32833 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Office of Personnel Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    .../Central-1 (Civil Service and Insurance Records), on October 8, 1999 (64 FR 54930), as amended on May 3, 2000 (65 FR 25775). We will match the OPM data with the SSA SOR (60-0321), the SSA's Medicare Database... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL...

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    ... Special Veterans Benefit (SSR), SSA/OASSIS 60-0103, as published at 71 FR 1795 (January 11, 2006). SSA... information with respect to unearned income from the IRMF, Treas./IRS 22.061, as published at 77 FR 47946-947... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  13. The Relationship of the Lipoprotein SsaB, Manganese, and Superoxide Dismutase in Streptococcus sanguinis Virulence for Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Katie E.; Bainbridge, Brian; Brusko, Sarah; Turner, Lauren S.; Ge, Xiuchun; Stone, Victoria; Xu, Ping; Kitten, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Summary Streptococcus sanguinis colonizes teeth and is an important cause of infective endocarditis. Our prior work showed that the lipoprotein SsaB is critical for S. sanguinis virulence for endocarditis and belongs to the LraI family of conserved metal transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that an ssaB mutant accumulates less manganese and iron than its parent. A mutant lacking the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase, SodA, was significantly less virulent than wild-type in a rabbit model of endocarditis, but significantly more virulent than the ssaB mutant. Neither the ssaB nor the sodA mutation affected sensitivity to phagocytic killing or efficiency of heart valve colonization. Animal virulence results for all strains could be reproduced by growing bacteria in serum under physiological levels of O2. SodA activity was reduced, but not eliminated in the ssaB mutant in serum and in rabbits. Growth of the ssaB mutant in serum was restored upon addition of Mn2+ or removal of O2. Antioxidant supplementation experiments suggested that superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were together responsible for the ssaB mutant’s growth defect. We conclude that manganese accumulation mediated by the SsaB transport system imparts virulence by enabling cell growth in oxygen through SodA-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:24750294

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    2011-11-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/ Law Enforcement Agencies (LEA... program that we are currently conducting with LEA. DATES: We will file a report of the subject matching... General Counsel. Notice of Computer Matching Program, SSA With the Law Enforcement Agency (LEA)...

  18. 77 FR 6620 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/the States); Match 6000 and 6003

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/ the States); Match 6000 and 6003 AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of a renewal of an existing computer... Privacy Act, as amended, this notice announces a renewal of an existing computer matching program that...

  19. 78 FR 40541 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA)-Match Number 1014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA)--Match Number 1014 AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ] ACTION: Notice of a renewal of an existing computer matching program that... amended, this notice announces a renewal of an existing computer matching program that we are...

  20. BOREAS TF-9 SSA-OBS Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Massheder, Jonathan M.; Moncrieff, John B.; Rayment, Mark B.; Jarvis, Paul G.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-9 team collected energy, carbon dioxide, and water vapor flux data at the BOREAS SSA-OBS site during the growing season of 1994 and most of the year for 1996. From the winter of 1995 to 1996, soil temperature data were also collected and provided. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  1. BOREAS TF-5 SSA-OJP Tower Flux and Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Vogel, Christoph; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux (BOREAS TF-5) team collected tower flux data at the BOREAS Southern Study Area Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP) site through the growing season of 1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  2. 77 FR 43639 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA... Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Records--VA'' (58VA21/22/28), first published at 74 FR 14865...

  3. 77 FR 74913 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA... October 8, 1999 (64 FR 54930), as amended on May 3, 2000 (65 FR 25775). We will match the OPM data with data in our Medicare Database (MDB), SOR 60-0321, last published at 71 FR 42159 (July 25, 2006)....

  4. 77 FR 54943 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA..., Education, and Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Records-VA'' (58VA21/22/28), published at 74 FR... FR 42159 (July 25, 2006). 2. Number of Records VA's data file will consist of approximately...

  5. BOREAS TF-4 SSA-YJP Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Canopy Condition Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striegl, Robert; Wickland, Kimberly; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux (BOREAS TF-4) team collected energy, carbon dioxide, and water vapor flux data at the BOREAS Southern Study Area-Young Jack Pine (SSA-YJP) site during the growing season of 1994. In addition, meteorological data were collected both above and within the canopy. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  6. 20 CFR 411.250 - How will SSA evaluate a PM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will SSA evaluate a PM? 411.250 Section 411.250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY... determine the PM's final rating. (c) These performance evaluations will be made part of our database...

  7. 20 CFR 411.250 - How will SSA evaluate a PM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will SSA evaluate a PM? 411.250 Section 411.250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY... determine the PM's final rating. (c) These performance evaluations will be made part of our database...

  8. 20 CFR 411.250 - How will SSA evaluate a PM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How will SSA evaluate a PM? 411.250 Section 411.250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY... determine the PM's final rating. (c) These performance evaluations will be made part of our database...

  9. 20 CFR 411.250 - How will SSA evaluate a PM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will SSA evaluate a PM? 411.250 Section 411.250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY... determine the PM's final rating. (c) These performance evaluations will be made part of our database...

  10. 20 CFR 411.250 - How will SSA evaluate a PM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will SSA evaluate a PM? 411.250 Section 411.250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY... determine the PM's final rating. (c) These performance evaluations will be made part of our database...

  11. BOREAS TF-7 SSA-OBS Tower Flux and Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Pattey, Elizabeth; Desjardins, Raymond L.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-7 team collected meteorological data as well as energy, carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and nitrous oxide flux data at the BOREAS SSA-OBS site. The data were collected from 24-May to 19-Sep-1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  12. SERM Forest Cover Data Layers of the SSA in Vector Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickeson, Jaime; Gruszka, Fern; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set was prepared by the SERM-FBIU. The data include information on forest parameters and cover the area in and near the BOREAS SSA, excluding the PANP. The data were produced from aerial photography taken as recently as 1988.

  13. BOREAS TF-1 SSA-OA Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Z.; Nesic, Zoran

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-1 team collected energy, carbon dioxide, and momentum flux data above the canopy along with meteorological and soils data at the BOREAS SSA-OA site from mid-April to the end of the year for 1996. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  14. BOREAS TF-1 SSA-OA Understory Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Z.; Nesic, Zoran

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-1 team collected energy, carbon dioxide, and momentum flux data under the canopy along with meteorological and soils data at the BOREAS SSA-OA site from mid-October to mid-November of 1993 and throughout all of 1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  15. BOREAS TF-6 SSA-YA Surface Energy Flux and Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bessemoulin, Pierre; Puech, Dominique; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-6 team collected surface energy flux and meteorology data at the SSA-YA site. The data characterize the energy flux and meteorological conditions at the site from 18-Jul to 20-Sep-1994. The data set does not contain any trace gas exchange measurements. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  16. Possible role of anti-SSA/Ro antibodies in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Guerreso, Kelsey; Conner, Edward Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are many different causes of pulmonary hypertension and the pathogenesis of the disease is still being elucidated. Although they are not the most common, autoimmunity and inflammation have been identified as possible causes. No one autoantibody has been identified as the definite cause of pulmonary hypertension. We present a rare association of anti-SSA/Ro antibodies and isolated pulmonary hypertension. Case presentation A 53 year old African American female presented with abdominal pain, nausea, weight loss, dyspnea and fatigue. Upon further exam she was found to have high titers of antinuclear antibodies and anti-SSA/Ro antibodies. This antibody profile would typically be suggestive of Sjögren's Syndrome, which is characterized by dry eyes and poor salivary gland function. However, since this patient did not have any symptoms consistent with the disease a diagnosis of Sjögren's Syndrome could not be made. A combination of laboratory, imaging and diagnostic studies were done that revealed a final diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion It is known that pulmonary hypertension has association with autoimmune diseases, however no clear markers yet exist. Anti-SSA/Ro antibodies have been rarely described in cases of pulmonary disease, and less so in pulmonary hypertension. This case describes a unique association between isolated pulmonary hypertension and anti-SSA/Ro antibody, thereby illustrating the need to investigate this autoantibody and others in the pathogenesis of autoimmune pulmonary hypertension.

  17. 20 CFR 402.25 - Referral of requests outside of SSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Referral of requests outside of SSA. 402.25 Section 402.25 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS... need not make a separate request to that agency. We will notify you when we refer your request...

  18. 20 CFR 429.110 - Are there any limitations on SSA's authority under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under this subpart? 429.110 Section 429.110 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... with the Department of Justice when, in the opinion of SSA: (1) A new precedent or a new point of law... Justice when it is learned that the United States, or an employee, agent, or cost-plus contractor of...

  19. Get in the Loop: Fibre Channel, SSA, and Ultra SCSI Connect the Digital Studio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Removable hard drives and Ethernet are common ways to move data around the media studio, but new protocols allow multiple computers to share an array on one bus. Examines shared storage configurations using fibre channel arbitrated loop (FC-AL) and serial storage architecture (SSA), both serial storage solutions, as well as on small computer…

  20. Phenotypic and chemotypic studies using Arabidopsis and yeast reveal that GHB converts to SSA and induce toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Dereje Worku; Ludewig, Frank

    2016-07-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a naturally occurring compound. It is detected in organisms such as yeasts, plants and mammals. GHB is produced from the reduction of succinic semialdehyde (SSA) by the activity of GHB dehydrogenase. Arabidopsis genome contains two GHB dehydrogenase encoding genes. The accumulation of GHB in ssadh mutants led to the speculation that GHB is the cause of aberrant phenotypes. Conversely, the accumulation of GHB in Arabidopsis plants subjected to abiotic stresses was described as a way of avoiding SSA induced damage. To resolve these contrasting views on GHB, we examined the effect of exogenous GHB and SSA on the growth of yeast and Arabidopsis plants. GHB concentrations up to 1.5 mM didn't affect shoots of Arabidopsis plants; however, root growth was inhibited. In contrast, 0.3 mM SSA has severely affected the growth of plants. Treatment of yeast wild-type strain with 10 mM SSA and 10 mM GHB didn't affect the growth. However, the growth of yeast uga2 mutant was greatly inhibited by the same concentration of SSA, but not GHB. Metabolic analysis and enzyme activity assay on native gel showed that Arabidopsis, but not yeast, possesses a GHB dehydrogenase activity that converts GHB back to SSA. The enzymatic assay has also indicated the existence of an additional GHB dehydrogenase encoding gene(s) in Arabidopsis genome. Taken together, we conclude that GHB is less toxic than SSA. Its accumulation in ssadh mutants and during abiotic stresses is a response to avoid the SSA induced damage. PMID:27037708

  1. MELiSSA Pilot Plant: A facility for ground demonstration of a closed life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godia, Francesc; Fossen, Arnaud; Peiro, Enrique; Gerbi, Olivier; Dussap, Gilles; Leys, Natalie; Arnau, Carolina; Milian, Ernest

    MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is an international collaborative effort focused on the development of a Life Support System for long-term Space missions. The goals of the MELiSSA loop are the recovery of food, water and oxygen from wastes, i.e. CO2 and organic wastes, using light as a source of energy. It is conceived as a series of compartments, each one performing a specific function within this cycle, inspired in the terrestrial ecological systems. Each one of the compartments is colonized with specific bacteria or higher plants depending on its dedicated function. Therefore, its design and operational conditions should guarantee that only a given specific biological activity takes place in each compartment. Moreover, this has to be done in a controlled manner, both at the subsystems level (i.e., compartments) and at the overall system level (i.e., complete loop). In order to achieve the complete operation of such a Closed Ecological System, in a first step each compartment has to be developed at individual level, and its operation demonstrated under its associated control law. In a second step, the complete loop needs to be integrated by the connection of the different compartments in the gas, loop and solid phases. An extensive demonstration of MELiSSA loop under terrestrial conditions is a mandatory step in the process of its adaptation to space. This is the main goal of the MPP. The demonstration scenario for the MPP is the respiration equivalent of a human being, and production of 20 percent of the diet of one person. To serve this goal, the different compartments of the MELiSSA loop have been designed and sized at the pilot scale level, and further characterized. Nowadays, the focus of the MELiSSA Pilot Plant is on the integration of its compartments. To this end, the integration challenge is concentrated in three compartments devoted to the following functions: nitrification (Compartment 3, an axenic co-culture of Nitrosomonas

  2. Remote Ultra-low Light Imaging (RULLI) For Space Situational Awareness (SSA): Modeling And Simulation Results For Passive And Active SSA

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C; Shirey, Robert L; Roggemann, Michael C; Gudimetla, Rao

    2008-01-01

    Remote Ultra-Low Light Imaging detectors are photon limited detectors developed at Los Alamos National Laboratories. RULLI detectors provide a very high degree of temporal resolution for the arrival times of detected photoevents, but saturate at a photo-detection rate of about 10{sup 6} photo-events per second. Rather than recording a conventional image, such as output by a charged coupled device (CCD) camera, the RULLI detector outputs a data stream consisting of the two-dimensional location, and time of arrival of each detected photo-electron. Hence, there is no need to select a specific exposure time to accumulate photo-events prior to the data collection with a RULLI detector this quantity can be optimized in post processing. RULLI detectors have lower peak quantum efficiency (from as low as 5% to perhaps as much as 40% with modern photocathode technology) than back-illuminated CCD's (80% or higher). As a result of these factors, and the associated analyses of signal and noise, we have found that RULLI detectors can play two key new roles in SSA: passive imaging of exceedingly dim objects, and three-dimensional imaging of objects illuminated with an appropriate pulsed laser. In this paper we describe the RULLI detection model, compare it to a conventional CCD detection model, and present analytic and simulation results to show the limits of performance of RULLI detectors used for SSA applications at AMOS field site.

  3. Isolated anti-Ro/SSA thrombocytopenia: a rare feature of neonatal lupus

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Imene Dahmane; Hamida, Emira Ben; Boukhris, Mohamed Riadh; Bezzine, Ahlem; Chaouachi, Sihem; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of isolated thrombocytopenia related to anti-Ro/SSA antibodies. The mother was followed for unlabeled familial thrombocytopenia. The mother had positive anti-Ro/SSA antibodies. She was asymptomatic without skin lesions or other criteria neither of systemic lupus erythematosus nor other connective tissue disease. Pregnancy was uneventful. The postnatal examination was normal. On the first day of life, blood cells count showed thrombocytopenia at 40 x 109/L. Within the second day of life, platelet level dropped to 20 x 109/L. The management of thrombocytopenia included platelet transfusion and human immunoglobulin infusion. On the fifth day of life, there has been a drop in platelet count to 10 x 109/L requiring renewed platelet transfusion and human immunoglobulin infusion. On the 10th of life platelets rate was stable around 60 x 109/L. The infant had no evidence of cardiac, dermatologic or hepatobilary involvement initially or throughout follow up. PMID:26977221

  4. BOREAS RSS-17 Xylem Flux Density Measurements at the SSA-OBS Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Reiner; Way, JoBea; McDonald, Kyle; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As part of its efforts to determine environmental and phenological states from radar imagery, the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-17 team collected in situ tree xylem flow measurements for one growing season on five Picea mariana (black spruce) trees. The data were collected to obtain information on the temporal and spatial variability in water uptake by trees in the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) stand in the BOREAS SSA. Temporally, the data were collected in 30-minute intervals for 120 days from 31 May 1994 until 27 September 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The xylem flux data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  5. BOREAS TF-11 CO2 and CH4 Flux Data from the SSA-Fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, David W.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-11 team collected several data sets in its efforts to fully describe the flux and site characteristics at the SSA-Fen site. This data set contains fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide at the SSA-Fen site measured using static chambers. The measurements were conducted as part of a 2 x 2 factorial experiment in which we added carbon (300 g/sq m as wheat straw) and nitrogen (6 g/sq m as urea) to four replicate locations in the vicinity of the TF-11 tower. In addition to siting and treatment variables, it reports air temperature and water table height relative to the average peat surface during each measurement. The data set covers the period from the first week of June 1994 through the second week of September 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  6. BOREAS TF-11 SSA-Fen 1996 Water Surface Film Capping Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billesbach, David P.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-11 team gathered a variety of data to complement its tower flux measurements collected at the SSA-Fen site. The data described in this document were made by the TF-11 team at the SSA-Fen site to quantify the effect that the films observed to form on open water surfaces had on the transfer of carbon dioxide and methane from the water to the air. Measurements of fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane were made in 1994 and in 1996 using the chamber flux method. A gas chromatograph and a LI-COR LI-6200 were used to measure concentrations and to calculate the fluxes. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  7. BOREAS TF-4 CO2 and CH4 Chamber Flux Data from the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Dean; Striegl, Robert; Wickland, Kimberly; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-4 team measured fluxes of CO2 and CH4 across the soil-air interface in four ages of jack pine forest at the BOREAS SSA during August 1993 to March 1995. Gross and net flux of CO2 and flux of CH4 between soil and air are presented for 24 chamber sites in mature jack pine forest, 20-year-old, 4-year-old, and clear cut areas. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  8. BOREAS TF-2 SSA-OA Tethersonde Meteorological and Ozone Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, A. James; Mickle, Robert E.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux-2 (BOREAS TF-2) team collected meteorological and ozone measurements from instruments mounted below a tethered balloon. These data were collected at the Southern Study Area Old Aspen (SSA-OA) site to extend meteorological and ozone measurements made from the flux tower to heights of 300 m. The tethersonde operated during the fall of 1993 and the spring, summer, and fall of 1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  9. BOREAS TF-11 SSA-Fen 1995 Leaf Area Index Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkebauer, Timothy J.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-11 team gathered a variety of data to complement its tower flux measurements collected at the SSA-Fen site. These data are LAI measurements made by the TF-11 team throughout the 1995 growing season. The data include the LAI of plants that fall into six categories: total, Carex spp., Betula pumila, Menyanthes trifoliata, Salix spp., and other vascular plants. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  10. Vector Topographic Map Data over the BOREAS NSA and SSA in SIF Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, David; Nickeson, Jaime; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set contains vector contours and other features of individual topographic map sheets from the National Topographic Series (NTS). The map sheet files were received in Standard Interchange Format (SIF) and cover the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA) at scales of 1:50,000 and 1:250,000. The individual files are stored in compressed Unix tar archives.

  11. Higher Plants in Space for MELiSSA -Literature Review and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabrodina, Marina; Kittang, Ann-Iren; Coelho, Liz Helena; Karoliussen, Irene; Aase Wolff, Silje; Iversen, Tor-Henning

    The human exploration of space requires the development of closed life support systems to regenerate oxygen, purify water, and produce food. MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a model system for advanced life support based on different microbial species and higher plants. The main objective of the LiRHiPliSMe (Literature Review of Higher Plants in Space for MELiSSA) project was to elaborate the preliminary roadmap for higher plant research activities for the MELiSSA project Phase 2 (Preliminary Space Experiments). The first task was to establish an understanding of the current knowledge concerning how higher plant will adapt to Moon/Mars physical factors different from Earth with focus on reduced gravity, space radiation, variations in magnetic field and combined effects of these factors. The literature related to how Moon/Mars physical factors can affect genetic processes, growth regulators, development, morphology, water and nutrients transport, gas exchange and metabolism of higher plants during one life cycle were collected. The possible effects of the space environment on the plant role as a food and on the mass balance in a Life Support System that includes a Higher Plant Compartment are reviewed. Based on this literature review there was made an assessment of where new or extended scientific knowledge about space factors effects on higher plant growth and development is needed. The requirements for research activities on higher plants in enclosed life support systems were identified. The required higher plant research activities for MELiSSA phase 2 both on ground and in space were placed in a timescale from the present until higher plants can be grown in closed life support systems on Moon and Mars.

  12. 20 CFR 411.597 - Will SSA periodically review the outcome payment system and the outcome-milestone payment system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....597 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.597 Will SSA periodically review the outcome payment system and...

  13. 20 CFR 411.597 - Will SSA periodically review the outcome payment system and the outcome-milestone payment system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....597 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.597 Will SSA periodically review the outcome payment system and...

  14. 20 CFR 411.597 - Will SSA periodically review the outcome payment system and the outcome-milestone payment system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....597 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.597 Will SSA periodically review the outcome payment system and...

  15. 20 CFR 411.597 - Will SSA periodically review the outcome payment system and the outcome-milestone payment system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....597 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.597 Will SSA periodically review the outcome payment system and...

  16. 20 CFR 411.597 - Will SSA periodically review the outcome payment system and the outcome-milestone payment system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....597 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.597 Will SSA periodically review the outcome payment system and...

  17. 20 CFR 408.1235 - How does the State transfer funds to SSA to administer its recognition payment program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Federal Administration of State Recognition... total amounts paid by SSA on behalf of the State during the current Federal fiscal year; the...

  18. Resolving Changing Chemical and Physical Properties of SSA Particle Types during Laboratory Phytoplankton Blooms using Online Single Particle Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, C. M.; Prather, K. A.; Richardson, R.; Wang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of sea spray aerosols (SSA) can modify their climate-relevant properties. Recent studies have shown a diverse set of distinct SSA particle types, however there are conflicting reports on how and whether biological activity controls the organic fraction and mixing state of SSA. This study leverages an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer to give an accounting of the temporally resolved mixing state of primary SSA (0.4 - 3 µm vacuum aerodynamic diameter), encompassing 97% of particles detected over the course of laboratory phytoplankton blooms. The influence of biological activity on the climate relevant properties of defined particle types is also investigated. Spatial chemical particle heterogeneity and particularly the surface chemical composition of particles are described along with particle type specific water-particle interactions. These online measurements in tandem with chemical composition could give new insight on the link between seawater chemistry, marine aerosols, and climate properties.

  19. Surviving space flight: case study on MELiSSA's CIII nitrifying compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgrande, Chiara; Lasseur, Christophe; Mastroleo, Felice; Paille, Christel; Leys, Natalie; Morozova, Julia; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Clauwaert, Peter; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Vlaeminck, Siegfried; Prat, Delphine; Arroyo, Jose M. C.; Conincx, Ilse; Van Hoey, Olivier; Roume, Hugo; Udert, Kai; Sas, Benedikt

    2016-07-01

    Space synthetic biology offers key opportunities for long-term space missions. Planets mining, terraformation, space medicine and Life Support technologies would all benefit from an integrative biological approach. However, space is a harsh environment for life: microgravity, temperature, UV and cosmic radiation can affect the health and functionality of microorganisms and plants, possibly preventing the optimal performance of the systems. The European Space Agency's Life Support System (MELiSSA) has been developed as a model for future long term Space missions and Space habitation. MELiSSA is a 5 compartment artificial ecosystem with microorganisms and higher, that aims at completely recycling gas, liquid and solid waste. In this study, the survival and functional activity after Lower Earth Orbit conditions of microbial nitrogen conversions, relevant for MELiSSA's CIII compartment, was tested. Synthetic communities containing Nitrosomonas europeae, Nitrosomonas ureae, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, Nitrospira moscoviensis and Cupriavidus pinatubonensis were exposed to the Lower Earth Orbit conditions of the International Space Station (ISS) for 7 days. Nitrosomonas europeae, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, Cupriavidus pinatubonensis, and three mixed communities (a urine nitrification sludge, a sludge containing aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria (OLAND), and an aquaculture sludge containing ammonia oxidizing archaea) were exposed to Lower Earth Orbit conditions for 44 days. Survival after both space flights was demonstrated because nitritation, nitratation, denitrification and anammox activity could be restored at a rate comparable to ground storage conditions. Our results validate the potential survival feasibility and suggest future space applications for N-related microorganisms.

  20. Clinical characteristics of children with positive anti-SSA/SSB antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Hsuan; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lin, Yu-Tsan; Lee, Jyh-Hong; Wang, Li-Chieh; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to characterize the manifestations of clinical symptoms and signs, primary rheumatic diseases, and other autoantibodies in pediatric patients with positive anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies. Subjects under age 18 with positive anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies were screened and enrolled in a tertiary hospital in Taiwan. Data were collected via medical records,including age, gender, onset of the primary rheumatic disease, clinical symptoms and signs, and the medication used. Schirmer test for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) screening was performed in all enrolled patients. Among twenty enrolled subjects, seventeen of them had systemic lupus erythematosus; four of them were diagnosed as SS with positive Schirmer test. In addition to antinuclear antibodies and anti-DNA antibodies, other common autoantibodies were anti-RNP antibodies (50 %) and anti-Sm antibodies(30 %). The most common symptoms were arthritis (60 %)followed by malar rash (40 %). In conclusion, we observed that a low proportion of childhood SS (4/20) exists in our patients with positive SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies. It is suggested that clinicians should focus more on the clinical symptoms in these patients, rather than undertaking invasive diagnostic interventions to rule out Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:24077977

  1. Comparison of six experimental methods to measure snow SSA in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, G.; Domine, F.; Arnaud, L.; Champollion, N.; Cliche, P.; Dufour, A.; Flin, F.; Gallet, J.; Langlois, A.; Lesaffre, B.; Royer, A.

    2009-12-01

    The size of snow grains is a crucial variable to interpret both optical and microwave remote sensing data, and to quantify physical and chemical processes within the snowpack. However, “grain size” is an ambiguous variable that is more and more replaced with the physical variable “specific surface area” (SSA). Up to recently, methods to measure snow SSA were tedious and not easy to implement in the field. These earlier methods include stereology, CH4 adsorption, and X-ray tomography. Recently, faster methods based on the measurement of NIR reflectance have been developed, but the accuracy of most of these methods has been subjected only to limited testing. We have therefore organized an intercomparison campaign on the Glacier de La Girose, 3200 m a.s.l., French Alps, in April 2009. Four recent or novel NIR / SWIR methods were used: The DUFISSS integrating sphere operating at 1310 nm, the POSSSUM SSA profiler operating at 1310 and 635 nm, the IRIS mobile integrating sphere operating at 1300 nm, and the NIR photography operating at 850 nm and originally developed at SLF in Switzerland. In addition, snow samples were taken and transported in liquid nitrogen for measurement in the laboratory using CH4 adsorption and other samples were filled in the field with 1-chloronaphthalene for X-Ray microtomography. Comparison of the data sets obtained using these six methods will be presented and discussed. Conclusions will be drawn regarding the accuracy and potential of the recent or novel NIR techniques tested here.

  2. Sampling variance estimates for SSA program recipients from the 1990 Survey of Income and Program Participation.

    PubMed

    Bye, B V; Gallicchio, S J

    1993-01-01

    Since 1987 the Social Security Administration (SSA) has published a special set of tabulations on SSA program recipients in the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin using data derived from the Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Estimates of sampling errors pertaining to these tabulations were derived from the 1984 SIPP panel. This article provides updated sampling error estimates for the 1990 SIPP panel to be used in conjunction with the SIPP-based tabulations provided in the Annual Statistical Supplement for 1992 and 1993. The computational approach is essentially the same as that used in the earlier analysis. Sampling variances are estimated by half-sample replication using the pseudo stratum and half-sample codes available on SIPP public use data files. Generalized tables of standard errors are provided for all SSA program participants. An appendix provides detailed specifications about the calculations. In order that it be self-contained, this article repeats much of the methodological exposition in the previous article that appeared in the October 1988 issue of the Social Security Bulletin. PMID:8303505

  3. Monte Carlo SSA to detect time-variable seasonal oscillations from GPS-derived site position time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chang; Yue, Dongjie

    2015-12-01

    We explore the capability of singular spectrum analysis (SSA) to extract time-variable seasonal oscillations from continual GPS observations and demonstrate the statistical assessment on the colored noise (in particular the first-order autoregressive AR(1) noise) using Monte Carlo SSA (MCSSA) methodology. We provide example applications to ~ 15-year vertical coordinate time series for 36 globally distributed International GNSS Service (IGS) sites. We find the SSA-filtered seasonal signals can easily pass the confidence interval and hypothesis tests of MCSSA. However, maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) results show that 72% of sites have their flicker noise amplitudes reduced after removing SSA-filtered annual signal, implying that the SSA-filtered seasonal signals may contain an artificial signal driven by colored noise. Therefore, the AR(1) null hypothesis noise model may be misleading in surrogate data tests for GPS seasonal signals. Moreover, comparison between SSA-filtered GPS annual signals and joint geophysical model predictions (non-tidal atmospheric loading + non-tidal ocean loading + hydrological loading) confirms that seasonal signals are resulting from a combination of mass loading and systematic error.

  4. Development and calibration of an automatic spectral albedometer to estimate near-surface snow SSA time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Ghislain; Libois, Quentin; Arnaud, Laurent; Verin, Gauthier; Dumont, Marie

    2016-06-01

    Spectral albedo of the snow surface in the visible/near-infrared range has been measured for 3 years by an automatic spectral radiometer installed at Dome C (75° S, 123° E) in Antarctica in order to retrieve the specific surface area (SSA) of superficial snow. This study focuses on the uncertainties of the SSA retrieval due to instrumental and data processing limitations. We find that when the solar zenith angle is high, the main source of uncertainties is the imperfect angular response of the light collectors. This imperfection introduces a small spurious wavelength-dependent trend in the albedo spectra which greatly affects the SSA retrieval. By modeling this effect, we show that for typical snow and illumination conditions encountered at Dome C, retrieving SSA with an accuracy better than 15 % (our target) requires the difference of response between 400 and 1100 nm to not exceed 2 %. Such a small difference can be achieved only by (i) a careful design of the collectors, (ii) an ad hoc correction of the spectra using the actual measured angular response of the collectors, and (iii) for solar zenith angles less than 75°. The 3-year time series of retrieved SSA features a 3-fold decrease every summer which is significantly larger than the estimated uncertainties. This highlights the high dynamics of near-surface SSA at Dome C.

  5. The effect of welfare reform on SSA's disability programs: design of policy evaluation and early evidence.

    PubMed

    Davies, P; Iams, H; Rupp, K

    2000-01-01

    During the past several years, the U.S. social safety net has gone through substantial changes involving an emphasis on personal responsibility and incentives, the shift of certain responsibilities to the states, and new limits on entitlements for benefits. Two pieces of recent legislation affected the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) disability programs. Section 105 of Public Law 104-121, enacted on March 29, 1996, mandated the removal of persons from the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) rolls for whom drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) were material to the determination of disability. It eliminated allowances on the basis of DA&A immediately and required the termination of benefits to all persons receiving benefits at the time of enactment. The other major piece of legislation was the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996, which was later amended by the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997. PRWORA converted the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program from an open-ended entitlement program into a block grant, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), incorporating time limits on the receipt of benefits as well as strict work requirements. PRWORA also tightened child eligibility for SSI, narrowed eligibility for noncitizens, and reduced funding for food stamps. The BBA restored SSI eligibility for noncitizens receiving SSI prior to August 1996 and for legal noncitizens residing in the United States prior to August 1996 who become disabled in the future. SSA designed three studies to assess the effects of this legislation. Two of the studies focused on direct effects on SSA's disabled beneficiary population, targeting drug addicts and alcoholics and SSI children. The third study focused on the indirect effects of PRWORA, particularly the replacement of AFDC with TANF, on SSA's programs. The three studies were tied together by a concern of the

  6. Utilisation and Further Development of Space Science Results in the ESA SSA Programme Space Weather Service Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Alexi; Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Keil, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    ESA SSA Programme is approaching the end of its second period. Service development activities within the current period aim at advancing the SSA SWE Service Network from the initial utilisation of existing European assets toward development of these and new assets together with the associated coordination infrastructure necessary to provide consistently reliable services. The SSA SWE Service Network is based on a federated architecture where service provision is carried out by Expert Service Centres in the Programme Member States with overall coordination and helpdesk functions provided by a central node and coordination centre located at the Space Pole in Brussels, Belgium. The SSA SWE Service Network builds on the wealth of space weather expertise available within the Member States, and consequently, as the network continues to develop, emphasis will continue to be placed on building services based on demonstrated space science advances in key areas such as those highlighted by the COSPAR-ILWS Space Weather Roadmap, published in 2015. Activities supported by programmes including the ESA technology programmes, EC FP7 and H2020 have all demonstrated promising results, and the SSA SWE Network is actively investigating their potential application to SSA SWE Customer Requirements, and in many cases already adopting these as part of the suite of products provided via the Network to its registered users. This presentation will provide an overview of recent advances in the SSA SWE Service Network, emphasising the utilisation of scientific results within a pre-operational context. The presentation will show the layout of the federated Expert Service Centres, highlighting ongoing and upcoming service developments and provide a perspective on the service development plans for the next phase of the programme.

  7. Diffusion dans les liquides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianoux, A. J.

    2003-09-01

    Après une brève introduction qui rappelle les concepts détaillés dans le cours de M. Bée, nous présentons un aperçu de trois de nos travaux sur l'étude de la diffusion. Tout d'abord la dynamique de l'eau, dans son état normal ou surfondu, révèle la complexité apportée par le réseau de liaisons hydrogène. Ensuite l'effet du confinement sur la dynamique de l'eau sera étudié dans le cas de la membrane Nafion. Enfin la diffusion dans les phases nématique et smectique A d'un cristal liquide permet d'obtenir la valeur du potentiel qui maintient les couches dans la phase smectique.

  8. Space Environment Forecasting with Neutron Monitors: Establishing a novel service for the ESA SSA Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Souvatzoglou, George; Paschalis, Pavlos; Sarlanis, Christos; Dimitroulakos, John; Gerontidou, Maria

    2013-04-01

    High-energy particles released at the Sun during a solar flare or a very energetic coronal mass ejection, result to a significant intensity increase at neutron monitor measurements known as Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs). Due to their space weather impact (i.e. risks and failures at communication and navigation systems, spacecraft electronics and operations, space power systems, manned space missions, and commercial aircraft operations) it is crucial to establish a real-time operational system that would be in place to issue reliable and timely GLE Alerts. Currently, the Cosmic Ray group of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens is working towards the establishment of a Neutron Monitor Service that will be made available via the Space Weather Portal operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), under the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Program. To this end, a web interface providing data from multiple Neutron Monitor stations as well as an upgraded GLE Alert will be provided. Both services are now under testing and validation and they will probably enter to an operational phase next year. The core of this Neutron Monitor Service is the GLE Alert software, and therefore, the main goal of this research effort is to upgrade the existing GLE Alert software, to minimize the probability of a false alarm and to enhance the usability of the corresponding results. The ESA Neutron Monitor Service is building upon the infrastructure made available with the implementation of the High-Resolution Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB). In this work the structure of the Neutron Monitor Service for ESA SSA Program and the impact of the novel GLE Alert Service that will be made available to future users via ESA SSA web portal will be presented and further discussed.

  9. Overview of Human-Centric Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Science and Technology (S&T)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianni, J.; Aleva, D.; Ellis, S.

    2012-09-01

    A number of organizations, within the government, industry, and academia, are researching ways to help humans understand and react to events in space. The problem is both helped and complicated by the fact that there are numerous data sources that need to be planned (i.e., tasked), collected, processed, analyzed, and disseminated. A large part of the research is in support of the Joint Space Operational Center (JSpOC), National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC), and similar organizations. Much recent research has been specifically targeting the JSpOC Mission System (JMS) which has provided a unifying software architecture. This paper will first outline areas of science and technology (S&T) related to human-centric space situational awareness (SSA) and space command and control (C2) including: 1. Object visualization - especially data fused from disparate sources. Also satellite catalog visualizations that convey the physical relationships between space objects. 2. Data visualization - improve data trend analysis as in visual analytics and interactive visualization; e.g., satellite anomaly trends over time, space weather visualization, dynamic visualizations 3. Workflow support - human-computer interfaces that encapsulate multiple computer services (i.e., algorithms, programs, applications) into a 4. Command and control - e.g., tools that support course of action (COA) development and selection, tasking for satellites and sensors, etc. 5. Collaboration - improve individuals or teams ability to work with others; e.g., video teleconferencing, shared virtual spaces, file sharing, virtual white-boards, chat, and knowledge search. 6. Hardware/facilities - e.g., optimal layouts for operations centers, ergonomic workstations, immersive displays, interaction technologies, and mobile computing. Secondly we will provide a survey of organizations working these areas and suggest where more attention may be needed. Although no detailed master plan exists for human

  10. Functional Characterization of SsaE, a Novel Chaperone Protein of the Type III Secretion System Encoded by Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2▿

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Tsuyoshi; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Danbara, Hirofumi; Okada, Nobuhiko

    2009-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) is involved in systemic infection and intracellular replication of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In this study, we investigated the function of SsaE, a small cytoplasmic protein encoded within the SPI-2 locus, which shows structural similarity to the T3SS class V chaperones. An S. enterica serovar Typhimurium ssaE mutant failed to secrete SPI-2 translocator SseB and SPI-2-dependent effector PipB proteins. Coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses using an SsaE-FLAG fusion protein indicated that SsaE interacts with SseB and a putative T3SS-associated ATPase, SsaN. A series of deleted and point-mutated SsaE-FLAG fusion proteins revealed that the C-terminal coiled-coil domain of SsaE is critical for protein-protein interactions. Although SseA was reported to be a chaperone for SseB and to be required for its secretion and stability in the bacterial cytoplasm, an sseA deletion mutant was able to secrete the SseB in vitro when plasmid-derived SseB was overexpressed. In contrast, ssaE mutant strains could not transport SseB extracellularly under the same assay conditions. In addition, an ssaE(I55G) point-mutated strain that expresses the SsaE derivative lacking the ability to form a C-terminal coiled-coil structure showed attenuated virulence comparable to that of an SPI-2 T3SS null mutant, suggesting that the coiled-coil interaction of SsaE is absolutely essential for the functional SPI-2 T3SS and for Salmonella virulence. Based on these findings, we propose that SsaE recognizes translocator SseB and controls its secretion via SPI-2 type III secretion machinery. PMID:19767440

  11. MELiSSA third compartment: Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures in bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruvellier, Nelly; Lasseur, Christophe; Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Dussap, Gilles

    Nitrogen is a key element for the life and its balance on Earth is regulated by the nitrogen cycle. This loop includes several steps among which nitrification that permits the transformation of the ammonium into nitrate. The MELiSSA loop is an artificial ecosystem designed for life support systems (LSS). It is based on the carbon and nitrogen cycles and the recycling of the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew. In this order, all the wastes are collected in the first compartment to degrade them into organic acids and CO2. These compounds are joining the second compartment which is a photoheterotrophic compartment where at the outlet an organic-free medium containing ammonium is produced. This solution will be the substrate of the third compartment where nitrification is done. This compartment has to oxidize the ammonium into nitrate, and this biological reaction needs two steps. In the MELiSSA loop, the nitrification is carried out by two bacteria: Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC® 19718™ which is oxidizing ammonia into nitrite and Nitrobacter winogradskyi ATCC® 25391™ which is producing nitrate from nitrite in the third compartment. These two bacteria are growing in axenic conditions on a fixed bed bioreactor filled with Biostyr® beads. The nitrogen compounds are controlled by Ionic Chromatography and colorimetric titration for each sample. The work presented here deals with the culture of both bacteria in pure cultures and mixed cultures in stirred and aerated bioreactors of different volumes. The first aim of our work is the characterization of the bacteria growth in bioreactors and in the nitrifying fixed-bed column. The experimental results confirm that the growth is slow; the maximal growth rate in suspended cultures is 0.054h-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and 0.022h-1 for Nitrobacter winogradskyi. Mixed cultures are difficult to control and operate but one could be done for more than 500 hours. The characterization of the

  12. Substructure within the SSA22 Protocluster at z≈3.09

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Michael W.; Shapley, Alice E.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of a densely sampled spectroscopic survey of the SSA22 protocluster at z ≈ 3.09. Our sample with Keck/LRIS spectroscopy includes 106 Lyα emitters (LAEs) and 40 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z = 3.05–3.12. These galaxies are contained within the 9‧ × 9‧ region in which the protocluster was discovered, which also hosts the maximum galaxy overdensity in the SSA22 region. The redshift histogram of our spectroscopic sample reveals two distinct peaks, at z = 3.069 (blue; 43 galaxies) and z = 3.095 (red; 103 galaxies). Furthermore, objects in the blue and red peaks are segregated on the sky, with galaxies in the blue peak concentrating toward the western half of the field. These results suggest that the blue and red redshift peaks represent two distinct structures in physical space. Although the double-peaked redshift histogram is traced in the same manner by LBGs and LAEs, and brighter and fainter galaxies, we find that 9 out of 10 X-ray AGNs in SSA22, and all 7 spectroscopically confirmed giant Lyα “blobs,” reside in the red peak. We combine our data set with sparsely sampled spectroscopy from the literature over a significantly wider area, finding preliminary evidence that the double-peaked structure in redshift space extends beyond the region of our dense spectroscopic sampling. In order to fully characterize the three-dimensional structure, dynamics, and evolution of large-scale structure in the SSA22 overdensity, we require the measurement of large samples of LAE and LBG redshifts over a significantly wider area, as well as detailed comparisons with cosmological simulations of massive cluster formation. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  13. BOREAS Forest Cover Data Layers over the SSA-MSA in Raster Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickeson, Jaime; Gruszka, F; Hall, F.

    2000-01-01

    This data set, originally provided as vector polygons with attributes, has been processed by BORIS staff to provide raster files that can be used for modeling or for comparison purposes. The original data were received as ARC/INFO coverages or as export files from SERM. The data include information on forest parameters for the BOREAS SSA-MSA. Most of the data used for this product were acquired by BORIS in 1993; the maps were produced from aerial photography taken as recently as 1988. The data are stored in binary, image format files.

  14. BOREAS TF-8 NSA-OJP and SSA-OBS Ceilometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kathleen E.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Fitzjarrald, David R.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-8 team used ceilometers to collect data on the fraction of the sky covered with clouds and the cloud height. Included with these data is the surface-based lifting condensation level, derived from temperature and humidity values acquired at the flux tower at the NSA-OJP site. Ceilo-meter data were collected at the NSA-OJP site in 1994 and at the NSA-OJP and SSA-OBS sites in 1996. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  15. BOREAS Elevation Contours over the NSA and SSA in ARC/INFO Generate Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, David; Nickeson, Jaime; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set was prepared by BORIS Staff by reformatting the original data into the ARC/INFO Generate format. The original data were received in SIF at a scale of 1:50,000. BORIS staff could not find a format document or commercial software for reading SIF; the BOREAS HYD-08 team pro-vided some C source code that could read some of the SIF files. The data cover the BOREAS NSA and SSA. The original data were compiled from information available in the 1970s and 1980s. The data are available in ARC/INFO Generate format files.

  16. BOREAS RSS-7 Landsat TM LAI IMages of the SSA and NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Chen, Jing; Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Remote Sensing Science (BOREAS RSS-7) team used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images processed at CCRS to produce images of Leaf Area Index (LAI) for the BOREAS study areas. Two images acquired on 06-Jun and 09-Aug-1991 were used for the SSA, and one image acquired on 09-Jun-1994 was used for the NSA. The LAI images are based on ground measurements and Landsat TM Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR) images. The data are stored in binary image-format files.

  17. BOREAS Soils Data over the SSA in Raster Format and AEAC Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, David; Rostad, Harold; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set consists of GIS layers that describe the soils of the BOREAS SSA. The original data were submitted as vector layers that were gridded by BOREAS staff to a 30-meter pixel size in the AEAC projection. These data layers include the soil code (which relates to the soil name), modifier (which also relates to the soil name), and extent (indicating the extent that this soil exists within the polygon). There are three sets of these layers representing the primary, secondary, and tertiary soil characteristics. Thus, there is a total of nine layers in this data set along with supporting files. The data are stored in binary, image format files.

  18. BOREAS TF-2 SSA-OA Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Precipitation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Harold; Mickle, Robert; Staebler, Ralf; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux-2 (BOREAS TF-2) team collected energy, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and momentum flux data above the canopy and in profiles through the canopy, along with meteorological data at the BOREAS Southern Study Area-Old Aspen (SSA-OA) site. Above-canopy measurements began in early February and ran through mid-September of 1994. Measurements were collected over a longer period of 1994 than most BOREAS flux sites. Daily precipitation data from several gauges were also collected. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  19. Solar Flare Prediction Science-to-Operations: the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Themelis, Konstantinos; Magiati, Margarita; Angelopoulou, Georgia

    2016-07-01

    We attempt a synoptical overview of the scientific origins of the Athens Effective Solar Flare Forecasting (A-EFFort) utility and the actions taken toward transitioning it into a pre-operational service of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The preferred method for solar flare prediction, as well as key efforts to make it function in a fully automated environment by coupling calculations with near-realtime data-downloading protocols (from the Solar Dynamics Observatory [SDO] mission), pattern recognition (solar active-region identification) and optimization (magnetic connectivity by simulated annealing) will be highlighted. In addition, the entire validation process of the service will be described, with its results presented. We will conclude by stressing the need for across-the-board efforts and synergistic work in order to bring science of potentially limited/restricted interest into realizing a much broader impact and serving the best public interests. The above presentation was partially supported by the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort project, ESA Contract No. 4000111994/14/D/MRP. Special thanks go to the ESA Project Officers R. Keil, A. Glover, and J.-P. Luntama (ESOC), M. Bobra and C. Balmer of the SDO/HMI team at Stanford University, and M. Zoulias at the RCAAM of the Academy of Athens for valuable technical help.

  20. Characterizing the Space Debris Environment with a Variety of SSA Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, Eugene G.

    2010-01-01

    Damaging space debris spans a wide range of sizes and altitudes. Therefore no single method or sensor can fully characterize the space debris environment. Space debris researchers use a variety of radars and optical telescopes to characterize the space debris environment in terms of number, altitude, and inclination distributions. Some sensors, such as phased array radars, are designed to search a large volume of the sky and can be instrumental in detecting new breakups and cataloging and precise tracking of relatively large debris. For smaller debris sizes more sensitivity is needed which can be provided, in part, by large antenna gains. Larger antenna gains, however, produce smaller fields of view. Statistical measurements of the debris environment with less precise orbital parameters result. At higher altitudes, optical telescopes become the more sensitive instrument and present their own measurement difficulties. Space Situational Awareness, or SSA, is concerned with more than the number and orbits of satellites. SSA also seeks to understand such parameters as the function, shape, and composition of operational satellites. Similarly, debris researchers are seeking to characterize similar parameters for space debris to improve our knowledge of the risks debris poses to operational satellites as well as determine sources of debris for future mitigation. This paper will discuss different sensor and sensor types and the role that each plays in fully characterizing the space debris environment.

  1. BOREAS TE-1 CO2 and CH4 Flux Data Over the SSA-OBS Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Darwin; Papagno, Andrea; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-1 team collected various data to characterize the soil-plant systems in the BOREAS SSA. Particular emphasis was placed on nutrient biochemistry, the stores and transfers of organic carbon, and how the characteristics were related to measured methane fluxes. The overall transect in the Prince Albert National Park (Saskatchewan, Canada) included the major plant communities and related soils that occurred in that section of the boreal forest. Soil physical, chemical, and biological measurements along the transect were used to characterize the static environment, which allowed them to be related to methane fluxes. Chamber techniques were used to provide a measure of methane production/uptake. Chamber measurements coupled with flask sampling were used to determine the seasonality of methane fluxes. This particular data set contains carbon dioxide and methane flux values from the SSA-OBS site. The data were collected from 09-Jun to 04-Sep-1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  2. BOREAS TE-1 CH4 Flux Data Over The SSA-OA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Darwin; Papagno, Andrea; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-1 team collected various data to characterize the soil-plant systems in the BOREAS SSA. Particular emphasis was placed on nutrient biochemistry, the stores and transfers of organic carbon, and how the characteristics were related to measured methane fluxes. The overall transect in the Prince Albert National Park (Saskatchewan, Canada) included the major plant communities and related soils that occurred in that section of the boreal forest. Soil physical, chemical, and biological measurements along the transect were used to characterize the static environment, which allowed them to be related to methane fluxes. Chamber techniques were used to provide a measure of methane production/uptake. Chamber measurements coupled with flask sampling were used to determine the seasonality of methane fluxes. This particular data set contains methane flux and soil profile methane concentration values from the SSA-OA site. The data were collected from 29-May to 17-Sep-1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  3. Ductal constriction during dexamethasone treatment in an anti-SSA-antibody-exposed fetus with signs of myocardial inflammation.

    PubMed

    Talemal, Lauren; Olivieri, Laura; Krishnan, Anita

    2016-06-01

    This report describes the clinical course and multi-modality imaging findings in an anti-SSA-antibody-exposed fetus with suspected myocardial inflammation. Postnatal cardiac MRI - using fast acquisition, free-breathing with feed-and-swaddle technique - was used to evaluate for myocardial fibrosis/inflammation. This is the first published report, to our knowledge, of ductal constriction temporally associated with oral dexamethasone therapy in an anti-SSA-antibody-exposed fetus and of the use of this unique postnatal MRI protocol in this setting. PMID:27087593

  4. 78 FR 48170 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-12; HHS Computer Match No. 1307; SSA Computer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ..., published at 78 FR 8538 (Feb. 6, 2013) and 78 FR 32256 (May 29, 2013). The matching program will also be... Applications, SSA/ OEEAS, 60-0058, 75 FR 82121 (December 29, 2010), as amended 78 FR 40542 (July 5, 2013); Prisoner Update Processing System (PUPS), SSA/OPB, 60- 0269, 64 FR 11076 (March 8, 1999), as amended 72...

  5. BOREAS TF-4 CO2 and CH4 Soil Profile Data from the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striegl, Robert; Wickland, Kimberly; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux (BOREAS TF-4) team measured distributions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations for the upper 5 m of soil and unsaturated zone at the mature stand, upper 6 m at the 20-year-old stand, and the upper 1 m at the 8-year-old stand and clear cut area at the BOREAS Southern Study Area (SSA) during August 1993 to March 1995. Particle size and carbon content of the unsaturated deposits, precipitation, soil temperature and moisture, carbon and oxygen isotopes of soil CO2, and soil water chemistry are also presented. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  6. BOREAS RSS-8 BIOME-BGC SSA Simulation of Annual Water and Carbon Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Kimball, John

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-8 team performed research to evaluate the effect of seasonal weather and landcover heterogeneity on boreal forest regional water and carbon fluxes using a process-level ecosystem model, BIOME-BGC, coupled with remote sensing-derived parameter maps of key state variables. This data set contains derived maps of landcover type and crown and stem biomass as model inputs to determine annual evapotranspiration, gross primary production, autotrophic respiration, and net primary productivity within the BOREAS SSA-MSA, at a 30-m spatial resolution. Model runs were conducted over a 3-year period from 1994-1996; images are provided for each of those years. The data are stored in binary image format. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  7. BOREAS TE-18 Landsat TM Maximum Likelihood Classification Image of the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team focused its efforts on using remotely sensed data to characterize the successional and disturbance dynamics of the boreal forest for use in carbon modeling. The objective of this classification is to provide the BOREAS investigators with a data product that characterizes the land cover of the SSA. A Landsat-5 TM image from 02-Sep- 1994 was used to derive the classification. A technique was implemented that uses reflectances of various land cover types along with a geometric optical canopy model to produce spectral trajectories. These trajectories are used as training data to classify the image into the different land cover classes. These data are provided in a binary image file format. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Center (DAAC).

  8. BOREAS TF-11 CO2 and CH4 Concentration Data from the SSA-Fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara (Editor); Valentine, David W.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-11 team collected several data sets in its efforts to fully describe the flux and site characteristics at the SSA-Fen site. This data set contains temperature, pH, and concentration profiles of methane and carbon dioxide within the surface 50 cm of peat. The measurements were conducted as part of a 2 x 2 factorial experiment in which we added carbon (300 g/sq m as wheat straw) and nitro-gen (6 g/sq m as urea) to four replicate locations in the vicinity of the TF-11 tower. The data set covers the period from the first week of June 1994 through the second week of September 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  9. BOREAS TE-18 Landsat TM Physical Classification Image of the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team focused its efforts on using remotely sensed data to characterize the successional and disturbance dynamics of the boreal forest for use in carbon modeling. The objective of this classification is to provide the BOREAS investigators with a data product that characterizes the land cover of the SSA. A Landsat-5 TM image from 02-Sep-1994 was used to derive the classification. A technique was implemented that uses reflectances of various land cover types along with a geometric optical canopy model to produce spectral trajectories. These trajectories are used as training data to classify the image into the different land cover classes. These data are provided in a binary image file format. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  10. BOREAS RSS-4 1994 Jack Pine Leaf Biochemistry and Modeled Spectra in the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Plummer, Stephen; Lucas, Neil; Dawson, Terry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-4 team focused its efforts on deriving estimates of LAI and leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations from remotely sensed data for input into the Forest BGC model. This data set contains measurements of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) needle biochemistry from the BOREAS SSA in July and August 1994. The data contain measurements of current and year-1 needle chlorophyll, nitrogen, lignin, cellulose, and water content for the OJP flux tower and nearby auxiliary sites. The data have been used to test a needle reflectance and transmittance model, LIBERTY (Dawson et al., in press). The source code for the model and modeled needle spectra for each of the sampled tower and auxiliary sites are provided as part of this data set. The LIBERTY model was developed and the predicted spectral data generated to parameterize a canopy reflectance model (North, 1996) for comparison with AVIRIS, POLDER, and PARABOLA data. The data and model source code are stored in ASCII files.

  11. 20 CFR 403.100 - When can an SSA employee testify or produce information or records in legal proceedings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR parts 401 and 402. A request for both testimony and records or other information is considered two... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can an SSA employee testify or produce information or records in legal proceedings? 403.100 Section 403.100 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...

  12. 20 CFR 411.321 - Under what conditions will SSA terminate an agreement with an EN due to inadequate performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under what conditions will SSA terminate an agreement with an EN due to inadequate performance? 411.321 Section 411.321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Networks § 411.321...

  13. 20 CFR 411.321 - Under what conditions will SSA terminate an agreement with an EN due to inadequate performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Under what conditions will SSA terminate an agreement with an EN due to inadequate performance? 411.321 Section 411.321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Networks § 411.321...

  14. 20 CFR 411.321 - Under what conditions will SSA terminate an agreement with an EN due to inadequate performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Under what conditions will SSA terminate an agreement with an EN due to inadequate performance? 411.321 Section 411.321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Networks § 411.321...

  15. 20 CFR 411.321 - Under what conditions will SSA terminate an agreement with an EN due to inadequate performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Under what conditions will SSA terminate an agreement with an EN due to inadequate performance? 411.321 Section 411.321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Networks § 411.321...

  16. 20 CFR 411.321 - Under what conditions will SSA terminate an agreement with an EN due to inadequate performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions will SSA terminate an agreement with an EN due to inadequate performance? 411.321 Section 411.321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Networks § 411.321...

  17. 78 FR 69925 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Bureau of the Fiscal Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Record and Special Veterans Benefits SSA/ODSSIS 60- 0103, last published on January 11, 2006 at 71 FR... 17, 2011 at 76 FR 51128. E. Inclusive Dates of the Matching Program The effective date of this... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL...

  18. 78 FR 12128 - Privacy Act of 1974; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Department of the Treasury, Internal Revenue...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... the existing Medicare Database system of records, SSA/ORSIS 60-0321, originally published at 69 FR 77816 (December 28, 2004), and as revised at 71 FR 42159 (July 25, 2006). IRS extracts return... published at 77 FR 47946 (August 10, 2012). E. Inclusive Dates of the Matching Program The effective date...

  19. 76 FR 21091 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Centers for Medicare & Medicaid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ..., Management of Federal Information Resources, at 61 FR 6428-6435 (February 20, 1996), and OMB guidelines pertaining to computer matching at 54 FR 25818 (June 19, 1989). The legal authority for the SSI portion of... Services (CMS))--Match Number 1076 AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of...

  20. 76 FR 55690 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; The SSA-NIH Collaboration To Improve the Disability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Collaboration To Improve the Disability Determination Process: Validation of IRT-CAT Tools SUMMARY: In... Collaboration to Improve the Disability Determination Process: Validation of IRT-CAT tools. Type of Information... being developed to assist in the SSA disability determination process. The utilization of CAT...

  1. 76 FR 77238 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; The SSA-NIH Collaboration to Improve the Disability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Collaboration to Improve the Disability Determination Process: Validation of IRT-CAT Tools Summary: Under the... Disability Determination Process: Validation of IRT-CAT tools. Type of Information Collection Request: NEW... assist in the SSA disability determination process. The utilization of CAT technology could...

  2. 78 FR 37647 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Railroad Retirement Board (RRB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Retirement, Survivor, and Pensioner Benefits System, last published on July 26, 2012 (75 FR 43727). We will... Veterans Benefits, SSA/ODSSIS, 60-0103, last published on January 11, 2006 (71 FR 1830). SVB data also... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL...

  3. 75 FR 62623 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Internal Revenue Service (IRS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Benefit (SSR), SSA/OASSIS 60-0103, as published at 71 FR 1795 (January 11, 2006). IRS will extract return..., as published at 73 FR 42159 (July 25, 2006), through the Disclosure of Information to Federal, State... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL...

  4. 75 FR 51154 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Department of the Treasury...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... 60 FR 2144 (January 6, 1995) and revised at 71 FR 1826 (January 11, 2006). SSA will maintain the MAGI... published at 69 FR 77816 (December 28, 2004), and revised at 71 FR 42159 (July 25, 2006). IRS will extract...) Individual Master File, Treasury/IRS 24.030, published at 73 FR 13304 (March 12, 2008). E. Inclusive Dates...

  5. 20 CFR 408.1205 - How can a State have SSA administer its State recognition payment program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can a State have SSA administer its State recognition payment program? 408.1205 Section 408.1205 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Federal Administration of State Recognition...

  6. 20 CFR 408.1205 - How can a State have SSA administer its State recognition payment program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How can a State have SSA administer its State recognition payment program? 408.1205 Section 408.1205 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Federal Administration of State Recognition...

  7. Crystal structure of yeast Sis1 peptide-binding fragment and Hsp70 Ssa1 C-terminal complex

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingzhi; Wu, Yunkun; Qian, Xinguo; Sha, Bingdong

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) 40 facilitates the critical role of Hsp70 in a number of cellular processes such as protein folding, assembly, degradation and translocation in vivo. Hsp40 and Hsp70 stay in close contact to achieve these diverse functions. The conserved C-terminal EEVD motif in Hsp70 has been shown to regulate Hsp40–Hsp70 interaction by an unknown mechanism. Here, we provide a structural basis for this regulation by determining the crystal structure of yeast Hsp40 Sis1 peptide-binding fragment complexed with the Hsp70 Ssa1 C-terminal. The Ssa1 extreme C-terminal eight residues, G634PTVEEVD641, form a β-strand with the domain I of Sis1 peptide-binding fragment. Surprisingly, the Ssa1 C-terminal binds Sis1 at the site where Sis1 interacts with the non-native polypeptides. The negatively charged residues within the EEVD motif in Ssa1 C-terminal form extensive charge–charge interactions with the positively charged residues in Sis1. The structure-based mutagenesis data support the structural observations. PMID:16737444

  8. 75 FR 18251 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Internal Revenue Service (IRS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... File) system of records, SSA/ORSIS 60-0321, originally published at 69 FR 77816 (December 28, 2004), and as revised at 71 FR 42159 (July 25, 2006). IRS extracts return information with respect to..., published at 73 FR 13302 (March 12, 2008), using the same extract as the Disclosure of Information...

  9. 77 FR 27108 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Office of Child Support...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... (71 Federal Register (FR) 1830); and the Completed Determination Record-Continuing Disability Determination file (CDR-CDD), SSA/OD 60-0050 notice last published January 11, 2006 (72 FR 1813). OCSE will... Directory of New Hires'' (NDNH), No. 09-80-0381, published in the FR on January 5, 2011, at 76 FR...

  10. 75 FR 9012 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/U.S. Department of Health and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY... Enforcement (OCSE)--Match 1306 AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of a renewal of an... Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503), amended the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a)...

  11. The ESA SSA NEO Coordination Centre contribution to NEO hazard monitoring and observational campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, Marco; Borgia, Barbara; Drolshagen, Gerhard; Koschny, Detlef; Perozzi, Ettore

    2015-08-01

    The NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) has recently been established in Frascati, near Rome, within the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. Among its tasks is the coordination of observational activities related to the NEO hazard, and the distribution of relevant and up-to-date information on NEOs to both the scientific community and general users through its web portal (http://neo.ssa.esa.int).On the observational side, the NEOCC is linked to an increasingly large worldwide network of collaborating observatories, ranging from amateurs observers to large professional telescopes. The Centre organizes observation campaigns, alerting the network to suggest urgent or high-priority observations, and providing them with observational support.The NEOCC is also directly obtaining astrometric observations of high-priority targets, especially Virtual Impactors (VIs), on challenging objects as faint as magnitude 26.5, thanks to successful collaborations with ESO VLT in Chile and the INAF-sponsored LBT in Arizona. In addition, the Centre carries out regular monthly runs dedicated to NEO follow-up, recovery and survey activities with the 1-meter ESA OGS telescope in Tenerife.From a service perspective, the NEO System hosted at the NEOCC collects data and information on NEOs produced by various European services (e.g. NEODyS, EARN) and makes them available to a variety of users, with a particular focus on objects with possible collision solutions with the Earth. Among the tools provided through the web portal are the Risk List (a table of all known NEOs with impact solutions), a table of recent and upcoming close approaches, a database of physical properties of NEOs and the so-called Priority List, which allows observers to identify NEOs in most urgent need of observations, and prioritise their observational activities accordingly.The results of our recent observation campaigns and some major recent improvements to the NEO System will presented and

  12. The formation of the massive galaxies in the SSA22 z = 3.1 protocluster

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, M.; Uchimoto, Y. K.; Yamada, T.; Ichikawa, T.; Akiyama, M.; Kajisawa, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Hayashino, T.; Konishi, M.; Nishimura, T.; Omata, K.; Suzuki, R.; Tanaka, I.; Yoshikawa, T.; Alexander, D. M.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Lehmer, B. D.

    2013-12-01

    We study the properties of K-band-selected galaxies (K {sub AB} < 24) in the z = 3.09 SSA22 protocluster field. 430 galaxies at 2.6 < z {sub phot} < 3.6 are selected as potential protocluster members in a 112 arcmin{sup 2} area based on their photometric redshifts. We find that ≈20% of the massive galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} at z {sub phot} ∼ 3.1 have colors consistent with those of quiescent galaxies with ages >0.5 Gyr. This fraction increases to ≈50% after correcting for unrelated foreground/background objects. We also find that 30% of the massive galaxies are heavily reddened, dusty, star-forming galaxies. Few such quiescent galaxies at similar redshifts are seen in typical survey fields. An excess surface density of 24 μm sources at z {sub phot} ∼ 3.1 is also observed, implying the presence of dusty star-formation activity in the protocluster. Cross-correlation with the X-ray data indicates that the fraction of K-band-selected protocluster galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is also high compared with the field. The sky distribution of the quiescent galaxies, the 24 μm sources, and the X-ray AGNs show clustering around a density peak of z = 3.1 Lyα emitters. A significant fraction of the massive galaxies have already become quiescent, while dusty star-formation is still active in the SSA22 protocluster. These findings indicate that we are witnessing the formation epoch of massive early-type galaxies in the centers of the predecessors to present-day rich galaxy clusters.

  13. Dan Johnson the mentor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, Richard

    2003-04-01

    I first met Dan Johnson in early 1975 as I was interviewing for an engineering job with Henning von Gierke's bioengineering and bionics laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. From the very beginning Dan was always direct and forthright. Over the ensuing next 27 years my knowledge and respect of Dan constantly grew. This presentation will review Dan's technical and personal contributions while at the laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. He was instrumental in the development of a national noise exposure criteria with the equal-energy-rule, an accurate single number hearing protector attenuation measure based on ``C-A,'' an impulse noise exposure criteria, a longitudinal study of hearing loss in children, development of noise dosimeters, and description of hearing damage risk from nonoccupational noise exposures such as disco's, bowling alleys, lawn mowers, and school buses. Dan has had a significant effect on my career. I and the many people who knew him at the laboratory miss him greatly.

  14. Parameterization of single-scattering albedo (SSA) and absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) with EC / OC for aerosol emissions from biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Rudra P.; Wagner, Nick L.; Langridge, Justin M.; Lack, Daniel A.; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Murphy, Shane M.

    2016-08-01

    Single-scattering albedo (SSA) and absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) are two critical parameters in determining the impact of absorbing aerosol on the Earth's radiative balance. Aerosol emitted by biomass burning represent a significant fraction of absorbing aerosol globally, but it remains difficult to accurately predict SSA and AAE for biomass burning aerosol. Black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), and non-absorbing coatings all make substantial contributions to the absorption coefficient of biomass burning aerosol. SSA and AAE cannot be directly predicted based on fuel type because they depend strongly on burn conditions. It has been suggested that SSA can be effectively parameterized via the modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of a biomass burning event and that this would be useful because emission factors for CO and CO2, from which MCE can be calculated, are available for a large number of fuels. Here we demonstrate, with data from the FLAME-4 experiment, that for a wide variety of globally relevant biomass fuels, over a range of combustion conditions, parameterizations of SSA and AAE based on the elemental carbon (EC) to organic carbon (OC) mass ratio are quantitatively superior to parameterizations based on MCE. We show that the EC / OC ratio and the ratio of EC / (EC + OC) both have significantly better correlations with SSA than MCE. Furthermore, the relationship of EC / (EC + OC) with SSA is linear. These improved parameterizations are significant because, similar to MCE, emission factors for EC (or black carbon) and OC are available for a wide range of biomass fuels. Fitting SSA with MCE yields correlation coefficients (Pearson's r) of ˜ 0.65 at the visible wavelengths of 405, 532, and 660 nm while fitting SSA with EC / OC or EC / (EC + OC) yields a Pearson's r of 0.94-0.97 at these same wavelengths. The strong correlation coefficient at 405 nm (r = 0.97) suggests that parameterizations based on EC / OC or EC / (EC + OC) have good predictive

  15. The influence of quorum sensing in compartment II of the MELiSSA loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condori, Sandra; Mastroleo, Felice; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) has been conceived as a 5 compartments microorganisms and higher plants recycling system for long haul space flights. Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H colonizes compartment II. Previous work reported that continuous culture of the bacterium in a photobioreactor could lead to thick biofilm formation, leading to bioreactor arrest. Our aim is to investigate the unknown quorum sensing (QS) system of R. rubrum S1H, specifically under MELiSSA relevant culture conditions meaning light anaerobic (LAN) and using acetate as carbon source. In that purpose an autoinducer synthase gene (Rru_A3396) knockout mutant was constructed by allelic exchange generating strain M68. In addition phenotypic comparison between wild type (WT) and M68 was performed. Results of thin layer chromatography assay where Agrobacterium tumefaciens NT1 have been used as reporter strain showed that WT produces acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) from C4 to C12 acyl carbon chain length; however, in M68 no AHLs were detected confirming that gene Rru_A3396 (named rruI) encodes an autoinducer synthase. Interestingly under a low shear or static environment M68 showed cell aggregation similar as reported in a closely related bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides (cerI mutant). In contrast to WT, M68 did not form biofilm and exhibited a decreased motility and pigment content. M68 vs wild type transcriptomics results showed that 326 genes were statistically significant differentially expressed. Downregulation of genes related to photosynthesis e.g., reaction center subunits, light harvesting complex and photosynthetic assembly proteins was observed. Similar results were obtained for preliminary proteomic analysis. Results obtained showed that in R. rubrum S1H the AHL-based QS system regulates almost 8% of the genome which is linked to biofilm formation among other biological processes described above. Since strain M68 could not be used in compartment II due to its less

  16. Observer Interface Analysis for Standardization to a Cloud Based Real-Time Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilers, J.

    2013-09-01

    The interface analysis from an observer of space objects makes a standard necessary. This standardized dataset serves as input for a cloud based service, which aimed for a near real-time Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. The system contains all advantages of a cloud based solution, like redundancy, scalability and an easy way to distribute information. For the standard based on the interface analysis of the observer, the information can be separated in three parts. One part is the information about the observer e.g. a ground station. The next part is the information about the sensors that are used by the observer. And the last part is the data from the detected object. Backbone of the SSA System is the cloud based service which includes the consistency check for the observed objects, a database for the objects, the algorithms and analysis as well as the visualization of the results. This paper also provides an approximation of the needed computational power, data storage and a financial approach to deliver this service to a broad community. In this context cloud means, neither the user nor the observer has to think about the infrastructure of the calculation environment. The decision if the IT-infrastructure will be built by a conglomerate of different nations or rented on the marked should be based on an efficiency analysis. Also combinations are possible like starting on a rented cloud and then go to a private cloud owned by the government. One of the advantages of a cloud solution is the scalability. There are about 3000 satellites in space, 900 of them are active, and in total there are about ~17.000 detected space objects orbiting earth. But for the computation it is not a N(active) to N problem it is more N(active) to N(apo peri) quantity of N(all). Instead of 15.3 million possible collisions to calculate a computation of only approx. 2.3 million possible collisions must be done. In general, this Space Situational Awareness System can be used as a

  17. SSA Sensor Tasking Approach for Improved Orbit Determination Accuracies and More Efficient Use of Ground Assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, A.; Stoner, F.

    2013-09-01

    Current SSA sensor tasking and scheduling is not centrally coordinated or optimized for either orbit determination quality or efficient use of sensor resources. By applying readily available capabilities for determining optimal tasking times and centrally generating de-conflicted schedules for all available sensors, both the quality of determined orbits (and thus situational awareness) and the use of sensor resources may be measurably improved. This paper provides an approach that is logically separated into two main sections. Part 1 focuses on the science of orbit determination based on tracking data and the approaches to tracking that result in improved orbit prediction quality (such as separating limited tracking passes in inertial space as much as possible). This part of the paper defines the goals for Part 2 of the paper which focuses on the details of an improved tasking and scheduling approach for sensor tasking. Centralized tasking and scheduling of sensor tracking assignments eliminates conflicting tasking requests up front and coordinates tasking to achieve (as much as possible within the physics of the problem and limited resources) the tracking goals defined in Part I. The effectivity of the proposed approach will be assessed based on improvements in the overall accuracy of the space catalog. Systems Tool Kit (STK) from Analytical Graphics and STK Scheduler from Orbit Logic are used for computations and to generate schedules for the existing and improved approaches.

  18. Viable Biomass Sensor integration in the MELiSSA CI and CIII compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duatis Juarez, Jordi; Peiro, Enrique; Bragos, Ramon

    Traditionally, the biomass quantity and quality in complex substrate reactor (e.g. activated sludge, high density, fixed bed,..) is determined off-line in laboratories. Within this study, the VIAMASS Sensor System, which uses Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques, has been tested for MELiSSA compartment CI and C III, the liquefying and the nitrifying compartment respectively. This sensor is able to measure viable cells on basis of an impedance spectroscopy measurement. The fact that viable biomass can be detected, distinguishes the sensor from classical biomass sensors used in wastewater treatment plants. Detection of viable biomass and composition of the biomass can be very useful for calibration and validation of biological models. The sensor can be used to detect toxicity in system leading to die-off of organisms. The technology developed initially for space applications has been adapted and will be also able to give overall information on the population distribution of cells, distinguishing what type of biomass is dominant (for example, bacteria or protozoa).

  19. BOREAS AFM-1 NOAA/ATDD Long-EZ Aircraft Flux data Over the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Timothy L.; Baldocchi, Dennis; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Gunter, Laureen; Dumas, Ed; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set contains measurements from the Airborne Flux and Meteorology (AFM)-1 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration/Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (NOAA/ATDD) Long-EZ Aircraft collected during the 1994 Intensive Field Campaigns (IFCs) at the southern study area (SSA). These measurements were made from various instruments mounted on the aircraft. The data that were collected include aircraft altitude, wind direction, wind speed, air temperature, potential temperature, water mixing ratio, U and V components of wind velocity, static pressure, surface radiative temperature, downwelling and upwelling total radiation, downwelling and upwelling longwave radiation, net radiation, downwelling and upwelling photosynthectically active radiation (PAR), greenness index, CO2 concentration, O3 concentration, and CH4 concentration. There are also various columns that indicate the standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and trend of some of these data. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The NOAA/ATDD Long-EZ aircraft flux data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  20. Hazard Analysis for the Mark III Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Used in One-g Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kate; Ross, Amy; Blanco, Raul; Wood, Art

    2012-01-01

    This Hazard Analysis document encompasses the Mark III Space Suit Assembly (SSA) and associated ancillary equipment. It has been prepared using JSC17773, "Preparing Hazard Analyses for JSC Ground Operation", as a guide. The purpose of this document is to present the potential hazards involved in ground (23 % maximum O2, One-g) operations of the Mark III and associated ancillary support equipment system. The hazards listed in this document are specific to suit operations only; each supporting facility (Bldg. 9, etc.) is responsible for test specific Hazard Analyses. A "hazard" is defined as any condition that has the potential for harming personnel or equipment. This analysis was performed to document the safety aspects associated with manned use of the Mark III for pressurized and unpressurized ambient, ground-based, One-g human testing. The hazards identified herein represent generic hazards inherent to all standard JSC test venues for nominal ground test configurations. Non-standard test venues or test specific configurations may warrant consideration of additional hazards analysis prior to test. The cognizant suit engineer is responsible for the safety of the astronaut/test subject, space suit, and suit support personnel. The test requester, for the test supported by the suit test engineer and suited subject, is responsible for overall safety and any necessary Test Readiness Reviews (TRR).

  1. BOREAS AFM-08 ECMWF Hourly Surface and Upper Air Data for the SSA and NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterbo, Pedro; Betts, Alan; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-8 team focused on modeling efforts to improve the understanding of the diurnal evolution of the convective boundary layer over the boreal forest. This data set contains hourly data from the European Center for for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational model from below the surface to the top of the atmosphere, including the model fluxes at the surface. Spatially, the data cover a pair of the points that enclose the rawinsonde sites at Candle Lake, Saskatchewan, in the Southern Study Area (SSA) and Thompson, Manitoba, in the Northern Study Area (NSA). Temporally, the data include the two time periods of 13 May 1994 to 30 Sept 1994 and 01 Mar 1996 to 31 Mar 1997. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The number of records in the upper air data files may exceed 20,000, causing a problem for some software packages. The ECMWF hourly surface and upper air data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  2. BOREAS TGB-8 Monoterpene Concentration Data over the SSA-OBS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor); Lerdau, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-8 team collected data to investigate the controls over NMHC fluxes from boreal forest tree species. This data set contains measurements of monoterpene concentrations in collected foliar gas emissions and foliar samples. The data were collected at the OJP and OBS tower flux sites in the SSA and were the locus for the monoterpene emission measurements. These areas contained mature stands of jack pine and black spruce and were the focal sites in the BOREAS program for studies of biosphere/atmosphere exchange from these two habitat types. The OBS site is situated in a black spruce/sphagnum bog with the largest trees 155 years old and 10-15 m tall. The OJP site is in a jack pine forest, 80 to 120 years old, which lies on a sandy bench of glacial outwash with the largest tree standing 15 m tall. Temporally, the data cover the period of 24-May-1994 to 19-Sep-1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  3. Spatial segregation of galaxy populations in the SSA22 z=3.1 proto-cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Akio

    2013-01-01

    There is a massive proto-cluster at z = 3.1 traced by Lyα emitters (LAEs) in the SSA22 field. In the same field, we have found 73 Lyman continuum emitters (LCEs) and 95 sub-mm galaxies (SMGs) by our previous observations. The LCEs are LAEs emitting strong Lyman continuum (λ_rest < 912Angstrom). We find that the LCEs are distributed on the periphery or in the outside of the LAE proto-cluster, and indeed, the LCE-LAE angular cross-correlation shows no correlation between them. On the other hand, bright SMGs reside in the proto-cluster and the bright SMG-LAE angular cross-correlation shows their good correlation. This spatial segregation of the two different populations of galaxies is very interesting and is a new clue to understand the physical mechanism of the escape of the Lyman continuum and environmental effects of clusters of galaxies on formation and evolution of galaxies. However, a limited number of LCEs and no SMGs have spectroscopic redshifts obtained so far. Therefore, we propose a redshift survey of the LCEs and SMGs with Gemini/GMOS-N in order to measure redshifts of these galaxies and to establish the spatial segregation of the galaxy populations in the proto-cluster.

  4. Benefits of Applying Predictive Intelligence to the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, B.; Mann, B.; Millard, C.

    Recent events have heightened the interest in providing improved Space Situational Awareness (SSA) to the warfighter using novel techniques that are affordable and effective. The current Space Surveillance Network (SSN) detects, tracks, catalogs and identifies artificial objects orbiting earth and provides information on Resident Space Objects (RSO) as well as new foreign launch (NFL) satellites. The reactive nature of the SSN provides little to no warning on changes to the expected states of these RSOs or NFLs. This paper will detail the use of the historical data collected on RSOs to characterize what their steady state is, proactively help identify when changes or anomalies have occurred using a pattern-of-like activity based intelligence approach, and apply dynamic, adaptive mission planning to the observables that lead up to a NFL. Multiple hypotheses will be carried along with the intent or the changes to the steady state to assist the SSN in tasking the various sensors in the network to collect the relevant data needed to help prune the number of hypotheses by assigning likelihood to each of those activities. Depending on the hypothesis and thresholds set, these likelihoods will then be used in turn to alert the SSN operator with changes to the steady state, prioritize additional data collections, and provide a watch list of likely next activities.

  5. Cryptococcal heat shock protein 70 homolog Ssa1 contributes to pulmonary expansion of Cryptococcus neoformans during the afferent phase of the immune response by promoting macrophage M2 polarization.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Alison J; He, Xiumiao; Qiu, Yafeng; Davis, Michael J; Vedula, Priya; Lyons, Daniel M; Park, Yoon-Dong; Hardison, Sarah E; Malachowski, Antoni N; Osterholzer, John J; Wormley, Floyd L; Williamson, Peter R; Olszewski, Michal A

    2015-06-15

    Numerous virulence factors expressed by Cryptococcus neoformans modulate host defenses by promoting nonprotective Th2-biased adaptive immune responses. Prior studies demonstrate that the heat shock protein 70 homolog, Ssa1, significantly contributes to serotype D C. neoformans virulence through the induction of laccase, a Th2-skewing and CNS tropic factor. In the present study, we sought to determine whether Ssa1 modulates host defenses in mice infected with a highly virulent serotype A strain of C. neoformans (H99). To investigate this, we assessed pulmonary fungal growth, CNS dissemination, and survival in mice infected with either H99, an SSA1-deleted H99 strain (Δssa1), and a complement strain with restored SSA1 expression (Δssa1::SSA1). Mice infected with the Δssa1 strain displayed substantial reductions in lung fungal burden during the innate phase (days 3 and 7) of the host response, whereas less pronounced reductions were observed during the adaptive phase (day 14) and mouse survival increased only by 5 d. Surprisingly, laccase activity assays revealed that Δssa1 was not laccase deficient, demonstrating that H99 does not require Ssa1 for laccase expression, which explains the CNS tropism we still observed in the Ssa1-deficient strain. Lastly, our immunophenotyping studies showed that Ssa1 directly promotes early M2 skewing of lung mononuclear phagocytes during the innate phase, but not the adaptive phase, of the immune response. We conclude that Ssa1's virulence mechanism in H99 is distinct and laccase-independent. Ssa1 directly interferes with early macrophage polarization, limiting innate control of C. neoformans, but ultimately has no effect on cryptococcal control by adaptive immunity. PMID:25972480

  6. Simulation of the MELiSSA closed loop system as a tool to define its integration strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poughon, Laurent; Farges, Berangere; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Godia, Francesc; Lasseur, Christophe

    Inspired from a terrestrial ecosystem, MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a project of closed life support system future long-term manned missions (Moon and Mars bases). Started on ESA in 1989, this 5 compartments concept has evolved following a mechanistic engineering approach for acquiring both theoretical and technical knowledge. In its current state of development the project can now start to demonstrate the MELiSSA loop concept at a pilot scale. Thus an integration strategy for a MELiSSA Pilot Plant (MPP) was defined, describing the different phases for tests and connections between compartments. The integration steps should be started in 2008 and be completed with a complete operational loop in 2015, which final objective is to achieve a closed liquid and gas loop with 100 Although the integration logic could start with the most advanced processes in terms of knowledge and hardware development, this logic needs to be completed by high politic of simulation. Thanks to this simulation exercise, the effective demonstrations of each independent process and its progressive coupling with others will be performed in operational conditions as close as possible to the final configuration. The theoretical approach described in this paper is based on mass balance models of each of the MELiSSA biological compartments which are used to simulate each integration step and the complete MPP loop itself. These simulations will help to identify criticalities of each integration steps and to check the consistencies between objectives, flows, recycling efficiencies and sizing of the pilot reactors. A MPP scenario compatible with the current knowledge of the operation of the pilot reactors was investigated and the theoretical performances of the system compared to the objectives of the MPP. From this scenario the most important milestone steps in the integration are highlighted and their behaviour can be simulated.

  7. Dynamic aspects and controllability of the MELiSSA project: a bioregenerative system to provide life support in space.

    PubMed

    Farges, Bérangère; Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Cornet, Jean-François; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Lasseur, Christophe

    2008-12-01

    Manmade ecosystems differ from their prototype biosphere by the principle of control. The Earth Biosphere is sustainable by stochastic control and very large time constants. By contrast, in a closed ecosystem such as the micro-ecological life support system alternative (MELiSSA system) developed by the European Space Agency for space exploration, a deterministic control is a prerequisite of sustainable existence. MELiSSA is an integrated sum of interconnected biological subsystems. On one hand, all unit operations in charge of the elementary functions constitutive of the entire life support system are studied until a thorough understanding and mathematical modelling. On the other hand, the systemic approach of complex, highly branched systems with feedback loops is performed. This leads to study in the same perspective, with the same degree of accuracy and with the same language, waste degradation, water recycling, atmosphere revitalisation and food production systems prior to the integration of knowledge-based control models. This paper presents the mathematical modelling of the MELiSSA system and the interface between the control strategy of the entire system and the control of the bioreactors. PMID:18592407

  8. SsaA, a Member of a Novel Class of Transcriptional Regulators, Controls Sansanmycin Production in Streptomyces sp. Strain SS through a Feedback Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglian; Wang, Lifei; Xie, Yunying; Wang, Songmei; Chen, Ruxian

    2013-01-01

    Sansanmycins, produced by Streptomyces sp. strain SS, are uridyl peptide antibiotics with activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this work, the biosynthetic gene cluster of sansanmycins, comprised of 25 open reading frames (ORFs) showing considerable amino acid sequence identity to those of the pacidamycin and napsamycin gene cluster, was identified. SsaA, the archetype of a novel class of transcriptional regulators, was characterized in the sansanmycin gene cluster, with an N-terminal fork head-associated (FHA) domain and a C-terminal LuxR-type helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif. The disruption of ssaA abolished sansanmycin production, as well as the expression of the structural genes for sansanmycin biosynthesis, indicating that SsaA is a pivotal activator for sansanmycin biosynthesis. SsaA was proved to directly bind several putative promoter regions of biosynthetic genes, and comparison of sequences of the binding sites allowed the identification of a consensus SsaA binding sequence, GTMCTGACAN2TGTCAGKAC. The DNA binding activity of SsaA was inhibited by sansanmycins A and H in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, sansanmycins A and H were found to directly interact with SsaA. These results indicated that SsaA strictly controls the production of sansanmycins at the transcriptional level in a feedback regulatory mechanism by sensing the accumulation of the end products. As the first characterized regulator of uridyl peptide antibiotic biosynthesis, the understanding of this autoregulatory process involved in sansanmycin biosynthesis will likely provide an effective strategy for rational improvements in the yields of these uridyl peptide antibiotics. PMID:23475969

  9. Ground Optical Signal Processing Architecture for Contributing SSA Space Based Sensor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblick, D.; Klug, M.; Goldsmith, A.; Flewelling, B.; Jah, M.; Shanks, J.; Piña, R.

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of the DARPA program Orbit Outlook (O^2) is to improve the metric tracking and detection performance of the Space Situational Network (SSN) by adding a diverse low-cost network of contributing sensors to the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) mission. In order to accomplish this objective, not only must a sensor be in constant communication with a planning and scheduling system to process tasking requests, there must be an underlying framework to provide useful data products, such as angles only measurements. Existing optical signal processing implementations such as the Optical Processing Architecture at Lincoln (OPAL) are capable of converting mission data collections to angles only observations, but may be difficult for many users to obtain, support, and customize for low-cost missions and demonstration programs. The Ground Optical Signal Processing Architecture (GOSPA) will ingest raw imagery and telemetry data from a space based electro optical sensor and perform a background removal process to remove anomalous pixels, interpolate over bad pixels, and dominant temporal noise. After background removal, the streak end points and target centroids are located using a corner detection algorithm developed by Air Force Research Laboratory. These identified streak locations are then fused with the corresponding spacecraft telemetry data to determine the Right Ascension and Declination measurements with respect to time. To demonstrate the performance of GOSPA, non-rate tracking collections against a satellite in Geosynchronous Orbit are simulated from a visible optical imaging sensor in a polar Low Earth Orbit. Stars, noise and bad pixels are added to the simulated images based on look angles and sensor parameters. These collections are run through the GOSPA framework to provide angles- only measurements to the Air Force Research Laboratory Constrained Admissible Region Multiple Hypothesis Filter (CAR-MHF) in which an Initial Orbit Determination is

  10. Automatic, Rapid Replanning of Satellite Operations for Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottler, D.; Mahan, K.

    An important component of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is knowledge of the status and tasking of blue forces (e.g. satellites and ground stations) and the rapid determination of the impacts of real or hypothetical changes and the ability to quickly replan based on those changes. For example, if an antenna goes down (either for benign reasons or from purposeful interference) determining which missions will be impacted is important. It is not simply the set of missions that were scheduled to utilize that antenna, because highly expert human schedulers will respond to the outage by intelligently replanning the real-time schedule. We have developed an automatic scheduling and deconfliction engine, called MIDAS (for Managed Intelligent Deconfliction And Scheduling) that interfaces to the current legacy system (ESD 2.7) which can perform this replanning function automatically. In addition to determining the impact of failed resources, MIDAS can also replan in response to a satellite under attack. In this situation, additional supports must be quickly scheduled and executed (while minimizing impacts to other missions). Because MIDAS is a fully automatic system, replacing a current human labor-intensive process, and provides very rapid turnaround (seconds) it can also be used by commanders to consider what-if questions and focus limited protection resources on the most critical resources. For example, the commander can determine the impact of a successful attack on one of two ground stations and place heavier emphasis on protecting the station whose loss would create the most severe impacts. The system is currently transitioning to operational use. The MIDAS system and its interface to the legacy ESD 2.7 system will be described along with the ConOps for different types of detailed operational scenarios.

  11. Liquid atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayvel, L.; Orzechowski, Z.

    The present text defines the physical processes of liquid atomization, the primary types of atomizers and their design, and ways of measuring spray characteristics; it also presents experimental investigation results on atomizers and illustrative applications for them. Attention is given to the macrostructural and microstructural parameters of atomized liquids; swirl, pneumatic, and rotary atomizers; and optical drop sizing methods, with emphasis on nonintrusive optical methods.

  12. Production characteristics of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. in the frame of the first crop tests in the Higher Plant Chamber integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lawson, Jamie; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Paille, Christel; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Godia, Francesc

    Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an artificial closed ecosystem that is considered a tool for the development of a bioregenerative life support system for manned space missions. One of the five compartments of MELiSSA loop -Higher Plant Chamber was recently integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility at Universitat Aut`noma deo Barcelona. The main contributions expected by integration of this photosynthetic compartment are oxygen, water, vegetable food production and CO2 consumption. Production characteristics of Lactuca sativa L., as a MELiSSA candidate crop, were investigated in this work in the first crop experiments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility. The plants were grown in batch culture and totaled 100 plants with a growing area 5 m long and 1 m wide in a sealed controlled environment. Several replicates of the experiments were carried out with varying duration. It was shown that after 46 days of lettuce cultivation dry edible biomass averaged 27, 2 g per plant. However accumulation of oxygen in the chamber, which required purging of the chamber, and decrease in the food value of the plants was observed. Reducing the duration of the tests allowed uninterrupted test without opening the system and also allowed estimation of the crop's carbon balance. Results of productivity, tissue composition, nutrient uptake and canopy photosynthesis of lettuce regardless of test duration are discussed in the paper.

  13. Atomic polarizabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, M. S.; Mitroy, J.; Clark, Charles W.; Kozlov, M. G.

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  14. Characterization of Brca2-deficient plants excludes the role of NHEJ and SSA in the meiotic chromosomal defect phenotype.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Marilyn; Massot, Sophie; Doutriaux, Marie-Pascale; Gratias, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    In somatic cells, three major pathways are involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DBS): Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ), Single-Strand Annealing (SSA) and Homologous Recombination (HR). In somatic and meiotic HR, DNA DSB are 5' to 3' resected, producing long 3' single-stranded DNA extensions. Brca2 is essential to load the Rad51 recombinase onto these 3' overhangs. The resulting nucleofilament can thus invade a homologous DNA sequence to copy and restore the original genetic information. In Arabidopsis, the inactivation of Brca2 specifically during meiosis by an RNAi approach results in aberrant chromosome aggregates, chromosomal fragmentation and missegregation leading to a sterility phenotype. We had previously suggested that such chromosomal behaviour could be due to NHEJ. In this study, we show that knock-out plants affected in both BRCA2 genes show the same meiotic phenotype as the RNAi-inactivated plants. Moreover, it is demonstrated that during meiosis, neither NHEJ nor SSA compensate for HR deficiency in BRCA2-inactivated plants. The role of the plant-specific DNA Ligase6 is also excluded. The possible mechanism(s) involved in the formation of these aberrant chromosomal bridges in the absence of HR during meiosis are discussed. PMID:22039535

  15. BOREAS HYP-8 DEM Data Over The NSA-MSA and SSA-MSA in The AEAC Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, David E.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Wang, Xue-Wen; Band, L. E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    These data were derived from the original Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) produced by the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-8 team. The original DEMs were in the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection, while this product is projected in the Albers Equal-Area Conic (AEAC) projection. The pixel size of the data is 100 meters, which is appropriate for the 1:50,000-scale contours from which the DEMs were made. The original data were compiled from information available in the 1970s and 1980s. This data set covers the two Modeling Sub-Areas (MSAs) that are contained within the Southern Study Area (SSA) and the Northern Study Area (NSA). The data are stored in binary, image format files. The DEM data over the NSA-MSA and SSA-MSA in the AEAC projection are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  16. Induction of osmoadaptive mechanisms and modulation of cellular physiology help Bacillus licheniformis strain SSA 61 adapt to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sangeeta; Aggarwal, Chetana; Thakur, Jyoti Kumar; Bandeppa, G S; Khan, Md Aslam; Pearson, Lauren M; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Giometti, Carol S; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strain SSA 61, originally isolated from Sambhar salt lake, was observed to grow even in the presence of 25 % salt stress. Osmoadaptive mechanisms of this halotolerant B. licheniformis strain SSA 61, for long-term survival and growth under salt stress, were determined. Proline was the preferentially accumulated compatible osmolyte. There was also increased accumulation of antioxidants ascorbic acid and glutathione. Among the different antioxidative enzymes assayed, superoxide dismutase played the most crucial role in defense against salt-induced stress in the organism. Adaptation to stress by the organism involved modulation of cellular physiology at various levels. There was enhanced expression of known proteins playing essential roles in stress adaptation, such as chaperones DnaK and GroEL, and general stress protein YfkM and polynucleotide phosphorylase/polyadenylase. Proteins involved in amino acid biosynthetic pathway, ribosome structure, and peptide elongation were also overexpressed. Salt stress-induced modulation of expression of enzymes involved in carbon metabolism was observed. There was up-regulation of a number of enzymes involved in generation of NADH and NADPH, indicating increased cellular demand for both energy and reducing power. PMID:25561404

  17. NARROWBAND IMAGING OF ESCAPING LYMAN-CONTINUUM EMISSION IN THE SSA22 FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Nestor, Daniel B.; Shapley, Alice E.; Steidel, Charles C.; Siana, Brian

    2011-07-20

    We present the results of an ultradeep, narrowband imaging survey for Lyman-continuum (LyC) emission at z {approx} 3 in the SSA22a field. We employ a custom narrowband filter centered at {lambda} = 3640 A (NB3640), which probes the LyC region for galaxies at z {>=} 3.06. We also analyze new and archival NB4980 imaging tuned to the wavelength of the Ly{alpha} emission line at z = 3.09, and archival broadband B, V, and R images of the non-ionizing UV continuum. Our NB3640 images contain 26 z {>=} 3.06 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) as well as a set of 130 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs), identified by their excess NB4980 flux relative to the BV continuum. Six LBGs and 28 LAEs are detected in the NB3640 image. LBGs appear to span a range of NB3640-R colors, while LAEs appear bimodal in their NB3640-R properties. We estimate average UV-to-LyC flux density ratios, corrected for foreground contamination and intergalactic medium absorption, finding (F{sub UV}/F{sub LyC}){sup LBG}{sub corr} = 11.3{sup +10.3}{sub -5.4}, which implies an LBG LyC escape fraction f{sup LyC}{sub esc} {approx} 0.1, and (F{sub UV}/F{sub LyC}){sup LAE}{sub corr} = 2.2{sup +0.9}{sub -0.6}. The strikingly blue LAE flux density ratios defy interpretation in terms of standard stellar population models. Assuming (F{sub UV}/F{sub LyC}){sup LBG}{sub corr} applies down to L = 0.1L*, we estimate a galaxy contribution to the intergalactic hydrogen ionization rate that is consistent with independent estimates based on the Ly{alpha} forest opacity at z {approx_equal} 3. If we assume that (F{sub UV}/F{sub LyC}){sup LAE}{sub corr} holds at the faintest luminosities, the galaxy contribution significantly exceeds that inferred from the Ly{alpha} forest. We interpret our results in terms of a model where LyC photons escape over only {approx}10%-20% of solid angle. When advantageously oriented, a galaxy will exhibit a low UV-to-LyC ratio, an effect enhanced for more compact galaxies. This model, however, does not adequately

  18. PASS Program. SSA Work Incentive for Disabled Beneficiaries Poorly Managed. Report to the Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate, and the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    The General Accounting Office reviewed the Social Security Administration's (SSA) Plan for Achieving Self-Support (PASS) program, which was established in 1972 to help disability benefit recipients return to employment. The study evaluated the SSA's management of the PASS program, including the program's impact on employment, and sought to…

  19. NPPy With Dan DeVito

    NASA Video Gallery

    The NPP mission mascot NPPy was found by the NPP Ground Project Manager Dan DeVito in a place called Svalbard, located 600 miles from the North Pole. Since then, Dan and other people on the NPP pro...

  20. Atomic supersymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostelecky, V. Alan

    1993-01-01

    Atomic supersymmetry is a quantum-mechanical supersymmetry connecting the properties of different atoms and ions. A short description of some established results in the subject are provided and a few recent developments are discussed including the extension to parabolic coordinates and the calculation of Stark maps using supersymmetry-based models.

  1. Atomic Calligraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imboden, Matthias; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian; Han, Han; Tareen, Ammar; Chang, Jackson; Christopher, Jason; Corman, Benjamin; Bishop, David

    2013-03-01

    Here we present a MEMS based method to fabricate devices with a small number of atoms. In standard semiconductor fabrication, a large amount of material is deposited, after which etching removes what is not wanted. This technique breaks down for structures that approach the single atom limit, as it is inconceivable to etch away all but one atom. What is needed is a bottom up method with single or near single atom precision. We demonstrate a MEMS device that enables nanometer position controlled deposition of gold atoms. A digitally driven plate is swept as a flux of gold atoms passes through an aperture. Appling voltages on four comb capacitors connected to the central plate by tethers enable nanometer lateral precision in the xy plane over 15x15 sq. microns. Typical MEMS structures have manufacturing resolutions on the order of a micron. Using a FIB it is possible to mill apertures as small as 10 nm in diameter. Assuming a low incident atomic flux, as well as an integrated MEMS based shutter with microsecond response time, it becomes possible to deposit single atoms. Due to their small size and low power consumption, such nano-printers can be mounted directly in a cryogenic system at ultrahigh vacuum to deposit clean quench condensed metallic structures.

  2. Liquid atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Walzel, P. )

    1993-01-01

    A systematic review of different liquid atomizers is presented, accompanied by a discussion of various mechanisms of droplet formation in a gas atmosphere as a function of the liquid flow-regime and the geometry of the atomizer. Equations are presented for the calculation of the mean droplet-diameter. In many applications, details of the droplet size distribution are, also, important, e.g., approximate values of the breadth of the droplet formation are given. The efficiency of utilization of mechanical energy in droplet formation is indicated for the different types of atomizers. Atomization is used, in particular, for the following purposes: (1) atomization of fuels; (2) making granular products; (3) carrying out mass-transfer operations; and (4) coating of surfaces.

  3. New collinear twist-3 analysis of transverse SSA: Toward a resolution for the sign-mismatch problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kanazawa, Koichi; Pitonyak, Daniel; Koike, Yuji; Metz, Andreas

    2014-10-19

    We present a new collinear twist-3 analysis of the transverse SSA AN at RHIC. We use the TMD Sivers/Collins function to fix some of the relevant collinear twist-3 functions and perform a fit of the RHIC data with other parameterized twist-3 functions. This allows us to keep the consistency among descriptions in pp collision, SIDIS, and e+e annihilation and thus could provide a unified description of the spin asymmetries in the low- and high-PT processes. In conclusion, by taking into account the twist-3 fragmentation contribution, we show for the first time this contribution could be the main source of AN in pp → hX and its inclusion could provide a solution for the sign-mismatch problem.

  4. New collinear twist-3 analysis of transverse SSA: Toward a resolution for the sign-mismatch problem

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kanazawa, Koichi; Pitonyak, Daniel; Koike, Yuji; Metz, Andreas

    2014-10-19

    We present a new collinear twist-3 analysis of the transverse SSA AN at RHIC. We use the TMD Sivers/Collins function to fix some of the relevant collinear twist-3 functions and perform a fit of the RHIC data with other parameterized twist-3 functions. This allows us to keep the consistency among descriptions in pp collision, SIDIS, and e+e– annihilation and thus could provide a unified description of the spin asymmetries in the low- and high-PT processes. In conclusion, by taking into account the twist-3 fragmentation contribution, we show for the first time this contribution could be the main source of ANmore » in pp↑ → hX and its inclusion could provide a solution for the sign-mismatch problem.« less

  5. BOREAS HYD-8 DEM Data Over the NSA-MSA and SSA-MSA in the UTM Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xue-Wen; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Band, L. E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS HYD-8 team focused on describing the scaling behavior of water and carbon flux processes at local and regional scales. These DEMs were produced from digitized contours at a cell resolution of 100 meters. Vector contours of the area were used as input to a software package that interpolates between contours to create a DEM representing the terrain surface. The vector contours had a contour interval of 25 feet. The data cover the BOREAS MSAs of the SSA and NSA and are given in a UTM map projection. Most of the elevation data from which the DEM was produced were collected in the 1970s or 1980s. The data are stored in binary, image format files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  6. The mapping of the human 52-kD Ro/SSA autoantigen gene to human chromosome II, and its polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.B.; Itoh, Kazuko ); Fujisaku, Atsushi ); Pontarotti, P. ); Mattei, M.G. ); Neas, B.R. Univ. of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City )

    1993-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the ribonucleoprotein Ro/SSA occur in nearly half of the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and are associated with lymphopenia, photosensitive dermatitis, and pulmonary and renal disease, which suggests that they have an immunopathologic role. The majority of Ro/SSA precipitin-positive patients produce serum antibodies that bind to the 60-kD and 52-kD Ro/SSA proteins. The authors previously isolated and determined the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone that encodes the 52-kD form of the human Ro/SSA protein. In the present study, they have determined the chromosomal location of the gene by in situ hybridization to the end of the short arm of chromosome 11. Hybridization of portions of the cDNA probe to restriction enzyme-digested DNA indicated the gene is composed of at least three exons. The exon encoding the putative zinc fingers of this protein was found to be distinct from that which encodes the leucine zipper. An RFLP of this gene was identified and is associated with the presence of lupus, primarily in black Americans. 60 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Supplemental Security Income: SSA Needs a Uniform Standard for Assessing Childhood Disability. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    This report presents the Government Accounting Office's recommendations regarding standards for determining eligibility for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) based on a childhood disability. The report is based on the Social Security Administration's (SSA) monitoring of 288,000 children whose eligibility was subject to review and of 370,000 new…

  8. 20 CFR 411.226 - How will SSA determine if I am meeting the timely progress guidelines if I assign my ticket prior...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... timely progress guidelines if I assign my ticket prior to July 21, 2008? 411.226 Section 411.226 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM... § 411.226 How will SSA determine if I am meeting the timely progress guidelines if I assign my...

  9. Availability of information and records to the public; fees for providing information and records; procedures and appeals--SSA. Notice of proposed rulemaking.

    PubMed

    1983-09-20

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) announces proposed changes in the fees it charges for providing records from its files and record related services. These proposed changes will conform SSA's fee schedule to that recently published by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The proposed rules also implement the discretion given the Secretary of Health and Human Services by section 2207 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 to charge the full cost of providing certain information and records. The proposed rules do not change SSA's longstanding policy of generally not charging an individual for information needed to assure that our records concerning her or him are correct. In preparing these amendments, we deleted from SSA's rules several provisions concerning Medicare information. The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) has published separate regulations governing the availability of Medicare information and records. We have also clarified the rules for handling requests for information about individuals under the Privacy Act and the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and incorporated HHS' recent rules on who has authority to release or deny records in this revised material. PMID:10262644

  10. 75 FR 30839 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2010-03, HHS Computer Match No. 1003, SSA Computer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ...'' at 61 FR 6428-6435 (February 20, 1996), and OMB guidelines pertaining to computer matching at 54 FR..., published at 73 FR 13304 (March 12, 2008), and maintained at the Martinsburg Computing Center in Martinsburg... Beneficiary Record (MBR), SSA/OSR 60-0090, published at 71 FR. 1826 (January 11, 2006) and maintained at...

  11. Preliminary Modelling of Mass Flux at the Surface of Plant Leaves within the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmberg, Madeleine; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    The ESA project Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an ecosystem of micro-organisms and higher plants, constructed with the objective of being operated as a tool to understand artificial ecosystems to be used for a long-term or permanent manned planetary base (e.g. Moon or Mars). The purpose of such a system is to provide for generation of food, water recycling, atmospheric regeneration and waste management within defined standards of quality and reliability. As MELiSSA consists of individual compartments which are connected to each other, the robustness of the system is fully dependent on the control of each compartment, as well as the flow management between them. Quality of consumables and reliability of the ecosystem rely on the knowledge, understanding and control of each of the components. This includes the full understanding of all processes related to the higher plants. To progress in that direction, this paper focuses on the mechanical processes driving the gas and liquid exchanges between the plant leaf and its environment. The process responsible for the mass transfer on the surface of plant leaves is diffusion. The diffusion flux is dependent on the behaviour of the stoma of the leaf and also on the leaf boundary layer (BL). In this paper, the physiology of the leaf is briefly examined in order to relate parameters such as light quality, light quantity, CO2 concentration, temperature, leaf water potential, humidity, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) gradients and pollutants to the opening or closing of stomata. The diffusion process is described theoretically and the description is compared to empirical approaches. The variables of the BL are examined and the effect airflow in the compartment has on the BL is investigated. Also presented is the impact changes in different environmental parameters may have on the fluid exchanges. Finally, some tests, to evaluate the accuracy of the concluded model, are suggested.

  12. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  13. Newton's Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, Andrea; Espinosa, James; Espinosa, James

    2006-10-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, physicists and chemists were developing atomic models. Some of the phenomena that they had to explain were the periodic table, the stability of the atom, and the emission spectra. Niels Bohr is known as making the first modern picture that accounted for these. Unknown to much of the physics community is the work of Walter Ritz. His model explained more emission spectra and predates Bohr's work. We will fit several spectra using Ritz's magnetic model for the atom. The problems of stability and chemical periodicity will be shown to be challenges that this model has difficulty solving, but we will present some potentially useful adaptations to the Ritzian atom that can account for them.

  14. Kinetic Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David B.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise kinetic theory and the idea of a kinetic atom. (Author/SK)

  15. Cold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    This chapter and the following one address collective effects of quantum particles, that is, the effects which are observed when we put together a large number of identical particles, for example, electrons, helium-4 or rubidium-85 atoms. We shall see that quantum particles can be classified into two categories, bosons and fermions, whose collective behavior is radically different. Bosons have a tendency to pile up in the same quantum state, while fermions have a tendency to avoid each other. We say that bosons and fermions obey two different quantum statistics, the Bose-Einstein and the Fermi-Dirac statistics, respectively. Temperature is a collective effect, and in Section 5.1 we shall explain the concept of absolute temperature and its relation to the average kinetic energy of molecules. We shall describe in Section 5.2 how we can cool atoms down thanks to the Doppler effect, and explain how cold atoms can be used to improve the accuracy of atomic clocks by a factor of about 100. The effects of quantum statistics are prominent at low temperatures, and atom cooling will be used to obtain Bose-Einstein condensates at low enough temperatures, when the atoms are bosons.

  16. Corner Office: Google's Dan Clancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Andrew Richard; Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dan Clancy, engineering director for Google Book Search. In this interview, Clancy talks about the pending Google Book Search settlement, involving millions of volumes digitized from libraries, which drew a lawsuit from the Association of American Publishers and the Authors Guild. He also discusses pricing,…

  17. Atomic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Connatser, Robert; Cothren, Bobby; Johnson, R. B.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed by the University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Center for Applied Optics (CAO) entitled Atomic Research is documented. Atomic oxygen (AO) effects on materials have long been a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The objective of this research effort was to provide technical expertise in the design of instrumentation and experimental techniques for analyzing materials exposed to atomic oxygen in accelerated testing at NASA/MSFC. Such testing was required to answer fundamental questions concerning Space Station Freedom (SSF) candidate materials and materials exposed to atomic oxygen aboard the Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The primary UAH task was to provide technical design, review, and analysis to MSFC in the development of a state-of-the-art 5eV atomic oxygen beam facility required to simulate the RAM-induced low earth orbit (LEO) AO environment. This development was to be accomplished primarily at NASA/MSFC. In support of this task, contamination effects and ultraviolet (UV) simulation testing was also to be carried out using NASA/MSFC facilities. Any materials analysis of LDEF samples was to be accomplished at UAH.

  18. Actuated atomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, Charles (Inventor); Weiler, Jeff (Inventor); Palmer, Randall (Inventor); Appel, Philip (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An actuated atomizer is adapted for spray cooling or other applications wherein a well-developed, homogeneous and generally conical spray mist is required. The actuated atomizer includes an outer shell formed by an inner ring; an outer ring; an actuator insert and a cap. A nozzle framework is positioned within the actuator insert. A base of the nozzle framework defines swirl inlets, a swirl chamber and a swirl chamber. A nozzle insert defines a center inlet and feed ports. A spool is positioned within the coil housing, and carries the coil windings having a number of turns calculated to result in a magnetic field of sufficient strength to overcome the bias of the spring. A plunger moves in response to the magnetic field of the windings. A stop prevents the pintle from being withdrawn excessively. A pintle, positioned by the plunger, moves between first and second positions. In the first position, the head of the pintle blocks the discharge passage of the nozzle framework, thereby preventing the atomizer from discharging fluid. In the second position, the pintle is withdrawn from the swirl chamber, allowing the atomizer to release atomized fluid. A spring biases the pintle to block the discharge passage. The strength of the spring is overcome, however, by the magnetic field created by the windings positioned on the spool, which withdraws the plunger into the spool and further compresses the spring.

  19. MeLiSSA third compartment: a kinetic and stoichiometric study for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Farges, Berangere

    2012-07-01

    As a part of a natural biological N-cycle, nitrification is one of the steps included in the conception of artificial ecosystems designed for extraterrestrial life support systems (LSS). In MELiSSA loop, which is based on carbon and nitrogen recycling, the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew are collected in the liquefying compartment that degrades the chemically complex wastes into simpler building blocks (organic acids and CO2). The organic acids are eliminated in the second photoheterotrophic compartment letting an organic free medium mostly containing minerals and N-NH+4 nitrogen. The third compartment is in charge to re-oxidize N-NH+4 in order to make nitrogen usable by the following compartments. In MELiSSA, the constraint is to perform axenic cultures in order to fully control the genetic status of the culture and a thorough modelling for developing a control strategy of the compartment and of the loop, knowing that the reliability of the production of oxidized forms of nitrogen NO3- directly impacts the behaviour of the following compartments. Nitrification in aerobic environments is carried out by two groups of bacteria in co-cultures in a two-step process. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas europaea) realize the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrobacter winogradskyi) the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. In both cases, the bacteria achieve the oxidations to obtain an energy and reductant source for their growth and maintenance. Both groups use CO2 predominantly as their carbon source. They are typically found together in ecosystems and, consequently, nitrite accumulation is rare. This study concerns kinetic and mass balances studies of axenic cultures of Ns. europaea and Nb. winogradskyi in autotrophic conditions. The daily follow-up of these cultures is done using a new protocol involving flow cytometry and ionic chromatography. Nitrogen substrates and products are

  20. Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, Mark

    2008-05-08

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton's constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gyroscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be used to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  1. Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Kasevich

    2008-05-07

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton’s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  2. Atom Interferometry

    ScienceCinema

    Mark Kasevich

    2010-01-08

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton?s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  3. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Silje A.; Coelho, Liz H.; Karoliussen, Irene; Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang

    2014-01-01

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space. PMID:25370192

  4. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Silje A; Coelho, Liz H; Karoliussen, Irene; Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang

    2014-01-01

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space. PMID:25370192

  5. ALMA Deep Field in SSA22: A Concentration of Dusty Starbursts in a z = 3.09 Protocluster Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehata, H.; Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Ivison, R. J.; Alexander, D. M.; Geach, J. E.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikarashi, S.; Kato, Y.; Izumi, T.; Kawabe, R.; Kubo, M.; Lee, M.; Lehmer, B.; Makiya, R.; Matsuda, Y.; Nakanishi, K.; Saito, T.; Smail, I.; Yamada, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yun, M.

    2015-12-01

    We report the results of 1.‧5 × 3‧ mapping at 1.1 mm with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array toward the central region of the z = 3.09 SSA22 protocluster. By combining our source catalog with archival spectroscopic redshifts, we find that eight submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with flux densities, S1.1 mm = 0.7-6.4 mJy (LIR ˜ 1012.1-1013.1 L⊙) are at z = 3.08-3.10. Not only are these SMGs members of the protocluster, but they in fact reside within the node at the junction of the 50 Mpc scale filamentary three-dimensional structure traced by Lyα emitters in this field. The eight SMGs account for a star formation rate density (SFRD) ˜10 M⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3 in the node, which is two orders of magnitudes higher than the global SFRD at this redshift. We find that four of the eight SMGs host an X-ray-luminous active galactic nucleus. Our results suggest that the vigorous star formation activity and the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) occurred simultaneously in the densest regions at z ˜ 3, which may correspond to the most active historical phase of the massive galaxy population found in the core of the clusters in the present universe. Two SMGs are associated with Lyα blobs, implying that the two populations coexist in high-density environments for a few cases.

  6. Lightning potential forecast over Nanjing with denoised sounding-derived indices based on SSA and CS-BP neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Sheng, Zheng; Zhou, Bihua; Zhou, Shudao

    2014-02-01

    The method of using the back propagation neural network improved by cuckoo search algorithm (hereafter CS-BP neural network) to forecast lightning occurrence from sounding-derived indices over Nanjing is presented. The general distribution features of lightning activities over Nanjing area are summarized and analyzed first. The sounding data of 156 thunderstorm days and 164 fair-weather days during the years 2007-2012 are used to calculate the values of sounding-derived indices. The indices are pre-filtered using singular spectrum analysis (hereafter SSA) as preprocessing technique and 4 most pertinent indices (namely CAPE, K, JI and SWEAT) are determined as inputs of CS-BP network by a linear bivariate analysis and selection algorithm. The cases of 2007-2010 are used to train CS-BP network and the cases of 2011-2012 are used as an independent sample to test the forecast performance. Some statistical skill score parameters (namely POD, SAR, CSI, et.al.) indicate that the CS-BP model excels in lightning forecasting and has a better performance compared with the traditional BP neural network and linear multiregression method.

  7. Characteristics of interstitial lung disease in SS-A positive/Jo-1 positive inflammatory myopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Váncsa, Andrea; Csípo, I; Németh, J; Dévényi, K; Gergely, L; Dankó, K

    2009-07-01

    The strongest predictive factor for the development of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in myositis (IIM) patients is the presence of different antisynthetase antibodies. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics, radiological findings and therapeutic response between the anti-SS-A positive and negative antisynthetase syndrome (ASS) patients. A prospective study of 315 IIM patients was conducted including 27 anti-Jo-1 positive ASS patients. Mean disease duration was 46.6 (range 4-198) months. All patients fulfilled the classification criteria for IIM. All patients underwent chest radiography, pulmonary function tests and HRCT at he time of diagnosis and 6 months after the immunosuppressive therapy. Routine laboratory tests, RF, ANA, anti-ENA, anti-SS-A, anti-histidyl-transfer RNA antibody (Jo-1) measurements were performed in all patients. ILD was found to be present in 70.4% of ASS patients. The anti-SS-A negative ASS group had a more frequent association with alveolitis and responded well to immunosuppressive therapy (p < 0.05). HRCT scan showed more fibrosis in the SS-A positive group. 15.8% of patients died due to pulmonary or cardiac complications. In conclusion, coexistence of anti-SS-A and anti-Jo-1 antibody may be a good predictor for a more coarse and severe ILD in IIM patients who require a more aggressive approach in therapy. PMID:19266202

  8. Soilless cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life-Support Systems: a literature review and the experience of the MELiSSA Project - Food characterisation Phase I.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, R; De Micco, V; Buonomo, R; Aronne, G; Barbieri, G; De Pascale, S

    2014-01-01

    Higher plants play a key role in Bioregenerative Life-Support Systems (BLSS) for long-term missions in space, by regenerating air through photosynthetic CO2 absorption and O2 emission, recovering water through transpiration and recycling waste products through mineral nutrition. In addition, plants could provide fresh food to integrate into the crew diet and help to preserve astronauts' wellbeing. The ESA programme Micro-Ecological Life-Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) aims to conceive an artificial bioregenerative ecosystem for resources regeneration, based on both microorganisms and higher plants. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the four candidate species studied for soilless (hydroponic) cultivation in MELiSSA, because of the high nutritional value of the seeds. Within the MELiSSA programme - Food characterisation Phase I, the aim of the research carried out on soybean at the University of Naples was to select the most suitable European cultivars for cultivation in BLSS. In this context, a concise review on the state-of-the-art of soybean cultivation in space-oriented experiments and a summary of research activity for the preliminary theoretical selection and subsequent agronomical evaluation of four cultivars will be presented in this paper. PMID:23889907

  9. One-pot SSA-catalyzed β-elimination: An efficient and inexpensive protocol for easy access to the glycal of sialic acid

    PubMed Central

    Paragas, Erickson M.; Monreal, I. Abrrey; Vasil, Chris M.; Saludes, Jonel P.

    2014-01-01

    Neu5Ac2en1Me per-OAc, the fully protected glycal of sialic acid, is a key intermediate in the discovery of therapeutics and diagnostics, including anti-influenza drugs and proteolysis resistant peptidomimetic foldamers. The synthesis of this sialic acid derivative, however, still relies on standard sugar chemistry that utilizes multi-step methodologies. Herein we report a facile and highly efficient microwave-assisted preparation of Neu5Ac1Me using silica sulfuric acid (SSA) as solid-supported acid catalyst that is one- to two-orders of magnitude faster than standard procedures. We also describe the microwave-assisted and SSA-catalyzed one-pot, rapid, solvent free reaction that combines both peracetylation and β-elimination reactions in one step to generate the glycal from Neu5Ac1Me. We coined the term One-pot SSA-catalyzed Technology for β-Elimination Protocol (OneSTEP) to describe this least laborious, most efficient, and practical preparation to date of Neu5Ac2en1Me per-OAc in terms of yield, time, reagent cost, and waste generation. PMID:25497336

  10. Atomic arias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    The American composer John Adams uses opera to dramatize controversial current events. His 1987 work Nixon in China was about the landmark meeting in 1972 between US President Richard Nixon and Chairman Mao Zedong of China; The Death of Klinghoffer (1991) was a musical re-enactment of an incident in 1985 when Palestinian terrorists kidnapped and murdered a wheelchair-bound Jewish tourist on a cruise ship. Adams's latest opera, Doctor Atomic, is also tied to a controversial event: the first atomic-bomb test in Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 June 1945. The opera premièred in San Francisco in 2005, had a highly publicized debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 2008, and will have another debut on 25 February - with essentially the same cast - at the English National Opera in London.