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Sample records for atomic bomb dosimetry

  1. New dosimetry of atomic bomb radiations.

    PubMed

    Fry, R J; Sinclair, W K

    1987-10-10

    The reassessment of the radiation dosimetry from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs is almost complete. Since atomic bomb survivors provide a major source of data for estimates of risk of cancer induction by radiation the impact of the new dosimetry on risk estimates and radiation protection standards is important. The changes include an increase of about 20% in the estimated yield of the Hiroshima bomb and a reduction in the estimated doses from neutrons in both cities. The estimated neutron dose for Hiroshima is about 10% of the previous estimate. The neutron doses are now so small that direct estimates of neutron relative biological effectiveness may be precluded or be much more difficult. There is little change in most of the gamma ray organ doses because various changes in the new estimates tend to cancel each other out. The new estimate of the attenuation of the free-in-air kerma by the walls of the homes is about twice that used in the previous dosimetry. But the transmission of gamma radiation to the deep organs such as bone marrow is significantly greater than earlier estimates. Probably future risk estimates for radiogenic cancer will be somewhat higher because of both the new dosimetry and the new cancer mortality data. New risk estimates should be available in 1988. PMID:2889042

  2. ESR dosimetry for atomic bomb survivors and radiologic technologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumi-Miyajima, Junko

    1987-06-01

    An individual absorbed dose for atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors and radiologic technologists has been estimated using a new personal dosimetry. This dosimetry is based on the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy of the CO 33- radicals, which are produced in their teeth by radiation. Measurements were carried out to study the characteristics of the dosimetry; the ESR signals of the CO 33- radicals were stable and increased linearly with the radiation dose. In the evaluation of the absorbed dose, the ESR signals were considered to be a function of photon energy. The absorbed doses in ten cases of A-bomb victims and eight cases of radiologic technologists were determined. For A-bomb survivors, the adsorbed doses, which were estimated using the ESR dosimetry, were consistent with the ones obtained using the calculations of the tissue dose in air of A-bomb, and also with the ones obtained using the chromosome measurements. For radiologic technologists, the absorbed doses, which were estimated using the ESR dosimetry, agreed with the ones calculated using the information on the occupational history and conditions. The advantages of this method are that the absorbed dose can be directly estimated by measuring the ESR signals obtained from the teeth of persons, who are exposed to radiation. Therefore, the ESR dosimetry is useful to estimate the accidental exposure and the long term cumulative dose.

  3. Review of dosimetry for the atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses results of some 1980-1981 studies of neutron and ..gamma..-ray exposure to the atomic bomb survivors by W.E. Loewe and E. Mendelsohn of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, D.C. Kaul and W.H. Scott of Science Applications, Inc., and J.V. Pace of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Some other special studies which are now underway to complete the review will also be discussed. The expert assistance of others in these special studies is being supported in part by the US Department of Energy and in part by the US Defense Nuclear Agency.

  4. Cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, I.; Kagan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the cancer registry in Nagasaki, with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977; cancer mortality; methods for study of delayed health effects of a-bomb radiation; experimental radiation carcinogenesis in rodents; leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma; cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands; malignant tumors in atomic bomb survivors with special reference to the pathology of stomach and lung cancer; colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors; breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors; and ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survirors.

  5. ESR Dosimetry for Atomic Bomb Survivors Using Shell Buttons and Tooth Enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeya, Motoji; Miyajima, Junko; Okajima, Shunzo

    1984-09-01

    Atomic bomb radiation doses to humans at Nagasaki and Hiroshima are investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) from shell buttons and tooth enamel voluntarily supplied by survivors. A shell button gives a dose of 2.1± 0.2 Gy with ESR signals at g=2.001 and g=1.997 while the signal at g=1.997 for the tooth enamel of the same person is 1.9± 0.5 Gy. Other teeth show doses from about 0.5 Gy to 3 Gy. An apparent shielding converted to a concrete thickness is given using the T65D calculated in 1965. Teeth extracted during dental treatment should be preserved for cumulative radiation dosimetry.

  6. A crack model of the Hiroshima atomic bomb: explanation of the contradiction of "Dosimetry system 1986".

    PubMed

    Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Takada, J; Ishikawa, M; Nitta, Y; Iwatani, K; Oka, T; Fujita, S; Shizuma, K; Hasai, H

    1999-12-01

    There has been a large discrepancy between the Dosimetry system 1986 (DS86) and measured data, some of which data in Hiroshima at about 1.5 km ground distance from the hypocenter are about 10 times larger than the calculation. Therefore its causes have long been discussed, since it will change the estimated radiation risks obtained based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki data. In this study the contradiction was explained by a bare-fission-neutron leakage model through a crack formed at the time of neutron emission. According to the present calculation, the crack has a 3 cm parallel spacing, which is symmetric with respect to the polar axis from the hypocenter to the epicenter of the atomic bomb. We made also an asymmetric opening closing 3/4 of this symmetric geometry, because there are some data which shows asymmetry. In addition, the height of the neutron emission point was elevated 90 m. By using the asymmetric calculation, especially for long distant data located more than 1 km, it was verified that all of the activity data induced by thermal and fast neutrons, were simultaneously explained within the data scattering. The neutron kerma at a typical 1.5 km ground distance increases 3 and 8 times more than DS86 based on the symmetric and asymmetric model, respectively. PMID:10805003

  7. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  8. Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report. PMID:23799498

  9. Effect of recent changes in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on cancer mortality risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Preston, Dale L; Pierce, Donald A; Shimizu, Yukiko; Cullings, Harry M; Fujita, Shoichiro; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kodama, Kazunori

    2004-10-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has recently implemented a new dosimetry system, DS02, to replace the previous system, DS86. This paper assesses the effect of the change on risk estimates for radiation-related solid cancer and leukemia mortality. The changes in dose estimates were smaller than many had anticipated, with the primary systematic change being an increase of about 10% in gamma-ray estimates for both cities. In particular, an anticipated large increase of the neutron component in Hiroshima for low-dose survivors did not materialize. However, DS02 improves on DS86 in many details, including the specifics of the radiation released by the bombs and the effects of shielding by structures and terrain. The data used here extend the last reported follow-up for solid cancers by 3 years, with a total of 10,085 deaths, and extends the follow-up for leukemia by 10 years, with a total of 296 deaths. For both solid cancer and leukemia, estimated age-time patterns and sex difference are virtually unchanged by the dosimetry revision. The estimates of solid-cancer radiation risk per sievert and the curvilinear dose response for leukemia are both decreased by about 8% by the dosimetry revision, due to the increase in the gamma-ray dose estimates. The apparent shape of the dose response is virtually unchanged by the dosimetry revision, but for solid cancers, the additional 3 years of follow-up has some effect. In particular, there is for the first time a statistically significant upward curvature for solid cancer on the restricted dose range 0-2 Sv. However, the low-dose slope of a linear-quadratic fit to that dose range should probably not be relied on for risk estimation, since that is substantially smaller than the linear slopes on ranges 0-1 Sv, 0-0.5 Sv, and 0- 0.25 Sv. Although it was anticipated that the new dosimetry system might reduce some apparent dose overestimates for Nagasaki factory workers, this did not materialize, and factory workers have

  10. Radiation-related posterior lenticular opacities in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on the DS86 dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, M.; Schull, W.J. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the quantitative relationship of ionizing radiation to the occurrence of posterior lenticular opacities among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggested by the DS86 dosimetry system. DS86 doses are available for 1983 (93.4%) of the 2124 atomic bomb survivors analyzed in 1982. The DS86 kerma neutron component for Hiroshima survivors is much smaller than its comparable T65DR component, but still 4.2-fold higher (0.38 Gy at 6 Gy) than that in Nagasaki (0.09 Gy at 6 Gy). Thus, if the eye is especially sensitive to neutrons, there may yet be some useful information on their effects, particularly in Hiroshima. The dose-response relationship has been evaluated as a function of the separately estimated gamma-ray and neutron doses. Among several different dose-response models without and with two thresholds, we have selected as the best model the one with the smallest x2 or the largest log likelihood value associated with the goodness of fit. The best fit is a linear gamma-linear neutron relationship which assumes different thresholds for the two types of radiation. Both gamma and neutron regression coefficients for the best fitting model are positive and highly significant for the estimated DS86 eye organ dose.

  11. Biological dosimetry of atomic bomb survivors exposed within 500 meters from the hypocenter and the health consequences.

    PubMed

    Kamada, N

    1999-12-01

    Seventy-eight atomic bomb survivors were examined for biological dosimetry using chromosome abnormality. They had been exposed within 500 meters from the hypocenter in heavily shielded conditions and were found from NHK-RIRBM joint study carried out from 1966 to 1971. Estimation of the exposure doses for these survivors was made under the following steps; 1) calculation by DS86 system (physically estimated doses) in survivors who had been exposed within 1,500 meters and had precise records of exposure conditions. RBE for the neutron was defined as 10. 2) setting of exposure dose-chromosome aberration curve, and 3) observation of chromosome aberrations in the proximally exposed survivors, for whom biological doses were estimated. Estimation of the exposure doses were possible from the aberration rate of chromosome in the peripheral lymphocytes, even 25-40 years after the exposure. Of the 78 survivors, 96% were estimated to have exposed more than one Sv. Detection of transforming gene(s) of N and K RAS genes in DNAs from non-leukemic survivors was carried out as one of the biological investigations for these heavily exposed survivors. All four survivors examined showed N or K RAS gene mutation. Three of the four healthy survivors had cancer or leukemia 7-10 years after the examination. Further continuous follow-up study of these heavily exposed people will give us more information on the late effects of A-bomb radiation, which may arise in the future. PMID:10805004

  12. Atomic Bomb Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Luckey, T. D.

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation, leukemia and solid tissue cancer mortality rates, and increased average lifespan. Each study exhibits a threshold that repudiates the LNT dogma. The average threshold for acute exposures to atomic bombs is about 100 cSv. Conclusions from these studies of atomic bomb survivors are: One burst of low dose irradiation elicits a lifetime of improved health.Improved health from low dose irradiation negates the LNT paradigm.Effective triage should include radiation hormesis for survivor treatment. PMID:19088902

  13. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). PMID:20521424

  14. Reassessment of the cancer mortality risk among Hiroshima atomic-bomb survivors using a new dosimetry system, ABS2000D, compared with ABS93D.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hiroaki; Matsuura, Masaaki; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ohtaki, Megu; Hayakawa, Norihiko

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the excess relative risk for leukemia mortality and all cancers, except leukemia, among Hiroshima atomic-bomb survivors by applying ABS93D and ABS2000D. Particular attention was given to any difference in the neutron-dose estimates between the two dosimetry systems. The study subjects were 51,532 atomic-bomb survivors registered in a database of the Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine of Hiroshima University (RIRBM). The results obtained by both dosimetry systems are similar: the excess relative risk per Sv for leukemia mortality and all cancers except leukemia is significantly higher compared to the control group. In addition, the difference in the excess relative risks between the two systems is not significant. Therefore, it is indicated that a modification of the neutron-dose estimates would not markedly change the conclusions about the cancer mortality risk. PMID:12056330

  15. (41)Ca in Tooth Enamel. Part II: A means for retrospective biological neutron dosimetry in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Wallner, A; Cullings, H; Egbert, S D; El-Faramawy, N; Faestermann, T; Kaul, D; Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Nakamura, N; Roberts, J; Rugel, G

    2010-08-01

    (41)Ca is produced mainly by absorption of low-energy neutrons on stable (40)Ca. We used accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to measure (41)Ca in enamel of 16 teeth from 13 atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to the bomb within 1.2 km from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. In our accompanying paper (Wallner et al., Radiat. Res. 174, 000-000, 2010), we reported that the background-corrected (41)Ca/Ca ratio decreased from 19.5 x 10(-15) to 2.8 x 10(-15) with increasing distance from the hypocenter. Here we show that the measured ratios are in good correlation with gamma-ray doses assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in the same enamel samples, and agree well with calculated ratios based on either the current Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) or more customized dose estimates where the regression slope as obtained from an errors-in-variables linear model was about 0.85. The calculated DS02 neutron dose to the survivors was about 10 to 80 mGy. The low-energy neutrons responsible for (41)Ca activation contributed variably to the total neutron dose depending on the shielding conditions. Namely, the contribution was smaller (10%) when shielding conditions were lighter (e.g., outside far away from a single house) and was larger (26%) when they were heavier (e.g., in or close to several houses) because of local moderation of neutrons by shielding materials. We conclude that AMS is useful for verifying calculated neutron doses under mixed exposure conditions with gamma rays. PMID:20681781

  16. Sharing the atom bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Chace, J.

    1996-01-01

    Shaken by the devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and fearful that the American atomic monopoly would spark an arms race, Dean Acheson led a push in 1946 to place the bomb-indeed, all atomic energy-under international control. But as the memories of wartime collaboration faded, relations between the superpowers grew increasingly tense, and the confrontational atmosphere undid his proposal. Had Acheson succeeded, the Cold War might not have been. 2 figs.

  17. Long-term epidemiological studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: study populations, dosimetry and summary of health effects.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Toshiteru

    2012-10-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation succeeded 28 years' worth of activities of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission on long-term epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has three major cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, i.e. the Life Span Study (LSS) of 120,000 people, the In Utero Cohort of 3600 and the Second Generation Study (F(1)) of 77,000. The LSS and F(1) studies include a periodic health examination for each sub-cohort, i.e. the Adult Health Study and the F(1) Clinical Study, respectively. An extensive individual dose estimation was conducted and the system was published as the Dosimetry System established in 2002 (DS02). As results of these studies, increases of cancers in relation to dose were clearly shown. Increases of other mortality causes were also observed, including heart and respiratory diseases. There has been no evidence of genetic effects in the survivors' children, including cancer and other multi-factorial diseases. The increase in the expected mortality number in the next 10 y would allow the analyses of further details of the observed effects related to atomic bomb exposures. PMID:22908354

  18. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  19. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring.

  20. A-bomb survivor dosimetry update

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    A-bomb survivor data have been generally accepted as applicable. Also, the initial radiations have tended to be accepted as the dominant radiation source for all survivors. There was general acceptance of the essential reliability of both the biological effects data and the causative radiation dose values. There are considerations casting doubt on these acceptances, but very little quantification of th implied uncertainties has been attempted. The exception was A-bomb survivor dosimetry, where free-field kerma values for initial radiations were thought to be accurate to about 30%, and doses to individual survivors were treated as effectively error-free. In 1980, a major challenge to the accepted A-bomb survivor dosimetry was announced, and was quickly followed by a succession of explanations and displays showing the soundness of that challenge. In fact, a complete replacement set of free-field kerma values was provided which was suitable for use in constructing an entire new dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The new values showed many changes greater than the accepted 30% uncertainty. An approximate new dosimetry was indeed constructed, and used to convert existing leukemia cause-and-effect data from the old to the new dose values, by way of assessing the impact. (ERB)

  1. Intercomparison study on (152)Eu gamma ray and (36)Cl AMS measurements for development of the new Hiroshima-Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02).

    PubMed

    Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Tanaka, K; Ishikawa, M; Straume, T; Komura, K; Rühm, W; Nolte, E; Huber, T; Nagashima, Y; Seki, R; Sasa, K; Sueki, K; Fukushima, H; Egbert, S D; Imanaka, T

    2008-07-01

    In the process of developing a new dosimetry system for atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (DS02), an intercomparison study between (152)Eu and (36)Cl measurements was proposed, to reconcile the discrepancy previously observed in the Hiroshima data between measurements and calculations of thermal neutron activation products. Nine granite samples, exposed to the atomic-bomb radiation in Hiroshima within 1,200 m of the hypocenter, as well as mixed standard solutions containing known amounts of europium and chlorine that were neutron-activated by a (252)Cf source, were used for the intercomparison. Gamma-ray spectrometry for (152)Eu was carried out with ultra low-background Ge detectors at the Ogoya Underground Laboratory, Kanazawa University, while three laboratories participated in the (36)Cl measurement using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS): The Technical University of Munich, Germany, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA and the University of Tsukuba, Japan. Measured values for the mixed standard solutions showed good agreement among the participant laboratories. They also agreed well with activation calculations, using the neutron fluences monitored during the (252)Cf irradiation, and the corresponding activation cross-sections taken from the JENDL-3.3 library. The measured-to-calculated ratios obtained were 1.02 for (152)Eu and 0.91-1.02 for (36)Cl, respectively. Similarly, the results of the granite intercomparison indicated good agreement with the DS02 calculation for these samples. An average measured-to-calculated ratio of 0.98 was obtained for all granite intercomparison measurements. The so-called neutron discrepancy that was previously observed and that which included increasing measured-to-calculated ratios for thermal neutron activation products for increasing distances beyond 1,000 m from the hypocenter was not seen in the results of the intercomparison study. The previously claimed discrepancy could be explained by

  2. Simulation-extrapolation method to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates, 1950-2003.

    PubMed

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Schwartz, Boris; Diallo, Ibrahima; Agbovon, Césaire; Laurier, Dominique; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-08-01

    Analyses of the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bombing survivors have routinely incorporated corrections for additive classical measurement errors using regression calibration. Recently, several studies reported that the efficiency of the simulation-extrapolation method (SIMEX) is slightly more accurate than the simple regression calibration method (RCAL). In the present paper, the SIMEX and RCAL methods have been used to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates. For instance, it is shown that using the SIMEX method, the ERR/Gy is increased by an amount of about 29 % for all solid cancer deaths using a linear model compared to the RCAL method, and the corrected EAR 10(-4) person-years at 1 Gy (the linear terms) is decreased by about 8 %, while the corrected quadratic term (EAR 10(-4) person-years/Gy(2)) is increased by about 65 % for leukaemia deaths based on a linear-quadratic model. The results with SIMEX method are slightly higher than published values. The observed differences were probably due to the fact that with the RCAL method the dosimetric data were partially corrected, while all doses were considered with the SIMEX method. Therefore, one should be careful when comparing the estimated risks and it may be useful to use several correction techniques in order to obtain a range of corrected estimates, rather than to rely on a single technique. This work will enable to improve the risk estimates derived from LSS data, and help to make more reliable the development of radiation protection standards. PMID:25894839

  3. Risk of cancer among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the risk of cancer and in particular cancers other than leukemia among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Attention focuses primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effect Research Foundation in the period 1950-1985 based on the recently revised dosimetry, termed the DS86 doses. Mortality from malignant tumors is increased among A-bomb survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. Besides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also has been demonstrated increase of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, thyroid, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. The pattern of appearance over time of radiation-induced cancer other than leukemia differs from that of leukemia. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which the cancer is normally prone to develop (so-called cancer age), and continues to increase proportionately with the increase in mortality of the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) in general than for those who were older ATB. Furthermore, susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer tends to be higher in pre- than in post-natally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). Other radiation effect modifiers and the shape of the dose response curve will also be discussed. PMID:1823367

  4. Hiroshima: Perspectives on the Atomic Bombing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Amy

    In this curriculum module students analyze both U.S. and Japanese perspectives of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. The activities integrate Howard Gardner's work on multiple intelligences. The module is recommended as a supplement to textbook coverage of the war in the Pacific and of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. It can be used to support both…

  5. Gamma-ray and neutron dosimetry by EPR and AMS, using tooth enamel from atomic-bomb survivors: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nori; Hirai, Yuko; Kodama, Yoshiaki

    2012-03-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR, or electron spin resonance) method was used to measure CO₂⁻· radicals recorded in tooth enamel by exposure to atomic-bomb gamma rays. The EPR-estimated doses (i.e. ⁶⁰Co gamma-ray equivalent dose) were generally in good correlation with cytogenetic data of the same survivors, whereas plots of EPR-estimated dose or cytogenetically estimated dose against DS02 doses turned out to scatter more widely. Because those survivors whose EPR doses were higher (or lower) than DS02 doses tended to show also higher (or lower) responses for cytogenetic responses, the apparent variation appears primarily due to problems in individual DS02 doses rather than the measurement errors associated with the EPR or cytogenetic technique. A part of the enamel samples were also used for evaluation of neutron doses by measuring ⁴¹Ca/⁴⁰Ca ratios using the accelerator mass spectrometry technique. The results for the measured ratios were on average ~85 % of the calculated ratios by DS02 (but within the 95 % confidence bounds of the simulated results), which lends support to DS02-derived neutron doses to the survivors. PMID:22267275

  6. Glaucoma in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Takamatsu, Michiya; Tsuiki, Eiko; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Minamoto, Atsushi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji; Khattree, Ravindra; Hida, Ayumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-10-01

    Radiation has been associated with increases in noncancerous diseases. An effect of low-dose radiation on the prevalence of clinically detected glaucoma has not been previously reported. We therefore investigated the prevalence of glaucoma in A-bomb survivors and its possible association with radiation dose. A total of 1,589 people who participated in the clinical examination program for A-bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) between October 2006 and September 2008 and who had reconstructed radiation doses, were recruited into this cross-sectional screening study. The prevalence of glaucoma and its dose-response relationship to A-bomb radiation were measured. Each subject underwent an initial screening consisting of an interview and ophthalmological examination. Questionable cases with any indication of ocular disease, including glaucoma, were referred to local hospitals for more comprehensive evaluation. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made based on specific optic disc appearance, perimetric results and other ocular findings. Of 1,589 eligible people, we detected 284 (17.9%) cases of glaucoma overall, including 36 (2.3%) cases of primary open-angle glaucoma with intraocular pressure levels greater than 21 mmHg, 226 (14.2%) cases of normal-tension glaucoma and 25 (1.6%) cases of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Seven glaucoma risk factors were examined as potential confounders but only two needed to be included in the final model. Binary regression using a generalized estimating equation method, with adjustment for gender, age, city, cataract surgery or diabetes mellitus, revealed an odds ratio at 1 Gy of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.53, P = 0.001) in the case of normal-tension glaucoma, but no association for other types of glaucoma. The prevalence of normal-tension glaucoma may increase with A-bomb radiation dose, but uncertainties associated with nonparticipation (59% participation) suggest caution in the interpretation of these

  7. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Earl F.

    2013-01-01

    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  8. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, F.G.

    1994-09-01

    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  9. Prevalence of skin neoplasma amont the atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Michiko; Kodama, Kazunori; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    1996-08-01

    About 7,000 atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki who participate in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Adult Health Study (AHS) were examined to define the relationship between skin neoplasms and exposure to ionizing radiation. Careful clinical inspection of the skin was undertaken to detect not only skin cancer but precancerous lesions such as senile keratosis. Five cases of basal cell carcinoma, five cases of senile keratosis and one case of Bowen`s disease were confirmed histologically among 5955 A-bomb survivors for whom Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) dose estimates are available. The relationship between the combined prevalence of skin cancer and precancerous lesions and DS86 dose was examined together with other factors that might affect skin neoplasms including occupational exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, age, sex and city. The prevalence of basal cell carcinoma and senile keratosis increased as the DS86 dose increased. The prevalent of skin cancer and senile keratosis among persons engaged in work involving frequent exposure to UV rays was higher than among those who were not engaged in such work. Sex and city were not significantly related to those skin diseases. Odds ratios of skin neoplasm for a 1-Gy dose, occupational exposure to UV rays and age at time of examination exposure to UV rays and age at time of examination (in 10-year increments) are 1.7, 5.9 and 1.9, respectively. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins among atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Carter, R.L.; Yamakido, Michio

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to atomic bomb radiation affects immune responsiveness, such as the occurrence of autoantibodies and levels of immunoglobulins. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody and immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, IgA and IgE) were measured among 2,061 individuals exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki whose estimated doses ranged from 0 to 5.6 Gy. The prevalence and titers of rheumatoid factor were found to be increased in the individuals exposed to higher radiation doses. The IgA level in females and the IgM level in both sexes increased as radiation dose increased, although the effects of radiation exposure were not large. No effect of radiation was found on the prevalence of antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody or on the levels of IgG and IgE. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. The LD50 associated with exposure to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Fujita, S; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1991-03-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to estimate the distance at which 50% of the individuals exposed to the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki died, ostensibly from their exposure to ionizing radiation. It is difficult to convert most of these distance estimates to a dose-related LD50, since radiation shielding was ignored. The recent reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry has provided an opportunity for the estimation of the bone marrow LD50. There is a surprising concordance in the various estimates that have been made given the different groups of survivors involved and the methods used to estimate the LD50/60. PMID:1762100

  12. Mathematical phantoms for use in reassessment of radiation doses to Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1985-07-01

    In 1972 committees of the United Nations and the US National Academy of Sciencs emphasized the need for organ dose estimates on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. These estimates were then supplied by workers in Japan and the US, and they were used with the so-called T65D estimates of a survivor's radiation exposure to assess risk from radiation. Recently the T65D estimates have been questioned, and programs for reassessment of atomic-bomb radiation dosimetry have been started in Japan and the US. As a part of this new effort a mathematical analogue of the human body (or ''mathematical phantom''), to be used in estimating organ doses in adult survivors, is presented here. Recommendations on organ dosimetry for juvenile survivors are also presented and discussed. 57 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Organ dose conversions from ESR measurements using tooth enamel of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru

    2012-03-01

    Dose conversions were studied for dosimetry of atomic bomb survivors based upon electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of tooth enamel. Previously analysed data had clarified that the tooth enamel dose could be much larger than other organ doses from a low-energy photon exposure. The radiation doses to other organs or whole-body doses, however, are assumed to be near the tooth enamel dose for photon energies which are dominant in the leakage spectrum of the Hiroshima atomic bomb assumed in DS02. In addition, the thyroid can be a candidate for a surrogate organ in cases where the tooth enamel dose is not available in organ dosimetry. This paper also suggests the application of new Japanese voxel phantoms to derive tooth enamel doses by numerical analyses. PMID:22128360

  14. Teaching and Learning Multiple Perspectives: The Atomic Bomb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2000-01-01

    Explores how historical empathy can give students a richer understanding of the past, focusing on the development of the students' historical understanding through an analysis of 18 documents on President Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. (CMK)

  15. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study

    PubMed Central

    Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support for LNTH. Even if the LNTH is used at low dose and dose rates, its estimation of excess cancer mortality should be communicated as 2.5% per Sv, i.e., an increase of cancer mortality from about 20% spontaneous mortality to about 22.5% per Sv, which is about half of the usually cited value. The impact of the “neutron discrepancy problem” – the apparent difference between the calculated and measured values of neutron flux in Hiroshima – was studied and found to be marginal. Major revision of the radiation risk assessment paradigm is required. PMID:26673526

  16. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Gosling, F. G.

    1999-01-01

    "The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb" is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  17. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, F.G.

    1999-01-01

    ``The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb`` is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  18. The image of the atomic bomb in Japan before Hiroshima.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Maika

    2009-01-01

    This paper traces the roots of the image of the atomic bomb in Japan by investigating the various discourses on atomic energy and atomic weapons in Japanese literature prior to the bombing of Hiroshima in August 1945. Japan is a country that suffered an atomic attack and, at the same time, one of the countries that was engaged in atomic weapons research during the Second World War. During the war, the discourses on atomic weapons were not limited to the military or scientific communities, but included the general public, thus facilitating the creation of a shared image of the atomic bomb as an ultimate weapon. This paper examines how this image was created. This special issue deals with the comparison among different countries, but the purpose of my paper is to deepen this subject by illustrating the differences within a single country in different periods. This research aims to extend the historical perspective concerning the atomic bomb in Japan, and offers another way of looking at this both historical and contemporary issue. PMID:20518159

  19. Captives of Their Fantasies: The German Atomic Bomb Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, Irving M.

    1997-02-01

    When the Nazi government collapsed in May, 1945, an Allied intelligence mission took into custody nine of the German scientists who played key roles in the German atomic bomb project. Under great secrecy these men were confined in a large country house, Farm Hall, near Cambridge (England), and their conversations were recorded surreptitiously by hidden microphones in every room. The transcripts were kept TOP SECRET for 47 years and were finally released recently. They give fascinating insights into the personalities of the guests and invaluable information on what the Germans really understood about the physics and chemistry of a nuclear reactor and an atomic bomb. The Farm Hall transcripts clearly establish that (a) the Germans on August 6, 1945 did not believe that the Allies had exploded an atomic bomb over Hiroshima that day; (b) they never succeeded in constructing a self-sustaining nuclear reactor; (c) they were confused about the differences between an atomic bomb and a reactor; (d) they did not know how to correctly calculate the critical mass of a bomb; (e) they thought that "plutonium" was probably element 91. The Farm Hall transcripts contradict the self-serving and sensationalist writings about German efforts that have appeared during the past fifty years.

  20. Is Einstein the Father of the Atomic Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2009-05-01

    Soon after the American atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the notion took hold in the popular mind that Albert Einstein was ``the father of the bomb.'' The claim of paternity rests on the belief that E=mc2 is what makes the release of enormous amounts of energy in the fission process possible and that the atomic bomb could not have been built without it. This is a misapprehension. Most physicists have known that all along. Nevertheless in his reaction to the opera Dr. Atomic, a prominent physicist claimed that Einstein's discovery that matter can be transformed into energy ``is precisely what made the bomb possible.'' In fact what makes the fission reaction and one of its applications,the atomic bomb, possible is the smaller binding energies of fission products compared to the binding energies of the nuclei that undergo fission.The binding energies of nuclei are a well understood consequence of the numbers and arrangements of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and of quantum-mechanical effects. The realization that composite systems have binding energies predates relativity. In the 19th century they were ascribed to potential and other forms of energy that reside in the system. With Einstein they became rest mass energy. While E=mc2 is not the cause of fission, measuring the masses of the participants in the reaction does permit an easy calculation of the kinetic energy that is released.

  1. Long-term follow-up of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-06-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) is a follow-up study of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors to investigate the radiation effects on human health and has collected data for over 60 years. The LSS cohort consists of 93,741 A-bomb survivors and another 26,580 age and sex-matched subjects who were not in either city at the time of the bombing. Radiation doses have been computed based on individual location and shielding status at the time of the bombings. Age at death and cause of death are gathered through the Japanese national family registry system and cancer incidence data have been collected through the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer registries. Noncancer disease incidence and health information are collected through biannual medical examinations among a subset of the LSS. Radiation significantly increases the risks of death (22% at 1 Gy), cancer incidence (47% at 1 Gy), death due to leukemia (310% at 1 Gy), as well as the incidence of several noncancer diseases (e.g. thyroid nodules, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, uterine myoma, and hypertension). Significant effects on maturity (e.g. growth reduction and early menopause) were also observed. Long-term follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors have provided reliable information on health risks for the survivors and form the basis for radiation protection standards for workers and the public. PMID:22440534

  2. Fast neutrons measured in copper from the Hiroshima atomic bomb dome.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, A A; McAninch, J E; Rugel, G; Rühm, W; Korschinek, G; Martinelli, R E; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Egbert, S D; Wallner, A; Wallner, C; Tanaka, K; Endo, S; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K; Fujita, S; Hasai, H; Imanaka, T; Straume, T

    2009-01-01

    The first measurements of (63)Ni produced by A-bomb fast neutrons (above approximately 1 MeV) in copper samples from Hiroshima encompassed distances from approximately 380 to 5062 m from the hypocenter (the point on the ground directly under the bomb). They included the region of interest to survivor studies (approximately 900 to 1500 m) and provided the first direct validation of fast neutrons in that range. However, a significant measurement gap remained between the hypocenter and 380 m. Measurements close to the hypocenter are important as a high-value anchor for the slope of the curve for neutron activation as a function of distance. Here we report measurements of (63)Ni in copper samples from the historic Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Dome, which is located approximately 150 m from the hypocenter. These measurements extend the range of our previously published data for (63)Ni providing a more comprehensive and consistent A-bomb activation curve. The results are also in good agreement with calculations based on the current dosimetry system (DS02) and give further experimental support to the accuracy of this system that forms the basis for radiation risk estimates worldwide. PMID:19138052

  3. The development of fetal dosimetry and its application to A-bomb survivors exposed in utero.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki comprises the major basis for investigations of health effects induced by ionising radiation in humans. To study the health effects associated with radiation exposure before birth, fetal dosimetry is needed if significant differences exist between the fetal absorbed dose and the mother's uterine dose. Combining total neutron and gamma ray free-in-air fluences at 1 m above ground with fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients, fetal doses were calculated for various exposure orientations at the ground distance of 1500 m from the hypocentres in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The results showed that the mother's uterine dose can serve as a good surrogate for the dose of the embryo and fetus in the first trimester. However, significant differences exist between doses of the fetus of different ages. If the mother's uterine dose were used as a surrogate, doses to the fetus in the last two trimesters could be overestimated by more than 20 % for exposure orientations facing towards and away from the hypocentre while significantly underestimated for lateral positions relative to the hypocentre. In newer fetal models, the brain is modelled for all fetal ages. Brain doses to the 3-month fetus are generally higher than those to an embryo and fetus of other ages. In most cases, brain absorbed doses differ significantly from the doses to the entire fetal body. In order to accurately assess radiation effects to the fetal brain, it is necessary to determine brain doses separately. PMID:21816724

  4. Atomic bomb survivors and the sigmoidal response model

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, S.

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiological data on health effects of low-level radiation based on 40-yr followup studies of 75000 atomic bomb survivors and 35000 control people show that there were no measurable risks from low-level radiation in regard to noncancer diseases, genetic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects. However, seemingly sigmoidal responses of bomb radiation-induced cancers, which must have been caused by tumorigenic mutations contradict experimental results that mutations linearly increase with increase in radiation dose. An explanation is proposed for this superficial contradiction.

  5. High incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Shintani, T; Hayakawa, N; Hoshi, M; Sumida, M; Kurisu, K; Oki, S; Kodama, Y; Kajikawa, H; Inai, K; Kamada, N

    1999-03-01

    Since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, high incidences of leukemia, thyroid cancer and other tumors have been reported as atomic bomb-induced tumors. We investigated the incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Sixty-eight patients surgically treated for meningioma who had been within 2.0 km of the hypocenter of the explosion were identified. Six hundred and seven non-exposed patients with meningioma were also studied. Treatment dates were from 1975 to 1992. The incidences of meningioma among 68 subjects within 2.0 km and 607 non-exposed patients were 8.7 and 3.0 cases per 10(5) persons per year, respectively. The incidences of meningioma among the survivors of Hiroshima in 5-year intervals since 1975 were 5.3, 7.4, 10.1, and 14.9, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by distances from the hypocenter of 1.5-2.0 km, 1.0-1.5 km and less than 1.0 km were 6.3, 7.6 and 20.0, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by doses to the brain of 0-0.099 Sv, 0.1-0.99 Sv and more than 1.0 Sv were 7.7, 9.2 and 18.2, respectively. The incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors has increased since 1975. There was a significant correlation between the incidence and the dose of radiation to the brain. The present findings strongly suggest that meningioma is one of the tumors induced by atomic bombing in Hiroshima. PMID:10408177

  6. Interpreting the Atomic Age: Scientific News Coverage of the Atomic Bomb in Representative Newspapers and Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwis, Gail L.

    A study examined the coverage of the scientific aspects of the atomic bomb in four representative newspapers (New York "Times," New York "Herald Tribune," Chicago "Daily Tribune," and Boston "Daily Globe") and in 14 general mass circulation magazines in the time period immediately following the dropping of the bomb. Among the conclusions of the…

  7. The new radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1988-08-18

    Extensive work has been conducted over the past few years to reassess all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This work has included reviews of the bomb yields, source terms, air transport of neutrons and gamma rays, neutron-induced radioactivity and thermoluminescence in exposed materials, shielding of individuals by buildings, and calculations of organ doses. The results of these theoretical and experimental activities have led to the development of a new dosimetry system which is designated as the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). New DS86 estimates of tissue kerma in air and absorbed dose to fifteen organs are available for 94,787 survivors who were either outside and unshielded, outside and shielded by houses, or inside and shielded by houses (64,408 in Hiroshima and 30,379 in Nagasaki). The organ doses are calculated on an age-dependent basis as follows: infants (less than 3 years old at the time of bombing, ATB), children (3 to 12 years old ATB), and adults (more than 12 years old ATB). Work in progress includes the extension of the DS86 system to Nagasaki survivors who were shielded either by terrain or by factory buildings.

  8. By emotion, no atomic bomb and no blackhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Philip

    2011-10-01

    As to be, we glory to God and that is basic theology for christian. And I want to say that BE means just thinking. There is no clue of nature and no proposition to prove it. I just believe by feeling and emotion. I trust that it can be the physic really. As for me, I believe when there is atomic bomb, than anytime it has to blow out the world each time of we are living. So the atomic bomb we thinking is just accident and not by the atomic theory. Also when there is blackhole, than there must be the wall to block me forever and never to walk again. So there are no blackhole. And these two subject is the best two subject for the physic.

  9. Impact on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of radiation received from the bombs.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Harry M

    2014-02-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) studies various cohorts of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the largest being the Life Span Study (LSS), which includes 93,741 persons who were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the times of the bombings; there are also cohorts of persons who were exposed in utero and survivors' children. This presentation attempts to summarize the total impact of the radiation from the bombs on the survivors from both an individual perspective (both age-specific and integrated lifetime risk, along with a measure of life expectancy that describes how the risk affects the individual given age at exposure) and a group perspective (estimated numbers of excess occurrences in the cohort), including both early and late effects. As survivors' doses ranged well into the acutely lethal range at closer distances, some of them experienced acute signs and symptoms of radiation exposure in addition to being at risk of late effects. Although cancer has always been a primary concern among late effects, estimated numbers of excess cancers and hematopoietic malignancies in the LSS are a small fraction of the total due to the highly skewed dose distribution, with most survivors receiving small doses. For example, in the latest report on cancer incidence, 853 of 17,448 incident solid cancers were estimated to be attributable to radiation from the bombs. RERF research indicates that risk of radiation-associated cancer varies among sites and that some benign tumors such as uterine myoma are also associated with radiation. Noncancer late effects appear to be in excess in proportion to radiation dose but with an excess relative risk about one-third that of solid cancer and a correspondingly small overall fraction of cases attributable to radiation. Specific risks were found for some subcategories, particularly circulatory disease, including stroke and precedent conditions such as hypertension. Radiation-related cataract in the atomic bomb survivors is well known

  10. Day After Trinity: Oppenheimer and the Atomic Bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Documentary

    2005-10-31

    On October 31st at 4:00 pm in Panofsky Auditorium SLAC’s Colloquium Series will present the exceptional Oscar-nominated documentary The Day After Trinity. The film offers invaluable insight into historic events which have forever changed the face of our world – this screening should not to be missed. After witnessing the tremendous destructive power of the atomic bomb, J. Robert Oppenheimer declared “I have become death”. Still topically relevant a quarter of a century since its release, Director Jon Else’s documentary uses interviews, archival footage, and narration to reveal the internal landscape of the man whose leadership at Los Alamos, New Mexico, defined the rise of the Manhattan Project and the beginning of the Atomic Age. The Day After Trinity traces the unexpected path of Oppenheimer’s career - from his formation of the Los Alamos colony and the first successful atomic bomb detonation at the Trinity test site in 1945, to his final years spent branded as a security risk and excluded from the atomic energy research he pioneered due to his opposition to the development of the Hydrogen bomb.

  11. The Rhetoric of "Unconditional Surrender" and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hikins, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the decision to drop the atomic bomb from a rhetorical point of view, arguing that the bombs were launched because of an American commitment to a particular rhetoric that focused on the propaganda slogan "unconditional surrender." (PD)

  12. Einstein, Ethics and the Atomic Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rife, Patricia

    2005-03-01

    Einstein voiced his ethical views against war as well as fascism via venues and alliances with a variety of organizations still debated today. In 1939, he signed a letter to President Roosevelt (drafted by younger colleagues Szilard, Wigner and others) warning the U.S.government about the danger of Nazi Germany gaining control of uranium in the Belgian-controlled Congo in order to develop atomic weapons, based on the discovery of fission by Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner. In 1945, he became a member of the Princeton-based ``Emergency Committee for Atomic Scientists'' organized by Bethe, Condon, Bacher, Urey, Szilard and Weisskopf. Rare Einstein slides will illustrate Dr.Rife's presentation on Albert Einstein's philosophic and ethical convictions about peace, and public stance against war (1914-1950).

  13. Association of Acute Radiation Syndrome and Rain after the Bombings in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Sakata, R; Cullings, H M; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Acute radiation-induced symptoms reported in survivors after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been suspected to be associated with rain that fell after the explosions, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiological study that considers the effects of the direct dose from the atomic bombs and other factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association using information from a fixed cohort, comprised of 93,741 members of the Life Span Study who were in the city at the time of the bombing. Information on acute symptoms and exposure to rain was collected in surveys conducted by interviewers, primarily in the 1950s. The proportion of survivors developing severe epilation was around 60% at levels of direct radiation doses of 3 Gy or higher and less than 0.2% at levels <0.005 Gy regardless of reported rain exposure status. The low prevalence of acute symptoms at low direct doses indicates that the reported fallout rain was not homogeneously radioactive at a level sufficient to cause a substantial probability of acute symptoms. We observed that the proportion of reported acute symptoms was slightly higher among those who reported rain exposure in some subgroups, however, suggestions that rain was the cause of these reported symptoms are not supported by analyses specific to the known areas of radioactive fallout. Misclassification of exposure and outcome, including symptoms due to other causes and recall bias, appears to be a more plausible explanation. However, the insufficient and retrospective nature of the available data limited our ability to quantify the attribution to those possible causes. PMID:27223827

  14. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    1996-05-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, M; Kyoizumi, S; Kusunoki, Y; Hirai, Y; Tanabe, K; Cologne, J B

    1996-05-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. PMID:8781371

  16. The neutron spectrum of the Hiroshima A-bomb and the Dosimetry System 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühm, W.; Kato, K.; Korschinek, G.; Morinaga, H.; Urban, A.; Zerle, L.; Nolte, E.

    1990-12-01

    The radioisotope 41Ca produced by the Hiroshima A-bomb in a gravestone 107 m from the hypocenter was measured with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Munich accelerator laboratory. The resonance integral for the reaction 40Ca(n,γ) 41Ca was determined to be Iγ = (0.22 ± 0.02) b. This, together with γ spectrometric data on 60Co, 152Eu and 154Eu and AMS data on 36Cl from the same gravestone permitted deduction of the neutron energy spectrum and fluence at this distance in Hiroshima. The derived spectrum is much harder than the spectrum used in the Dosimetry System 1986, DS86.

  17. Radioactivity in atomic-bomb samples from exposure to environmental neutrons.

    PubMed

    Endo, S; Shizuma, K; Tanaka, K; Ishikawa, M; Rühm, W; Egbert, S D; Hoshi, M

    2007-12-01

    For about one decade, activation measurements performed on environmental samples from a distance larger than 1 km from the hypocenter of the atomic-bomb explosion over Hiroshima suggested much higher thermal neutron fluences to the survivors than predicted. This caused concern among the radiation protection community and prompted a complete re-evaluation of all aspects of survivor dosimetry. While it was shown recently that secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation and other sources have probably been the reason for the high measured concentrations of the long-lived radioisotope 36Cl in these samples, the source for high measured concentrations of the short-lived radionuclides 152Eu and 60Co has not yet been investigated in detail. In order to quantify the production of 152Eu and 60Co in environmental samples by secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, thermal neutron fluxes were measured by means of a He gas proportional counter in various buildings where these samples had been and still are being stored. Because a 252Cf neutron source has been operated occasionally close to one of the sample storage rooms, additional neutron flux measurements were carried out when the neutron source was in operation. The thermal neutron fluxes measured ranged from 0.00017 to 0.00093 n cm(-2) s(-1) and depended on the floor number of the investigated building. Based on the measured neutron fluxes, the specific activities from the reactions 151Eu(n,gamma)152Eu and 59Co(n,gamma)60Co in the atomic-bomb samples were estimated to be 7.9 mBq g(-1) Eu and 0.27 mBq g(-1) Co, respectively, in saturation. These activities are much lower than those recently measured in samples that had been exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons. It is therefore concluded that environmental and moderated 252Cf neutrons are not the source for the high activities that had been measured in these samples. PMID:17993849

  18. Medical x-ray exposure doses as contaminants of atomic bomb doses.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, O; Antoku, S; Russell, W J; Fujita, S; Sawada, S

    1988-03-01

    Since 1967 at the times of their biennial ABCC/RERF radiological examinations, all Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects have been interviewed to determine the exposures to medical x-rays they experienced in institutions other than RERF in order to estimate the numbers of examinations and corresponding doses which they received. These data have been stored on computer tapes together with the doses these subjects received during their radiological examinations in the ABCC/RERF Department of Radiology. Thus, their medical x-ray doses are available along with their atomic bomb doses (tentative 1965 doses revised, T65DR) for assessment of the role of ionizing radiation in the development of diseases. The medical x-ray doses incurred at RERF were assessed by means of phantom dosimetry. Those at other institutions were determined using phantom dosimetry data and results of surveys for trends in radiological examinations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. By the end of 1982, the average medical x-ray doses to the active bone marrow were 12.04 mGy for A-bomb exposed groups and 8.92 mGy for control groups (not-in-cities); to the male gonads, 2.26 mGy and 1.89 mGy, respectively; and to the female gonads, 17.45 mGy and 12.58 mGy, respectively. Results for Hiroshima and Nagasaki were similar. The main impact of medical x-ray doses was in the lowest T65DR group. Medical x-ray active bone marrow doses ranged from 0.05-500% (mean, 35%) of A-bomb doses in the 10-99 mGy T65DR group. In the 100-999 mGy T65DR group, medical x-ray active bone marrow doses ranged from 0.005-50% (mean, 5%) of their T65DR. In the greater than 1,000-mGy T65DR group, medical x-ray exposures were proportionally less. Female active bone marrow and gonad doses were similar in magnitude to the male active bone marrow doses. Medical x-ray exposures produced smaller doses to the gonads of males than to those of the females. The use of medical x-rays is steadily increasing. Careful consideration of doses from medical sources

  19. The Last Act: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Air And Space Museum.

    This text was to have been the script for the National Air and Space Museum's exhibition of the Enola Gay, focusing on the end of World War II and the decision of the United States to use of the atomic bomb. The Enola Gay was a B-29 aircraft that carried the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945. The atomic bomb brought a…

  20. Estimation of radiation doses for atomic-bomb survivors in the Hiroshima University Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, M.; Matsuura, M.; Hayakawa, N.; Kamada, N.; Ito, C.

    1996-05-01

    The present study presents the Hiroshima University Registry of atomic bomb survivors, of which the total number is about 270,000, and application of absorbed doses. From this registry, we picked up 49,102 survivors and applied organ doses based on the dosimetry system 1986 (DS86), which is named the Atomic Bomb Survivor 1993 Dose (ABS93D). The applied dose data are based on the tables listed in the DS86 final report such as the free-in-air kermas, the house shielding factors, and organ dose factors for the active bone marrow and the breast. Calculations for the 13 other organs provided in DS86 are possible. To obtained the organ doses for each survivor, it is necessary to obtain information concerning (1) place exposed, (2) whether they were shielded or not, and (3) age. ABS93D body transmission factors for active bone marrow for neutrons and gamma rays agreed with DS 86 to within a few percent. Of the survivors studied, 35, 123 of them were used for the relative risk estimation of leukemia mortality, adopting the same method as the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) for comparison. For the observation period from 1968 to 1989, the analyzed relative risks for leukemia mortality at 1 Gy by shielded kerm and by active bone marrow dose are 2.01 and 2.37, respectively, which are consistent with the RERF results. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors. The RERF Life Span Study. Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Schull, W J; Kato, H

    1990-08-01

    This article summarizes the risk of cancer among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We focus primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation from 1950 through 1985 based on recently revised dosimetry procedures. We report the risk of cancer other than leukemia among the atomic bomb survivors. We note that the number of excess deaths of radiation-induced malignant tumors other than leukemia increases with age. Survivors who were exposed in the first or second decade of life have just entered the cancer-prone age and have so far exhibited a high relative risk in association with radiation dose. Whether the elevated risk will continue or will fall with time is not yet clear, although some evidence suggests that the risk may be declining. It is important to continue long-term follow-up of this cohort to document the changes with time since exposure and to provide direct rather than projected risks over the lifetime of an exposed individual. PMID:2366300

  2. Invited commentary: missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Grant, E J; Cullings, H M; Shore, R E

    2013-03-15

    The Life Span Study is a long-term epidemiologic cohort study of survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. In this issue of the Journal, Richardson et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(6):562-568) suggest that those who died in the earliest years of follow-up were more likely to have a missing dose of radiation exposure assigned, leading to a bias in the radiation risk estimates. We show that nearly all members of the cohort had shielding information recorded before the beginning of follow-up and that much of the alleged bias that Richardson et al. describe simply reflects the geographic distribution of shielding conditions for which reliable dosimetry was impossible. PMID:23429724

  3. One minute after the detonation of the atomic bomb: the erased effects of residual radiation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Government's official narrative denies the effects of residual radiation which appeared one minute after the atomic bomb detonations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This paper explores declassified documents from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Bomb Casualties Commission, and others and shows that these documents actually suggested the existence of serious effects from residual radiation. PMID:20521423

  4. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors predicted from laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, Bruce A.; Grahn, Douglas; Hoel, David

    2003-01-01

    Exposure, pathology and mortality data for mice, dogs and humans were examined to determine whether accurate interspecies predictions of radiation-induced mortality could be achieved. The analyses revealed that (1) days of life lost per unit dose can be estimated for a species even without information on radiation effects in that species, and (2) accurate predictions of age-specific radiation-induced mortality in beagles and the atomic bomb survivors can be obtained from a dose-response model for comparably exposed mice. These findings illustrate the value of comparative mortality analyses and the relevance of animal data to the study of human health effects.

  5. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors predicted from laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Bruce A; Grahn, Douglas; Hoel, David

    2003-08-01

    Exposure, pathology and mortality data for mice, dogs and humans were examined to determine whether accurate interspecies predictions of radiation-induced mortality could be achieved. The analyses revealed that (1) days of life lost per unit dose can be estimated for a species even without information on radiation effects in that species, and (2) accurate predictions of age-specific radiation-induced mortality in beagles and the atomic bomb survivors can be obtained from a dose-response model for comparably exposed mice. These findings illustrate the value of comparative mortality analyses and the relevance of animal data to the study of human health effects. PMID:12859226

  6. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age. PMID:22394591

  7. Identification of 63Ni and 60Co produced in a steel sample by thermal neutrons from the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizuma, K.; Iwatani, K.; Hasai, H.; Oka, T.; Hoshi, M.; Shibata, S.; Imamura, M.; Shibata, T.

    1997-02-01

    Long-lived residual radioactivity 63Ni produced by the (n, γ) reaction was detected for the first time from a steel plate sampled at near the hypocenter of the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Nickel and cobalt were chemically separated and enriched from the steel sample. Low energy beta rays of 63Ni were measured with a low-background liquid scintillation counter and gamma-rays of 60Co were measured with a low background Ge detector. Specific activities were determined as 0.0063±0.0004 Bq mg -1 for {63Ni}/{Ni} and 8.70±0.46 Bq mg -1 for {60Co}/{Co} at the time of the bomb explosion. Comparisons with the calculated yield based on the current dosimetry system DS86 neutrons were also given.

  8. Role Playing: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Noel C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a role playing exercise can be used to teach students in a college level history course about the use of the atomic bomb in World War II. Information is presented on general use of role playing in history courses, objectives, questions to consider about use of the atomic bomb, and course evaluation. For journal availability, see so…

  9. Copenhagen Revisited: why the Germansdid not Achieve AN Atomic Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2002-10-01

    Michael Frayn's highly acclaimed play "Copenhagen", which reenacts the 1941 visit by Werner Heisenberg to Niels Bohr in Nazi-occupied Copenhagen, has now closed after a production in New York that won a Pulitzer Prize, and a successful tour of many cities in the US. Symposia in New York, Washington, Cambridge, Pasadena, and Raleigh have presented the science - quantum mechanics and nuclear physics - that undergirds the play, have debated its historical accuracy, and have celebrated its theatrical realization. The play, the symposia, and recently released documents have led to a new and heightened debate about old questions, among them why Heisenberg visited Bohr, what went on during their uncongenial meeting, and why the Germans did not succeed in building an atomic bomb. This in turn has resulted in a plethora of sometimes polemical articles in journals and magazines, that try to answer the questions. In this talk I will review some of the evidence, in particular about the German failure to make a bomb. While I will concentrate on the physics, the "political" factors will also be adumbrated.

  10. Neutron-induced 63Ni activity and microscopic observation of copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Shinozaki, Kenji; Fukushima, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Fast neutron activation data for 63Ni in copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb are important in evaluating neutron doses to the survivors. Up to until now, accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting methods have been applied in 63Ni measurements and data were accumulated within 1500 m from the hypocenter. The slope of the activation curve versus distance shows reasonable agreement with the calculation result, however, data near the hypocenter are scarce. In the present work, two copper samples obtained from the Atomic bomb dome (155 m from the hypocenter) and the Bank of Japan building (392 m) were utilized in 63Ni beta-ray measurement with a Si surface barrier detector. Additionally, microscopic observation of the metal surfaces was performed for the first time. Only upper limit of 63Ni production was obtained for copper sample of the Atomic bomb dome. The result of the 63Ni measurement for Bank of Japan building show reasonable agreement with the AMS measurement and to fast neutron activation calculations based on the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) neutrons.

  11. Children of the atomic bomb survivors: A genetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.; Schull, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This volume represents the results of over 40 years of study of the latent health effects on the survivors of the atomic bomb blasts. Planning for this research began in 1946 and data collection has been ongoing since 1948. The work represents the efforts of both US and Japanese agencies and presents 13 papers which the editors believe represent the best scientific information related to the genetic effects of radiation exposure. In general, the results presented here indicate that radiation exposure effects on reproductive cells are less than previously thought. The paper contained here examine that question in light of effects on pregnancy outcome, sex ratio, congenital defects, and early mortality of children. The papers also present helpful comparison of these results with the results seen in experimental radiation studies with animals. For anyone interested in the risks associated with radiation studies, this book represents a vital collection of information.

  12. Cancer incidence among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Preston, D.L.; Ron, E.

    1997-03-01

    The long-term follow-up of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors is a major source of epidemiological data for risk assessment used in radiological protection. Previous analyses of cancer risk have primarily focused on mortality data for this cohort. Recently, it has also become possible to use cancer incidence data from the tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for a subset of the LSS cohort, and a series of reports from the first comprehensive analyses of the LSS cancer incidence data have been published. The availability of cancer incidence data has also prompted a series of in-depth studies of specific cancers. This paper describes how the incidence and mortality data differ and discusses how the incidence data will add a new dimension to the radiation risk assessment.

  13. Relationship between cataracts and epilation in atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Neriishi, Kazuo; Otake, Masanori; Kodama, Kazunori

    1995-10-01

    Among 1713 atomic bomb survivors who underwent ophthalmological examinations from 1963-1964, the risk of cataract formation per unit dose of radiation was significantly greater for those who reported hair loss of 67% or more after exposure (the epilation group) than for those who reported less or no hair loss (the no-epilation group) (P,0.01). Such an epilation effect has also been associated with leukemia mortality and the frequency of chromosome aberrations. Although this might be interpreted as indicating differential sensitivity to radiation between the epilation group and the no-epilation group, it could also be explained by imprecision in dose estimates. We have calculated that a 48% random error in DS86 dose estimates could be in accordance with the dose-response relationship for the prevalence of cataracts in the epilation group or the no-epilation group. Possible mechanisms for variations in radiosensitivity are discussed. 37 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Cataract in atomic bomb survivors based on a threshold model and the occurrence of severe epilation

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, Masanori; Neriishi, K.; Schull, W.J.; Neriishi, Kazuo; Schull, W.J.

    1996-09-01

    This report re-examines the relationship of radiation dose to the occurrence of cataracts among 1742 a-bomb survivors seen in the years 1963-1964 for whom the degree of epilation and Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) doses are known. Of these, 67 had cataracts.

  15. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (<2 km), a distal group (≥2 km), and an early entrance group (those who entered the region <2 km from the hypocenter within 2 weeks after the explosion). Between 1996 and 2009, 631 new cases of prostate cancer were identified among approximately 18 400 male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer. PMID:23859763

  16. Accounting for neutron exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Harry M; Pierce, Donald A; Kellerer, Albrecht M

    2014-12-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivors that were directly exposed to both γ rays and neutrons have been followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The estimation of the γ-ray risks requires some adjustment for the greater biological effect of the neutrons per unit dose. Because the small neutron doses and the predominant γ-ray doses are highly correlated, the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) cannot be reliably estimated from the survivors' data and information from radiobiology must be invoked. As data became available on neutron doses, RERF has used a constant neutron RBE value of 10, even though radiobiological studies indicate that the RBE values appear to have considerably larger values at low doses. The approximation RBE = 10 assumes that if the RBE is variable it takes roughly this value in the range of total dose most relevant for linear risk estimation, namely about 1 Gy. We consider some possible RBE functions to explain the correct use and the impact of a dose-dependent RBE. However, we do not advocate any particular choice or even that a variable RBE be employed. Rather we show that the assumed neutron RBE, within a wide range of choices, is far less important to the outcome of risk assessment of the RERF data than generally believed. Some of these misperceptions have been related to the consideration of variable RBE functions, and without due attention to the fact that in the case of the A-bomb survivors' data, the mixed field of neutrons and γ rays must be considered. Therefore, the RBE value of neutrons is much lower than the RBE in pure neutron fields that are used in radiobiological experiments. Thus, applying the pure neutron field RBE to the mixed-field A-bomb radiation can lead to an overestimation of the actual neutron RBE for moderate total dose levels of 1 Gy by a factor of more than four. While in a pure neutron exposure the RBE depends on the neutron dose, in the mixed field it depends on both components of

  17. Ionizing radiation and kidney cancer among Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David B; Hamra, Ghassan

    2010-06-01

    Understanding of the role of radiation as a cause of kidney cancer remains limited. The most common types of kidney cancer are renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis carcinoma. It has been posited that these entities differ in their degree of radiogenicity. Recent analyses of cancer incidence and mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors have examined associations between ionizing radiation and renal cell carcinoma, but these analyses have not reported results for cancer of the renal pelvis and ureters. This paper reports the results of analyses of kidney cancer incidence during the period 1958-1998 among 105,427 atomic bomb survivors. Poisson regression methods were used to derive estimates of associations between radiation dose (in sievert, Sv) and cancer of the renal parenchyma (n = 167), and cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter (n = 80). Heterogeneity by cancer site was tested by joint modeling of cancer risks. Radiation dose was positively associated with cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter [excess relative rate (ERR)/Sv = 1.65; 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.37, 3.78]. The magnitude of this association was larger than the estimated association between radiation dose and cancer of the renal parenchyma (ERR/Sv = 0.27; 90% CI = -0.19, 0.98). While the association between radiation and cancer of the renal parenchyma was of greater magnitude at ages <55 years (ERR/Sv = 2.82; 90% CI = 0.45, 8.89) than at older attained ages (ERR/Sv = -0.11; 90% CI = nd, 0.53), the association between radiation and cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter varied minimally across these categories of attained age. A test of heterogeneity of type-specific risks provides modest support for the conclusion that risks vary by kidney cancer site (LRT = 2.34, 1 d.f., P = 0.13). Since some studies of radiation-exposed populations examine these sites in aggregate, results were also derived for the combined category of cancer of the renal parenchyma, renal

  18. Risk of cancer among children exposed to atomic bomb radiation in utero: a review.

    PubMed

    Kato, H; Yoshimoto, Y; Schull, W J

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the risk for cancer (incidence) over a period of 40 years, 1945-1984, among 1829 persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This report adds eight years of follow-up to a previous report which was confined to mortality. Only two cases of childhood cancer were observed among these survivors in the first 14 years of life; both had been heavily exposed. Subsequent cancers have all been of the adult type. Not only did these latter cancers occur earlier in persons exposed to greater than 0.30 Gy than in unexposed (0 Gy) but the incidence continues to increase, and the crude cumulative incidence rate 40 years after the bombing is 3.9-fold greater in persons exposed to greater than 0.30 Gy. In the observation period 1950-1984, the relative risk for cancer at 1 Gy, based on the absorbed dose to the mother's uterus as estimated by the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), is 3.77 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.14-13.48. For all persons exposed to greater than 0.01 Gy, the average excess risk per 10(4) person-year-Gy is 6.57 (0.07-14.49), and the estimated attributable risk is 40.9% (2.9-90.2%). These results, when viewed in the perspective of fetal doses, suggest that susceptibility to radiation-induced cancers is higher in survivors exposed prenatally than in those exposed postnatally (at least, those exposed as adults). However, definitive conclusions must await further follow-up studies. PMID:2680953

  19. Long-Term Health Effects of Atom Bomb on Japan Not as Bad as Feared: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... News) -- The long-term health effects of the atomic bombs dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and ... should not cause complacency about the threat of nuclear weapons and nuclear accidents. The meltdowns that occurred in ...

  20. Atomic bomb: Ultimate faith of diplomacy. Research report, August 1992-April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S.

    1993-04-01

    This paper examines the development and use of the atomic bombs as the means of achieving a grand strategy formulated by United States President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill as early as 1943. This grand strategy consisted of two main goals. First, if necessary, the atomic bombs would be used to end World War II as soon as they were ready. Second, the existence of the atomic bombs would be used as a diplomatic hammer to shape the political landscape of the postwar world - a direct warning to Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin not to attempt to hegemonize Eastern Europe and the Far East. Was the grand strategy successfully accomplished. Could newly sworn President Harry Truman have employed diplomatic means to quickly and successfully end World War II without resorting to the use of the atomic bombs against Japan.

  1. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indicators are frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during the first postnatal weak); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average of life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an eletrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  2. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Negasaki. The indicators are frequency of un toward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during first postnatal week); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an electrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  3. The children of atomic bomb survivors: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Schull, William J

    2003-12-01

    When the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki occurred in the summer of 1945, most members of the public presumed that many of the children conceived by the survivors would be grossly deformed or seriously damaged in other ways as a consequence of radiation-induced mutations. Although the experimental data then available, largely limited to studies of Drosophila melanogaster, the common fruit fly, did not support this perception, the limitations of the data and the depth of public concern warranted a careful follow-up of the children born to the survivors. To this end a surveillance was begun in 1947 of all pregnancy outcomes after 20 weeks of gestation in these two cities. Over the half century subsequent to the initiation of this surveillance, some 80-odd thousand pregnancy outcomes have been studied and a variety of potential indicators of mutational damage measured. This report summarises the findings of these studies and offers an estimate of the genetic risk based on these findings. PMID:14750686

  4. Prevalence of uterine myoma detected by ultrasound examination in the atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Sachiko |; Kodama, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Saeko

    1997-06-01

    Benign tumors of several organs have been demonstrated to occur as late effects of atomic bomb exposure, and a recent addition to the list of affected organs in the uterus. The increased incidence of uterine myoma noted in Radiation Effects Research Foundation (REFR) Adult Health Study Report 7, however, was based on self-reported information, optional gynecological examination and patient-requested ultrasound examination. Thus the possibility of dose-related bias in case detection was a serious concern. Therefore, the relationship between the prevalence of uterine myoma and dose to the uterus was examined after excluding as much bias as possible by asking all women who had undergone biennial examinations from December 1991 through December 1993 to undergo ultrasound examinations. Among 2506 female participants in Hiroshima, the uterus was visualized by ultrasound examination in 1190, and 238 were found to have uterine nodules. Multiple logistic analysis using Dosimetry System 1986 uterine doses revealed a significant dose response for the prevalence of uterine nodules. The odds ratio at 1 Gy was 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.12-2.31). It is unlikely that the observed relationship after adjusting for bladder filling, volume of the uterus, age and menopause status was the result of dose-related bias. These results support previous findings at RERF and provide further evidence that radiation exposure is one of the factors associated with uterine myoma. 28 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. The development of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, R.W.

    1993-11-01

    The historical presentation begins with details of the selection of Los Alamos as the site of the Army installation. Wartime efforts of the Army Corps of Engineers, and scientists to include the leader of Los Alamos, Robert Oppenheimer are presented. The layout and construction of the facilities are discussed. The monumental design requirements of the bombs are discussed, including but not limited to the utilization of the second choice implosion method of detonation, and the production of bomb-grade nuclear explosives. The paper ends with a philosophical discussion on the use of nuclear weapons.

  6. Seeing the Light: Visibility of the July '45 Trinity Atomic Bomb Test from the Inner Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2006-01-01

    In his "The Making of the Atomic Bomb," Richard Rhodes remarks of the July 16, 1945, Trinity atomic bomb test in New Mexico that "had astronomers been watching they could have seen it reflected from the moon, literal moonshine," an allusion to Ernest Rutherford's famous dismissal of the prospect of atomic energy. Investigating…

  7. Patterns of Excess Cancer Risk among the Atomic Bomb Survivors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Donald A.

    1996-05-01

    I will indicate the major epidemiological findings regarding excess cancer among the atomic-bomb survivors, with some special attention to what can be said about low-dose risks. This will be based on 1950--90 mortality follow-up of about 87,000 survivors having individual radiation dose estimates. Of these about 50,000 had doses greater than 0.005 Sv, and the remainder serve largely as a comparison group. It is estimated that for this cohort there have been about 400 excess cancer deaths among a total of about 7800. Since there are about 37,000 subjects in the dose range .005--.20 Sv, there is substantial low-dose information in this study. The person-year-Seivert for the dose range under .20 Sv is greater than for any one of the 6 study cohorts of U.S., Canadian, and U.K. nuclear workers; and is equal to about 60% of the total for the combined cohorts. It is estimated, without linear extrapolation from higher doses, that for the RERF cohort there have been about 100 excess cancer deaths in the dose range under .20 Sv. Both the dose-response and age-time patterns of excess risk are very different for solid cancers and leukemia. One of the most important findings has been that the solid cancer (absolute) excess risk has steadily increased over the entire follow-up to date, similarly to the age-increase of the background risk. About 25% of the excess solid cancer deaths occurred in the last 5 years of the 1950--90 follow-up. On the contrary most of the excess leukemia risk occurred in the first few years following exposure. The observed dose response for solid cancers is very linear up to about 3 Sv, whereas for leukemia there is statistically significant upward curvature on that range. Very little has been proposed to explain this distinction. Although there is no hint of upward curvature or a threshold for solid cancers, the inherent difficulty of precisely estimating very small risks along with radiobiological observations that many radiation effects are nonlinear

  8. Nuclear shadows on silvered walls: Atomic Bomb Cinema, from 1935 to 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The cinema and the atomic bomb are two of the most significant technological innovations of the past-century - their influence on culture has provoked tremendous political, academic, and popular debate. The point at which these two technologies intersect is what the author calls Atomic Bomb Cinema.' Since 1945 almost six hundred films with images of nuclear weapons have been released in the US, and they have been virtually ignored by everyone but the film going public. This study shows how Bomb films' use recurring themes and formal structures, and therefore must be treated as a coherent body of films; identifies historical, mythological, and contemporary motifs; and analyzes these films from two points of view: interdisciplinary (history, politics, economics, sociology, and aesthetics) and cross-cultural (American, Japanese, British, and Australian). The most important element of Atomic Bomb Cinema is the Apocalyptic Imagination; film makers use it to structure their narratives and explore a wide range of ideological issues. In contrast to commonly held beliefs, Atomic Bomb Cinema is undeniably part of a process that helps people to understand the threat of nuclear war. In this instance, the cinema is one cultural institution that contributes to a healthy society.

  9. [Cohort studies of the atomic bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation].

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-03-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has been evaluating the risk of atomic bomb radiation for various diseases since the beginning of its former organization, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. Cohorts of atomic-bomb survivors, in-utero survivors, and survivors' offspring have been followed up. The risk of all solid cancers at 1 Gy was estimated as ERR = 0.47 and EAR = 52/10,000 person-years for people who were exposed at 30 years of age and had reached 70 years of age, based on the cancer incidence during 1958-1998. The risk seemed to be increased in the in-utero survivors, but was rather lower than the risk for the survivors exposed at a young age. Effects on the offspring of survivors have not been shown to be significant. Continuing the research is important in order to more accurately estimate and understand radiation-induced health effects. PMID:22514915

  10. Skin cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors from 1958 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Hiromi; Misumi, Munechika; Kishikawa, Masao; Iseki, Masachika; Yonehara, Shuji; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Soda, Midori; Tokuoka, Shoji; Shimizu, Yukiko; Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2014-05-01

    The radiation risk of skin cancer by histological types has been evaluated in the atomic bomb survivors. We examined 80,158 of the 120,321 cohort members who had their radiation dose estimated by the latest dosimetry system (DS02). Potential skin tumors diagnosed from 1958 to 1996 were reviewed by a panel of pathologists, and radiation risk of the first primary skin cancer was analyzed by histological types using a Poisson regression model. A significant excess relative risk (ERR) of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (n = 123) was estimated at 1 Gy (0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26, 1.6) for those age 30 at exposure and age 70 at observation based on a linear-threshold model with a threshold dose of 0.63 Gy (95% CI: 0.32, 0.89) and a slope of 2.0 (95% CI: 0.69, 4.3). The estimated risks were 15, 5.7, 1.3 and 0.9 for age at exposure of 0-9, 10-19, 20-39, over 40 years, respectively, and the risk increased 11% with each one-year decrease in age at exposure. The ERR for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ (n = 64) using a linear model was estimated as 0.71 (95% CI: 0.063, 1.9). However, there were no significant dose responses for malignant melanoma (n = 10), SCC (n = 114), Paget disease (n = 10) or other skin cancers (n = 15). The significant linear radiation risk for BCC with a threshold at 0.63 Gy suggested that the basal cells of the epidermis had a threshold sensitivity to ionizing radiation, especially for young persons at the time of exposure. PMID:24754560

  11. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-08-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed IN UTERO : , and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose-response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed IN UTERO : is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts. PMID:26976124

  12. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed in utero, and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose–response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed in utero is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts. PMID:26976124

  13. Harry Truman and the Atomic Bomb: An Excursion into Character Education through Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Tony R.

    2006-01-01

    This article asserts the importance of character education through the utilization of historical storytelling in the social studies classroom. After briefly noting the value of the historical story in this regard, a specific, ready-made example is provided concerning Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb and includes a crucial set of follow-up…

  14. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The development of the first Soviet atomic bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, German A.; Ryabev, Lev D.

    2001-01-01

    In the late 1930s and early 1940s, two remarkable physical phenomena — the fission of heavy nuclei and the chain fission reaction — were discovered, implying that a new powerful source of energy (nuclear fission energy) might become a practical possibility for mankind. At that time, however, the political situation in the world made the development of the atomic bomb the main objective of nuclear energy research in the countries involved. The first atomic bombs, notoriously used in the war against Japan, were produced by the United States of America only six and a half years after the discovery of fission. Four years later, the first Soviet atomic bomb was tested. This was a major step toward the establishment of nuclear parity which led to stability and global peace and thus greatly influenced the destiny of human kind. Based on documentary materials covering the period from 1939 to 1949, this paper traces the origin and evolution of the physical ideas behind the first Soviet atomic bomb and discusses the most important events associated with the project.

  15. Nickel-63 production in copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb: estimation based on an excitation function obtained by neutron irradiation experiments.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, K; Imanaka, T; Ota, Y; Akamine, M; Shibata, S; Shibata, T; Ito, Y; Imamura, M; Uwamino, Y; Nogawa, N; Baba, M; Iwasaki, S; Matsuyama, S

    2008-07-01

    The upper and lower limits of the excitation function of the (63)Cu(n,p)(63)Ni reaction were experimentally determined, and the number of (63)Ni nuclei produced in copper samples exposed to atomic bomb neutrons in Hiroshima was estimated by using the experimental excitation functions and the neutron fluences given in the DS02 dosimetry system. The estimated number of (63)Ni nuclei was compared with that measured and with that calculated using the DS02 dosimetry system and the corresponding ENDF/B-VI cross section. In comparison with DS02, there is about a 60% maximum difference in (63)Ni production at the hypocenter when the experimental upper cross section values are used. The difference becomes smaller at greater distances from the hypocenter and decreases, for example, to less than 30 and 5% when using the upper and lower experimental cross sections at 1,000 m, respectively. PMID:18496703

  16. Lessons from the atomic bomb about secondary MDS.

    PubMed

    Hata, Tomoko; Imanishi, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) is a hematological neoplasm defined by ineffective hematopoiesis, dysplasia of hematopoietic cells, and risk of progression to acute leukemia. MDS occurs as de novo or secondary, and chemoradiotherapy for cancers is thought to increase the risk of MDS among patients. Recently, an epidemiological study for MDS among A-bomb survivors was performed, and it clearly demonstrated that the exposure to external radiation significantly increased the risk of MDS. Precise epidemiological data among survivors have revealed important clinical factors related to the risk of leukemias. In this review, by comparing data for secondary MDS and leukemia/MDS among survivors, several factors which would affect the risk of MDS, especially secondary MDS, are discussed. PMID:25240475

  17. Non-cancer diseases of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ju, Young-Su; Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2006-06-01

    Many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945. Our study examined noncancer diseases of Korean A-bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea and evaluated whether they had significantly higher prevalence of noncancer diseases than non-exposed people. We evaluated a number of tests, including anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood chemistry, hepatitis B surface antigen, and urinalysis, of survivors (n=223) and controls (n=372). Univariate analysis revealed significantly lower fasting glucose and creatinine, and higher diastolic blood pressure, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen levels in the survivors than in the controls. The calculation of crude prevalence ratios (PRs) revealed that A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.35) and chronic liver disease (2.20; 1.59-3.06) than controls. After adjusting for covariates (age, sex, body mass index, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, and smoking), A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (1.24; 1.06-1.44), chronic liver disease (2.07; 1.51-2.84), and hypercholesterolemia (1.79; 1.11-2.90) than controls. This study suggests that A-bomb exposure is associated with a higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases in Korean survivors. PMID:16778377

  18. The Office of Censorship's Attempt to Control Press Coverage of the Atomic Bomb during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Patrick S.

    The Office of Censorship's struggle to keep journalists from revealing the development of the first atomic bomb, the sites where the development was taking place, and the fact that the bomb might be available for use in the war, was desperate and in many ways heroic. Soon after it was created on December 19, 1941, the office issued a voluntary…

  19. Why did the Germans not produce an atomic bomb?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2003-04-01

    The question has been examined and debated in books and articles by physicists and historians of science for the past half century. Since 2000,the controversy has been heightened by Michael Frayn's play Copenhagen. Was the reason for the failure that Werner Heisenberg, the leader of Germany's Uranium Project,for moral reasons, gave incomplete and misleading information to the Nazis, such as withholding the knowledge that fissionable plutonium can be produced in a uranium reactor? Was Heisenberg's science the cause, because it resulted in a critically wrong critical mass for fission of tons instead of kilograms? Did he not make the calculation at all because he was convinced, for practical reasons, that a bomb couldn't be assembled in time to be of use to anyone in World War II? And what about Hans Bethe's assertion that Walter Bothe's mistake in ruling out graphite as a moderator, which obliged the Germans to embark on the difficult, long range effort to obtain enough heavy water, doomed even Heisenberg's reactor program to failure? Can the different answers that have been given to these and other questions be reconciled? If not, which are likely to be correct and which should be abandoned? The talk will be a progress report on this investigation.

  20. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part III: Leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma, 1950-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, D.L.; Izumi, Shizue; Kusumi, Shizuyo ); Tomonaga, Masao ); Ron, E. Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima ); Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao ); Dohy, Hiroo ); Matsui, Tatsuki ); Nonaka, Hiroaki )

    1994-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of data on the incidence of leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors during the period from late 1950 through the end of 1987 (93,696 survivors accounting for 2,778,000 person-years). These analyses add 9 additional years of follow-up for leukemia and 12 for myeloma to that in the last comprehensive reports on these diseases. This is the first analysis of the lymphoma incidence data in the cohort. Using both the Leukemia Registry and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, a total of 290 leukemia, 229 lymphoma and 73 myeloma cases were identified. The primary analyses were restricted to first primary tumors diagnosed among residents of the cities or surrounding areas with Dosimetry Systems 1986 dose estimates between 0 and 4 Gy kerma (231 leukemias, 208 lymphomas and 62 myelomas). Analyses focused on time-dependent models for the excess absolute risk. Separate analyses were carried out for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and adult T-cell leukemia in this population. There was strong evidence of radiation-induced risks for all subtypes except ATL, and there were significant subtype differences with respect to the effects of age at exposure and sex and in the temporal pattern of risk. The AML dose-response function was nonlinear, whereas there was no evidence against linearity for the other subtypes. When averaged over the follow-up period, the excess absolute risk (EAR) estimates (in cases per 10[sup 4] PY Sv) for the leukemia subtypes were 0.6, 1.1 and 0.9 for ALL, AML and CML, respectively. The corresponding estimated average excess relative risks at 1 Sv are 9.1, 3.3 and 6.2, respectively. There was some evidence of an increased risk of lymphoma in males (EAR = 0.6 cases per 10[sup 4] PY Sv) but no evidence of any excess in females. 64 refs., 14 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. A Method to Estimate the Fast-Neutron Fluence for the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Tokushi; Imamura, Mineo; Shibata, Seiichi; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Ohkubo, Tohru; Satoh, Shinngo; Nogawa, Norio; Hasai, Hiromi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hoshi, Masaharu; Oka, Takamitsu

    1994-10-01

    A new method to estimate the fast-neutron fluence of the Hiroshima atomic bomb is proposed. 63Ni produced by the 63Cu(n, p)63Ni reaction provides a unique measure by which to estimate the fast-neutron fluence of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki atomic bombs, because the half-life of 63Ni is 100 years and 70% of the 63Ni produced in a copper piece presently exists after 50 years. Using the neutron spectrum given in DS86 and the estimated cross section, we found that a piece of copper of about 10 g which was exposed at a point around 100 m from the hypocenter gives a measurable amount of 63Ni using a low-background liquid scintillation counter. For the measurement of 63Ni, accelerator mass spectrometry also seems to be applicable.

  2. Late effect of atomic bomb radiation on myeloid disorders: leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Hideki; Iwanaga, Masako; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2012-03-01

    Leukemia was the first malignancy linked to radiation exposure in atomic bomb survivors. Clear evidence of the dose-dependent excess risk of three major types of leukemia (acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia [AML], and chronic myeloid leukemia) was found, especially in people exposed at young ages. Such leukemia risks were at their highest in the late 1950s, and declined gradually thereafter over the past 50 years. Findings from recent risk analyses, however, suggest the persistence of AML risk even after 1990, and evidence of increased risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) due to atomic bomb radiation has recently been shown. High-risk MDS and forms involving complex chromosomal aberrations were found to be much more frequent in people exposed to higher radiation doses. These lines of epidemiological evidence suggest that the risk of radiation-induced hematological malignancies has persisted for six decades since the initial exposure. PMID:22370711

  3. The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sera, Nobuko; Hida, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Misa; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic CVD risk factors. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known to be a risk factor for CVD and little is known whether CKD is associated with A-bomb radiation. To examine whether CKD is associated with CVD risk factors or with A-bomb radiation in A-bomb survivors, we classified renal dysfunction in 1,040 A-bomb survivors who were examined in 2004-2007 as normal [n = 121; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]; mild (n = 686; eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate (n = 217; eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); or severe (n = 16; eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Also, we diagnosed subjects in the moderate and severe renal dysfunction groups as having CKD (n = 233; eGFR <59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). After adjusting for age, gender, and smoking and drinking habits, we looked for an association between renal dysfunction and hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and between renal dysfunction and A-bomb radiation. Hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.20, P = 0.009]; DM (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61, P = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.14, P = 0.008); and MetS (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.63, P < 0.001) were associated with CKD (moderate/severe renal dysfunction), and hyperlipidemia and MetS were also associated with mild renal dysfunction. CKD (OR/Gy, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.63, P = 0.038) and severe renal dysfunction (OR/Gy, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.63-6.25, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with radiation dose. CKD associated with radiation may have played a role in the development of CVD among A-bomb survivors. PMID:23148507

  4. Atomic bomb induced 152Eu: reconciliation of discrepancy between measurements and calculation.

    PubMed

    Komura, K; Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Imanaka, T; Egbert, S D; Rühm, W; Fukushima, H; Fujita, S

    2007-04-01

    In order to resolve the discrepancy between the measured and calculated 152Eu activity induced by the atomic bomb at Hiroshima, extremely low background gamma-ray spectrometry was performed for 17 granite samples collected from 134 m to more than 3 km from the hypocenter. Measurements agreed well with theoretical calculations based on DS02 up to 1.4 km from hypocenter. PMID:17351501

  5. Search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of atomic bomb survivors: preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.; Satoh, C.; Hamilton, H.B.; Otake, M.; Goriki, K.; Kageoka, T.; Fujita, M.; Neriishi, S.; Asakawa J.

    1980-07-01

    A total of 289,868 locus tests, based on 28 different protein phenotypes and using one-dimensional electrophoresis to detect variant proteins, has yielded one probable mutation in the offspring of proximally exposed parents, who received an estimated average gonadal exposure of 31 to 39 rem in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There were no mutations in 208,196 locus tests involving children of distally exposed parents, who had essentially no radiation exposure.

  6. Incidence of dementia among atomic-bomb survivors--Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Michiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mimori, Yasuyo; Miyachi, Takafumi; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    2009-06-15

    Radiotherapy has been reported to cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Here we examined whether exposure to atomic bomb radiation affected the incidence of dementia among 2286 atomic bomb survivors and controls - all members of the Adult Health Study cohort. Study subjects were non-demented and aged >or=60 years at baseline examination and had been exposed in 1945 at >or=13 years of age to a relatively low dose (or=500 mGy group. Alzheimer disease was the predominant type of dementia in each dose category. After adjustment for potential risk factors, radiation exposure did not affect the incidence rate of either all dementia or any of its subtypes. No case of dementia had a history of therapeutic cranial irradiation. Although we found no relationship between radiation exposure and the development of dementia among atomic bomb survivors exposed at >or=13 years old in this longitudinal study, effects on increased risk of early death among atomic bomb survivors will be considered. PMID:19327783

  7. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS. PMID:24461807

  8. After Crossroads: The Fate of the Atomic Bomb Target Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, James P.

    2016-04-01

    The atomic tests at Bikini Atoll left a submerged archaeological legacy in the form of sixty-one shipwrecks at or near Bikini, Kwajalein, the California coast, and in two other lesser cases off Oahu and the coast of Washington State. Together they comprise a unique maritime cultural landscape of the Cold War, and the naval aspects of that conflict.

  9. From the Dawn of Nuclear Physics to the First Atomic Bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolbright, Stephen; Schumacher, Jacob; Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina

    2014-03-01

    This work gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission within the historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. The work refers to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners. EM-A is grateful to Prof. Walter Grunden and to Prof. Emeritus Shadahiko Kano, Prof. Emeritus Monitori Hoshi for sharing their own notes, documents, and references, and to CCCU for sponsoring her participation in the 2013 Nuclear Weapons Seminar in Japan.

  10. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, I

    1998-05-12

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United States. Thanks to the cooperation of the survivors and the contributions of a multitude of scientists, these studies flourish to this day in what must be the most successful long-term research collaboration between the two countries. Although these studies are necessarily limited to the effects of acute, whole-body, mixed gamma-neutron radiation from the atom bombs, their comprehensiveness and duration make them the most definitive descriptions of the late effects of radiation in humans. For this reason, the entire world relies heavily on these data to set radiation standards. As vital as the study results are, they still represent primarily the effects of radiation on older survivors. Another decade or two should correct this deficiency and allow us to measure definitively the human risk of heritable mutation from radiation. We look to the worldwide radiation and risk community as well as to the survivors who have contributed so much to what has been done already to accomplish this goal. PMID:9576897

  11. Biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Daegu and Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Su-Young; Koo, Bon-Min; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2008-12-01

    In 1945, many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. This study compared the biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Daegu and Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea with those of a representative sample of Koreans obtained during a similar period. We evaluated anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood cell counts, blood chemistry, and urinalysis of survivors (n=414) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=414) recruited from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2005. Univariate analyses revealed significantly higher systolic blood pressure, white blood cell count, and serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase levels (p<0.01) in the survivors. Conversely, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, red blood cell count, and the proportion of positive urine occult blood (p<0.01) were lower in the survivors. Our findings suggest that biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors were adversely affected by radiation exposure. PMID:19119455

  12. Celluloid mushroom clouds: Hollywood and the atomic bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Evans-Karastamatis, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the development of the imagery associated with atomic technology found in Hollywood film produced and distributed between 1948 and 1964. Based upon a content and thematic analysis of a sample of 90 Hollywood produced films, the research examines the construction of nuclear images, their transformation throughout the fifteen year period, and the specific socio-political context and conditions of production which helped determine their selection. From the early experimentation with the issue, in searching for a profitable way to present atomic subjects, to the development of a science fiction genre which capitalized upon the public's anxiety over uncontrollable transmutational properties of nuclear energy, Hollywood filmmakers chose to perpetuate certain images and ignore others. These films provided the audience with a specific set of representations for constructing a view of atomic technology and all that it entailed. The industry's production practices and economic structure, prevailing ideologies, political pressure, and the social and cultural context helped determine what representations reached the screen. The findings illustrate how texts of popular culture are constructed, as a result of often contradictory determinants which include economic practices, signifying practices, and more general social conflict. Film content consists of texts composed on the basis of stylized conventions and codes, drawing on familiar or latent cultural myths and images. Film content can capitalize upon popular anxieties through use of metaphor and selection of genres. Hollywood selectively incorporated residual themes within the culture to exploit the fears and anxieties of audiences, and to allow a venue for questioning the wisdom of official government agenda. These potentially oppositional sentiments were defused, and governmental criticism and pressure avoided by holding the images within the margins of cold war ideology.

  13. Cover-up of the effects of internal exposure by residual radiation from the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Shoji

    2007-01-01

    The criteria certifying atomic bomb disease adopted by the Japanese government are very different from the actual state of the survivors. The criteria are based on epidemiological research by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, the successor to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC). The ABCC studied only the effects of primary radiation from the atomic bombing on the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and ignored the damage from residual radiation. Analysis of the incidence of acute radiation disease, the rate of chromosomal aberrations, and the relative risks of chronic disease among the survivors, shows that the effects of residual radiation from fallout exceeds that of primary radiation in the area more than 1.5-1.7 km distant from the hypocentre of the Hiroshima bombing. The effects of internal exposure due to intake of tiny radioactive particles are more severe than those of external exposure, explaining the difference between the official criteria and the actual state of the survivors. PMID:17370859

  14. Plowshare Program - American Atomic Bomb Tests For Industrial Applications

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-07-31

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Plowshare Program as a research and development activity to explore the technical and economic feasibility of using nuclear explosives for industrial applications. The reasoning was that the relatively inexpensive energy available from nuclear explosions could prove useful for a wide variety of peaceful purposes. The Plowshare Program began in 1958 and continued through 1975. Between December 1961 and May 1973, the United States conducted 27 Plowshare nuclear explosive tests comprising 35 individual detonations. Conceptually, industrial applications resulting from the use of nuclear explosives could be divided into two broad categories: 1) large-scale excavation and quarrying, where the energy from the explosion was used to break up and/or move rock; and 2) underground engineering, where the energy released from deeply buried nuclear explosives increased the permeability and porosity of the rock by massive breaking and fracturing. Possible excavation applications included: canals, harbors, highway and railroad cuts through mountains, open pit mining, construction of dams, and other quarry and construction-related projects. Underground nuclear explosion applications included: stimulation of natural gas production, preparation of leachable ore bodies for in situ leaching, creation of underground zones of fractured oil shale for in situ retorting, and formation of underground natural gas and petroleum storage reservoirs.

  15. Plowshare Program - American Atomic Bomb Tests For Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-22

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Plowshare Program as a research and development activity to explore the technical and economic feasibility of using nuclear explosives for industrial applications. The reasoning was that the relatively inexpensive energy available from nuclear explosions could prove useful for a wide variety of peaceful purposes. The Plowshare Program began in 1958 and continued through 1975. Between December 1961 and May 1973, the United States conducted 27 Plowshare nuclear explosive tests comprising 35 individual detonations. Conceptually, industrial applications resulting from the use of nuclear explosives could be divided into two broad categories: 1) large-scale excavation and quarrying, where the energy from the explosion was used to break up and/or move rock; and 2) underground engineering, where the energy released from deeply buried nuclear explosives increased the permeability and porosity of the rock by massive breaking and fracturing. Possible excavation applications included: canals, harbors, highway and railroad cuts through mountains, open pit mining, construction of dams, and other quarry and construction-related projects. Underground nuclear explosion applications included: stimulation of natural gas production, preparation of leachable ore bodies for in situ leaching, creation of underground zones of fractured oil shale for in situ retorting, and formation of underground natural gas and petroleum storage reservoirs.

  16. Allowance for random dose estimation errors in atomic bomb survivor studies: a revision.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Donald A; Vaeth, Michael; Cologne, John B

    2008-07-01

    Allowing for imprecision of radiation dose estimates for A-bomb survivors followed up by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation can be improved through recent statistical methodology. Since the entire RERF dosimetry system has recently been revised, it is timely to reconsider this. We have found that the dosimetry revision itself does not warrant changes in these methods but that the new methodology does. In addition to assumptions regarding the form and magnitude of dose estimation errors, previous and current methods involve the apparent distribution of true doses in the cohort. New formulas give results conveniently and explicitly in terms of these inputs. Further, it is now possible to use assumptions about two components of the dose errors, referred to in the statistical literature as "classical" and "Berkson-type". There are indirect statistical indications, involving non-cancer biological effects, that errors may be somewhat larger than assumed before, in line with recommendations made here. Inevitably, methods must rely on uncertain assumptions about the magnitude of dose errors, and it is comforting to find that, within the range of plausibility, eventual cancer risk estimates are not very sensitive to these. PMID:18582151

  17. Radiation-related risks of non-cancer outcomes in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Takahashi, I; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Risks of non-cancer outcomes after exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation have been evaluated among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort and its subcohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS). Information regarding non-cancer outcomes in the LSS is obtained from death certificates. In the AHS, members undergo clinical examinations biennially to determine their health status. Many AHS studies have been limited to participants attending the clinic over a limited period, and therefore have varying degrees of inferential utility; as such, care is required for comparison with the LSS results. Disease structure of non-cancer diseases in Japan has changed over the long follow-up period since the end of World War II. The health status of the A-bomb survivors may be associated with the hardships of living in a devastated city and impoverished country following the prolonged war effort, in addition to the direct effects of radiation exposure. Radiation-related risk of cardiovascular disease may have increased due to radiation-related increased risk of hypertension and other secondary associations, and the risk of atherosclerotic disorders has also been reported recently. These results should be interpreted with caution because of changes in disease definitions over the follow-up period. The radiation-related risk of non-cancer respiratory diseases also appears to have increased over the follow-up period, but the shapes of the dose-response curves have shown little consistency. PMID:26956675

  18. Dose estimation for atomic bomb survivor studies: its evolution and present status.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Harry M; Fujita, Shoichiro; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Grant, Eric J; Kerr, George D; Preston, Dale L

    2006-07-01

    In the decade after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, several large cohorts of survivors were organized for studies of radiation health effects. The U.S. Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its U.S./Japan successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have performed continuous studies since then, with extensive efforts to collect data on survivor locations and shielding and to create systems to estimate individual doses from the bombs' neutrons and gamma rays. Several successive systems have been developed by extramural working groups and collaboratively implemented by ABCC and RERF investigators. We describe the cohorts and the history and evolution of dose estimation from early efforts through the newest system, DS02, emphasizing the technical development and use of DS02. We describe procedures and data developed at RERF to implement successive systems, including revised rosters of survivors, development of methods to calculate doses for some classes of persons not fitting criteria of the basic systems, and methods to correct for bias arising from errors in calculated doses. We summarize calculated doses and illustrate their change and elaboration through the various systems for a hypothetical example case in each city. We conclude with a description of current efforts and plans for further improvements. PMID:16808610

  19. Growth and differentiation of circulating hemopoietic stem cells with atomic bomb irradiation-induced chromosome abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Amenomori, T.; Honda, T.; Otake, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Ichimaru, M.

    1988-11-01

    The effects of atomic bomb irradiation on hemopoietic stem cells were studied cytogenetically using single colonies derived from hemopoietic progenitor cells. The subjects studied were 21 healthy atomic bomb survivors (10 males and 11 females) in the high dose exposure group (100+ rad) with a known high incidence (10% or more) of radiation-induced chromosome abnormalities in their peripheral blood lymphocytes (stimulated with phytohemagglutinin), and 11 nonexposed healthy controls (5 males and 6 females). Colony formation by circulating granulocyte-macrophage (GM-CFC) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells was made by the methylcellulose method using peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Chromosome specimens were prepared from single colonies by our micromethod. The total number of colonies analyzed in the exposed group was 131 for GM-CFC and 75 for BFU-E. Chromosome abnormalities were observed in 15 (11.5%) and 9 (12.0%) colonies, respectively. In the control group, the total number of colonies analyzed was 61 for GM-CFC and 41 for BFU-E. None of these colonies showed chromosome abnormalities. The difference in incidence of chromosome abnormalities was highly significant by an exact test; p = 0.003 for GM-CFC and 0.017 for BFU-E. The karyotypes of chromosome abnormalities obtained from the colonies in the exposed group were mostly translocations, but deletion and marker chromosomes were also observed. In two individuals, such karyotypic abnormalities as observed in the peripheral lymphocytes were also seen in the myeloid progenitor cells. This finding suggests that atomic bomb irradiation produced a chromosome aberration on multipotent hemopoietic stem cells common to myeloid and lymphoid lineages.

  20. Heterogeneity of variation of relative risk by age at exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark P

    2009-08-01

    General reductions in cancer relative risk with increasing age at exposure are observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in other groups. However, there has been little evidence of heterogeneity in such trends by cancer type within the Japanese cohort, nor for cancer-type variations in other factors (sex, attained age) that modify relative risk. A recent report on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors published by Preston et al. in 2007 suggests that solid cancer relative risk exhibits a U-shaped relationship with age at exposure, and is initially decreasing and then increasing at older exposure ages. In this report, we reanalyse the latest Japanese atomic bomb survivor solid cancer mortality and incidence data analysed by Preston and co-workers, stratifying by cancer subtype where possible, the stratification being both in relation to the baseline and the radiation-associated excess. We find highly statistically significant (P < 0.001) variations of relative risk by cancer type, and statistically significant variations by cancer type in the adjustments for sex (P = 0.010) and age at exposure (P = 0.013) to the relative risk. There is no statistically significant (P > 0.2) variation by cancer type in the adjustment of relative risk for attained age. Although, for all incident solid cancers, there is marginally statistically significant (P = 0.033) variation of relative risk with a quadratic log-linear function of age at exposure, there is much weaker variation in the relative risk of solid cancer mortality (P > 0.1). However, the manner in which relative risk varies with age at exposure is qualitatively similar for incidence and mortality, so one should not make too much of these differences between the two datasets. Stratification by solid cancer type slightly weakens the evidence for quadratic variation in relative risk by age at exposure (P = 0.060). PMID:19471953

  1. Deep underground measurements of 60Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion.

    PubMed

    Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, Joël; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure 60Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure 60Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations. PMID:15177340

  2. Risk of cancer and non-cancer diseases in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Shimizu, Yukiko; Sakata, Ritsu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Grant, Eric J; Soda, Midori; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Suyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    Late health effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation have been evaluated in survivors. A cohort of 120 321 people has been followed since 1950 for mortality, including the cause of death using the Japanese population registry system (Life Span Study), and for cancer incidence using population-based cancer registries. Findings have included a markedly increased risk of leukaemia several years after the exposure, increased risk of various malignant tumours several decades after the exposure and, more recently, findings of increased rates of non-cancer diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21502293

  3. Mortality study of atomic-bomb survivors: implications for assessment of radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Mabuchi, K; Preston, D L; Shigematsu, I

    1996-01-01

    To determine the possible late effects of atomic-bomb radiation, the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of about 120,000 individuals, including 93,000 atomic bomb survivors and 27,000 non-exposed controls, was established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). Mortality in this cohort has been under study since 1950. Deaths are routinely identified through the family registry system and ascertainment is virtually complete. Cancer incidence data for the LSS cohort are also available from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki population-based tumour registry established in 1958. The central finding of the LSS is an increase in cancer risk. Besides the well-known increase in leukaemia, increases in solid cancer such as cancers of the lung, breast, stomach and thyroid have also been demonstrated. Radiation-induced leukaemia occurred 2 to 3 years after exposure, reached its peak within 6 to 8 years after the bombing, and has since declined steadily. However, this has not been true of solid cancer. Radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear at later ages than such cancer is normally prone to develop, and continues to increase proportionally with the increase in mortality or incidence in the control group as it ages. Survivors who were exposed in the first or second decade of life have just entered the cancer-prone age and have so far exhibited a high relative risk in association with radiation dose. Whether the elevated risk will continue or will fail with time is not yet clear. It is important to continue long-term follow-up of this cohort to document the changes with time since exposure. Beyond cancer risk, increased risk of non-cancer mortality is also suggested, although it is not conclusive. PMID:8896256

  4. Germany's Failure to Achieve an Atomic Bomb in World War II: Bad Science,Good Intentions or Neither?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2004-05-01

    This is a progress report on a project to find a definitive answer to the disputed question why the Germans did not succeed in building an atomic bomb. The most extreme answers among those that have been put forward are, on the one hand, that Werner Heisenberg did not understand the difference between a nuclear reactor and a bomb and, on the other, that German scientists dragged their feet because they wanted to deny this weapon of mass destruction to Hitler. From an examination of a number of the German scientific reports on their Uranium Project and of other sources, it seems evident that any early idea of a bomb being a run-away reactor was soon replaced by the realization that a bomb required fast neutrons and close to pure uranium 235. As for the hypothesis that the scruples of German scientists played a significant role in preventing a German atomic bomb, the available records appear to negate that explanation as well. Rather, the minuscule resources devoted to the project, the lack of German industrial capacity, the poorly organized and decentralized organization of the research, and the modus operandi of researchers, including Heisenberg, of simultaneously pursuing other interests, doomed the prospect of getting a bomb.

  5. Cancer risk among children of atomic bomb survivors. A review of RERF epidemiologic studies. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimoto, Y. )

    1990-08-01

    This article summarizes recent epidemiologic studies of cancer risk among the children of atomic bomb survivors conducted at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. These children include two groups: (1) the in utero-exposed children (ie, those born to mothers who had been pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) and (2) the F1 population, which was conceived after the atomic-bombings and born to parents of whom one or both were atomic bomb survivors. Although from 1950 to 1984 only 18 cancer cases were identified among the in utero sample, cancer risk did appear to significantly increase as maternal uterine dose increased. However, since the observed cases are too few in number to allow a site-specific review, the increased cancer risk cannot be definitively attributed to atomic bomb radiation, as yet. For those members of the F1 population who were less than 20 years old between 1946 and 1982, cancer risk did not appear to increase significantly as parental gonadal dose increased. Follow-up of this population will continue to determine if the patterns of adult-onset cancer are altered.

  6. Seeing the Light: Visibility of the July '45 Trinity Atomic Bomb Test from the Inner Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2006-12-01

    In his The Making of the Atomic Bomb, Richard Rhodes remarks of the July 16, 1945, Trinity atomic bomb test in New Mexico that ``had astronomers been watching they could have seen it reflected from the moon, literal moonshine,'' an allusion to Ernest Rutherford's famous dismissal of the prospect of atomic energy.1 Investigating this impressive claim makes for a nice exercise in exploring astronomical magnitudes and leads to other intriguing questions: Just how bright would the explosion have appeared to an observer on the Moon, say, as compared to Venus? What about an observer on Mars or otherwise located in the solar system? What fraction of the bomb's yield was in the form of visible light?

  7. The neoplastic transformation potential of mammography X rays and atomic bomb spectrum radiation.

    PubMed

    Heyes, G J; Mill, A J

    2004-08-01

    Considerable controversy currently exists regarding the biological effectiveness of 29 kVp X rays which are used for mammography screening. This issue must be resolved to enable proper evaluation of radiation risks from breast screening. Here a definitive assessment of the biological effectiveness of 29 kVp X rays compared to the quality of radiation to which the atomic bomb survivors were exposed is presented for the first time. The standard radiation sources used were (a) an atomic bomb simulation spectrum and (b) 2.2 MeV electrons from a strontium-90/yttrium-90 (90Sr/90Y) radioactive source. The biological end point used was neoplastic transformation in vitro in CGL1 (HeLa x human fibroblast hybrid) cells. No significant difference was observed for the biological effectiveness of the two high-energy sources for neoplastic transformation. A limiting relative biological effectiveness (RBE(M)) of 4.42 +/- 2.02 was observed for neoplastic transformation by 29 kVp X rays compared to these two sources. This compares with values of 4.67 +/- 3.93 calculated from previously published data and 3.58 +/- 1.77 when the reference radiation was 200 and 220 kVp X rays. This suggests that the risks associated with mammography screening may be approximately five times higher than previously assumed and that the risk-benefit relationship of mammography exposures may need to be re-examined. PMID:15387138

  8. Cancer of the head and neck in atomic bomb survivors: Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1957-1976

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, J.A.; Wakabayashi, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Asano, M.; Harada, Y.; Kumagami, H.; Takeuchi, M.

    1981-11-15

    A search was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for all cases of cancer of the lip, nose and nasal cavity, accessory sinuses, larynx, and the oral cavity and pharynx with their subdivisions occurring during the period 1957-1976 among a large, fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors. A total of 232 cases were identified, of which 154 (66.4%) were histologically confirmed (definite cases). Among definite cases, cancer of the epiglottis and larynx predominated (31.2%), followed by accessory sinus (24.7%) and tongue (18.8%). Of the 154 definite cases, 141 (91.6%) were squamous-cell carcinomas. Only two sarcomas were identified, neither of which was attributable to radiation exposure. Analysis of both total and definite cases, by both total group and major anatomic site, failed to reveal definite evidence of a radiation relationship. Although a suggestive relationship to radiation dose was found for accessory sinus cancers (P . 0.06) among the definite cases, inconsistencies in the data do not permit the conclusion that the incidence of tumors in this group increased as a result of atomic bomb radiation exposure. The medical literature concerning post-irradiation head and neck tumors is briefly reviewed.

  9. Levels of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in serum among atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Yokoyama, Naokata; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Sposto, R.; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Shiraki, Mastaka

    1994-01-01

    To examines the potential causes of increased levels of calcium in serum with increasing dose of atomic bomb radiation, which was obtained from the previous preliminary analysis, levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in serum were examined among 1459 subjects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A significant effect of radiation on levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin in serum was found, even after patients with hyperparathyroidism were excluded. The level of calcium in serum increased with radiation dose; this can be explained partly by the increase in the level of PTH with radiation dose. However, the dose effect on calcium remained even after adjustment for PTH, calcitonin and confounding factors such as renal function, serum albumin level and medication. Parathyroid hormone increased initially by 6.8% per gray, but the dose response leveled off after about 1 Gy. The level of calcitonin increased with radiation dose, probably in part due to feedback mechanisms stimulated by the increase in calcium. However, after adjustment for the level of calcium, the increase in the level of calcitonin with dose was still found. Although the etiological mechanisms of the effect of radiation on serum levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin are unclear, radiation exposure may affect secretion of PTH and calcitonin and regulation of calcium a long time after atomic bomb exposure. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Did the Allies Know in 1942 About Nazi Germany's Poor Prospects for an Atomic Bomb?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2008-04-01

    According to official accounts, the U.S. knew nothing about Nazi Germany's efforts to get an atomic bomb until the end of the World War II, but had feared the worst. As it turned out, the Germans had made little progress. But did someone in the Allied camp know in 1942? In his 1986 book, The Griffin, Arnold Kramish relates how Paul Rosbaud, a spy for MI6, the British secret intelligence service, kept his handlers informed during the War about the German atomic project and reported the decision to give up on a bomb. Kramish's revelations are, understandably, thinly documented and Rosbaud's name can hardly be found independenly anywhere else. But as Samuel Goudsmit's papers in the Bohr Library show, he knew and communicated with Rosbaud from August 1945 on. In 1986, 15 letters exchanged by Goudsmit and Rosbaud were removed by the Government from the Library and eventually placed in the National Archives under classification review. Renewed interest in the Rosbaud story was engendered last year when his family sued MI6 in an English court for the release of the Rosbaud file. So far the spy agency has refused to reveal even that there is such a file. Discovering authoritatively what Rosbaud told the British and what they did with the information is clearly of historical interest.

  11. Genetic effects of radiation in atomic-bomb survivors and their children: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Genetic studies in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors have been conducted since 1948 at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Past studies include analysis of birth defects (untoward pregnancy outcome; namely, malformation, stillbirth, and perinatal death), chromosome aberrations, alterations of plasma and erythrocyte proteins as well as epidemiologic study on mortality (any cause) and cancer incidence (the latter study is still ongoing). There is, thus far, no indication of genetic effects in the offspring of survivors. Recently, the development of molecular biological techniques and human genome sequence databases made it possible to analyze DNA from parents and their offspring (trio-analysis). In addition, a clinical program is underway to establish the frequency of adult-onset multi-factorial diseases (diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease etc) in the offspring. The complementary kinds of data that will emerge from this three-pronged approach (clinical, epidemiologic, and molecular aspects) promise to shed light on health effects in the offspring of radiation-exposed people. PMID:17019054

  12. New approaches to evaluating the genetic effects of the atomic bombs

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.

    1995-12-01

    In the aftermath of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki fifty years ago, one of the compelling biomedical questions that arose concerned the genetic effects of this exposure. More recently, revelations of the extent of industrial or accidental exposures in the former Soviet Union and charges that employment in the Sellafield Nuclear Reprocessing Plant in West Cumbria, England has resulted in a gene-mediated increase in children of plant employees have served to keep in the public mind the issue of the genetic risks of exposure to ionizing radiation. The study of the genetic effects of the atomic bombs has moved from the gross morphological level of congenital malformations to the examination of DNA. However, were the need for such genetic studies to arise in the foreseeable future, despite this impressive progress in DNA-oriented systems, the documentation of congenital defect, genetic disease and child survival would still be an essential component of any future study. Whatever the geneticists may think, the phenotypic well-being and survival of children are still the primary indicators on which the public, who ultimately supports these studies, will base its judgement of risk. 28 refs.

  13. Issues in the comparison of risk estimates for the population in the Techa River region and atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kossenko, M M; Degteva, M O; Vyushkova, O V; Preston, D L; Mabuchi, K; Kozheurov, V P

    1997-07-01

    Plutonium production in the former Soviet Union began in 1949 at the Mayak Production Association located between the cities of Chelyabinsk and Ekaterinbourg in the southern Ural mountains about 1200 km east to Moscow. During the first few years of Mayak's operation, almost 30,000 people living on the banks of the Techa River received significant internal and external exposures as a consequence of the release of large quantities of radioactive materials from Mayak. Studies of levels of radioactive contamination and health effects in this population began in the early 1950s. A systematic follow-up of a fixed cohort that includes all people who were living in Techa River villages in 1949 was begun about 30 years ago. In this paper we describe the Techa River cohort, outline the nature of the exposures and discuss the status of follow-up for the period from 1950 through 1989. While noting the limitations of the current epidemiological follow-up data, we also compare the demographic and mortality structure of the Techa River cohort with the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. It is seen that, despite a number of limitations, the current data suggest that the risks of mortality from leukemia and other cancers increase with increasing radiation dose in the Techa River cohort. This finding suggests that, with continued improvements in the quality of the follow-up and dosimetry, the Techa River cohort has the potential to provide quantitative estimates of the risks of chronic low-dose-rate radiation exposures for an unselected general population that will be an important complement to the estimates based on the Life Span Study that are used as the primary basis for numerical assessments of radiation risk. PMID:9216619

  14. Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Aging Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    It is not yet known whether hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are compromised in the aging population of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors after their exposure nearly 70 years ago. To address this, we evaluated age- and radiation-related changes in different subtypes of circulating HSPCs among the CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34(+)Lin(-)) cell population in 231 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. We enumerated functional HSPC subtypes, including: cobblestone area-forming cells; long-term culture-initiating cells; erythroid burst-forming units; granulocyte and macrophage colony-forming units; and T-cell and natural killer cell progenitors using cell culture. We obtained the count of each HSPC subtype per unit volume of blood and the proportion of each HSPC subtype in CD34(+)Lin(-) cells to represent the lineage commitment trend. Multivariate analyses, using sex, age and radiation dose as variables, showed significantly decreased counts with age in the total CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population and all HSPC subtypes. As for the proportion, only T-cell progenitors decreased significantly with age, suggesting that the commitment to the T-cell lineage in HSPCs continuously declines with age throughout the lifetime. However, neither the CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population, nor HSPC subtypes showed significant radiation-induced dose-dependent changes in counts or proportions. Moreover, the correlations of the proportions among HSPC subtypes in the survivors properly revealed the hierarchy of lineage commitments. Taken together, our findings suggest that many years after exposure to radiation and with advancing age, the number and function of HSPCs in living survivors as a whole may have recovered to normal levels. PMID:26720799

  15. Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Aging Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F.; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A.; van den Brink, Marcel R. M.; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    It is not yet known whether hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are compromised in the aging population of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors after their exposure nearly 70 years ago. To address this, we evaluated age- and radiation-related changes in different subtypes of circulating HSPCs among the CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin− ) cell population in 231 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. We enumerated functional HSPC subtypes, including: cobblestone area-forming cells; long-term culture-initiating cells; erythroid burst-forming units; granulocyte and macrophage colony-forming units; and T-cell and natural killer cell progenitors using cell culture. We obtained the count of each HSPC subtype per unit volume of blood and the proportion of each HSPC subtype in CD34+Lin− cells to represent the lineage commitment trend. Multivariate analyses, using sex, age and radiation dose as variables, showed significantly decreased counts with age in the total CD34+Lin− cell population and all HSPC subtypes. As for the proportion, only T-cell progenitors decreased significantly with age, suggesting that the commitment to the T-cell lineage in HSPCs continuously declines with age throughout the lifetime. However, neither the CD34+Lin− cell population, nor HSPC subtypes showed significant radiation-induced dose-dependent changes in counts or proportions. Moreover, the correlations of the proportions among HSPC subtypes in the survivors properly revealed the hierarchy of lineage commitments. Taken together, our findings suggest that many years after exposure to radiation and with advancing age, the number and function of HSPCs in living survivors as a whole may have recovered to normal levels. PMID:26720799

  16. Exposure to an atomic bomb explosion is a risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Y; Takeishi, K; Guntani, A; Tsujita, E; Yoshinaga, K; Matsuyama, A; Hamatake, M; Maeda, T; Tsutsui, S; Matsuda, H; Ishida, T

    2015-01-01

    Esophagectomy, one of the most invasive of all gastrointestinal operations, is associated with a high frequency of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposure to the atomic bomb explosion at Hiroshima in 1945 might be a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patients. We thus reviewed the outcomes of esophagectomy in 31 atomic bomb survivors with esophageal cancer and 96 controls (also with cancer but without atomic bomb exposure). We compared the incidences of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. Of the clinicopathological features studied, mean patient age was significantly higher in atomic bomb survivors than in controls. Of the postoperative complications noted, atomic bomb survivors experienced a longer mean period of endotracheal intubation and higher incidences of severe pulmonary complications, severe anastomotic leakage, and surgical site infection. The factors associated with in-hospital mortality were exposure to the atomic bomb explosion, pulmonary comorbidities, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Multivariate analysis revealed that exposure to the atomic bomb explosion was an independent significant preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality. Exposure to the atomic bomb explosion is thus a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer. PMID:24224952

  17. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Mikami, M.; Matsunaga, M.

    1982-08-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimated risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure.

  18. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Mikami, M.; Matsunaga, M.

    1982-08-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimaged risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure.

  19. Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi |; Land, C.E. |; Tokuoka, Shoji; Akiba, Suminori; Nishimori, Issei; Soda, Midori

    1994-05-01

    An incidence survey among atomic bomb survivors identified 807 breast cancer cases, and 20 second breast cancers. As in earlier surveys of the Life Span Study population, a strongly linear radiation dose response was found, with the highest dose-specific excess relative risk (ERR) among survivors under 20 years old at the time of the bombings. Sixty-eight of the cases were under 10 years old at exposure, strengthening earlier reports of a marked excess risk associated with exposure during infancy and childhood. A much lower, but marginally significant, dose response was seen among women exposed at 40 years and older. It was not possible, however to discriminate statistically between age at exposure and age at observation for risk as the more important determinant of ERR per unit dose. A 13-fold ERR at 1 Sv was found for breast cancer occurring before age 35, compared to a 2-fold excess after age 35, among survivors exposed before age 20. This a posteriori finding, based on 27 exposed, known-dose, early-onset cases, suggests the possible existence of a susceptible genetics subgroup. Further studies, involving family histories of cancer and investigations at the molecular level, are suggested to determine whether such a subgroup exists. 41 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Corrections in the atomic bomb data to examine low dose risk.

    PubMed

    Baker, Gizelle S; Hoel, David G

    2003-12-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality data from the cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima have been adjusted for the uncertainty that exists in the dose estimates, the systematic error in the neutron dose estimates, and a dose-dependent relative biological effectiveness. Once the adjustments were incorporated in the dose estimates, the data were modeled with a threshold term to allow for the possibility of a threshold dose response. The dose response models that were fit to the data were otherwise the same models used in the original papers. The threshold term was included in the model allowing for possible threshold values ranging from 0 to 0.35 Sv. These analyses suggest that the fit of the A-bomb solid tumor and leukemia incidence data are significantly improved by the addition of a threshold term in comparison with the purely linear or linear quadratic model. The results from the mortality data suggest that the leukemia data agree more with the threshold model than the linear quadratic model although the linear quadratic model is statistically equivalent, while the solid tumor data does not suggest any improvement with a threshold. PMID:14626322

  1. Echoing with the Voices of Victims: Reflection on Vietnamese Lessons on the Japanese Experiences of Atomic Bombs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Hien, Do Thi; Hang, Khong Thi Diem

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the case of a Vietnamese teacher whose conception of teaching changed greatly following a short but intensive series of lessons based on the Japanese experiences with atomic bombs. The following three issues are considered: 1) what types of efforts teachers should make to increase the depth of their lessons, on the basis of…

  2. Ending the War against Japan: Science, Morality, and the Atomic Bomb. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Don

    This unit presents students with dilemmas faced by U.S. policymakers with three distinct options for U.S. policy toward Japan. Background readings provide students with information on the U.S. decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan in 1945. By exploring a spectrum of alternatives, students gain a deeper understanding of the values underlying…

  3. "A Is for Atom, B Is for Bomb": Civil Defense in American Public Education, 1948-1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, JoAnne

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the development of civil defense education following World War II. Examines its effects on the public as atomic bomb drills became commonplace in schools which also served as fallout shelters. Concludes that inadequate portrayal of the horrors of nuclear war produced anger, fear, and disillusionment as the postwar generation matured.…

  4. Malignant tumors during the first 2 decades of life in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimoto, Y.; Neel, J.V.; Schull, W.J.; Kato, H.; Soda, M.; Eto, R.; Mabuchi, K. )

    1990-06-01

    The risk of cancer (incidence) prior to age 20 years has been determined for children born to atomic bomb survivors and to a suitable comparison group. Tumor ascertainment was through death certificates and the tumor registries maintained in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The rationale for the study stemmed from the evidence that a significant proportion of such childhood tumors as retinoblastoma and Wilms tumor arise on the basis of a mutant gene inherited from one parent plus a second somatic cell mutation involving the allele of this gene. Gonadal radiation doses were calculated by the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children for one or both of whose parents a DS86 dose could not be computed but for whom an ad hoc dose could be developed on the basis of the available information. The total data set consisted of (1) a cohort of 31,150 live-born children one or both of whose parents received greater than 0.01 Sv of radiation at the time of the atomic bombings (average conjoint gonad exposure 0.43 Sv) and (2) two suitable comparison groups totaling 41,066 children. Altogether, 43 malignant tumors were ascertained in the children of exposed parents, and 49 malignant tumors were ascertained in the two control groups. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed no increase in malignancy in the children of exposed parents. However, examination of the data suggested that only 3.0-5.0% of the tumors of childhood that were observed in the comparison groups are associated with an inherited genetic predisposition that would be expected to exhibit an altered frequency if the parental mutation rate were increased. There is thus far no confirmation of the positive findings that Nomura found in a mouse system.

  5. The incidence of leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors: 1950-2001.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Preston, Dale L; Soda, Midori; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Kimura, Akiro; Kamada, Nanao; Dohy, Hiroo; Tomonaga, Masao; Iwanaga, Masako; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Cullings, Harry M; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy E; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-03-01

    A marked increase in leukemia risks was the first and most striking late effect of radiation exposure seen among the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. This article presents analyses of radiation effects on leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma incidence in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors updated 14 years since the last comprehensive report on these malignancies. These analyses make use of tumor- and leukemia-registry based incidence data on 113,011 cohort members with 3.6 million person-years of follow-up from late 1950 through the end of 2001. In addition to a detailed analysis of the excess risk for all leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia (neither of which appear to be radiation-related), we present results for the major hematopoietic malignancy types: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, adult T-cell leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Poisson regression methods were used to characterize the shape of the radiation dose-response relationship and, to the extent the data allowed, to investigate variation in the excess risks with gender, attained age, exposure age and time since exposure. In contrast to the previous report that focused on describing excess absolute rates, we considered both excess absolute rate (EAR) and excess relative risk (ERR) models and found that ERR models can often provide equivalent and sometimes more parsimonious descriptions of the excess risk than EAR models. The leukemia results indicated that there was a nonlinear dose response for leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia, which varied markedly with time and age at exposure, with much of the evidence for this nonlinearity arising from the acute myeloid leukemia risks. Although the leukemia excess risks generally declined with attained age or time since exposure, there was evidence

  6. The incidence of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors: 1950 – 2001

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Preston, Dale L.; Soda, Midori; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Kimura, Akiro; Kamada, Nanao; Dohy, Hiroo; Tomonaga, Masao; Iwanaga, Masako; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Cullings, Harry M.; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy E.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-01-01

    A marked increase in leukemia risks was the first and most striking late effect of radiation exposure seen among the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. This paper presents analyses of radiation effects on leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma incidence in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors updated 14 years since the last comprehensive report on these malignancies. These analyses make use of tumor- and leukemia-registry-based incidence data on 113,011 cohort members with 3.6 million person-years of follow-up from late 1950 through the end of 2001. In addition to a detailed analysis of the excess risk for all leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia (neither of which appear to be radiation-related), we present results for the major hematopoietic malignancy types: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, adult T-cell leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Poisson regression methods were used to characterize the shape of the radiation dose response relationship and, to the extent the data allowed, to investigate variation in the excess risks with sex, attained age, exposure age, and time since exposure. In contrast to the previous report that focused on describing excess absolute rates, we considered both excess absolute rate (EAR) and excess relative risk (ERR) models and found that ERR models can often provide equivalent and sometimes more parsimonious descriptions of the excess risk than EAR models. The leukemia results indicated that there was a non-linear dose response for leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia, which varied markedly with time and age at exposure, with much of the evidence for this non-linearity arising from the acute myeloid leukemia risks. Although the leukemia excess risks generally declined with attained age or time since exposure, there was evidence

  7. Effect of radiation on age at menopause among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Shimizu, Yukiko; Soda, Midori; Yamada, Michiko; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Hayashi, Mikiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has been thought to induce ovarian failure and premature menopause. Proximally exposed female atomic bomb survivors were reported to experience menopause immediately after the exposure more often than those who were distally exposed. However, it remains unclear whether such effects were caused by physical injury and psychological trauma or by direct effects of radiation on the ovaries. The objective of this study was to see if there are any late health effects associated with the exposure to atomic bomb radiation in terms of age at menopause in a cohort of 21,259 Life Span Study female A-bomb survivors. Excess absolute rates (EAR) of natural and artificial menopause were estimated using Poisson regression. A linear threshold model with a knot at 0.40 Gy [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.62] was the best fit for a dose response of natural menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years = 19.4/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.4, 30.8) and a linear threshold model with a knot at 0.22 Gy (95% CI: 0.14, 0.34) was the best fit for artificial menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years for females who were exposed at age of 20 years = 14.5/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.2, 20.1). Effect modification by attained age indicated that EARs peaked around 50 years of age for both natural and artificial menopause. Although effect modification by age at exposure was not significant for natural menopause, the EAR for artificial menopause tended to be larger in females exposed at young ages. On the cumulative incidence curve of natural menopause, the median age at menopause was 0.3 years younger in females exposed to radiation of 1 Gy compared with unexposed females. The median age was 1 year younger for combined natural and artificial menopause in the same comparison. In conclusion, age at menopause was thought to decrease with increasing radiation dose for both natural and artificial menopause occurring at least 5 years after the exposure. PMID:21988524

  8. Gamma-Ray Measurement of 152Eu Produced by Neutrons from the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb and Evaluation of Neutron Fluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Habara, Minoru; Aoyama, Tetsuhisa; Sakata, Hidefumi; Yoshizawa, Yasukazu

    1990-08-01

    The 152Eu/Eu ratios were measured in a tombstone exposed to neutrons of the Hiroshima atomic bomb near the hypocenter. Measurements of 152Eu gamma rays were performed for europium samples chemically isolated from numerous rock specimens taken from the tombstone. A reliable attenuation curve of the 152Eu/Eu ratios was obtained. The curve suggests that the thermal neutron component was relatively small and the average incident angle of neutrons to the tombstone was roughly 45° from the perpendicular downward direction. It revealed to us several important pieces of information concerning the energy and angular distributions near the Hiroshima bomb hypocenter.

  9. Parallel analysis of cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors and patients with ankylosing spondylitis given X-ray therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, S.C.; Nakashima, E.; Kato, H.

    1985-07-01

    Radiation-induced cancer mortality rates among atomic bomb survivors with doses of at least 100 rad and patients with ankylosing spondylitis given X-ray therapy have been compared for the first time. The estimated average mean bone marrow dose for the spondylitics is more than twice that for atomic bomb survivors, and yet spondylitics experienced only half the risk of radiation-induced leukemia of atomic bomb survivors. For sites that were heavily irradiated in the spondylitics, provisional estimates indicate comparable doses in the two studies, and similar levels of cancer risk were observed. For these sites, when information from the studies was combined, there were statistically significant excesses for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, lung, and ovaries, multiple myeloma, other lymphomas, and tumors of the spinal cord and nerves. Very high relative risks (RR's) for tumors of the spinal cord and nerves were observed in both studies. For sites that were lightly irradiated in the spondylitics, in addition to previously documented sites, there was a statistically significant excess of cancers of the liver and gallbladder among atomic bomb survivors. A previous subdivision of cancer sites into radiosensitive and other tissues was not supported by the atomic bomb survivor data. Changes in the rates of radiation-induced cancers with age at exposure and time since exposure were studied and compared with the use of generalized linear modeling of the RR's and also by examination of the excess mortality rates. The level of agreement between the two studies was high; provided it is accepted that the reduced level of leukemia risk in the spondylitics is due to cell sterilization, no inconsistencies were found.

  10. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Methods Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA) was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. Results The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread), which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05). The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively). The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15). Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40). Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005) independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Conclusions Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for genome-wide a

  11. A method to detect low-level 63Ni activity for estimating fast neutron fluence from the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    PubMed

    Ito, Y; Shibata, T; Imamura, M; Shibata, S; Nogawa, N; Uwamino, Y; Shizuma, K

    1999-06-01

    The Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs resulted in the worst reported exposure of radiation to the human body. The data of survivors have provided the basis for the risk estimation for ionizing radiation, and thus are widely used as the basis of radiation safety. In this report we have studied a new method to detect the low-level 63Ni activity in copper samples in order to estimate the fast neutron fluence from the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Only 0.8 x 10(-3) Bq g(-1) of 63Ni is expected to be produced by the atomic bomb in a copper sample with the 63Cu(n, p)63Ni reaction at a distance of 500 m from the hypocenter. Our method has the required level of sensitivity for determination of the fast neutron fluence out to distances of at least 500 m, and perhaps as far as 1,000 m. We have already investigated and collected some bomb-irradiated copper samples for further study. PMID:10334579

  12. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part II: Solid tumors, 1958-1987.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D E; Mabuchi, K; Ron, E; Soda, M; Tokunaga, M; Ochikubo, S; Sugimoto, S; Ikeda, T; Terasaki, M; Izumi, S

    1994-02-01

    This report presents, for the first time, comprehensive data on the incidence of solid cancer and risk estimates for A-bomb survivors in the extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) cohort. Among 79,972 individuals, 8613 first primary solid cancers were diagnosed between 1958 and 1987. As part of the standard registration process of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, cancer cases occurring among members of the LSS-E85 cohort were identified using a computer linkage system supplemented by manual searches. Special efforts were made to ensure complete case ascertainment, data quality and data consistency in the two cities. For all sites combined, 75% of the cancers were verified histologically, 6% were diagnosed by direct observation, 8% were based on a clinical diagnosis, and 12.6% were ascertained by death certificate only. A standard set of analyses was carried out for each of the organs and organ systems considered. Depending on the cancer site, Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) organ or kerma doses were used for computing risk estimates. Analyses were based on a general excess relative risk model (the background rate times one plus the excess relative risk). Analyses carried out for each site involved fitting the background model with no dose effect, a linear dose-response model with no effect modifiers, a linear-quadratic dose-response model with no effect modifiers, and a series of linear dose-response models that included each of the covariates (sex, age at exposure, time since exposure, attained age and city) individually as effect modifiers. Because the tumor registries ascertain cancers in the registry catchment areas only, an adjustment was made for the effects of migration. In agreement with prior LSS findings, a statistically significant excess risk for all solid cancers was demonstrated [excess relative risk at 1 Sv (ERR1Sv) = 0.63; excess absolute risk (EAR) per 10(4) person-year sievert (PY Sv) = 29.7]. For cancers of the stomach (ERR1SV = 0.32), colon

  13. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy

    2013-06-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases-hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke-in the first-generation (F1) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11,951 F1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose-response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease. PMID:23482396

  14. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  15. (41)Ca in tooth enamel. Part I: a biological signature of neutron exposure in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Wallner, A; Rühm, W; Rugel, G; Nakamura, N; Arazi, A; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Maier, H J; Korschinek, G

    2010-08-01

    The detection of (41)Ca atoms in tooth enamel using accelerator mass spectrometry is suggested as a method capable of reconstructing thermal neutron exposures from atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In general, (41)Ca atoms are produced via thermal neutron capture by stable (40)Ca. Thus any (41)Ca atoms present in the tooth enamel of the survivors would be due to neutron exposure from both natural sources and radiation from the bomb. Tooth samples from five survivors in a control group with negligible neutron exposure were used to investigate the natural (41)Ca content in tooth enamel, and 16 tooth samples from 13 survivors were used to estimate bomb-related neutron exposure. The results showed that the mean (41)Ca/Ca isotope ratio was (0.17 +/- 0.05) x 10(-14) in the control samples and increased to 2 x 10(-14) for survivors who were proximally exposed to the bomb. The (41)Ca/Ca ratios showed an inverse correlation with distance from the hypocenter at the time of the bombing, similar to values that have been derived from theoretical free-in-air thermal-neutron transport calculations. Given that gamma-ray doses were determined earlier for the same tooth samples by means of electron spin resonance (ESR, or electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR), these results can serve to validate neutron exposures that were calculated individually for the survivors but that had to incorporate a number of assumptions (e.g. shielding conditions for the survivors). PMID:20681780

  16. Measuring fast neutrons in Hiroshima at distances relevant to atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Rugel, G; Marchetti, A A; Rühm, W; Korschinek, G; McAninch, J E; Carroll, K; Egbert, S; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Martinelli, R; Wallner, A; Wallner, C

    2003-07-31

    Data from the survivors of the atomic bombs serve as the major basis for risk calculations of radiation-induced cancer in humans. A controversy has existed for almost two decades, however, concerning the possibility that neutron doses in Hiroshima may have been much larger than estimated. This controversy was based on measurements of radioisotopes activated by thermal neutrons that suggested much higher fluences at larger distances than expected. For fast neutrons, which contributed almost all the neutron dose, clear measurement validation has so far proved impossible at the large distances (900 to 1,500 m) most relevant to survivor locations. Here, the first results are reported for the detection of 63Ni produced predominantly by fast neutrons (above about 1 MeV) in copper samples from Hiroshima. This breakthrough was made possible by the development of chemical extraction methods and major improvements in the sensitivity of accelerator mass spectrometry for detection of 63Ni atoms (refs 8-11). When results are compared with 63Ni activation predicted by neutron doses for Hiroshima survivors, good agreement is observed at the distances most relevant to survivor data. These findings provide, for the first time, clear measurement validation of the neutron doses to survivors in Hiroshima. PMID:12891354

  17. Britain's bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corfield, Richard

    2012-10-01

    On the 60th anniversary of Britain's first nuclear test, Richard Corfield explores how Operation Hurricane - the British effort to develop the atomic bomb in the 1940s and 1950s - compares with states such as Iran that today wish to have such devices.

  18. Effects of IL-10 haplotype and atomic bomb radiation exposure on gastric cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Ito, Reiko; Cologne, John; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Nagamura, Hiroko; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Imai, Kazue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Ohishi, Waka; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Nakachi, Kei

    2013-07-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the cancers that reveal increased risk of mortality and incidence in atomic bomb survivors. The incidence of gastric cancer in the Life Span Study cohort of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) increased with radiation dose (gender-averaged excess relative risk per Gy = 0.28) and remains high more than 65 years after exposure. To assess a possible role of gene-environment interaction, we examined the dose response for gastric cancer incidence based on immunosuppression-related IL-10 genotype, in a cohort study with 200 cancer cases (93 intestinal, 96 diffuse and 11 other types) among 4,690 atomic bomb survivors participating in an immunological substudy. Using a single haplotype block composed of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (comprising the major haplotype allele IL-10-ATTA and the minor haplotype allele IL-10-GGCG, which are categorized by IL-10 polymorphisms at -819A>G and -592T>G, +1177T>C and +1589A>G), multiplicative and additive models for joint effects of radiation and this IL-10 haplotyping were examined. The IL-10 minor haplotype allele(s) was a risk factor for intestinal type gastric cancer but not for diffuse type gastric cancer. Radiation was not associated with intestinal type gastric cancer. In diffuse type gastric cancer, the haplotype-specific excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation was statistically significant only in the major homozygote category of IL-10 (ERR = 0.46/Gy, P = 0.037), whereas estimated ERR for radiation with the minor IL-10 homozygotes was close to 0 and nonsignificant. Thus, the minor IL-10 haplotype might act to reduce the radiation related risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. The results suggest that this IL-10 haplotyping might be involved in development of radiation-associated gastric cancer of the diffuse type, and that IL-10 haplotypes may explain individual differences in the radiation-related risk of gastric cancer. PMID:23772925

  19. [The present state of atomic bomb survivors, with special reference to biological late-effects of radiation].

    PubMed

    Kamada, Nanao

    2004-03-01

    Atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945. Within a few months, the bomb blast, heat and radiation emitted by the atomic explosions led to approximately 114,000 fatalities in Hiroshima and about 70,000 in Nagasaki. The radiation in particular continued to exert effects on the human body over a long period of time, resulting in the development of tumors and functional abnormalities in various organs. This paper briefly outlines the diseases caused by radiation as well as the biological late-effects on the survivors without any specific diseases, and stresses the necessity of our enthusiastic opposition to the use of any kind of nuclear weapons. PMID:15137319

  20. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Morishita, Yukari; Khattree, Ravindra; Misumi, Munechika; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Imai, Kazue; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Past exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation has exerted various long-lasting deleterious effects on the health of survivors. Some of these effects are seen even after >60 yr. In this study, we evaluated the subclinical inflammatory status of 442 A-bomb survivors, in terms of 8 inflammation-related cytokines or markers, comprised of plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-4, IL-10, and immunoglobulins, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The effects of past radiation exposure and natural aging on these markers were individually assessed and compared. Next, to assess the biologically significant relationship between inflammation and radiation exposure or aging, which was masked by the interrelationship of those cytokines/markers, we used multivariate statistical analyses and evaluated the systemic markers of inflammation as scores being calculated by linear combinations of selected cytokines and markers. Our results indicate that a linear combination of ROS, IL-6, CRP, and ESR generated a score that was the most indicative of inflammation and revealed clear dependences on radiation dose and aging that were found to be statistically significant. The results suggest that collectively, radiation exposure, in conjunction with natural aging, may enhance the persistent inflammatory status of A-bomb survivors.—Hayashi, T., Morishita, Y., Khattree, R., Misumi, M., Sasaki, K., Hayashi, I., Yoshida, K., Kajimura, J., Kyoizumi, S., Imai, K., Kusunoki, Y., Nakachi, K. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects. PMID:22872680

  1. Repair of a recurrent pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta in an atomic bomb survivor with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Reiji; Nakao, Yoshihisa; Okada, Takayuki; Johno, Hiroyuki; Enoki, Chiharu; Sumida, Tomohiko; Imamura, Hiroji

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of infective aortic pseudoaneurysms tends to be intractable and difficult to treat. We experienced a very rare case of a recurrent infective pseudoaneurysm in the ascending aorta that occurred after cardiac surgery in an atomic bomb survivor with myelodysplastic syndrome. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully repaired using a femoral artery autograft with an omentopexy and the patient recovered well without any recurrence. PMID:19583613

  2. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, S.; Neriishi, K.; Stevens, R.G.; Hosoda, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic-bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima, Japan who participated in the 1979-1981 period of the Adult Health Study, an ongoing health follow-up program of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers, levels of total protein, beta globulin, and gamma globulin were significantly lower and levels of alpha-1 and alpha-2 globulin were significantly higher, when compared with nonsmokers. For serum albumin levels a decrease was also noted, but it failed to attain statistical significance. Ex-smokers were indistinguishable from nonsmokers in terms of the serum protein levels analyzed. With an increase of the amount of daily cigarette consumption, monotonic increases of serum levels were observed only in alpha-1 globulin. Duration of smoking was related to increased alpha-1 and alpha-2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level, but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect, and its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins.

  3. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study: Insufficient Statistical Power to Select Radiation Carcinogenesis Model.

    PubMed

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support for LNTH. Even if the LNTH is used at low dose and dose rates, its estimation of excess cancer mortality should be communicated as 2.5% per Sv, i.e., an increase of cancer mortality from about 20% spontaneous mortality to about 22.5% per Sv, which is about half of the usually cited value. The impact of the "neutron discrepancy problem" - the apparent difference between the calculated and measured values of neutron flux in Hiroshima - was studied and found to be marginal. Major revision of the radiation risk assessment paradigm is required. PMID:26673526

  4. Mortality among the offspring (F1) of atomic bomb survivors, 1946-85.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Y; Schull, W J; Kato, H; Neel, J V

    1991-12-01

    We compare the mortality in the years 1946-85 in a cohort of 31,159 children born to parents one or both of whom were exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (a parental gonadal dose greater than or equal to 0.01 Sv) with that in a control group of 41,069 children. The average gonadal dose for the exposed parents was 0.435 Sv. The mean age of the cohorts was 28.8 years. In the greater than or equal to 0.01 Sv dose group 1,253 deaths were observed in the subset of children both of whose parents have been assigned DS86 doses. 3.2% were attributed to cancers, 72.9% to all diseases except neoplasms. These proportions in the 0 Sv dose group were about the same. Based on a linear relative risk model, no statistically significant increase in the mortality attributable to diseases other than neoplasms is noted following parental exposure, the excess relative risk being 0.030 (+/- 0.046) per sievert based on the DS86 doses (RBE of neutrons = 20). For fatal cancer, no statistically significant effect of parental radiation dose was also observed. An analysis based on the full sample, using not only the DS86 dose group but also ad hoc dose group, yields essentially the same results as the analysis restricted to the DS86 dose group. PMID:1817186

  5. Papillary Microcarcinoma of the Thyroid among Atomic Bomb Survivors: Tumor Characteristics and Radiation Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yuzo; Lagarde, Frederic; Tsuda, Nobuo; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Preston, Dale L.; Koyama, Kojiro; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Ron, Elaine; Kodama, Kazunori; Tokuoka, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    Background Radiation exposure is an established cause of clinical thyroid cancer, but little is known about radiation effects on papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) of the thyroid, a relatively common subclinical thyroid malignancy. Because the incidence of these small thyroid cancers has been increasing, it is important to better understand them and their relationship to radiation. Methods PMCs were identified in a subset of 7659 members of the Life Span Study of atomic-bomb survivors who had archived autopsy or surgical materials. We conducted a pathology review of these specimens and evaluated the histological features of the tumors and the association between PMCs and thyroid radiation dose. Results From 1958 to1995, 458 PMCs were detected among 313 study subjects. The majority of cancers exhibited pathologic features of papillary thyroid cancers. Overall, 81% of the PMCs were of the sclerosing variant and 91% were nonencapsulated, psammoma bodies occurred in 13% and calcification was observed in 23%. Over 95% had papillary or papillary-follicular architecture and most displayed nuclear overlap, clear nuclei, and nuclear grooves. Several of these features increased with increasing tumor size, but no association was found with radiation dose. A significant radiation-dose response was found for the prevalence of PMCs (estimated excess odds ratio/Gy=0.57; 95% CI: 0.01-1.55), with the excess risk observed primarily among females. Conclusion Low-to-moderate doses of ionizing radiation appears to increase the risk of thyroid PMCs, even when exposure occurs during adulthood. PMID:20120034

  6. Height reduction among prenatally exposed atomic-bomb survivors: A longitudinal study of growth

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Eiji; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Carter, R.L.

    1995-06-01

    Using a random coefficient regression model, sex-specific longitudinal analyses of height were made on 801 (392 male and 409 female) atomic-bomb survivors exposed in utero to detect dose effects on standing height. The data set resulted from repeated measurements of standing height of adolescents (age 10-18 y). The dose effect, if any, was assumed to be linear. Gestational ages at the time of radiation exposure were divided into trimesters. Since an earlier longitudinal data analysis has demonstrated radiation effects on height, the emphasis in this paper is on the interaction between dose and gestational age at exposure and radiation effects on the age of occurrence of the adolescent growth spurt. For males, a cubic polynomial growth-curve model applied to the data was affected significantly by radiation. The dose by trimester interaction effect was not significant. The onset of adolescent growth spurt was estimated at about 13 y at 0 Gy. There was no effect of radiation on the adolescent growth spurt For females, a quadratic polynomial growth-curve model was fitted to the data. The dose effect was significant, while the dose by trimester interaction was again not significant. 27 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Masao S; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-05-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the 'integrate-and-fire' algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The analysis revealed unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal exposure dose, including (i) the presence of a threshold that varied with organ, gender and age at exposure, and (ii) a small but significant bumping increase in cancer risk at low doses in Nagasaki that probably reflects internal exposure to (239)Pu. The threshold was distinct from the canonical definition of zero effect in that it was manifested as negative excess relative risk, or suppression of background cancer rates. Such a unique tissue response at low doses of radiation exposure has been implicated in the context of the molecular basis of radiation-environment interplay in favor of recently emerging experimental evidence on DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and its epigenetic memory by histone marking. PMID:24366315

  8. Body iron stores and breast cancer risk in female atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Richard G; Cologne, John B; Nakachi, Kei; Grant, Eric J; Neriishi, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Iron can be a potent pro-oxidant and, on this basis, elevated body iron may increase the risk of cancer. Although epidemiological evidence is mixed, there is overall support for this possibility. In addition, because of this same oxidative capacity, body iron levels may alter radiation sensitivity. In the present study, a nested case-control study of breast cancer was conducted in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Stored serum samples from the Adult Health Study cohort were assayed for ferritin levels and joint statistical analyses were conducted of ferritin and radiation dose on the risk of breast cancer. Serum ferritin is the best feasible indicator of body iron levels in otherwise healthy people. A total of 107 cases and 212 controls were available for analysis. The relative risk (RR) of breast cancer for a 1 log unit increase in ferritin was 1.4 (95% confidence interval 1.1-1.8). This translates to an RR of 1.64 comparing high and low values of the interquartile range among controls (58 and 13.2 ng/mL, respectively). The results support the hypothesis that elevated body iron stores increase the risk of breast cancer. However, the study was inconclusive regarding the question of whether body iron alters radiation-induced breast cancer risk. PMID:21883693

  9. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Masao S.; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the ‘integrate-and-fire’ algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The analysis revealed unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal exposure dose, including (i) the presence of a threshold that varied with organ, gender and age at exposure, and (ii) a small but significant bumping increase in cancer risk at low doses in Nagasaki that probably reflects internal exposure to 239Pu. The threshold was distinct from the canonical definition of zero effect in that it was manifested as negative excess relative risk, or suppression of background cancer rates. Such a unique tissue response at low doses of radiation exposure has been implicated in the context of the molecular basis of radiation–environment interplay in favor of recently emerging experimental evidence on DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and its epigenetic memory by histone marking. PMID:24366315

  10. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B e antigen and antibody, and antigen subtypes in atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Neriishi, K.; Kodama, K.; Akiba, S. |

    1995-11-01

    On the basis of previous studies showing an association between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity and radiation exposure in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, we investigated further the active state of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by incorporating tests of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B e antibody (anti-HBe) and HBsAg subtypes into our biennial health examinations. Among 6548 A-bomb survivors for whom HBsAg was assayed between July 1979 and July 1981, 129 persons were HBsAg positive. HBeAg and anti-HBe were measured in 104 of these persons and subtypes of HBsAg in 98 persons. Among those exposed to radiation (average liver dose 0.58 Sv), the odds ratio of HBsAg positivity tended to increase with radiation dose (P for trend = 0.024). The P values for association between the prevalence of HB e antigen and radiation dose were 0.094 and 0.17, respectively. The HB antigen subtype adr was predominant over other subtypes in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but the distribution of subtypes did not seem to differ in relation to radiation dose. These results suggested that A-bomb survivors remain in active state of HBV infection and that the mechanism(s) of seroconversion may be impaired. 29 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Delayed effects of low-dose radiation on cellular immunity in atomic bomb survivors residing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bloom, E T; Akiyama, M; Kusunoki, Y; Makinodan, T

    1987-05-01

    Several parameters of cellular immune function were assessed among persons who survived the 1945 atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki but who now reside in the United States. The subjects in this study were exposed to various low doses (T65D) of radiation at the time of the bomb. More than half received an estimated 0 Gy (S0 group). Of those exposed to more radiation (S+ group), nearly 90% received less than 0.50 Gy (50 rad). Lymphocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of these individuals and were assessed for the following parameters of cellular immunity: mitogenic response to phytohemagglutinin, mitogenic response to allogeneic lymphocytes, natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity (NCMC), and interferon production. In every case, the response of the S+ group was greater than that of the S0 group, although only the difference for NCMC was statistically significant. Results of studies presently being performed on A-bomb survivors residing in Hiroshima do not confirm this difference. Therefore, it is difficult to say whether the increase in natural cytotoxicity observed among the American and not the Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to very low doses of radiation is a hormetic effect which was modulated by post-radiation environmental conditions or a result of selective migration. PMID:3570796

  12. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Morishita, Yukari; Khattree, Ravindra; Misumi, Munechika; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Imai, Kazue; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-11-01

    Past exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation has exerted various long-lasting deleterious effects on the health of survivors. Some of these effects are seen even after >60 yr. In this study, we evaluated the subclinical inflammatory status of 442 A-bomb survivors, in terms of 8 inflammation-related cytokines or markers, comprised of plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-4, IL-10, and immunoglobulins, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The effects of past radiation exposure and natural aging on these markers were individually assessed and compared. Next, to assess the biologically significant relationship between inflammation and radiation exposure or aging, which was masked by the interrelationship of those cytokines/markers, we used multivariate statistical analyses and evaluated the systemic markers of inflammation as scores being calculated by linear combinations of selected cytokines and markers. Our results indicate that a linear combination of ROS, IL-6, CRP, and ESR generated a score that was the most indicative of inflammation and revealed clear dependences on radiation dose and aging that were found to be statistically significant. The results suggest that collectively, radiation exposure, in conjunction with natural aging, may enhance the persistent inflammatory status of A-bomb survivors. PMID:22872680

  13. The grave is wide: the Hibakusha of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the legacy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    Following the atomic bomb attacks on Japan in 1945, scientists from the United States and Japan joined together to study the Hibakusha - the bomb affected people in what was advertised as a bipartisan and cooperative effort. In reality, despite the best efforts of some very dedicated and earnest scientists, the early years of the collaboration were characterized by political friction, censorship, controversy, tension, hostility, and racism. The 70-year history, scientific output and cultural impact of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are described in the context of the development of Occupied Japan. PMID:27158765

  14. Long-term effects of the rain exposure shortly after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Furukawa, Kyoji; Misumi, Munechika; Cullings, Harry; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy E

    2014-12-01

    The "black rain" that fell after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been generally believed to contain radioactive materials. During 1949-1961 the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission conducted surveys that included a query about exposure to the rain that fell a short time after the bombings. This article presents the first report of those data in relation to possible adverse health outcomes. This study looked at Life Span Study subjects who were in either city at the time of bombing and had an estimated direct radiation dose from the bombs (n = 86,609). The mortality data from 1950-2005 and cancer incidence data from 1958-2005 were used. Excess relative risks (ERRs) of subjects who were exposed to rain compared to those who reported no rain exposure were calculated using a Poisson regression model. In Hiroshima 11,661 subjects (20%) reported that they were exposed to rain, while in Nagasaki only 733 subjects (2.6%) reported rain exposure. To avoid outcome dependent biases (i.e., recall of exposure after a health outcome has already occurred), the primary analyses were based on events that occurred during 1962-2005. No significant risks due to rain exposure were observed for death due to all causes, all solid cancer or leukemia in Hiroshima. In Nagasaki there was no significantly elevated rain exposure-associated risks for 1962-2005, however, for 1950-2005 there was a weak association for all-cause mortality (ERR = 0.08; 95% confidence interval 0.00006, 0.17; P = 0.05). For incidence of solid cancer and leukemia, no significantly elevated rain exposure risks were observed in either city. These results failed to show deleterious health effects from rain exposure. While these data represent the most extensive set of systematically collected data on rain exposure of the atomic bomb survivors, they are limited by substantial uncertainties regarding exposures and missing individual data, so cautious interpretation is advised. PMID:25402555

  15. Prevalence rate of thyroid diseases among autopsy cases of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1951-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Ezaki, Haruo; Etoh, Ryozo; Hiraoka, Toshio; Akiba, Suminori

    1995-03-01

    To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension {le}1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Was Nazi Germany on the Road to an Atomic Bomb after all?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2006-04-01

    The story of Germany's efforts to develop a nuclear weapon during World War II is a much written about and contentious subject. However there has been agreement on one thing: by the end of the War the Germans had not achieved and were nowhere near to building a bomb. The dispute therefore has been about why Germany did not succeed. Now, from Germany, comes a challenge to this truth, in the provocative book Hitlers Bombe by Rainer Karlsch. The bombshell in Hitler's Bombe is the assertion that German scientists developed and tested a primitive fission and fusion nuclear weapon in March 1945. Karlsch bases this claim on testimony of witnesses in 1962, previously secret Russian documents, and the results of soil tests carried out in 2004 and 2005. However the physics is very murky and it seems out of the question that Germany had enough Uranium 235 or produced any Plutonium for a bomb. Hitlers Bombe also makes other, better documented and more credible revisionist assertions. These include the claim that the Nazis did continue to try to build a bomb after 1942 and that not Werner Heisenberg, but Kurt Diebner and Walther Gerlach were then the leaders of the German Uranium project. Karlsch's book therefore deserves more attention from physicists and historians than it has received in the United States.

  17. Measurement of residual 60Co activity induced by atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki and background contribution by environmental neutrons.

    PubMed

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takada, Jun; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi; Oka, Takamitsu; Shimazaki, Tatsuya; Okumura, Yutaka; Fujita, Shoichiro; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2002-12-01

    Residual 60Co activity in five steel samples induced by neutrons from the Nagasaki atomic bomb has been measured within about 1000 m from the hypocenter. The chemical separation of cobalt and nickel from steel samples was performed, and cobalt-enriched samples were prepared for all samples. Gamma-ray measurements were carried out with a low-background well-type germanium detector. The gamma-ray spectra for five samples were compared with the spectrum of a control sample to ensure that the observed 60Co was actually induced by A-bomb neutrons. The activation of cobalt by environmental neutrons was also investigated. It has been shown that the present 60Co data are consistent with earlier Hashizume's data. PMID:12674203

  18. Mutation, radiation, and species survival: The genetics studies of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Lindee, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    This is an analysis of the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, an American agency which studied the effects of radiation on survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1947-1975. Funded by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and directed by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, the ABCC was the largest and longest medical study of the estimated 300,000 survivors. The morphological genetics study dominated the ABCCs first decade. James Neel and his principal collaborator William J. Schull tracked more than 76,000 pregnancies. Their results (1956) suggested the bombs radiation had no detectable impact on the offspring of survivors. Though geneticists knew that radiation caused heritable mutations in experimental organisms such as Drosophila, and believed it caused mutations in humans, the Neel-Schull findings were not a surprise. The practical difficulties of the study, and the relatively small increase in abnormal births to be expected, made a finding of significant effects unlikely. The Neel-Schull approach reflected the scientific debate over genetic load, and the Muller-Dobzhansky classical-balance controversy. Yet the findings also reflected the post-war debate over atomic energy and weapons testing. Many extra-scientific forces militated against a finding of positive effects at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Negative findings were consistent with the needs of the Atomic Energy Commission, the State Department and the U.S. military. This dissertation explores how both the scientific debate about genetic load, and the political debate about atmospheric weapons testing, shaped this complex epidemiological study.

  19. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale L; Lönn, Stefan; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Egawa, Hiromi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2010-07-01

    While radiation increases the risk of lung cancer among members of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors, there are still important questions about the nature of its interaction with smoking, the predominant cause of lung cancer. Among 105,404 LSS subjects, 1,803 primary lung cancer incident cases were identified for the period 1958-1999. Individual smoking history information and the latest radiation dose estimates were used to investigate the joint effects of radiation and smoking on lung cancer rates using Poisson grouped survival regression methods. Relative to never-smokers, lung cancer risks increased with the amount and duration of smoking and decreased with time since quitting smoking at any level of radiation exposure. Models assuming generalized interactions of smoking and radiation fit markedly better than simple additive or multiplicative interaction models. The joint effect appeared to be super-multiplicative for light/moderate smokers, with a rapid increase in excess risk with smoking intensity up to about 10 cigarettes per day, but additive or sub-additive for heavy smokers smoking a pack or more per day, with little indication of any radiation-associated excess risk. The gender-averaged excess relative risk per Gy of lung cancer (at age 70 after radiation exposure at 30) was estimated as 0.59 (95% confidence interval: 0.31-1.00) for nonsmokers with a female : male ratio of 3.1. About one-third of the lung cancer cases in this cohort were estimated to be attributable to smoking while about 7% were associated with radiation. The joint effect of smoking and radiation on lung cancer in the LSS is dependent on smoking intensity and is best described by the generalized interaction model rather than a simple additive or multiplicative model. PMID:20681801

  20. Congenital malformations, stillbirths, and early mortality among the children of atomic bomb survivors: A reanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, M.; Schull, W.J.; Neel, J.V. , Hiroshima )

    1990-04-01

    Of all the data sets pertinent to the estimation of the genetic risks to humans following exposure to ionizing radiation, potentially the most informative is that composed of the cohort of children born to atomic bomb survivors. We present here an analysis of the relationship between parental exposure history and untoward pregnancy outcomes within this cohort, using to the fullest extent possible the recently revised estimates of the doses received by their parents, the so-called DS86 doses. Available for study are 70,073 terminations, but DS86 doses have not been or presently cannot be computed on the parents of 14,770. The frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes, defined as a pregnancy terminating in a child with a major congenital malformation, and/or stillborn, and/or dying in the first 14 days of life, increases with combined (summed) parental dose, albeit not significantly so. Under a standard linear model, when the sample of observations is restricted to those children whose parents have been assigned the newly established DS86 doses (n = 55,303), ignoring concomitant sources of variation and assuming a neutron RBE of 20, the estimated increase per sievert in the predicted frequency of untoward outcomes is 0.00354 (+/- 0.00343). After adjustment for concomitant sources of variation, the estimated increase per sievert in the proportion of such births is 0.00422 (+/- 0.00342) if the neutron RBE is assumed to be 20. A one-hit model with appropriate adjustments for extraneous sources of variation results in an almost identical value, namely, 0.00412 (+/- 0.00364).

  1. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD ); Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko ); Thompson, D.E. George Washington Univ., Rockville, MD Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki ); Soda, Midori )

    1994-02-01

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Radiation and Smoking Effects on Lung Cancer Incidence by Histological Types Among Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2014-01-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1–4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3–1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0–1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  3. Systolic blood pressure and systolic hypertension in adolescence of atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2007-11-01

    Annual medical examinations were conducted during adolescence for the in utero clinical study sample subjects exposed prenatally to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Systolic blood pressure and several anthropometric measurements were recorded during these examinations. For 1014 persons exposed in utero, two types of longitudinal analyses were performed, for a total of 7029 observations (6.93 observations per subject) of systolic blood pressure (continuous data) and systolic hypertension (binary data) for persons aged 9 to 19 years. Body mass index (BMI) and/or body weight were considered in the analyses as potential confounders. For the measurements of systolic blood pressure, the common dose effect was 2.09 mmHg per Gy and was significant (P = 0.017). The dose by trimester interaction was suggestive (P = 0.060). A significant radiation dose effect was found in the second trimester (P = 0.001), with an estimated 4.17 mmHg per Gy, but in the first and third trimesters, radiation dose effects were not significant (P > 0.50). For prevalence of systolic hypertension, the radiation dose effect was significant (P = 0.009); the odds ratio at 1 Gy was 2.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 4.04], and the dose by trimester interaction was not significant (P = 0.778). The dose response of systolic hypertension had no dose threshold, with a threshold point estimate of 0 Gy (95% CI: <0.0, 1.1 Gy). The dose response for systolic blood pressure was most pronounced in the second trimester, the most active organogenesis period for the organs relevant to blood pressure. PMID:17973553

  4. Missing Doses in the Life Span Study of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, David B.; Wing, Steve; Cole, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    The Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors is an important source of risk estimates used to inform radiation protection and compensation. Interviews with survivors in the 1950s and 1960s provided information needed to estimate radiation doses for survivors proximal to ground zero. Because of a lack of interview or the complexity of shielding, doses are missing for 7,058 of the 68,119 proximal survivors. Recent analyses excluded people with missing doses, and despite the protracted collection of interview information necessary to estimate some survivors' doses, defined start of follow-up as October 1, 1950, for everyone. We describe the prevalence of missing doses and its association with mortality, distance from hypocenter, city, age, and sex. Missing doses were more common among Nagasaki residents than among Hiroshima residents (prevalence ratio = 2.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.96, 2.14), among people who were closer to ground zero than among those who were far from it, among people who were younger at enrollment than among those who were older, and among males than among females (prevalence ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.28). Missing dose was associated with all-cancer and leukemia mortality, particularly during the first years of follow-up (all-cancer rate ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 3.08; and leukemia rate ratio = 4.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.72, 10.67). Accounting for missing dose and late entry should reduce bias in estimated dose-mortality associations. PMID:23429722

  5. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence by histological types among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2012-09-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1-4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3-1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0-1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  6. Missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David B; Wing, Steve; Cole, Stephen R

    2013-03-15

    The Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors is an important source of risk estimates used to inform radiation protection and compensation. Interviews with survivors in the 1950s and 1960s provided information needed to estimate radiation doses for survivors proximal to ground zero. Because of a lack of interview or the complexity of shielding, doses are missing for 7,058 of the 68,119 proximal survivors. Recent analyses excluded people with missing doses, and despite the protracted collection of interview information necessary to estimate some survivors' doses, defined start of follow-up as October 1, 1950, for everyone. We describe the prevalence of missing doses and its association with mortality, distance from hypocenter, city, age, and sex. Missing doses were more common among Nagasaki residents than among Hiroshima residents (prevalence ratio = 2.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.96, 2.14), among people who were closer to ground zero than among those who were far from it, among people who were younger at enrollment than among those who were older, and among males than among females (prevalence ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.28). Missing dose was associated with all-cancer and leukemia mortality, particularly during the first years of follow-up (all-cancer rate ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 3.08; and leukemia rate ratio = 4.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.72, 10.67). Accounting for missing dose and late entry should reduce bias in estimated dose-mortality associations. PMID:23429722

  7. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, significantly increased with increasing radiation dose. The CD14-911A/A genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for all CRC and distal CRC compared with the other two genotypes. In addition, the IL18-137 G/G genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for proximal colon cancer compared with the other two genotypes. In phenotype-genotype analyses, the CD14-911A/A genotype presented significantly higher levels of membrane and soluble CD14 compared with the other two genotypes, and the IL18-137 G/G genotype tended to be lower levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-18 compared with the other two genotypes. These results suggest the potential involvement of a CD14-mediated inflammatory response in the development of distal CRC and an IL18-mediated inflammatory response in the development of proximal colon cancer among A-bomb survivors. PMID:27081544

  8. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, significantly increased with increasing radiation dose. The CD14–911A/A genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for all CRC and distal CRC compared with the other two genotypes. In addition, the IL18–137 G/G genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for proximal colon cancer compared with the other two genotypes. In phenotype–genotype analyses, the CD14–911A/A genotype presented significantly higher levels of membrane and soluble CD14 compared with the other two genotypes, and the IL18–137 G/G genotype tended to be lower levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-18 compared with the other two genotypes. These results suggest the potential involvement of a CD14-mediated inflammatory response in the development of distal CRC and an IL18-mediated inflammatory response in the development of proximal colon cancer among A-bomb survivors. PMID:27081544

  9. RET/PTC rearrangements preferentially occurred in papillary thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors exposed to high radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Ito, Reiko; Mukai, Mayumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Taga, Masataka; Imai, Kazue; Cologne, John; Soda, Midori; Arihiro, Koji; Fujihara, Megumu; Abe, Kuniko; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Nakashima, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro; Yasui, Wataru; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei

    2008-09-01

    A major early event in papillary thyroid carcinogenesis is constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway caused by alterations of a single gene, typically rearrangements of the RET and NTRK1 genes or point mutations in the BRAF and RAS genes. In childhood papillary thyroid cancer, regardless of history of radiation exposure, RET/PTC rearrangements are a major event. Conversely, in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer among the general population, the most common molecular event is BRAF(V600E) point mutation, not RET/PTC rearrangements. To clarify which gene alteration, chromosome aberration, or point mutation preferentially occurs in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer, we have performed molecular analyses on RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF(V600E) mutation in 71 papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors (including 21 cases not exposed to atomic bomb radiation), in relation to radiation dose as well as time elapsed since atomic bomb radiation exposure. RET/PTC rearrangements showed significantly increased frequency with increased radiation dose (P(trend) = 0.002). In contrast, BRAF(V600E) mutation was less frequent in cases exposed to higher radiation dose (P(trend) < 0.001). Papillary thyroid cancer subjects harboring RET/PTC rearrangements developed this cancer earlier than did cases with BRAF(V600E) mutation (P = 0.03). These findings were confirmed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. These results suggest that RET/PTC rearrangements play an important role in radiation-associated thyroid carcinogenesis. PMID:18757433

  10. Radiation risks in lung cancer screening programs: a comparison with nuclear industry workers and atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    McCunney, Robert J; Li, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) scan reduced lung cancer and overall mortality by 20% and 7%, respectively. The LDCT scanning involves an approximate 2-mSv dose, whereas full-chest CT scanning, the major diagnostic study used to follow up nodules, may involve a dose of 8 mSv. Radiation associated with CT scanning and other diagnostic studies to follow up nodules may present an independent risk of lung cancer. On the basis of the NLST, we estimated the incidence and prevalence of nodules detected in screening programs. We followed the Fleischner guidelines for follow-up of nodules to assess cumulative radiation exposure over 20- and 30-year periods. We then evaluated nuclear worker cohort studies and atomic bomb survivor studies to assess the risk of lung cancer from radiation associated with long-term lung cancer screening programs. The findings indicate that a 55-year-old lung screening participant may experience a cumulative radiation exposure of up to 280 mSv over a 20-year period and 420 mSv over 30 years. These exposures exceed those of nuclear workers and atomic bomb survivors. This assessment suggests that long-term (20-30 years) LDCT screening programs are associated with nontrivial cumulative radiation doses. Current lung cancer screening protocols, if conducted over 20- to 30-year periods, can independently increase the risk of lung cancer beyond cigarette smoking as a result of cumulative radiation exposure. Radiation exposures from LDCT screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures exceed lifetime radiation exposures among nuclear power workers and atomic bomb survivors. PMID:24590022

  11. Why 159°?: a story about the dropping of the Hiroshima atom bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prunty, Sean L.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the evasive manoeuvre undertaken by the pilot of the Enola Gay aircraft following the dropping of the first uranium bomb. The pilot was instructed to make a 159° turn following the bomb’s release in order to acquire the greatest distance from the point at which the bomb explodes. Accordingly, the objective here is to investigate why the angle should be exactly 159°. The optimum flight-path to maximize the distance from the detonation point is analysed by considering the escape or exit angle taken by the aircraft following a turning-manoeuvre that points it directly away from the detonation site. A range of escape angles are predicted based on the requirement to exit the turning radius prior to detonation. By using information that appeared in a historical account of the event regarding the manoeuvre undertaken by the pilot following the release of the bomb, an estimate is made of the escape angle. Despite the fact that the result shows reasonable agreement with the value of 159°, some uncertainty is expressed as to the close coincidence obtained. In addition, the location of the aircraft and the time of arrival of the shock wave following detonation are also briefly discussed.

  12. The Atomic Bomb Fragment: An Experience in Explaining Nuclear Science to the Popular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokisch, Derek

    2005-11-01

    On March 11, 1958 a B-47 strategic bomber on a training mission accidentally dropped a Mark 6 nuclear bomb over rural South Carolina. The bomb, which did not contain the fissionable core, detonated on a lot in Mars Bluff, SC, less than a mile from the current campus of Francis Marion University (FMU). Though the accounts of this event have been written several times, the most extensive account was recently published in the May 2005 issue of Esquire magazine. The author of the Esquire article contacted health physics faculty at FMU in February of 2005 after finding a local resident that claimed to have a fragment of the bomb. In attempting to authenticate the fragment, the author was surprised to measure radioactivity with a Geiger counter. He asked if FMU had the equipment necessary to determine the source of the activity. We spent one afternoon with the author while acquiring a gamma-ray spectrum from the fragment. In addition to presenting the brief scientific analysis, this talk will describe the communication with the author of the article and the subsequent interpretation presented in the publication.

  13. Risks of leukemia in Japanese atomic bomb survivors, in women treated for cervical cancer, and in patients treated for ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Little, M P; Weiss, H A; Boice, J D; Darby, S C; Day, N E; Muirhead, C R

    1999-09-01

    The dose-response relationship for radiation-induced leukemia was examined in a pooled analysis of three exposed populations: Japanese atomic bomb survivors, women treated for cervical cancer, and patients irradiated for ankylosing spondylitis. A total of 383 leukemias were observed among 283,139 study subjects. Considering all leukemias apart from chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the optimal relative risk model had a dose response with a purely quadratic term representing induction and an exponential term consistent with cell sterilization at high doses; the addition of a linear induction term did not improve the fit of the model. The relative risk decreased with increasing time since exposure and increasing attained age, and there were significant (P < 0.00001) differences in the parameters of the model between datasets. These differences were related in part to the significant differences (P = 0.003) between the models fitted to the three main radiogenic leukemia subtypes (acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia). When the three datasets were considered together but the analysis was repeated separately for the three leukemia subtypes, for each subtype the optimal model included quadratic and exponential terms in dose. For acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia, there were reductions of relative risk with increasing time after exposure, whereas for acute lymphocytic leukemia the relative risk decreased with increasing attained age. For each leukemia subtype considered separately, there was no indication of a difference between the studies in the relative risk and its distribution as a function of dose, age and time (P > 0.10 for all three subtypes). The nonsignificant indications of differences between the three datasets when leukemia subtypes were considered separately may be explained by random variation, although a contribution from differences in exposure dose-rate regimens, inhomogeneous dose distribution within

  14. Somatic cell mutations at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes of atomic bomb survivors: Implications for radiation carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Tanabe, Kazumi; Hirai, Yuko; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Umeki, Shigeko

    1996-07-01

    To clarify the relationship between somatic cell mutations and radiation exposure, the frequency of hemizygous mutant erythrocytes at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus was measured by flow cytometry for 1,226 heterozygous atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in HIroshima and Nagasaki. For statistical analysis, both GPA mutant frequency and radiation dose were log-transformed to normalize skewed distributions of these variables. The GPA mutant frequency increased slightly but significantly with age at testing and with the number of cigarettes smoked. Also, mutant frequency was significantly higher in males than in females even with adjustment for smoking and was higher to Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. These characteristics of background GPA mutant frequency are qualitatively similar to those of background solid cancer incidence or mortality obtained from previous epidemiological studies of survivors. An analysis of the mutant frequency dose response using a descriptive model showed that the doubling dose is about 1.20 Sv [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-1.56], whereas the minimum dose for detecting a significant increase in mutant frequency is about 0.24 Sv (95% CI: 0.041-0.51). No significant effects of sex, city or age at the time of exposure on the dose response were detected. Interestingly, the doubling dose of the GPA mutant frequency was similar to that of solid cancer incidence in A-bomb survivors. This observation is in line with the hypothesis that radiation-induced somatic cell mutations are the major cause of excess cancer risk after radiation. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Present status and self-reported diseases of the Korean atomic bomb survivors: a mail questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Ju, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2005-01-01

    Many Koreans were forced to move to Japan while Korea was occupied by Japan. Consequently, when the atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki an estimated 40,000 Koreans died and 30,000 survived. In 2004, 2,235 Koreans were registered as A-bomb survivors in South Korea. A mail questionnaire survey to evaluate the present status and self-reported diseases of the Korean survivors was conducted. In total, 1,256 questionnaires were returned and analysed. The most frequent chronic diseases reported by Korean survivors were hypertension (40.1 per cent), peptic ulcer disease (25.7 per cent), anaemia (23.3 per cent) and cataracts (23.1 per cent). The most frequent malignant diseases were stomach cancer (1.9 per cent), colon cancer (0.5 per cent) and leukaemia/multiple myeloma (0.4 per cent). This study suggests that further investigations are needed into the health concerns of the survivors and into health protection measures. PMID:16180735

  16. Cancer incidence in children and young adults did not increase relative to parental exposure to atomic bombs.

    PubMed

    Izumi, S; Koyama, K; Soda, M; Suyama, A

    2003-11-01

    We have examined whether parental exposure to atomic bomb radiation has led to increased cancer risks among the offspring. We studied 40,487 subjects born from May 1946 through December 1984 who were cancer-free in January 1958. One or both parents were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the time of the bombing and for childbirth. Using population-based tumor registry data we analyzed cancer incidence data from 1958 to 1997 by Cox regression models, and we examined the effects of both paternal and maternal irradiation with adjustment for city, sex, birth year, and migration. During follow-up, 575 solid tumor cases and 68 hematopoietic tumor cases were diagnosed. Median age at diagnosis was 39.7 years. Median doses were 143 millisierverts for 15,992 exposed (5+ millisierverts or unknown dose) fathers and 133 millisierverts for 10,066 exposed mothers. Cancer incidence was no higher for subjects with exposed parents than for the reference subjects (0-4 millisierverts), nor did the incidence rates increase with increasing dose. For 3568 subjects with two exposed parents, the adjusted risk ratio for all cancer was 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.70-1.36). Because of the small number of cases, however, we cannot exclude an increase in cancer incidence at this time. PMID:14583774

  17. Dose-response analyses among atomic bomb survivors exposed to low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, H.; Schull, W.J.; Awa, A.; Akiyama, M.; Otake, M.

    1987-05-01

    An analysis of the dose response within the low-dose range (as here defined, doses of less than 50 cGy (50 rad) was conducted among A-bomb survivors in the ABCC-RERF cohort in an attempt to detect the phenomenon of radiation hormesis, if it is present. These studies include as endpoints cancer mortality, cancer incidence, the frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations, the phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral lymphocytes and the frequency of mental retardation among survivors exposed in utero. In general, the dose response for these indices of radiation damage varied among comparison groups within the low-dose range, but failed to suggest the existence of radiation hormesis.

  18. Rearranged Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Gene in Adult-Onset Papillary Thyroid Cancer Amongst Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Mayumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously noted that among atomic bomb survivors (ABS), the relative frequency of cases of adult papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC) was significantly greater in those with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. In contrast, the frequency of PTC cases with point mutations (mainly BRAFV600E) was significantly lower in patients with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. We also found that among ABS, the frequency of PTC cases with no detectable gene alterations in RET, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (NTRK1), BRAF, or RAS was significantly higher in patients with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. However, in ABS with PTC, the relationship between the presence of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fused with other gene partners and radiation exposure has received little study. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the relative frequency of rearranged ALK in ABS with PTC, and with no detectable gene alterations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF, or RAS, would be greater in those having relatively higher radiation exposures. Methods The 105 subjects in the study were drawn from the Life Span Study cohort of ABS of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were diagnosed with PTC between 1956 and 1993. Seventy-nine were exposed (>0 mGy), and 26 were not exposed to A-bomb radiation. In the 25 ABS with PTC, and with no detectable gene alterations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF, or RAS, we examined archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded PTC specimens for rearrangement of ALK using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5′ RACE). Results We found rearranged ALK in 10 of 19 radiation-exposed PTC cases, but none among 6 patients with PTC with no radiation exposure. In addition, solid/trabecular-like architecture in PTC was closely associated with ALK

  19. Feasibility of using 236U to reconstruct close-in fallout deposition from the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, A; Kawai, K; Steier, P; Imanaka, T; Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Zhumadilov, K; Yamamoto, M

    2010-10-15

    The first results on the feasibility of using (236)U to reconstruct the level and spatial distribution of close-in fallout deposition from the Hiroshima A-bomb are reported, coupled with the use of global fallout (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu. The results for global fallout (236)U in soil samples (0-30cm) from Ishikawa prefecture showed that the deposition density of (236)U from the global fallout can be accurately evaluated using AMS. All deposited (236)U, (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu appeared to have been recovered using 30-cm cores. It was also noted from the depth profiles for (236)U/(239+240)Pu and (236)U/(137)Cs ratios that the downward behavior of (236)U in the soil was apparently similar to that of (239+240)Pu, while the (137)Cs was liable to be retained in upper layers compared with (236)U and (239+240)Pu. The accumulated levels were 1.78×10(13)atomsm(-2) for (236)U, 4340Bqm(-2) for (137)Cs and 141Bqm(-2) for (239+240)Pu. The ratios of (236)U/(137)Cs and (236)U/(239+240)Pu were (4.10±0.12)×10(9) and (1.26±0.04)×10(11)atomsBq(-1), respectively. Results of (236)U, (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu measurements for the seven soil cores (0-30cm) from Hiroshima were discussed on the basis of ratios of (236)U/(137)Cs and (236)U/(239+240)Pu by comparing with those from the background area in Ishikawa, indicating that the global fallout dominates the current level of (236)U accumulation in soil in the Black-rain area around Hiroshima after the Hiroshima bomb, and the contribution of the close-in fallout (236)U produced by the Hiroshima A-bomb seems difficult to observe. PMID:20797770

  20. 36Cl and41Ca depth profiles in a Hiroshima granite stone and the Dosimetry System 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühm, W.; Kato, K.; Korschinek, G.; Morinaga, H.; Nolte, E.

    1992-06-01

    For the first time a depth profile of the radioisotope41Ca produced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion of Hiroshima was measured. The measurements were performed at the Munich Tandem Laboratory via accelerator mass spectrometry. The41Ca depth profile is part of the evaluation to determine the neutron spectrum of the A-bomb which is basis of the Dosimetry System 1986.

  1. Measurements of (60)Co in massive steel samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion.

    PubMed

    Gasparro, Joël; Hult, Mikael; Marissens, Gerd; Hoshi, Masaharu; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru; Laubenstein, Matthias; Dombrowski, Harald; Arnold, Dirk

    2012-04-01

    To study discrepancies in retrospective Hiroshima dosimetry, the specific activity of (60)Co in 16 steel samples from Hiroshima was measured using gamma-ray spectrometry in underground laboratories. There is general agreement between these new activity measurements and the specific activities derived from previously calculated dose values on the one hand and former measurements of samples gathered at distances less than 1,000 m from the center of the explosion (< 1,000 m slant range) on the other. It was found that activities at long range (> 1,300 m slant range) were mainly cosmogenically induced. Furthermore, at long range, these results are in disagreement with older measurements whose specific activity values were 10 to 100 times higher than predicted by computer model calculations in DS86 and DS02. As a consequence, the previously reported discrepancy is not confirmed. PMID:22378201

  2. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, Part I. Cancer: 1950-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.A.; Shimizu, Y.; Preston, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    This continues the series of periodic general reports on cancer mortality in the cohort of A-bomb survivors followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The follow-up is extended by the 5 years 1986-1990, and analysis includes an additional 10,500 survivors with recently estimated radiation doses. Together these extensions add about 550,000 person-years of follow-up. The cohort analyzed consists of 86,572 subjects, of which about 60% have dose estimates of at least 0.005 Sv. During 1950-1990 there have been 3086 and 4741 cancer deaths for the less than and greater than 0.005 Sv groups, respectively. It is estimated that among these there have been approximately 420 excess cancer deaths during 19509-1990, of which about 85 were due to leukemia, For cancers other than leukemia (solid cancers), about 25% of the excess deaths in 1950-1990 occurred during the last 5 years; for those exposed as children this figure is nearly 50%. For leukemia only about 3% of the excess deaths in 1950-1990 occurred in th last 5 years. Whereas most of the excess for leukemia occurred in the first 15 years after exposure, for solid cancers the pattern of excess risk in apparently more like alife-long elevation of the natural age-specific cancer risk. 29 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. Radiation-related cancer risks at low doses among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Pierce, D A; Preston, D L

    2000-08-01

    To clarify the information in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation data regarding cancer risks of low radiation doses, we focus on survivors with doses less than 0.5 Sv. For reasons indicated, we also restrict attention mainly to survivors within 3, 000 m of the hypocenter of the bombs. Analysis is of solid cancer incidence from 1958-1994, involving 7,000 cancer cases among 50,000 survivors in that dose and distance range. The results provide useful risk estimates for doses as low as 0.05-0.1 Sv, which are not overestimated by linear risk estimates computed from the wider dose ranges 0-2 Sv or 0-4 Sv. There is a statistically significant risk in the range 0-0.1 Sv, and an upper confidence limit on any possible threshold is computed as 0.06 Sv. It is indicated that modification of the neutron dose estimates currently under consideration would not markedly change the conclusions. PMID:10931690

  4. Histologic review of breast cancer cases in survivors of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tokuoka, S; Asano, M; Yamamoto, T; Tokunaga, M; Sakamoto, G; Hartmann, W H; Hutter, R V; Land, C E; Henson, D E

    1984-09-01

    A panel of Japanese and American pathologists reviewed existing histologic material used to study breast cancer risk among the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a population in which incidence studies have found a strong relationship between breast cancer risk and radiation dose. The primary charge to the panel was to define a body of confirmed cases in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation that would require little or no review for inclusion in future studies of breast cancer incidence. Broad agreement on histologic type was reached for 298 of 300 confirmed cases. The distribution of histologic types was, overall, similar to that seen in other studies of breast cancer in Japanese women, and did not appear to depend on dose; thus radiation-induced breast cancer appeared to be no different histologically from other breast cancer. Also, no evidence was found of variation in histologic type by city, age at exposure, age at diagnosis, or calendar time. PMID:6331630

  5. Prevalence of adult-onset multifactorial disease among offspring of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, S; Suyama, A; Cologne, J B; Akahoshi, M; Yamada, M; Suzuki, G; Koyama, K; Takahashi, N; Kasagi, E; Grant, E J; Lagarde, E; Hsu, W L; Furukawa, K; Ohishi, W; Tatsukawa, Y; Neriishi, K; Takahashi, I; Ashizawa, K; Hida, A; Imaizumi, M; Nagano, J; Cullings, H M; Katayama, H; Ross, N P; Kodama, K; Shore, R E

    2008-10-01

    The first study to examine whether parental radiation exposure leads to increased heritable risk of common adult-onset multifactorial diseases (i.e., hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, ischemic heart disease, and stroke) was conducted among 11,951 participants in the clinical examination program out of a potential of 24,673 mail survey subjects who were offspring of survivors born from May 1946 through December 1984. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated no evidence of an association between the prevalence of multifactorial diseases in the offspring and parental radiation exposure, after adjusting for age, city, gender and various risk factors. The odds ratio (OR) for a paternal dose of 1 Gy was 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-1.01, P = 0.08], and that for a maternal dose of 1 Gy was 0.98 (95% CI 0.86-1.10, P = 0.71). There was no apparent effect of parental age at exposure or of elapsed time between parental exposure and birth, but male offspring had a low odds ratio (OR = 0.76 at 1 Gy) for paternal exposure, but cautious interpretation is needed for this finding. The clinical assessment of nearly 12,000 offspring of A-bomb survivors who have reached a median age of about 50 years provided no evidence for an increased prevalence of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in relation to parental radiation exposure. PMID:19024652

  6. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors, Report 14, 1950-2003: an overview of cancer and noncancer diseases.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Shimizu, Yukiko; Suyama, Akihiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Soda, Midori; Grant, Eric J; Sakata, Ritsu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Kodama, Kazunori

    2012-03-01

    This is the 14th report in a series of periodic general reports on mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation to investigate the late health effects of the radiation from the atomic bombs. During the period 1950-2003, 58% of the 86,611 LSS cohort members with DS02 dose estimates have died. The 6 years of additional follow-up since the previous report provide substantially more information at longer periods after radiation exposure (17% more cancer deaths), especially among those under age 10 at exposure (58% more deaths). Poisson regression methods were used to investigate the magnitude of the radiation-associated risks, the shape of the dose response, and effect modification by gender, age at exposure, and attained age. The risk of all causes of death was positively associated with radiation dose. Importantly, for solid cancers the additive radiation risk (i.e., excess cancer cases per 10(4) person-years per Gy) continues to increase throughout life with a linear dose-response relationship. The sex-averaged excess relative risk per Gy was 0.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32, 0.53] for all solid cancer at age 70 years after exposure at age 30 based on a linear model. The risk increased by about 29% per decade decrease in age at exposure (95% CI: 17%, 41%). The estimated lowest dose range with a significant ERR for all solid cancer was 0 to 0.20 Gy, and a formal dose-threshold analysis indicated no threshold; i.e., zero dose was the best estimate of the threshold. The risk of cancer mortality increased significantly for most major sites, including stomach, lung, liver, colon, breast, gallbladder, esophagus, bladder and ovary, whereas rectum, pancreas, uterus, prostate and kidney parenchyma did not have significantly increased risks. An increased risk of non-neoplastic diseases including the circulatory, respiratory and digestive systems was observed, but whether these are causal

  7. Defence Science Research, Higher Education and the Australian Quest for the Atomic Bomb, 1945-60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the efforts of the Australian government to create an atomic research and development program after World War II. Describes initial cooperation with Britain and the push for the transformation of Australian higher and secondary education in service of national scientific development. Discusses effects of the end of Commonwealth…

  8. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero or as young children, October 1950 - May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Delongchamp, R.R.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1997-03-01

    Cancer mortality for the period from October 1950 through May 1992 was analyzed in atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero. Risk estimates for this group were also compared to those for survivors who were less than 6 years old at the time of exposure. The cohorts studied include 807 in utero survivors and 5,545 persons exposed during childhood with all members of both groups having estimated doses of at least 0.01 Sv. The comparison group includes 10,453 persons with little (<0.01 Sv) or no exposure. Analyses were limited mainly to cancer deaths occurring between the ages of 17 and 46. Only 10 cancer deaths were observed among persons exposed in utero. However, there is a significant dose response with an estimate of excess relative risk per sievert (ERR/Sv) of 2.1 (90% confidence interval of 0.2 to 6.0). This estimate does not differ significantly from that for survivors exposed during the first 5 years of life. The cancer deaths among those exposed during the first 5 years of life. 23 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  9. Long-term trend of thyroid cancer risk among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors: 60 years after exposure

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Ito, Masahiro; Tokuoka, Shoji; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Soda, Midori; Ozasa, Kotaro; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer risk following exposure to ionizing radiation in childhood and adolescence is a topic of public concern. To characterize the long-term temporal trend and age-at-exposure variation in the radiation-induced risk of thyroid cancer, we analyzed thyroid cancer incidence data for the period from 1958 through 2005 among 105,401 members of the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. During the follow-up period, 371 thyroid cancer cases (excluding those with microcarcinoma with a diameter <10 mm) were identified as a first primary among the eligible subjects. Using a linear dose–response model, the excess relative risk of thyroid cancer at 1 Gy of radiation exposure was estimated as 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.59–2.70) at age 60 after acute exposure at age 10. The risk decreased sharply with increasing age-at-exposure and there was little evidence of increased thyroid cancer rates for those exposed after age 20. About 36% of the thyroid cancer cases among those exposed before age 20 were estimated to be attributable to radiation exposure. While the magnitude of the excess risk has decreased with increasing attained age or time since exposure, the excess thyroid cancer risk associated with childhood exposure has persisted for >50 years after exposure PMID:22847218

  10. Perinatal loss and neurological abnormalities among children of the atomic bomb. Nagasaki and Hiroshima revisited, 1949 to 1989.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, J N; Schull, W J

    1990-08-01

    Studies of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were exposed to ionizing radiation in utero have demonstrated a significant increase in perinatal loss and the vulnerability of the developing fetal brain to injury. These studies have also helped to define the stages in the development of the human brain that are particularly susceptible to radiation-related damage. Exposure at critical junctures in development increases the risk of mental retardation, small head size, subsequent seizures, and poor performance on conventional tests of intelligence and in school. The most critical period, 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, corresponds to that time in development when neuronal production increases and migration of immature neurons to their cortical sites of function occurs. The epidemiologic data are, however, too sparse to settle unequivocally the nature of the dose-response function and, in particular, whether there is or is not a threshold to damage. If a threshold does exist, it appears to be in the 0.10- to 0.20-Gy fetal-dose range in this vulnerable gestational period. PMID:2366301

  11. The children of parents exposed to atomic bombs: estimates of the genetic doubling dose of radiation for humans.

    PubMed

    Neel, J V; Schull, W J; Awa, A A; Satoh, C; Kato, H; Otake, M; Yoshimoto, Y

    1990-06-01

    The data collected in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the past 40 years on the children of survivors of the atomic bombings and on the children of a suitable control population are analyzed on the basis of the newly revised estimates of radiation doses. No statistically significant effects emerge with respect to eight different indicators. Since, however, it may confidently be assumed some mutations were induced, we have taken the data at face value and calculated the minimal gametic doubling doses of acute radiation for the individual indicators at various probability levels. An effort has also been made to calculate the most probable doubling dose for the indicators combined. The latter value is between 1.7 and 2.2 Sv. It is suggested the appropriate figure for chronic radiation would be between 3.4 and 4.5 Sv. These estimates suggest humans are less sensitive to the genetic effects of radiation than has been assumed on the basis of past extrapolations from experiments with mice. PMID:2339701

  12. Perinatal loss and neurological abnormalities among children of the atomic bomb. Nagasaki and Hiroshima revisited, 1949 to 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, J.N.; Schull, W.J. )

    1990-08-01

    Studies of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were exposed to ionizing radiation in utero have demonstrated a significant increase in perinatal loss and the vulnerability of the developing fetal brain to injury. These studies have also helped to define the stages in the development of the human brain that are particularly susceptible to radiation-related damage. Exposure at critical junctures in development increases the risk of mental retardation, small head size, subsequent seizures, and poor performance on conventional tests of intelligence and in school. The most critical period, 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, corresponds to that time in development when neuronal production increases and migration of immature neurons to their cortical sites of function occurs. The epidemiologic data are, however, too sparse to settle unequivocally the nature of the dose-response function and, in particular, whether there is or is not a threshold to damage. If a threshold does exist, it appears to be in the 0.10- to 0.20-Gy fetal-dose range in this vulnerable gestational period.

  13. Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Eiji )

    1994-04-01

    Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and [>=]26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. The children of parents exposed to atomic bombs: Estimates of the genetic doubling dose of radiation for humans

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.; Schull, W.J.; Awa, A.A.; Satoh, C.; Kato, H.; Otake, M.; Yoshimoto, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    The data collected in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the past 40 years on the children of survivors of the atomic bombings and on the children of a suitable control population are analyzed on the basis of the newly revised estimates of radiation doses. No statistically significant effects emerge with respect to eight different indicators. Since, however, it may confidently be assumed some mutations were induced, we have taken the data at face value and calculated the minimal gametic doubling doses of acute radiation for the individual indicators at various probability levels. An effort has also been made to calculate the most probable doubling dose for the indicators combined. The latter value is between 1.7 and 2.2 Sv. It is suggested the appropriate figure for chronic radiation would be between 3.4 and 4.5 Sv. These estimates suggest humans are less sensitive to the genetic effects of radiation than has been assumed on the basis of past extrapolations from experiments with mice.

  15. Serum TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroidal disorders in atomic bomb survivors exposed in youth: 30-year follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, I.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Sato, K.; Hamilton, H.B.; Kawamoto, S.; Izumi, M.; Nagataki, S.

    1987-07-01

    Follow-up examinations to determine the frequency of thyroidal disorders were conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on individuals in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were less than 20 yr of age at the time of exposure to the atomic bomb. Concentrations of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), and anti-TG antibody 30 yr after exposure were also determined. Nontoxic uninodular goiter was found in 13 cases of the 100 + rad exposed group (n = 477) and in three cases of the nonexposed group (n = 501). The prevalence in the 100+ rad exposed group was significantly higher (chi-squared = 6.584, p less than 0.01). Thyroid cancer was found in eight exposed cases, all of whom were in the 100+ rad group, and the prevalence was significantly greater (chi-squared = 7.919, p less than 0.01). Regardless of the presence or absence of thyroid disorders, serum TSH and TG levels were not statistically different between the 100 rad + exposed and nonexposed groups. Although hypothyroidism was found in 23 of the total cases, there was no correlation between its development and exposure to ionizing irradiation.

  16. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c) and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly. PMID:24651652

  17. Inverse Associations between Obesity Indicators and Thymic T-Cell Production Levels in Aging Atomic-Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c) and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly. PMID:24651652

  18. Estimation of beta-ray skin dose from exposure to fission fallout from the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2012-03-01

    Beta-ray skin dose due to the fission fallout from the Hiroshima atomic bomb is potentially related to the epilation in the black rain area. The absorbed dose to the skin from beta-rays emitted by fission fallout has been estimated for an initial ¹³⁷Cs deposition of 1 kBq m⁻² on the ground at 0.5 h after the explosion. The estimated skin dose takes into account both external exposure from fission fallout radionuclides uniformly distributed in 1 mm of soil on the surface of the ground and from a 26 μm thickness of contaminated soil on the skin, using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP-4C. The cumulative skin dose for 1 month after the explosion is taken as the representative value. The estimated skin dose for an initial ¹³⁷Cs deposition of 1 kBq m⁻² was determined to be about 500 mSv. PMID:22042969

  19. Long-term trend of thyroid cancer risk among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors: 60 years after exposure.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Ito, Masahiro; Tokuoka, Shoji; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Soda, Midori; Ozasa, Kotaro; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-03-01

    Thyroid cancer risk following exposure to ionizing radiation in childhood and adolescence is a topic of public concern. To characterize the long-term temporal trend and age-at-exposure variation in the radiation-induced risk of thyroid cancer, we analyzed thyroid cancer incidence data for the period from 1958 through 2005 among 105,401 members of the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. During the follow-up period, 371 thyroid cancer cases (excluding those with microcarcinoma with a diameter <10 mm) were identified as a first primary among the eligible subjects. Using a linear dose-response model, the excess relative risk of thyroid cancer at 1 Gy of radiation exposure was estimated as 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.59-2.70) at age 60 after acute exposure at age 10. The risk decreased sharply with increasing age-at-exposure and there was little evidence of increased thyroid cancer rates for those exposed after age 20. About 36% of the thyroid cancer cases among those exposed before age 20 were estimated to be attributable to radiation exposure. While the magnitude of the excess risk has decreased with increasing attained age or time since exposure, the excess thyroid cancer risk associated with childhood exposure has persisted for >50 years after exposure. PMID:22847218

  20. Radiation May Indirectly Impair Growth Resulting in Reduced Standing Height via Subclinical Inflammation in Atomic-Bomb Survivors Exposed at Young Ages

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nakashima, Eiji; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hsu, Wan-Ling

    2015-01-01

    For youngmore » atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, A-bomb radiation’s (total) effect on standing height is thought to comprise the sum of direct effect and indirect effect via inflammation. With the data of five inflammatory markers—white blood cell count, sialic acid, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), α 1 globulin, and α 2 globulin—obtained in adulthood during the period 1988 to 1992, a summary inflammatory index was constructed as a surrogate for the five subclinical inflammatory markers. For 3,327 A-bomb survivors exposed at ages of less than 25 years, a structural equation model was analyzed to measure direct radiation effects on adult height as well as mediating effect of radiation via inflammation on the height after adjustment for other risk factors, smoking, cancer, inflammatory disease, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The mediation proportion of the radiation effect on height via inflammation was approximately 5% for both sexes for all ages, and indirect dose effects via inflammation were statistically significant for both sexes combined and for females exposed at ages 0 to 5 years. Indirect dose effects for all ages via sialic acid, corrected ESR, and α 2 globulin were marginally significant for both sexes combined and for females. These proportions are likely underestimated.« less

  1. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data.

    PubMed

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ohtaki, Megu

    2012-05-01

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure. PMID:22302183

  2. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-05-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin-) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure. PMID:27169377

  3. Search for mutations altering protein charge and/or function in children of atomic bomb survivors: final report.

    PubMed Central

    Neel, J V; Satoh, C; Goriki, K; Asakawa, J; Fujita, M; Takahashi, N; Kageoka, T; Hazama, R

    1988-01-01

    A sample of (1) children whose parents had been proximally exposed (i.e., less than 2,000 m from the hypocenter) at the time of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and (2) a suitable comparison group have been examined for the occurrence of mutations altering the electrophoretic mobility or activity of a series of 30 proteins. The examination of the equivalent of 667,404 locus products in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded three mutations altering electrophoretic mobility; the corresponding figure for the comparison group was three mutations in 466,881 tests. The examination of a subset of 60,529 locus products for loss of enzyme activity in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded one mutation; no mutations were encountered in 61,741 determinations on the children of the comparison group. When these two series are compared, the mutation rate observed in the children of proximally exposed persons is thus 0.60 x 10(-5)/locus/generation, with 95% confidence intervals between 0.2 and 1.5 x 10(-5), and that in the comparison children is 0.64 x 10(-5)/locus/generation, with 95% intervals between 0.1 and 1.9 x 10(-5). The average conjoint gonad doses for the proximally exposed parents are estimated to be 0.437 Gy of gamma radiation and 0.002 Gy of neutron radiation. If a relative biological effectiveness of 20 is assigned to the neutron radiation, the combined total gonad dose for the parents becomes 0.477 Sv. (Organ absorbed doses are expressed in gray [1 Gy = 100 rad]; where dose is a mixture of gamma and neutron radiation, it is necessary because of the differing relative biological effectiveness of gamma and neutron radiation to express the combined gamma-neutron gonad exposures in sieverts [1 Sv = 100 rem]). PMID:3358419

  4. Search for mutations altering protein charge and/or function in children of atomic bomb survivors: final report

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.; Satoh, C.; Goriki, K.; Asakawa, J.; Fujita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kageoka, T.; Hazama, R.

    1988-05-01

    A sample of (1) children whose parents had been proximally exposed (i.e., less than 2000 m from the hypocenter) at the time of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and (2) a suitable comparison group have been examined for the occurrence of mutations altering the electrophoretic mobility or activity of a series of 30 proteins. The examination of the equivalent of 667,404 locus products in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded three mutations altering electrophoretic mobility; the corresponding figure for the comparison group was three mutations in 466,881 tests. The examination of a subset of 60,529 locus products for loss of enzyme activity in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded one mutation; no mutations were encountered in 61,741 determinations on the children of the comparison group. When these two series are compared, the mutation rate observed in the children of proximally exposed persons is thus 0.60 x 10(-5)/locus/generation, with 95% confidence intervals between 0.2 and 1.5 x 10(-5), and that in the comparison children is 0.64 x 10(-5)/locus/generation, with 95% intervals between 0.1 and 1.9 x 10(-5). The average conjoint gonad doses for the proximally exposed parents are estimated to be 0.437 Gy of gamma radiation and 0.002 Gy of neutron radiation. If a relative biological effectiveness of 20 is assigned to the neutron radiation, the combined total gonad dose for the parents becomes 0.477 Sv. (Organ absorbed doses are expressed in gray (1 Gy = 100 rad); where dose is a mixture of gamma and neutron radiation, it is necessary because of the differing relative biological effectiveness of gamma and neutron radiation to express the combined gamma-neutron gonad exposures in sieverts (1 Sv = 100 rem)).

  5. Dose-responses from multi-model inference for the non-cancer disease mortality of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Schöllnberger, H; Kaiser, J C; Jacob, P; Walsh, L

    2012-05-01

    The non-cancer mortality data for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular diseases from Report 13 on the atomic bomb survivors published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation were analysed to investigate the dose-response for the influence of radiation on these detrimental health effects. Various parametric and categorical models (such as linear-no-threshold (LNT) and a number of threshold and step models) were analysed with a statistical selection protocol that rated the model description of the data. Instead of applying the usual approach of identifying one preferred model for each data set, a set of plausible models was applied, and a sub-set of non-nested models was identified that all fitted the data about equally well. Subsequently, this sub-set of non-nested models was used to perform multi-model inference (MMI), an innovative method of mathematically combining different models to allow risk estimates to be based on several plausible dose-response models rather than just relying on a single model of choice. This procedure thereby produces more reliable risk estimates based on a more comprehensive appraisal of model uncertainties. For CVD, MMI yielded a weak dose-response (with a risk estimate of about one-third of the LNT model) below a step at 0.6 Gy and a stronger dose-response at higher doses. The calculated risk estimates are consistent with zero risk below this threshold-dose. For mortalities related to cardiovascular diseases, an LNT-type dose-response was found with risk estimates consistent with zero risk below 2.2 Gy based on 90% confidence intervals. The MMI approach described here resolves a dilemma in practical radiation protection when one is forced to select between models with profoundly different dose-responses for risk estimates. PMID:22437350

  6. The F value for chromosome aberrations in atomic bomb survivors does not provide evidence for a primary contribution of neutrons to the dose in Hiroshima.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Y; Ohtaki, K; Awa, A A; Nakano, M; Itoh, M; Nakamura, N

    1999-11-01

    Brenner and Sachs (Radiat. Res. 140, 134-142, 1994) proposed that the ratio of interchromosomal to intrachromosomal exchanges, termed the F value, can be a cytogenetic fingerprint of exposure to radiations of different linear energy transfer (LET). Using published data, they suggested that F values are over 10 for low-LET radiations and approximately 6 for high-LET radiations. Subsequently, as F values for atomic bomb survivors were reported to be around 6, Brenner suggested that the biological effects of atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima are due primarily to neutrons. However, the F values used for the survivors were means from individuals exposed to various doses. As the F-value hypothesis predicts a radiation fingerprint at low doses, we analyzed our own data for the survivors in relation to dose. G-banding data for the survivors showed F values varying from 5 to 8 at DS86 doses of 0.2 to 5 Gy in Hiroshima and around 6 in Nagasaki with no evidence of a difference between the two cities. The results are consistent with our in vitro data that the F values are invariably around 6 for X and gamma rays at doses of 0.5 to 2 Gy as well as two types of fission-spectrum neutrons at doses of about 0.2 to 1 Gy. Thus, apart from a possible effect at even lower doses, current data do not provide evidence to support the proposition that the biological effects of atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima are caused mainly by neutrons. PMID:10521934

  7. Low-background shielding of Ge detectors for the measurement of residual 152Eu radioactivity induced by neutrons from the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Fukami, Kenji; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi

    1992-05-01

    Low-background gamma-ray spectrometers were constructed for the measurement of residual 152Eu activity induced by the atomic-bomb neutrons. Optimum thickness of lead shielding, inner linings and background characteristics were investigated for an ordinary coaxial- and a well-type Ge detector. In addition, an anticoincidence shielding was installed for the well-type detector. As a result, the background counting rate due to cosmic rays was greatly reduced. It was also shown that a sample preparation to enrich the objective activity and eliminate background activities was important in the case of the 152Eu measurement.

  8. The observed relationship between the occurrence of acute radiation effects and leukemia mortality among A-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Neriishi, K.; Stram, D.O.; Vaeth, M.; Mizuno, S.; Akiba, S. )

    1991-02-01

    In an analysis of a follow-up study of a fixed population of 73,330 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the slope of an estimated dose response between ionizing radiation and leukemia mortality was found to be steeper (P less than 0.002), by a factor of 2.4, among those who reported epilation within 60 days of the bombings, compared to those who did not experience this sign of acute radiation exposure. The strength of this empirical finding as evidence of biological association in individual radiosensitivity for these two end points is studied here. The major factor complicating the interpretation of this finding as evidence of such an association is the degree of imprecision of the radiation dosimetry system used in assignment of radiation doses to the A-bomb survivors. Using models recently suggested for dealing with dosimetry errors in epidemiological analysis of the A-bomb survivor data, the sensitivity of the apparent association between leukemia mortality and severe epilation to the assumed level of dosimetry error is investigated.

  9. Terrorist bombing

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Ami; Kluger, Yoram

    2006-01-01

    Bombings and explosion incidents directed against innocent civilians are the primary instrument of global terror. In the present review we highlight the major observations and lessons learned from these events. Five mechanisms of blast injury are outlined and the different type of injury that they cause is described. Indeed, the consequences of terror bombings differ from those of non-terrorism trauma in severity and complexity of injury, and constitute a new class of casualties that differ from those of conventional trauma. The clinical implications of terror bombing, in treatment dilemmas in the multidimensional injury, ancillary evaluation and handling of terror bombing mass casualty event are highlighted. All this leads to the conclusion that thorough medical preparedness to cope with this new epidemic is required, and that understanding of detonation and blast dynamics and how they correlate with the injury patterns is pivotal for revision of current mass casualty protocols. PMID:17101058

  10. Benchmark test of neutron transport calculations: indium, nickel, gold, europium, and cobalt activation with and without energy moderated fission neutrons by iron simulating the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing.

    PubMed

    Iwatani, K; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K; Hiraoka, M; Hayakawa, N; Oka, T; Hasai, H

    1994-10-01

    A benchmark test of the Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code system (MCNP) was performed using a bare- and energy-moderated 252Cf fission neutron source which was obtained by transmission through 10-cm-thick iron. An iron plate was used to simulate the effect of the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing. This test includes the activation of indium and nickel for fast neutrons and gold, europium, and cobalt for thermal and epithermal neutrons, which were inserted in the moderators. The latter two activations are also to validate 152Eu and 60Co activity data obtained from the atomic bomb-exposed specimens collected at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The neutron moderators used were Lucite and Nylon 6 and the total thickness of each moderator was 60 cm or 65 cm. Measured activity data (reaction yield) of the neutron-irradiated detectors in these moderators decreased to about 1/1,000th or 1/10,000th, which corresponds to about 1,500 m ground distance from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. For all of the indium, nickel, and gold activity data, the measured and calculated values agreed within 25%, and the corresponding values for europium and cobalt were within 40%. From this study, the MCNP code was found to be accurate enough for the bare- and energy-moderated 252Cf neutron activation calculations of these elements using moderators containing hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. PMID:8083048

  11. Benchmark test of neutron transport calculations: Indium, nickel, gold, europium, and cobalt activation with and without energy moderated fission neutrons by iron simulating the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hiraoka, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Oka, Takamitsu

    1994-10-01

    A benchmark test of the Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code system (MCNP) was performed using a bare- and energy-moderated {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source which was obtained by transmission through 10-cm-thick iron. An iron plate was used to simulate the effect of the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing. This test includes the activation of indium and nickel for fast neutrons and gold, europium, and cobalt for thermal and epithermal neutrons, which were inserted in the moderators. The latter two activations are also to validate {sup 152}Eu and {sup 60}Co activity data obtained from the atomic bomb-exposed specimens collected at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The neutron moderators used were Lucite and Nylon 6 and the total thickness of each moderator was 60 cm or 65 cm. Measured activity data (reaction yield) of the neutron-irradiated detectors in these moderators decreased to about 1/1,000th or 1/10,000th, which corresponds to about 1,500 m ground distance from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. For all of the indium, nickel, and gold activity data, the measured and calculated values agreed within 25%, and the corresponding values for europium and cobalt were within 40%. From this study, the MCNP code was found to be accurate enough for the bare- and energy-moderated {sup 252}Cf neutron activation calculations of these elements using moderators containing hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. 18 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Long-term Radiation-Related Health Effects in a Unique Human Population: Lessons Learned from the Atomic Bomb Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    PubMed Central

    Douple, Evan B.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M.; Preston, Dale L.; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E.

    2014-01-01

    For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200 000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study. PMID:21402804

  13. Long-term radiation-related health effects in a unique human population: lessons learned from the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Douple, Evan B; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M; Preston, Dale L; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E

    2011-03-01

    For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200,000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor-participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study. PMID:21402804

  14. Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed. (ACR)

  15. A man, a plan, a bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2015-03-01

    Was the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki justified? Was it necessary? Were there other - better - options available, either to the scientists who built the bombs or the generals who ordered them dropped? Nearly 70 years later, there are still no settled answers to these questions, and Tom Morton-Smith's new play Oppenheimer wisely avoids dwelling on the "what ifs" of atomic history.

  16. Effects of radiation and lifestyle factors on risks of urothelial carcinoma in the Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Grant, E J; Ozasa, K; Preston, D L; Suyama, A; Shimizu, Y; Sakata, R; Sugiyama, H; Pham, T-M; Cologne, J; Yamada, M; De Roos, A J; Kopecky, K J; Porter, M P; Seixas, N; Davis, S

    2012-07-01

    Among the Life Span Study (LSS) of Atomic-bomb survivors, recent estimates showed that unspecified bladder cancer had high radiation sensitivity with a notably high female-to-male excess relative risk (ERR) per radiation dose ratio and were the only sites for which the ERR did not decrease with attained age. These findings, however, did not consider lifestyle factors, which could potentially confound or modify the risk estimates. This study estimated the radiation risks of the most prevalent subtype of urinary tract cancer, urothelial carcinoma, while accounting for smoking, consumption of fruit, vegetables, alcohol and level of education (a surrogate for socioeconomic status). Eligible study subjects included 105,402 (males = 42,890) LSS members who were cancer-free in 1958 and had estimated radiation doses. Members were censored due to loss of follow-up, incident cancer of another type, death, or the end of calendar year 2001. Surveys (by mail or clinical interview) gathered lifestyle data periodically for 1963-1991. There were 63,827 participants in one or more survey. Five hundred seventy-three incident urothelial carcinoma cases occurred, of which 364 occurred after lifestyle information was available. Analyses were performed using Poisson regression methods. The excess relative risk per weighted gray unit (the gamma component plus 10 times the neutron component, Gy(w)) was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.43-1.78) but the risks were not dependent upon age at exposure or attained age. Lifestyle factors other than smoking were not associated with urothelial carcinoma risk. Neither the magnitude of the radiation ERR estimate (1.00 compared to 0.96), nor the female-to-male (F:M) ERR/Gy(w) ratio (3.2 compared to 3.4) were greatly changed after accounting for all lifestyle factors. A multiplicative model of gender-specific radiation and smoking effects was the most revealing though there was no evidence of significant departures from either the additive or multiplicative joint

  17. Lung cancer susceptibility among atomic bomb survivors in relation to CA repeat number polymorphism of epidermal growth factor receptor gene and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakachi, Kei; Imai, Kazue; Cologne, John B; Niwa, Yasuharu; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2009-12-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Prevention could be improved by identifying susceptible individuals as well as improving understanding of interactions between genes and etiological environmental agents, including radiation exposure. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-signaling pathway, regulating cellular radiation sensitivity, is an oncogenic cascade involved in lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. The cytosine adenine (CA) repeat number polymorphism in the first intron of EGFR has been shown to be inversely correlated with EGFR production. It is hypothesized that CA repeat number may modulate individual susceptibility to lung cancer. Thus, we carried out a case-cohort study within the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor cohort to evaluate a possible association of CA repeat polymorphism with lung cancer risk in radiation-exposed or negligibly exposed (<5 mGy) A-bomb survivors. First, by dividing study subjects into Short and Long genotypes, defined as the summed CA repeat number of two alleles < or = 37 and > or = 38, respectively, we found that the Short genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, specifically adenocarcinoma, among negligibly exposed subjects. Next, we found that prior radiation exposure significantly enhanced lung cancer risk of survivors with the Long genotype, whereas the risk for the Short genotype did not show any significant increase with radiation dose, resulting in indistinguishable risks between these genotypes at a high radiation dose. Our findings imply that the EGFR pathway plays a crucial role in assessing individual susceptibility to lung adenocarcinoma in relation to radiation exposure. PMID:19843645

  18. Evidence of radiation-induced reduction of height and body weight from repeated measurements of adults exposed in childhood to the atomic bombs

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, Masanori; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Fujikoshi, Yasunori; Schull, W.J.

    1994-10-01

    Reduction of growth from exposure to atomic bomb radiation has been examined using individuals under 10 years old at the time of the bombing (ATB) and a growth curve analysis based on measurements of height and weight made in the course of the 4th-7th cycles of the Adult Health Study examinations (1964-1972). As expected, the largest difference in growth to emerge is between males and females. However, a highly significant reduction of growth associated with dose (DS86) was observed among those survivors for whom four repeated measurements of height and weight were available. Longitudinal analysis of a more extended data set (n = 821), using expected values based on simple linear regression models fitted to the three available sets of measurements of height and weight on the 254 individuals with a missing measurement, also indicates a significant radiation-related growth reduction. The possible contribution of such factors as poor nutrition and disruption of normal family life in the years immediately after the war is difficult to evaluate, but the effects of socioeconomic factors on the analysis of these data are discussed. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. A review of forty-five years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Cancer risk among in utero-exposed survivors.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Y; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1991-03-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) continues to conduct a follow-up study initiated some years ago of cancer mortality and incidence among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki exposed in utero. Although only 18 incident cases of cancer were identified in the years 1950-1984 (of which 5 cases were in the 0 dose group), cancer risk appears to increase significantly as maternal uterine dose increases. Only two cases of childhood cancer were observed among these individuals in the first 14 years of life; both had been exposed to greater than or equal to 0.30 Gy. All other cases developed cancer in adulthood, and the cancers they developed are, in the main, the ones known to be elevated in frequency among the postnatally exposed survivors. The estimated relative risk for cancer at 1 Gy (uterine dose) is 3.77. The results suggest that the in utero group may have a higher risk than that seen among exposed adults because the individuals exposed in utero have not reached the major cancer prone age. However, since the observed cases are too few to allow a site-specific review, further follow-up studies are required to determine if the observed increased cancer risk can definitely be attributed to A-bomb radiation, although there appears to be a significant dose-related cancer response. PMID:1762110

  20. Bombs and Bomb Threats in the School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, David J.; Starkey, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Bombs and the threat of bombing can leave school personnel faced by an explosive hazard without knowledge of what to do. Therefore, a preplanned response is necessary. Discusses four major stages of dealing with bombs and bomb threats. (Author/RK)

  1. United States History Simulations, 1925-1964: The Scopes Trial, Dropping the Atomic Bomb on Japan, United States versus Alger Hiss, Mississippi--Summer 1964. ETC Simulations Number Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostrop, Richard W.

    This booklet provides instructions for simulation and role play of historical events in U.S. history from 1925-1964. Included for student research and participation are: the Scopes trial in Tennessee involving supporters of the teaching of evolution in the schools and of creationism; the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan ending World War…

  2. Measurement of residual 152Eu activity induced by atomic bomb neutrons in Nagasaki and the contribution of environmental neutrons to this activity.

    PubMed

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takada, Jun; Ishikawa, Masayori; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi; Oka, Takamitsu; Fujita, Shoichiro; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Yamashita, Tomoaki; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2003-06-01

    Residual 152Eu activities induced by neutrons from the Nagasaki atomic bomb were measured for nine mineral samples located up to 1,061 m in the slant range and one control sample at 2,850 m from the hypocenter. A chemical separation to prepare europium-enriched samples was performed for all samples, and gamma ray measurements were carried out with a low background well-type germanium detector. In this paper, the measured specific activities of 152Eu are compared with activation calculations based on the DS86 neutron fluence and the 93Rev one. The calculated-to-measured ratios are also compared with those of 60Co and 36Cl. The present results indicate that the measurements agree to the calculation within a factor of three as observed in the nuclear tests at Nevada. The activation level of environmental neutrons and the detection limit for 152Eu are also discussed. PMID:13678342

  3. Radiation dose response estimation with emphasis on low dose range using restricted cubic splines: application to all solid cancer mortality data, 1950-2003, in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Eiji

    2015-07-01

    Using the all solid cancer mortality data set of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort from 1950 to 2003 (LSS Report 14) data among atomic bomb survivors, excess relative risk (ERR) statistical analyses were performed using the second degree polynomial and the threshold and restricted cubic spline (RCS) dose response models. For the RCS models with 3 to 7 knots of equally spaced percentiles with margins in the dose range greater than 50 mGy, the dose response was assumed to be linear at less than 70 to 90 mGy. Due to the skewed dose distribution of atomic bomb survivors, the current knot system for the RCS analysis results in a detailed depiction of the dose response as less than approximately 0.5 Gy. The 6 knot RCS models for the all-solid cancer mortality dose response of the whole dose or less than 2 Gy were selected with the AIC model selection criterion and fit significantly better (p < 0.05) than the linear (L) model. The usual RCS includes the L-global model but not the quadratic (Q) nor linear-quadratic (LQ) global models. The authors extended the RCS to include L or LQ global models by putting L or LQ constraints on the cubic spline in the lower and upper tails, and the best RCS model selected with AIC criterion was the usual RCS with L-constraints in both the lower and upper tails. The selected RCS had a linear dose-response model in the lower dose range (i.e., < 0.2-0.3 Gy) and was compatible with the linear no-threshold (LNT) model in this dose range. The proposed method is also useful in describing the dose response of a specific cancer or non-cancer disease incidence/mortality. PMID:26011495

  4. Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

  5. Breast cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors from multi-model inference with incidence data 1958-1998.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, J C; Jacob, P; Meckbach, R; Cullings, H M

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer risk from radiation exposure has been analyzed in the cohort of Japanese a-bomb survivors using empirical models and mechanistic two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) models with incidence data from 1958 to 1998. TSCE models rely on a phenomenological representation of cell transition processes on the path to cancer. They describe the data as good as empirical models and this fact has been exploited for risk assessment. Adequate models of both types have been selected with a statistical protocol based on parsimonious parameter deployment and their risk estimates have been combined using multi-model inference techniques. TSCE models relate the radiation risk to cell processes which are controlled by age-increasing rates of initiating mutations and by changes in hormone levels due to menopause. For exposure at young age, they predict an enhanced excess relative risk (ERR) whereas the preferred empirical model shows no dependence on age at exposure. At attained age 70, the multi-model median of the ERR at 1 Gy decreases moderately from 1.2 Gy(-1) (90% CI 0.72; 2.1) for exposure at age 25 to a 30% lower value for exposure at age 55. For cohort strata with few cases, where model predictions diverge, uncertainty intervals from multi-model inference are enhanced by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to the preferred empirical model. Multi-model inference provides a joint risk estimate from several plausible models rather than relying on a single model of choice. It produces more reliable point estimates and improves the characterization of uncertainties. The method is recommended for risk assessment in practical radiation protection. PMID:21947564

  6. Vannevar Bush backs the bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, G.P.

    1992-12-01

    This article deals with Vannevar Bush's role in controlling America's secret research on the atomic bomb from 1939 to 1942, concentrating on administrative/political/military aspects. This is one of a series of articles in this magazine commemorating the 50th anniversary of the first controlled chain reaction.

  7. Radiation therapy among A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, W J; Antoku, S

    1976-01-01

    Survey of hospitals and clinics where atomic bomb survivors and their comparisons reported having received radiation therapy confirmed that 137 were so treated. The malignancies of five subjects were possibly related to their earlier radiation therapy rather than their atomic bomb radiation exposure, stressing the importance of recording all medical X-ray exposures as a potential variable in epidemiological studies of cancer etiology. PMID:961946

  8. Modelling the effective atomic number and the packing factor of polyatomic compounds: Applications to refractive index and dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, H.; Couto dos Santos, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, based on fundamental physics and chemistry (charge distribution, electronegativity, induced dipole moment), we are introducing an analytical expression for Zeff and a general way of calculating the crystal packing factor, p, of any ionic material. By using the average separation between the atomic and crystal(ionic) radii of the interacting ions, we are postulating an effective distance(Rij) between the positive and the negative centre of charge. When compared to the available experimental data, predictions within 20% have been obtained to Zeff of materials applied to dosimetry. In photonics, the increasing behaviour of the refractive index with Zeff is confirmed. By combining crystal field and effective charge models, we have predicted Zeff of the Eu2O3 within the range of available experimental data.

  9. Dark sun, the making of the hydrogen bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, R.

    1995-10-01

    This book traces the history of the making of the hydrogen bomb, starting with the history of the Soviet atomic bomb from its beginning and the American project after the end of World War II, the stories of the atomic spies, and history of the cold war. Details are extensive and presented in a comprehensive and logical fashion.

  10. AMS applied to Hiroshima and Chernobyl dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.; Marchetti, A.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    Two projects employing AMS are summarized and updated. One project employs AMS to measure {sup 36}Cl in concrete and other mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki to help reconstruct neutron fluences received by the atom-bomb survivors. In this project, we have demonstrated a large discrepancy between the neutron activation measured in Hiroshima and predictions based on the current dosimetry system. This discrepancy has practical implications for radiation risk assessment and radiation protection standards. The other project employs AMS to measure {sup 129}I in soil and other environmental samples from Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. This is a proof-of-principle study to determine if the long lived {sup 129}I isotope (half life, 16 x 10{sup 6} y) measured by AMS can be used to reconstruct deposition of the short lived {sup 131}I isotope from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident. This is required because {sup 131}I disappeared before adequate measurements could be made.