Superfluidity of ultracold atomic gases of Fermi-Fermi mixtures on an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jibiao; Chen, Qijin
Superfluidity of ultracold atomic gases of Fermi-Fermi mixtures has been under active investigation recently. Experimentally, mixtures of 6Li-40K, 171Yb-173Yband6Li-173Yb, for example, have been prepared and cooled down to the quantum degeneracy regime, making the superfluid phase accessible in the near future. In this talk, we will address the superfluidity of ultracold Fermi-Fermi mixtures on 1D through 3D optical lattices, with varying mass and population imbalances and different densities, as they undergo BCS-BEC crossover, within a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the important pseudogap effects at finite temperatures. We will present various phase diagrams and show the dramatic combined effects of mass and population imbalances and lattice periodicity. Implications for future experiment will be discussed. References: [1]Q. J. Chen, I. Kosztin, B. Janko, and K. Levin, Phys. Rev. B 59, 7083 (1999). [2] C. -C. Chien, Y. He, Q. J. Chen, and K. Levin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 011601(R) (2008). [3] C. -C. Chien, Q. J. Chen, and K. Levin, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043612 (2008). [4] Q. J. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023610 (2012). Work supported by NSF of China and the National Basic Research Program of China.
Superfluidity and BCS-BEC crossover of ultracold atomic Fermi gases in mixed dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Leifeng; Chen, Qijin
Atomic Fermi gases have been under active investigation in the past decade. Here we study the superfluid and pairing phenomena of a two-component ultracold atomic Fermi gas in the presence of mixed dimensionality, in which one component is confined on a 1D optical lattice whereas the other is free in the 3D continuum. We assume a short-range pairing interaction and determine the superfluid transition temperature Tc and the phase diagram for the entire BCS-BEC crossover, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite momentum pairs. We find that, as the lattice depth increases and the lattice spacing decreases, the behavior of Tc becomes very similar to that of a population imbalance Fermi gas in a simple 3D continuum. There is no superfluidity even at T = 0 below certain threshold of pairing strength in the BCS regime. Nonmonotonic Tc behavior and intermediate temperature superfluidity emerge, and for deep enough lattice, the Tc curve will split into two parts. Implications for experiment will be discussed. References: 1. Q.J. Chen, Ioan Kosztin, B. Janko, and K. Levin, Phys. Rev. B 59, 7083 (1999). 2. Chih-Chun Chien, Qijin Chen, Yan He, and K. Levin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 090402(2006). Work supported by NSF of China and the National Basic Research Program of China.
High-temperature atomic superfluidity in lattice Bose-Fermi mixtures.
Illuminati, Fabrizio; Albus, Alexander
2004-08-27
We consider atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices and study the superfluidity of fermionic atoms due to s-wave pairing induced by boson-fermion interactions. We prove that the induced fermion-fermion coupling is always attractive if the boson-boson on-site interaction is repulsive, and predict the existence of an enhanced BEC-BCS crossover as the strength of the lattice potential is varied. We show that for direct on-site fermion-fermion repulsion, the induced attraction can give rise to superfluidity via s-wave pairing at striking variance with the case of pure systems of fermionic atoms with direct repulsive interactions. PMID:15447082
Two-band description of resonant superfluidity in atomic Fermi gases
He, Lianyi; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia -Ji
2015-02-23
Fermionic superfluidity in atomic Fermi gases across a Feshbach resonance is normally described by the atom-molecule theory, which treats the closed channel as a noninteracting point boson. In this work we present a theoretical description of the resonant superfluidity in analogy to the two-band superconductors. We employ the underlying two-channel scattering model of Feshbach resonance where the closed channel is treated as a composite boson with binding energy ε_{0} and the resonance is triggered by the microscopic interchannel coupling U_{12}. The binding energy ε_{0} naturally serves as an energy scale of the system, which has been sent to infinity in the atom-molecule theory. We show that the atom-molecule theory can be viewed as a leading-order low-energy effective theory of the underlying fermionic theory in the limit ε_{0}→∞ and U_{12}→0, while keeping the phenomenological atom-molecule coupling finite. The resulting two-band description of the superfluid state is in analogy to the BCS theory of two-band superconductors. In the dilute limit ε_{0}→∞, the two-band description recovers precisely the atom-molecule theory. The two-band theory provides a natural approach to study the corrections because of a finite binding energy ε_{0} in realistic experimental systems. For broad and moderate resonances, the correction is not important for current experimental densities. However, for extremely narrow resonance, we find that the correction becomes significant. Lastly, the finite binding energy correction could be important for the stability of homogeneous polarized superfluid against phase separation in imbalanced Fermi gases across a narrow Feshbach resonance.
Two-band description of resonant superfluidity in atomic Fermi gases
He, Lianyi; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia -Ji
2015-02-23
Fermionic superfluidity in atomic Fermi gases across a Feshbach resonance is normally described by the atom-molecule theory, which treats the closed channel as a noninteracting point boson. In this work we present a theoretical description of the resonant superfluidity in analogy to the two-band superconductors. We employ the underlying two-channel scattering model of Feshbach resonance where the closed channel is treated as a composite boson with binding energy ε0 and the resonance is triggered by the microscopic interchannel coupling U12. The binding energy ε0 naturally serves as an energy scale of the system, which has been sent to infinity inmore » the atom-molecule theory. We show that the atom-molecule theory can be viewed as a leading-order low-energy effective theory of the underlying fermionic theory in the limit ε0→∞ and U12→0, while keeping the phenomenological atom-molecule coupling finite. The resulting two-band description of the superfluid state is in analogy to the BCS theory of two-band superconductors. In the dilute limit ε0→∞, the two-band description recovers precisely the atom-molecule theory. The two-band theory provides a natural approach to study the corrections because of a finite binding energy ε0 in realistic experimental systems. For broad and moderate resonances, the correction is not important for current experimental densities. However, for extremely narrow resonance, we find that the correction becomes significant. Lastly, the finite binding energy correction could be important for the stability of homogeneous polarized superfluid against phase separation in imbalanced Fermi gases across a narrow Feshbach resonance.« less
Chiral superfluidity with p-wave symmetry from an interacting s-wave atomic Fermi gas.
Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Wu, Biao; Liu, W Vincent
2014-01-01
Chiral p-wave superfluids are fascinating topological quantum states of matter that have been found in the liquid (3)He-A phase and arguably in the electronic Sr2RuO4 superconductor. They are fundamentally related to the fractional 5/2 quantum Hall state, which supports fractional exotic excitations. Past studies show that they require spin-triplet pairing of fermions by p-wave interaction. Here we report that a p-wave chiral superfluid state can arise from spin-singlet pairing for an s-wave interacting atomic Fermi gas in an optical lattice. This p-wave state is conceptually distinct from all previous conventional p-wave states as it is for the centre-of-mass motion, instead of the relative motion. It leads to spontaneous generation of angular momentum, finite Chern numbers and topologically protected chiral fermionic zero modes bounded to domain walls, all occuring at a higher critical temperature in relative scales. Signature quantities are predicted for the cold atom experimental condition. PMID:25266996
Single impurity in ultracold Fermi superfluids
Jiang Lei; Baksmaty, Leslie O.; Pu, Han; Hu Hui; Chen Yan
2011-06-15
The role of impurities as experimental probes in the detection of quantum material properties is well appreciated. Here we study the effect of a single classical magnetic impurity in trapped ultracold Fermi superfluids. Depending on its shape and strength, a magnetic impurity can induce single or multiple midgap bound states in a superfluid Fermi gas. The multiple midgap states could coincide with the development of a Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase within the superfluid. As an analog of the scanning tunneling microsope, we propose a modified rf spectroscopic method to measure the local density of states which can be employed to detect these states and other quantum phases of cold atoms. A key result of our self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes calculations is that a magnetic impurity can controllably induce an FFLO state at currently accessible experimental parameters.
Asymmetric Fermi superfluid with different atomic species in a harmonic trap
Pao, C.-H.; Wu, S.-T.; Yip, S.-K.
2007-11-15
We study the dilute fermion gas with pairing between two species and unequal concentrations in a harmonic trap using the mean-field theory and the local density approximation. We found that the system can exhibit a superfluid shell structure sandwiched by the normal fermions. This superfluid shell structure occurs if the mass ratio is larger than a certain critical value, which increases from the weak-coupling BCS region to the strong-coupling Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) side. In the strong-coupling BEC regime, the radii of the superfluid phase are less sensitive to the mass ratios and are similar to the case of pairing with equal masses. However, the lighter leftover fermions are easier to mix with the superfluid core than the heavier ones. A partially polarized superfluid can be found if the majority fermions are lighter, whereas phase separation is still found if they are heavier.
Weyl superfluidity in a three-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas.
Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Yin, Lan; Liu, W Vincent
2015-01-30
Weyl superconductivity or superfluidity, a fascinating topological state of matter, features novel phenomena such as emergent Weyl fermionic excitations and anomalies. Here we report that an anisotropic Weyl superfluid state can arise as a low temperature stable phase in a 3D dipolar Fermi gas. A crucial ingredient of our model is a direction-dependent two-body effective attraction generated by a rotating external field. Experimental signatures are predicted for cold gases in radio-frequency spectroscopy. The finite temperature phase diagram of this system is studied and the transition temperature of the Weyl superfluidity is found to be within the experimental scope for atomic dipolar Fermi gases. PMID:25679898
Dark lump excitations in superfluid Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yan-Xia; Duan, Wen-Shan
2012-11-01
We study the linear and nonlinear properties of two-dimensional matter-wave pulses in disk-shaped superfluid Fermi gases. A Kadomtsev—Petviashvili I (KPI) solitary wave has been realized for superfluid Fermi gases in the limited cases of Bardeen—Cooper—Schrieffer (BCS) regime, Bose—Einstein condensate (BEC) regime, and unitarity regime. One-lump solution as well as one-line soliton solutions for the KPI equation are obtained, and two-line soliton solutions with the same amplitude are also studied in the limited cases. The dependence of the lump propagating velocity and the sound speed of two-dimensional superfluid Fermi gases on the interaction parameter are investigated for the limited cases of BEC and unitarity.
Weyl Superfluidity in a Three-dimensional Dipolar Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Yin, Lan; Liu, W. Vincent
2015-03-01
Weyl superconductivity or superfluidity, a fascinating topological state of matter, features novel phenomena such as emergent Weyl fermionic excitations and anomalies. Here we report that an anisotropic Weyl superfluid state can arise as a low temperature stable phase in a 3D dipolar Fermi gas. A crucial ingredient of our model is a direction-dependent two-body effective attraction generated by a rotating external field. Experimental signatures are predicted for cold gases in radio-frequency spectroscopy. The finite temperature phase diagram of this system is studied and the transition temperature of the Weyl superfluidity is found to be within the experimental scope for atomic dipolar Fermi gases. Work supported in part by U.S. ARO, AFOSR, DARPA-OLE-ARO, Charles E. Kaufman Foundation and The Pittsburgh Foundation, JQI-NSF-PFC, ARO-Atomtronics-MURI, and NSF of China.
Study of superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laurent, Sebastien; Delehaye, Marion; Jin, Shuwei; Pierce, Matthieu; Yefsah, Tarik; Chevy, Frederic; Salomon, Christophe
2016-05-01
Using fermionic and bosonic isotopes of lithium we produce and study ultracold Bose-Fermi mixtures. First in a low temperature counterflow experiment, we measure the critical velocity of the system in the BEC-BCS crossover. Around unitarity, we observe a remarkably high superfluid critical velocity which reaches the sound velocity of the strongly interacting Fermi gas. Second, when we increase the temperature of the system slightly above the superfluid transitions we observe an unexpected phase locking of the oscillations of the clouds induced by dissipation. Finally, as suggested in, we explore the nature of the superfluid phase when we impose a spin polarization in the situation where the mean field potential created by the bosons on the fermions tends to cancel out the trapping potential of the latter.
Traveling dark solitons in superfluid Fermi gases
Liao Renyuan; Brand, Joachim
2011-04-15
Families of dark solitons exist in superfluid Fermi gases. The energy-velocity dispersion and number of depleted particles completely determine the dynamics of dark solitons on a slowly varying background density. For the unitary Fermi gas, we determine these relations from general scaling arguments and conservation of local particle number. We find solitons to oscillate sinusoidally at the trap frequency reduced by a factor of 1/{radical}(3). Numerical integration of the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation determines spatial profiles and soliton-dispersion relations across the BEC-BCS crossover, and proves consistent with the scaling relations at unitarity.
Resource Article: Experiments with Vortices in Superfluid Atomic Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Brian P.
2010-12-01
Observations of quantized vortices in dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates were first reported in 1999. Over the next 10 years, more than 70 papers describing experiments involving vortices in superfluid atomic gases were published in scientific journals. This resource article provides a guide to the published experimental studies related to quantized vortices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and superfluid Fermi gases. A BibTex-formatted bibliography document listing these published studies is also available electronically.
Generalized second-order Thomas-Fermi method for superfluid Fermi systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pei, J. C.; Fei, Na; Zhang, Y. N.; Schuck, P.
2015-12-01
Using the ℏ expansion of the Green's function of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equation, we extend the second-order Thomas-Fermi approximation to generalized superfluid Fermi systems by including the density-dependent effective mass and the spin-orbit potential. We first implement and examine the full correction terms over different energy intervals of the quasiparticle spectra in calculations of finite nuclei. Final applications of this generalized Thomas-Fermi method are intended for various inhomogeneous superfluid Fermi systems.
Guo Hao; Levin, K.; Chien, Chih-Chun
2010-09-17
We show how in ultracold Fermi gases the difference between the finite temperature T structure factors, called S{sub -}({omega},q), associated with spin and density, reflects coherent order at all {omega}, q, k{sub F}a, and T. This observation can be exploited in two photon Bragg scattering experiments on gases which are subject to variable attractive interactions. Our calculations incorporate spin and particle number conservation laws which lead to compatibility at general T with two f-sum rules. Because of its generality a measurement of S{sub -}({omega},q) can be a qualitative, direct, in situ approach for establishing superfluid order.
Guo, Hao; Chien, Chih-Chun; Levin, K
2010-09-17
We show how in ultracold Fermi gases the difference between the finite temperature T structure factors, called S_(ω,q), associated with spin and density, reflects coherent order at all ω, q, k(F)a, and T. This observation can be exploited in two photon Bragg scattering experiments on gases which are subject to variable attractive interactions. Our calculations incorporate spin and particle number conservation laws which lead to compatibility at general T with two f-sum rules. Because of its generality a measurement of S_(ω,q) can be a qualitative, direct, in situ approach for establishing superfluid order. PMID:20867615
Quench dynamics of a superfluid Fermi gas
Warner, G.L.; Leggett, A.J.
2005-04-01
With an eye toward the interpretation of so-called 'cosmological' experiments performed on the low-temperature phases of {sup 3}He, in which regions of the superfluid are destroyed by local heating with neutron radiation, we have studied the behavior of a Fermi gas subjected to uniform variations of an attractive BCS interaction parameter {lambda}. In {sup 3}He, the quenches induced by the rapid cooling of the 'hot spots' back through the transition may lead to the formation of vortex loops via the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. A consideration of the free energy available in the quenched region for the production of such vortices reveals that the Kibble-Zurek scaling law gives at best a lower bound on the defect spacing. Further, for quenches that fall far outside the Ginzburg-Landau regime, the dynamics on the pair subspace, as initiated by quantum fluctuations, tends irreversibly to a self-driven steady state with a gap {delta}{sub {infinity}}={epsilon}{sub C}(e{sup 2/N(0){lambda}}-1){sup -1/2}. In weak coupling, this is only half the BCS gap, the extra energy being taken up by the residual collective motion of the pairs.
Propagation of second sound in a superfluid Fermi gas in the unitary limit
Arahata, Emiko; Nikuni, Tetsuro
2009-10-15
We study sound propagation in a uniform superfluid gas of Fermi atoms in the unitary limit. The existence of normal and superfluid components leads to appearance of two sound modes in the collisional regime, referred to as first and second sounds. The second sound is of particular interest as it is a clear signal of a superfluid component. Using Landau's two-fluid hydrodynamic theory, we calculate hydrodynamic sound velocities and these weights in the density response function. The latter is used to calculate the response to a sudden modification of the external potential generating pulse propagation. The amplitude of a pulse which is proportional to the weight in the response function is calculated, the basis of the approach of Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink for the BCS-BEC. We show that, in a superfluid Fermi gas at unitarity, the second-sound pulse is excited with an appreciate amplitude by density perturbations.
Exciting Quantized Vortex Rings in a Superfluid Unitary Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulgac, Aurel
2014-03-01
In a recent article, Yefsah et al., Nature 499, 426 (2013) report the observation of an unusual quantum excitation mode in an elongated harmonically trapped unitary Fermi gas. After phase imprinting a domain wall, they observe collective oscillations of the superfluid atomic cloud with a period almost an order of magnitude larger than that predicted by any theory of domain walls, which they interpret as a possible new quantum phenomenon dubbed ``a heavy soliton'' with an inertial mass some 50 times larger than one expected for a domain wall. We present compelling evidence that this ``heavy soliton'' is instead a quantized vortex ring by showing that the main aspects of the experiment can be naturally explained within an extension of the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to superfluid systems. The numerical simulations required the solution of some 260,000 nonlinear coupled time-dependent 3-dimensional partial differential equations and was implemented on 2048 GPUs on the Cray XK7 supercomputer Titan of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility.
Superfluidity and collective modes in Rashba spin–orbit coupled Fermi gases
He, Lianyi; Huang, Xu-Guang
2013-10-15
We present a theoretical study of the superfluidity and the corresponding collective modes in two-component atomic Fermi gases with s-wave attraction and synthetic Rashba spin–orbit coupling. The general effective action for the collective modes is derived from the functional path integral formalism. By tuning the spin–orbit coupling from weak to strong, the system undergoes a crossover from an ordinary BCS/BEC superfluid to a Bose–Einstein condensate of rashbons. We show that the properties of the superfluid density and the Anderson–Bogoliubov mode manifest this crossover. At large spin–orbit coupling, the superfluid density and the sound velocity become independent of the strength of the s-wave attraction. The two-body interaction among the rashbons is also determined. When a Zeeman field is turned on, the system undergoes quantum phase transitions to some exotic superfluid phases which are topologically nontrivial. For the two-dimensional system, the nonanalyticities of the thermodynamic functions and the sound velocity across the phase transition are related to the bulk gapless fermionic excitation which causes infrared singularities. The superfluid density and the sound velocity behave nonmonotonically: they are suppressed by the Zeeman field in the normal superfluid phase, but get enhanced in the topological superfluid phase. The three-dimensional system is also studied. -- Highlights: •The general effective action for Rashba spin–orbit coupled Fermi superfluids is derived. •The evolution of the collective modes manifests the BCS/BEC-rashbon crossover. •The superfluid properties are universal at large spin–orbit coupling. •The sound velocity behaves nonanalytically across the quantum phase transition.
Second sound and the superfluid fraction in a Fermi gas with resonant interactions.
Sidorenkov, Leonid A; Tey, Meng Khoon; Grimm, Rudolf; Hou, Yan-Hua; Pitaevskii, Lev; Stringari, Sandro
2013-06-01
Superfluidity is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon occurring in systems as diverse as liquid helium and neutron stars. It occurs below a critical temperature and leads to peculiar behaviour such as frictionless flow, the formation of quantized vortices and quenching of the moment of inertia. Ultracold atomic gases offer control of interactions and external confinement, providing unique opportunities to explore superfluid phenomena. Many such (finite-temperature) phenomena can be explained in terms of a two-fluid mixture comprising a normal component, which behaves like an ordinary fluid, and a superfluid component with zero viscosity and zero entropy. The two-component nature of a superfluid is manifest in 'second sound', an entropy wave in which the superfluid and the non-superfluid components oscillate with opposite phases (as opposed to ordinary 'first sound', where they oscillate in phase). Here we report the observation of second sound in an ultracold Fermi gas with resonant interactions. The speed of second sound depends explicitly on the value of the superfluid fraction, a quantity that is sensitive to the spectrum of elementary excitations. Our measurements allow us to extract the temperature dependence of the superfluid fraction, a previously inaccessible quantity that will provide a benchmark for theories of strongly interacting quantum gases. PMID:23676679
Salasnich, Luca
2010-12-15
We investigate the low-temperature thermodynamics of the unitary Fermi gas by introducing a model based on the zero-temperature spectra of both bosonic collective modes and fermonic single-particle excitations. We calculate the Helmholtz free energy and from it we obtain the entropy, the internal energy, and the chemical potential as a function of the temperature. By using these quantities and the Landau's expression for the superfluid density we determine analytically the superfluid fraction, the critical temperature, the first sound velocity, and the second sound velocity. We compare our analytical results with other theoretical predictions and experimental data of ultracold atoms and dilute neutron matter.
Superfluidity of heated Fermi systems in the static fluctuation approximation
Khamzin, A. A.; Nikitin, A. S.; Sitdikov, A. S.
2015-10-15
Superfluidity properties of heated finite Fermi systems are studied in the static fluctuation approximation, which is an original method. This method relies on a single and controlled approximation, which permits taking correctly into account quasiparticle correlations and thereby going beyond the independent-quasiparticle model. A closed self-consistent set of equations for calculating correlation functions at finite temperature is obtained for a finite Fermi system described by the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer Hamiltonian. An equation for the energy gap is found with allowance for fluctuation effects. It is shown that the phase transition to the supefluid state is smeared upon the inclusion of fluctuations.
Superfluid Pairing and Majorana Zero Mode in an Ultracold Rydberg Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Bo; Jen, H. H.; You, Jhih-Shih; Wang, Daw-Wei
2013-03-01
We systematically calculate the p-wave superfluid phase of spin polarized Fermi gases in a Rydberg state. The mutual interaction between atoms are dressed by external fields and show nonlocal attractive 1/(a +r6) interaction. Different from the p-wave pairing phase of regular atoms near p-wave Feshbach resonance, the obtained p-wave superfluid phase can be stable away from three-body collision and has intrinsic nontrivial nodes in the momentum space. The critical temperature and order parameter for various interaction parameters have been calculated analytically and numerically, both in the 2D and 3D free space. When loading into optical lattice, we also show the proximity effect of Tc near half filling. Finally, when considering the harmonic confinement potential, we obtain the gapless Majorana Fermions confined to the boundary via self-consistently solving the DBG equation. We will discuss how to experimentally prepare and measure these Majorana states in Rydberg atoms.
Evolution from BCS to BEC Superfluidity in Dilute Fermi Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Melo, Carlos A. R. Sa
2006-03-01
I will review briefly some old results [1,2] of the evolution from BCS to BEC superfluidity in dilute Fermi gases, including critical temperature, order parameter amplitude, chemical potential and time dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory for the s-wave channel in three dimensions. Following this discussion, I will present new results for the BCS to BEC evolution of Fermi gases in the p-wave channel [3]. I will make comparisons between s-wave and p-wave superfluidity and point out the main differences between the two cases. Lastly, I will discuss supefluidity of s-wave and p-wave Fermi gases in a restricted two-dimensional geometry (one dimensional optical lattice), where a Berezinkii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type transition is proposed as the system evolves from the weak to the strong attraction limit. In this case, I will show that spontaneous vortex-antivortex pairs form and that they can condense into a vortex-antivortex lattice at lower temperatures [4]. [1] C. A. R. Sa de Melo, M. Randeria, and J. R. Engelbrecht, PRL 71, 3202 (1993). [2] J. R. Engelbrecht, M. Randeria, and C. A. R. Sa de Melo, PRB 55, 15153 (1997). [3] M. Iskin, and C. A. R. Sa de Melo, cond-mat/0510300 (2005). [4] S. S. Botelho, and C. A. R. Sa de Melo, cond-mat/0509387 (2005).
Critical Zeeman splitting of a unitary Fermi superfluid
He Lianyi; Zhuang Pengfei
2011-05-01
We determine the critical Zeeman energy splitting of a homogeneous Fermi superfluid at unitary in terms of the Fermi energy {epsilon}{sub F} according to recent experimental results in Laboratoire Kastler Brossel (LKB)-Lhomond. Based on the universal equations of state for the superfluid and normal phases, we show that there exist two critical fields H{sub c1} and H{sub c2}, between which a superfluid-normal mixed phase is energetically favored. Universal formulas for the critical fields and the critical population imbalance P{sub c} are derived. We have found a universal relation between the critical fields and the critical imbalances: H{sub c1}={gamma}{xi}{epsilon}{sub F} and H{sub c2}=(1+{gamma}P{sub c}){sup 2/3}H{sub c1}, where {xi} is the universal constant and {gamma} is the critical value of the chemical potential imbalance in the grand canonical ensemble. Since {xi}, {gamma}, and P{sub c} have been measured in the experiments, we can determine the critical Zeeman fields without the detailed information of the equation of state for the polarized normal phase. Using the experimental data from LKB-Lhomond, we have found H{sub c1{approx_equal}}0.37{epsilon}{sub F} and H{sub c2{approx_equal}}0.44{epsilon}{sub F}. Our result of the polarization P as a function of the Zeeman field H/{epsilon}{sub F} is in good agreement with the data extracted from the experiments. We also give an estimation of the critical magnetic field for dilute neutron matter at which the matter gets spin polarized, assuming the properties of the dilute neutron matter are close to those of the unitary Fermi gas.
Sound Modes of a Bose-Fermi Mixture Superfluid at Finite Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ono, Yosuke; Sakamoto, Ryohei; Mori, Hiroyuki; Arahata, Emiko
2016-06-01
We study the sound modes of a Bose-Fermi mixture superfluid at finite temperatures in the collisional hydrodynamic regime. We extend Landau's hydrodynamic theory to deal with a Bose-Fermi mixture superfluid and show the existence of three sound modes. We calculate the hydrodynamic sound velocities numerically using the Nozières and Schmitt-Rink theory at unitarity. The three-sound-modes hybrid in Bose-Fermi mixture superfluids contrasts with the two sound modes exhibited by 3He and 4He superfluids.
Observing the drop of resistance in the flow of a superfluid Fermi gas.
Stadler, David; Krinner, Sebastian; Meineke, Jakob; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Esslinger, Tilman
2012-11-29
The ability of particles to flow with very low resistance is characteristic of superfluid and superconducting states, leading to their discovery in the past century. Although measuring the particle flow in liquid helium or superconducting materials is essential to identify superfluidity or superconductivity, no analogous measurement has been performed for superfluids based on ultracold Fermi gases. Here we report direct measurements of the conduction properties of strongly interacting fermions, observing the well-known drop in resistance that is associated with the onset of superfluidity. By varying the depth of the trapping potential in a narrow channel connecting two atomic reservoirs, we observed variations of the atomic current over several orders of magnitude. We related the intrinsic conduction properties to the thermodynamic functions in a model-independent way, by making use of high-resolution in situ imaging in combination with current measurements. Our results show that, as in solid-state systems, current and resistance measurements in quantum gases provide a sensitive probe with which to explore many-body physics. Our method is closely analogous to the operation of a solid-state field-effect transistor and could be applied as a probe for optical lattices and disordered systems, paving the way for modelling complex superconducting devices. PMID:23192151
Superfluidity in Strongly Interacting Spin-Polarized Fermi Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsen, Ben A.; Revelle, Melissa C.; Fry, Jacob A.; Hulet, Randall G.; Sheehy, Daniel E.
2015-05-01
We report measurements of the phase boundaries of a harmonically trapped, spin polarized two-component Fermi gas. The interactions in the gas are varied using a magnetically-tuned Feshbach resonance between the weakly-interacting BCS and strongly-interacting BEC regimes. Using spin-selective imaging, we measure the density profiles for the two lowest hyperfine levels of 6Li, with the superfluid phase being indicated by an unpolarized central core. We determine phase boundaries between the unpolarized superfluid, partially polarized, and ferromagnetic normal phases as functions of interactions and polarization. We find results that are consistent with earlier experimental results as well as Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations in the crossover regime. We explore the deep BCS regime, where few theoretical predictions are available, and also explore the BEC side of resonance, where we observe a superfluid core at higher polarization than predicted by QMC; we discuss the relative contributions of beyond-mean-field and temperature effects to this disparity. Supported by DARPA, NSF, ARO, and ONR.
The spin diffusion in normal and superfluid Fermi liquids
Einzel, D. )
1991-09-01
Spin diffusion in paramagnetic spin systems is a dissipative process that acts so as to remove all spatial variation of the magnetization. In normal and superfluid Fermi liquids its physical origin lies in the nonconservation property of the macroscopic magnetization current associated with the thermal excitations, the Landau and Bogolyubov quasi-particles, respectively. In the hydrodynamic limit, this dissipative process manifests itself in a constitutive relation connecting the decaying magnetization current with gradients in the magnetization density via a coefficient of spin diffusion. Exchange contributions to the quasi-particle interaction introduce, in addition, reactive processes, which can be associated with a rotation of the quasi-particle spin current about the direction of the spin polarization. This so-called spin current rotation - or Leggett-Rice effect - leads to nonhydrodynamic behavior of the spin diffusion whenever the exchange frequency becomes comparable to the inverse spin-current relaxation time. This article reviews the current understanding of diffusional spin transport, as influenced by nonhydrodynamic effects, in normal and superfluid Fermi systems.
Exotic superfluid of trapped Fermi gases with spin–orbit coupling in dimensional crossover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jing; Shi, Cheng; Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Wen, Lin; Chen, Peng; Li, Deng-Feng
2016-06-01
We investigate the ground state properties of Fermi gases in a planar array of one-dimensional potential tubes with spin–orbit coupling where the motion of atoms is free in the \\hat{{x}}-direction and the tunneling between nearest tubes in the \\hat{{y}}-direction is permitted. By using the mean-field method, the phase diagrams of the system at the dimensional crossover from quasi-one dimension to quasi-two dimensions is obtained. We find the existence of the topological state and Majorana mode in the weak tunneling case, and a rich phase diagram including two kinds of nodal superfluid phase and gapped superfluid phase, in the opposite case. The results show that topological pairing is favored in quasi-one dimension while nodal pairing state is favored in quasi-two dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corro, I.; Martin, A. M.
2016-08-01
We develop a simple numerical method that allows us to calculate the BCS superfluid transition temperature Tc precisely for any interaction potential. We apply it to a polarized, ultracold Fermi gas with long-range, anisotropic, dipolar interactions and include the effects of anisotropic exchange interactions. We pay particular attention to the short-range behavior of dipolar gases and reexamine current renormalization methods. In particular, we find that dimerization of both atoms and molecules significantly hampers the formation of a superfluid. The end result is that at high density or interaction strengths, we find Tc is orders of magnitude lower than previous calculations.
Characters of basic steady state solutions for superfluid Fermi gas in Bessel optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ke-Zhi; Chen, Yan; He, Yong-Lin; Liu, Zheng-Lai
2015-08-01
We consider a dynamical model for superfluid Fermi gas, trapped in the central well of an axially symmetric Bessel optical lattice potential. The equation includes nonlinear power-law form of the chemical potential μ(n) = C|ψ|2γ, for γ = 2 3, which accounts for Fermi pressure. Reducing the equation to two-dimensional (2D) form, we obtain the basic steady state solutions of the system along the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) side to Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) side by employing the energy balance condition, which are guided by the variational approximation. It is found that the strength ɛ and the radial scale r of the Bessel optical lattice have an extreme effect on the characters of basic steady state solution. Analytically, we deduce the atomic density distribution, the average atom number and the average energy of basic steady state, where the atom distribution of the system presents on periodic change with r, and increases faster at unitarity than in the BEC limit. Furthermore, because of the Fermi pressure, the atomic density distribution at the unitarity is more extensive than that in the BEC limit. In particular, there exist very interesting changes, the average energy intends to collapse state with r, however it emerges as a stable state with varying L both in the BEC limit and at unitarity.
Vortex lattices in a rotating Fermi superfluid in the BCS-BEC crossover with many Landau levels
Song, Tie-ling; Ma, C.R.; Ma, Yong-li
2012-08-15
We present an explicit analytical analysis of the ground state of vortex lattice structure, based on a minimization of the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii energy functional in a trapped rotating Fermi superfluid gas. By a Bogoliubov-like transformation we find that the coarse-grained average of the atomic density varies as inverted parabola in three dimensional cases; the Fermi superfluid in the BEC regime enters into the lowest Landau level at fast rotation, in which the vortices form an almost regular triangular lattice over a central region and the vortex lattice is expanded along the radial direction in the outer region; the fluid in the unitarity and BCS regimes occupies many low-lying Landau levels, in which a trapped gas with a triangular vortex lattice has a superfluid core surrounded by a normal gas. The calculation is qualitatively consistent with recent numerical and experimental data both in the vortex lattice structure and vortex numbers and in the density profiles versus the stirring frequency in the whole BCS-BEC crossover. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present an analysis of vortex lattice in an interacting trapped rotating Fermi superfluid gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decomposing the vortex from the condensate, we can explain the vortex lattice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculation is consistent with numerical and experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It can characterize experimentally properties in different regimes of the BCS-BEC crossover.
Superfluid state of repulsively interacting three-component fermionic atoms in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suga, Sei-Ichiro; Inaba, Kensuke
2013-03-01
We investigate the superfluid state of repulsively interacting three-component (color) fermionic atoms in optical lattices using Feynman diagrammatic approaches and the dynamical mean field theory. When the anisotropy of the three repulsive interactions is strong, atoms of two of the three colors form Cooper pairs and atoms of the third color remain a Fermi liquid. This superfluid emerges close to half filling at which the Mott insulating state characteristic of the three-component repulsive fermions appears. An effective attractive interaction is induced by density fluctuations of the third-color atoms. The superfluid state is stable against the phase separation that occurs in the strongly repulsive region. We determine the phase diagrams in terms of temperature, filling, and the anisotropy of the repulsive interactions. This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (No. 23540467) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ku, Mark J. H.; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Yefsah, Tarik; Zwierlein, Martin W.
2016-01-01
We follow the time evolution of a superfluid Fermi gas of resonantly interacting 6 atoms after a phase imprint. Via tomographic imaging, we observe the formation of a planar dark soliton, its subsequent snaking, and its decay into a vortex ring, which, in turn, breaks to finally leave behind a single solitonic vortex. In intermediate stages, we find evidence for an exotic structure resembling the Φ soliton, a combination of a vortex ring and a vortex line. Direct imaging of the nodal surface reveals its undulation dynamics and its decay via the puncture of the initial soliton plane. The observed evolution of the nodal surface represents dynamics beyond superfluid hydrodynamics, calling for a microscopic description of unitary fermionic superfluids out of equilibrium.
Ku, Mark J H; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Yefsah, Tarik; Zwierlein, Martin W
2016-01-29
We follow the time evolution of a superfluid Fermi gas of resonantly interacting ^{6}Li atoms after a phase imprint. Via tomographic imaging, we observe the formation of a planar dark soliton, its subsequent snaking, and its decay into a vortex ring, which, in turn, breaks to finally leave behind a single solitonic vortex. In intermediate stages, we find evidence for an exotic structure resembling the Φ soliton, a combination of a vortex ring and a vortex line. Direct imaging of the nodal surface reveals its undulation dynamics and its decay via the puncture of the initial soliton plane. The observed evolution of the nodal surface represents dynamics beyond superfluid hydrodynamics, calling for a microscopic description of unitary fermionic superfluids out of equilibrium. PMID:26871342
Faraday instability and Faraday patterns in a superfluid Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Rong-An; Li, Hao-Cai; Xue, Ju-Kui
2011-06-01
With the consideration of the coupling between the transverse width and the longitudinal density, the parametric excitations related to Faraday waves in a cigar-shaped superfluid Fermi gas are studied. A Mathieu equation is obtained, and it is demonstrated firstly that the excited actual 3D Faraday pattern is the combination of the longitudinal Faraday density wave and the corresponding transverse width fluctuation in the longitudinal direction. The Faraday instability growth index and the kinematic equations of the Faraday density wave and the width fluctuation along the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC)-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) crossover are also given for the first time. It is found that the 3D Faraday pattern presents quite different behaviours (such as the excitations and the motions) when the system crosses from the BEC side to the BCS side. The coupling not only plays an important role in the parametric excitation, but also determines the dominant wavelength of the spatial structure. Along the crossover, the coupling effects are more significant in the BCS side. The final numerical investigation verifies these results and gives a detailed study of the parametric excitations (i.e. Faraday instability) and the 3D pattern formation.
Dynamics of shock waves in a superfluid unitary Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Wen; Shui, Tiankun; Shan, Yafei; Zhu, Changping
2015-09-01
We study the formation and dynamics of shock waves initiated by a repulsive potential in a superfluid unitary Fermi gas by using the order-parameter equation. In the theoretical framework, the regularization process of shock waves mediated by the quantum pressure term is purely dispersive. Our results show good agreement with the experiment of Joseph et al (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 150401). We reveal that the boxlike-shaped density peak observed in the experiment consists of many vortex rings due to the transverse instability of the dispersive shock wave. In addition, we study the transition from a sound wave to subsonic shock waves as the strength of the repulsive potential increases and show a strong qualitative change in the propagation speed of the wavefronts. For a relatively small strength of the repulsive potential, the propagation speed decreases below the sound speed with the increase of the strength as a scaling behavior. For a large strength where the shock waves are formed by colliding two spatially separated clouds, the speed is still smaller than the sound speed, but remains almost unchanged as the strength increases, which can be interpreted as the same expansion speed of the proliferation of the vortex rings originated from the transverse instability.
Phonon contribution to the shear viscosity of a superfluid Fermi gas in the unitarity limit
Mannarelli, Massimo; Manuel, Cristina; Tolos, Laura
2013-09-15
We present a detailed analysis of the contribution of small-angle Nambu–Goldstone boson (phonon) collisions to the shear viscosity, η, in a superfluid atomic Fermi gas close to the unitarity limit. We show that the experimental values of the shear viscosity coefficient to entropy ratio, η/s, obtained at the lowest reached temperature can be reproduced assuming that phonons give the leading contribution to η. The phonon contribution is evaluated considering 1↔2 processes and taking into account the finite size of the experimental system. In particular, for very low temperatures, T≲0.1T{sub F}, we find that phonons are ballistic and the contribution of phonons to the shear viscosity is determined by the processes that take place at the interface between the superfluid and the normal phase. This result is independent of the detailed form of the phonon dispersion law and leads to two testable predictions: the shear viscosity should correlate with the size of the optical trap and it should decrease with decreasing temperature. For higher temperatures the detailed form of the phonon dispersion law becomes relevant and, within our model, we find that the experimental data for η/s can be reproduced assuming that phonons have an anomalous dispersion law. -- Highlights: •We study the contribution of phonons to shear viscosity of a cold Fermi gas at unitary. •The shear viscosity to entropy ratio (η/s) is reproduced for T<∼0.1T{sub F}. •For very low temperatures η/s correlates with the size of the optical trap. •We explain η/s for T>∼0.1T{sub F} assuming an anomalous dispersion law for phonons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanai, Ryo; Ohashi, Yoji
2014-03-01
We investigate a two-component Fermi gas with mass imbalance (m↑ ≠m↓ , where mσ is an atomic mass in the σ-component) in the BCS-BEC crossover region. Including pairing fluctuations within a self-consistent T-matrix theory, we examine how the superfluid instability is affected by the presence of mass imbalance. We determine the superfluid region in the phase diagram of a Fermi gas in terms of the temperature, the strength of a pairing interaction, and the ratio of mass imbalance. The superfluid phase transition is shown to always occur even when m↑ ≠m↓ .[2] This behavior of Tc is quite different from the previous result in an extended T-matrix theory,[3] where Tc vanishes at a certain value of m↑ /m↓ > 0 in the BCS regime. Since Fermi condensates with mass imbalance have been discussed in various systems, such as a cold Fermi gas, an exciton(polariton) condensate, as well as color superconductivity, our results would be useful for further understandings of these novel Fermi superfluids. R.H. was supported by Graduate School Doctoral Student Aid Program, Keio University.
Structure of a Quantized Vortex in Fermi Atom Gas
Machida, Masahiko; Koyama, Tomio
2006-09-07
In atomic Fermi gases, the pairing character changes from BCS-like to BEC-like when one decreases the threshold energy of the Feshbach resonance. With this crossover, the system enters the strong-coupling regime through the population enhancement of diatom molecules, and the vortex structure becomes much different from well-known core structures in BCS superfluid since the superfluid order parameter is given by a sum of BCS pairs and BEC molecular condensates. In this paper, we study the structure of a vortex by numerically solving the generalized Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation derived from the fermion-boson model and clarify how the vortex structure changes with the threshold energy of the Feshbach resonance. We find that the diatom boson condensate enhances the matter density depletion inside the vortex core and the discreteness of localized quasi-particle spectrum.
Antiferromagnetism and superfluidity of a dipolar Fermi gas in a two-dimensional optical lattice
Liu Bo; Yin Lan
2011-10-15
In a dipolar Fermi gas, the dipole-dipole interaction between fermions can be turned into a dipolar Ising interaction between pseudospins in the presence of an ac electric field. When trapped in a two-dimensional optical lattice, this dipolar Fermi gas has a very rich phase diagram at zero temperature, due to the competition between antiferromagnetism and superfluidity. At half-filling, the antiferromagnetic state is the favored ground state. The superfluid state appears as the ground state at a smaller filling factor. In between there is a phase-separated region. The order parameter of the superfluid state can display different symmetries depending on the filling factor and interaction strength, including the d-wave (d), the extended s-wave (xs), or their linear combination (xs+id). Implications for the current experiment are discussed.
Numerical study of the unitary Fermi gas across the superfluid transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goulko, Olga; Wingate, Matthew
2016-05-01
We present results from Monte Carlo calculations investigating the properties of the homogeneous, spin-balanced unitary Fermi gas in three dimensions. The temperature is varied across the superfluid transition allowing us to determine the temperature dependence of the chemical potential, the energy per particle, and the contact density. Numerical artifacts due to finite volume and discretization are systematically studied, estimated, and reduced.
Anisotropic Fermi Superfluid via p-Wave Feshbach Resonance
Cheng, C.-H.; Yip, S.-K.
2005-08-12
We investigate theoretically fermionic superfluidity induced by Feshbach resonance in the orbital p-wave channel and determine the general phase diagram. In contrast with superfluid {sup 3}He, due to the dipole interaction, the pairing is extremely anisotropic. When this dipole interaction is relatively strong, the pairing has symmetry k{sub z}. When it is relatively weak, it is of symmetry k{sub z}+i{beta}k{sub y} (up to a rotation about k{sub z}, here {beta}<1). A phase transition between these two states can occur under a change in the magnetic field or the density of the gas.
Anisotropic superfluidity in the two-species polar Fermi gas
Liao Renyuan; Brand, Joachim
2010-12-15
We study the superfluid pairing in a two-species gas of heteronuclear fermionic molecules with equal density. The interplay of the isotropic s-wave interaction and anisotropic long-range dipolar interaction reveals rich physics. We find that the single-particle momentum distribution has a characteristic ellipsoidal shape that can be reasonably represented by a deformation parameter {alpha} defined similarly to the normal phase. Interesting momentum-dependent features of the order parameter are identified. We calculate the critical temperatures of both the singlet and triplet superfluids, suggesting a possible pairing symmetry transition by tuning the s-wave or dipolar interaction strength.
FFLO Superfluids in 2D Spin-Orbit Coupled Fermi Gases
Zheng, Zhen; Gong, Ming; Zhang, Yichao; Zou, Xubo; Zhang, Chuanwei; Guo, Guangcan
2014-01-01
We show that the combination of spin-orbit coupling and in-plane Zeeman field in a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas can lead to a larger parameter region for Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phases than that using spin-imbalanced Fermi gases. The resulting FFLO superfluids are also more stable due to the enhanced energy difference between FFLO and conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) excited states. We clarify the crucial role of the symmetry of Fermi surface on the formation of finite momentum pairing. The phase diagram for FFLO superfluids is obtained in the BCS-BEC crossover region and possible experimental observations of FFLO phases are discussed. PMID:25288379
Oscillation and Instability of a Soliton in Superfluid Atomic Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Liangsheng; Huse, David
2014-03-01
We use superfluid hydrodynamics and force equations to phenomenologically investigate the oscillation of a soliton in harmonic trap and the ``snake'' instability of a soliton in a uniform background. The results obtained are functions of missing mass ms which characterizes the missing number of atoms inside the soliton and a ``mobility'' parameter C which determines the relation between the soliton velocity and the phase difference across it to leading order. It is found that by making | ms | and C small, the soliton will have a slower oscillation and tend to be more stable, as is seen in recent MIT experiment on the unitary Fermi gas [T. Yefsah, A. T. Sommer, M. J. H. Ku, L. W. Cheuk, W. Ji, W. S. Bakr, and M. W. Zwierlein, Nature 499, 426 (2013)]. We also use the hydrodynamic equations with perturbation theory to approximately solve Gross Pitaevskii equation and then use the solution to test our hydrodynamic approach to oscillation and instability in the case of Bose Einstein condensation with weak interactions.
Dynamic structure factor of a Fermi superfluid in the BEC-BCS crossover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Tarun Kanti
2007-09-01
We consider cigar-shaped Fermi superfluid in the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)-BCS crossover. Using the polytropic form of equation of state, we derive low energy multibranch bosonic excitations and the corresponding density fluctuations in three different regimes along the crossover, namely weak-coupling BCS, unitarity, and molecular BEC regimes. Bragg spectroscopy can be used to probe the multibranch nature of the low-energy bosonic excitations by measuring the dynamic structure factor. Therefore we calculate the dynamic structure factor in those three different regimes. In Bragg spectroscopy, an actual observable is momentum imparted to the superfluid due to the Bragg potential. We also present results of the momentum imparted to the superfluid due to the Bragg pulses.
Reentrant superfluidity and pair density wave in single-component dipolar Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Che, Yanming; Wang, Jibiao; Chen, Qijin
2016-06-01
We study the superfluidity of single-component dipolar Fermi gases in three dimensions using a pairing fluctuation theory, within the context of BCS-BEC crossover. The transition temperature Tc for the dominant pz wave superfluidity exhibits a remarkable reentrant behavior as a function of the pairing strength induced by the dipole-dipole interaction (DDI), which leads to an anisotropic pair dispersion. The anisotropy and the long-range nature of the DDI cause Tc to vanish for a narrow range of intermediate interaction strengths, where a pair density wave emerges as the ground state. The superfluid density and thermodynamics below Tc, along with the density profiles in a harmonic trap, are investigated as well. Implications for experiments are discussed.
Vortex line of spin-orbit coupled Fermi superfluid through BCS to BEC Crossover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Juan; Zhang, Shizhong
Superfluid Fermi gases with spin-orbit interaction provides a unique opportunity to investigate possible effects of strong interaction in a topological superfluid. It has been suggested that with addition of Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling, a two-component Fermi gas with strong s-wave interaction can become a topological superfluid with zero-energy bound state at the core of the vortex. In this talk, I discuss the evolution of vortex structure in a spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas through the BCS-BEC crossover within Bogoliubov-de Genne formalism. We find that the largest critical current occurs in the BEC side of the resonance, in contradiction to the usual crossover without spin-orbit coupling where it occurs at unitarity. Furthermore, we discuss the core structure of the vortex by calculating the spin and density distribution around the vortex. Department of Physics and Centre of Theoretical and Computational Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
Thermal conductivity and sound attenuation in dilute atomic Fermi gases
Braby, Matt; Chao Jingyi; Schaefer, Thomas
2010-09-15
We compute the thermal conductivity and sound attenuation length of a dilute atomic Fermi gas in the framework of kinetic theory. Above the critical temperature for superfluidity, T{sub c}, the quasiparticles are fermions, whereas below T{sub c}, the dominant excitations are phonons. We calculate the thermal conductivity in both cases. We find that at unitarity the thermal conductivity {kappa} in the normal phase scales as {kappa}{proportional_to}T{sup 3/2}. In the superfluid phase we find {kappa}{proportional_to}T{sup 2}. At high temperature the Prandtl number, the ratio of the momentum and thermal diffusion constants, is 2/3. The ratio increases as the temperature is lowered. As a consequence we expect sound attenuation in the normal phase just above T{sub c} to be dominated by shear viscosity. We comment on the possibility of extracting the shear viscosity of the dilute Fermi gas at unitarity using measurements of the sound absorption length.
Propagation of sound and supersonic bright solitons in superfluid Fermi gases in BCS-BEC crossover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Wen; Shen, Shun-Qing; Huang, Guoxiang
2010-01-01
We investigate the linear and nonlinear sound propagations in a cigar-shaped superfluid Fermi gas with a large particle number. We first solve analytically the eigenvalue problem of linear collective excitations and provide explicit expressions of all eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, which are valid for all superfluid regimes in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensation (BCS-BEC) crossover. The linear sound speed obtained agrees well with that of a recent experimental measurement. We then consider a weak nonlinear excitation and show that the time evolution of the excitation obeys a Korteweg de Vries equation. Different from the result obtained in quasi-one-dimensional case studied previously, where subsonic dark solitons are obtained via the balance between quantum pressure and nonlinear effect, we demonstrate that bright solitons with supersonic propagating velocity can be generated in the present three-dimensional system through the balance between a waveguidelike dispersion and the interparticle interaction. The supersonic bright solitons obtained display different physical properties in different superfluid regimes and hence can be used to characterize superfluid features of the BCS-BEC crossover.
Finite-temperature quantum fluctuations in two-dimensional Fermi superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bighin, G.; Salasnich, L.
2016-01-01
In two-dimensional systems with a continuous symmetry, the Mermin-Wagner-Hohenberg theorem precludes spontaneous symmetry breaking and condensation at finite temperature. The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless critical temperature marks the transition from a superfluid phase characterized by quasicondensation and algebraic long-range order, to a normal phase in which vortex proliferation completely destroys superfluidity. As opposed to conventional off-diagonal long-range order typical of three-dimensional superfluid systems, algebraic long-range order is driven by quantum and thermal fluctuations strongly enhanced in reduced dimensionality. Motivated by this unique scenario and by the very recent experimental realization of trapped quasi-two-dimensional fermionic clouds, we include one-loop Gaussian fluctuations in the theoretical description of resonant Fermi superfluids in two dimensions demonstrating that first sound, second sound, and also critical temperature are strongly renormalized, away from their mean-field values. In particular, we prove that in the intermediate- and strong-coupling regimes, these quantities are radically different when Gaussian fluctuations are taken into account. Our one-loop theory shows good agreement with very recent experimental data on the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless critical temperature [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 010401 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.010401 and on the first sound velocity, giving predictions for the second sound as a function of interaction strength and temperature that are open for experimental verification.
Critical temperature and superfluid gap of the unitary Fermi gas from functional renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boettcher, Igor; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Wetterich, Christof
2014-05-01
We investigate the superfluid transition of the unitary Fermi gas by means of the functional renormalization group, aiming at quantitative precision. We extract Tc/μ=0.38(2) and Δ /μ=1.04(15) for the critical temperature and the superfluid gap at zero temperature, respectively, within a systematic improvement of the truncation for the effective average action. The key ingredient in comparison to previous approaches consists in the use of regulators which cut off both frequencies and momenta. We incorporate renormalization effects on both the bosonic and the fermionic propagators, include higher-order bosonic scattering processes, and investigate the regulator and specification parameter dependence for an error estimate. The ratio Δ /Tc=2.7(3) becomes less sensitive to the relative cutoff scale of bosons and fermions when improving the truncation. The techniques developed in this work are easily carried over to the cases of finite scattering length, lower dimensionality, and spin imbalance.
Tunneling dynamics of superfluid Fermi gases in an accelerating optical lattice
Tie Lu; Xue Jukui
2010-11-15
The nonlinear Landau-Zener tunneling and the nonlinear Rabi oscillations of superfluid Fermi gases between Bloch bands in an accelerating optical lattice are discussed. Within the hydrodynamic theory and a two-level model, the tunneling probability of superfluid Fermi gases between Bloch bands is obtained. We find that, as the system crosses from the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) side to the BCS side, the tunneling rate is closely related to the particle density: when the density is smaller (larger) than a critical value, the tunneling rate at unitarity is larger (smaller) than that in the BEC limit. This is well explained in terms of an effective interaction and an effective potential. Furthermore, the nonlinear Rabi oscillations of superfluid Fermi gases between the bands are discussed by imposing a periodic modulation on the level bias and the strength of the lattice. Analytical expressions of the critical density for suppressing or enhancing the Rabi oscillations are obtained. It is shown that, as the system crosses from the BEC side to the BCS side, the critical density strongly depends on the modulation parameters (i.e., the modulation amplitude and the modulation frequency). For a fixed density, a high-frequency or low-frequency modulation can suppress or enhance the Rabi oscillations both at unitarity and in the BEC limit. For an intermediate modulation frequency, the Rabi oscillations are chaotic along the entire BEC-BCS crossover, especially, on the BCS side. Interestingly, we find that the modulation of the lattice strength only with an intermediate modulation frequency has significant effect on the Rabi oscillations both in the BEC limit and at unitarity; that is, an intermediate-frequency modulation can enhance the Rabi oscillations, especially on the BCS side.
Induced Interactions and the Superfluid Transition Temperature in a Three-Component Fermi Gas
Martikainen, J.-P.; Kinnunen, J. J.; Toermae, P.; Pethick, C. J.
2009-12-31
We study many-body contributions to the effective interaction between fermions in a three-component Fermi mixture. We find that effective interactions induced by the third component can lead to a phase diagram different from that predicted if interactions with the third component are neglected. As a result, in a confining potential a superfluid shell structure can arise even for equal populations of the components. We also find a critical temperature for the BCS transition in a {sup 6}Li mixture which can deviate strongly from the one in a weakly interacting two-component system.
Self-localization of a small number of Bose particles in a superfluid Fermi system
Targonska, Katarzyna; Sacha, Krzysztof
2010-09-15
We consider self-localization of a small number of Bose particles immersed in a large homogeneous superfluid mixture of fermions in three- and one-dimensional space. Bosons distort the density of surrounding fermions and create a potential well where they can form a bound state analogous to a small polaron state. In the three-dimensional volume, we observe the self-localization for repulsive interactions between bosons and fermions. In the one-dimensional case, bosons self-localize as well for attractive interactions, thereby forming, together with a pair of fermions at the bottom of the Fermi sea, a vector soliton. We analyze also thermal effects and show that small nonzero temperature affects the pairing function of the Fermi subsystem and has little influence on the self-localization phenomena.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajima, Hiroyuki; Hanai, Ryo; Ohashi, Yoji
2016-01-01
We theoretically investigate the uniform spin susceptibility χ in the superfluid phase of an ultracold Fermi gas in the region of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein-condensate (BCS-BEC) crossover. In our previous paper [H. Tajima et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 033617 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.033617], including pairing fluctuations within an extended T -matrix approximation (ETMA), we showed that strong pairing fluctuations cause the so-called spin-gap phenomenon, where χ is anomalously suppressed even in the normal state near the superfluid phase transition temperature Tc. In this paper, we extend this work to the superfluid phase below Tc, to clarify how this many-body phenomenon is affected by the superfluid order. From the comparison of the ETMA χ with the Yosida function describing the spin susceptibility in a weak-coupling BCS superfluid, we identify the region where pairing fluctuations crucially affect this magnetic quantity below Tc in the phase diagram with respect to the strength of a pairing interaction and the temperature. This spin-gap regime is found to be consistent with the previous pseudogap regime determined from the pseudogapped density of states. We also compare our results with a recent experiment on a 6Li Fermi gas. Since the spin susceptibility is sensitive to the formation of spin-singlet preformed pairs, our results would be useful for the study of pseudogap physics in an ultracold Fermi gas on the viewpoint of the spin degrees of freedom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xia-Ji; Hu, Hui; Pu, Han
2015-05-01
We theoretically investigate a three-dimensional Fermi gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the presence of both out-of-plane and in-plane Zeeman fields. We show that, driven by a sufficiently large Zeeman field, either out-of-plane or in-plane, the superfluid phase of this system exhibits a number of interesting features, including inhomogeneous Fulde-Ferrell pairing, gapped or gapless topological order, and exotic quasi-particle excitations known as Weyl fermions that have linear energy dispersions in momentum space (i.e., massless Dirac fermions). The topological superfluid phase can have either four or two topologically protected Weyl nodes. We present the phase diagrams at both zero and finite temperatures and discuss the possibility of their observation in an atomic Fermi gas with synthetic spin-orbit coupling. In this context, topological superfluid phase with an imperfect Rashba spin-orbit coupling is also studied. Project supported by the ARC Discovery Projects (Grant Nos. FT140100003, FT130100815, DP140103231, and DP140100637), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921502), the US National Science Foundation, and the Welch Foundation (Grant No. C-1669).
Quantum transmission of atoms through a slab of superfluid helium.
Williams, C D H; Wyatt, A F G
2003-08-22
We describe a measurement of the transmission probability of 4He atoms through a freely suspended slab of superfluid 4He at low temperatures. In our experiment the slab is realized by using an array of parallel cylindrical holes of diameter 51 microm in a glass disc of thickness 190 microm. By controlling the chemical potential, the holes can be made to fill or empty with liquid, and the surface curvature varied. We have measured the transmission of atom beams, generated by a thin-film heater and detected with a sensitive bolometer, through this structure. The results show that the dominant transmission channel is atom-R+ roton-atom with a probability p approximately 0.12 and that R+ rotons can undergo total internal reflection at the free liquid surfaces. PMID:14525250
Reflection of hydrogen atoms from the surface of superfluid helium
Tiesinga, E.; Stoof, H.T.C.; Verhaar, B.J. )
1990-05-01
We propose a new method for studying the reflection of a hydrogen atom from a superfluid-helium film. Starting from the narrow width of the reflected angular distribution recently found experimentally, we tentatively extrapolate to the extreme limit of low ripplon wave numbers in which the adiabatic or degenerate-internal-states approximation becomes valid. We obtain simple closed expressions for single- and multiple-ripplon processes, which do not require the integration of a Schroedinger equation for their evaluation and do not depend on the specific form of the potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, S. K.; Lu, Hong; Pu, Han
2009-12-01
We derive a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii density-functional equation appropriate to study the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of dimers formed of singlet spin-half Fermi pairs in the BEC-unitarity crossover while the dimer-dimer scattering length a changes from 0 to ∞ . Using an effective one-dimensional form of this equation, we study the phenomenon of dynamical self-trapping of a cigar-shaped Fermi superfluid in the entire BEC-unitarity crossover in a double-well potential. A simple two-mode model is constructed to provide analytical insights. We also discuss the consequence of our study on the self-trapping of an atomic BEC in a double-well potential.
Acoustic Attenuation Probe for Fermion Superfluidity in Ultracold-Atom Gases
Gaudio, Sergio; Mihaila, Bogdan; Blagoev, Krastan B.; Timmermans, Eddy; Bedell, Kevin S.
2007-03-16
Dilute gas Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC's), currently used to cool fermionic atoms in atom traps, can also probe the superfluidity of these fermions. The damping rate of BEC-acoustic excitations (phonon modes), measured in the middle of the trap as a function of the phonon momentum, yields an unambiguous signature of BCS-like superfluidity, provides a measurement of the superfluid gap parameter, and gives an estimate of the size of the Cooper pairs in the BEC-BCS crossover regime. We also predict kinks in the momentum dependence of the damping rate which can reveal detailed information about the fermion quasiparticle dispersion relation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajima, Hiroyuki; Hanai, Ryo; Ohashi, Yoji
2015-03-01
We theoretically discuss the spin susceptibility χ and effects of strong-coupling corrections in the BCS-BEC crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas. Using an extended T-matrix approximation, we calculate χ over the entire BCS-BEC crossover region, showing that this magnetic quantity is very sensitive to pairing fluctuations in both the normal and the superfluid phase. In the normal state, it is suppressed by preformed singlet Cooper pairs near Tc, being similar to the spin-gap phenomenon in high-Tc cuprates. Below Tc, on the other hand, pairing fluctuations enhance χ, in the sense that the suppression of this quantity by the superfluid order is weakened due to partial dissociation of Cooper pairs. From these, we determine the region where pairing fluctuations strongly affect spin excitations in the phase diagram of a Fermi gas with respect to the temperature and the strength of a pairing interaction. We also compare our results with the recent experiments on a 6Li Fermi gas. Our results indicate that the spin susceptibility is a useful observable in understanding strong-coupling properties of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region. H. T. was supported by Graduate School Doctoral Student Aid Program from Keio University.
Instability of Superfluid across Feshbach Resonances
Pao, C.-H.; Wu, S.-T.; Yip, Sungkit
2006-09-07
We consider a dilute atomic gas comprising two species of Fermions with unequal concentrations. We study at zero temperature the atom-molecule mixture with inter-species low-energy scatterings induced by a Feshbach resonance. To examine the stability of this superfluid, we calculate the chemical potential and the superfluid density for fixed individual concentrations. We find that the system can have distinct properties compared to the ordinary Bose-Fermi mixture due to the unbound fermions.
Contact resistance and phase slips in mesoscopic superfluid-atom transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eckel, S.; Lee, Jeffrey G.; Jendrzejewski, F.; Lobb, C. J.; Campbell, G. K.; Hill, W. T.
2016-06-01
We experimentally measure transport of superfluid, bosonic atoms in a mesoscopic system: a small channel connecting two large reservoirs. Starting far from equilibrium (superfluid in a single reservoir), we observe first resistive flow transitioning at a critical current into superflow, characterized by oscillations. We reproduce this full evolution with a simple electronic circuit model. We compare our fitted conductance to two different microscopic phenomenological models. We also show that the oscillations are consistent with LC oscillations as estimated by the kinetic inductance and effective capacitance in our system. Our experiment provides an attractive platform to begin to probe the mesoscopic transport properties of a dilute, superfluid, Bose gas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pal, Arijeet; Huse, David
2012-02-01
Phase separation between paired superfluid and partially polarized normal phases has been observed by various experimental groups around the world using resonantly-interacting spin-imbalanced, hyperfine states of fermionic atoms. In this work we phenomenologically study the effect of the evaporation of atoms and explore the possibility of realizing a non-equilibrium steady state with chemical potential and temperature gradients in some of these experiments.
Observation of Fermi Polarons in a Tunable Fermi Liquid of Ultracold Atoms
Schirotzek, Andre; Wu, C.-H.; Sommer, Ariel; Zwierlein, Martin W.
2009-06-12
We have observed Fermi polarons, dressed spin-down impurities in a spin-up Fermi sea of ultracold atoms. The polaron manifests itself as a narrow peak in the impurities' rf spectrum that emerges from a broad incoherent background. We determine the polaron energy and the quasiparticle residue for various interaction strengths around a Feshbach resonance. At a critical interaction, we observe the transition from polaronic to molecular binding. Here, the imbalanced Fermi liquid undergoes a phase transition into a Bose liquid, coexisting with a Fermi sea.
Decoherence of Impurities in a Fermi Sea of Ultracold Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cetina, Marko; Jag, Michael; Lous, Rianne S.; Walraven, Jook T. M.; Grimm, Rudolf; Christensen, Rasmus S.; Bruun, Georg M.
2015-09-01
We investigate the decoherence of 40K impurities interacting with a three-dimensional Fermi sea of 6Li across an interspecies Feshbach resonance. The decoherence is measured as a function of the interaction strength and temperature using a spin-echo atom interferometry method. For weak to moderate interaction strengths, we interpret our measurements in terms of scattering of K quasiparticles by the Fermi sea and find very good agreement with a Fermi liquid calculation. For strong interactions, we observe significant enhancement of the decoherence rate, which is largely independent of temperature, pointing to behavior that is beyond the scattering of quasiparticles in the Fermi liquid picture.
Decoherence of Impurities in a Fermi Sea of Ultracold Atoms.
Cetina, Marko; Jag, Michael; Lous, Rianne S; Walraven, Jook T M; Grimm, Rudolf; Christensen, Rasmus S; Bruun, Georg M
2015-09-25
We investigate the decoherence of ^{40}K impurities interacting with a three-dimensional Fermi sea of ^{6}Li across an interspecies Feshbach resonance. The decoherence is measured as a function of the interaction strength and temperature using a spin-echo atom interferometry method. For weak to moderate interaction strengths, we interpret our measurements in terms of scattering of K quasiparticles by the Fermi sea and find very good agreement with a Fermi liquid calculation. For strong interactions, we observe significant enhancement of the decoherence rate, which is largely independent of temperature, pointing to behavior that is beyond the scattering of quasiparticles in the Fermi liquid picture. PMID:26451562
Real-time dynamics of quantized vortices in a unitary Fermi superfluid.
Bulgac, Aurel; Luo, Yuan-Lung; Magierski, Piotr; Roche, Kenneth J; Yu, Yongle
2011-06-10
We introduce a comprehensive theoretical framework for the fermionic superfluid dynamics, grounded on a local extension of the time-dependent density functional theory. With this approach, we describe the generation and the real-time evolution and interaction of quantized vortices, the large-amplitude collective modes, as well as the loss of superfluidity at high flow velocities. We demonstrate the formation of vortex rings and provide a microscopic description of the crossing and reconnection of quantized vortex lines in a fermion superfluid, which provide the mechanism for the emergence of quantum turbulence at very low temperatures. We observe that superfluidity often survives when these systems are stirred with velocities far exceeding the speed of sound. PMID:21659597
Theory of dark matter superfluidity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin
2015-11-01
We propose a novel theory of dark matter (DM) superfluidity that matches the successes of the Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM ) model on cosmological scales while simultaneously reproducing the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) phenomenology on galactic scales. The DM and MOND components have a common origin, representing different phases of a single underlying substance. DM consists of axionlike particles with mass of order eV and strong self-interactions. The condensate has a polytropic equation of state P ˜ρ3 giving rise to a superfluid core within galaxies. Instead of behaving as individual collisionless particles, the DM superfluid is more aptly described as collective excitations. Superfluid phonons, in particular, are assumed to be governed by a MOND-like effective action and mediate a MONDian acceleration between baryonic matter particles. Our framework naturally distinguishes between galaxies (where MOND is successful) and galaxy clusters (where MOND is not); due to the higher velocity dispersion in clusters, and correspondingly higher temperature, the DM in clusters is either in a mixture of superfluid and the normal phase or fully in the normal phase. The rich and well-studied physics of superfluidity leads to a number of observational signatures: an array of low-density vortices in galaxies; merger dynamics that depend on the infall velocity vs phonon sound speed; distinct mass peaks in bulletlike cluster mergers, corresponding to superfluid and normal components; and interference patters in supercritical mergers. Remarkably, the superfluid phonon effective theory is strikingly similar to that of the unitary Fermi gas, which has attracted much excitement in the cold atom community in recent years. The critical temperature for DM superfluidity is of order mK, comparable to known cold atom Bose-Einstein condensates. Identifying a precise cold atom analog would give important insights on the microphysical interactions underlying DM superfluidity
Kohn-Sham approach to Fermi gas superfluidity: The bilayer of fermionic polar molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ancilotto, Francesco
2016-05-01
By using a well-established "ab initio" theoretical approach developed in the past to quantitatively study the superconductivity of condensed matter systems, based on the Kohn-Sham density functional theory, I study the superfluid properties and the BCS-BEC crossover of two parallel bi-dimensional layers of fermionic dipolar molecules, where the pairing mechanism leading to superfluidity is provided by the interlayer coupling between dipoles. The finite temperature superfluid properties of both the homogeneous system and one where the fermions in each layer are confined by a square optical lattice are studied at half filling conditions, and for different values of the strength of the confining optical potential. The T = 0 results for the homogeneous system are found to be in excellent agreement with diffusion Monte Carlo results. The superfluid transition temperature in the BCS region is found to increase, for a given interlayer coupling, with the strength of the confining optical potential. A transition occurs at sufficiently small interlayer distances, where the fermions becomes localized within the optical lattice sites in a square geometry with an increased effective lattice constant, forming a system of localized composite bosons. This transition should be signaled by a sudden drop in the superfluid fraction of the system.
Real-Time Dynamics of Quantized Vortices in a Unitary Fermi Superfluid
Bulgac, Aurel; Luo, Yuan-Lung; Magierski, Piotr; Roche, Kenneth J; Yu, Yongle
2011-06-10
We introduce a comprehensive theoretical framework for the fermionic su- perfluid dynamics, grounded on a local extension of the time-dependent den- sity functional theory. With this approach we describe the generation and the real-time evolution and interaction of quantized vortices, the large amplitude collective modes, as well as the loss of superfluidity at high flow velocities. We demonstrate the formation of vortex rings and provide for the first time a microscopic description of the crossing and the reconnection of quantized vortex lines in a fermion superfluid, which provide the mechanism for the emergence of quantum turbulence at very low temperatures. We observe that superfluidity often survives when these systems are stirred with velocities far exceeding the speed of sound.
Topological Nodal-Line Superfluid in Spin-Orbit Coupled Cold Atomic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Wen-Yu; Xu, Dong-Hui; Zhou, Tong; Law, K. T.; Hong Kong University of Science; Technology Collaboration
Topological nodal line superconductivity or superfluidity is a fascinating topological gapless phase which hosts bulk Weyl ring degeneracy in the quasiparticle excitation spectrum and supports Majorana zero bound modes with a large density of states at the edge. In this work, based on the experimental realized 1D spin orbit coupling, we show the emergence of topological nodal line superfluid phase in Fermionic atoms trapped in 3D cubic optical lattice when the s wave pairing field is introduced through Feshbach resonance between the two atomic hyperfine spin states. The nodal line degeneracy is further found to evolve into Weyl nodes once another component of spin orbit coupling field enters to break the chiral symmetry. The momentum resolved radio frequency spectroscopy is suggested to manifest the topological nodal line superfluid phase.
Probing Non-Abelian Statistics of Majorana Fermions in Ultracold Atomic Superfluid
Zhu Shiliang; Shao, L.-B.; Wang, Z. D.; Duan, L.-M.
2011-03-11
We propose an experiment to directly probe the non-Abelian statistics of Majorana fermions by braiding them in an s-wave superfluid of ultracold atoms. We show that different orders of braiding operations give orthogonal output states that can be distinguished through Raman spectroscopy. Realization of Majorana states in an s-wave superfluid requires strong spin-orbital coupling and a controllable Zeeman field in the perpendicular direction. We present a simple laser configuration to generate the artificial spin-orbital coupling and the required Zeeman field in the dark-state subspace.
p{sub x}+ip{sub y} Superfluid from s-Wave Interactions of Fermionic Cold Atoms
Zhang Chuanwei; Tewari, Sumanta; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Das Sarma, S.
2008-10-17
Two-dimensional (p{sub x}+ip{sub y}) superfluids or superconductors offer a playground for studying intriguing physics such as quantum teleportation, non-Abelian statistics, and topological quantum computation. Creating such a superfluid in cold fermionic atom optical traps using p-wave Feshbach resonance is turning out to be challenging. Here we propose a method to create a p{sub x}+ip{sub y} superfluid directly from an s-wave interaction making use of a topological Berry phase, which can be artificially generated. We discuss ways to detect the spontaneous Hall mass current, which acts as a diagnostic for the chiral p-wave superfluid.
Rashba Spin-Orbit-Coupled Atomic Fermi Gases in a Two-Dimensional Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koinov, Zlatko; Mendoza, Rafael
2015-11-01
The collective-mode excitation energy of a population-imbalanced spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas loaded in a two-dimensional optical lattice at zero temperature is calculated within the Gaussian approximation, and from the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the generalized random-phase approximation assuming the existence of a Sarma superfluid state. It is found that the Gaussian approximation overestimates the speed of sound of the Goldstone mode. More interestingly, the Gaussian approximation fails to reproduce the roton-like structure of the collective-mode dispersion which appears after the linear part of the dispersion in the Bethe-Salpeter approach. We investigate the speed of sound of a balanced spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas near the boundary of the topological phase transition driven by an out-of-plane Zeeman field. It is shown that the minimum of the speed of sound is located at the topological phase transition boundary, and this fact can be used to confirm the existence of a topological phase transition.
Superfluid fermi gas in optical lattices: self-trapping, stable, moving solitons and breathers.
Xue, Ju-Kui; Zhang, Ai-Xia
2008-10-31
We predict the existence of self-trapping, stable, moving solitons and breathers of Fermi wave packets along the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)-BCS crossover in one dimension (1D), 2D, and 3D optical lattices. The dynamical phase diagrams for self-trapping, solitons, and breathers of the Fermi matter waves along the BEC-BCS crossover are presented analytically and verified numerically by directly solving a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We find that the phase diagrams vary greatly along the BEC-BCS crossover; the dynamics of Fermi wave packet are different from that of Bose wave packet. PMID:18999797
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xia-Ji
2013-03-01
A strongly correlated Fermi system plays a fundamental role in very different areas of physics, from neutron stars, quark-gluon plasmas, to high temperature superconductors. Despite the broad applicability, it is notoriously difficult to be understood theoretically because of the absence of a small interaction parameter. Recent achievements of ultracold trapped Fermi atoms near a Feshbach resonance have ushered in enormous changes. The unprecedented control of interaction, geometry and purity in these novel systems has led to many exciting experimental results, which are to be urgently understood at both low and finite temperatures. Here we review the latest developments of virial expansion for a strongly correlated Fermi gas and their applications on ultracold trapped Fermi atoms. We show remarkable, quantitative agreements between virial predictions and various recent experimental measurements at about the Fermi degenerate temperature. For equations of state, we discuss a practical way of determining high-order virial coefficients and use it to calculate accurately the long-sought third-order virial coefficient, which is now verified firmly in experiments at ENS and MIT. We discuss also virial expansion of a new many-body parameter-Tan’s contact. We then turn to less widely discussed issues of dynamical properties. For dynamic structure factors, the virial prediction agrees well with the measurement at the Swinburne University of Technology. For single-particle spectral functions, we show that the expansion up to the second order accounts for the main feature of momentum-resolved rf-spectroscopy for a resonantly interacting Fermi gas, as recently reported by JILA. In the near future, more practical applications with virial expansion are possible, owing to the ever-growing power in computation.
Superfluidity in ultracold gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Gretchen
2016-05-01
The study of superfluidity has a long and rich history. In Bose-Einstein condensate, superfluidity gives rise to a number of interesting effects, including quantized vortices and persistent currents. In this seminar I will give an introduction to superfluidity in ultracold atoms, including a discussion of the critical velocity and the spectrum of elementary excitations in superfluid systems.
Maria Goeppert Mayer Prize Talk: Superfluid Atom Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Gretchen
2016-05-01
We have performed a series of experiments with ring-shaped Bose-Einstein Condensates, with and without the addition of a ``weak link'' barrier. Weak connections between superconductors or superfluids can differ from classical links due to quantum coherence, which allows for flow without resistance. The properties of a weak link are characterized by a single function, the current-phase relationship. In recent experiments, we have developed a technique to directly measure the current-phase relationship of the weak link. The weak link is created using a laser beam that acts as a barrier across one side of the ring condensate. By rotating the barrier, we can control the current around the ring. When the weak link is rotated at at low rotation rates, we observe phase slips between well-defined, quantized current states, and have demonstrated that the system exhibits hysteresis. At higher rotation rates we have directly measured the onset of resistive flow across the weak link. Such measurements may open new avenues of research in quantum transport. More recently, we have studied the behavior of the ring BEC when the radius is expanded at supersonic rates. Because information can propagate only at the speed of sound, the supersonic expansion creates causally disconnected regions, whose phases evolve at different rates. Such experiments may allow us to study cosmic inflation at laboratory scales.
Abnormal Superfluid Fraction of Harmonically Trapped Few-Fermion Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.
2014-05-01
Superfluidity is a fascinating phenomenon that, at the macroscopic scale, leads to dissipationless flow and the emergence of vortices. While these macroscopic manifestations of superfluidity are well described by theories that have their origin in Landau's two-fluid model, our microscopic understanding of superfluidity is far from complete. Using analytical and numerical ab initio approaches, this paper determines the superfluid fraction and local superfluid density of small harmonically trapped two-component Fermi gases as a function of the interaction strength and temperature. At low temperature, we find that the superfluid fraction is, in certain regions of the parameter space, negative. This counterintuitive finding is traced back to the symmetry of the system's ground state wave function, which gives rise to a diverging quantum moment of inertia Iq. Analogous abnormal behavior of Iq has been observed in even-odd nuclei at low temperature. Our predictions can be tested in modern cold atom experiments. Support by the NSF is acknowledged.
Abnormal Superfluid Fraction of Harmonically Trapped Few-Fermion Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.
2014-06-01
Superfluidity is a fascinating phenomenon that, at the macroscopic scale, leads to dissipationless flow and the emergence of vortices. While these macroscopic manifestations of superfluidity are well described by theories that have their origin in Landau's two-fluid model, our microscopic understanding of superfluidity is far from complete. Using analytical and numerical ab initio approaches, this Letter determines the superfluid fraction and local superfluid density of small harmonically trapped two-component Fermi gases as a function of the interaction strength and temperature. At low temperature, we find that the superfluid fraction is, in certain regions of the parameter space, negative. This counterintuitive finding is traced back to the symmetry of the system's ground state wave function, which gives rise to a diverging quantum moment of inertia Iq. Analogous abnormal behavior of Iq has been observed in even-odd nuclei at low temperature. Our predictions can be tested in modern cold atom experiments.
Abnormal superfluid fraction of harmonically trapped few-fermion systems.
Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D
2014-06-13
Superfluidity is a fascinating phenomenon that, at the macroscopic scale, leads to dissipationless flow and the emergence of vortices. While these macroscopic manifestations of superfluidity are well described by theories that have their origin in Landau's two-fluid model, our microscopic understanding of superfluidity is far from complete. Using analytical and numerical ab initio approaches, this Letter determines the superfluid fraction and local superfluid density of small harmonically trapped two-component Fermi gases as a function of the interaction strength and temperature. At low temperature, we find that the superfluid fraction is, in certain regions of the parameter space, negative. This counterintuitive finding is traced back to the symmetry of the system's ground state wave function, which gives rise to a diverging quantum moment of inertia I(q). Analogous abnormal behavior of I(q) has been observed in even-odd nuclei at low temperature. Our predictions can be tested in modern cold atom experiments. PMID:24972215
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strecker, Kevin; Truscott, Andrew; Partridge, Guthrie; Chen, Ying-Cheng
2003-01-01
Dual evaporation gives 50 million fermions at T = 0.1 T(sub F). Demonstrated suppression of interactions by coherent superposition - applicable to atomic clocks. Looking for evidence of Cooper pairing and superfluidity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanpera, A.; Kantian, A.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Zakrzewski, J.; Lewenstein, M.
2004-07-01
We investigate strongly interacting atomic Fermi-Bose mixtures in inhomogeneous and random optical lattices. We derive an effective Hamiltonian for the system and discuss its low temperature physics. We demonstrate the possibility of controlling the interactions at local level in inhomogeneous but regular lattices. Such a control leads to the achievement of Fermi glass, quantum Fermi spin-glass, and quantum percolation regimes involving bare and/or composite fermions in random lattices.
Pressure profiles of nonuniform two-dimensional atomic Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martiyanov, Kirill; Barmashova, Tatiana; Makhalov, Vasiliy; Turlapov, Andrey
2016-06-01
Spatial profiles of the pressure have been measured in atomic Fermi gases with primarily two-dimensional (2D) kinematics. The in-plane motion of the particles is confined by a Gaussian-shape potential. The two-component deeply degenerate Fermi gases are prepared at different values of the s -wave attraction. The pressure profile is found using the force-balance equation, from the measured density profile and the trapping potential. The pressure is compared to zero-temperature models within the local density approximation. In the weakly interacting regime, the pressure lies above a Landau Fermi-liquid theory and below the ideal-Fermi-gas model, whose prediction coincides with that of the Cooper-pair mean-field theory. The values closest to the data are provided by the approach where the mean field of Cooper pairs is supplemented with fluctuations. In the regime of strong interactions, in response to the increasing attraction, the pressure shifts below this model reaching lower values calculated within Monte Carlo methods. Comparison to models shows that interaction-induced departure from 2D kinematics is either small or absent. In particular, comparison with a lattice Monte Carlo suggests that kinematics is two dimensional in the strongly interacting regime.
Fermionic superfluidity with repulsive alkaline-earth atoms in optical superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaev, Leonid; Rey, Ana Maria
2016-05-01
We propose a novel route to superfluidity in fermionic alkaline-earth atoms with repulsive interactions, that uses local kinetic-energy fluctuations as a ``pairing glue'' between the fermions. We exploit different polarizabilities of electronic 1S0 (g) and 3P0 (e) states of the atoms to confine the e- and g- species in different optical superlattices. For example, in a one-dimensional case the e-lattice can be implemented as an array of weakly-coupled double-wells (DWs) with large intra-DW tunneling, and contain one localized e-atom in each DW to avoid losses due to e- e collisions. On the contrary, the shallow g-lattice has a large bandwidth and an arbitrary filling. We consider a nuclear-spin polarized system and demonstrate how kinetic-energy fluctuations of the localized e-atoms mediate an attractive interaction between the g-fermions, thus leading to a p-wave superfluid. We derive a low-energy model and determine the stability of this state against charge-density wave formation and phase separation. Our results can be tested with Yb or Sr fermionic atoms and have a direct relevance for the physics of high-temperature superconductor materials. Work supported by NSF (PIF-1211914 and PFC-1125844), AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI, NIST and ARO individual investigator awards.
Hysteresis of Current in Noninteracting Atomic Fermi Gases in Optical Ring Potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metcalf, Mekena; Chien, Chih-Chun; Lai, Chen-Yen
Hysteresis is a ubiquitous phenomenon, which can be found in magnets, superfluids, and other many-body systems. Although interactions are present in most systems exhibiting hysteresis, here we show the current of a non-interacting Fermi gas in an optical ring potential produces hysteresis behavior when driven by a time-dependent artificial gauge field and subject to dissipation. Fermions in a ring potential threaded with flux can exhibit a persistent current when the system is in thermal equilibrium, but cold-atoms are clean and dissipation for reaching thermal equilibrium may be introduced by an external, thermal bath. We use the standard relaxation approximation to model the dynamics of cold-atoms driven periodically by an artificial gauge field. A competition of the driven time and the relaxation time leads to hysteresis of the mass current, and work done on the system, as a function of the relaxation time, exhibits similar behavior as Kramers transition rate in chemical reaction and one-dimensional thermal transport.
Haberfehlner, Georg; Thaler, Philipp; Knez, Daniel; Volk, Alexander; Hofer, Ferdinand; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Kothleitner, Gerald
2015-01-01
Structure, shape and composition are the basic parameters responsible for properties of nanoscale materials, distinguishing them from their bulk counterparts. To reveal these in three dimensions at the nanoscale, electron tomography is a powerful tool. Advancing electron tomography to atomic resolution in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope remains challenging and has been demonstrated only a few times using strong constraints or extensive filtering. Here we demonstrate atomic resolution electron tomography on silver/gold core/shell nanoclusters grown in superfluid helium nanodroplets. We reveal morphology and composition of a cluster identifying gold- and silver-rich regions in three dimensions and we estimate atomic positions without using any prior information and with minimal filtering. The ability to get full three-dimensional information down to the atomic scale allows understanding the growth and deposition process of the nanoclusters and demonstrates an approach that may be generally applicable to all types of nanoscale materials. PMID:26508471
Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices.
Cramer, M; Eisert, J; Illuminati, F
2004-11-01
We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices. PMID:15600816
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kato, Shinya; Inaba, Kensuke; Sugawa, Seiji; Shibata, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Yamashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2016-04-01
A system of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice has been regarded as an ideal quantum simulator for a Hubbard model with extremely high controllability of the system parameters. While making use of the controllability, a comprehensive measurement across the weakly to strongly interacting regimes in the Hubbard model to discuss the quantum many-body state is still limited. Here we observe a great change in the excitation energy spectra across the two regimes in an atomic Bose-Hubbard system by using a spectroscopic technique, which can resolve the site occupancy in the lattice. By quantitatively comparing the observed spectra and numerical simulations based on sum rule relations and a binary fluid treatment under a finite temperature Gutzwiller approximation, we show that the spectra reflect the coexistence of a delocalized superfluid state and a localized insulating state across the two regimes.
Kato, Shinya; Inaba, Kensuke; Sugawa, Seiji; Shibata, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Yamashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2016-01-01
A system of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice has been regarded as an ideal quantum simulator for a Hubbard model with extremely high controllability of the system parameters. While making use of the controllability, a comprehensive measurement across the weakly to strongly interacting regimes in the Hubbard model to discuss the quantum many-body state is still limited. Here we observe a great change in the excitation energy spectra across the two regimes in an atomic Bose–Hubbard system by using a spectroscopic technique, which can resolve the site occupancy in the lattice. By quantitatively comparing the observed spectra and numerical simulations based on sum rule relations and a binary fluid treatment under a finite temperature Gutzwiller approximation, we show that the spectra reflect the coexistence of a delocalized superfluid state and a localized insulating state across the two regimes. PMID:27094083
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swanson, Mason
Ultracold atomic gas experiments have emerged as a new testing ground for finding elusive, exotic states of matter. One such state that has eluded detection is the Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) phase predicted to exist in a system with unequal populations of up and down fermions. This phase is characterized by periodic domain walls across which the order parameter changes sign and the excess polarization is localized Despite fifty years of theoretical and experimental work, there has so far been no unambiguous observation of an LO phase. In this thesis, we propose an experiment in which two fermion clouds, prepared with unequal population imbalances, are allowed to expand and interfere. We show that a pattern of staggered fringes in the interference is unequivocal evidence of LO physics. Finally, we study the superconductor-insulator quantum phase transition. Both superconductivity and localization stand on the shoulders of giants -- the BCS theory of superconductivity and the Anderson theory of localization. Yet, when their combined effects are considered, both paradigms break down, even for s-wave superconductors. In this work, we calculate the dynamical quantities that help guide present and future experiments. Specifically, we calculate the conductivity sigma(o) and the bosonic (pair) spectral function P(o) from quantum Monte Carlo simulations across clean and disorder-driven superconductor-insulator transitions (SIT). Using these quantities, we identify characteristic energy scales in both the superconducting and insulating phases that vanish at the transition due to enhanced quantum fluctuations, despite the persistence of a robust fermionic gap across the SIT. The clean and disordered transition are compared throughout, and we find that disorder leads to enhanced absorption in sigma(o) at low frequencies and a change in the universality class, although the underlying T = 0quantum critical point remains in both transitions.
Fulde-Ferrell Superfluids without Spin Imbalance in Driven Optical Lattices.
Zheng, Zhen; Qu, Chunlei; Zou, Xubo; Zhang, Chuanwei
2016-03-25
Spin-imbalanced ultracold Fermi gases have been widely studied recently as a platform for exploring the long-sought Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov superfluid phases, but so far conclusive evidence has not been found. Here we propose to realize an Fulde-Ferrell (FF) superfluid without spin imbalance in a three-dimensional fermionic cold atom optical lattice, where s- and p-orbital bands of the lattice are coupled by another weak moving optical lattice. Such coupling leads to a spin-independent asymmetric Fermi surface, which, together with the s-wave scattering interaction between two spins, yields an FF type of superfluid pairing. Unlike traditional schemes, our proposal does not rely on the spin imbalance (or an equivalent Zeeman field) to induce the Fermi surface mismatch and provides a completely new route for realizing FF superfluids. PMID:27058062
Mean-field dynamics of the superfluid-insulator phase transition in a gas of ultracold atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakrzewski, Jakub
2005-04-01
A large-scale dynamical simulation of the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition in a gas of ultracold atoms placed in an optical lattice is performed using the time-dependent Gutzwiller mean-field approach. This approximate treatment allows us to take into account most of the details of the recent experiment [Greiner , Nature (London) 415, 39 (2002)] where by changing the depth of the lattice potential an adiabatic transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator state has been reported. Our simulations reveal a significant excitation of the system with a transition to insulator in restricted regions of the trap only.
75 FR 20867 - DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-04-21
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment and Finding of No... Operating License No. DPR-9 issued to DTE Energy (DTE or the licensee), for the Enrico Fermi Atomic...
Chen, Qijin
2016-01-01
BCS–Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor’kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories. PMID:27183875
Chen, Qijin
2016-01-01
BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor'kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories. PMID:27183875
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qijin
2016-05-01
BCS–Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor’kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capponi, S.; Lecheminant, P.; Totsuka, K.
2016-04-01
Alkaline-earth and ytterbium cold atomic gases make it possible to simulate SU(N)-symmetric fermionic systems in a very controlled fashion. Such a high symmetry is expected to give rise to a variety of novel phenomena ranging from molecular Luttinger liquids to (symmetry-protected) topological phases. We review some of the phases that can be stabilized in a one dimensional lattice. The physics of this multi-component Fermi gas turns out to be much richer and more exotic than in the standard SU(2) case. For N > 2, the phase diagram is quite rich already in the case of the single-band model, including a molecular Luttinger liquid (with dominant superfluid instability in the N-particle channel) for incommensurate fillings, as well as various Mott-insulating phases occurring at commensurate fillings. Particular attention will be paid to the cases with additional orbital degree of freedom (which is accessible experimentally either by taking into account two atomic states or by putting atoms in the p-band levels). We introduce two microscopic models which are relevant for these cases and discuss their symmetries and strong coupling limits. More intriguing phase diagrams are then presented including, for instance, symmetry protected topological phases characterized by non-trivial edge states.
Mazzarella, G.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.
2006-01-15
For systems of interacting, ultracold spin-zero neutral bosonic atoms, harmonically trapped and subject to an optical lattice potential, we derive an Extended Bose Hubbard (EBH) model by developing a systematic expansion for the Hamiltonian of the system in powers of the lattice parameters and of a scale parameter, the lattice attenuation factor. We identify the dominant terms that need to be retained in realistic experimental conditions, up to nearest-neighbor interactions and nearest-neighbor hoppings conditioned by the on-site occupation numbers. In the mean field approximation, we determine the free energy of the system and study the phase diagram both at zero and at finite temperature. At variance with the standard on site Bose Hubbard model, the zero-temperature phase diagram of the EBH model possesses a dual structure in the Mott insulating regime. Namely, for specific ranges of the lattice parameters, a density wave phase characterizes the system at integer fillings, with domains of alternating mean occupation numbers that are the atomic counterparts of the domains of staggered magnetizations in an antiferromagnetic phase. We show as well that in the EBH model, a zero-temperature quantum phase transition to pair superfluidity is, in principle, possible, but completely suppressed at the lowest order in the lattice attenuation factor. Finally, we determine the possible occurrence of the different phases as a function of the experimentally controllable lattice parameters.
Atom optics and space physics: A summary of an 'Enrico Fermi' summer school
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arimondo, Ennio; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.; Schleich, Wolfgang P.
2008-03-01
We describe the scientific content of the International School of Physics 'Enrico Fermi' on atom optics and space physics, organized by the Italian Physical Society in Varenna at Lake Como, Italy, 2-13 July 2007.
Pseudospin pairing and transport in atomic Fermi gases and bilayer systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mink, M. P.
2012-09-01
In this Thesis we consider the behavior of the drag conductivity close to exciton condensation in bilayer systems and close to the superfluid transition in cold Fermi gases. In chapter 2 we calculate the transition temperature for exciton condensation in double-layer graphene, showing that the remote bands can play a supporting role in this transition. In chapter 3 we consider a topological insulator thin film and calculate the behavior of the drag resistivity close to the transition temperature. We find a strong enhancement which can be used as a precursor for the transition. In chapter 4 we discuss an ultracold Fermi gas close to the superconducting transition and compare two different methods to obtain the drag resistivity, each taking into account a different phenomenon which affects the drag resistivity close to the transition. Finally, in chapter 5, we present a uniform theoretical framework to determine the drag resistivity in all experimental systems considered in this Thesis.
Mass-imbalanced Fermi gases with spin-orbit coupling
Iskin, M.; Subasi, A. L.
2011-10-15
We use the mean-field theory to analyze the ground-state phase diagrams of spin-orbit-coupled mass-imbalanced Fermi gases throughout the BCS-BEC evolution, including both the population-balanced and -imbalanced systems. Our calculations show that the competition between the mass and population imbalance and the Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling gives rise to very rich phase diagrams, involving normal, superfluid, and phase-separated regions. In addition, we find quantum phase transitions between the topologically trivial gapped superfluid and the nontrivial gapless superfluid phases, opening the way for the experimental observation of exotic phenomena with cold atom systems.
Ferromagnetism in a repulsive atomic Fermi gas with correlated disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilati, S.; Fratini, E.
2016-05-01
We investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas in the presence of a correlated random field that represents an optical speckle pattern. The density is tuned so that the (noninteracting) Fermi energy is close to the mobility edge of the Anderson localization transition. We employ quantum Monte Carlo simulations to determine various ground-state properties, including the equation of state, the magnetic susceptibility, and the energy of an impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi gas (repulsive polaron). In the weakly interacting limit, the magnetic susceptibility is found to be suppressed by disorder. However, it rapidly increases with the interaction strength, and it diverges at a much weaker interaction strength compared to the clean gas. Both the transition from the paramagnetic phase to the partially ferromagnetic phase, and the one from the partially to the fully ferromagnetic phase, are strongly favored by disorder, indicating a case of order induced by disorder.
Velocity-dependent quantum phase slips in 1D atomic superfluids
Tanzi, Luca; Scaffidi Abbate, Simona; Cataldini, Federica; Gori, Lorenzo; Lucioni, Eleonora; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni; D’Errico, Chiara
2016-01-01
Quantum phase slips are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures but their existence in ultracold quantum gases has not been demonstrated yet. We now study experimentally the nucleation rate of phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids realized with ultracold quantum gases, flowing along a periodic potential. We observe a crossover between a regime of temperature-dependent dissipation at small velocity and interaction and a second regime of velocity-dependent dissipation at larger velocity and interaction. This behavior is consistent with the predicted crossover from thermally-assisted quantum phase slips to purely quantum phase slips. PMID:27188334
Velocity-dependent quantum phase slips in 1D atomic superfluids.
Tanzi, Luca; Scaffidi Abbate, Simona; Cataldini, Federica; Gori, Lorenzo; Lucioni, Eleonora; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni; D'Errico, Chiara
2016-01-01
Quantum phase slips are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures but their existence in ultracold quantum gases has not been demonstrated yet. We now study experimentally the nucleation rate of phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids realized with ultracold quantum gases, flowing along a periodic potential. We observe a crossover between a regime of temperature-dependent dissipation at small velocity and interaction and a second regime of velocity-dependent dissipation at larger velocity and interaction. This behavior is consistent with the predicted crossover from thermally-assisted quantum phase slips to purely quantum phase slips. PMID:27188334
Trimers, Molecules, and Polarons in Mass-Imbalanced Atomic Fermi Gases
Mathy, Charles J. M.; Parish, Meera M.; Huse, David A.
2011-04-22
We consider the ground state of a single ''spin-down'' impurity atom interacting attractively with a ''spin-up'' atomic Fermi gas. By constructing variational wave functions for polarons, molecules, and trimers, we perform a detailed study of the transitions between these dressed bound states as a function of mass ratio r=m{sub {up_arrow}}/m{sub {down_arrow}} and interaction strength. Crucially, we find that the presence of a Fermi sea enhances the stability of the p-wave trimer, which can be viewed as a Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov molecule that has bound an additional majority atom. For sufficiently large r, we find that the transitions lie outside the region of phase separation of the imbalanced Fermi gas and should thus be observable in experiment, unlike the well-studied equal-mass case.
Rashba spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gases
Jiang Lei; Pu Han; Liu Xiaji; Hu Hui
2011-12-15
We investigate theoretically BEC-BCS crossover physics in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a system of a two-component Fermi gas with and without a Zeeman field that breaks the population balance between the two components. A bound state (Rashba pair) emerges because of the spin-orbit interaction. We study the properties of Rashba pairs using standard pair fluctuation theory. At zero temperature, the Rashba pairs condense into a macroscopic mixed-spin state. We discuss in detail the experimental signatures for observing the condensation of Rashba pairs by calculating various physical observables which characterize the properties of the system and can be measured in experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iskin, M.
2016-07-01
We first show that the many-body Hamiltonian governing the physical properties of an alkaline-earth 173Yb Fermi gas across the recently realized orbital Feshbach resonance is exactly analogous to that of two-band s -wave superconductors with contact interactions; i.e., even though the free-particle bands have a tunable energy offset in between and are coupled by a Josephson-type attractive interband pair scattering, the intraband interactions have exactly the same strength. We then introduce two intraband order parameters within the BCS mean-field approximation and investigate the competition between their in-phase and out-of-phase (i.e., the so-called π -phase) solutions in the entire BCS-BEC evolution at zero temperature.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-05-05
... quality of the human environment as documented in Federal Register (FR) notice 75 FR 20867, April 21, 2010... COMMISSION DTE ENERGY; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Low-Level Waste... and holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-9 issued for Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit...
Cao, Ye; Liu, Xia -Ji; He, Lianyi; Long, Gui -Lu; Hu, Hui
2015-02-09
We theoretically investigate the superfluid density and Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition of a two-dimensional Rashba spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas with both in-plane and out-of-plane Zeeman fields. It was recently predicted that, by tuning the two Zeeman fields, the system may exhibit different exotic Fulde-Ferrell (FF) superfluid phases, including the gapped FF, gapless FF, gapless topological FF, and gapped topological FF states. Due to the FF paring, we show that the superfluid density (tensor) of the system becomes anisotropic. When an in-plane Zeeman field is applied along the x direction, the tensor component along the y direction n_{s},yy is generally larger than n_{s},xx in most parameter space. At zero temperature, there is always a discontinuity jump in n_{s},xx as the system evolves from a gapped FF into a gapless FF state. With increasing temperature, such a jump is gradually washed out. The critical BKT temperature has been calculated as functions of the spin-orbit-coupling strength, interatomic interaction strength, and in-plane and out-of-plane Zeeman fields. We predict that the novel FF superfluid phases have a significant critical BKT temperature, typically at the order of 0.1T_{F}, where T_{F} is the Fermi degenerate temperature. Furthermore, their observation is within the reach of current experimental techniques in cold-atom laboratories.
Cao, Ye; Liu, Xia -Ji; He, Lianyi; Long, Gui -Lu; Hu, Hui
2015-02-09
We theoretically investigate the superfluid density and Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition of a two-dimensional Rashba spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas with both in-plane and out-of-plane Zeeman fields. It was recently predicted that, by tuning the two Zeeman fields, the system may exhibit different exotic Fulde-Ferrell (FF) superfluid phases, including the gapped FF, gapless FF, gapless topological FF, and gapped topological FF states. Due to the FF paring, we show that the superfluid density (tensor) of the system becomes anisotropic. When an in-plane Zeeman field is applied along the x direction, the tensor component along the y direction ns,yy is generally larger thanmore » ns,xx in most parameter space. At zero temperature, there is always a discontinuity jump in ns,xx as the system evolves from a gapped FF into a gapless FF state. With increasing temperature, such a jump is gradually washed out. The critical BKT temperature has been calculated as functions of the spin-orbit-coupling strength, interatomic interaction strength, and in-plane and out-of-plane Zeeman fields. We predict that the novel FF superfluid phases have a significant critical BKT temperature, typically at the order of 0.1TF, where TF is the Fermi degenerate temperature. Furthermore, their observation is within the reach of current experimental techniques in cold-atom laboratories.« less
Recoil-limited laser cooling of 87Sr atoms near the Fermi temperature.
Mukaiyama, Takashi; Katori, Hidetoshi; Ido, Tetsuya; Li, Ying; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto
2003-03-21
A dynamic magneto-optical trap, which relies on the rapid randomization of population in Zeeman substates, has been demonstrated for fermionic strontium atoms on the 1S0-3P1 intercombination transition. The obtained sample, 1x10(6) atoms at a temperature of 2 microK in the trap, was further Doppler cooled and polarized in a far-off resonant optical lattice to achieve 2 times the Fermi temperature. PMID:12688925
Causality problems for Fermi's two-atom system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hegerfeldt, Gerhard C.
1994-01-01
Let A and B be two atoms or, more generally, a 'source' and a 'detector' separated by some distance R. At t = 0 A is in an excited state, B in its ground state, and no photons are present. A theorem is proved that in contrast to Einstein causality and finite signal velocity the excitation probability of B is nonzero immediately after t = 0. Implications are discussed.
Superfluidity in asymmetric nuclear matter
Sedrakian, A.; Alm, T.; Lombardo, U.
1997-02-01
The onset of superfluidity in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within the BCS theory. A neutron-proton superfluid state in the channel {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} comes about from the interplay between thermal excitations and separation {delta}{mu} of the two Fermi surfaces. The superfluid state disappears above the threshold value of the density-asymmetry parameter {alpha}=(n{sub n}{minus}n{sub p})/n{approx_equal}0.35. For large enough shift between the two Fermi surfaces {delta}{mu}=(1)/(2)({mu}{sub n}{minus}{mu}{sub p}) the transition to the normal state becomes a first-order transition and a second gap solution develops. This solution, however, corresponds to a metastable superfluid state which is unstable with respect to the transition to the normal state. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersson, Patrik U.; Holmlid, Leif
2012-10-01
Fragments from laser-induced Coulomb explosions (CE) in a thin super-fluid film of ultra-dense deuterium D(-1) on a vertical surface are now observed by both negative and positive time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The so-called normal phase of the super-fluid is probably associated with D4 clusters and gives only neutral atomic fragments with a kinetic energy from the CE of 945 eV. The super-fluid phase is associated with long chain clusters D2N with N deuteron pairs and gives cluster fragments by CE mainly with a kinetic energy of 315 eV from the central cleavage in a neutral, positive or negative form. This indicates that the chain clusters are standing perpendicularly to the surface. The fragment charge state is influenced by the external field, which indicates efficient charge transfer processes.
Hung Chenlung; Zhang Xibo; Gemelke, Nathan; Chin Cheng
2010-04-23
We study transport dynamics of ultracold cesium atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice across the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition based on in situ imaging. Inducing the phase transition with a lattice ramping routine expected to be locally adiabatic, we observe a global mass redistribution which requires a very long time to equilibrate, more than 100 times longer than the microscopic time scales for on-site interaction and tunneling. When the sample enters the Mott-insulator regime, mass transport significantly slows down. By employing fast recombination loss pulses to analyze the occupancy distribution, we observe similarly slow-evolving dynamics, and a lower effective temperature at the center of the sample.
Interaction of Ions, Atoms and Small Molecules with Quantized Vortex Lines in Superfluid 4He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eloranta, Jussi; Matteo, David; Williams, Gary
2015-03-01
The interaction of a number of impurities (H2, Ag, Cu, Ag2, Cu2, Li, He3+,He* (3 S), He2*(3Σu) and e-) with quantized rectilinear vortex lines in superfluid 4He is calculated using density functional methods at 0 K. The technique yields the impurity radius as well as the vortex line core parameter. The core parameter at 0 K (0.74 Å) obtained either directly from the vortex line geometry or from the trapping potential fitting is smaller than previously suggested but is compatible with a re-analysis of the Rayfield-Reif experiment. All of the impurities have significant binding energies to the vortex lines below 1 K where the thermally assisted escape process becomes very inefficient. Even at higher temperatures the trapping times, especially for larger clusters, are sufficiently long that the observed metal nanowire assembly in superfluid helium can take place at vortex lines. The binding energy of the electron bubble is predicted to decrease as a function of both temperature and pressure, which allows adjusting the trap depth for either permanent trapping or thermally assisted escape. A new scheme for determining the trapping of impurities on vortex lines by optical absorption spectroscopy is outlined and demonstrated for He*. Work supported by the NSF, Grants CHE-1262306 and DMR-1205734, and the Interdisciplinary Research Institute for the Sciences.
Interaction of ions, atoms, and small molecules with quantized vortex lines in superfluid {sup 4}He
Mateo, David; Eloranta, Jussi; Williams, Gary A.
2015-02-14
The interaction of a number of impurities (H{sub 2}, Ag, Cu, Ag{sub 2}, Cu{sub 2}, Li, He{sub 3}{sup +}, He{sup *} ({sup 3}S), He{sub 2}{sup ∗} ({sup 3}Σ{sub u}), and e{sup −}) with quantized rectilinear vortex lines in superfluid {sup 4}He is calculated by using the Orsay-Trento density functional theory (DFT) method at 0 K. The Donnelly-Parks (DP) potential function binding ions to the vortex is combined with DFT data, yielding the impurity radius as well as the vortex line core parameter. The vortex core parameter at 0 K (0.74 Å) obtained either directly from the vortex line geometry or through the DP potential fitting is smaller than previously suggested but is compatible with the value obtained from re-analysis of the Rayfield-Reif experiment. All of the impurities have significantly higher binding energies to vortex lines below 1 K than the available thermal energy, where the thermally assisted escape process becomes exponentially negligible. Even at higher temperatures 1.5-2.0 K, the trapping times for larger metal clusters are sufficiently long that the previously observed metal nanowire assembly in superfluid helium can take place at vortex lines. The binding energy of the electron bubble is predicted to decrease as a function of both temperature and pressure, which allows adjusting the trap depth for either permanent trapping or to allow thermally assisted escape. Finally, a new scheme for determining the trapping of impurities on vortex lines by optical absorption spectroscopy is outlined and demonstrated for He{sup *}.
RF Spectroscopy on a Homogeneous Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zhenjie; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Patel, Parth; Struck, Julian; Zwierlein, Martin
2016-05-01
Over the last two decades RF spectroscopy has been established as an indispensable tool to probe a large variety of fundamental properties of strongly interacting Fermi gases. This ranges from measurement of the pairing gap over tan's contact to the quasi-particle weight of Fermi polarons. So far, most RF spectroscopy experiments have been performed in harmonic traps, resulting in an averaged response over different densities. We have realized an optical uniform potential for ultracold Fermi gases of 6 Li atoms, which allows us to avoid the usual problems connected to inhomogeneous systems. Here we present recent results on RF spectroscopy of these homogeneous samples with a high signal to noise ratio. In addition, we report progress on measuring the contact of a unitary Fermi gas across the normal to superfluid transition.
Stability of the superfluid state in a disordered one-dimensional ultracold fermionic gas
Tezuka, Masaki; Garcia-Garcia, Antonio M.
2010-10-15
We study a one-dimensional Fermi gas with attractive short range-interactions in a disordered potential by the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) technique. Our results can be tested experimentally by using cold atom techniques. We identify a region of parameters for which disorder enhances the superfluid state. As disorder is further increased, global superfluidity eventually breaks down. However this transition seems to occur before the transition to the insulator state takes place. This suggests the existence of an intermediate metallic 'pseudogap' phase characterized by strong pairing but no quasi-long-range order.
Roberts, David C
2008-01-01
The article considers the dramatic phenomenon of seemingly frictionless flow of slow-moving superfluids. Specifically the question of whether an object in a superfluid flow experiences any drag force is addressed. A brief account is given of the history of this problem and it is argued that recent advances in ultracold atomic physics can shed much new light on this problem. The article presents the commonly held notion that sufficiently slow-moving superfluids can flow without drag and also discusses research suggesting that scattering quantum fluctuations might cause drag in a superfluid moving at any speed.
Ferromagnetism of a Repulsive Atomic Fermi Gas in an Optical Lattice: A Quantum Monte Carlo Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilati, Sebastiano; Zintchenko, Ilia; Troyer, Matthias
2015-05-01
We investigate the ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of a periodic potential that describes the effect of a 3D optical lattice, using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We find that a shallow optical lattice below half-filling strongly favors the ferromagnetic instability compared to the homogeneous Fermi gas. Instead, in the regime of deep optical lattices and weak interactions, where the conventional description in terms of single-band tight-binding models is reliable, our results indicate that the paramagnetic state is stable, in agreement with previous quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the Hubbard model. Our findings shed light on the important role played by multi-band effects and by interaction-induced hopping in the physics of atomic gases trapped in optical lattices.
Ferromagnetism of a repulsive atomic Fermi gas in an optical lattice: a quantum Monte Carlo study.
Pilati, S; Zintchenko, I; Troyer, M
2014-01-10
Using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo methods, we investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of periodic potentials that describe the effect of a simple-cubic optical lattice. Simulations are performed with balanced and with imbalanced components, including the case of a single impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi sea (repulsive polaron). For an intermediate density below half filling, we locate the transitions between the paramagnetic, and the partially and fully ferromagnetic phases. As the intensity of the optical lattice increases, the ferromagnetic instability takes place at weaker interactions, indicating a possible route to observe ferromagnetism in experiments performed with ultracold atoms. We compare our findings with previous predictions based on the standard computational method used in material science, namely density functional theory, and with results based on tight-binding models. PMID:24483906
Decay of a superfluid current of ultracold atoms in a toroidal trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathey, Amy C.; Clark, Charles W.; Mathey, L.
2014-08-01
Using a numerical implementation of the truncated Wigner approximation, we simulate the experiment reported by Ramanathan et al. in Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 130401 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.130401, in which a Bose-Einstein condensate is created in a toroidal trap and set into rotation via a phase imprinting technique. A potential barrier is then placed in the trap to study the decay of the superflow. We find that the current decays via thermally activated phase slips, which can also be visualized as vortices crossing the barrier region in the radial direction. Adopting the notion of critical velocity used in the experiment, we determine it to be lower than the local speed of sound at the barrier, in contradiction to the predictions of the zero-temperature Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We map out the superfluid decay rate and critical velocity as a function of temperature and observe a strong dependence. Thermal fluctuations offer a partial explanation of the experimentally observed reduction of the critical velocity from the phonon velocity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fotso, H. F.; Vicente, J.; Freericks, J. K.
2014-11-01
Time-of-flight images are a common tool in ultracold atomic experiments, employed to determine the quasimomentum distribution of the interacting particles. If one introduces a constant artificial electric field, then the quasimomentum distribution evolves in time as Bloch oscillations are generated in the system and then are damped, showing a complex series of patterns. In different-mass Fermi-Fermi mixtures, these patterns are formed from a frustrated phase separation in momentum space that is driven by Mott physics for large electric fields which stabilize them for long times.
Koinov, Zlatko; Mendoza, Rafael; Fortes, Mauricio
2011-03-11
We address the question of whether superfluidity can survive in the case of fermion pairing between different species with mismatched Fermi surfaces using as an example a population-imbalanced mixture of {sup 6}Li atomic Fermi gas loaded in a two-dimensional optical lattice at nonzero temperatures. The collective mode is calculated from the Bethe-Salpeter equations in the general random phase approximation assuming a Fulde-Ferrell order parameter. The numerical solution shows that, in addition to low-energy (Goldstone) mode, two rotonlike minima exist, and therefore, the superfluidity can survive in this imbalanced system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujita, T.; Furukawa, T.; Imamura, K.; Yang, X. F.; Hatakeyama, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Ueno, H.; Asahi, K.; Shimoda, T.; Matsuo, Y.
2015-11-01
A new laser spectroscopic method named "OROCHI (Optical RI-atom Observation in Condensed Helium as Ion catcher)" has been developed for deriving the nuclear spins and electromagnetic moments of low-yield exotic nuclei. In this method, we observe atomic Zeeman and hyperfine structures using laser-radio-frequency/microwave double-resonance spectroscopy. In our previous works, double-resonance spectroscopy was performed successfully with laser-sputtered stable atoms including non-alkali Au atoms as well as alkali Rb and Cs atoms. Following these works, measurements with 84-87Rb energetic ion beams were carried out in the RIKEN projectile fragment separator (RIPS). In this paper, we report the present status of OROCHI and discuss its feasibility, especially for low-yield nuclei such as unstable Au isotopes.
Pederson, Mark R
2015-02-14
A recent modification of the Perdew-Zunger self-interaction-correction to the density-functional formalism has provided a framework for explicitly restoring unitary invariance to the expression for the total energy. The formalism depends upon construction of Löwdin orthonormalized Fermi-orbitals which parametrically depend on variational quasi-classical electronic positions. Derivatives of these quasi-classical electronic positions, required for efficient minimization of the self-interaction corrected energy, are derived and tested, here, on atoms. Total energies and ionization energies in closed-shell singlet atoms, where correlation is less important, using the Perdew-Wang 1992 Local Density Approximation (PW92) functional, are in good agreement with experiment and non-relativistic quantum-Monte-Carlo results albeit slightly too low. PMID:25681892
Spontaneous light emission by atomic hydrogen: Fermi's golden rule without cheating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debierre, V.; Durt, T.; Nicolet, A.; Zolla, F.
2015-10-01
Focusing on the 2 p- 1 s transition in atomic hydrogen, we investigate through first order perturbation theory the time evolution of the survival probability of an electron initially taken to be in the excited (2 p) state. We examine both the results yielded by the standard dipole approximation for the coupling between the atom and the electromagnetic field - for which we propose a cutoff-independent regularisation - and those yielded by the exact coupling function. In both cases, Fermi's golden rule is shown to be an excellent approximation for the system at hand: we found its maximal deviation from the exact behaviour of the system to be of order 10-8 /10-7. Our treatment also yields a rigorous prescription for the choice of the optimal cutoff frequency in the dipole approximation. With our cutoff, the predictions of the dipole approximation are almost indistinguishable at all times from the exact dynamics of the system.
Unconventional states and geometric effects in mesoscopic systems of ultra-cold atomic Fermi gases
Bolech, C. J.
2014-10-15
During the last decade, experiments all over the world started to test the superconducting state of matter using a newly developed mesoscopic tunable system: trapped ultra-cold atomic gases. Theorists and experimentalists hand-in-hand are now able to advance our understanding of the superconducting state by asking new questions that probe further into the physical mechanisms underlying the phenomenon and the door is open to the exploration of exotic unconventional superconducting states. In particular, a series of experiments on systems of trapped cold atomic gases were aimed at studying the effects of polarization on superconducting pairing. Two different experimental groups encountered surprising qualitative and quantitative discrepancies which seemed to be a function of the confining geometry and the cooling protocol. Our numerical studies demonstrate a tendency towards metastability and suggest an explanation for the observed discrepancy. From our calculations, the most likely solution which is consistent with the experiments supports a state strikingly similar to the so called FFLO state (after Ferrell, Fulde, Larkin and Ovchinnikov), which had been theorized long ago but eluded detection so far. Moreover, the three-dimensional scenario described above is reminiscent of predictions for one-dimensional systems of dilute polarized attractive gases and another set of ultra-cold-atom experiments incorporates optical lattices to study this reduced-dimensionality setting. The measurements are in quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations (using a wide array of numerical and analytic techniques) in which a partially polarized phase is found to be the one-dimensional analogue of the FFLO state. Moreover, exploring the dimensional-crossover regime, our latest findings indicate that the mesoscopic nature of these quasi-one-dimensional systems favors the appearance of a new type of Mott phase transition involving an emergent pair-superfluid of equal
Coherence length of neutron superfluids
De Blasio, F.V.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Lazzari, G.; Baldo, M.; Schulze, H.
1997-10-01
The coherence length of superfluid neutron matter is calculated from the microscopic BCS wave function of a Cooper pair in momentum space making use of recent nucleon-nucleon potential models and including polarization (RPA) effects. We find as our main result that the coherence length is proportional to the Fermi momentum to pairing gap ratio, in good agreement with simple estimates used in the literature, with a nearly interaction independent constant of proportionality. Our calculations can be applied to the problem of inhomogeneous superfluidity of hadronic matter in the crust of a neutron star. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Majorana modes and p-wave superfluids for fermionic atoms in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bühler, A.; Lang, N.; Kraus, C. V.; Möller, G.; Huber, S. D.; Büchler, H. P.
2014-07-01
The quest for realization of non-Abelian phases of matter, driven by their possible use in fault-tolerant topological quantum computing, has been spearheaded by recent developments in p-wave superconductors. The chiral px+ipy-wave superconductor in two-dimensions exhibiting Majorana modes provides the simplest phase supporting non-Abelian quasiparticles and can be seen as the blueprint of fractional topological order. Alternatively, Kitaev’s Majorana wire has emerged as an ideal toy model to understand Majorana modes. Here we present a way to make the transition from Kitaev's Majorana wires to two-dimensional p-wave superconductors in a system with cold atomic gases in an optical lattice. The main idea is based on an approach to generate p-wave interactions by coupling orbital degrees of freedom with strong s-wave interactions. We demonstrate how this design can induce Majorana modes at edge dislocations in the optical lattice, and we provide an experimentally feasible protocol for the observation of the non-Abelian statistics.
Optimizing a parametrized Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Weizsäcker density functional for atoms.
Espinosa Leal, L A; Karpenko, A; Caro, M A; Lopez-Acevedo, O
2015-12-21
Because of issues with accuracy and transferability of existing orbital-free (OF) density functionals, OF functional development remains an active research area. However, due to numerical difficulties, all-electron self-consistent assessment of OF functionals is limited. Using an all-electron radial OFDFT code, we evaluate the performance of a parametrized OF functional for a wide range in parameter space. Specifically, we combine the parametrized Thomas-Fermi-Weizsäcker kinetic model (λ and γ for the fractions of Weizsäcker and Thomas-Fermi functionals, respectively) with a local density approximation (LDA) for the exchange-correlation functional. In order to obtain the converged results for λ values other than λ = 1, we use the potential scaling introduced in previous work. Because we work within a wide region in parameter space, this strategy provides an effective route towards better understanding of the parameter interplay that allows us to achieve good agreement with the Kohn-Sham (KS) model. Here, our interest lies in total energy, Euler equation eigenvalue, and electronic densities when the parameters are varied between 0.2 and 1.5. We observe that a one-to-one relation between λ and γ defines a region in parameter space that allows the atomic energies to be approximated with a very small average error (less than 3% percent for all the atoms studied) with respect to the KS reference energies. For each atom, the reference KS HOMO eigenvalue can also be reproduced with a similar error, but the one-to-one correspondence between λ and γ belongs to a different region of the same parameter space. Contrary to both properties, the atomic density behaves more smoothly and the error in reproducing the KS reference densities appears more insensitive to variation of the parameters (with mostly an average integrated difference of 0.15-0.20 |e| per electron). These results pave the way towards testing of parameter transferability and further systematic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setiawan, F.; Sengupta, Krishnendu; Spielman, Ian; Sau, Jay
2015-03-01
We theoretically study the dynamics of topological phase transition in one-dimensional (1D) spin-orbit coupled (SOC) Fermi gases with attractive interaction as a means of detecting the phase transition. The transition from conventional (trivial) superfluid to topological superfluid phase happens as the intensity of the Raman lasers (Zeeman field) is ramped above the critical value. To minimize effect of heating, we propose to ramp from a conventional superfluid phase through the topological phase transition and back. We calculate the momentum distribution of the atoms after the ramp by solving the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) equations self-consistently with the initial state of the Fermi gas being the thermal state. We show that the phase transition can be detected by measuring the scaling of the momentum distribution with the ramp rate. This work is supported by NSF-JQI-PFC and ARO-Atomtronics-MURI.
Quantum phases of quadrupolar Fermi gases in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhongale, Satyan; Mathey, Ludwig; Zhao, Erhai; Yellin, Susanne; Lemeshko, Mikhail
2013-05-01
We introduce a new platform for quantum simulation of many-body systems based on nonspherical atoms or molecules with zero dipole moment but possessing a significant value of electric quadrupole moment. We consider a quadrupolar Fermi gas trapped in a 2D square optical lattice, and show that the peculiar symmetry and broad tunability of the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction results in a rich phase diagram encompassing unconventional BCS and charge density wave phases, and opens up a perspective to create topological superfluid. Quadrupolar species, such as metastable alkaline-earth atoms and homonuclear molecules, are stable against chemical reactions and collapse and are readily available in experiment at high densities.
Quantum Phases of Quadrupolar Fermi Gases in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhongale, S. G.; Mathey, L.; Zhao, Erhai; Yelin, S. F.; Lemeshko, Mikhail
2013-04-01
We introduce a new platform for quantum simulation of many-body systems based on nonspherical atoms or molecules with zero dipole moments but possessing a significant value of electric quadrupole moments. We consider a quadrupolar Fermi gas trapped in a 2D square optical lattice, and show that the peculiar symmetry and broad tunability of the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction results in a rich phase diagram encompassing unconventional BCS and charge density wave phases, and opens up a perspective to create a topological superfluid. Quadrupolar species, such as metastable alkaline-earth atoms and homonuclear molecules, are stable against chemical reactions and collapse and are readily available in experiment at high densities.
Thermodynamics of interacting cold atomic Fermi gases with spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, Scott; Alhassid, Yoram; Gilbreth, Christopher
New physics is suggested with the prediction of novel phases in cold atom systems when a synthetic spin-orbit coupling is introduced. In particular, recent studies show that a new type of Bose-Einstein condensate, termed Rashbon-BEC, is formed when a generalized Rashba spin-orbit term is present. The Rashbon-BEC phase can be obtained by tuning the spin-orbit coupling strength even in the case of finite negative scattering length. This stands in contrast to the BCS-BEC crossover in the absence of spin-orbit coupling where a negative scattering length is associated with BCS physics, and its divergence signals the crossover. In our work we apply finite-temperature quantum Monte Carlo methods to a spherical Rashba spin-orbit coupled two-species Fermi gas with contact s-wave interaction in three dimensions. We will discuss the phase diagram for this system, and its crossover behavior from BCS to Rashbon-BEC. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG-0291-ER-40608.
Majorana modes in single channel cold atomic gases with short-ranged attractive interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sau, Jay; Li, Xiaopeng
2015-03-01
Majorana modes have been predicted to exist in topological superfluids that generated by a combination of spin-orbit coupling and short-ranged attractive interactions. One dimensional superfluids with intrinsic interactions, however, present a precarious competition between phase fluctuations and topological superfluidity. Previously, it has been argued that the Majorana nature survives with some modification in multi-channel and proximity-induced superfluidity in systems of ultra-cold atoms. This discussion is more subtle in the single channel case because the universal properties of one dimensional fermions with attractive interactions are known to be described by a simple Luttinger liquid in the low-energy limit. In this talk, we will discuss the properties of Galilean invariant one dimensional fermi gases with attractive interactions and show how they display properties consistent with both being a topological (or non-topological) superfluid and a Luttinger liquid. Condensed Matter Theory Center and Joint Quantum Institute at the University of Maryland.
Quantum phase transitions in the Fermi-Bose Hubbard model
Carr, L.D.; Holland, M.J.
2005-09-15
We propose a multiband Fermi-Bose Hubbard model with on-site fermion-boson conversion and general filling factor in three dimensions. Such a Hamiltonian models an atomic Fermi gas trapped in a lattice potential and subject to a Feshbach resonance. We solve this model in the two-state approximation for paired fermions at zero temperature. The problem then maps onto a coupled Heisenberg spin model. In the limit of large positive and negative detuning, the quantum phase transitions in the Bose Hubbard and paired-Fermi Hubbard models are correctly reproduced. Near resonance, the Mott states are given by a superposition of the paired-fermion and boson fields and the Mott-superfluid borders go through an avoided crossing in the phase diagram.
Low temperatures shear viscosity of a two-component dipolar Fermi gas with unequal population
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darsheshdar, E.; Yavari, H.; Zangeneh, Z.
2016-07-01
By using the Green's functions method and linear response theory we calculate the shear viscosity of a two-component dipolar Fermi gas with population imbalance (spin polarized) in the low temperatures limit. In the strong-coupling Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) region where a Feshbach resonance gives rise to tightly bound dimer molecules, a spin-polarized Fermi superfluid reduces to a simple Bose-Fermi mixture of Bose-condensed dimers and the leftover unpaired fermions (atoms). The interactions between dimer-atom, dimer-dimer, and atom-atom take into account to the viscous relaxation time (τη) . By evaluating the self-energies in the ladder approximation we determine the relaxation times due to dimer-atom (τDA) , dimer-dimer (τcDD ,τdDD) , and atom-atom (τAA) interactions. We will show that relaxation rates due to these interactions τDA-1 ,τcDD-1, τdDD-1, and τAA-1 have T2, T4, e - E /kB T (E is the spectrum of the dimer atoms), and T 3 / 2 behavior respectively in the low temperature limit (T → 0) and consequently, the atom-atom interaction plays the dominant role in the shear viscosity in this rang of temperatures. For small polarization (τDA ,τAA ≫τcDD ,τdDD), the low temperatures shear viscosity is determined by contact interaction between dimers and the shear viscosity varies as T-5 which has the same behavior as the viscosity of other superfluid systems such as superfluid neutron stars, and liquid helium.
Liu, Xia-Ji Hu, Hui
2014-11-15
We calculate the frequency of collective modes of a one-dimensional repulsively interacting Fermi gas with high-spin symmetry confined in harmonic traps at zero temperature. This is a system realizable with fermionic alkaline-earth-metal atoms such as {sup 173}Yb, which displays an exact SU(κ) spin symmetry with κ⩾2 and behaves like a spinless interacting Bose gas in the limit of infinite spin components κ→∞, namely high-spin bosonization. We solve the homogeneous equation of state of the high-spin Fermi system by using Bethe ansatz technique and obtain the density distribution in harmonic traps based on local density approximation. The frequency of collective modes is calculated by exactly solving the zero-temperature hydrodynamic equation. In the limit of large number of spin-components, we show that the mode frequency of the system approaches that of a one-dimensional spinless interacting Bose gas, as a result of high-spin bosonization. Our prediction of collective modes is in excellent agreement with a very recent measurement for a Fermi gas of {sup 173}Yb atoms with tunable spin confined in a two-dimensional tight optical lattice.
Quantum turbulence in superfluids with wall-clamped normal component
Eltsov, Vladimir; Hänninen, Risto; Krusius, Matti
2014-01-01
In Fermi superfluids, such as superfluid 3He, the viscous normal component can be considered to be stationary with respect to the container. The normal component interacts with the superfluid component via mutual friction, which damps the motion of quantized vortex lines and eventually couples the superfluid component to the container. With decreasing temperature and mutual friction, the internal dynamics of the superfluid component becomes more important compared with the damping and coupling effects from the normal component. As a result profound changes in superfluid dynamics are observed: the temperature-dependent transition from laminar to turbulent vortex motion and the decoupling from the reference frame of the container at even lower temperatures. PMID:24704879
Superfluids of Fermions in spin-orbit coupled systems and photons inside a cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yi-Xiang
This dissertation introduces some new properties of both superfluid phases of fermions with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and superradiant phases of photons in an optical cavity. The effects of SOC on the phase transition between normal and superfluid phase are revealed; an unconventional crossover driven by SOC from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state to the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) state is verified in three different systems; and two kinds of excitations, a Goldstone mode and a Higgs mode, are demonstrated to occur in a quantum optical system. We investigate the BCS superfluid state of two-component atomic Fermi gases in the presence of three kinds of SOCs. We find that SOC drives a class of BCS to BEC crossover that is different from the conventional one without SOC. Here, we extend the concepts of the coherence length and Cooper-pair size in the absence of SOC to Fermi systems with SOC. We study the dependence of chemical potential, coherence length, and Cooper-pair size on the SOC strength and the scattering length in three dimensions (3D) (or the two-body binding energy in two dimensions (2D)) for three attractively interacting Fermi gases with 3D Rashba, 3D Weyl, and 2D Rashba SOC respectively. By adding a population imbalance to a Fermi gas with Rashba-type SOC, we also map out the finite-temperature phase diagram. Due to a competition between SOC and population imbalance, the finite-temperature phase diagram reveals a large variety of new features, including the expanding of the superfluid state regime and the shrinking of both the phase separation and the normal regimes. We find that the tricritical point moves toward a regime of low temperature, high magnetic field, and high polarization as the SOC strength increases. Besides Fermi fluids, this dissertation also gives a new angle of view on the superradiant phase in the Dicke model. Here, we demonstrate that Goldstone and Higgs modes can be observed in an optical system with only a few atoms
Ferromagnetism of a Repulsive Atomic Fermi Gas in an Optical Lattice: A Quantum MonteÂ Carlo Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilati, S.; Zintchenko, I.; Troyer, M.
2014-01-01
Using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo methods, we investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of periodic potentials that describe the effect of a simple-cubic optical lattice. Simulations are performed with balanced and with imbalanced components, including the case of a single impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi sea (repulsive polaron). For an intermediate density below half filling, we locate the transitions between the paramagnetic, and the partially and fully ferromagnetic phases. As the intensity of the optical lattice increases, the ferromagnetic instability takes place at weaker interactions, indicating a possible route to observe ferromagnetism in experiments performed with ultracold atoms. We compare our findings with previous predictions based on the standard computational method used in material science, namely density functional theory, and with results based on tight-binding models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samuels, David C.
1993-01-01
At low temperatures (below 5 Kelvin), helium is a liquid with a very low kinematic viscosity. It was proposed that wind tunnels could be built using liquid helium as the test fluid. The primary advantages of such wind tunnels would be a combination of large Reynolds numbers and a relatively small apparatus. It is hoped that this combination will allow the study of high Reynolds number flows in an academic setting. There are two basic types of liquid helium wind tunnels that can be built, corresponding to the two phases of liquid helium. The high temperature phase (between approximately 2 to 5 Kelvin) is called helium 1 and is a Navier-Stokes fluid. There are no unanswered scientific questions about the design or operation of a wind tunnel in the helium 1 phase. The low temperature phase (below approximately 2 Kelvin) of liquid helium is called helium 2. This is a quantum fluid, meaning that there are some properties of helium 2 which are directly due to quantum mechanical effects and which are not observed in Navier-Stokes fluids. The quantum effects that are relevant to this paper are: (1) helium 2 is well described as a superposition of two separate fluids called the superfluid and the normal fluid. The normal-fluid component is a Navier-Stokes fluid and the superfluid is an irrotational Euler fluid; and (2) circulation in the superfluid exists only in quantized vortex filaments. All quantized vortex filaments have identical circulations kappa and core size a. The objective of the research at CTR was to develop an understanding of the microscopic processes responsible for the observed Navier-Stokes behavior of helium 2 flows.
Bose-Fermi mixtures in an optical lattice
Sengupta, K.; Majumdar, P.
2007-06-15
We study an atomic Bose-Fermi mixture with unpolarized fermions in an optical lattice. We obtain the Mott ground states of such a system in the limit of the deep optical lattice and discuss the effect of quantum fluctuations on these states. We also study the superfluid-insulator transitions of bosons and metal-insulator transition of fermions in such a mixture within a slave-rotor mean-field approximation, and obtain the corresponding phase diagram. We discuss experimental implications of our results.
Lin, Meng-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hao; Su, Chen-Fung; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Si-Chen; Lin, Shih-Yen
2014-01-13
We investigate the electronic properties of p-type graphene transistors on silicon dioxide with dual-cut channels that were scraped using atomic force microscope tips. In these devices, the current is forced to squeeze into the path between the two cuts rather than flow directly through the graphene sheet. We observe that the gate voltages with minimum current shift toward zero bias as the sizes of the dual-cut regions increase. These phenomena suggest that the Fermi levels in the dual-cut regions are shifted toward the Dirac points after the mechanical scraping process.
Trapped resonant fermions above the superfluid transition temperature
Cheng, C.-H.; Yip, S.-K.
2007-01-01
We investigate trapped resonant fermions with unequal populations within the local density approximation above the superfluid transition temperature. By tuning the attractive interaction between fermions via Feshbach resonance, the system evolves from weakly interacting fermi gas to strongly interacting fermi gas, and finally becomes a Bose-Fermi mixture. The density profiles of fermions are examined and compared with experiments. We also point out the simple relationships between the local density, the axial density, and the gas pressure within the local density approximation.
Andreev-Majorana bound states in superfluids
Silaev, M. A. Volovik, G. E.
2014-12-15
We consider Andreev-Majorana (AM) bound states with zero energy on surfaces, interfaces, and vortices in different phases of the p-wave superfluids. We discuss the chiral superfluid {sup 3}He-A and time reversal invariant phases: superfluid {sup 3}He-B, planar and polar phases. The AM zero modes are determined by topology in the bulk and disappear at the quantum phase transition from the topological to nontopological state of the superfluid. The topology demonstrates the interplay of dimensions. In particular, the zero-dimensional Weyl points in chiral superfluids (the Berry phase monopoles in momentum space) give rise to the one-dimensional Fermi arc of AM bound states on the surface and to the one-dimensional flat band of AM modes in the vortex core. The one-dimensional nodal line in the polar phase produces a two-dimensional flat band of AM modes on the surface. The interplay of dimensions also connects the AM states in superfluids with different dimensions. For example, the topological properties of the spectrum of bound states in three-dimensional {sup 3}He-B are connected to the properties of the spectrum in the two-dimensional planar phase (thin film)
Fermi Molecular Dynamics Applied to Problems in the Atomic Physics of Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LaGattuta, Ken
2002-10-01
A report on work in progress: The approach to steady state of a partially ionized fluid, in the regime of strong ion-ion coupling, is being simulated with the quasi-classical method known as Fermi Molecular Dynamics (FMD). We begin with a description of FMD, a statement of its advantages and disadvantages, and an overview of past work. We have continued to develop the FMD method as a tool for simulating a variety of inhomogeneous, partially ionized, dense plasma systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, D. M.; Leggett, A. J.
2011-08-01
A history is given of liquid 3He research from the time when 3He first became available following World War II through 1972 when the discovery of the superfluid phases was made. The Fermi liquid nature was established early on, and the Landau Fermi liquid theory provided a framework for understanding the interactions between the Fermions (quasiparticles). The theory's main triumph was to predict zero sound, which was soon discovered experimentally. Experimental techniques are treated, including adiabatic demagnetization, dilution refrigerator technology, and Pomeranchuk cooling. A description of the superfluid 3He discovery experiments using the latter two of these techniques is given. While existing theories provided a basis for understanding the newly discovered superfluid phases in terms of ℓ>0 Cooper pairs, the unexpected stability of the A phase in the high- P, high- T region of the phase diagram needed for its explanation a creative leap beyond the BCS paradigm. The use of sum rules to interpret some of the unusual magnetic resonance in liquid 3He is discussed. Eventually a complete theory of the spin dynamics of superfluid 3He was developed, which predicted many of the exciting phenomena subsequently discovered.
Experiments with Ultracold Quantum-degenerate Fermionic Lithium Atoms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ketterle, Wolfgang
2003-01-01
Experimental methods of laser and evaporative cooling, used in the production of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates have recently been extended to realize quantum degeneracy in trapped Fermi gases. Fermi gases are a new rich system to explore the implications of Pauli exclusion on scattering properties of the system, and ultimately fermionic superfluidity. We have produced a new macroscopic quantum system, in which a degenerate Li-6 Fermi gas coexists with a large and stable Na-23 BEC. This was accomplished using inter-species sympathetic cooling of fermionic 6Li in a thermal bath of bosonic Na-23. We have achieved high numbers of both fermions (less than 10(exp 5) and bosons (less than 10(exp 6), and Li-6 quantum degeneracy corresponding to one half of the Fermi temperature. This is the first time that a Fermi sea was produced with a condensate as a "refrigerator".
Gajula, D. R. Baine, P.; Armstrong, B. M.; McNeill, D. W.; Modreanu, M.; Hurley, P. K.
2014-01-06
Fermi-level pinning of aluminium on n-type germanium (n-Ge) was reduced by insertion of a thin interfacial dielectric by atomic layer deposition. The barrier height for aluminium contacts on n-Ge was reduced from 0.7 eV to a value of 0.28 eV for a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfacial layer (∼2.8 nm). For diodes with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfacial layer, the contact resistance started to increase for layer thicknesses above 2.8 nm. For diodes with a HfO{sub 2} interfacial layer, the barrier height was also reduced but the contact resistance increased dramatically for layer thicknesses above 1.5 nm.
Observing the 1D-3D Crossover in a Spin-Imbalanced Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Revelle, Melissa C.; Fry, Jacob A.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.
2016-05-01
Trapped two-component Fermi gases phase separate into superfluid and normal phases when their spin populations are imbalanced. In 3D, a balanced superfluid core is surrounded by shells of partially polarized and normal phases, while in 1D, the balanced superfluid occupies the low density wings. We explored the crossover from 3D to 1D using a two-spin component ultracold atomic gas of 6 Li prepared in the lowest two hyperfine sublevels, where the interactions are tuned by a Feshbach resonance. The atoms are confined to 1D tubes where the tunneling rate t between tubes is varied by changing the depth of a 2D optical lattice. We observe the transition from 1D to 3D-like phase separation by varying t and interaction strength which changes the pair binding energy ɛB. We find a universal scaling of the dimensional crossover with t /ɛB , in agreement with previous theory. The crossover region is believed to be the most promising to find the exotic FFLO superfluid phase. Supported by the NSF and the Welch Foundation.
Quantum phases of atomic Fermi gases with anisotropic spin-orbit coupling
Iskin, M.; Subasi, A. L.
2011-10-15
We consider a general anisotropic spin-orbit coupling and analyze the phase diagrams of both balanced and imbalanced Fermi gases for the entire BCS-BEC evolution. In the first part, we use the self-consistent mean-field theory at zero temperature, and show that the topological structure of the ground-state phase diagrams is quite robust against the effects of anisotropy. In the second part, we go beyond the mean-field description, and investigate the effects of Gaussian fluctuations near the critical temperature. This allows us to derive the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory, from which we extract the effective mass of the Cooper pairs and their critical condensation temperature in the molecular BEC limit.
Exploring Quantum Degenerate Bose-Fermi Mixtures Toward Cooper Pairing of Fermionic Atoms
Deborah Jin
2011-04-20
We have been exploring interaction dynamics in an ultracold, trapped gas of bosonic and fermionic atoms. Investigation of this new class of quantum degenerate gases concentrates on interaction dominated phenomena such as sympathetic cooling, phase separation, excitations, Feshbach resonances, and the effects of quantum degeneracy. In addition to exploring these new phenomena, we seek to understand and ultimately control the interactions in the gas. In particular, effective interactions between the fermionic atoms will be explored in the context of the longer term goal of realizing Cooper pairing of atoms.
Slow-light probe of Fermi pairing through an atom-molecule dark state
Jing, H.; Deng, Y.; Meystre, P.
2011-06-15
We consider the two-color photoassociation of a quantum degenerate atomic gas into ground-state diatomic molecules via a molecular dark state. This process can be described in terms of a {Lambda} level scheme that is formally analogous to the situation in electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic systems and therefore can result in slow-light propagation. We show that the group velocity of the light field depends explicitly on whether the atoms are bosons or fermions, as well as on the existence or absence of a pairing gap in the case of fermions, so that the measurement of the group velocity realizes a nondestructive diagnosis of the atomic state and the pairing gap.
Helium superfluidity. Shapes and vorticities of superfluid helium nanodroplets.
Gomez, Luis F; Ferguson, Ken R; Cryan, James P; Bacellar, Camila; Tanyag, Rico Mayro P; Jones, Curtis; Schorb, Sebastian; Anielski, Denis; Belkacem, Ali; Bernando, Charles; Boll, Rebecca; Bozek, John; Carron, Sebastian; Chen, Gang; Delmas, Tjark; Englert, Lars; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Hexemer, Alexander; Huth, Martin; Kwok, Justin; Leone, Stephen R; Ma, Jonathan H S; Maia, Filipe R N C; Malmerberg, Erik; Marchesini, Stefano; Neumark, Daniel M; Poon, Billy; Prell, James; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Seifrid, Martin; Siefermann, Katrin R; Sturm, Felix P; Swiggers, Michele; Ullrich, Joachim; Weise, Fabian; Zwart, Petrus; Bostedt, Christoph; Gessner, Oliver; Vilesov, Andrey F
2014-08-22
Helium nanodroplets are considered ideal model systems to explore quantum hydrodynamics in self-contained, isolated superfluids. However, exploring the dynamic properties of individual droplets is experimentally challenging. In this work, we used single-shot femtosecond x-ray coherent diffractive imaging to investigate the rotation of single, isolated superfluid helium-4 droplets containing ~10(8) to 10(11) atoms. The formation of quantum vortex lattices inside the droplets is confirmed by observing characteristic Bragg patterns from xenon clusters trapped in the vortex cores. The vortex densities are up to five orders of magnitude larger than those observed in bulk liquid helium. The droplets exhibit large centrifugal deformations but retain axially symmetric shapes at angular velocities well beyond the stability range of viscous classical droplets. PMID:25146284
Effect of three-body loss on itinerant ferromagnetism in an atomic Fermi gas
Conduit, G. J.; Altman, E.
2011-04-15
A recent experiment has provided tentative evidence for itinerant ferromagnetism in an ultracold atomic gas. However, the interpretation of the results is complicated by significant atom losses. We argue that during the loss process the system gradually heats up but remains in local equilibrium.To quantify the consequences of atom loss on the putative ferromagnetic transition we adopt an extended Hertz-Millis theory. The losses damp quantum fluctuations, thus increasing the critical interaction strength needed to induce ferromagnetism and revert the transition from being first order to second order. This effect may resolve a discrepancy between the experiment and previous theoretical predictions. We further illuminate the impact of loss by studying the collective spin excitations in the ferromagnet. Even in the fully polarized state, where loss is completely suppressed, spin waves acquire a decay rate proportional to the three-body loss coefficient.
Strong Coupling Effects on the Specific Heat of an Ultracold Fermi Gas in the Unitarity Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Wyk, P.; Tajima, H.; Hanai, R.; Ohashi, Y.
2016-05-01
We investigate strong-coupling corrections to the specific heat C_V in the normal state of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region. A recent experiment on a ^6Li unitary Fermi gas (Ku et. al. in Science 335:563 2012) shows that C_V is remarkably amplified near the superfluid phase transition temperature T_c, being similar to the well-known λ -structure observed in liquid ^4He. Including pairing fluctuations within the framework of the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink, we show that strong pairing fluctuations are sufficient to explain the anomalous behavior of C_V observed in a ^6Li unitary Fermi gas near T_c. We also show that there is no contribution from stable preformed Cooper pairs to C_V at the unitarity. This indicates that the origin of the observed anomaly is fundamentally different from the case of liquid 4He, where stable ^4He Bose atoms induce the λ -structure in C_V near the superfluid instability. Instead, the origin is the suppression of the entropy S, near T_c, due to the increase of metastable preformed Cooper pairs. Our results indicate that the specific heat is a useful quantity to study the effects of pairing fluctuations on the thermodynamic properties of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region.
Spin-dependent Hubbard model and a quantum phase transition in cold atoms
Liu, W. Vincent; Wilczek, Frank; Zoller, Peter
2004-09-01
We describe an experimental protocol for introducing spin-dependent lattice structure in a cold atomic Fermi gas using lasers. It can be used to realize Hubbard models whose hopping parameters depend on spin and whose interaction strength can be controlled with an external magnetic field. We suggest that exotic superfluidities will arise in this framework. An especially interesting possibility is a class of states that support coexisting superfluid and normal components, even at zero temperature. The quantity of normal component varies with external parameters. We discuss some aspects of the quantum phase transition that arises at the point where it vanishes.
Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid 'atomtronic' circuit.
Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W; Lobb, Christopher J; Phillips, William D; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K
2014-02-13
Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits-it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices). PMID:24522597
Simulating strongly correlated electrons with a strongly interacting Fermi gas
Thomas, John E.
2013-05-28
The quantum many-body physics of strongly-correlated fermions is studied in a degenerate, strongly- interacting atomic Fermi gas, first realized by our group with DOE support in 2002. This system, which exhibits strong spin pairing, is now widely studied and provides an important paradigm for testing predictions based on state-of-the-art many-body theory in fields ranging from nuclear matter to high temperature superfluidity and superconductivity. As the system is strongly interacting, both the superfluid and the normal fluid are nontrivial and of great interest. A central part of our program on Fermi gases is the connection between the study of thermodynamics, supported by DOE and the study of hydrodynamic transport, supported by NSF. This connection is especially interesting in view of a recent conjecture from the string theory community on the concept of nearly perfect normal fluids, which exhibit a minimum ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density in strongly-interacting, scale-invariant systems.
Renormalization group approach to spinor Bose-Fermi mixtures in a shallow optical lattice
Modak, S.; Sengupta, K.; Tsai, S.-W.
2011-10-01
We study a mixture of ultracold spin-half fermionic and spin-one bosonic atoms in a shallow optical lattice where the bosons are coupled to the fermions via both density-density and spin-spin interactions. We consider the parameter regime where the bosons are in a superfluid ground state, integrate them out, and obtain an effective action for the fermions. We carry out a renormalization group analysis of this effective fermionic action at low temperatures, show that the presence of the spinor bosons may lead to a separation of Fermi surfaces of the spin-up and spin-down fermions, and investigate the parameter range where this phenomenon occurs. We also calculate the susceptibilities corresponding to the possible superfluid instabilities of the fermions and obtain their possible broken-symmetry ground states at low temperatures and weak interactions.
The Phases of an Interacting Spin-1/2 Fermi Gas as seen from a New Variational Ansatz
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Sangwoo; Sun, Kuei; Bolech, Carlos
2015-05-01
Since its introduction, the continuous matrix product states (cMPS) have demonstrated success in predicting low energy properties of repulsive one-dimensional (1D) Bose gas systems. We have extended those efforts to nonrelativistic fermions and shown that the cMPS, moreover, is able to correctly describe the ground-state superfluid and magnetic properties of interacting Fermi gases in 1D. This includes the signatures of a partially polarized superfluid regime, in agreement with the large amount of theoretical and experimental work from recent years by the cold-atoms community. The new type of ansatz promises to be ideally posed to be able to describe atomic gases in optical lattices economically but without making a lattice-model (tight-binding) approximation. Funding for this work was provided by the University of Cincinnati and by the DARPA OLE program through ARO W911NF-07-1-0464; parallel computing resources were from the Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC).
All-optical pump-and-probe detection of two-time correlations in a Fermi gas
Dao, T.-L.; Kollath, C.; Carusotto, I.; Koehl, M.
2010-04-15
We propose an all-optical scheme to probe the dynamical correlations of a strongly interacting gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice potential. The proposed technique is based on a pump-and-probe scheme: a coherent light pulse is initially converted into an atomic coherence and later retrieved after a variable storage time. The efficiency of the proposed method to measure the two-time one-particle Green function of the gas is validated by numerical and analytical calculations of the expected signal for the two cases of a normal Fermi gas and a BCS superfluid state. Protocols to extract the superfluid gap and the full quasiparticle dispersions are discussed.
From ultracold Fermi Gases to Neutron Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salomon, Christophe
2012-02-01
Ultracold dilute atomic gases can be considered as model systems to address some pending problem in Many-Body physics that occur in condensed matter systems, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. We have developed a general method to probe with high precision the thermodynamics of locally homogeneous ultracold Bose and Fermi gases [1,2,3]. This method allows stringent tests of recent many-body theories. For attractive spin 1/2 fermions with tunable interaction (^6Li), we will show that the gas thermodynamic properties can continuously change from those of weakly interacting Cooper pairs described by Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory to those of strongly bound molecules undergoing Bose-Einstein condensation. First, we focus on the finite-temperature Equation of State (EoS) of the unpolarized unitary gas. Surprisingly, the low-temperature properties of the strongly interacting normal phase are well described by Fermi liquid theory [3] and we localize the superfluid phase transition. A detailed comparison with theories including recent Monte-Carlo calculations will be presented. Moving away from the unitary gas, the Lee-Huang-Yang and Lee-Yang beyond-mean-field corrections for low density bosonic and fermionic superfluids are quantitatively measured for the first time. Despite orders of magnitude difference in density and temperature, our equation of state can be used to describe low density neutron matter such as the outer shell of neutron stars. [4pt] [1] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, K. Jiang, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Nature 463, 1057 (2010) [0pt] [2] N. Navon, S. Nascimbène, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Science 328, 729 (2010) [0pt] [3] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, S. Pilati, F. Chevy, S. Giorgini, A. Georges, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 215303 (2011)
Unitary Fermi Gas, ɛ Expansion, and Nonrelativistic Conformal Field Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishida, Yusuke; Son, Dam Thanh
We review theoretical aspects of unitary Fermi gas (UFG), which has been realized in ultracold atom experiments. We first introduce the ɛ expansion technique based on a systematic expansion in terms of the dimensionality of space. We apply this technique to compute the thermodynamic quantities, the quasiparticle cum, and the criticl temperature of UFG. We then discuss consequences of the scale and conformal invariance of UFG. We prove a correspondence between primary operators in nonrelativistic conformal field theories and energy eigenstates in a harmonic potential. We use this correspondence to compute energies of fermions at unitarity in a harmonic potential. The scale and conformal invariance together with the general coordinate invariance constrains the properties of UFG. We show the vanishing bulk viscosities of UFG and derive the low-energy effective Lagrangian for the superfluid UFG. Finally we propose other systems exhibiting the nonrelativistic scaling and conformal symmetries that can be in principle realized in ultracold atom experiments.
Quantum phases of quadrupolar Fermi gases in optical lattices.
Bhongale, S G; Mathey, L; Zhao, Erhai; Yelin, S F; Lemeshko, Mikhail
2013-04-12
We introduce a new platform for quantum simulation of many-body systems based on nonspherical atoms or molecules with zero dipole moments but possessing a significant value of electric quadrupole moments. We consider a quadrupolar Fermi gas trapped in a 2D square optical lattice, and show that the peculiar symmetry and broad tunability of the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction results in a rich phase diagram encompassing unconventional BCS and charge density wave phases, and opens up a perspective to create a topological superfluid. Quadrupolar species, such as metastable alkaline-earth atoms and homonuclear molecules, are stable against chemical reactions and collapse and are readily available in experiment at high densities. PMID:25167282
Lenr:. Superfluids, Self-Trapping and Non-Self States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chubb, Talbot A.
2005-12-01
LENR ion band state models involve deuteron many-body systems resembling superfluids. The physics of atom Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices teaches that superfluid behavior occurs when the potential barriers between adjacent potential wells permit high tunneling rates and the well potentials are shallow. These superfluids have fractional occupation of individual wells. Well periodic symmetry is not affected by the presence of the atoms. This behavior suggests that deuterons in a lattice should be in non-self-trapping sites, which may indicate that D+Bloch occupies the Pd tetrahedral sites.
Dissipation in Nanoscale Superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Maestro, Adrian; Rosenow, Bernd
Pressure driven flow of a superfluid inside a narrow channel can be maintained by the nucleation of vortices and their resulting motion across the flow lines. The maximum velocity of the superfluid is set by a nucleation rate which crucially depends on the microscopic details of the vortices and flow profile. Within the kinetic vortex theory, we have determined the critical superfluid velocity inside a nanoscale constriction and obtain agreement with experimental results for superfluid helium-4 in nanopores. In the small pore limit, when the ratio of pore radius to correlation length is of order unity, we find a drastic suppression of the superfluid velocity that can be understood within the Langer-Ambegaokar-McCumber-Halperin theory of resistive fluctuations in thin superconducting wires.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Herbert L.
1974-01-01
The final installment of the author's recollections of his work with physicists Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard and others in developing the first controlled nuclear chain reaction and in preparing the test explosion of the first atomic bomb. (GS)
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Yabu, Hiroyuki
2009-10-15
We study quadrupole collective oscillations in the bose-fermi mixtures of ultracold atomic gases of Yb isotopes, which are realized by Kyoto group. Three kinds of combinations are chosen, {sup 170}Yb-{sup 171}Yb, {sup 170}Yb-{sup 173}Yb and {sup 174}Yb-{sup 173}Yb, where boson-fermion interactions are weakly repulsive, strongly attractive and strongly repulsive respectively. Collective oscillations in these mixtures are calculated in a dynamical time-evolution approach with the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii and the Vlasov equations. The boson oscillations are shown to have one collective mode, and the fermions are shown to have the boson-forced and two intrinsic modes, which correspond to the inside- and outside-fermion oscillations for the boson-distributed regions. The oscillations obtained in the dynamical approach show discrepancies from the results obtained in the small-amplitude approximations, e.g., the random phase approximation, except in the case of weak boson-fermion interactions. We also analyze these discrepancies, and show that they originated in the change of the fermion distributions through oscillation.
BEC of 41 K in a Fermi sea of 6 Li
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lous, Rianne S.; Fritsche, Isabella; Huang, Bo; Jag, Michael; Cetina, Marko; Walraven, Jook T. M.; Grimm, Rudolf
2016-05-01
We report on the production of a 41 K Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) immersed in a degenerate two-component 6 Li Fermi sea. After evaporation in an optical dipole trap, we obtain 1 . 2 ×104 41 K atoms with a 55% BEC fraction and a Fermi sea with T /TF < 0 . 1 , consisting of 1 . 8 ×105 6 Li atoms in each of the lowest two spin states. This opens the way to study the collective behavior of a mass-imbalanced mixture of two coupled superfluids. The double-degenerate Fermi-Bose mixture also enables the study of interacting bosonic impurities in a Fermi sea. Using loss spectroscopy, we observe the 335 . 8G Feshbach resonance, which is comparable to the one between 6 Li and the fermionic 40 K isotope exploited in our previous studies on the quantum many-body dynamics of fermionic impurities in a Fermi sea. Investigating the interacting bosonic impurities enables the direct comparison of the role of quantum statistics for fermionic and bosonic impurities. This work is supported by the Austrian Science Fund FWF within the collaborative research grant FoQuS.
Quasiparticle scattering rate in a strongly polarized Fermi mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, Rasmus Søgaard; Bruun, Georg M.
2015-04-01
We analyze the scattering rate of an impurity atom in a Fermi sea as a function of momentum and temperature in the BCS-BEC crossover. The cross section is calculated using a microscopic multichannel theory for the Feshbach resonance scattering, including finite range and medium effects. We show that pair correlations significantly increase the cross section for strong interactions close to the unitarity regime. They give rise to a molecule pole of the cross section at negative energy on the BEC side of the resonance, which smoothly evolves into a resonance at positive scattering energy with a nonzero imaginary part on the BCS side. The resonance is the analog of superfluid pairing for the corresponding population balanced system. Using Fermi liquid theory, we show that the low temperature scattering rate of the impurity atom is significantly increased due to these pair correlations for low momenta. We demonstrate that finite range and mass imbalance effects are significant for the experimentally relevant 6Li-40K mixture, and we finally discuss how the scattering rate can be measured using radio-frequency spectroscopy and Bose-Fermi mixtures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.
Ideal fluid flow conserves a special quantity known as helicity, in addition to energy, momentum and angular momentum. Helicity can be understood as a measure of the knottedness of vortex lines of the flow, providing an important geometric tool to study diverse physical systems such as turbulent fluids and plasmas. Since superfluids flow without resistance just like ideal (Euler) fluids, a natural question arises: Is there an extra conserved quantity akin to helicity in superfluids? We address the question of a ''superfluid helicity'' theoretically and examine its consequences in numerical simulations.
Nesting and lifetime effects in the FFLO state of quasi-one-dimensional imbalanced Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caldas, Heron; Continentino, Mucio A.
2013-07-01
Motivated by the recent experimental realization of a candidate to the Fulde-Ferrell (FF) and the Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) states in one-dimensional (1D) atomic Fermi gases, we study the quantum phase transitions in these enigmatic, finite-momentum-paired superfluids. We focus on the FF state and investigate the effects of the induced interaction on the stability of the FFLO phase in homogeneous spin-imbalanced quasi-1D Fermi gases at zero temperature. When this is taken into account, we find a direct transition from the fully polarized to the FFLO state in agreement with exact solutions. Also, we consider the effect of a finite lifetime of the quasi-particle states in the normal-superfluid instability. In the limit of long lifetimes, the lifetime effect is irrelevant and the transition is directly from the fully polarized to the FFLO state. We show, however, that for sufficiently short lifetimes, there is a quantum critical point, at a finite value of the mismatch of the Fermi wave-vectors of the different quasi-particles, that we fully characterize. In this case, the transition is from the FFLO phase to a normal partially polarized state with increasing mismatch.
Erika Bailey
2011-07-07
The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 (Fermi 1) was a fast breeder reactor design that was cooled by sodium and operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. On May 10, 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) granted an operating license, DPR-9, to the Power Reactor Development Company (PRDC), a consortium specifically formed to own and operate a nuclear reactor at the Fermi 1 site. The reactor was designed for a maximum capability of 430 megawatts (MW); however, the maximum reactor power with the first core loading (Core A) was 200 MW. The primary system was filled with sodium in December 1960 and criticality was achieved in August 1963.
Faraday waves in elongated superfluid fermionic clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capuzzi, P.; Vignolo, P.
2008-10-01
We use hydrodynamic equations to study the formation of Faraday waves in a superfluid Fermi gas at zero temperature confined in a strongly elongated cigar-shaped trap. First, we treat the role of the radial density profile in the limit of an infinite cylindrical geometry and analytically evaluate the wavelength of the Faraday pattern. The effect of the axial confinement is fully taken into account in the numerical solution of hydrodynamic equations, and shows that the infinite cylinder geometry provides a very good description of the phenomena.
Strongly Interacting Fermi Gases: Non-Equilibrium Dynamics and Dimensional Crossover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sommer, Ariel
2015-05-01
Strongly interacting atomic Fermi gases near Feshbach resonances give access to a rich variety of phenomena in many-fermion physics and superfluidity. This flexible and microscopically well-characterized system provides a pristine platform in which to benchmark many-body theories. I will describe three experiments on gases of fermionic 6Li atoms. In the first experiment, we study spin transport in the return to equilibrium after a spin excitation. From the dynamics near equilibrium, we obtain spin transport coefficients over a range of temperatures and interaction strengths, and observe quantum-limited spin diffusion at unitarity. In separate experiments, we study the effect of dimensionality on the binding of pairs of fermions. We tune the system from three to two dimensions by adjusting the strength of a one-dimensional optical lattice, and measure the binding energy of fermion pairs using radio-frequency spectroscopy. In a third set of experiments, we study nonlinear excitations of a fermionic superfluid. Imprinting a phase jump on the superfluid order parameter causes a long-lived, localized density depletion that oscillates through the cloud. We measure the oscillation period and find that it corresponds to an emergent particle with an effective mass of up to several hundred times the bare mass. This excitation has been identified as a solitonic vortex that results from the decay of a planar soliton. This work was performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under the supervision of Prof. Martin Zwierlein.
Holographic p -wave superfluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ya-Bo; Lu, Jun-Wang; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Lu, Jian-Bo; Yu, Fang
2014-12-01
In the probe limit, we numerically construct a holographic p -wave superfluid model in the four-dimensional (4D) and five-dimensional (5D) anti-de Sitter black holes coupled to a Maxwell-complex vector field. We find that, for the condensate with the fixed superfluid velocity, the results are similar to the s -wave cases in both 4D and 5D spacetimes. In particular, the Cave of Winds and the phase transition, always being of second order, take place in the 5D case. Moreover, we find that the translating superfluid velocity from second order to first order S/yμ increases with the mass squared. Furthermore, for the supercurrent with fixed temperature, the results agree with the Ginzburg-Landau prediction near the critical temperature. In addition, this complex vector superfluid model is still a generalization of the SU(2) superfluid model, and it also provides a holographic realization of the H e3 superfluid system.
Using photoemission spectroscopy to probe a strongly interacting Fermi gas.
Stewart, J T; Gaebler, J P; Jin, D S
2008-08-01
Ultracold atomic gases provide model systems in which to study many-body quantum physics. Recent experiments using Fermi gases have demonstrated a phase transition to a superfluid state with strong interparticle interactions. This system provides a realization of the 'BCS-BEC crossover' connecting the physics of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductivity with that of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). Although many aspects of this system have been investigated, it has not yet been possible to measure the single-particle excitation spectrum (a fundamental property directly predicted by many-body theories). Here we use photoemission spectroscopy to directly probe the elementary excitations and energy dispersion in a strongly interacting Fermi gas of (40)K atoms. In the experiments, a radio-frequency photon ejects an atom from the strongly interacting system by means of a spin-flip transition to a weakly interacting state. We measure the occupied density of single-particle states at the cusp of the BCS-BEC crossover and on the BEC side of the crossover, and compare these results to that for a nearly ideal Fermi gas. We show that, near the critical temperature, the single-particle spectral function is dramatically altered in a way that is consistent with a large pairing gap. Our results probe the many-body physics in a way that could be compared to data for the high-transition-temperature superconductors. As in photoemission spectroscopy for electronic materials, our measurement technique for ultracold atomic gases directly probes low-energy excitations and thus can reveal excitation gaps and/or pseudogaps. Furthermore, this technique can provide an analogue of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy for probing anisotropic systems, such as atoms in optical lattice potentials. PMID:18685703
Possible Stimulation of Nuclear alpha Decay by Superfluid Helium
Barabanov, A. L.
2009-08-28
It is suggested that superfluid helium (condensate of {sup 4}He atoms) may stimulate nuclear alpha decay in a situation when an alpha emitter moves through superfluid helium with fine-tuned velocity, so that the backward-emitted alpha particle is at rest in the laboratory frame. It is shown that the probability of stimulated alpha decay in this case may be sizable enough to be detected.
Structured Weyl Points in Spin-Orbit Coupled Fermionic Superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yong; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Chuanwei
2015-12-01
We demonstrate that a Weyl point, widely examined in 3D Weyl semimetals and superfluids, can develop a pair of nondegenerate gapless spheres. Such a bouquet of two spheres is characterized by three distinct topological invariants of manifolds with full energy gaps, i.e., the Chern number of a 0D point inside one developed sphere, the winding number of a 1D loop around the original Weyl point, and the Chern number of a 2D surface enclosing the whole bouquet. We show that such structured Weyl points can be realized in the superfluid quasiparticle spectrum of a 3D degenerate Fermi gas subject to spin-orbit couplings and Zeeman fields, which supports Fulde-Ferrell superfluids as the ground state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruz, Salvador A.
An assessment of the use of statistical atomic models for the study of many-electron atom confinement is presented. The Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-[lambda]-Weizsäcker TFD[lambda]W functional formalism based on known properties of the orbital electron density is shown to be an appropriate tool for the description of the ground-state energy evolution of many-electron atoms spatially limited by closed and open boundaries. A brief review of the strategy followed in the TFD[lambda]W method for the study of atoms enclosed in hard and soft spherical cavities is presented along with more refined quantitative calculations as compared with previous results. Also, detailed quantitative results are shown-for the first time-in the case of confinement by a hard prolate spheroidal box for nuclear positions located at one of the foci and for an atom located at a distance D from a hard plane. A discussion is presented on the physical consequences of different confinement geometries and the adequacy of the TFD[lambda]W formalism to explore many-electron atom confinement by open and closed boundaries.
Exploring the thermodynamics of a universal Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nascimbène, S.; Navon, N.; Jiang, K. J.; Chevy, F.; Salomon, C.
2010-02-01
One of the greatest challenges in modern physics is to understand the behaviour of an ensemble of strongly interacting particles. A class of quantum many-body systems (such as neutron star matter and cold Fermi gases) share the same universal thermodynamic properties when interactions reach the maximum effective value allowed by quantum mechanics, the so-called unitary limit. This makes it possible in principle to simulate some astrophysical phenomena inside the highly controlled environment of an atomic physics laboratory. Previous work on the thermodynamics of a two-component Fermi gas led to thermodynamic quantities averaged over the trap, making comparisons with many-body theories developed for uniform gases difficult. Here we develop a general experimental method that yields the equation of state of a uniform gas, as well as enabling a detailed comparison with existing theories. The precision of our equation of state leads to new physical insights into the unitary gas. For the unpolarized gas, we show that the low-temperature thermodynamics of the strongly interacting normal phase is well described by Fermi liquid theory, and we localize the superfluid transition. For a spin-polarized system, our equation of state at zero temperature has a 2 per cent accuracy and extends work on the phase diagram to a new regime of precision. We show in particular that, despite strong interactions, the normal phase behaves as a mixture of two ideal gases: a Fermi gas of bare majority atoms and a non-interacting gas of dressed quasi-particles, the fermionic polarons.
Vortex knottiness in superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William
2015-11-01
Recent work has demonstrated that linked and knotted vortices will spontaneously unknot or untie in both classical fluids and superfluids. This effect would appear to jeopardize any notion of conservation of fluid topology (helicity), but this need not be the case: vortices can transfer their knottedness to helical coils, preserving some measure of the original topology. We ask how this notion of topology preservation behaves in the context of collections of vortices with topology. We address this question by numerical simulations of superfluid vortices in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.
Ultrabaric relativistic superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papini, G.; Weiss, M.
1985-09-01
Ultrabaric superfluid solutions are obtained for Einstein's equations to examine the possibility of the existence of superluminal sound speeds. The discussion is restricted only by requiring the energy-momentum tensor and the equation of state of matter to be represented by full relativistic equations. Only a few universes are known to satisfy the conditions, and those exhibit tension and are inflationary. Superluminal sound velocities are shown, therefore, to be possible for the interior Schwarzchild metric, which has been used to explain the red shift of quasars, and the Stephiani solution (1967). The latter indicates repeated transitions between superluminal and subliminal sound velocities in the hyperbaric superfluid of the early universe.
Frustration and time-reversal symmetry breaking for Fermi and Bose-Fermi systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sacha, Krzysztof; Targońska, Katarzyna; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2012-05-01
The modulation of an optical lattice potential that breaks time-reversal symmetry enables the realization of complex tunneling amplitudes in the corresponding tight-binding model. For a superfluid Fermi gas in a triangular lattice potential with complex tunnelings, the pairing function acquires a complex phase, so the frustrated magnetism of fermions can be realized. Bose-Fermi mixtures of bosonic molecules and unbound fermions in the lattice also show interesting behavior. Due to boson-fermion coupling, the fermions become enslaved by the bosons and the corresponding pairing function takes the complex phase determined by the bosons. In the presence of bosons the Fermi system can reveal both gapped and gapless superfluidity.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Atom-Molecule Conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Li-Bin; Liu, Jie
2014-03-01
The creation of ultracold molecules has opened up new possibilities for studies on molecular matter waves, strongly interacting superfluids, high-precision molecular spectroscopy and coherent molecular optics. In an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and a degenerate Fermi-Fermi or Fermi-Bose mixture, magnetic Feshbach resonance or optical photoassociation (PA) technique has been used to create not only diatomic molecules but also more complex molecules. In this chapter, we focus on many issues of nonlinear dynamics of atom-molecule systems. In Sec. 1, on the basis of the two-channelmean-field approach, we study the manybody effects on the Landau-Zener(LZ) picture of two-body molecular production through dramatically distorting the energy levels near the Feshbach resonance. In Sec. 2, we investigate the Feshbach resonance with modulation of an oscillating magnetic field. In Sec. 3, we include the nonlinear interparticle collisions and focus on the linear instability induced by the collisions and the adiabatic fidelity of the atom-trimer dark state in a stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). In Sec. 4, we theoretically investigate conversion problem from atom to N-body polyatomic molecule in an ultracold bosonic system by implementing the generalized STIRAP. In the last section, we discuss role of two-body interactions in the Feshbach conversion of fermionic atoms to bosonic molecules.
Observation of a ferromagnetic instability in repulsively interacting Fermi gases of 6 Li
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scazza, Francesco; Valtolina, Giacomo; Amico, Andrea; Burchianti, Alessia; Fort, Chiara; Zaccanti, Matteo; Inguscio, Massimo; Roati, Giacomo
2016-05-01
The fine control of interaction strengths and optical trapping potentials in ultracold atomic ensembles provide unique opportunities to explore strongly correlated fermion phenomena, such as superfluidity and magnetism. In our setup, we produce 6 Li quantum gases in the vicinity of a broad Feshbach resonance and we subsequently superimpose to the samples a thin optical barrier to engineer either a Josephson weak link or a ferromagnetic domain wall. This technique recently enabled the experimental study of the Josephson dynamics of superfluid Fermi gases flowing through an insulating barrier, spanning a wide range of interaction strengths across the BEC-BCS crossover. On the other hand, by preparing adjacent and fully spin-polarized domains, we are able to experimentally address the upper branch of a repulsively interacting Fermi gas and its magnetic properties. Here, we report on the investigation of the onset and the stability of the ferromagnetic state. Measurements of spin diffusion dynamics in the system reveal a total suppression of spin conductance above a critical interaction strength, accompanied by a softening of the collective spin-dipole mode, indicating the existence of a ferromagnetic instability.
Detection of Charged Particles in Superfluid Helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandler, Simon Richard
1995-01-01
At the present time the measurement of the flux of neutrinos from the sun remains a challenging experimental problem. The ideal detector would be able to detect neutrinos at high rate, in real time, with good energy resolution and would have a threshold which is low enough for investigation of the entire solar neutrino spectrum. A new detection scheme using superfluid helium as a target has been proposed which has the potential to meet most of the criteria of the ideal detector. In this scheme a neutrino would be detected when it elastically scatters off an atomic electron in superfluid helium. The electron loses energy via a number of processes eventually leading to the generation of phonons and rotons in the liquid. At low temperatures these excitations propagate ballistically through the superfluid helium. When the excitations reach the free surface some of them are able to evaporate helium atoms. These atoms can be detected by an array of calorimeters suspended above the liquid surface. In this thesis, results are presented for a small -scale prototype of this type of detector. Experiments have been performed using various radioactive sources to generate energy depositions in the liquid. The results reveal details about the processes of generation of rotons and phonons, the propagation of these excitations through the superfluid, the evaporation of helium atoms and the adsorption of helium atoms onto the wafer. Results are also presented on the detection of fluorescent photons generated in the liquid. One source of energy depositions was 241{rm Am} which produces monoenergetic 5.5 MeV alpha particles. It was found that the ratio of the energy deposited in a calorimeter to the energy deposited in liquid helium was 0.084 when alpha's are emitted parallel to the liquid surface, and 0.020 for alpha's emitted perpendicular. The difference is due to the anisotropic distribution of helium excitations generated. A 113{rm Sn} source of 360 keV electrons stopped in
Many body effects in a widely tunable Bose-Fermi mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahamdi, Peyman; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Santiago, Ibon; Park, Jee Woo; Zwierlein, Martin
2011-05-01
A Bose-Einstein condensate immersed in the Fermi sea provides a rich platform for the study of many body effects such as polaron physics, boson-induced superfluidity and models of high-tc superconductivity. Few bosonic impurities in a Fermi sea form bosonic polarons, dressed quasi-particles that can condense, while few fermionic impurities in a Bose condensate might dress into heavy fermions with an immense increase of the effective mass. In an atom trap, both extremes of boson-fermion imbalance can in principle be realized in one and the same sample. Recently we have realized a Bose Einstein condensate of 41K immersed in a Fermi sea of 40K at T /TF = 0.3 and detected a wide Feshbach resonance between them. The mixture's lifetime is long enough so that bosonic polarons should form at an expected binding energy of about 0.6 TF. In this talk I will summarize our observations and the progress we have made to detect polaron physics in Bose-Fermi mixtures. This work was supported by the NSF, AFOSR-MURI, AFOSR-YIP, ARO-MURI, a grant from the Army Research Office with funding from the DARPA OLE program, the David and Lucille Packard Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Soon Yong
2008-04-01
In the recent years, dilute Fermi gases have played the center stage role in the many-body physics. The gas of neutral alkali atoms such as Lithium-6 and Potassium-40 can be trapped at temperatures below the Fermi degeneracy. The most relevant feature of these gases is that the interaction is tunable and strongly interacting superfluid can be artificially created. I will discuss the recent progress in understanding the ground state properties of the dilute Fermi gases at different interaction regimes. First, I will present the case of the spin symmetric systems where the Fermi gas can smoothly crossover from the BCS regime to the BEC regime. Then, I will discuss the case of the spin polarized systems, where different quantum phases can occur as a function of the polarization. In the laboratory, the trapped Fermi gas shows spatial dependence of the different quantum phases. This can be understood in the context of the local variation of the chemical potential. I will present the most accurate quantum ab initio results and the relevant experiments.
Bosonic topological phase in a paired superfluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gazit, Snir; Vishwanath, Ashvin
2016-03-01
We study an effective model of two interacting species of bosons in two dimensions, which is amenable to sign problem free Monte Carlo simulations. In addition to conventional ground states, we access a paired superfluid which is also a topological phase, protected by the remaining U (1 ) ×Z2 symmetry. This phase arises from the condensation of a composite object, the bound state of vortices and antivortices of one species, to a boson of the second species. We introduce a bulk response function, the Ising analog of the quantized Hall effect, to diagnose the topological phase. The interplay of broken symmetry and topology leads to interesting effects such as fractionally charged vortices in the paired superfluid. Possible extensions towards realistic models of cold atomic bosons are discussed.
Electron Diffraction of Superfluid Helium Droplets
2014-01-01
We present experimental results of electron diffraction of superfluid helium droplets and droplets doped with phthalocyanine gallium chloride and discuss the possibility of performing the same experiment with a laser aligned sample. The diffraction profile of pure droplets demonstrates dependence on the nozzle temperature, that is, on the average size of the droplets. Larger clusters demonstrate faster decay with increasing momentum transfer, whereas smaller clusters converge to isolated gas phase molecules at source temperatures of 18 K and higher. Electron diffraction of doped droplets shows similar modified molecular scattering intensity as that of the corresponding gas phase molecules. On the basis of fittings of the scattering profile, the number of remaining helium atoms of the doped droplets is estimated to be on the order of hundreds. This result offers guidance in assessing the possibility of electron diffraction from laser aligned molecules doped in superfluid helium droplets. PMID:24920997
Anisotropic superfluidity in a dipolar Bose gas
Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M; Bohn, John L
2010-11-04
A quintessential feature of superfluidity is the ability to support dissipationless flow, for example, when an object moves through a superfluid and experiences no drag. This, however, only occurs when the object is moving below a certain critical velocity; when it exceeds this critical velocity it dissipates energy into excitations of the superfluid, resulting in a net drag force on the object and the breakdown of superfluid flow. In many superfluids, such as dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of atoms with contact interactions, this critical velocity is simply the speed of sound in the system, where the speed of sound is set by the density and the s-wave scattering length of the atoms. However, for other superfluids, such as liquid {sup 4}He, this is not the case. In {sup 4}He, the critical velocity is set by a roton mode, corresponding to a peak in the static structure factor of the system at some finite, non-zero momentum, with a characteristic velocity that is considerably less than the speed of sound in the liquid. This feature has been verified experimentally via measurements of ion-drift velocity in the fluid, thereby providing insight into the detailed structure of the system. Interestingly, a roton-like feature was predicted to exist in the dispersion relation of a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) dipolar BEC (DBEC) [16], or a BEC with dipole-dipole interactions. However, unlike the dispersion of {sup 4}He, the disperSion of a DBEC is highly tunable as a function of the condensate density or dipole-dipole interaction (ddi) strength. Additionally, the DBEC is set apart from liquid {sup 4}He in that its interactions depend on how the dipoles are oriented in space. Thus, the DBEC provides an ideal system to study the effects that anisotropies have on the bulk properties of a superfluid, such as the critical velocity. Here we consider a DBEC in a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) geometry and allow for the dipoles to be polarized at a nonzero angle into the plane
Superfluidity in Millisecond Pulsars (Review)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pines, D.; Alpar, A.
The authors review the evidence for superfluidity in the Vela pulsar, the Crab pulsar and PSR 0525+21, and examine the prospects for observing similar consequences of superfluidity in the already-discovered millisec pulsars. They consider, inter alia, the likelihood of observing glitches, the expected post-glitch behavior, and pulsar heating by energy dissipation due to the creep of neutron vortex lines in pinned superfluid regions of the crust.
Sound modes in holographic superfluids
Herzog, Christopher P.; Yarom, Amos
2009-11-15
Superfluids support many different types of sound waves. We investigate the relation between the sound waves in a relativistic and a nonrelativistic superfluid by using hydrodynamics to calculate the various sound speeds. Then, using a particular holographic scalar gravity realization of a strongly interacting superfluid, we compute first, second, and fourth sound speeds as a function of the temperature. The relativistic low temperature results for second sound differ from Landau's well known prediction for the nonrelativistic, incompressible case.
Untangling Superfluid Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleckner, Dustin; Scheeler, Martin W.; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.
2015-03-01
What is the role of topology, or knottedness, in superfluid phase defects (quantum vortices)? In ideal classical fluids, vortex knots may never untie, and so there is an associated conserved quantity - helicity - which measures how tangled a flow is. One might expect a similar robustness for superfluid defects, however, simulations of the Gross-Pitevskii equation demonstrate that vortex knots and links spontaneously untie and unlink. Nonetheless, the topology dramatically affects the vortex evolution, and a component of the initial helicity is transferred to helical coils as the knots unravel. These effects are remarkably similar to the behavior of tangled vortices in viscous fluids, suggesting they are universal features of non-ideal fluids.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penanen, Konstantin
2004-01-01
The performance of clocks is limited by the characteristics of the underlying oscillator. Both the quality factor of the oscillator and the signal-to-noise ratio for the resonator state measurement are important. A superfluid helium Helmholtz resonator operating at approx.100mK temperatures has the potential of maintaining frequency stability of 5x10(exp -15)/t(exp 1/2) on the time scale of a few months. The high dynamic range of lossless SQUID position displacement measurement, and low losses associated with the superfluid flow, combined with high mechanical stability of cryogenic assemblies, contribute to the projected stability. Low overall mass of the assembly allows for multiple stages of vibration isolation.
Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator
Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.
1992-01-01
A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.
Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator
Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.
1992-12-22
A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.
Low-lying excitations in a strongly interacting Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vale, Christopher; Hoinka, Sascha; Dyke, Paul; Lingham, Marcus
2016-05-01
We present measurements of the low-lying excitation spectrum of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover using Bragg spectroscopy. By focussing the Bragg lasers onto the central volume of the cloud we can probe atoms at near-uniform density allowing measurement of the homogeneous density-density response function. The Bragg wavevector is set to be approximately half of the Fermi wavevector to probe the collective response. Below the superfluid transition temperature the Bragg spectra dominated by the Bogoliubov-Anderson phonon mode. Single particle excitations become visible at energies greater than twice the pairing gap. As interactions are tuned from the BCS to BEC regime the phonon and single particle modes separate apart and both the pairing gap and speed of sound can be directly read off in certain regions of the crossover. Single particle pair-breaking excitations become heavily suppressed as interactions are tuned from the BCS to BEC regimes.
Symmetry-Protected Topological Superfluids and Superconductors —From the Basics to 3He—
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizushima, Takeshi; Tsutsumi, Yasumasa; Kawakami, Takuto; Sato, Masatoshi; Ichioka, Masanori; Machida, Kazushige
2016-02-01
In this article, we give a comprehensive review of recent progress in research on symmetry-protected topological superfluids and topological crystalline superconductors, and their physical consequences such as helical and chiral Majorana fermions. We start this review article with the minimal model that captures the essence of such topological materials. The central part of this article is devoted to the superfluid 3He, which serves as a rich repository of novel topological quantum phenomena originating from the intertwining of symmetries and topologies. In particular, it is emphasized that the quantum fluid confined to nanofabricated geometries possesses multiple superfluid phases composed of the symmetry-protected topological superfluid B-phase, the A-phase as a Weyl superfluid, the nodal planar and polar phases, and the crystalline ordered stripe phase. All these phases generate noteworthy topological phenomena, including topological phase transitions concomitant with spontaneous symmetry breaking, Majorana fermions, Weyl superfluidity, emergent supersymmetry, spontaneous edge mass and spin currents, topological Fermi arcs, and exotic quasiparticles bound to topological defects. In relation to the mass current carried by gapless edge states, we also briefly review a longstanding issue on the intrinsic angular momentum paradox in 3He-A. Moreover, we share the current status of our knowledge on the topological aspects of unconventional superconductors, such as the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt3 and superconducting doped topological insulators, in connection with the superfluid 3He.
Thermodynamic properties of Rashba spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Zhen; Pu, Han; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan
2014-12-01
We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a superfluid Fermi gas subject to Rashba spin-orbit coupling and effective Zeeman field. We adopt a T -matrix scheme that takes beyond-mean-field effects, which are important for strongly interacting systems, into account. We focus on the calculation of two important quantities: the superfluid transition temperature and the isothermal compressibility. Our calculation shows very distinct influences of the out-of-plane and the in-plane Zeeman fields on the Fermi gas. We also confirm that the in-plane Zeeman field induces a Fulde-Ferrell superfluid below the critical temperature and an exotic finite-momentum pseudogap phase above the critical temperature.
Superfluidity within a small helium-4 cluster: the microscopic andronikashvili experiment
Grebenev; Toennies; Vilesov
1998-03-27
The infrared spectrum of single oxygen carbon sulfide (OCS) molecules was measured inside large superfluid pure helium-4 droplets and nonsuperfluid pure helium-3 droplets, both consisting of about 10(4) atoms. In the helium-4 droplets, sharp rotational lines were observed, whereas in helium-3 only a broad peak was found. This difference is interpreted as evidence that the narrow rotational lines, which imply free rotations, are a microscopic manifestation of superfluidity. Upon addition of 60 helium-4 atoms to the pure helium-3 droplets, the same sharp rotational lines were found; it appears that 60 is the minimum number needed for superfluidity. PMID:9516103
Cronin, James
2005-03-30
A combination of the discovery of nuclear fission and the circumstances of the 2nd World War brought Enrico Fermi to Chicago, where he led the team that produced the first controlled, self-sustained nuclear chain reaction. Following the war in 1945 Chancellor Hutchins, William Zachariasen, and Walter Bartky convinced Fermi to accept a professorship at the University of Chicago, where the Institute for Nuclear Studies was established. Fermi served as the leading figure in surely the greatest collection of scientists the world has ever seen. Fermi's tenure at Chicago was cut short by his death in 1954. My talk will concentrate on the years 1945-54. Examples of his research notebooks, his speeches, his teaching, and his correspondence will be discussed.
Vortex gyroscope imaging of planar superfluids.
Powis, A T; Sammut, S J; Simula, T P
2014-10-17
We propose a robust imaging technique that makes it possible to distinguish vortices from antivortices in quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates from a single image of the density of the atoms. Tilting the planar condensate prior to standard absorption imaging excites a generalized gyroscopic mode of the condensate, revealing the sign and location of each vortex. This technique is anticipated to enable experimental measurement of the incompressible kinetic energy spectrum of the condensate and the observation of a negative-temperature phase transition of the vortex gas, driven by two-dimensional superfluid turbulence. PMID:25361263
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gradwohl, Ben-Ami
1991-01-01
The universe may have undergone a superfluid-like phase during its evolution, resulting from the injection of nontopological charge into the spontaneously broken vacuum. In the presence of vortices this charge is identified with angular momentum. This leads to turbulent domains on the scale of the correlation length. By restoring the symmetry at low temperatures, the vortices dissociate and push the charges to the boundaries of these domains. The model can be scaled (phenomenologically) to very low energies, it can be incorporated in a late time phase transition and form large scale structure in the boundary layers of the correlation volumes. The novel feature of the model lies in the fact that the dark matter is endowed with coherent motion. The possibilities of identifying this flow around superfluid vortices with the observed large scale bulk motion is discussed. If this identification is possible, then the definite prediction can be made that a more extended map of peculiar velocities would have to reveal large scale circulations in the flow pattern.
Dissipative superfluid dynamics from gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz
2011-04-01
Charged asymptotically AdS 5 black branes are sometimes unstable to the condensation of charged scalar fields. For fields of infinite charge and squared mass -4 Herzog was able to analytically determine the phase transition temperature and compute the endpoint of this instability in the neighborhood of the phase transition. We generalize Herzog's construction by perturbing away from infinite charge in an expansion in inverse charge and use the solutions so obtained as input for the fluid gravity map. Our tube wise construction of patched up locally hairy black brane solutions yields a one to one map from the space of solutions of superfluid dynamics to the long wavelength solutions of the Einstein Maxwell system. We obtain explicit expressions for the metric, gauge field and scalar field dual to an arbitrary superfluid flow at first order in the derivative expansion. Our construction allows us to read off the the leading dissipative corrections to the perfect superfluid stress tensor, current and Josephson equations. A general framework for dissipative superfluid dynamics was worked out by Landau and Lifshitz for zero superfluid velocity and generalized to nonzero fluid velocity by Clark and Putterman. Our gravitational results do not fit into the 13 parameter Clark-Putterman framework. Purely within fluid dynamics we present a consistent new generalization of Clark and Putterman's equations to a set of superfluid equations parameterized by 14 dissipative parameters. The results of our gravitational calculation fit perfectly into this enlarged framework. In particular we compute all the dissipative constants for the gravitational superfluid.
Optical control of a magnetic Feshbach resonance in an ultracold Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Zhengkun; Wang, Pengjun; Huang, Lianghui; Meng, Zengming; Hu, Hui; Zhang, Jing
2013-10-01
We use laser light near resonant with a molecular bound-to-bound transition to control a magnetic Feshbach resonance in ultracold Fermi gases of 40K atoms. The spectrum of excited molecular states is measured by applying a laser field that couples the ground Feshbach molecular state to electronically excited molecular states. Nine strong bound-to-bound resonances are observed below the 2P1/2+2S1/2 threshold. We use radio-frequency spectroscopy to characterize the laser-dressed bound state near a specific bound-to-bound resonance and show clearly the shift of the magnetic Feshbach resonance using light. The demonstrated technology could be used to modify interatomic interactions with high spatial and temporal resolutions in the crossover regime from a Bose-Einstein condensate to a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superfluid.
Non-linear superflow of a unitary Fermi gas through a quantum point contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebrat, Martin; Husmann, Dominik; Uchino, Shun; Krinner, Sebastian; Häusler, Samuel; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Giamarchi, Thierry; Esslinger, Tilman
2016-05-01
Point contacts provide simple connections between macroscopic particle reservoirs. In electric circuits, strong links between metals, semiconductors, or superconductors have applications for fundamental condensed-matter physics as well as quantum information processing. However, for complex, strongly correlated materials, links have been largely restricted to weak tunnel junctions. We studied resonantly interacting Fermi gases of 6 Li atoms connected by a tunable, ballistic quantum point contact, finding a nonlinear current-bias relation. At low temperature, our observations agree quantitatively with a theoretical model in which the current originates from multiple Andreev reflections. In a wide contact geometry, the competition between superfluidity and thermally activated transport leads to a conductance minimum. Our system offers a controllable platform for the study of mesoscopic devices based on strongly interacting matter.
Spin-injection spectroscopy of a spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas.
Cheuk, Lawrence W; Sommer, Ariel T; Hadzibabic, Zoran; Yefsah, Tarik; Bakr, Waseem S; Zwierlein, Martin W
2012-08-31
The coupling of the spin of electrons to their motional state lies at the heart of recently discovered topological phases of matter. Here we create and detect spin-orbit coupling in an atomic Fermi gas, a highly controllable form of quantum degenerate matter. We directly reveal the spin-orbit gap via spin-injection spectroscopy, which characterizes the energy-momentum dispersion and spin composition of the quantum states. For energies within the spin-orbit gap, the system acts as a spin diode. We also create a spin-orbit coupled lattice and probe its spinful band structure, which features additional spin gaps and a fully gapped spectrum. In the presence of s-wave interactions, such systems should display induced p-wave pairing, topological superfluidity, and Majorana edge states. PMID:23002844
Spin-Orbit Coupled Fermi Gases across a Feshbach Resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Zeng-Qiang; Zhai, Hui
2011-11-01
In this Letter we study both ground state properties and the superfluid transition temperature of a spin-1/2 Fermi gas across a Feshbach resonance with a synthetic spin-orbit coupling, using the mean-field theory and the exact solution of two-body problem. We show that a strong spin-orbit coupling can significantly enhance the pairing gap for negative scattering length as, due to increased density of state at Fermi surface. Strong spin-orbit coupling can also significantly enhance the superfluid transition temperature Tc to a sizable fraction of Fermi temperature when as≲0, while it suppresses Tc slightly for positive as. The interaction energy and pair size at resonance are also discussed.
Chien, Chih-Chun; Levin, K.
2010-07-15
We show how Fermi-liquid theory can be applied to ultracold Fermi gases, thereby expanding their ''simulation'' capabilities to a class of problems of interest to multiple physics subdisciplines. We introduce procedures for measuring and calculating position-dependent Landau parameters. This lays the groundwork for addressing important controversial issues: (i) the suggestion that thermodynamically, the normal state of a unitary gas is indistinguishable from a Fermi liquid and (ii) that a fermionic system with strong repulsive contact interactions is associated with either ferromagnetism or localization; this relates as well to {sup 3}He and its p-wave superfluidity.
Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.G.; Anton, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A.R.; Becherini, Y.; Behera, B.; Bernlohr, K.; Boisson, C.; Bochow, A.; Borrel, V.; Brion, E.; Brucker, J.; Brun, P.; Buhler, R.; Bulik, T.; Busching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Chadwick, P.M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R.C.G.; /more authors..
2009-05-07
We report on the first simultaneous observations that cover the optical, X-ray, and high-energy gamma-ray bands of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304. The gamma-ray bands were observed for 11 days, between 2008 August 25 and 2008 September 6 (MJD 54704-54715), jointly with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the HESS atmospheric Cherenkov array, providing the first simultaneous MeV-TeV spectral energy distribution (SED) with the new generation of {gamma}-ray telescopes. The ATOM telescope and the RXTE and Swift observatories provided optical and X-ray coverage of the low-energy component over the same time period. The object was close to the lowest archival X-ray and very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) state, whereas the optical flux was much higher. The light curves show relatively little ({approx}30%) variability overall when compared to past flaring episodes, but we find a clear optical/VHE correlation and evidence for a correlation of the X-rays with the high-energy spectral index. Contrary to previous observations in the flaring state, we do not find any correlation between the X-ray and VHE components. Although synchrotron self-Compton models are often invoked to explain the SEDs of BL Lac objects, the most common versions of these models are at odds with the correlated variability we find in the various bands for PKS 2155-304.
Aharonian, F.; Bernloehr, K.; Bochow, A.; Buehler, R.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Brucker, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Chadwick, P. M.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Borrel, V.; Behera, B.; Boisson, C.; Brion, E.; Brun, P.; Buesching, I.; Boutelier, T. E-mail: berrie@in2p3.fr E-mail: jchiang@slac.stanford.edu
2009-05-10
We report on the first simultaneous observations that cover the optical, X-ray, and high-energy gamma-ray bands of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304. The gamma-ray bands were observed for 11 days, between 2008 August 25 and 2008 September 6 (MJD 54704-54715), jointly with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the HESS atmospheric Cherenkov array, providing the first simultaneous MeV-TeV spectral energy distribution (SED) with the new generation of {gamma}-ray telescopes. The ATOM telescope and the RXTE and Swift observatories provided optical and X-ray coverage of the low-energy component over the same time period. The object was close to the lowest archival X-ray and very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) state, whereas the optical flux was much higher. The light curves show relatively little ({approx}30%) variability overall when compared to past flaring episodes, but we find a clear optical/VHE correlation and evidence for a correlation of the X-rays with the high-energy spectral index. Contrary to previous observations in the flaring state, we do not find any correlation between the X-ray and VHE components. Although synchrotron self-Compton models are often invoked to explain the SEDs of BL Lac objects, the most common versions of these models are at odds with the correlated variability we find in the various bands for PKS 2155-304.
Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Zameer, Aneela; Khan, Aziz Ullah; Wazwaz, Abdul Majid
2016-01-01
In this study, a novel bio-inspired computing approach is developed to analyze the dynamics of nonlinear singular Thomas-Fermi equation (TFE) arising in potential and charge density models of an atom by exploiting the strength of finite difference scheme (FDS) for discretization and optimization through genetic algorithms (GAs) hybrid with sequential quadratic programming. The FDS procedures are used to transform the TFE differential equations into a system of nonlinear equations. A fitness function is constructed based on the residual error of constituent equations in the mean square sense and is formulated as the minimization problem. Optimization of parameters for the system is carried out with GAs, used as a tool for viable global search integrated with SQP algorithm for rapid refinement of the results. The design scheme is applied to solve TFE for five different scenarios by taking various step sizes and different input intervals. Comparison of the proposed results with the state of the art numerical and analytical solutions reveals that the worth of our scheme in terms of accuracy and convergence. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed scheme are validated through consistently getting optimal values of statistical performance indices calculated for a sufficiently large number of independent runs to establish its significance. PMID:27610319
Radzihovsky, Leo; Vishwanath, Ashvin
2009-07-03
We develop a low-energy model of an unidirectional Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) state. Because the underlying rotational and translational symmetries are broken spontaneously, this gapless superfluid is a smectic liquid crystal, that exhibits fluctuations that are qualitatively stronger than in a conventional superfluid, thus requiring a fully nonlinear description of its Goldstone modes. Consequently, at nonzero temperature the LO superfluid is an algebraic phase even in 3D. It exhibits half-integer vortex-dislocation defects, whose unbinding leads to transitions to a superfluid nematic and other phases. In 2D at nonzero temperature, the LO state is always unstable to a nematic superfluid. We expect this superfluid liquid-crystal phenomenology to be realizable in imbalanced resonant Fermi gases trapped isotropically.
Superfluid Interfaces in Quantum Solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burovski, Evgeni; Kozik, Evgeni; Kuklov, Anatoly; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris
2005-04-01
One scenario for the nonclassical moment of inertia of solid 4He discovered by Kim and Chan [Nature (London), NATUAS, 0028-0836 427, 225 (2004), 10.1038/nature02220] is the superfluidity of microcrystallite interfaces. On the basis of the most simple model of a quantum crystal—the checkerboard lattice solid—we show that the superfluidity of interfaces between solid domains can exist in a wide range of parameters. At strong enough interparticle interaction, a superfluid interface becomes an insulator via a quantum phase transition. Under the conditions of particle-hole symmetry, the transition is of the standard U(1) universality class in 3D, while in 2D the onset of superfluidity is accompanied by the interface roughening, driven by fractionally charged topological excitations.
Comment on 'Superfluid stability in the BEC-BCS crossover'
Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2007-04-01
We point out an error in recent work by Pao, Wu, and Yip [Phys. Rev. B 73, 132506 (2006)], that stems from their use of a necessary but not sufficient condition [positive compressibility (magnetic susceptibility) and superfluid stiffness] for the stability of the ground state of a polarized Fermi gas. As a result, for a range of detunings their proposed ground-state solution is a local maximum rather than a minimum of the ground state energy, which thereby invalidates their proposed phase diagram for resonantly interacting fermions under an imposed population difference.
Comment on ``Superfluid stability in the BEC-BCS crossover''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2007-04-01
We point out an error in recent work by Pao, Wu, and Yip [Phys. Rev. B 73, 132506 (2006)], that stems from their use of a necessary but not sufficient condition [positive compressibility (magnetic susceptibility) and superfluid stiffness] for the stability of the ground state of a polarized Fermi gas. As a result, for a range of detunings their proposed ground-state solution is a local maximum rather than a minimum of the ground state energy, which thereby invalidates their proposed phase diagram for resonantly interacting fermions under an imposed population difference.
Superfluid transition in the attractive Hofstadter-Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umucalılar, R. O.; Iskin, M.
2016-08-01
We consider a Fermi gas that is loaded onto a square optical lattice and subjected to a perpendicular artificial magnetic field, and determine its superfluid transition boundary by adopting a BCS-like mean-field approach in momentum space. The multiband structure of the single-particle Hofstadter spectrum is taken explicitly into account while deriving a generalized pairing equation. We present the numerical solutions as functions of the artificial magnetic flux, interaction strength, Zeeman field, chemical potential, and temperature, with a special emphasis on the roles played by the density of single-particle states and center-of-mass momentum of Cooper pairs.
Conservation of helicity in superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.
2015-03-01
Helicity arises as a special conserved quantity in ideal fluids, in addition to energy, momentum and angular momentum. As a measure of the knottedness of vortex lines, Helicity provides an important tool for studying a wide variety of physical systems such as plasmas and turbulent fluids. Superfluids flow without resistance just like ideal (Euler) fluids, making it natural to ask whether their knottedness is similarly preserved. We address the conservation of helicity in superfluids theoretically and examine its consequences in numerical simulations.
Vortex reconnection in superfluid helium
Koplik, J. ); Levine, H. )
1993-08-30
A useful physical model for superfluid turbulence considers the flow to consist of a dense tangle of vortex lines which evolve and interact. It has been suggested that these vortex lines can dynamically reconnect upon close approach. Here, we consider the nonlinear Schroedinger equation model of superfluid quantum mechanics, and use numerical simulation to study this topology changing core-scale process. Our results support the idea that vortex reconnection will occur whenever filaments come within a few core lengths of one another.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gully, P.
This paper reports on the development and the thermal tests of three superfluid helium heat pipes. Two of them are designed to provide a large transport capacity (4 mW at 1.7 K). They feature a copper braid located inside a 6 mm outer diameter stainless tube fitted with copper ends for mechanical anchoring. The other heat pipe has no copper braid and is designed to get much smaller heat transport capacity (0.5 mW) and to explore lower temperature (0.7 - 1 K). The copper braid and the tube wall is the support of the Rollin superfluid helium film in which the heat is transferred. The low filling pressure makes the technology very simple with the possibility to easily bend the tube. We present the design and discuss the thermal performance of the heat pipes tested in the 0.7 to 2.0 K temperature range. The long heat pipe (1.2 m with copper braid) and the short one (0.25 m with copper braid) have similar thermal performance in the range 0.7 - 2.0 K. At 1.7 K the long heat pipe, 120 g in weight, reaches a heat transfer capacity of 6.2 mW and a thermal conductance of 600 mW/K for 4 mW transferred power. Due to the pressure drop of the vapor flow and Kapitza thermal resistance, the conductance of the third heat pipe dramatically decreases when the temperature decreases. A 3.8 mW/K is obtained at 0.7 K for 0.5 mW transferred power.
Unconventional Superfluidity in Yttrium Iron Garnet Films.
Sun, Chen; Nattermann, Thomas; Pokrovsky, Valery L
2016-06-24
We argue that the magnon condensate in yttrium iron garnet may display experimentally observable superfluidity at room temperature despite the 100 times dominance of the normal density over superfluid ones. The superfluidity has a more complicated nature than in known superfluids since the U(1) symmetry of the global phase shift is violated by the dipolar interaction leading to the exchange of spin moment between the condensate and the crystal lattice. It produces periodic inhomogeneity in the stationary superfluid flow. We discuss the manner of observation and possible applications of magnon superfluidity. It may strongly enhance the spin-torque effects and reduce the energy consumption of the magnonic devices. PMID:27391750
Unconventional Superfluidity in Yttrium Iron Garnet Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Chen; Nattermann, Thomas; Pokrovsky, Valery L.
2016-06-01
We argue that the magnon condensate in yttrium iron garnet may display experimentally observable superfluidity at room temperature despite the 100 times dominance of the normal density over superfluid ones. The superfluidity has a more complicated nature than in known superfluids since the U(1) symmetry of the global phase shift is violated by the dipolar interaction leading to the exchange of spin moment between the condensate and the crystal lattice. It produces periodic inhomogeneity in the stationary superfluid flow. We discuss the manner of observation and possible applications of magnon superfluidity. It may strongly enhance the spin-torque effects and reduce the energy consumption of the magnonic devices.
Relativistic superfluidity and vorticity from the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Chi; Good, Michael R. R.; Guo, Yulong; Liu, Xiaopei; Huang, Kerson
2014-12-01
We investigate superfluidity, and the mechanism for creation of quantized vortices, in the relativistic regime. The general framework is a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in curved spacetime for a complex scalar field, whose phase dynamics gives rise to superfluidity. The mechanisms discussed are local inertial forces (Coriolis and centrifugal), and current-current interaction with an external source. The primary application is to cosmology, but we also discuss the reduction to the nonrelativistic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is widely used in describing superfluidity and vorticity in liquid helium and cold-trapped atomic gases.
Cooper pairing and BCS-BEC evolution in mixed-dimensional Fermi gases
Iskin, M.; Subasi, A. L.
2010-12-15
Similar to what has recently been achieved with Bose-Bose mixtures [G. Lamporesi, J. Catani, G. Barontini, Y. Nishida, M. Inguscio, and F. Minardi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153202 (2010)], mixed-dimensional Fermi-Fermi mixtures can be created by applying a species-selective one-dimensional optical lattice to a two-species Fermi gas ({sigma}{identical_to}({up_arrow},{down_arrow})), in such a way that both species are confined to quasi-two-dimensional geometries determined by their hoppings along the lattice direction. We investigated the ground-state phase diagram of superfluidity for such mixtures in the BCS-BEC evolution, and found normal, gapped superfluid, gapless superfluid, and phase separated regions. In particular, we found a stable gapless superfluid phase where the unpaired {up_arrow} and {down_arrow} fermions coexist with the paired (or superfluid) ones in different momentum space regions. This phase is in some ways similar to the Sarma state found in mixtures with densities, but in our case, the gapless superfluid phase is unpolarized and most importantly it is stable against phase separation.
Three-dimensional nanoparticle dynamics in superfluid helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lathrop, Daniel
Quantized vortices have been observed in superfluid 4He and AMO trapped atom systems, and have been infered in superfluid 3He and neutron stars. The dynamics of quantum fluids is substantially controlled by the motion of quantized vortices, which are topological phase defects analogous to crystalline dislocations. Long-range quantum order underlies a number of related physical phenomena, including superfluidity, trapped-atom Bose-Einstein condensates, superconductivity, ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, lasers, and the Higgs mechanism. While superfluidity in 4He is one of the first discovered of these, it is one of the least understood, given that the strongly interacting nature of helium makes theory difficult, and that development of local experimental probes is lagging. The advent of three-dimensional flow visualization of particles that trace quantized vortices provides new oportunities to investigate their creation and dynamics. We work to address the following questions using flow visualization in this system: What are field equations that express the coupling of the ordered and disordered parts of the flow? How does vortex reconnection lead to dissipation and breaking of time-reversal invariance? What are the similarities and differences between quantum and classical turbulence at small and large scales? How do quantized vortices form through the lambda transition? This work is supported by the National Science Foundation DMR CMP 1407472.
Strongly Interacting Fermi and Bose-Fermi Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Ye-Ryoung; Choi, Jae; Christensen, Caleb; Jo, Gyu-Boong; Wang, Tout; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Pritchard, David
2010-03-01
We present our recent progress on the study ultracold gases of ^6Li and ^23Na near homonuclear and heteronuclear Feshbach resonances. We discuss new experimental and theoretical developments on itinerant ferromagnetism in a Fermi gas of ultracold atoms [1]. We also report on ultracold gases of ^6Li and ^23Na, including fermionic LiNa molecules. [4pt] [1] G.-B. Jo, Y.-R. Lee, J.-H. Choi, C.A. Christensen, T.H. Kim, J.H. Thywissen, D.E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, Observation of itinerant ferromagnetism in a strongly interacting Fermi gas of ultracold atoms, Science 325, 1521 (2009).
Erika Bailey
2011-10-27
The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 (Fermi 1) was a fast breeder reactor design that was cooled by sodium and operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. On May 10, 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) granted an operating license, DPR-9, to the Power Reactor Development Company (PRDC), a consortium specifically formed to own and operate a nuclear reactor at the Fermi 1 site. The reactor was designed for a maximum capability of 430 megawatts (MW); however, the maximum reactor power with the first core loading (Core A) was 200 MW. The primary system was filled with sodium in December 1960 and criticality was achieved in August 1963. The reactor was tested at low power during the first couple years of operation. Power ascension testing above 1 MW commenced in December 1965 immediately following the receipt of a high-power operating license. In October 1966 during power ascension, zirconium plates at the bottom of the reactor vessel became loose and blocked sodium coolant flow to some fuel subassemblies. Two subassemblies started to melt and the reactor was manually shut down. No abnormal releases to the environment occurred. Forty-two months later after the cause had been determined, cleanup completed, and the fuel replaced, Fermi 1 was restarted. However, in November 1972, PRDC made the decision to decommission Fermi 1 as the core was approaching its burn-up limit. The fuel and blanket subassemblies were shipped off-site in 1973. Following that, the secondary sodium system was drained and sent off-site. The radioactive primary sodium was stored on-site in storage tanks and 55 gallon (gal) drums until it was shipped off-site in 1984. The initial decommissioning of Fermi 1 was completed in 1975. Effective January 23, 1976, DPR-9 was transferred to the Detroit Edison Company (DTE) as a 'possession only' license (DTE 2010a). This report details the confirmatory activities performed during the second Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE
Transition from a Two-Dimensional Superfluid to a One-Dimensional Mott Insulator
Bergkvist, Sara; Rosengren, Anders; Saers, Robert; Lundh, Emil; Rehn, Magnus; Kastberg, Anders
2007-09-14
A two-dimensional system of atoms in an anisotropic optical lattice is studied theoretically. If the system is finite in one direction, it is shown to exhibit a transition between a two-dimensional superfluid and a one-dimensional Mott insulating chain of superfluid tubes. Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with the expectation that the phase transition is of Kosterlitz-Thouless type. The effect of the transition on experimental time-of-flight images is discussed.
Flow field of a unitary Fermi gas for the scissors mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Zhen-Bang; Chen, Ji-Sheng; Li, Jia-Rong
2014-08-01
The scissors mode plays a crucial role in the study of the unitary Fermi gas. In this paper, we simulate the scissors mode by solving the hydrodynamic equations with appropriate initial conditions, and then extract the flow field of the gas. The flow fields in different regimes are found to be essentially different. The characteristic differences in the flow patterns between the superfluid and the normal viscous fluid are presented. Irrotational flow signals superfluidity, while rotational one indicates normal hydrodynamical behavior. These different characteristics can be visualized by the velocity portraits of the flow, which provide an intuitive way to discriminate the states of the Fermi gas.
Microscopic theory of sound propagation in the superfluid 3He aerogel system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higashitani, S.; Miura, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Nagai, K.
2005-04-01
We present a theory of sound propagation in superfluid He3 confined in aerogel, taking dragged aerogel motion into account. The superfluid dynamics coupled with the aerogel motion is formulated by use of the Keldysh Green’s function for weak-coupling superfluid Fermi liquid. We apply the theory to the hydrodynamic regime and calculate the attenuation of a hydrodynamic longitudinal sound mode, the so-called fast mode. The result is compared to the acoustic experiment reported by the Northwestern University group [R. Nomura, G. Gervais, T. M. Haard, Y. Lee, N. Mulders, and W. P. Halperin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4325 (2000); G. Gervais, R. Nomura, T. M. Haard, Y. Lee, N. Mulders, and W. P. Halperin, J. Low Temp. Phys. 122, 1 (2001)]. We find reasonable agreement between the theory and the experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouffard, Karen
1999-05-01
This column contains problems and solutions for the general category of questions known as "Fermi" questions. Forcing the students to use their ability to estimate, giving answers in terms of order-of-magnitude, is not only a challenge for a competition, but a teaching strategy to use in the classroom to develop self-confidence and the ability to analyze answers as to whether or not they make sense, as opposed to relying on the "precision" of a calculator value.
Experimental Study of a Bose Superfluid ``Battery'' for Atomtronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Dana; Caliga, Seth; Straatsma, Cameron
2013-05-01
The two component model of superfluids describes a thermo-mechanical force in which a thermal gradient across the fluid causes a counter-propagating flow of the normal and superfluid components, with the superfluid current propagating toward the ``hot'' portion of the container and the normal component towards the ``cold.'' We observe the energy and flux of a Bose-condensed gas flowing over a barrier in a hybrid magnetic and optical trap using a high-resolution atom chip projection and in-trap imaging system. We introduce a thermal gradient using asymmetric cooling of the condensed gas and the resulting thermo-mechanical force induces a supercurrent flow over the barrier. We observe, as expected, that the energy of the atoms emerging from the barrier is determined by the barrier height. We show that, like the ``fountain effect'' seen in liquid helium-4, the energy of the emerging atoms can be many times higher than the chemical potential as well as the thermal energy of the condensate. Through these experiments we establish that a reservoir of Bose-condensed atoms combined with a cooling mechanism can serve as a ``battery'' to drive the current in an atomtronic circuit.
Superfluid density through 2D superconductor junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nam, Hyoungdo; Shih, Chih-Kang
As S. Qin et al. reported, two monolayer (2 ML) lead film on a silicon (111) substrate has one of two different atomic structures on the silicon substrate: the unstrained 1x1 and the psedumorphically strained √3x √3 (i.e. the same lattice constant as the Si √3x √3 lattice). Most interestingly, although these two different regions show the same quantum well state features, they have different Tc's (5 K and 4 K). These two different regions of 2 ML film naturally form superconductor-superconductor (SS or SS') junctions along silicon step edges. Physical connection of the junction is only 1 ML thickness because of the step height difference of substrate. We will present this study of SS (or SS') junction system using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and in-situ double-coil mutual inductance measurement. The transition of superconducting gaps across either SS or SS' junctions should show how to locally affect each other. Double coil measurement show a global Tc close to the lower Tc region with sizable superfluid density. We will discuss the phase rigidity and its relationship to the superfluid density in this ultra-thin Pb film that is only 2 ML thick.
Rotating a Rashba-coupled Fermi gas in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doko, E.; Subaşı, A. L.; Iskin, M.
2016-03-01
We analyze the interplay of adiabatic rotation and Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the BCS-BEC evolution of a harmonically trapped Fermi gas in two dimensions under the assumption that vortices are not excited. First, by taking the trapping potential into account via both the semiclassical and exact quantum-mechanical approaches, we firmly establish the parameter regime where the noninteracting gas forms a ring-shaped annulus. Then, by taking the interactions into account via the BCS mean-field approximation, we study the pair-breaking mechanism that is induced by rotation, i.e., the Coriolis effects. In particular, we show that the interplay allows for the possibility of creating either an isolated annulus of rigidly rotating normal particles that is disconnected from the central core of nonrotating superfluid pairs or an intermediate mediator phase where the superfluid pairs and normal particles coexist as a partially rotating gapless superfluid.
Universal spin transport in a strongly interacting Fermi gas.
Sommer, Ariel; Ku, Mark; Roati, Giacomo; Zwierlein, Martin W
2011-04-14
Transport of fermions, particles with half-integer spin, is central to many fields of physics. Electron transport runs modern technology, defining states of matter such as superconductors and insulators, and electron spin is being explored as a new carrier of information. Neutrino transport energizes supernova explosions following the collapse of a dying star, and hydrodynamic transport of the quark-gluon plasma governed the expansion of the early Universe. However, our understanding of non-equilibrium dynamics in such strongly interacting fermionic matter is still limited. Ultracold gases of fermionic atoms realize a pristine model for such systems and can be studied in real time with the precision of atomic physics. Even above the superfluid transition, such gases flow as an almost perfect fluid with very low viscosity when interactions are tuned to a scattering resonance. In this hydrodynamic regime, collective density excitations are weakly damped. Here we experimentally investigate spin excitations in a Fermi gas of (6)Li atoms, finding that, in contrast, they are maximally damped. A spin current is induced by spatially separating two spin components and observing their evolution in an external trapping potential. We demonstrate that interactions can be strong enough to reverse spin currents, with components of opposite spin reflecting off each other. Near equilibrium, we obtain the spin drag coefficient, the spin diffusivity and the spin susceptibility as a function of temperature on resonance and show that they obey universal laws at high temperatures. In the degenerate regime, the spin diffusivity approaches a value set by [planck]/m, the quantum limit of diffusion, where [planck]/m is Planck's constant divided by 2π and m the atomic mass. For repulsive interactions, our measurements seem to exclude a metastable ferromagnetic state. PMID:21490670
Effective p -wave interaction and topological superfluids in s -wave quantum gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bin; Zheng, Zhen; Pu, Han; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan
2016-03-01
p -wave interaction in cold atoms may give rise to exotic topological superfluids. However, the realization of p -wave interaction in a cold atom system is experimentally challenging. Here we propose a simple scheme to synthesize effective p -wave interaction in conventional s -wave interacting quantum gases. The key idea is to load atoms into a spin-dependent optical lattice potential. Using two concrete examples involving spin-1/2 fermions, we show how the original system can be mapped into a model describing spinless fermions with nearest-neighbor p -wave interaction, whose ground state can be a topological superfluid that supports Majorana fermions under proper conditions. Our proposal has the advantage that it does not require spin-orbit coupling or loading atoms onto higher orbitals, which is the key in earlier proposals to synthesize effective p -wave interaction in s -wave quantum gases, and may provide a completely new route for realizing p -wave topological superfluids.
Dynamics of vortex assisted metal condensation in superfluid helium.
Popov, Evgeny; Mammetkuliyev, Muhammet; Eloranta, Jussi
2013-05-28
Laser ablation of copper and silver targets immersed in bulk normal and superfluid (4)He was studied through time-resolved shadowgraph photography. In normal fluid, only a sub-millimeter cavitation bubble is created and immediate formation of metal clusters is observed within a few hundred microseconds. The metal clusters remain spatially tightly focused up to 15 ms, and it is proposed that this observation may find applications in particle image velocimetry. In superfluid helium, the cavitation bubble formation process is distinctly different from the normal fluid. Due to the high thermal conductivity and an apparent lag in the breakdown of superfluidity, about 20% of the laser pulse energy was transferred directly into the liquid and a large gas bubble, up to several millimeters depending on laser pulse energy, is created. The internal temperature of the gas bubble is estimated to exceed 9 K and the following bubble cool down period therefore includes two separate phase transitions: gas-normal liquid and normal liquid-superfluid. The last stage of the cool down process was assigned to the superfluid lambda transition where a sudden formation of large metal clusters is observed. This is attributed to high vorticity created in the volume where the gas bubble previously resided. As shown by theoretical bosonic density functional theory calculations, quantized vortices can trap atoms and dimers efficiently, exhibiting static binding energies up to 22 K. This, combined with hydrodynamic Bernoulli attraction, yields total binding energies as high as 35 K. For larger clusters, the static binding energy increases as a function of the volume occupied in the liquid to minimize the surface tension energy. For heliophobic species an energy barrier develops as a function of the cluster size, whereas heliophilics show barrierless entry into vortices. The present theoretical and experimental observations are used to rationalize the previously reported metal nanowire assembly in