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Sample records for atomic layer graphene

  1. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of ultrathin oxides on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Christie J.; Zaniewski, Anna M.; Kaur, Manpuneet; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Graphene, a single atomic layer of sp2 bonded carbon atoms, possesses extreme material properties that point toward a plethora of potential electronic applications. Many of these possibilities require the combination of graphene with dielectric materials such as metal oxides. Simultaneously, there is interest in new physical properties that emerge when traditionally three dimensional materials are constrained to ultrathin layers. For both of these objectives, we explore deposition of ultrathin oxide layers on graphene. In this project, we perform plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of aluminum oxide on graphene that has been grown by chemical vapor deposition atop copper foil and achieve oxide layers that are <1.5 nm. Because exposure to oxygen plasma can cause the graphene to deteriorate, we explore techniques to mitigate this effect and optimize the PEALD process. Following deposition, the graphene and oxide films are transferred to arbitrary substrates for further analysis. We use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy to assess the quality of the resulting films. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant # DMR-1206935.

  2. Damage evaluation in graphene underlying atomic layer deposition dielectrics

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaohui; Reckinger, Nicolas; Poncelet, Olivier; Louette, Pierre; Ureña, Ferran; Idrissi, Hosni; Turner, Stuart; Cabosart, Damien; Colomer, Jean-François; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoit; Francis, Laurent A.

    2015-01-01

    Based on micro-Raman spectroscopy (μRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we study the structural damage incurred in monolayer (1L) and few-layer (FL) graphene subjected to atomic-layer deposition of HfO2 and Al2O3 upon different oxygen plasma power levels. We evaluate the damage level and the influence of the HfO2 thickness on graphene. The results indicate that in the case of Al2O3/graphene, whether 1L or FL graphene is strongly damaged under our process conditions. For the case of HfO2/graphene, μRS analysis clearly shows that FL graphene is less disordered than 1L graphene. In addition, the damage levels in FL graphene decrease with the number of layers. Moreover, the FL graphene damage is inversely proportional to the thickness of HfO2 film. Particularly, the bottom layer of twisted bilayer (t-2L) has the salient features of 1L graphene. Therefore, FL graphene allows for controlling/limiting the degree of defect during the PE-ALD HfO2 of dielectrics and could be a good starting material for building field effect transistors, sensors, touch screens and solar cells. Besides, the formation of Hf-C bonds may favor growing high-quality and uniform-coverage dielectric. HfO2 could be a suitable high-K gate dielectric with a scaling capability down to sub-5-nm for graphene-based transistors. PMID:26311131

  3. Damage evaluation in graphene underlying atomic layer deposition dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaohui; Reckinger, Nicolas; Poncelet, Olivier; Louette, Pierre; Ureña, Ferran; Idrissi, Hosni; Turner, Stuart; Cabosart, Damien; Colomer, Jean-François; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoit; Francis, Laurent A

    2015-01-01

    Based on micro-Raman spectroscopy (μRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we study the structural damage incurred in monolayer (1L) and few-layer (FL) graphene subjected to atomic-layer deposition of HfO2 and Al2O3 upon different oxygen plasma power levels. We evaluate the damage level and the influence of the HfO2 thickness on graphene. The results indicate that in the case of Al2O3/graphene, whether 1L or FL graphene is strongly damaged under our process conditions. For the case of HfO2/graphene, μRS analysis clearly shows that FL graphene is less disordered than 1L graphene. In addition, the damage levels in FL graphene decrease with the number of layers. Moreover, the FL graphene damage is inversely proportional to the thickness of HfO2 film. Particularly, the bottom layer of twisted bilayer (t-2L) has the salient features of 1L graphene. Therefore, FL graphene allows for controlling/limiting the degree of defect during the PE-ALD HfO2 of dielectrics and could be a good starting material for building field effect transistors, sensors, touch screens and solar cells. Besides, the formation of Hf-C bonds may favor growing high-quality and uniform-coverage dielectric. HfO2 could be a suitable high-K gate dielectric with a scaling capability down to sub-5-nm for graphene-based transistors. PMID:26311131

  4. Interfacial Atomic Structure of Twisted Few-Layer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Lugg, Nathan R.; Inoue, Kazutoshi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Taniguchi, Takashi; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    A twist in bi- or few-layer graphene breaks the local symmetry, introducing a number of intriguing physical properties such as opening new bandgaps. Therefore, determining the twisted atomic structure is critical to understanding and controlling the functional properties of graphene. Combining low-angle annular dark-field electron microscopy with image simulations, we directly determine the atomic structure of twisted few-layer graphene in terms of a moiré superstructure which is parameterized by a single twist angle and lattice constant. This method is shown to be a powerful tool for accurately determining the atomic structure of two-dimensional materials such as graphene, even in the presence of experimental errors. Using coincidence-site-lattice and displacement-shift-complete theories, we show that the in-plane translation state between layers is not a significant structure parameter, explaining why the present method is adequate not only for bilayer graphene but also a few-layered twisted graphene. PMID:26888259

  5. Interfacial Atomic Structure of Twisted Few-Layer Graphene.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Lugg, Nathan R; Inoue, Kazutoshi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Taniguchi, Takashi; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    A twist in bi- or few-layer graphene breaks the local symmetry, introducing a number of intriguing physical properties such as opening new bandgaps. Therefore, determining the twisted atomic structure is critical to understanding and controlling the functional properties of graphene. Combining low-angle annular dark-field electron microscopy with image simulations, we directly determine the atomic structure of twisted few-layer graphene in terms of a moiré superstructure which is parameterized by a single twist angle and lattice constant. This method is shown to be a powerful tool for accurately determining the atomic structure of two-dimensional materials such as graphene, even in the presence of experimental errors. Using coincidence-site-lattice and displacement-shift-complete theories, we show that the in-plane translation state between layers is not a significant structure parameter, explaining why the present method is adequate not only for bilayer graphene but also a few-layered twisted graphene. PMID:26888259

  6. Graphene oxide monolayers as atomically thin seeding layers for atomic layer deposition of metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourbakhsh, Amirhasan; Adelmann, Christoph; Song, Yi; Lee, Chang Seung; Asselberghs, Inge; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Brizzi, Simone; Tallarida, Massimo; Schmeißer, Dieter; van Elshocht, Sven; Heyns, Marc; Kong, Jing; Palacios, Tomás; de Gendt, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was explored as an atomically-thin transferable seed layer for the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of dielectric materials on any substrate of choice. This approach does not require specific chemical groups on the target surface to initiate ALD. This establishes GO as a unique interface which enables the growth of dielectric materials on a wide range of substrate materials and opens up numerous prospects for applications. In this work, a mild oxygen plasma treatment was used to oxidize graphene monolayers with well-controlled and tunable density of epoxide functional groups. This was confirmed by synchrotron-radiation photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, density functional theory calculations were carried out on representative epoxidized graphene monolayer models to correlate the capacitive properties of GO with its electronic structure. Capacitance-voltage measurements showed that the capacitive behavior of Al2O3/GO depends on the oxidation level of GO. Finally, GO was successfully used as an ALD seed layer for the deposition of Al2O3 on chemically inert single layer graphene, resulting in high performance top-gated field-effect transistors.Graphene oxide (GO) was explored as an atomically-thin transferable seed layer for the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of dielectric materials on any substrate of choice. This approach does not require specific chemical groups on the target surface to initiate ALD. This establishes GO as a unique interface which enables the growth of dielectric materials on a wide range of substrate materials and opens up numerous prospects for applications. In this work, a mild oxygen plasma treatment was used to oxidize graphene monolayers with well-controlled and tunable density of epoxide functional groups. This was confirmed by synchrotron-radiation photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, density functional theory calculations were carried out on representative epoxidized graphene monolayer models to correlate the

  7. Single-atom Catalysis Using Pt/Graphene Achieved through Atomic Layer Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shuhui; Zhang, Gaixia; Gauquelin, Nicolas; Chen, Ning; Zhou, Jigang; Yang, Songlan; Chen, Weifeng; Meng, Xiangbo; Geng, Dongsheng; Banis, Mohammad N.; Li, Ruying; Ye, Siyu; Knights, Shanna; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Sun, Xueliang

    2013-01-01

    Platinum-nanoparticle-based catalysts are widely used in many important chemical processes and automobile industries. Downsizing catalyst nanoparticles to single atoms is highly desirable to maximize their use efficiency, however, very challenging. Here we report a practical synthesis for isolated single Pt atoms anchored to graphene nanosheet using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. ALD offers the capability of precise control of catalyst size span from single atom, subnanometer cluster to nanoparticle. The single-atom catalysts exhibit significantly improved catalytic activity (up to 10 times) over that of the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalyst. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses reveal that the low-coordination and partially unoccupied densities of states of 5d orbital of Pt atoms are responsible for the excellent performance. This work is anticipated to form the basis for the exploration of a next generation of highly efficient single-atom catalysts for various applications.

  8. Direct chemical conversion of graphene to boron- and nitrogen- and carbon-containing atomic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yongji; Shi, Gang; Zhang, Zhuhua; Zhou, Wu; Jung, Jeil; Gao, Weilu; Ma, Lulu; Yang, Yang; Yang, Shubin; You, Ge; Vajtai, Robert; Xu, Qianfan; MacDonald, Allan H.; Yakobson, Boris I.; Lou, Jun; Liu, Zheng; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene and hexagonal boron nitride are typical conductor and insulator, respectively, while their hybrids hexagonal boron carbonitride are promising as a semiconductor. Here we demonstrate a direct chemical conversion reaction, which systematically converts the hexagonal carbon lattice of graphene to boron nitride, making it possible to produce uniform boron nitride and boron carbonitride structures without disrupting the structural integrity of the original graphene templates. We synthesize high-quality atomic layer films with boron-, nitrogen- and carbon-containing atomic layers with full range of compositions. Using this approach, the electrical resistance, carrier mobilities and bandgaps of these atomic layers can be tuned from conductor to semiconductor to insulator. Combining this technique with lithography, local conversion could be realized at the nanometre scale, enabling the fabrication of in-plane atomic layer structures consisting of graphene, boron nitride and boron carbonitride. This is a step towards scalable synthesis of atomically thin two-dimensional integrated circuits.

  9. Interactions between C and Cu atoms in single-layer graphene: direct observation and modelling.

    PubMed

    Kano, Emi; Hashimoto, Ayako; Kaneko, Tomoaki; Tajima, Nobuo; Ohno, Takahisa; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Metal doping into the graphene lattice has been studied recently to develop novel nanoelectronic devices and to gain an understanding of the catalytic activities of metals in nanocarbon structures. Here we report the direct observation of interactions between Cu atoms and single-layer graphene by transmission electron microscopy. We document stable configurations of Cu atoms in the graphene sheet and unique transformations of graphene promoted by Cu atoms. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory reveal a reduction of energy barrier that caused rotation of C-C bonds near Cu atoms. We discuss two driving forces, electron irradiation and in situ heating, and conclude that the observed transformations were mainly promoted by electron irradiation. Our results suggest that individual Cu atoms can promote reconstruction of single-layer graphene. PMID:26645468

  10. Interactions between C and Cu atoms in single-layer graphene: direct observation and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Emi; Hashimoto, Ayako; Kaneko, Tomoaki; Tajima, Nobuo; Ohno, Takahisa; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2015-12-01

    Metal doping into the graphene lattice has been studied recently to develop novel nanoelectronic devices and to gain an understanding of the catalytic activities of metals in nanocarbon structures. Here we report the direct observation of interactions between Cu atoms and single-layer graphene by transmission electron microscopy. We document stable configurations of Cu atoms in the graphene sheet and unique transformations of graphene promoted by Cu atoms. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory reveal a reduction of energy barrier that caused rotation of C-C bonds near Cu atoms. We discuss two driving forces, electron irradiation and in situ heating, and conclude that the observed transformations were mainly promoted by electron irradiation. Our results suggest that individual Cu atoms can promote reconstruction of single-layer graphene.Metal doping into the graphene lattice has been studied recently to develop novel nanoelectronic devices and to gain an understanding of the catalytic activities of metals in nanocarbon structures. Here we report the direct observation of interactions between Cu atoms and single-layer graphene by transmission electron microscopy. We document stable configurations of Cu atoms in the graphene sheet and unique transformations of graphene promoted by Cu atoms. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory reveal a reduction of energy barrier that caused rotation of C-C bonds near Cu atoms. We discuss two driving forces, electron irradiation and in situ heating, and conclude that the observed transformations were mainly promoted by electron irradiation. Our results suggest that individual Cu atoms can promote reconstruction of single-layer graphene. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Three TEM movies, additional TEM data corresponding to movies, calculated models, and lifetime results. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05913e

  11. Atomic layer deposition of HfO2 on graphene through controlled ion beam treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki Seok; Oh, Il-Kwon; Jung, Hanearl; Kim, Hyungjun; Yeom, Geun Young; Kim, Kyong Nam

    2016-05-01

    The polymer residue generated during the graphene transfer process to the substrate tends to cause problems (e.g., a decrease in electron mobility, unwanted doping, and non-uniform deposition of the dielectric material). In this study, by using a controllable low-energy Ar+ ion beam, we cleaned the polymer residue without damaging the graphene network. HfO2 grown by atomic layer deposition on graphene cleaned using an Ar+ ion beam showed a dense uniform structure, whereas that grown on the transferred graphene (before Ar+ ion cleaning) showed a non-uniform structure. A graphene-HfO2-metal capacitor fabricated by growing 20-nm thick HfO2 on graphene exhibited a very low leakage current (<10-11 A/cm2) for Ar+ ion-cleaned graphene, whereas a similar capacitor grown using the transferred graphene showed high leakage current.

  12. Optical limiting properties and mechanisms of single-layer graphene dispersions in heavy-atom solvents.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lihe; Xiong, Yaobing; Si, Jinhai; Sun, Xuehui; Yi, Wenhui; Hou, Xun

    2014-12-29

    The optical limiting (OL) properties of single-layer graphene dispersions in different solvents were studied using a nanosecond pulse laser. The graphene dispersions, especially in heavy-atom solvents, showed much better OL properties compared with referenced C60-toluene solution. The dependences of OL thresholds and nonlinear scattering (NLS) intensities on the solvent surface tensions indicated that, NLS effect played an important role in the OL process of graphene dispersions, while nonlinear absorption (NLA) effect might also contribute in solvents with heavy atoms. The NLA measurements further demonstrated the contribution of NLA effect to the excellent OL property of graphene dispersions in heavy-atom solvents. PMID:25607151

  13. Atomic-scale friction modulated by potential corrugation in multi-layered graphene materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Chunqiang; Liu, Lei

    2015-03-21

    Friction is an important issue that has to be carefully treated for the fabrication of graphene-based nano-scale devices. So far, the friction mechanism of graphene materials on the atomic scale has not yet been clearly presented. Here, first-principles calculations were employed to unveil the friction behaviors and their atomic-scale mechanism. We found that potential corrugations on sliding surfaces dominate the friction force and the friction anisotropy of graphene materials. Higher friction forces correspond to larger corrugations of potential energy, which are tuned by the number of graphene layers. The friction anisotropy is determined by the regular distributions of potential energy. The sliding along a fold-line path (hollow-atop-hollow) has a relatively small potential energy barrier. Thus, the linear sliding observed in macroscopic friction experiments may probably be attributed to the fold-line sliding mode on the atomic scale. These findings can also be extended to other layer-structure materials, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) and graphene-like BN sheets.

  14. Surface diffusion coefficient of Au atoms on single layer graphene grown on Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffino, F. Cacciato, G.; Grimaldi, M. G.

    2014-02-28

    A 5 nm thick Au film was deposited on single layer graphene sheets grown on Cu. By thermal processes, the dewetting phenomenon of the Au film on the graphene was induced so to form Au nanoparticles. The mean radius, surface-to-surface distance, and surface density evolution of the nanoparticles on the graphene sheets as a function of the annealing temperature were quantified by scanning electron microscopy analyses. These quantitative data were analyzed within the classical mean-field nucleation theory so to obtain the temperature-dependent Au atoms surface diffusion coefficient on graphene: D{sub S}(T)=[(8.2±0.6)×10{sup −8}]exp[−(0.31±0.02(eV)/(at) )/kT] cm{sup 2}/s.

  15. Seeding atomic layer deposition of high-k dielectric on graphene with ultrathin poly(4-vinylphenol) layer for enhanced device performance and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheol Shin, Woo; Yong Kim, Taek; Sul, Onejae; Jin Cho, Byung

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate that ultrathin poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) acts as an effective organic seeding layer for atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-k dielectric on large-scale graphene fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). While identical ALD conditions result in incomplete and rough dielectric deposition on CVD graphene, the reactive groups provided by the PVP seeding layer yield conformal and pinhole-free dielectric films throughout the large-scale graphene. Top-gate graphene field effect transistors fabricated with the high quality, PVP-seeded Al2O3 gate dielectric show superior carrier mobility and enhanced reliability performance, which are desirable for graphene nanoelectronics.

  16. High sensitive formaldehyde graphene gas sensor modified by atomic layer deposition zinc oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, Haichuan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen; Zhao, Xiaojing; Liu, Feng

    2014-07-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with various thicknesses were fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition on Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene films and their response to formaldehyde has been investigated. It was found that 0.5 nm ZnO films modified graphene sensors showed high response to formaldehyde with the resistance change up to 52% at the concentration of 9 parts-per-million (ppm) at room temperature. Meanwhile, the detection limit could reach 180 parts-per-billion (ppb) and fast response of 36 s was also obtained. The high sensitivity could be attributed to the combining effect from the highly reactive, top mounted ZnO thin films, and high conductive graphene base network. The dependence of ZnO films surface morphology and its sensitivity on the ZnO films thickness was also investigated.

  17. Atomically Thin Heterostructures Based on Single-Layer Tungsten Diselenide and Graphene [Plus Supplemental Information

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Chih-Yuan S.; Ghosh, Ram Krishna; Li, Jie; Zhu, Hui; Addou, Rafik; Diaconescu, Bogdan; Ohta, Taisuke; Peng, Xin; Lu, Ning; Kim, Moon J.; Robinson, Jeremy T.; Wallace, Robert M.; Mayer, Theresa S.; Datta, Suman; Li, Lain-Jong; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2014-11-10

    Heterogeneous engineering of two-dimensional layered materials, including metallic graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, presents an exciting opportunity to produce highly tunable electronic and optoelectronic systems. We report the direct growth of highly crystalline, monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) on epitaxial graphene (EG). Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence confirms high-quality WSe2 monolayers; while transmission electron microscopy shows an atomically sharp interface and low energy electron diffraction confirms near perfect orientation between WSe2 and EG. Vertical transport measurements across the WSe2/EG heterostructure provides evidence that a tunnel barrier exists due to the van der Waals gap, and is supported by density functional theory that predicts a 1.6 eV barrier for transport from WSe2 to graphene.

  18. Atomically Thin Heterostructures Based on Single-Layer Tungsten Diselenide and Graphene [Plus Supplemental Information

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Chih-Yuan S.; Ghosh, Ram Krishna; Li, Jie; Zhu, Hui; Addou, Rafik; Diaconescu, Bogdan; Ohta, Taisuke; Peng, Xin; Lu, Ning; et al

    2014-11-10

    Heterogeneous engineering of two-dimensional layered materials, including metallic graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, presents an exciting opportunity to produce highly tunable electronic and optoelectronic systems. We report the direct growth of highly crystalline, monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) on epitaxial graphene (EG). Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence confirms high-quality WSe2 monolayers; while transmission electron microscopy shows an atomically sharp interface and low energy electron diffraction confirms near perfect orientation between WSe2 and EG. Vertical transport measurements across the WSe2/EG heterostructure provides evidence that a tunnel barrier exists due to the van der Waals gap, and is supported by density functional theorymore » that predicts a 1.6 eV barrier for transport from WSe2 to graphene.« less

  19. Nanopatterning and Characterization of Inorganic Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition on Silicon and Graphene Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaboson, Justice M. P.

    The research presented in this dissertation examines the incorporation, nanopatterning and characterization of atomic layer deposited (ALD) films on existing and new materials, motivated by relevance to current Si microelectronics technology and to inform future efforts beyond Si. ALD provides two key benefits. First, the atomic monolayer precision and conformal nature of ALD growth provides an ease of integration with non-planar and complex substrates, and architectures, which is found to be increasingly relevant to microelectronics and nanotechnology in general. In addition, surface templating permits spatially selective ALD growth, enabling three-dimensional surface engineering of materials. Surface templating strategies relying on atomic force microscope (AFM) nanopatterning and self-assembled monolayers are investigated. Control over ALD growth was first demonstrated on Si by tuning the surface hydroxyl concentration via hydroxylation, hydrogenation, and alkylation with organic self-assembled monolayers. The differences in ALD nucleation on these surfaces were exploited to achieve selective ALD by spatially defining hydroxyl regions via AFM field induced oxidation. Graphene, though promising as an electronic material, is highly hydrophobic and inert. Control over surface chemistry and lithographic engineering of graphene is therefore crucial for incorporation with complementary electronic materials. First, surface modification of graphene was demonstrated with conductive AFM (cAFM) nanopatterning. cAFM nanopatterning locally oxidizes epitaxial graphene, with the oxidation kinetics dependent on the surface, interface, and bulk structure of epitaxial graphene. This surface functionalization by cAFM nanopatterning enabled the selective growth of ALD ZnO. Next, non-covalent organic self- assembled monolayers was used to seed the growth of ALD high- k dielectric films on graphene, an important challenge to the realization of graphene-based field effect transistors

  20. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Electronic structure of a graphene/hexagonal-BN heterostructure grown on Ru(0001) by chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition: extrinsically doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkevig, Cameron; Mi, Zhou; Xiao, Jie; Dowben, P. A.; Wang, Lu; Mei, Wai-Ning; Kelber, Jeffry A.

    2010-08-01

    A significant BN-to-graphene charge donation is evident in the electronic structure of a graphene/h-BN(0001) heterojunction grown by chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition directly on Ru(0001), consistent with density functional theory. This filling of the lowest unoccupied state near the Brillouin zone center has been characterized by combined photoemission/k vector resolved inverse photoemission spectroscopies, and Raman and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. The unoccupied σ*(Γ1 +) band dispersion yields an effective mass of 0.05 me for graphene in the graphene/h-BN(0001) heterostructure, in spite of strong perturbations to the graphene conduction band edge placement.

  1. Atomically thin heterostructures based on single-layer tungsten diselenide and graphene.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Chih-Yuan S; Ghosh, Ram Krishna; Li, Jie; Zhu, Hui; Addou, Rafik; Diaconescu, Bogdan; Ohta, Taisuke; Peng, Xin; Lu, Ning; Kim, Moon J; Robinson, Jeremy T; Wallace, Robert M; Mayer, Theresa S; Datta, Suman; Li, Lain-Jong; Robinson, Joshua A

    2014-12-10

    Heterogeneous engineering of two-dimensional layered materials, including metallic graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, presents an exciting opportunity to produce highly tunable electronic and optoelectronic systems. In order to engineer pristine layers and their interfaces, epitaxial growth of such heterostructures is required. We report the direct growth of crystalline, monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) on epitaxial graphene (EG) grown from silicon carbide. Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning tunneling microscopy confirm high-quality WSe2 monolayers, whereas transmission electron microscopy shows an atomically sharp interface, and low energy electron diffraction confirms near perfect orientation between WSe2 and EG. Vertical transport measurements across the WSe2/EG heterostructure provides evidence that an additional barrier to carrier transport beyond the expected WSe2/EG band offset exists due to the interlayer gap, which is supported by theoretical local density of states (LDOS) calculations using self-consistent density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF). PMID:25383798

  2. Bottom-gate coplanar graphene transistors with enhanced graphene adhesion on atomic layer deposition Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dong-Wook; Mikael, Solomon; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Gong, Shaoqin; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2015-03-01

    A graphene transistor with a bottom-gate coplanar structure and an atomic layer deposition (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gate dielectric is demonstrated. Wetting properties of ALD Al2O3 under different deposition conditions are investigated by measuring the surface contact angle. It is observed that the relatively hydrophobic surface is suitable for adhesion between graphene and ALD Al2O3. To achieve hydrophobic surface of ALD Al2O3, a methyl group (CH3)-terminated deposition method has been developed and compared with a hydroxyl group (OH)-terminated deposition. Based on this approach, bottom-gate coplanar graphene field-effect transistors are fabricated and characterized. A post-thermal annealing process improves the performance of the transistors by enhancing the contacts between the source/drain metal and graphene. The fabricated transistor shows an Ion/Ioff ratio, maximum transconductance, and field-effect mobility of 4.04, 20.1 μS at VD = 0.1 V, and 249.5 cm2/V.s, respectively.

  3. Interactions between fluorescence of atomically layered graphene oxide and metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Shao-Sian; Yeh, Yun-Chieh; Yu, Chen-Chieh; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Li, Feng-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Ming; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) demonstrates interesting photoluminescence (PL) because of its unique heterogeneous atomic structure, which consists of variable sp2- and sp3-bonded carbons. In this study, we report the interaction between the luminescence of GO ranging from a single atomic layer to few-layered thin films and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The photoluminescence of GO in the vicinity of the Ag NPs is enhanced significantly due to the near-field plasmonic effect by coupling electron-hole pairs of GO with oscillating electrons in Ag NPs, leading to an increased PL intensity and a decreased PL decay lifetime. The maxima 30-fold enhancement in PL intensity is obtained with an optimized film thickness of GO, and the luminescence image from a single atomic layer GO sheet is successfully observed with the assistance of the LSPR effect. The results provide an ideal platform for exploring the interactions between the fluorescence of two-dimensional layered materials and the LSPR effect.Graphene oxide (GO) demonstrates interesting photoluminescence (PL) because of its unique heterogeneous atomic structure, which consists of variable sp2- and sp3-bonded carbons. In this study, we report the interaction between the luminescence of GO ranging from a single atomic layer to few-layered thin films and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The photoluminescence of GO in the vicinity of the Ag NPs is enhanced significantly due to the near-field plasmonic effect by coupling electron-hole pairs of GO with oscillating electrons in Ag NPs, leading to an increased PL intensity and a decreased PL decay lifetime. The maxima 30-fold enhancement in PL intensity is obtained with an optimized film thickness of GO, and the luminescence image from a single atomic layer GO sheet is successfully observed with the assistance of the LSPR effect. The results provide an ideal platform for exploring the

  4. Tuning the mechanical properties of vertical graphene sheets through atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Davami, Keivan; Jiang, Yijie; Cortes, John; Lin, Chen; Shaygan, Mehrdad; Turner, Kevin T; Bargatin, Igor

    2016-04-15

    We report the fabrication and characterization of graphene nanostructures with mechanical properties that are tuned by conformal deposition of alumina. Vertical graphene (VG) sheets, also called carbon nanowalls (CNWs), were grown on copper foil substrates using a radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) technique and conformally coated with different thicknesses of alumina (Al2O3) using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Nanoindentation was used to characterize the mechanical properties of pristine and alumina-coated VG sheets. Results show a significant increase in the effective Young's modulus of the VG sheets with increasing thickness of deposited alumina. Deposition of only a 5 nm thick alumina layer on the VG sheets nearly triples the effective Young's modulus of the VG structures. Both energy absorption and strain recovery were lower in VG sheets coated with alumina than in pure VG sheets (for the same peak force). This may be attributed to the increase in bending stiffness of the VG sheets and the creation of connections between the sheets after ALD deposition. These results demonstrate that the mechanical properties of VG sheets can be tuned over a wide range through conformal atomic layer deposition, facilitating the use of VG sheets in applications where specific mechanical properties are needed. PMID:26926386

  5. Tuning the mechanical properties of vertical graphene sheets through atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davami, Keivan; Jiang, Yijie; Cortes, John; Lin, Chen; Shaygan, Mehrdad; Turner, Kevin T.; Bargatin, Igor

    2016-04-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of graphene nanostructures with mechanical properties that are tuned by conformal deposition of alumina. Vertical graphene (VG) sheets, also called carbon nanowalls (CNWs), were grown on copper foil substrates using a radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) technique and conformally coated with different thicknesses of alumina (Al2O3) using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Nanoindentation was used to characterize the mechanical properties of pristine and alumina-coated VG sheets. Results show a significant increase in the effective Young’s modulus of the VG sheets with increasing thickness of deposited alumina. Deposition of only a 5 nm thick alumina layer on the VG sheets nearly triples the effective Young’s modulus of the VG structures. Both energy absorption and strain recovery were lower in VG sheets coated with alumina than in pure VG sheets (for the same peak force). This may be attributed to the increase in bending stiffness of the VG sheets and the creation of connections between the sheets after ALD deposition. These results demonstrate that the mechanical properties of VG sheets can be tuned over a wide range through conformal atomic layer deposition, facilitating the use of VG sheets in applications where specific mechanical properties are needed.

  6. Density Functional Theory Study of Atomic Layer Deposition of Zinc Oxide on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amgad Ahmed; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2015-12-01

    The dissociation of zinc ions (Zn(2+)) from vapor-phase zinc acetylacetonate, Zn(C5H7O2)2, or Zn(acac)2 and its adsorption onto graphene oxide via atomic layer deposition (ALD) were studied using a quantum mechanics approach. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to obtain an approximate solution to the Schrödinger equation. The graphene oxide cluster model was used to represent the surface of the graphene film after pre-oxidation. In this study, the geometries of reactants, transition states, and products were optimized using the B3LYB/6-31G** level of theory or higher. Furthermore, the relative energies of the various intermediates and products in the gas-phase radical mechanism were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G** and MP2/6-311 + G(2df,2p) levels of theory. Additionally, a molecular orbital (MO) analysis was performed for the products of the decomposition of the Zn(acac)2 complex to investigate the dissociation of Zn(2+) and the subsequent adsorption of H atoms on the C5H7O2 cluster to form acetylacetonate enol. The reaction energies were calculated, and the reaction mechanism was accordingly proposed. A simulation of infrared (IR) properties was performed using the same approach to support the proposed mechanism via a complete explanation of bond forming and breaking during each reaction step. PMID:26198282

  7. Density Functional Theory Study of Atomic Layer Deposition of Zinc Oxide on Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Amgad Ahmed; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2015-07-01

    The dissociation of zinc ions (Zn2+) from vapor-phase zinc acetylacetonate, Zn(C5H7O2)2, or Zn(acac)2 and its adsorption onto graphene oxide via atomic layer deposition (ALD) were studied using a quantum mechanics approach. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to obtain an approximate solution to the Schrödinger equation. The graphene oxide cluster model was used to represent the surface of the graphene film after pre-oxidation. In this study, the geometries of reactants, transition states, and products were optimized using the B3LYB/6-31G** level of theory or higher. Furthermore, the relative energies of the various intermediates and products in the gas-phase radical mechanism were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G** and MP2/6-311 + G(2df,2p) levels of theory. Additionally, a molecular orbital (MO) analysis was performed for the products of the decomposition of the Zn(acac)2 complex to investigate the dissociation of Zn2+ and the subsequent adsorption of H atoms on the C5H7O2 cluster to form acetylacetonate enol. The reaction energies were calculated, and the reaction mechanism was accordingly proposed. A simulation of infrared (IR) properties was performed using the same approach to support the proposed mechanism via a complete explanation of bond forming and breaking during each reaction step.

  8. Interactions between fluorescence of atomically layered graphene oxide and metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Li, Shao-Sian; Yeh, Yun-Chieh; Yu, Chen-Chieh; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Li, Feng-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Ming; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2013-02-21

    Graphene oxide (GO) demonstrates interesting photoluminescence (PL) because of its unique heterogeneous atomic structure, which consists of variable sp(2)- and sp(3)-bonded carbons. In this study, we report the interaction between the luminescence of GO ranging from a single atomic layer to few-layered thin films and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The photoluminescence of GO in the vicinity of the Ag NPs is enhanced significantly due to the near-field plasmonic effect by coupling electron-hole pairs of GO with oscillating electrons in Ag NPs, leading to an increased PL intensity and a decreased PL decay lifetime. The maxima 30-fold enhancement in PL intensity is obtained with an optimized film thickness of GO, and the luminescence image from a single atomic layer GO sheet is successfully observed with the assistance of the LSPR effect. The results provide an ideal platform for exploring the interactions between the fluorescence of two-dimensional layered materials and the LSPR effect. PMID:23340692

  9. Single-Atom Pd₁/Graphene Catalyst Achieved by Atomic Layer Deposition: Remarkable Performance in Selective Hydrogenation of 1,3-Butadiene.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huan; Cheng, Hao; Yi, Hong; Lin, Yue; Yao, Tao; Wang, Chunlei; Li, Junjie; Wei, Shiqiang; Lu, Junling

    2015-08-26

    We reported that atomically dispersed Pd on graphene can be fabricated using the atomic layer deposition technique. Aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy both confirmed that isolated Pd single atoms dominantly existed on the graphene support. In selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene, the single-atom Pd1/graphene catalyst showed about 100% butenes selectivity at 95% conversion at a mild reaction condition of about 50 °C, which is likely due to the changes of 1,3-butadiene adsorption mode and enhanced steric effect on the isolated Pd atoms. More importantly, excellent durability against deactivation via either aggregation of metal atoms or carbonaceous deposits during a total 100 h of reaction time on stream was achieved. Therefore, the single-atom catalysts may open up more opportunities to optimize the activity, selectivity, and durability in selective hydrogenation reactions. PMID:26268551

  10. Atomic-scale observation of rotational misorientation in suspended few-layer graphene sheets.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj K; Titus, Elby; Gonçalves, Gil; Marques, Paula A A P; Bdikin, Igor; Kholkin, Andrei L; Gracio, José J A

    2010-05-01

    Single or few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets offer extraordinary electronic, thermal and mechanical properties and are expected to find a variety of applications. Fully exploiting the properties of graphene will require a method for the production of high-quality graphene sheets (almost pristine graphene) in large quantities. In this regard, we report a two-step method for obtaining a homogenous colloidal suspension of single or FLG sheets up to 0.15 mg ml(-1) in N,N-dimethylformamide solution. The graphene nanostructures are directly imaged using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) operated at 200 kV with a point resolution of 0.16 nm. We observed rotational misorientation within the flake in the HRTEM images of 2, 4 and 6 layers of graphene sheets, giving rise to Moiré patterns. By filtering in the frequency domain using a Fourier transform, we reconstruct the graphene lattice of each sheet and determine the relative rotation between consecutive graphene layers up, to six separate sheets. Direct evidence is obtained for FLG sheets with packing that is different to the standard AB Bernal packing of bulk graphite. Furthermore, we observed periodic ripples in suspended graphene sheets in our TEM measurements. Electrostatic force microscopy was used to characterize the electric potential distribution on the surface of FLG sheets on SiO2/Si substrates in ambient conditions. The FLG sheets were found to exhibit a conducting nature with small potential variations on the surface. PMID:20648314

  11. Wafer-scale single-domain-like graphene by defect-selective atomic layer deposition of hexagonal ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyung Sun; Kim, Sejoon; Kim, Hongbum; Kwon, Deokhyeon; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Min, Sung-Wook; Im, Seongil; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Lim, Seulky; Shin, Hyunjung; Koo, Sang Man; Sung, Myung Mo

    2015-10-01

    Large-area graphene films produced by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are polycrystalline and thus contain numerous grain boundaries that can greatly degrade their performance and produce inhomogeneous properties. A better grain boundary engineering in CVD graphene is essential to realize the full potential of graphene in large-scale applications. Here, we report a defect-selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) for stitching grain boundaries of CVD graphene with ZnO so as to increase the connectivity between grains. In the present ALD process, ZnO with a hexagonal wurtzite structure was selectively grown mainly on the defect-rich grain boundaries to produce ZnO-stitched CVD graphene with well-connected grains. For the CVD graphene film after ZnO stitching, the inter-grain mobility is notably improved with only a little change in the free carrier density. We also demonstrate how ZnO-stitched CVD graphene can be successfully integrated into wafer-scale arrays of top-gated field-effect transistors on 4-inch Si and polymer substrates, revealing remarkable device-to-device uniformity.Large-area graphene films produced by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are polycrystalline and thus contain numerous grain boundaries that can greatly degrade their performance and produce inhomogeneous properties. A better grain boundary engineering in CVD graphene is essential to realize the full potential of graphene in large-scale applications. Here, we report a defect-selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) for stitching grain boundaries of CVD graphene with ZnO so as to increase the connectivity between grains. In the present ALD process, ZnO with a hexagonal wurtzite structure was selectively grown mainly on the defect-rich grain boundaries to produce ZnO-stitched CVD graphene with well-connected grains. For the CVD graphene film after ZnO stitching, the inter-grain mobility is notably improved with only a little change in the free carrier density. We also

  12. Seeding atomic layer deposition of high-k dielectrics on epitaxial graphene with organic self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Alaboson, Justice M P; Wang, Qing Hua; Emery, Jonathan D; Lipson, Albert L; Bedzyk, Michael J; Elam, Jeffrey W; Pellin, Michael J; Hersam, Mark C

    2011-06-28

    The development of high-performance graphene-based nanoelectronics requires the integration of ultrathin and pinhole-free high-k dielectric films with graphene at the wafer scale. Here, we demonstrate that self-assembled monolayers of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) act as effective organic seeding layers for atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO(2) and Al(2)O(3) on epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001). The PTCDA is deposited via sublimation in ultrahigh vacuum and shown to be highly ordered with low defect density by molecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy. Whereas identical ALD conditions lead to incomplete and rough dielectric deposition on bare graphene, the chemical functionality provided by the PTCDA seeding layer yields highly uniform and conformal films. The morphology and chemistry of the dielectric films are characterized by atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while high-resolution X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate that the underlying graphene remains intact following ALD. Using the PTCDA seeding layer, metal-oxide-graphene capacitors fabricated with a 3 nm Al(2)O(3) and 10 nm HfO(2) dielectric stack show high capacitance values of ∼700 nF/cm(2) and low leakage currents of ∼5 × 10(-9) A/cm(2) at 1 V applied bias. These results demonstrate the viability of sublimated organic self-assembled monolayers as seeding layers for high-k dielectric films in graphene-based nanoelectronics. PMID:21553842

  13. A non-destructive n-doping method for graphene with precise control of electronic properties via atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kyu Seok; Kalode, Pranav Y.; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Kim, Hongbum; Lee, Lynn; Sung, Myung Mo

    2016-02-01

    Graphene applications require high precision control of the Fermi level and carrier concentration via a nondestructive doping method. Here, we develop an effective n-doping technique using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO thin films on graphene through a reactive molecular layer. This ALD doping method is nondestructive, simple, and precise. The ZnO thin films on graphene are uniform, conformal, of good quality with a low density of pinholes, and finely tunable in thickness with 1 Å resolution. We demonstrate graphene transistor control in terms of the Dirac point, carrier density, and doping state as a function of the ZnO thickness. Moreover, ZnO functions as an effective thin-film barrier against air-borne water and oxygen on the graphene, resulting in extraordinary stability in air for graphene devices. ZnO ALD was also applied to other two-dimensional materials including MoS2 and WSe2, which substantially enhanced electron mobility.Graphene applications require high precision control of the Fermi level and carrier concentration via a nondestructive doping method. Here, we develop an effective n-doping technique using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO thin films on graphene through a reactive molecular layer. This ALD doping method is nondestructive, simple, and precise. The ZnO thin films on graphene are uniform, conformal, of good quality with a low density of pinholes, and finely tunable in thickness with 1 Å resolution. We demonstrate graphene transistor control in terms of the Dirac point, carrier density, and doping state as a function of the ZnO thickness. Moreover, ZnO functions as an effective thin-film barrier against air-borne water and oxygen on the graphene, resulting in extraordinary stability in air for graphene devices. ZnO ALD was also applied to other two-dimensional materials including MoS2 and WSe2, which substantially enhanced electron mobility. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08016a

  14. Probing the Structure and Chemistry of Perylenetetracarboxylic Dianhydride on Graphene Before and After Atomic Layer Deposition of Alumina

    PubMed Central

    Johns, James E.; Karmel, Hunter J.; Alaboson, Justice M. P.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    The superlative electronic properties of graphene suggest its use as the foundation of next generation integrated circuits. However, this application requires precise control of the interface between graphene and other materials, especially the metal oxides that are commonly used as gate dielectrics. Towards that end, organic seeding layers have been empirically shown to seed ultrathin dielectric growth on graphene via atomic layer deposition (ALD), although the underlying chemical mechanisms and structural details of the molecule/dielectric interface remain unknown. Here, confocal resonance Raman spectroscopy is employed to quantify the structure and chemistry of monolayers of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on graphene before and after deposition of alumina with the ALD precursors trimethyl aluminum (TMA) and water. Photoluminescence measurements provide further insight into the details of the growth mechanism, including the transition between layer-by-layer growth and island formation. Overall, these results reveal that PTCDA is not consumed during ALD, thereby preserving a well-defined and passivating organic interface between graphene and deposited dielectric thin films. PMID:22905282

  15. Probing the Structure and Chemistry of Perylenetetracarboxylic Dianhydride on Graphene Before and After Atomic Layer Deposition of Alumina.

    PubMed

    Johns, James E; Karmel, Hunter J; Alaboson, Justice M P; Hersam, Mark C

    2012-07-11

    The superlative electronic properties of graphene suggest its use as the foundation of next generation integrated circuits. However, this application requires precise control of the interface between graphene and other materials, especially the metal oxides that are commonly used as gate dielectrics. Towards that end, organic seeding layers have been empirically shown to seed ultrathin dielectric growth on graphene via atomic layer deposition (ALD), although the underlying chemical mechanisms and structural details of the molecule/dielectric interface remain unknown. Here, confocal resonance Raman spectroscopy is employed to quantify the structure and chemistry of monolayers of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on graphene before and after deposition of alumina with the ALD precursors trimethyl aluminum (TMA) and water. Photoluminescence measurements provide further insight into the details of the growth mechanism, including the transition between layer-by-layer growth and island formation. Overall, these results reveal that PTCDA is not consumed during ALD, thereby preserving a well-defined and passivating organic interface between graphene and deposited dielectric thin films. PMID:22905282

  16. Quantitative secondary electron imaging for work function extraction at atomic level and layer identification of graphene

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yangbo; Fox, Daniel S; Maguire, Pierce; O’Connell, Robert; Masters, Robert; Rodenburg, Cornelia; Wu, Hanchun; Dapor, Maurizio; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hongzhou

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials usually have a layer-dependent work function, which require fast and accurate detection for the evaluation of their device performance. A detection technique with high throughput and high spatial resolution has not yet been explored. Using a scanning electron microscope, we have developed and implemented a quantitative analytical technique which allows effective extraction of the work function of graphene. This technique uses the secondary electron contrast and has nanometre-resolved layer information. The measurement of few-layer graphene flakes shows the variation of work function between graphene layers with a precision of less than 10 meV. It is expected that this technique will prove extremely useful for researchers in a broad range of fields due to its revolutionary throughput and accuracy. PMID:26878907

  17. Quantitative secondary electron imaging for work function extraction at atomic level and layer identification of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yangbo; Fox, Daniel S.; Maguire, Pierce; O'Connell, Robert; Masters, Robert; Rodenburg, Cornelia; Wu, Hanchun; Dapor, Maurizio; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hongzhou

    2016-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials usually have a layer-dependent work function, which require fast and accurate detection for the evaluation of their device performance. A detection technique with high throughput and high spatial resolution has not yet been explored. Using a scanning electron microscope, we have developed and implemented a quantitative analytical technique which allows effective extraction of the work function of graphene. This technique uses the secondary electron contrast and has nanometre-resolved layer information. The measurement of few-layer graphene flakes shows the variation of work function between graphene layers with a precision of less than 10 meV. It is expected that this technique will prove extremely useful for researchers in a broad range of fields due to its revolutionary throughput and accuracy.

  18. Wafer-scale single-domain-like graphene by defect-selective atomic layer deposition of hexagonal ZnO.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Sun; Kim, Sejoon; Kim, Hongbum; Kwon, Deokhyeon; Lee, Yong-Eun Koo; Min, Sung-Wook; Im, Seongil; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Lim, Seulky; Shin, Hyunjung; Koo, Sang Man; Sung, Myung Mo

    2015-11-14

    Large-area graphene films produced by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are polycrystalline and thus contain numerous grain boundaries that can greatly degrade their performance and produce inhomogeneous properties. A better grain boundary engineering in CVD graphene is essential to realize the full potential of graphene in large-scale applications. Here, we report a defect-selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) for stitching grain boundaries of CVD graphene with ZnO so as to increase the connectivity between grains. In the present ALD process, ZnO with a hexagonal wurtzite structure was selectively grown mainly on the defect-rich grain boundaries to produce ZnO-stitched CVD graphene with well-connected grains. For the CVD graphene film after ZnO stitching, the inter-grain mobility is notably improved with only a little change in the free carrier density. We also demonstrate how ZnO-stitched CVD graphene can be successfully integrated into wafer-scale arrays of top-gated field-effect transistors on 4-inch Si and polymer substrates, revealing remarkable device-to-device uniformity. PMID:26452020

  19. A non-destructive n-doping method for graphene with precise control of electronic properties via atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu Seok; Kalode, Pranav Y; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Kim, Hongbum; Lee, Lynn; Sung, Myung Mo

    2016-02-25

    Graphene applications require high precision control of the Fermi level and carrier concentration via a nondestructive doping method. Here, we develop an effective n-doping technique using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO thin films on graphene through a reactive molecular layer. This ALD doping method is nondestructive, simple, and precise. The ZnO thin films on graphene are uniform, conformal, of good quality with a low density of pinholes, and finely tunable in thickness with 1 Å resolution. We demonstrate graphene transistor control in terms of the Dirac point, carrier density, and doping state as a function of the ZnO thickness. Moreover, ZnO functions as an effective thin-film barrier against air-borne water and oxygen on the graphene, resulting in extraordinary stability in air for graphene devices. ZnO ALD was also applied to other two-dimensional materials including MoS2 and WSe2, which substantially enhanced electron mobility. PMID:26864992

  20. Flexible integrated circuits and multifunctional electronics based on single atomic layers of MoS2 and graphene.

    PubMed

    Amani, Matin; Burke, Robert A; Proie, Robert M; Dubey, Madan

    2015-03-20

    Two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and its analogues, have been investigated by numerous researchers for high performance flexible and conformal electronic systems, because they offer the ultimate level of thickness scaling, atomically smooth surfaces and high crystalline quality. Here, we use layer-by-layer transfer of large area molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to demonstrate electronics on flexible polyimide (PI) substrates. On the same PI substrate, we are able to simultaneously fabricate MoS2 based logic, non-volatile memory cells with graphene floating gates, photo-detectors and MoS2 transistors with tunable source and drain contacts. We are also able to demonstrate that these flexible heterostructure devices have very high electronic performance, comparable to four point measurements taken on SiO2 substrates, with on/off ratios >10(7) and field effect mobilities as high as 16.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Additionally, the heterojunctions show high optoelectronic sensitivity and were operated as photodetectors with responsivities over 30 A W(-1). Through local gating of the individual graphene/MoS2 contacts, we are able to tune the contact resistance over the range of 322-1210 Ω mm for each contact, by modulating the graphene work function. This leads to devices with tunable and multifunctional performance that can be implemented in a conformable platform. PMID:25709100

  1. Flexible integrated circuits and multifunctional electronics based on single atomic layers of MoS2 and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, Matin; Burke, Robert A.; Proie, Robert M.; Dubey, Madan

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and its analogues, have been investigated by numerous researchers for high performance flexible and conformal electronic systems, because they offer the ultimate level of thickness scaling, atomically smooth surfaces and high crystalline quality. Here, we use layer-by-layer transfer of large area molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to demonstrate electronics on flexible polyimide (PI) substrates. On the same PI substrate, we are able to simultaneously fabricate MoS2 based logic, non-volatile memory cells with graphene floating gates, photo-detectors and MoS2 transistors with tunable source and drain contacts. We are also able to demonstrate that these flexible heterostructure devices have very high electronic performance, comparable to four point measurements taken on SiO2 substrates, with on/off ratios >107 and field effect mobilities as high as 16.4 cm2 V-1 s-1. Additionally, the heterojunctions show high optoelectronic sensitivity and were operated as photodetectors with responsivities over 30 A W-1. Through local gating of the individual graphene/MoS2 contacts, we are able to tune the contact resistance over the range of 322-1210 Ω mm for each contact, by modulating the graphene work function. This leads to devices with tunable and multifunctional performance that can be implemented in a conformable platform.

  2. Topography, complex refractive index, and conductivity of graphene layers measured by correlation of optical interference contrast, atomic force, and back scattered electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Vaupel, Matthias Dutschke, Anke; Wurstbauer, Ulrich; Pasupathy, Abhay; Hitzel, Frank

    2013-11-14

    The optical phase shift by reflection on graphene is measured by interference contrast microscopy. The height profile across graphene layers on 300 nm thick SiO{sub 2} on silicon is derived from the phase profile. The complex refractive index and conductivity of graphene layers on silicon with 2 nm thin SiO{sub 2} are evaluated from a phase profile, while the height profile of the layers is measured by atomic force microscopy. It is observed that the conductivity measured on thin SiO{sub 2} is significantly greater than on thick SiO{sub 2}. Back scattered electron contrast of graphene layers is correlated to the height of graphene layers.

  3. Atom-scale covalent electrochemical modification of single-layer graphene on SiC substrates by diaryliodonium salts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gearba, Raluca I.; Mueller, Kory M.; Veneman, Peter A.; Holliday, Bradley J.; Chan, Calvin K.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2015-05-09

    Owing to its high conductivity, graphene holds promise as an electrode for energy devices such as batteries and photovoltaics. However, to this end, the work function and doping levels in graphene need to be precisely tuned. One promising route for modifying graphene’s electronic properties is via controlled covalent electrochemical grafting of molecules. We show that by employing diaryliodonium salts instead of the commonly used diazonium salts, spontaneous functionalization is avoided. This then allows for precise tuning of the grafting density. Moreover, by employing bis(4-nitrophenyl)iodonium(III) tetrafluoroborate (DNP) salt calibration curves, the surface functionalization density (coverage) of glassy carbon was controlled usingmore » cyclic voltammetry in varying salt concentrations. These electro-grafting conditions and calibration curves translated directly over to modifying single layer epitaxial graphene substrates (grown on insulating 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1)). In addition to quantifying the functionalization densities using electrochemical methods, samples with low grafting densities were characterized by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM). We show that the use of buffer-layer free graphene substrates is required for clear observation of the nitrophenyl modifications. Furthermore, atomically-resolved STM images of single site modifications were obtained, showing no preferential grafting at defect sites or SiC step edges as supposed previously in the literature. Most of the grafts exhibit threefold symmetry, but occasional extended modifications (larger than 4 nm) were observed as well.« less

  4. Atom-scale covalent electrochemical modification of single-layer graphene on SiC substrates by diaryliodonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Gearba, Raluca I.; Mueller, Kory M.; Veneman, Peter A.; Holliday, Bradley J.; Chan, Calvin K.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2015-05-09

    Owing to its high conductivity, graphene holds promise as an electrode for energy devices such as batteries and photovoltaics. However, to this end, the work function and doping levels in graphene need to be precisely tuned. One promising route for modifying graphene’s electronic properties is via controlled covalent electrochemical grafting of molecules. We show that by employing diaryliodonium salts instead of the commonly used diazonium salts, spontaneous functionalization is avoided. This then allows for precise tuning of the grafting density. Moreover, by employing bis(4-nitrophenyl)iodonium(III) tetrafluoroborate (DNP) salt calibration curves, the surface functionalization density (coverage) of glassy carbon was controlled using cyclic voltammetry in varying salt concentrations. These electro-grafting conditions and calibration curves translated directly over to modifying single layer epitaxial graphene substrates (grown on insulating 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1)). In addition to quantifying the functionalization densities using electrochemical methods, samples with low grafting densities were characterized by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM). We show that the use of buffer-layer free graphene substrates is required for clear observation of the nitrophenyl modifications. Furthermore, atomically-resolved STM images of single site modifications were obtained, showing no preferential grafting at defect sites or SiC step edges as supposed previously in the literature. Most of the grafts exhibit threefold symmetry, but occasional extended modifications (larger than 4 nm) were observed as well.

  5. Enhanced Breakdown Reliability and Spatial Uniformity of Atomic Layer Deposited High-k Gate Dielectrics on Graphene via Organic Seeding Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangwan, Vinod; Jariwala, Deep; Filippone, Stephen; Karmel, Hunter; Johns, James; Alaboson, Justice; Marks, Tobin; Lauhon, Lincoln; Hersam, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Ultra-thin high- κ top-gate dielectrics are essential for high-speed graphene-based nanoelectronic circuits. Motivated by the need for high reliability and spatial uniformity, we report here the first statistical analysis of the breakdown characteristics of dielectrics grown on graphene. Based on these measurements, a rational approach is devised that simultaneously optimizes the gate capacitance and the key parameters of large-area uniformity and dielectric strength. In particular, vertically heterogeneous oxide stacks grown via atomic-layer deposition (ALD) seeded by a molecularly thin perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) organic monolayer result in improved reliability (Weibull shape parameter β > 25) compared to the control dielectric directly grown on graphene without PTCDA (β < 1). The optimized sample also showed a large breakdown strength (Weibull scale parameter, EBD > 7 MV/cm) that is comparable to that of the control dielectric grown on Si substrates.

  6. Bottom-gate coplanar graphene transistors with enhanced graphene adhesion on atomic layer deposition Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Dong-Wook; Mikael, Solomon; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Ma, Zhenqiang; Gong, Shaoqin

    2015-03-09

    A graphene transistor with a bottom-gate coplanar structure and an atomic layer deposition (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) gate dielectric is demonstrated. Wetting properties of ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under different deposition conditions are investigated by measuring the surface contact angle. It is observed that the relatively hydrophobic surface is suitable for adhesion between graphene and ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. To achieve hydrophobic surface of ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, a methyl group (CH{sub 3})-terminated deposition method has been developed and compared with a hydroxyl group (OH)-terminated deposition. Based on this approach, bottom-gate coplanar graphene field-effect transistors are fabricated and characterized. A post-thermal annealing process improves the performance of the transistors by enhancing the contacts between the source/drain metal and graphene. The fabricated transistor shows an I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio, maximum transconductance, and field-effect mobility of 4.04, 20.1 μS at V{sub D} = 0.1 V, and 249.5 cm{sup 2}/V·s, respectively.

  7. Vertically Oriented Growth of GaN Nanorods on Si Using Graphene as an Atomically Thin Buffer Layer.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Martin; Munshi, A Mazid; Sarau, George; Göbelt, Manuela; Tessarek, Christian; Fauske, Vidar T; van Helvoort, Antonius T J; Yang, Jianfeng; Latzel, Michael; Hoffmann, Björn; Conibeer, Gavin; Weman, Helge; Christiansen, Silke

    2016-06-01

    The monolithic integration of wurtzite GaN on Si via metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy is strongly hampered by lattice and thermal mismatch as well as meltback etching. This study presents single-layer graphene as an atomically thin buffer layer for c-axis-oriented growth of vertically aligned GaN nanorods mediated by nanometer-sized AlGaN nucleation islands. Nanostructures of similar morphology are demonstrated on graphene-covered Si(111) as well as Si(100). High crystal and optical quality of the nanorods are evidenced through scanning transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman, and cathodoluminescence measurements supported by finite-difference time-domain simulations. Current-voltage characteristics revealed high vertical conduction of the as-grown GaN nanorods through the Si substrates. These findings are substantial to advance the integration of GaN-based devices on any substrates of choice that sustains the GaN growth temperatures, thereby permitting novel designs of GaN-based heterojunction device concepts. PMID:27124605

  8. Thickness scaling of atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 films and their application to wafer-scale graphene tunnelling transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seong-Jun; Gu, Yeahyun; Heo, Jinseong; Yang, Jaehyun; Lee, Chang-Seok; Lee, Min-Hyun; Lee, Yunseong; Kim, Hyoungsub; Park, Seongjun; Hwang, Sungwoo

    2016-02-01

    The downscaling of the capacitance equivalent oxide thickness (CET) of a gate dielectric film with a high dielectric constant, such as atomic layer deposited (ALD) HfO2, is a fundamental challenge in achieving high-performance graphene-based transistors with a low gate leakage current. Here, we assess the application of various surface modification methods on monolayer graphene sheets grown by chemical vapour deposition to obtain a uniform and pinhole-free ALD HfO2 film with a substantially small CET at a wafer scale. The effects of various surface modifications, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone treatment and introduction of sputtered ZnO and e-beam-evaporated Hf seed layers on monolayer graphene, and the subsequent HfO2 film formation under identical ALD process parameters were systematically evaluated. The nucleation layer provided by the Hf seed layer (which transforms to the HfO2 layer during ALD) resulted in the uniform and conformal deposition of the HfO2 film without damaging the graphene, which is suitable for downscaling the CET. After verifying the feasibility of scaling down the HfO2 thickness to achieve a CET of ~1.5 nm from an array of top-gated metal-oxide-graphene field-effect transistors, we fabricated graphene heterojunction tunnelling transistors with a record-low subthreshold swing value of <60 mV/dec on an 8″ glass wafer.

  9. Thickness scaling of atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 films and their application to wafer-scale graphene tunnelling transistors

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seong-Jun; Gu, Yeahyun; Heo, Jinseong; Yang, Jaehyun; Lee, Chang-Seok; Lee, Min-Hyun; Lee, Yunseong; Kim, Hyoungsub; Park, Seongjun; Hwang, Sungwoo

    2016-01-01

    The downscaling of the capacitance equivalent oxide thickness (CET) of a gate dielectric film with a high dielectric constant, such as atomic layer deposited (ALD) HfO2, is a fundamental challenge in achieving high-performance graphene-based transistors with a low gate leakage current. Here, we assess the application of various surface modification methods on monolayer graphene sheets grown by chemical vapour deposition to obtain a uniform and pinhole-free ALD HfO2 film with a substantially small CET at a wafer scale. The effects of various surface modifications, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone treatment and introduction of sputtered ZnO and e-beam-evaporated Hf seed layers on monolayer graphene, and the subsequent HfO2 film formation under identical ALD process parameters were systematically evaluated. The nucleation layer provided by the Hf seed layer (which transforms to the HfO2 layer during ALD) resulted in the uniform and conformal deposition of the HfO2 film without damaging the graphene, which is suitable for downscaling the CET. After verifying the feasibility of scaling down the HfO2 thickness to achieve a CET of ~1.5 nm from an array of top-gated metal-oxide-graphene field-effect transistors, we fabricated graphene heterojunction tunnelling transistors with a record-low subthreshold swing value of <60 mV/dec on an 8″ glass wafer. PMID:26861833

  10. Thickness scaling of atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 films and their application to wafer-scale graphene tunnelling transistors.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong-Jun; Gu, Yeahyun; Heo, Jinseong; Yang, Jaehyun; Lee, Chang-Seok; Lee, Min-Hyun; Lee, Yunseong; Kim, Hyoungsub; Park, Seongjun; Hwang, Sungwoo

    2016-01-01

    The downscaling of the capacitance equivalent oxide thickness (CET) of a gate dielectric film with a high dielectric constant, such as atomic layer deposited (ALD) HfO2, is a fundamental challenge in achieving high-performance graphene-based transistors with a low gate leakage current. Here, we assess the application of various surface modification methods on monolayer graphene sheets grown by chemical vapour deposition to obtain a uniform and pinhole-free ALD HfO2 film with a substantially small CET at a wafer scale. The effects of various surface modifications, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone treatment and introduction of sputtered ZnO and e-beam-evaporated Hf seed layers on monolayer graphene, and the subsequent HfO2 film formation under identical ALD process parameters were systematically evaluated. The nucleation layer provided by the Hf seed layer (which transforms to the HfO2 layer during ALD) resulted in the uniform and conformal deposition of the HfO2 film without damaging the graphene, which is suitable for downscaling the CET. After verifying the feasibility of scaling down the HfO2 thickness to achieve a CET of ~1.5 nm from an array of top-gated metal-oxide-graphene field-effect transistors, we fabricated graphene heterojunction tunnelling transistors with a record-low subthreshold swing value of <60 mV/dec on an 8" glass wafer. PMID:26861833

  11. Discrete Atomic Layers at the Molecular Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorimitsu, Hideki; Bhanuchandra, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we deal with the syntheses of large discrete atomic layers at the molecular level. Spectroscopic measurements as well as X-ray crystallographic analyses lead to unambiguous characterizations of these layers. The molecular atomic layers can be considered to be parts of graphenes and related atomic layers, thereby helping to understand such indefinitely huge atomic layers or serving as seeds for the controlled synthesis of nanocarbons.

  12. Dispersion coefficients for the interactions of the alkali-metal and alkaline-earth-metal ions and inert-gas atoms with a graphene layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Arora, Bindiya; Sahoo, B. K.

    2015-09-01

    Largely motivated by a number of applications, the van der Waals dispersion coefficients C3 of the alkali-metal ions Li+,Na+,K+, and Rb+, the alkaline-earth-metal ions Ca+,Sr+,Ba+, and Ra+, and the inert-gas atoms He, Ne, Ar, and Kr with a graphene layer are determined precisely within the framework of the Dirac model. For these calculations, we evaluate the dynamic polarizabilities of the above atomic systems very accurately by evaluating the transition matrix elements employing relativistic many-body methods and using the experimental values of the excitation energies. The dispersion coefficients are given as functions of the separation distance of an atomic system from the graphene layer and the ambiance temperature during the interactions. For easy extraction of these coefficients, we give a logistic fit to the functional forms of the dispersion coefficients in terms of the separation distances at room temperature.

  13. Controlled direct growth of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films on graphene by H2O-based atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li; Cheng, Xinhong; Yu, Yuehui; Xie, Yahong; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Zhongjian

    2015-02-01

    Graphene has been drawing worldwide attention since its discovery in 2004. In order to realize graphene-based devices, thin, uniform-coverage and pinhole-free dielectric films with high permittivity on top of graphene are required. Here we report the direct growth of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films onto graphene by H2O-based atom layer deposition (ALD). Al2O3-onto-HfO2 stacks benefited the doping of Al2O3 into HfO2 matrices more than HfO2-onto-Al2O3 stacks did due to the micro-molecular property of Al2O3 and the high chemical activity of trimethylaluminum (TMA). Al2O3 acted as a network modifier, maintained the amorphous structure of the film even to 800 °C, and made the film smooth with a root mean square (RMS) roughness of 0.8 nm, comparable to the surface of pristine graphene. The capacitance and the relative permittivity of Al2O3-onto-HfO2 stacks were up to 1.18 μF cm(-2) and 12, respectively, indicating the high quality of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films on graphene. Moreover, the growth process of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films introduced no detective defects into graphene confirmed by Raman measurements. PMID:25519447

  14. Dual-protection of a graphene-sulfur composite by a compact graphene skin and an atomic layer deposited oxide coating for a lithium-sulfur battery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingpeng; Wang, Aiji; Tian, Fuyang; Song, Hongquan; Wang, Yinshu; Li, Chun; Hong, Jong-Dal; Shi, Gaoquan

    2015-03-12

    A reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-sulfur composite aerogel with a compact self-assembled rGO skin was further modified by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO or MgO layer, and used as a free-standing electrode material of a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. The rGO skin and ALD-oxide coating worked as natural and artificial barriers to constrain the polysulfides within the cathode region. As a result, the Li-S battery based on this electrode material exhibited superior cycling stability, good rate capability and high coulombic efficiency. Furthermore, ALD-ZnO coating was tested for performance improvement and found to be more effective than ALD-MgO coating. The ZnO modified G-S electrode with 55 wt% sulfur loading delivered a maximum discharge capacity of 998 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 0.2 C. A high capacity of 846 mA h g(-1) was achieved after charging/discharging for 100 cycles with a coulombic efficiency of over 92%. In the case of using LiNO3 as a shuttle inhibitor, this electrode showed an initial discharge capacity of 796 mA h g(-1) and a capacity retention of 81% after 250 cycles at a current density of 1 C with an average coulombic efficiency higher than 99.7%. PMID:25721407

  15. Molecular memory with atomically smooth graphene contacts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report the use of bilayer graphene as an atomically smooth contact for nanoscale devices. A two-terminal bucky-ball (C60) based molecular memory is fabricated with bilayer graphene as a contact on the polycrystalline nickel electrode. Graphene provides an atomically smooth covering over an otherwise rough metal surface. The use of graphene additionally prohibits the electromigration of nickel into the C60 layer. The devices exhibit a low-resistance state in the first sweep cycle and irreversibly switch to a high-resistance state at 0.8 to 1.2 V bias. In the subsequent cycles, the devices retain the high-resistance state, thus making it write-once read-many memory. PMID:24225345

  16. Dual-protection of a graphene-sulfur composite by a compact graphene skin and an atomic layer deposited oxide coating for a lithium-sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mingpeng; Wang, Aiji; Tian, Fuyang; Song, Hongquan; Wang, Yinshu; Li, Chun; Hong, Jong-Dal; Shi, Gaoquan

    2015-03-01

    A reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-sulfur composite aerogel with a compact self-assembled rGO skin was further modified by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO or MgO layer, and used as a free-standing electrode material of a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. The rGO skin and ALD-oxide coating worked as natural and artificial barriers to constrain the polysulfides within the cathode region. As a result, the Li-S battery based on this electrode material exhibited superior cycling stability, good rate capability and high coulombic efficiency. Furthermore, ALD-ZnO coating was tested for performance improvement and found to be more effective than ALD-MgO coating. The ZnO modified G-S electrode with 55 wt% sulfur loading delivered a maximum discharge capacity of 998 mA h g-1 at a current density of 0.2 C. A high capacity of 846 mA h g-1 was achieved after charging/discharging for 100 cycles with a coulombic efficiency of over 92%. In the case of using LiNO3 as a shuttle inhibitor, this electrode showed an initial discharge capacity of 796 mA h g-1 and a capacity retention of 81% after 250 cycles at a current density of 1 C with an average coulombic efficiency higher than 99.7%.A reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-sulfur composite aerogel with a compact self-assembled rGO skin was further modified by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO or MgO layer, and used as a free-standing electrode material of a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. The rGO skin and ALD-oxide coating worked as natural and artificial barriers to constrain the polysulfides within the cathode region. As a result, the Li-S battery based on this electrode material exhibited superior cycling stability, good rate capability and high coulombic efficiency. Furthermore, ALD-ZnO coating was tested for performance improvement and found to be more effective than ALD-MgO coating. The ZnO modified G-S electrode with 55 wt% sulfur loading delivered a maximum discharge capacity of 998 mA h g-1 at a current density of 0.2 C. A

  17. In situ imaging and control of layer-by-layer femtosecond laser thinning of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. W.; Zhou, Y. S.; Huang, X.; Jiang, L.; Silvain, J.-F.; Lu, Y. F.

    2015-02-01

    Although existing methods (chemical vapor deposition, mechanical exfoliation, etc.) are available to produce graphene, the lack of thickness control limits further graphene applications. In this study, we demonstrate an approach to precisely thin graphene films to a specific thickness using femtosecond (fs) laser raster scanning. By using appropriate laser fluence and scanning times, graphene thinning with an atomic layer precision, namely layer-by-layer graphene removal, has been realized. The fs laser used was configured in a four-wave mixing (FWM) system which can be used to distinguish graphene layer thickness and count the number of layers using the linear relationship between the FWM signal intensity and the graphene thickness. Furthermore, FWM imaging has been successfully applied to achieve in situ, real-time monitoring of the fs laser graphene thinning process. This method can not only realize the large-scale thinning of graphene with atomic layer precision, but also provide in situ, rapid imaging capability of graphene for an accurate assessment of the number of layers.Although existing methods (chemical vapor deposition, mechanical exfoliation, etc.) are available to produce graphene, the lack of thickness control limits further graphene applications. In this study, we demonstrate an approach to precisely thin graphene films to a specific thickness using femtosecond (fs) laser raster scanning. By using appropriate laser fluence and scanning times, graphene thinning with an atomic layer precision, namely layer-by-layer graphene removal, has been realized. The fs laser used was configured in a four-wave mixing (FWM) system which can be used to distinguish graphene layer thickness and count the number of layers using the linear relationship between the FWM signal intensity and the graphene thickness. Furthermore, FWM imaging has been successfully applied to achieve in situ, real-time monitoring of the fs laser graphene thinning process. This method can not

  18. Atomic covalent functionalization of graphene.

    PubMed

    Johns, James E; Hersam, Mark C

    2013-01-15

    Although graphene's physical structure is a single atom thick, two-dimensional, hexagonal crystal of sp(2) bonded carbon, this simple description belies the myriad interesting and complex physical properties attributed to this fascinating material. Because of its unusual electronic structure and superlative properties, graphene serves as a leading candidate for many next generation technologies including high frequency electronics, broadband photodetectors, biological and gas sensors, and transparent conductive coatings. Despite this promise, researchers could apply graphene more routinely in real-world technologies if they could chemically adjust graphene's electronic properties. For example, the covalent modification of graphene to create a band gap comparable to silicon (∼1 eV) would enable its use in digital electronics, and larger band gaps would provide new opportunities for graphene-based photonics. Toward this end, researchers have focused considerable effort on the chemical functionalization of graphene. Due to its high thermodynamic stability and chemical inertness, new methods and techniques are required to create covalent bonds without promoting undesirable side reactions or irreversible damage to the underlying carbon lattice. In this Account, we review and discuss recent theoretical and experimental work studying covalent modifications to graphene using gas phase atomic radicals. Atomic radicals have sufficient energy to overcome the kinetic and thermodynamic barriers associated with covalent reactions on the basal plane of graphene but lack the energy required to break the C-C sigma bonds that would destroy the carbon lattice. Furthermore, because they are atomic species, radicals substantially reduce the likelihood of unwanted side reactions that confound other covalent chemistries. Overall, these methods based on atomic radicals show promise for the homogeneous functionalization of graphene and the production of new classes of two

  19. Ultimate permeation across atomically thin porous graphene.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Kemal; Buchheim, Jakob; Wyss, Roman M; Droudian, Amirhossein; Gasser, Patrick; Shorubalko, Ivan; Kye, Jeong-Il; Lee, Changho; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2014-04-18

    A two-dimensional (2D) porous layer can make an ideal membrane for separation of chemical mixtures because its infinitesimal thickness promises ultimate permeation. Graphene--with great mechanical strength, chemical stability, and inherent impermeability--offers a unique 2D system with which to realize this membrane and study the mass transport, if perforated precisely. We report highly efficient mass transfer across physically perforated double-layer graphene, having up to a few million pores with narrowly distributed diameters between less than 10 nanometers and 1 micrometer. The measured transport rates are in agreement with predictions of 2D transport theories. Attributed to its atomic thicknesses, these porous graphene membranes show permeances of gas, liquid, and water vapor far in excess of those shown by finite-thickness membranes, highlighting the ultimate permeation these 2D membranes can provide. PMID:24744372

  20. Atomic Covalent Functionalization of Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Johns, James E.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    Conspectus Although graphene’s physical structure is a single atom thick, two-dimensional, hexagonal crystal of sp2 bonded carbon, this simple description belies the myriad interesting and complex physical properties attributed to this fascinating material. Because of its unusual electronic structure and superlative properties, graphene serves as a leading candidate for many next generation technologies including high frequency electronics, broadband photodetectors, biological and gas sensors, and transparent conductive coatings. Despite this promise, researchers could apply graphene more routinely in real-world technologies if they could chemically adjust graphene’s electronic properties. For example, the covalent modification of graphene to create a band gap comparable to silicon (~1 eV) would enable its use in digital electronics, and larger band gaps would provide new opportunities for graphene-based photonics. Towards this end, researchers have focused considerable effort on the chemical functionalization of graphene. Due to its high thermodynamic stability and chemical inertness, new methods and techniques are required to create covalent bonds without promoting undesirable side reactions or irreversible damage to the underlying carbon lattice. In this Account, we review and discuss recent theoretical and experimental work studying covalent modifications to graphene using gas phase atomic radicals. Atomic radicals have sufficient energy to overcome the kinetic and thermodynamic barriers associated with covalent reactions on the basal plane of graphene but lack the energy required to break the C-C sigma bonds that would destroy the carbon lattice. Furthermore, because they are atomic species, radicals substantially reduce the likelihood of unwanted side reactions that confound other covalent chemistries. Overall, these methods based on atomic radicals show promise for the homogeneous functionalization of graphene and the production of new classes of two

  1. Atomic Layer Epitaxy of h-BN(0001) Multilayers on Co(0001) and Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of Graphene on h-BN(0001)/Co(0001).

    PubMed

    Driver, M Sky; Beatty, John D; Olanipekun, Opeyemi; Reid, Kimberly; Rath, Ashutosh; Voyles, Paul M; Kelber, Jeffry A

    2016-03-22

    The direct growth of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) by industrially scalable methods is of broad interest for spintronic and nanoelectronic device applications. Such applications often require atomically precise control of film thickness and azimuthal registry between layers and substrate. We report the formation, by atomic layer epitaxy (ALE), of multilayer h-BN(0001) films (up to 7 monolayers) on Co(0001). The ALE process employs BCl3/NH3 cycles at 600 K substrate temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) data show that this process yields an increase in h-BN average film thickness linearly proportional to the number of BCl3/NH3 cycles, with BN layers in azimuthal registry with each other and with the Co(0001) substrate. LEED diffraction spot profile data indicate an average BN domain size of at least 1900 Å. Optical microscopy data indicate the presence of some domains as large as ∼20 μm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ambient exposure studies demonstrate macroscopic and microscopic continuity of the h-BN film, with the h-BN film highly conformal to the Co substrate. Photoemission data show that the h-BN(0001) film is p-type, with band bending near the Co/h-BN interface. Growth of graphene by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is observed on the surface of multilayer h-BN(0001) at temperatures of 800 K. LEED data indicate azimuthal graphene alignment with the h-BN and Co(0001) lattices, with domain size similar to BN. The evidence of multilayer BN and graphene azimuthal alignment with the lattice of the Co(0001) substrate demonstrates that this procedure is suitable for scalable production of heterojunctions for spintronic applications. PMID:26940024

  2. Electrochemistry at Edge of Single Graphene Layer in a Nanopore

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Shouvik; Shim, Jiwook; Rivera, Jose; Jin, Xiaozhong; Estrada, David; Solovyeva, Vita; You, Xiuque; Pak, James; Pop, Eric; Aluru, Narayana; Bashir, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the electrochemistry of single layer graphene edges using a nanopore-based structure consisting of stacked graphene and Al2O3 dielectric layers. Nanopores, with diameters ranging from 5 to 20 nm, are formed by an electron beam sculpting process on the stacked layers. This leads to unique edge structure which, along with the atomically thin nature of the embedded graphene electrode, demonstrates electrochemical current densities as high as 1.2 × 104 A/cm2. The graphene edge embedded structure offers a unique capability to study the electrochemical exchange at an individual graphene edge, isolated from the basal plane electrochemical activity. We also report ionic current modulation in the nanopore by biasing the embedded graphene terminal with respect to the electrodes in the fluid. The high electrochemical specific current density for a graphene nanopore-based device can have many applications in sensitive chemical and biological sensing, and energy storage devices. PMID:23249127

  3. Intercalation of graphene on iridium with samarium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanas'eva, E. Yu.; Rut'kov, E. V.; Gall, N. R.

    2016-07-01

    Intercalation of graphene on Ir (111) with Sm atoms is studied by methods of thermal desorption spectroscopy and thermionic emission. It is shown that adsorption of samarium at T = 300 K on graphene to concentrations of N ≤ 6 × 1014 atoms cm-2 followed by heating of the substrate leads to practically complete escape of adsorbate underneath the graphene layer. At N > 6 × 1014 atoms cm-2 and increasing temperature, a fraction of adsorbate remains on graphene in the form of two-dimensional "gas" and samarium islands and are desorbed in the range of temperatures of 1000-1200 K. Samarium remaining under the graphene is desorbed from the surface in the temperature range 1200-2150 K. Model conceptions for the samarium-graphene-iridium system in a wide temperature range are developed.

  4. Burning Graphene Layer-by-Layer

    PubMed Central

    Ermakov, Victor A.; Alaferdov, Andrei V.; Vaz, Alfredo R.; Perim, Eric; Autreto, Pedro A. S.; Paupitz, Ricardo; Galvao, Douglas S.; Moshkalev, Stanislav A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, in single layer or multi-layer forms, holds great promise for future electronics and high-temperature applications. Resistance to oxidation, an important property for high-temperature applications, has not yet been extensively investigated. Controlled thinning of multi-layer graphene (MLG), e.g., by plasma or laser processing is another challenge, since the existing methods produce non-uniform thinning or introduce undesirable defects in the basal plane. We report here that heating to extremely high temperatures (exceeding 2000 K) and controllable layer-by-layer burning (thinning) can be achieved by low-power laser processing of suspended high-quality MLG in air in “cold-wall” reactor configuration. In contrast, localized laser heating of supported samples results in non-uniform graphene burning at much higher rates. Fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were also performed to reveal details of oxidation mechanisms leading to uniform layer-by-layer graphene gasification. The extraordinary resistance of MLG to oxidation paves the way to novel high-temperature applications as continuum light source or scaffolding material. PMID:26100466

  5. Burning Graphene Layer-by-Layer.

    PubMed

    Ermakov, Victor A; Alaferdov, Andrei V; Vaz, Alfredo R; Perim, Eric; Autreto, Pedro A S; Paupitz, Ricardo; Galvao, Douglas S; Moshkalev, Stanislav A

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, in single layer or multi-layer forms, holds great promise for future electronics and high-temperature applications. Resistance to oxidation, an important property for high-temperature applications, has not yet been extensively investigated. Controlled thinning of multi-layer graphene (MLG), e.g., by plasma or laser processing is another challenge, since the existing methods produce non-uniform thinning or introduce undesirable defects in the basal plane. We report here that heating to extremely high temperatures (exceeding 2000 K) and controllable layer-by-layer burning (thinning) can be achieved by low-power laser processing of suspended high-quality MLG in air in "cold-wall" reactor configuration. In contrast, localized laser heating of supported samples results in non-uniform graphene burning at much higher rates. Fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were also performed to reveal details of oxidation mechanisms leading to uniform layer-by-layer graphene gasification. The extraordinary resistance of MLG to oxidation paves the way to novel high-temperature applications as continuum light source or scaffolding material. PMID:26100466

  6. Fe-catalyzed etching of graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guangjun; Calizo, Irene; Hight Walker, Angela; PML, NIST Team

    We investigate the Fe-catalyzed etching of graphene layers in forming gas. Fe thin films are deposited by sputtering onto mechanically exfoliated graphene, few-layer graphene (FLG), and graphite flakes on a Si/SiO2 substrate. When the sample is rapidly annealed in forming gas, particles are produced due to the dewetting of the Fe thin film and those particles catalyze the etching of graphene layers. Monolayer graphene and FLG regions are severely damaged and that the particles catalytically etch channels in graphite. No etching is observed on graphite for the Fe thin film annealed in nitrogen. The critical role of hydrogen indicates that this graphite etching process is catalyzed by Fe particles through the carbon hydrogenation reaction. By comparing with the etched monolayer and FLG observed for the Fe film annealed in nitrogen, our Raman spectroscopy measurements identify that, in forming gas, the catalytic etching of monolayer and FLG is through carbon hydrogenation. During this process, Fe particles are catalytically active in the dissociation of hydrogen into hydrogen atoms and in the production of hydrogenated amorphous carbon through hydrogen spillover.

  7. Detection of gas atoms via vibration of graphenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, Behrouz; Wang, Quan; Duan, Wen Hui

    2011-06-01

    The application of single-layered graphene sheets as mass sensors in detection of noble gases via a vibration analysis of graphenes is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. An index based on frequency shifts of the graphenes attached by the distinct noble gas atoms is defined and examined to measure the sensitivity of the sensors. The dependence of number and location of gas atoms, size of graphene sheets, and type of restrained boundary of the sheets on the sensitivity is particularly studied. The simulation results indicate the resolution of a mass sensor made of a square graphene sheet with a size of 10 nm can achieve an order of 10 femtograms and the mass sensitivity can be enhanced with a decrease in sizes of graphenes.

  8. Nano-soldering to single atomic layer

    DOEpatents

    Girit, Caglar O.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2011-10-11

    A simple technique to solder submicron sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures has been disclosed. The technique has several advantages over standard electron beam lithography methods, which are complex, costly, and can contaminate samples. To demonstrate the soldering technique graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, has been contacted, and low- and high-field electronic transport properties have been measured.

  9. Determination of graphene layer thickness using optical image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Monica; Mani, R. G.

    2015-03-01

    Graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon arranged in a hexagonal lattice structure, is a valuable material in a wide range of research. A significant impediment to graphene research is the need to manually characterize the thickness of high-quality graphene produced via mechanical exfoliation. Traditional methods of characterizing the layer thickness of graphene, including Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, require expensive equipment and can be damaging to the graphene sample. We examine here a known alternative method for quantitatively determining the layer thickness of graphene on SiO2/Si based on optical image processing, which is quick, inexpensive, and non-invasive. Using RGB images of a candidate graphene sample and a background image, taken with a simple optical microscope and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, we process the images with an algorithm based on Fresnel's law to obtain the contrast spectrum. Each layer of graphene exhibits a unique contrast spectrum for its particular substrate, which is measured and used for accurate layer identification. We also discuss how this algorithm can be generalized to characterize the thickness of other promising two-dimensional materials as well as more complex structures on a variety of substrates.

  10. EDITORIAL: Atomic layer deposition Atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Marek

    2012-07-01

    The growth method of atomic layer deposition (ALD) was introduced in Finland by Suntola under the name of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). The method was originally used for deposition of thin films of sulphides (ZnS, CaS, SrS) activated with manganese or rare-earth ions. Such films were grown for applications in thin-film electroluminescence (TFEL) displays. The ALE mode of growth was also tested in the case of molecular beam epitaxy. Films grown by ALD are commonly polycrystalline or even amorphous. Thus, the name ALE has been replaced by ALD. In the 80s ALD was developed mostly in Finland and neighboring Baltic countries. Deposition of a range of different materials was demonstrated at that time, including II-VI semiconductors (e.g. CdTe, CdS) and III-V (e.g. GaAs, GaN), with possible applications in e.g. photovoltaics. The number of publications on ALD was slowly increasing, approaching about 100 each year. A real boom in interest came with the development of deposition methods of thin films of high-k dielectrics. This research was motivated by a high leakage current in field-effect transistors with SiO2-based gate dielectrics. In 2007 Intel introduced a new generation of integrated circuits (ICs) with thin films of HfO2 used as gate isolating layers. In these and subsequent ICs, films of HfO2 are deposited by the ALD method. This is due to their unique properties. The introduction of ALD to the electronics industry led to a booming interest in the ALD growth method, with the number of publications increasing rapidly to well above 1000 each year. A number of new applications were proposed, as reflected in this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology. The included articles cover a wide range of possible applications—in microelectronics, transparent electronics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics and spintronics. Research papers and reviews on the basics of ALD growth are also included, reflecting a growing interest in precursor chemistry and growth

  11. Remote catalyzation for direct formation of graphene layers on oxides.

    PubMed

    Teng, Po-Yuan; Lu, Chun-Chieh; Akiyama-Hasegawa, Kotone; Lin, Yung-Chang; Yeh, Chao-Hui; Suenaga, Kazu; Chiu, Po-Wen

    2012-03-14

    Direct deposition of high-quality graphene layers on insulating substrates such as SiO(2) paves the way toward the development of graphene-based high-speed electronics. Here, we describe a novel growth technique that enables the direct deposition of graphene layers on SiO(2) with crystalline quality potentially comparable to graphene grown on Cu foils using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Rather than using Cu foils as substrates, our approach uses them to provide subliming Cu atoms in the CVD process. The prime feature of the proposed technique is remote catalyzation using floating Cu and H atoms for the decomposition of hydrocarbons. This allows for the direct graphitization of carbon radicals on oxide surfaces, forming isolated low-defect graphene layers without the need for postgrowth etching or evaporation of the metal catalyst. The defect density of the resulting graphene layers can be significantly reduced by tuning growth parameters such as the gas ratios, Cu surface areas, and substrate-to-Cu distance. Under optimized conditions, graphene layers with nondiscernible Raman D peaks can be obtained when predeposited graphite flakes are used as seeds for extended growth. PMID:22332771

  12. Organic doping of rotated double layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Lijin; Jaiswal, Manu

    2016-05-01

    Charge transfer techniques have been extensively used as knobs to tune electronic properties of two- dimensional systems, such as, for the modulation of conductivity mobility of single layer graphene and for opening the bandgap in bilayer graphene. The charge injected into the graphene layer shifts the Fermi level away from the minimum density of states point (Dirac point). In this work, we study charge transfer in rotated double-layer graphene achieved by the use of organic dopant, Tetracyanoquinodimethane. Naturally occurring bilayer graphene has a well-defined A-B stacking whereas in rotated double-layer the two graphene layers are randomly stacked with different rotational angles. This rotation is expected to significantly alter the interlayer interaction. Double-layer samples are prepared using layer-by-layer assembly of chemical vapor deposited single-layer graphene and they are identified by characteristic resonance in the Raman spectrum. The charge transfer and distribution of charges between the two graphene layers is studied using Raman spectroscopy and the results are compared with that for single-layer and A-B stacked bilayer graphene doped under identical conditions.

  13. Trapping Image State Electrons on Graphene Layers and Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadap, Jerry; Niesner, Daniel; Fauster, Thomas; Zaki, Nader; Knox, Kevin; Yeh, Po-Chi; Bhandari, Rohan; Osgood, Richard M.; Petrovic, Marin; Kralj, Marko

    2012-02-01

    The understanding of graphene-metal interfaces is of utmost importance in graphene transport phenomena. To probe this interface we use time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission to map the bound, unoccupied electronic structure of the weakly coupled graphene/Ir(111) system. The energy, dispersion, and lifetime of the lowest three image-potential states are measured. In addition, the weak interaction between Ir and the smooth, epitaxial graphene permits observation of resonant transitions from an unquenched Shockley-type surface state of the Ir substrate to graphene/Ir image-potential states. The image-potential-state lifetimes are comparable to those of mid-gap clean metal surfaces. Evidence of localization of the excited image-state electrons on single-atom-layer graphene islands is provided by coverage-dependent measurements.

  14. Tuning frictions between graphene layers via Li ion intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Aijiang; Wan, Jiayu; Li, Teng; Hu, Liangbing; Univerisyt of Maryland, College Park Team

    Graphite intercalated with Li ions are widely studied and applied in Li ion batteries. It was revealed in experiments that, the Li ion intercalation leads to a phase transition of the graphite with about 10% volume expansion. The increased interlayer distance should contribute to decrease the frictions between the grahene layers, but the Li ion intercalation would take an opposite effect. In order to show the total effect of the Li ion interalation, we studied the frictions between graphene layers with and without lithiation, based on density functional theory (DFT). In a sandwich-like model, slipping of the middle sheet of the graphene was simulated. Displacements between layers were fixed and the other parts were relaxed, thus the energies were record to estimate the energy barriers accordingly. We found that the frictions between the graphene layers with the Li ion intercalation are higher than those without intercalation. The energy barrier appears correlated with the concentration of the intercalated ions. As the atomic ratio between lithium and carbon increases from 0 (no intercalation) to 1:6, the energy barriers increase from 0.01 eV/atom to 0.05 eV/atom or so. Such an interesting result indicates that, just via ion intercalation, we can effectively tune the friction between graphene layers. Tuning frictions between graphene layers via Li ion intercalation.

  15. Graphene as an anti-corrosion coating layer.

    PubMed

    Kyhl, Line; Nielsen, Sune Fuglsang; Čabo, Antonija Grubišić; Cassidy, Andrew; Miwa, Jill A; Hornekær, Liv

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in an aromatic hexagonal lattice, has recently drawn attention as a potential coating material due to its impermeability, thermodynamic stability, transparency and flexibility. Here, the effectiveness of a model system, a graphene covered Pt(100) surface, for studying the anti-corrosion properties of graphene, has been evaluated. Chemical vapour deposition techniques were used to cover the single crystal surface with a complete layer of high-quality graphene and the surface was characterised after exposure to corrosive environments with scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and Raman spectroscopy. Graphene covered Pt samples were exposed to: (i) ambient atmosphere for 6 months at room temperature and 60 °C for 75 min, (ii) Milli-Q water for 14 hours at room temperature and 60 °C for 75 min, and (iii) saltwater (0.513 M NaCl) for 75 min at room temperature and 60 °C. STM provides atomic resolution images, which show that the graphene layer and the underlying surface reconstruction on the Pt(100) surface remain intact over the majority of the surface under all conditions, except exposure to saltwater when the sample is kept at 60 °C. Raman spectroscopy shows a broadening of all graphene related peaks due to hybridisation between the surface Pt d-orbitals and the graphene π-bands. This hybridisation also survives exposure to all environments except saltwater on the hot surface, with the latter leading to peaks more representative of a quasi free-standing graphene layer. A mechanism explaining the corrosive effect of hot saltwater is suggested. Based on these experiments, graphene is proposed to offer protection against corrosion in all tested environments, except saltwater on a hot surface, and Raman spectroscopy is proposed as a useful method for indirectly assessing the chemical state of the Pt surface. PMID:25915827

  16. The edge- and basal-plane-specific electrochemistry of a single-layer graphene sheet

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wenjing; Zhou, Yu; Li, Yingru; Li, Chun; Peng, Hailin; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Zhongfan; Dai, Liming; Shi, Gaoquan

    2013-01-01

    Graphene has a unique atom-thick two-dimensional structure and excellent properties, making it attractive for a variety of electrochemical applications, including electrosynthesis, electrochemical sensors or electrocatalysis, and energy conversion and storage. However, the electrochemistry of single-layer graphene has not yet been well understood, possibly due to the technical difficulties in handling individual graphene sheet. Here, we report the electrochemical behavior at single-layer graphene-based electrodes, comparing the basal plane of graphene to its edge. The graphene edge showed 4 orders of magnitude higher specific capacitance, much faster electron transfer rate and stronger electrocatalytic activity than those of graphene basal plane. A convergent diffusion effect was observed at the sub-nanometer thick graphene edge-electrode to accelerate the electrochemical reactions. Coupling with the high conductivity of a high-quality graphene basal plane, graphene edge is an ideal electrode for electrocatalysis and for the storage of capacitive charges. PMID:23896697

  17. Cleaning graphene with a titanium sacrificial layer

    SciTech Connect

    Joiner, C. A. Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Vogel, E. M.; Chakrabarti, B.

    2014-06-02

    Graphene is a promising material for future electronic applications and chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper is a promising method for synthesizing graphene on the wafer scale. The processing of such graphene films into electronic devices introduces a variety of contaminants which can be difficult to remove. An approach to cleaning residues from the graphene channel is presented in which a thin layer of titanium is deposited via thermal e-beam evaporation and immediately removed. This procedure does not damage the graphene as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy, greatly enhances the electrical performance of the fabricated graphene field effect transistors, and completely removes the chemical residues from the surface of the graphene channel as evidenced by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  18. Single-layer behavior and its breakdown in twisted graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luican-Mayer, Adina

    2013-03-01

    Stacking order plays a major role in the electronic properties of graphene layers because hopping between carbon atoms in neighboring layers is a key ingredient in their band structure. Twisting the layers away from the equilibrium Bernal stacking, which produces the superstructures known as Moiré patterns in scanning tunneling microscopy, decreases the overlap between atoms in adjacent layers and therefore significantly alters their electronic properties. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we obtained direct evidence for the electronic structure of twisted graphene layers.[2] The samples were membranes of CVD grown graphene and graphite crystals which contain areas with various twist angles. In topographic images the regions where layers are twisted away from Bernal stacking exhibit Moiré patterns with periods which depend on the twist angle. We find that the density of states on the twisted layers develops two Van Hove singularities that symmetrically flank the Dirac point at an energy that depends on the twist angle. High magnetic field scanning tunneling microscopy and Landau level spectroscopy of twisted graphene layers reveal that for twist angles exceeding ~3 degrees the low energy carriers exhibit Landau level spectra characteristic of massless Dirac fermions. Above 20 degrees the layers effectively decouple and the electronic properties are indistinguishable from those in single-layer graphene, while for smaller angles we observe a slowdown of the carrier velocity which is strongly angle dependent.[3] These results are compared with theoretical predictions. DOE-FG02-99ER45742, NSF DMR 1207108, Alcatel-Lucent

  19. Dimensional dependence of phonon transport in freestanding atomic layer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Duckjong; Hwangbo, Yun; Zhu, Lijing; Mag-Isa, Alexander E.; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    Due to the fast development of nanotechnology, we have the capability of manipulating atomic layer systems such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride and dichalcogenides. The major concern in the 2-dimensional nanostructures is how to preserve their exceptional single-layer properties in 3-dimensional bulk structures. In this study, we report that the extreme phonon transport in graphene is highly affected by the graphitic layer stacking based on experimental investigation of the thermal conduction in few-layer graphene, 1-7 layers thick, suspended over holes of various diameters. We fabricate freestanding axisymmetric graphene structures without any perturbing substrate, and measure the in-plane transport property in terms of thermal conduction by using Raman spectroscopy. From the difference in susceptibility to substrate effect, size effect on hot-spot temperature variation and layer number dependence of thermal conductivity, we show that the graphitic membranes with 2 or more layers have characteristics similar to 3-dimensional graphite, which are very different from those of 2-dimensional graphene membranes. This implies that the scattering of out-of-plane phonons by interlayer atomic coupling could be a key mechanism governing the intrinsic thermal property.Due to the fast development of nanotechnology, we have the capability of manipulating atomic layer systems such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride and dichalcogenides. The major concern in the 2-dimensional nanostructures is how to preserve their exceptional single-layer properties in 3-dimensional bulk structures. In this study, we report that the extreme phonon transport in graphene is highly affected by the graphitic layer stacking based on experimental investigation of the thermal conduction in few-layer graphene, 1-7 layers thick, suspended over holes of various diameters. We fabricate freestanding axisymmetric graphene structures without any perturbing substrate, and measure the in-plane transport

  20. Atomic layer epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Colin H. L.; Pessa, Markus V.

    1986-08-01

    Atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) is not so much a new technique for the preparation of thin films as a novel modification to existing methods of vapor-phase epitaxy, whether physical [e.g., evaporation, at one limit molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE)] or chemical [e.g., chloride epitaxy or metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)]. It is a self-regulatory process which, in its simplest form, produces one complete molecular layer of a compound per operational cycle, with a greater thickness being obtained by repeated cycling. There is no growth rate in ALE as in other crystal growth processes. So far ALE has been applied to rather few materials, but, in principle, it could have a quite general application. It has been used to prepare single-crystal overlayers of CdTe, (Cd,Mn)Te, GaAs and AlAs, a number of polycrystalline films and highly efficient electroluminescent thin-film displays based on ZnS:Mn. It could also offer particular advantages for the preparation of ultrathin films of precisely controlled thickness in the nanometer range and thus may have a special value for growing low-dimensional structures.

  1. Fabrication of a single layer graphene by copper intercalation on a SiC(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Yagyu, Kazuma; Tochihara, Hiroshi; Tomokage, Hajime; Suzuki, Takayuki; Tajiri, Takayuki; Kohno, Atsushi; Takahashi, Kazutoshi

    2014-02-03

    Cu atoms deposited on a zero layer graphene grown on a SiC(0001) substrate, intercalate between the zero layer graphene and the SiC substrate after the thermal annealing above 600 °C, forming a Cu-intercalated single layer graphene. On the Cu-intercalated single layer graphene, a graphene lattice with superstructure due to moiré pattern is observed by scanning tunneling microscopy, and specific linear dispersion at the K{sup ¯} point as well as a characteristic peak in a C{sub 1s} core level spectrum, which is originated from a free-standing graphene, is confirmed by photoemission spectroscopy. The Cu-intercalated single layer graphene is found to be n-doped.

  2. Counting graphene layers with very slow electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Ludĕk; Mikmeková, Eliška; Müllerová, Ilona; Lejeune, Michaël

    2015-01-05

    The study aimed at collection of data regarding the transmissivity of freestanding graphene for electrons across their full energy scale down to the lowest energies. Here, we show that the electron transmissivity of graphene drops with the decreasing energy of the electrons and remains below 10% for energies below 30 eV, and that the slow electron transmissivity value is suitable for reliable determination of the number of graphene layers. Moreover, electrons incident below 50 eV release adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules and effectively clean graphene in contrast to faster electrons that decompose these molecules and create carbonaceous contamination.

  3. Counting graphene layers with very slow electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Luděk; Mikmeková, Eliška; Müllerová, Ilona; Lejeune, Michaël

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at collection of data regarding the transmissivity of freestanding graphene for electrons across their full energy scale down to the lowest energies. Here, we show that the electron transmissivity of graphene drops with the decreasing energy of the electrons and remains below 10% for energies below 30 eV, and that the slow electron transmissivity value is suitable for reliable determination of the number of graphene layers. Moreover, electrons incident below 50 eV release adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules and effectively clean graphene in contrast to faster electrons that decompose these molecules and create carbonaceous contamination.

  4. Recognizing nitrogen dopant atoms in graphene using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Nadine J.; Smith, Daniël; Calogero, Gaetano; Koster, Rik S.; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; van Huis, Marijn A.; Swart, Ingmar

    2016-06-01

    Doping graphene by heteroatoms such as nitrogen presents an attractive route to control the position of the Fermi level in the material. We prepared N-doped graphene on Cu(111) and Ir(111) surfaces via chemical vapor deposition of two different molecules. Using scanning tunneling microscopy images as a benchmark, we show that the position of the dopant atoms can be determined using atomic force microscopy. Specifically, the frequency shift-distance curves Δ f (z ) acquired above a N atom are significantly different from the curves measured over a C atom. Similar behavior was found for N-doped graphene on Cu(111) and Ir(111). The results are corroborated by density functional theory calculations employing a van der Waals functional.

  5. Near-field scanning microwave microscopy of few-layer graphene.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Gonzales, Edward; Kalichava, Irakli; Gin, Aaron V.; Wickey, Lee; Del Barga, Christopher; Talanov, Vladimir V.; Shaner, Eric Arthur

    2010-08-01

    Near-field microwave microscopy can be used as an alternative to atomic-force microscopy or Raman microscopy in determination of graphene thickness. We evaluated the values of AC impedance for few layer graphene. The impedance of mono and few-layer graphene at 4GHz was found predominantly active. Near-field microwave microscopy allows simultaneous imaging of location, geometry, thickness, and distribution of electrical properties of graphene without device fabrication. Our results may be useful for design of future graphene-based microwave devices.

  6. Atomic resolution of nitrogen-doped graphene on Cu foils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundong; Schouteden, Koen; Wu, Qi-Hui; Li, Zhe; Jiang, Jianjun; Van Haesendonck, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Atomic-level substitutional doping can significantly tune the electronic properties of graphene. Using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, the atomic-scale crystalline structure of graphene grown on polycrystalline Cu, the distribution of nitrogen dopants and their effect on the electronic properties of graphene were investigated. Both the graphene sheet growth and nitrogen doping were performed using microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The results indicated that the nitrogen dopants preferentially sit at the grain boundaries of the graphene sheets and confirmed that plasma treatment is a potential method to incorporate foreign atoms into the graphene lattice to tailor the graphene's electronic properties. PMID:27479275

  7. Trapping surface electrons on graphene layers and islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niesner, D.; Fauster, Th.; Dadap, J. I.; Zaki, N.; Knox, K. R.; Yeh, P.-C.; Bhandari, R.; Osgood, R. M.; Petrović, M.; Kralj, M.

    2012-02-01

    We report the use of time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission to map the bound, unoccupied electronic structure of the weakly coupled graphene/Ir(111) system. The energy, dispersion, and lifetime of the lowest three image-potential states are measured. In addition, the weak interaction between Ir and graphene permits observation of resonant transitions from an unquenched Shockley-type surface state of the Ir substrate to graphene/Ir image-potential states. The image-potential-state lifetimes are comparable to those of midgap clean metal surfaces. Evidence of localization of the excited electrons on single-atom-layer graphene islands is provided by coverage-dependent measurements.

  8. Surface-confined single-layer covalent organic framework on single-layer graphene grown on copper foil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lirong; Zhou, Xin; Tian, Wei Quan; Gao, Teng; Zhang, Yan Feng; Lei, Shengbin; Liu, Zhong Fan

    2014-09-01

    The integration of 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with atomic thickness with graphene will lead to intriguing two-dimensional materials. A surface-confined covalently bonded Schiff base network was prepared on single-layer graphene grown on copper foil and the dynamic reaction process was investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy. DFT simulations provide an understanding of the electronic structures and the interactions between the surface COF and graphene. Strong coupling between the surface COF and graphene was confirmed by the dispersive bands of the surface COF after interaction with graphene, and also by the experimental observation of tunneling condition dependent contrast of the surface COF. PMID:25145927

  9. Atomically thin epitaxial template for organic crystal growth using graphene with controlled surface wettability.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyen Ngan; Jo, Sae Byeok; Lee, Seong Kyu; Sin, Dong Hun; Kang, Boseok; Kim, Hyun Ho; Lee, Hansol; Cho, Kilwon

    2015-04-01

    A two-dimensional epitaxial growth template for organic semiconductors was developed using a new method for transferring clean graphene sheets onto a substrate with controlled surface wettability. The introduction of a sacrificial graphene layer between a patterned polymeric supporting layer and a monolayer graphene sheet enabled the crack-free and residue-free transfer of free-standing monolayer graphene onto arbitrary substrates. The clean graphene template clearly induced the quasi-epitaxial growth of crystalline organic semiconductors with lying-down molecular orientation while maintaining the "wetting transparency", which allowed the transmission of the interaction between organic molecules and the underlying substrate. Consequently, the growth mode and corresponding morphology of the organic semiconductors on graphene templates exhibited distinctive dependence on the substrate hydrophobicity with clear transition from lateral to vertical growth mode on hydrophilic substrates, which originated from the high surface energy of the exposed crystallographic planes of the organic semiconductors on graphene. The optical properties of the pentacene layer, especially the diffusion of the exciton, also showed a strong dependency on the corresponding morphological evolution. Furthermore, the effect of pentacene-substrate interaction was systematically investigated by gradually increasing the number of graphene layers. These results suggested that the combination of a clean graphene surface and a suitable underlying substrate could serve as an atomically thin growth template to engineer the interaction between organic molecules and aromatic graphene network, thereby paving the way for effectively and conveniently tuning the semiconductor layer morphologies in devices prepared using graphene. PMID:25798655

  10. Selective growth of Pb islands on graphene/SiC buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X. T.; Miao, Y. P.; Ma, D. Y.; Hu, T. W.; Ma, F. E-mail: kwxu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chu, Paul K.; Xu, K. W. E-mail: kwxu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2015-02-14

    Graphene is fabricated by thermal decomposition of silicon carbide (SiC) and Pb islands are deposited by Pb flux in molecular beam epitaxy chamber. It is found that graphene domains and SiC buffer layer coexist. Selective growth of Pb islands on SiC buffer layer rather than on graphene domains is observed. It can be ascribed to the higher adsorption energy of Pb atoms on the 6√(3) reconstruction of SiC. However, once Pb islands nucleate on graphene domains, they will grow very large owing to the lower diffusion barrier of Pb atoms on graphene. The results are consistent with first-principle calculations. Since Pb atoms on graphene are nearly free-standing, Pb islands grow in even-number mode.

  11. Inorganic nanostructures grown on graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Won Il; Lee, Chul-Ho; Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Nam-Jung; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2011-09-01

    This article presents a review of current research activities on the hybrid heterostructures of inorganic nanostructures grown directly on graphene layers, which can be categorized primarily as zero-dimensional nanoparticles; one-dimensional nanorods, nanowires, and nanotubes; and two-dimensional nanowalls. For the hybrid structures, the nanostructures exhibit excellent material characteristics including high carrier mobility and radiative recombination rate as well as long-term stability while graphene films show good optical transparency, mechanical flexibility, and electrical conductivity. Accordingly, the versatile and fascinating properties of the nanostructures grown on graphene layers make it possible to fabricate high-performance optoelectronic and electronic devices even in transferable, flexible, or stretchable forms. Here, we review preparation methods and possible device applications of the hybrid structures consisting of various types of inorganic nanostructures grown on graphene layers.

  12. Graphene on SiC(0001) inspected by dynamic atomic force microscopy at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Telychko, Mykola; Berger, Jan; Majzik, Zsolt; Jelínek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Summary We investigated single-layer graphene on SiC(0001) by atomic force and tunneling current microscopy, to separate the topographic and electronic contributions from the overall landscape. The analysis revealed that the roughness evaluated from the atomic force maps is very low, in accord with theoretical simulations. We also observed that characteristic electron scattering effects on graphene edges and defects are not accompanied by any out-of-plane relaxations of carbon atoms. PMID:25977861

  13. Protecting nickel with graphene spin-filtering membranes: A single layer is enough

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.-B.; Dlubak, B.; Piquemal-Banci, M.; Collin, S.; Petroff, F.; Anane, A.; Fert, A.; Seneor, P.; Yang, H.; Blume, R.; Schloegl, R.

    2015-07-06

    We report on the demonstration of ferromagnetic spin injectors for spintronics which are protected against oxidation through passivation by a single layer of graphene. The graphene monolayer is directly grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition on pre-patterned nickel electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that even with its monoatomic thickness, monolayer graphene still efficiently protects spin sources against oxidation in ambient air. The resulting single layer passivated electrodes are integrated into spin valves and demonstrated to act as spin polarizers. Strikingly, the atom-thick graphene layer is shown to be sufficient to induce a characteristic spin filtering effect evidenced through the sign reversal of the measured magnetoresistance.

  14. The Electronic Structure of Single-Layer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, David Alan

    Single-layer graphene has been widely researched in recent years due to its perceived technological applicability and its scientific importance as a unique model system with relativistic Dirac Fermions. Because of its unique geometric and electronic structure, the properties of graphene can be tuned or manipulated in several ways. This tunability is important for technological applications in its own right, and it also allows us to study the fundamental properties of Dirac Fermions, including unique many-body interactions and the nature of the quasiparticles at half-filling. This thesis is a detailed examination of the electronic and structural properties of graphene, studied with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and other surface science techniques like low-energy electron microscopy and diffraction. This thesis is organized as follows. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the electronic and structural properties of single-layer graphene. It provides a brief historical overview of major theoretical and experimental milestones and sets the stage for the important theoretical and experimental questions that this thesis addresses. Chapters 2 and 3 describe the experimental setup. Chapter 2 discusses the experimental techniques used in this thesis with particular focus on the mechanics of ARPES. Chapter 3 discusses the different graphene growth techniques that were used to create our sample with particular focus on our characterization of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001). Chapters 4 and 5 form the meat of this thesis: they provide a thorough discussion of the electronic properties of graphene as studied by ARPES. Chapter 4 describes how various perturbations can result in the manipulation of the bare electronic band structure, including the deposition of atomic or molecular species on top of an epitaxial graphene sheet as well as the interactions between graphene and its substrate. Chapter 5 describes the many-body physics in single-layer graphene. It

  15. Excitonic Effects in Tungsten Disulfide Monolayers on Two-Layer Graphene.

    PubMed

    Giusca, Cristina E; Rungger, Ivan; Panchal, Vishal; Melios, Christos; Lin, Zhong; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Kahn, Ethan; Elías, Ana Laura; Robinson, Joshua A; Terrones, Mauricio; Kazakova, Olga

    2016-08-23

    Light emission in atomically thin heterostructures is known to depend on the type of materials and the number and stacking sequence of the constituent layers. Here we show that the thickness of a two-dimensional substrate can be crucial in modulating the light emission. We study the layer-dependent charge transfer in vertical heterostructures built from monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS2) on one- and two-layer epitaxial graphene, unravelling the effect that the interlayer electronic coupling has on the excitonic properties of such heterostructures. We bring evidence that the excitonic properties of WS2 can be effectively tuned by the number of supporting graphene layers. Integrating WS2 monolayers with two-layer graphene leads to a significant enhancement of the photoluminescence response, up to 1 order of magnitude higher compared to WS2 supported on one-layer graphene. Our findings highlight the importance of substrate engineering when constructing atomically thin-layered heterostructures. PMID:27434813

  16. Direct Growth Properties of Graphene Layers on Sapphire Substrate by Alcohol-Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Atsushi; Miyasaka, Yuta; Temmyo, Jiro

    2012-04-01

    Few nanometers thick graphene layers were directly grown on a-plane (11bar 20) sapphire substrates by alcohol-chemical vapor deposition (alcohol-CVD) using ethanol as a carbon source and without any catalytic metal on the substrate surface. The growth relationship between the graphene layer and substrate was analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The growth rate of graphene layers with different growth temperatures revealed that the Al atom act as a catalyst for synthesizing a graphitic material during the decomposition of ethanol. An optical transmittance and a sheet resistance of the graphene sheet directly grown on sapphire substrate were observed. SiO2/Si and n-6H-SiC substrates were also examined for graphene direct growth to discuss the catalytic behavior of Si atoms compared with Al atoms.

  17. Electrical breakdown of graphene and few-layer graphene structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajan, Abhishek; Hunley, D. Patrick; Strachan, Douglas. R.

    2012-02-01

    The electrical breakdown of graphene and few-layer graphene (FLG) structures are investigated. To better understand the dynamics of these nano-scale thermal effects, we investigate graphene and FLG structures of various dimensions and find that significant joule heating occurs inducing the structures to evolve. A distinct change in the behavior during electrical stressing indicates that different mechanisms and geometrical effects occur at the various stages of evolution. The results could have implications on the development of high current carrying nanoscale graphene devices. Supported in part by NSF Award No. DMR-0805136, the Kentucky NSF EPSCoR program through award EPS-0814194, and the University of Kentucky Center for Advanced Materials.

  18. Electrical breakdown of graphene and few-layer graphene structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajan, Abhishek; Johnson, Stephen; Hunley, D. Patrick; Flores, Roel; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Strachan, Douglas

    2011-03-01

    The electrical breakdown of graphene and few-layer graphene (FLG) structures are investigated. To better understand the dynamics of these nano-scale thermal effects, we investigate graphene and FLG nanowires of various dimensions and find that significant joule heating occurs inducing the structures to evolve. A distinct change in the behavior during electrical stressing indicates that different mechanisms occur at the various stages of evolution. The results are compared to detailed thermal modeling of our structures and could have implications on the development of high current carrying nanoscale graphene devices. Supported in part by NSF Award No. DMR-0805136, the Kentucky NSF EPSCoR program, the University of Kentucky Center for Advanced Materials, and the University of Kentucky Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering.

  19. Atomic resolution of nitrogen-doped graphene on Cu foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chundong; Schouteden, Koen; Wu, Qi-Hui; Li, Zhe; Jiang, Jianjun; Van Haesendonck, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Atomic-level substitutional doping can significantly tune the electronic properties of graphene. Using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, the atomic-scale crystalline structure of graphene grown on polycrystalline Cu, the distribution of nitrogen dopants and their effect on the electronic properties of graphene were investigated. Both the graphene sheet growth and nitrogen doping were performed using microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The results indicated that the nitrogen dopants preferentially sit at the grain boundaries of the graphene sheets and confirmed that plasma treatment is a potential method to incorporate foreign atoms into the graphene lattice to tailor the graphene’s electronic properties.

  20. Graphene mechanics: II. Atomic stress distribution during indentation until rupture.

    PubMed

    Costescu, Bogdan I; Gräter, Frauke

    2014-06-28

    Previous Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments found single layers of defect-free graphene to rupture at unexpectedly high loads in the micronewton range. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we modeled an AFM spherical tip pressing on a circular graphene sheet and studied the stress distribution during the indentation process until rupture. We found the graphene rupture force to have no dependency on the sheet size and a very weak dependency on the indenter velocity, allowing a direct comparison to experiment. The deformation showed a non-linear elastic behavior, with a two-dimensional elastic modulus in good agreement with previous experimental and computational studies. In line with theoretical predictions for linearly elastic sheets, rupture forces of non-linearly elastic graphene are proportional to the tip radius. However, as a deviation from the theory, the atomic stress concentrates under the indenter tip more strongly than predicted and causes a high probability of bond breaking only in this area. In turn, stress levels decrease rapidly towards the edge of the sheet, most of which thus only serves the role of mechanical support for the region under the indenter. As a consequence, the high ratio between graphene sheets and sphere radii, hitherto supposed to be necessary for reliable deformation and rupture studies, could be reduced to a factor of only 5-10 without affecting the outcome. Our study suggests time-resolved analysis of forces at the atomic level as a valuable tool to predict and interpret the nano-scale response of stressed materials beyond graphene. PMID:24834440

  1. Atomic Structure of Graphene Subnanometer Pores.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Alex W; Lee, Gun-Do; He, Kuang; Gong, Chuncheng; Chen, Qu; Yoon, Euijoon; Kirkland, Angus I; Warner, Jamie H

    2015-12-22

    The atomic structure of subnanometer pores in graphene, of interest due to graphene's potential as a desalination and gas filtration membrane, is demonstrated by atomic resolution aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy. High temperatures of 500 °C and over are used to prevent self-healing of the pores, permitting the successful imaging of open pore geometries consisting of between -4 to -13 atoms, all exhibiting subnanometer diameters. Picometer resolution bond length measurements are used to confirm reconstruction of five-membered ring projections that often decorate the pore perimeter, knowledge which is used to explore the viability of completely self-passivated subnanometer pore structures; bonding configurations where the pore would not require external passivation by, for example, hydrogen to be chemically inert. PMID:26524121

  2. Electronic Properties of Incommensurate Atomic Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshino, Mikito; Moon, Pilkyung

    2015-12-01

    We present a brief theoretical overview of electronic properties of incommensurate multilayer systems, i.e., a pair of two-dimensional atomic layers stacked in an arbitrary orientation. We introduce the general theoretical scheme to describe the interlayer interaction between incommensurate crystal structures, and apply the formula to two specific examples, the twisted bilayer graphene and graphene-hBN composite bilayer. In each case, we calculate the electronic band structure and demonstrate that the low-energy electronic properties are significantly modified by the interlayer interaction, particularly when the two lattice structures are close to each other. We also study the energy spectrum and the quantum Hall effect in magnetic fields, where we see that the spectral structure exhibits a fractal nature, as known as the Hofstadter butterfly. We argue about the optical absorption properties of the twisted bilayer graphene and show that the interlayer interaction gives rise to the characteristic spectroscopic features in zero magnetic field and also in strong magnetic field.

  3. Tunneling between two independently contacted graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbet, Christopher; Kim, Seyoung; Dillen, David C.; Fallah, Babak; Ramon, Michael; Tutuc, Emanuel; Banerjee, Sanjay

    2011-03-01

    We study the tunneling between two overlapped, independently contacted graphene monolayers. We use micromechanical exfoliation to deposit graphene monolayers on separate substrates. Using electron beam lithography (EBL) patterning and etching we isolate the two monolayers and remove the multilayer graphene in their close proximity. Once patterned, one monolayer was removed from the substrate and manually aligned to the other monolayer with an overlap region of a few square micrometers. EBL and metal deposition were used to define hall bars on the two separate monolayers. This design allows the extraction of each sheet's mobility and density using standard four-point resistance measurements. Using a finite element model, we calculate the current flow in each layer, as well as in between the two layers. The tunneling resistance is modeled as a contact resistance between the two graphene layers in this overlap region. We extract an upper limit for the specific tunneling resistance between the two graphene layers of 1.4E-4 Ohms*cm2 . We discuss the current density and potential dependence on the shape of the overlap region.

  4. Graphene/ferroelectrics/graphene hybrid structure: Asymmetric doping of graphene layers

    SciTech Connect

    Duong, Dinh Loc; Lee, Si Young; Kim, Seong Kyu; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-06-15

    We report graphene/ferroelectric/graphene hybrid structure to demonstrate an asymmetrical doping in two graphene layers, one side with electrons and another side with holes. Two ferroelectrics, a poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVDF) and a hydrofluorinated graphene, were used to demonstrate the concept with density functional calculations, revealing the Fermi level shift of 0.35 and 0.75 eV, respectively. This concept was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy using graphene/poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE))/graphene hybrid, which can easily form β-phase close to our simulation model. G-band peak position was downshifted for electron doping and upshifted for hole doping. This hybrid structure opens an opportunity to study bilayer graphene system with a controllable thickness for a wide range of high carrier concentration.

  5. Periodic arrays of intercalated atoms in twisted bilayer graphene: An ab initio investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, R. H.; Venezuela, P.; Morell, Eric Suárez

    2015-09-01

    We have performed an ab initio investigation of transition metals (TMs =Mo ,Ru ,Co ,andPt ) embedded in twisted bilayer graphene (tBG) layers. Our total energy results reveal that, triggered by the misalignment between the graphene layers, Mo and Ru atoms may form a quasiperiodic (triangular) array of intercalated atoms. In contrast, the formation of those structures is not expected for the other TMs, the Co and Pt atoms. The net magnetic moment (m ) of Mo and Ru atoms may be quenched upon intercalation, depending on the stacking region (AA or AB). For instance, we find a magnetic moment of 0.3 μB(1.8 μB) for Ru atoms intercalated between the AA (AB) regions of the stacked twisted layers. Through simulated scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images, we verify that the presence of intercalated TMs can be identified by the formation of bright (hexagonal) spots lying on the graphene surface.

  6. Quantum Sticking of Atomic Hydrogen to Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanting; Doherty, Adam; Geragotelis, Andrew; Clougherty, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    We consider the low-energy behavior of the sticking probability of atomic hydrogen to suspended graphene. For energy transfer through the flexural modes of graphene, we find that the inelastic coupling falls in the subOhmic regime. Thus the effects of low-frequency fluctuations of the graphene sheet are crucially important for quantum sticking. We analytically solve for the low-energy asymptotic behavior of the sticking coefficient using a variational mean-field method [D.P. Clougherty and Y. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 120401 (2012)]. We find that as a result of strong coupling to the low-frequency flexural modes of graphene, a new scaling law results. For suspended graphene at finite temperature, we find that at a critical incident energy, the sticking probability drops discontinuously; below this critical energy, the sticking probability is suppressed by the orthogonality catastrophe. We compare our nonperturbative variational results to those obtained by using Fermi's golden rule. We gratefully acknowledge support by the National Science Foundation under DMR-1062966.

  7. Graphene-coated atomic force microscope tips for reliable nanoscale electrical characterization.

    PubMed

    Lanza, M; Bayerl, A; Gao, T; Porti, M; Nafria, M; Jing, G Y; Zhang, Y F; Liu, Z F; Duan, H L

    2013-03-13

    Graphene single-layer films are grown by chemical vapor deposition and transferred onto commercially available conductive tips for atomic force microscopy. Graphene-coated tips are much more resistant to both high currents and frictions than commercially available, metal-varnished, conductive atomic force microscopy tips, leading to much larger lifetimes and more reliable imaging due to a lower tip-sample interaction. PMID:23280635

  8. Determination of the stacking order of curved few-layered graphene systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takuya; MuramatsuCurrent Affiliation: Department Of Materials Science; Technology, Nagaoka University Of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, 940-2188, Japan, Hiroyuki; ShimamotoCurrent Affiliation: Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute, Aist, 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-Ku, Nagoya 463-8560, Japan, Daisuke; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Tojo, Tomohiro; Muramoto, Yoshitaka; Yokomae, Takuya; Asaoka, Toru; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Terrones, Mauricio; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-09-01

    We report a facile method to efficiently visualize the atomic carbon network of curved few-layered graphitic systems including folded bi-layer graphene, nanoribbon edges and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (straight and bent), via the processing of aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (AC-HRTEM) images. This technique is also able to atomically resolve the structure of overlapping graphene layers with different orientations, thus enabling us to determine the stacking order of multiple graphene layers. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to identify the stacking order of a misoriented 4-layer closed-edge graphene and a metal-semiconductor double-walled carbon nanotube junction.

  9. Graphene on Ni(111): Electronic Corrugation and Dynamics from Helium Atom Scattering

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using helium atom scattering, we have studied the structure and dynamics of a graphene layer prepared in situ on a Ni(111) surface. Graphene/Ni(111) exhibits a helium reflectivity of ∼20% for a thermal helium atom beam and a particularly small surface electron density corrugation ((0.06 ± 0.02) Å peak to peak height). The Debye–Waller attenuation of the elastic diffraction peaks of graphene/Ni(111) and Ni(111) was measured at surface temperatures between 150 and 740 K. A surface Debye temperature of θD = (784 ± 14) K is determined for the graphene/Ni(111) system and θD = (388 ± 7) K for Ni(111), suggesting that the interlayer interaction between graphene and the Ni substrate is intermediary between those for strongly interacting systems like graphene/Ru(0001) and weakly interacting systems like graphene/Pt(111). In addition we present measurements of low frequency surface phonon modes on graphene/Ni(111) where the phonon modes of the Ni(111) substrate can be clearly observed. The similarity of these findings with the graphene/Ru(0001) system indicates that the bonding of graphene to a metal substrate alters the dynamic properties of the graphene surface strongly and is responsible for the high helium reflectivity of these systems. PMID:26617683

  10. Thermal conductivity of giant mono- to few-layered CVD graphene supported on an organic substrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Tianyu; Xu, Shen; Yuan, Pengyu; Xu, Xu; Wang, Xinwei

    2016-05-21

    The thermal conductivity (k) of supported graphene is a critical property that reflects the graphene-substrate interaction, graphene structure quality, and is needed for thermal design of a graphene device. Yet the related k measurement has never been a trivial work and very few studies are reported to date, only at the μm level. In this work, for the first time, the k of giant chemical vapor decomposition (CVD) graphene supported on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is characterized using our transient electro-thermal technique based on a differential concept. Our graphene size is ∼mm, far above the samples studied in the past. This giant graphene measurement eliminates the thermal contact resistance problems and edge phonon scattering encountered in μm-scale graphene k measurement. Such mm-scale measurement is critical for device/system-level thermal design since it reflects the effect of abundant grains in graphene. The k of 1.33-layered, 1.53-layered, 2.74-layered and 5.2-layered supported graphene is measured as 365 W m(-1) K(-1), 359 W m(-1) K(-1), 273 W m(-1) K(-1) and 33.5 W m(-1) K(-1), respectively. These values are significantly lower than the k of supported graphene on SiO2, and are about one order of magnitude lower than the k of suspended graphene. We speculate that the abundant C atoms in the PMMA promote more ready energy and momentum exchange with the supported graphene, and give rise to more phonon scattering than the SiO2 substrate. This leads to a lower k of CVD graphene on PMMA than that on SiO2. We attribute the existence of disorder in the sp(2) domain, graphene oxide (GO) and stratification in the 5.2-layered graphene to its more k reduction. The Raman linewidth (G peak) of the 5.2-layered graphene is also twice larger than that of the other three kinds of graphene, indicating the much more phonon scattering and shorter phonon lifetime in it. Also the electrical conductivity of the 5.2-layered graphene is about one-fifth of that for the

  11. Thermal conductivity of giant mono- to few-layered CVD graphene supported on an organic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Tianyu; Xu, Shen; Yuan, Pengyu; Xu, Xu; Wang, Xinwei

    2016-05-01

    The thermal conductivity (k) of supported graphene is a critical property that reflects the graphene-substrate interaction, graphene structure quality, and is needed for thermal design of a graphene device. Yet the related k measurement has never been a trivial work and very few studies are reported to date, only at the μm level. In this work, for the first time, the k of giant chemical vapor decomposition (CVD) graphene supported on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is characterized using our transient electro-thermal technique based on a differential concept. Our graphene size is ~mm, far above the samples studied in the past. This giant graphene measurement eliminates the thermal contact resistance problems and edge phonon scattering encountered in μm-scale graphene k measurement. Such mm-scale measurement is critical for device/system-level thermal design since it reflects the effect of abundant grains in graphene. The k of 1.33-layered, 1.53-layered, 2.74-layered and 5.2-layered supported graphene is measured as 365 W m-1 K-1, 359 W m-1 K-1, 273 W m-1 K-1 and 33.5 W m-1 K-1, respectively. These values are significantly lower than the k of supported graphene on SiO2, and are about one order of magnitude lower than the k of suspended graphene. We speculate that the abundant C atoms in the PMMA promote more ready energy and momentum exchange with the supported graphene, and give rise to more phonon scattering than the SiO2 substrate. This leads to a lower k of CVD graphene on PMMA than that on SiO2. We attribute the existence of disorder in the sp2 domain, graphene oxide (GO) and stratification in the 5.2-layered graphene to its more k reduction. The Raman linewidth (G peak) of the 5.2-layered graphene is also twice larger than that of the other three kinds of graphene, indicating the much more phonon scattering and shorter phonon lifetime in it. Also the electrical conductivity of the 5.2-layered graphene is about one-fifth of that for the other three. This

  12. Specific heat of twisted bilayer graphene: Engineering phonons by atomic plane rotations

    SciTech Connect

    Nika, Denis L.; Cocemasov, Alexandr I.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2014-07-21

    We have studied the phonon specific heat in single-layer, bilayer, and twisted bilayer graphene. The calculations were performed using the Born-von Karman model of lattice dynamics for intralayer atomic interactions and spherically symmetric interatomic potential for interlayer interactions. We found that at temperature T < 15 K, specific heat varies with temperature as T{sup n}, where n = 1 for graphene, n = 1.6 for bilayer graphene, and n = 1.3 for the twisted bilayer graphene. The phonon specific heat reveals an intriguing dependence on the twist angle in bilayer graphene, which is particularly pronounced at low temperature. The results suggest a possibility of phonon engineering of thermal properties of layered materials by twisting the atomic planes.

  13. Bosonization approach for "atomic collapse" in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagimura, Aya; Onogi, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    We study quantum electrodynamics with 2+1 dimensional massless Dirac fermion around a Coulomb impurity. Around a large charge with atomic number Z > 137, the QED vacuum is expected to collapse due to the strong Coulombic force. While the relativistic quantum mechanics fails to make reliable predictions for the fate of the vacuum, the heavy ion collision experiment also does not give clear understanding of this system. Recently, the "atomic collapse" resonances were observed on graphene where an artificial nuclei can be made. In this paper, we present our nonperturbative study of the vacuum structure of the quasiparticles in graphene with a charge impurity which contains multi-body effect using bosonization method.

  14. Selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jae-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Jang, Hyeon-Sik; Joo, Won-Jae; Hwang, SungWoo; Whang, Dongmok

    2015-11-01

    Graphene growth on a copper surface via metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition has several advantages in terms of providing high-quality graphene with the potential for scale-up, but the product is usually inhomogeneous due to the inability to control the graphene layer growth. The non-uniform regions strongly affect the reliability of the graphene in practical electronic applications. Herein, we report a novel graphene transfer method that allows for the selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on a Cu foil. Differences in the interlayer bonding energy are exploited to mechanically separate only the top single-layer graphene and transfer this to an arbitrary substrate. The dry-transferred single-layer graphene showed electrical characteristics that were more uniform than those of graphene transferred using conventional wet-etching transfer steps.

  15. Raman Fingerprints of Atomically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bottom-up approaches allow the production of ultranarrow and atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with electronic and optical properties controlled by the specific atomic structure. Combining Raman spectroscopy and ab initio simulations, we show that GNR width, edge geometry, and functional groups all influence their Raman spectra. The low-energy spectral region below 1000 cm–1 is particularly sensitive to edge morphology and functionalization, while the D peak dispersion can be used to uniquely fingerprint the presence of GNRs and differentiates them from other sp2 carbon nanostructures. PMID:26907096

  16. Raman Fingerprints of Atomically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Verzhbitskiy, Ivan A; Corato, Marzio De; Ruini, Alice; Molinari, Elisa; Narita, Akimitsu; Hu, Yunbin; Schwab, Matthias G; Bruna, Matteo; Yoon, Duhee; Milana, Silvia; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Ferrari, Andrea C; Casiraghi, Cinzia; Prezzi, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Bottom-up approaches allow the production of ultranarrow and atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with electronic and optical properties controlled by the specific atomic structure. Combining Raman spectroscopy and ab initio simulations, we show that GNR width, edge geometry, and functional groups all influence their Raman spectra. The low-energy spectral region below 1000 cm(-1) is particularly sensitive to edge morphology and functionalization, while the D peak dispersion can be used to uniquely fingerprint the presence of GNRs and differentiates them from other sp(2) carbon nanostructures. PMID:26907096

  17. Raman Fingerprints of Atomically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verzhbitskiy, Ivan A.; Corato, Marzio De; Ruini, Alice; Molinari, Elisa; Narita, Akimitsu; Hu, Yunbin; Schwab, Matthias G.; Bruna, Matteo; Yoon, Duhee; Milana, Silvia; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Casiraghi, Cinzia; Prezzi, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Bottom-up approaches allow the production of ultra-narrow and atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), with electronic and optical properties controlled by the specific atomic structure. Combining Raman spectroscopy and ab-initio simulations, we show that GNR width, edge geometry and functional groups all influence their Raman spectra. The low-energy spectral region below 1000 cm-1 is particularly sensitive to edge morphology and functionalization, while the D peak dispersion can be used to uniquely fingerprint the presence of GNRs, and differentiates them from other sp2 carbon nanostructures.

  18. Layer resolved capacitive probing of graphene bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibrov, Alexander; Parmentier, François; Li, Jia; Wang, Lei; Hunt, Benjamin; Dean, Cory; Hone, James; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Young, Andrea

    Compared to single layer graphene, graphene bilayers have an additional ``which-layer'' degree of freedom that can be controlled by an external electric field in a dual-gated device geometry. We describe capacitance measurements capable of directly probing this degree of freedom. By performing top gate, bottom gate, and penetration field capacitance measurements, we directly extract layer polarization of both Bernal and twisted bilayers. We will present measurements of hBN encapsulated bilayers at both zero and high magnetic field, focusing on the physics of the highly degenerate zero-energy Landau level in the high magnetic field limit where spin, valley, and layer degeneracy are all lifted by electronic interactions.

  19. Symmetry Breaking in Few Layer Graphene Films

    SciTech Connect

    Bostwick, A.; Ohta, T.; McChesney, J.L.; Emtsev, K.; Seyller,Th.; Horn, K.; Rotenberg, E.

    2007-05-25

    Recently, it was demonstrated that the quasiparticledynamics, the layer-dependent charge and potential, and the c-axisscreening coefficient could be extracted from measurements of thespectral function of few layer graphene films grown epitaxially on SiCusing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). In this articlewe review these findings, and present detailed methodology for extractingsuch parameters from ARPES. We also present detailed arguments againstthe possibility of an energy gap at the Dirac crossing ED.

  20. Fluorinated graphene and hexagonal boron nitride as ALD seed layers for graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongwei; Liu, Yunlong; Xu, Yang; Meng, Nan; Wang, Hongtao; Hasan, Tawfique; Wang, Xinran; Luo, Jikui; Yu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Ultrathin dielectric materials prepared by atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) technology are commonly used in graphene electronics. Using the first-principles density functional theory calculations with van der Waals (vdW) interactions included, we demonstrate that single-side fluorinated graphene (SFG) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) exhibit large physical adsorption energy and strong electrostatic interactions with H2O-based ALD precursors, indicating their potential as the ALD seed layer for dielectric growth on graphene. In graphene-SFG vdW heterostructures, graphene is n-doped after ALD precursor adsorption on the SFG surface caused by vertical intrinsic polarization of SFG. However, graphene-h-BN vdW heterostructures help preserving the intrinsic characteristics of the underlying graphene due to in-plane intrinsic polarization of h-BN. By choosing SFG or BN as the ALD seed layer on the basis of actual device design needs, the graphene vdW heterostructures may find applications in low-dimensional electronics.

  1. Fluorinated graphene and hexagonal boron nitride as ALD seed layers for graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongwei; Liu, Yunlong; Xu, Yang; Meng, Nan; Wang, Hongtao; Hasan, Tawfique; Wang, Xinran; Luo, Jikui; Yu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Ultrathin dielectric materials prepared by atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) technology are commonly used in graphene electronics. Using the first-principles density functional theory calculations with van der Waals (vdW) interactions included, we demonstrate that single-side fluorinated graphene (SFG) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) exhibit large physical adsorption energy and strong electrostatic interactions with H2O-based ALD precursors, indicating their potential as the ALD seed layer for dielectric growth on graphene. In graphene-SFG vdW heterostructures, graphene is n-doped after ALD precursor adsorption on the SFG surface caused by vertical intrinsic polarization of SFG. However, graphene-h-BN vdW heterostructures help preserving the intrinsic characteristics of the underlying graphene due to in-plane intrinsic polarization of h-BN. By choosing SFG or BN as the ALD seed layer on the basis of actual device design needs, the graphene vdW heterostructures may find applications in low-dimensional electronics. PMID:25116064

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of ion-irradiated multi-layer graphenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukagoshi, Akira; Honda, Shin-ichi; Osugi, Ryo; Okada, Hiraku; Niibe, Masahito; Terasawa, Mititaka; Hirase, Ryuji; Izumi, Hirokazu; Yoshioka, Hideki; Niwase, Keisuke; Taguchi, Eiji; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Oura, Masaki

    2013-11-01

    Low-energy Ar ions (0.5-2 keV) were irradiated to multi-layer graphenes and the damage process, the local electronic states, and the degree of alignment of the basal plane, and the oxidation process upon ion irradiation were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). By Raman spectroscopy, we observed two stages similar to the case of irradiated graphite, which should relate to the accumulations of vacancies and turbulence of the basal plane, respectively. XAS analysis indicated that the number of sp2-hybridized carbon (sp2-C) atoms decreased after ion irradiation. Angle-resolved XAS revealed that the orientation parameter (OP) decreased with increasing ion energy and fluence, reflecting the turbulence of the basal plane under irradiation. In situ XPS shows the oxidation of the irradiated multi-layer graphenes after air exposure.

  3. Few layer graphene based superlattices as efficient thermal insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yuxiang; Chalopin, Yann; Volz, Sebastian

    2013-09-01

    While graphene and few layer graphene (FLG) are considered as having the highest thermal conductivity in their in-plane directions, our molecular dynamics (MD) simulations however show that those systems are also characterized by a superior thermal contact resistance, which could be largely tuned with the layer number when in contact with a silica substrate. Taking advantages of such a resistive interface, MD simulations show that SiO2/FLG superlattices have a thermal conductivity as low as 0.30 W/m K, exhibiting a promising prospect in nano-scale thermal insulation. These findings pave the way for an improved thermal management of nanoscale systems such as thermal barrier coatings and phase change memory materials with atomic-scale super-insulators.

  4. Growth of high quality GaN layer on carbon nanotube-graphene network structure as intermediate layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Taeo Hoon; Park, Ah Hyun; Park, Sungchan; Kim, Myung Jong; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2015-03-01

    In general, high-quality GaN layers are synthesized on low-temperature (LT) GaN buffer layer on a single crystal sapphire substrate. However, large differences in fundamental properties such as lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients between GaN layer and sapphire substrate generate high density of threading dislocation (TD) that leads to deterioration of optical and structural properties. Graphene has been attracting much attention due to its excellent physical properties However, direct epitaxial growth of GaN film onto graphene layer on substrates is not easily accessible due to the lack of chemical reactivity on graphene which consisted of C-C bond of sp2 hexagonally arranged carbon atoms with no dangling bonds. In this work, an intermediate layer for the GaN growth on sapphire substrate was constructed by inserting carbon nanotubes and graphene hybrid structure (CGH) Optical and structural properties of GaN layer grown on CGH were compared with those of GaN layer directly grown on sapphire CNTs act as nucleation sites and play a crucial role in the growth of single crystal high-quality GaN on graphene layer. Also, graphene film acts as a mask for epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN layer, which can effectively reduce TD density. A grant from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) institutional program.

  5. Tunneling spin injection into single layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Pi, K; McCreary, K M; Li, Yan; Wong, Jared J I; Swartz, A G; Kawakami, R K

    2010-10-15

    We achieve tunneling spin injection from Co into single layer graphene (SLG) using TiO₂ seeded MgO barriers. A nonlocal magnetoresistance (ΔR(NL)) of 130  Ω is observed at room temperature, which is the largest value observed in any material. Investigating ΔR(NL) vs SLG conductivity from the transparent to the tunneling contact regimes demonstrates the contrasting behaviors predicted by the drift-diffusion theory of spin transport. Furthermore, tunnel barriers reduce the contact-induced spin relaxation and are therefore important for future investigations of spin relaxation in graphene. PMID:21231003

  6. Large-area, freestanding, single-layer graphene-gold: a hybrid plasmonic nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ganjigunte R Swathi; Wang, Jian; Wells, Garth; Guruvenket, Srinivasan; Payne, Scott; Bradley, Michael; Borondics, Ferenc

    2014-06-24

    Graphene-based plasmonic devices have recently drawn great attention. However, practical limitations in fabrication and device architectures prevent studies from being carried out on the intrinsic properties of graphene and their change by plasmonic structures. The influence of a quasi-infinite object (i.e., the substrate) on graphene, being a single sheet of carbon atoms, and the plasmonic device is overwhelming. To address this and put the intrinsic properties of the graphene-plasmonic nanostructures in focus, we fabricate large-area, freestanding, single-layer graphene-gold (LFG-Au) sandwich structures and Au nanoparticle decorated graphene (formed via thermal treatment) hybrid plasmonic nanostructures. We observed two distinct plasmonic enhancement routes of graphene unique to each structure via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The localized electronic structure variation in the LFG due to graphene-Au interaction at the nanoscale is mapped using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. The measurements show an optical density of ∼0.007, which is the smallest experimentally determined for single-layer graphene thus far. Our results on freestanding graphene-Au plasmonic structures provide great insight for the rational design and future fabrication of graphene plasmonic hybrid nanostructures. PMID:24860924

  7. Atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitskii, Alexander

    There is a considerable interest in graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), few-nm-wide strips of graphene with high aspect ratios, because of their intriguing physical properties. For example, GNRs with zigzag edges are predicted to exhibit low-dimensional magnetism, while GNRs with armchair edges can possess large energy band gaps, making them promising materials for future electronics and photovoltaics. The ability to control structural parameters of GNRs, such as their width, edge structure and termination, with atomic precision is the key for practical realization of these intriguing nanoscale properties. Physical properties of GNRs can also be modified by their doping with heteroatoms, such nitrogen, resulting in nitrogen-doped GNRs or N-GNRs. In this talk I will discuss several types of N-GNRs with different doping levels that have been synthesized and systematically studied by spectroscopic, microscopic and transport methods. Incorporation of nitrogen atoms in graphene lattice is shown to be an effective route to affect GNRs' band gap, doping level as well as aggregation behavior. The support from NSF CHE-1455330 is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Graphene coated with controllable N-doped carbon layer by molecular layer deposition as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yao; Gao, Zhe; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Shichao; Qin, Yong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, graphene is coated with nitrogen-doped carbon layer, which is produced by a carbonization process of aromatic polyimide (PI) films deposited on the surfaces of graphene by molecular layer deposition (MLD). The utilization of MLD not only allows uniform coating of PI layers on the surfaces of pristine graphene without any surface treatment, but also enables homogenous dispersion of doped nitrogen atoms in the carbonized products. The as-prepared N-doped carbon layer coated graphene (NC-G) exhibited remarkable capacitance performance as electrode materials for supercapacitor, showing a high specific capacitance of 290.2 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte, meanwhile maintaining good rate performance and stable cycle capability. The NC-G synthesized by this way represents an alternative promising candidate as electrode material for supercapacitors.

  9. Selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on Cu.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Jang, Hyeon-Sik; Joo, Won-Jae; Hwang, SungWoo; Whang, Dongmok

    2015-11-13

    Graphene growth on a copper surface via metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition has several advantages in terms of providing high-quality graphene with the potential for scale-up, but the product is usually inhomogeneous due to the inability to control the graphene layer growth. The non-uniform regions strongly affect the reliability of the graphene in practical electronic applications. Herein, we report a novel graphene transfer method that allows for the selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on a Cu foil. Differences in the interlayer bonding energy are exploited to mechanically separate only the top single-layer graphene and transfer this to an arbitrary substrate. The dry-transferred single-layer grapheme showed electrical characteristics that were more uniform than those of graphene transferred using conventional wet-etching transfer steps. PMID:26491038

  10. Investigation of humidity-dependent size control of local anodic oxidation on graphene by using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Seoknam; Lee, Seong jun; Son, Maengho; Ahn, Doyeol; Lee, Seung-Woong

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate nanoscale local anodic oxidation (LAO) patterning on few-layer graphene by using an atomic force microscope (AFM) at room temperature under a normal atmosphere. We focus on the humidity dependency of nanoscale oxidation of graphene. The relations between the oxidation size and the setting values of the AFM, such as the set point, tip speed, and the humidity, are observed. By changing these values, proper parameters were found to produce features with on-demand size. This technique provides an easy way for graphene oxide lithography without any chemical resists. We obtained oxidation sizes down to 50 nm with a 6-nm-high oxide barrier line by using a 0.1- μm/s tip scanning speed. We also obtained micrometer-sized symbols on a graphene flake. We attribute the bumps of oxidized graphene in the graphene layer to local anodic oxidation on graphenes surface and to an incorporation of oxygen ions into the graphene lattice.

  11. Direct Synthesis of Few-Layer Graphene on NaCl Crystals.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liurong; Chen, Ke; Du, Ran; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Rümmeli, Mark Hermann; Priydarshi, Manish Kumar; Zhang, Yanfeng; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Liu, Zhongfan

    2015-12-16

    Chemical vapor deposition is used to synthesize few-layer graphene on micro crystalline sodium chloride (NaCl) powder. The water-soluble nature of NaCl makes it convenient to produce free standing graphene layers via a facile and low-cost approach. Unlike traditional metal-catalyzed or oxygen-aided growth, the micron-size NaCl crystal planes play an important role in the nucleation and growth of few-layer graphene. Moreover, the possibility of synthesizing cuboidal graphene is also demonstrated in the present approach for the first time. Raman spectroscopy, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy are used to evaluate the quality and structure of the few-layer graphene along with cuboidal graphene obtained in this process. The few-layer graphene synthesized using the present method has an adsorption ability for anionic and cationic dye molecules in water. The present synthesis method may pave a facile way for manufacturing few-layer graphene on a large scale. PMID:26524105

  12. Electron diffraction studies on CVD grown bi-layered graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingam, Kiran; Karakaya, Mehmet; Podila, Ramakrishna; Quin, Haijun; Rao, Apparao; Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC USA 29634. Team; Advanced Materials Research Laboratories, Clemson University, Anderson, SC USA 29625 Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Graphene has generated enormous interest in the scientific community due to its peculiar properties like electron mobility, thermal conductivity etc. Several recent reports on exfoliated graphene emphasized the role of layer stacking on the electronic and optical properties of graphene in case of bi-layered and few layered graphene and several synthesis techniques like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Copper foils are employed to prepare graphene for applications at a large scale. However, a correlated study pertinent to the stacking order in CVD grown graphene is still unclear. In this work, using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction analysis we analyzed the preferred misorientation angles in a CVD grown bi-layered graphene and also the role of Cu crystal facets on the graphene stacking order will be presented.

  13. Electronic structure of heavily doped graphene: The role of foreign atom states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco

    2007-10-01

    Using density functional theory calculations we investigate the electronic structure of graphene doped by deposition of foreign atoms. We demonstrate that, as the charge transfer to the graphene layer increases, the band structure of the pristine graphene sheet is substantially affected. This is particularly relevant when Ca atoms are deposed on graphene at CaC6 stoichiometry. Similarly to what happens in superconducting graphite intercalated compounds, a Ca band occurs at the Fermi level. Its hybridization with the C states generates a strong nonlinearity in one of the π* bands below the Fermi level, at energies comparable to the graphene E2g phonon frequency. This strong nonlinearity, and not many-body effects as previously proposed, explains the large and anisotropic values of the apparent electron-phonon coupling measured in angular resolved photoemission.

  14. Aqueous proton transfer across single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtyl, Jennifer L.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Xu, Lijun; Cai, Yu; Raju, Muralikrishna; Zhang, Weiwei; Sacci, Robert L.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Wesolowski, David J.; Dai, Sheng; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Neurock, Matthew; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-03-01

    Proton transfer across single-layer graphene proceeds with large computed energy barriers and is therefore thought to be unfavourable at room temperature unless nanoscale holes or dopants are introduced, or a potential bias is applied. Here we subject single-layer graphene supported on fused silica to cycles of high and low pH, and show that protons transfer reversibly from the aqueous phase through the graphene to the other side where they undergo acid-base chemistry with the silica hydroxyl groups. After ruling out diffusion through macroscopic pinholes, the protons are found to transfer through rare, naturally occurring atomic defects. Computer simulations reveal low energy barriers of 0.61-0.75 eV for aqueous proton transfer across hydroxyl-terminated atomic defects that participate in a Grotthuss-type relay, while pyrylium-like ether terminations shut down proton exchange. Unfavourable energy barriers to helium and hydrogen transfer indicate the process is selective for aqueous protons.

  15. Aqueous proton transfer across single-layer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Achtyl, Jennifer L.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Xu, Lijun; Cai, Yu; Raju, Muralikrishna; Zhang, Weiwei; Sacci, Robert L.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Wesolowski, David J.; Dai, Sheng; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Neurock, Matthew; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-03-17

    Proton transfer across single-layer graphene proceeds with large computed energy barriers and is thought to be unfavourable at room temperature unless nanoscale holes or dopants are introduced, or a potential bias is applied. Here we subject single-layer graphene supported on fused ​silica to cycles of high and low pH, and show that protons transfer reversibly from the aqueous phase through the graphene to the other side where they undergo acid–base chemistry with the silica hydroxyl groups. After ruling out diffusion through macroscopic pinholes, the protons are found to transfer through rare, naturally occurring atomic defects. Computer simulations reveal low energy barriers of 0.61–0.75 eV for aqueous proton transfer across hydroxyl-terminated atomic defects that participate in a Grotthuss-type relay, while ​pyrylium-like ether terminations shut down proton exchange. In conclusion, unfavourable energy barriers to helium and ​hydrogen transfer indicate the process is selective for aqueous protons.

  16. Aqueous proton transfer across single-layer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Achtyl, Jennifer L.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Xu, Lijun; Cai, Yu; Raju, Muralikrishna; Zhang, Weiwei; Sacci, Robert L.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Wesolowski, David J.; Dai, Sheng; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Neurock, Matthew; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    Proton transfer across single-layer graphene proceeds with large computed energy barriers and is therefore thought to be unfavourable at room temperature unless nanoscale holes or dopants are introduced, or a potential bias is applied. Here we subject single-layer graphene supported on fused silica to cycles of high and low pH, and show that protons transfer reversibly from the aqueous phase through the graphene to the other side where they undergo acid–base chemistry with the silica hydroxyl groups. After ruling out diffusion through macroscopic pinholes, the protons are found to transfer through rare, naturally occurring atomic defects. Computer simulations reveal low energy barriers of 0.61–0.75 eV for aqueous proton transfer across hydroxyl-terminated atomic defects that participate in a Grotthuss-type relay, while pyrylium-like ether terminations shut down proton exchange. Unfavourable energy barriers to helium and hydrogen transfer indicate the process is selective for aqueous protons. PMID:25781149

  17. Aqueous proton transfer across single-layer graphene

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Achtyl, Jennifer L.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Xu, Lijun; Cai, Yu; Raju, Muralikrishna; Zhang, Weiwei; Sacci, Robert L.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; et al

    2015-03-17

    Proton transfer across single-layer graphene proceeds with large computed energy barriers and is thought to be unfavourable at room temperature unless nanoscale holes or dopants are introduced, or a potential bias is applied. Here we subject single-layer graphene supported on fused ​silica to cycles of high and low pH, and show that protons transfer reversibly from the aqueous phase through the graphene to the other side where they undergo acid–base chemistry with the silica hydroxyl groups. After ruling out diffusion through macroscopic pinholes, the protons are found to transfer through rare, naturally occurring atomic defects. Computer simulations reveal low energymore » barriers of 0.61–0.75 eV for aqueous proton transfer across hydroxyl-terminated atomic defects that participate in a Grotthuss-type relay, while ​pyrylium-like ether terminations shut down proton exchange. In conclusion, unfavourable energy barriers to helium and ​hydrogen transfer indicate the process is selective for aqueous protons.« less

  18. Selective growth of graphene in layer-by-layer via chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaehyun; An, Hyosub; Choi, Dong-Chul; Hussain, Sajjad; Song, Wooseok; An, Ki-Seok; Lee, Won-Jun; Lee, Naesung; Lee, Wan-Gyu; Jung, Jongwan

    2016-08-14

    Selective and precise control of the layer number of graphene remains a critical issue for the practical applications of graphene. First, it is highly challenging to grow a continuous and uniform few-layer graphene since once the monolayer graphene fully covers a copper (Cu) surface, the growth of the second layer stops, resulting in mostly nonhomogeneous films. Second, from the selective adlayer growth point of view, there is no clear pathway for achieving this. We have developed the selective growth of a graphene adlayer in layer-by-layer via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) which makes it possible to stack graphene on a specific position. The key idea is to deposit a thin Cu layer (∼40 nm thick) on pre-grown monolayer graphene and to apply additional growth. The thin Cu atop the graphene/Cu substrate acts as a catalyst to decompose methane (CH4) gas during the additional growth. The adlayer is grown selectively on the pre-grown graphene, and the thin Cu is removed through evaporation during CVD, eventually forming large-area and uniform double layer graphene. With this technology, highly uniform graphene films with precise thicknesses of 1 to 5 layers and graphene check patterns with 1 to 3 layers were successfully demonstrated. This method provides precise LBL growth for a uniform graphene film and a technique for the design of new graphene devices. PMID:27436358

  19. Graphene growth at the interface between Ni catalyst layer and SiO2/Si substrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Song, Kwan-Woo; Park, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Kyu; Yang, Cheol-Woong

    2011-07-01

    Graphene was synthesized deliberately at the interface between Ni film and SiO2/Si substrate as well as on top surface of Ni film using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) which is suitable for large-scale and low-cost synthesis of graphene. The carbon atom injected at the top surface of Ni film can penetrate and reach to the Ni/SiO2 interface for the formation of graphene. Once we have the graphene in between Ni film and SiO2/Si substrate, the substrate spontaneously provides insulating SiO2 layer and we may easily get graphene/SiO2/Si structure simply by discarding Ni film. This growth of graphene at the interface can exclude graphene transfer step for electronic application. Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy show that graphene was successfully synthesized at the back of Ni film and the coverage of graphene varies with temperature and time of synthesis. The coverage of graphene at the interface depends on the amount of carbon atoms diffused into the back of Ni film. PMID:22121737

  20. Synthesis of layer-tunable graphene: A combined kinetic implantation and thermal ejection approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Su; Xie, Xiaoming; Ding, Guqiao; Wang, Yongqiang; Chu, Paul K.; Gao, Heng; Ren, Wei; Yuan, Qinghong; Zhang, Peihong; Wang, Xi; Di, Zengfeng

    2015-05-04

    Layer-tunable graphene has attracted broad interest for its potentials in nanoelectronics applications. However, synthesis of layer-tunable graphene by using traditional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method still remains a great challenge due to the complex experimental parameters and the carbon precipitation process. Herein, by performing ion implantation into a Ni/Cu bilayer substrate, the number of graphene layers, especially single or double layer, can be controlled precisely by adjusting the carbon ion implant fluence. The growth mechanism of the layer-tunable graphene is revealed by monitoring the growth process is observed that the entire implanted carbon atoms can be expelled towards the substrate surface and thus graphene with designed layer number can be obtained. Such a growth mechanism is further confirmed by theoretical calculations. The proposed approach for the synthesis of layer-tunable graphene offers more flexibility in the experimental conditions. Being a core technology in microelectronics processing, ion implantation can be readily implemented in production lines and is expected to expedite the application of graphene to nanoelectronics.

  1. Synthesis of layer-tunable graphene: A combined kinetic implantation and thermal ejection approach

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Su; Xie, Xiaoming; Ding, Guqiao; Wang, Yongqiang; Chu, Paul K.; Gao, Heng; Ren, Wei; Yuan, Qinghong; et al

    2015-05-04

    Layer-tunable graphene has attracted broad interest for its potentials in nanoelectronics applications. However, synthesis of layer-tunable graphene by using traditional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method still remains a great challenge due to the complex experimental parameters and the carbon precipitation process. Herein, by performing ion implantation into a Ni/Cu bilayer substrate, the number of graphene layers, especially single or double layer, can be controlled precisely by adjusting the carbon ion implant fluence. The growth mechanism of the layer-tunable graphene is revealed by monitoring the growth process is observed that the entire implanted carbon atoms can be expelled towards the substratemore » surface and thus graphene with designed layer number can be obtained. Such a growth mechanism is further confirmed by theoretical calculations. The proposed approach for the synthesis of layer-tunable graphene offers more flexibility in the experimental conditions. Being a core technology in microelectronics processing, ion implantation can be readily implemented in production lines and is expected to expedite the application of graphene to nanoelectronics.« less

  2. Fabricating Large-Area Sheets of Single-Layer Graphene by CVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronikowski, Michael; Manohara, Harish

    2008-01-01

    This innovation consists of a set of methodologies for preparing large area (greater than 1 cm(exp 2)) domains of single-atomic-layer graphite, also called graphene, in single (two-dimensional) crystal form. To fabricate a single graphene layer using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), the process begins with an atomically flat surface of an appropriate substrate and an appropriate precursor molecule containing carbon atoms attached to substituent atoms or groups. These molecules will be brought into contact with the substrate surface by being flowed over, or sprayed onto, the substrate, under CVD conditions of low pressure and elevated temperature. Upon contact with the surface, the precursor molecules will decompose. The substituent groups detach from the carbon atoms and form gas-phase species, leaving the unfunctionalized carbon atoms attached to the substrate surface. These carbon atoms will diffuse upon this surface and encounter and bond to other carbon atoms. If conditions are chosen carefully, the surface carbon atoms will arrange to form the lowest energy single-layer structure available, which is the graphene lattice that is sought. Another method for creating the graphene lattice includes metal-catalyzed CVD, in which the decomposition of the precursor molecules is initiated by the catalytic action of a catalytic metal upon the substrate surface. Another type of metal-catalyzed CVD has the entire substrate composed of catalytic metal, or other material, either as a bulk crystal or as a think layer of catalyst deposited upon another surface. In this case, the precursor molecules decompose directly upon contact with the substrate, releasing their atoms and forming the graphene sheet. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can also be used. In this method, a substrate surface at low temperature is covered with exactly one monolayer of precursor molecules (which may be of more than one type). This is heated up so that the precursor molecules decompose and form one

  3. Benchmarking the penetration-resistance efficiency of multilayer graphene sheets due to spacing the graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghzadeh, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the penetration-resistance efficiency of single-layer and multilayer graphene sheets has been investigated by means of the multiscale approach. The employed multiscale approach has been implemented by establishing a direct correlation between the finite element method and the molecular dynamics approach and validated by comparing its results with those of the existing experimental works. Since by using numerous techniques, a new class of graphene sheets can be fabricated in which the graphene layers are spaced farther apart (more than the usual distance between layers), this paper has concentrated on the optimal spacing between graphene layers with the goal of improving the impact properties of graphene sheets as important candidates for novel impact-resistant panels. For this purpose, the relative protection (protection with respect to weight) values of graphene sheets were obtained, and it was observed that the relative protection of a single-layer graphene sheet is about 3.64 times that of a 20-layer graphene sheet. This study also showed that a spaced multilayer graphene sheet, with its inter-layer distance being 20 times the usual spacing between ordinary graphene layers, has an impact resistance which is about 20 % higher than that of an ordinary 20-layer graphene sheet. The findings of this paper can be appropriately used in the design and fabrication of future-generation impact-resistant protective panels.

  4. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki; Kalita, Golap

    2014-09-29

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  5. The atomic configuration of graphene/vanadium carbide interfaces in vanadium carbide-encapsulating carbon nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Gaku; Matsuura, Daisuke; Kizuka, Tokushi

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanocapsules (CNCs) encapsulating vanadium carbide (VC) nanocrystals with a NaCI structure were synthesized by a gas-evaporation method using arc-discharge heating. The CNCs were observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The VC nanocrystals within the nanospaces of CNCs were truncated by low-index facets and were coated with several graphene layers, forming graphene/VC interfaces. The atomic configuration and interlayer spacings at the interfaces were found. PMID:24745251

  6. Optical and Electrical Characteristics of Graphene Double Layer Formed by a Double Transfer of Graphene Single Layers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jun; Bae, Gi Yoon; Chun, Sungwoo; Park, Wanjun

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate formation of double layer graphene by means of a double transfer using two single graphene layers grown by a chemical vapor deposition method. It is observed that shiftiness and broadness in the double-resonance of Raman scattering are much weaker than those of bilayer graphene formed naturally. Transport characteristics examined from transmission line measurements and field effect transistors show the similar behavior with those of single layer graphene. It indicates that interlayer separation, in electrical view, is large enough to avoid correlation between layers for the double layer structure. It is also observed from a transistor with the double layer graphene that molecules adsorpted on two inner graphene surfaces in the double layered structure are isolated and conserved from ambient environment. PMID:27455706

  7. Synthesis of few layer graphene by direct exfoliation of graphite and a Raman spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Gayathri, S.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Kottaisamy, M.

    2014-02-15

    The exfoliation of graphene from pristine graphite in a liquid phase was achieved successfully via sonication followed by centrifugation method. Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectra of the obtained graphene dispersions at different exfoliation time indicated that the concentration of graphene dispersion increased markedly with increasing exfoliation time. The sheet-like morphology of the exfoliated graphene was revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image. Further, the morphological change in different exfoliation time was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). A complete structural and defect characterization was probed using micro-Raman spectroscopic technique. The shape and position of the 2D band of Raman spectra revealed the formation of bilayer to few layer graphene. Also, Raman mapping confirmed the presence of uniformly distributed bilayer graphene sheets on the substrate.

  8. Nanoelectronic circuits based on two-dimensional atomic layer crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Zhong, Zhaohui

    2014-10-01

    Since the discovery of graphene and related forms of two-dimensional (2D) atomic layer crystals, numerous studies have reported on the fundamental material aspects, such as the synthesis, the physical properties, and the electrical properties on the transistor level. With the advancement in large-area synthesis methods, system level integration to exploit the unique applications of these materials is close at hand. The main purpose of this review is to focus on the current progress and the prospect of circuits and systems based on 2D material that go beyond the single-transistor level studies. Both analog and digital circuits based on graphene and related 2D atomic layer crystals will be discussed.

  9. Improving the electrical properties of graphene layers by chemical doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq Khan, Muhammad; Zahir Iqbal, Muhammad; Waqas Iqbal, Muhammad; Eom, Jonghwa

    2014-10-01

    Although the electronic properties of graphene layers can be modulated by various doping techniques, most of doping methods cost degradation of structural uniqueness or electrical mobility. It is matter of huge concern to develop a technique to improve the electrical properties of graphene while sustaining its superior properties. Here, we report the modification of electrical properties of single- bi- and trilayer graphene by chemical reaction with potassium nitrate (KNO3) solution. Raman spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements showed the n-doping effect of graphene by KNO3. The effect was most dominant in single layer graphene, and the mobility of single layer graphene was improved by the factor of more than 3. The chemical doping by using KNO3 provides a facile approach to improve the electrical properties of graphene layers sustaining their unique characteristics.

  10. Growth of bi- and tri-layered graphene on silicon carbide substrate via molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Tjun Kit; Lim, Thong Leng; Yoon, Tiem Leong

    2015-04-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with simulated annealing method is used to study the growth process of bi- and tri-layered graphene on a 6H-SiC (0001) substrate via molecular dynamics simulation. Tersoff-Albe-Erhart (TEA) potential is used to describe the inter-atomic interactions among the atoms in the system. The formation temperature, averaged carbon-carbon bond length, pair correlation function, binding energy and the distance between the graphene formed and the SiC substrate are quantified. The growth mechanism, graphitization of graphene on the SiC substrate and characteristics of the surface morphology of the graphene sheet obtained in our MD simulation compare well to that observed in epitaxially grown graphene experiments and other simulation works.

  11. Growth of bi- and tri-layered graphene on silicon carbide substrate via molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Tjun Kit; Yoon, Tiem Leong; Lim, Thong Leng

    2015-04-24

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with simulated annealing method is used to study the growth process of bi- and tri-layered graphene on a 6H-SiC (0001) substrate via molecular dynamics simulation. Tersoff-Albe-Erhart (TEA) potential is used to describe the inter-atomic interactions among the atoms in the system. The formation temperature, averaged carbon-carbon bond length, pair correlation function, binding energy and the distance between the graphene formed and the SiC substrate are quantified. The growth mechanism, graphitization of graphene on the SiC substrate and characteristics of the surface morphology of the graphene sheet obtained in our MD simulation compare well to that observed in epitaxially grown graphene experiments and other simulation works.

  12. Twisted bi-layer graphene: microscopic rainbows.

    PubMed

    Campos-Delgado, J; Algara-Siller, G; Santos, C N; Kaiser, U; Raskin, J-P

    2013-10-11

    Blue, pink, and yellow colorations appear from twisted bi-layer graphene (tBLG) when transferred to a SiO2 /Si substrate (SiO2 = 100 nm-thick). Raman and electron microscope studies reveal that these colorations appear for twist angles in the 9-15° range. Optical contrast simulations confirm that the observed colorations are related to the angle-dependent electronic properties of tBLG combined with the reflection that results from the layered structure tBLG/100 nm-thick SiO2 /Si. PMID:23606323

  13. Electronic resonant tunneling on graphene superlattice heterostructures with a tunable graphene layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan; Cui, Liyong; Liu, Fen; Lu, Guang; Du, Lei; Liu, Yiping; Du, Guiqiang

    2016-05-01

    We have theoretically investigated the electronic resonant tunneling effect in graphene superlattice heterostructures, where a tunable graphene layer is inserted between two different superlattices. It is found that a complete tunneling state appears inside the enlarged forbidden gap of the heterostructure by changing the thickness of the inserted graphene layer and the transmittance of the tunneling state depends on the thickness of the inserted layer. Furthermore, the frequency of the tunneling state changes with the thickness of the inserted graphene layer but it always located in the little overlapped forbidden gap of two graphene superlattices. Therefore, both a perfect tunneling state and an ultrawide forbidden gap are realized in such heterostrutures. Since maximum probability densities of the perfect tunneling state are highly localized near the interface between the inserted graphene layer and one graphene superlattice, it can be named as an interface-like state. Such structures are important to fabricate high-Q narrowband electron wave filters.

  14. Single-layer graphene cathodes for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Marshall P.; Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Kim, Bumjung; Kim, Keun Soo; Jia, Zhang; Kim, Philip; Nuckolls, Colin; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    A laminated single-layer graphene is demonstrated as a cathode for organic photovoltaicdevices. The measured properties indicate that graphene offers two potential advantages over conventional photovoltaic electrode materials; work function matching via contact doping, and increased power conversion efficiency due to transparency. These findings indicate that flexible, light-weight all carbon solar cells can be constructed using graphene as the cathode material.

  15. Surface doping of nitrogen atoms on graphene via molecular precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Guo; Wu, Qi-Hui; Ren, Jianguo; Xu, Tingting; Wang, Chundong; Zhang, Wenjun; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2013-02-04

    Surface doping can be a powerful way to modify the electronic properties of graphene with the unique potential to retain the excellent pristine properties of graphene. Here, we report an atomic surface doping method for graphene via dissociation of adsorbed precursor molecules of tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F{sub 4}-TCNQ) induced by hydrogen plasma treatment. Significantly, the location of the dopant N atoms can be pre-determined by the location and orientation of the F{sub 4}-TCNQ molecule precursor on graphene, leading in principle to site-selective doping. Furthermore, the molecular precursor is stable under ambient conditions, satisfying an important consideration for patterning processes.

  16. Adsorption configurations of two nitrogen atoms on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Rani, Babita; Jindal, V. K.; Dharamvir, Keya

    2014-04-24

    We present calculations for different possible configurations of two nitrogen adatoms on graphene using the code VASP, based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). Two N atoms adsorbed on the graphene sheet can share a bond in two ways. They take positions either just above two adjacent carbon atoms or they form a bridge across opposite bonds of a hexagon in the graphene sheet. Both these configurations result into structural distortion of the sheet. Another stable configuration involving two N atoms consists of an N{sub 2} molecule which is physisorbed at a distance 3.69 Å on the graphene sheet. Two N atoms can also be adsorbed on alternate bridge sites of neighbouring hexagons of graphene. This configuration again leads to distortion of the sheet in perpendicular direction.

  17. Transfer-free batch fabrication of single layer graphene transistors.

    PubMed

    Levendorf, Mark P; Ruiz-Vargas, Carlos S; Garg, Shivank; Park, Jiwoong

    2009-12-01

    Full integration of graphene into conventional device circuitry would require a reproducible large scale graphene synthesis that is compatible with conventional thin film technology. We report the synthesis of large scale single layer graphene directly onto an evaporated copper film. A novel fabrication method was used to directly pattern these graphene sheets into devices by simply removing the underlying copper film. Raman and conductance measurements show that the mechanical and electrical properties of our single layer graphene are uniform over a large area, ( Ferrari, A. C. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006, 97, 187401.) which leads to a high device yield and successful fabrication of ultra long (>0.5 mm) graphene channels. Our graphene based devices present excellent electrical properties including a promising carrier mobility of 700 cm(2)/V.s and current saturation characteristics similar to devices based on exfoliated graphene ( Meric, I.. et al. Nat Nanotechnol. 2008, 3, 654-659). PMID:19860406

  18. Characterization of few-layered graphene grown by carbon implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kin Kiong; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N.

    2014-02-21

    Graphene is considered to be a very promising material for applications in nanotechnology. The properties of graphene are strongly dependent on defects that occur during growth and processing. These defects can be either detrimental or beneficial to device performance depending on defect type, location and device application. Here we present experimental results on formation of few-layered graphene by carbon ion implantation into nickel films and characteristics of graphene devices formed by graphene transfer and lithographic patterning. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the number of graphene layers formed and identify defects arising from the device processing. The graphene films were cleaned by annealing in vacuum. Transport properties of cleaned graphene films were investigated by fabrication of back-gated field-effect transistors, which exhibited high hole and electron mobility of 1935 and 1905 cm2/Vs, respectively.

  19. Water desalination using nanoporous single-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Surwade, Sumedh P; Smirnov, Sergei N; Vlassiouk, Ivan V; Unocic, Raymond R; Veith, Gabriel M; Dai, Sheng; Mahurin, Shannon M

    2015-05-01

    By creating nanoscale pores in a layer of graphene, it could be used as an effective separation membrane due to its chemical and mechanical stability, its flexibility and, most importantly, its one-atom thickness. Theoretical studies have indicated that the performance of such membranes should be superior to state-of-the-art polymer-based filtration membranes, and experimental studies have recently begun to explore their potential. Here, we show that single-layer porous graphene can be used as a desalination membrane. Nanometre-sized pores are created in a graphene monolayer using an oxygen plasma etching process, which allows the size of the pores to be tuned. The resulting membranes exhibit a salt rejection rate of nearly 100% and rapid water transport. In particular, water fluxes of up to 10(6) g m(-2) s(-1) at 40 °C were measured using pressure difference as a driving force, while water fluxes measured using osmotic pressure as a driving force did not exceed 70 g m(-2) s(-1) atm(-1). PMID:25799521

  20. Water desalination using nanoporous single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surwade, Sumedh P.; Smirnov, Sergei N.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Dai, Sheng; Mahurin, Shannon M.

    2015-05-01

    By creating nanoscale pores in a layer of graphene, it could be used as an effective separation membrane due to its chemical and mechanical stability, its flexibility and, most importantly, its one-atom thickness. Theoretical studies have indicated that the performance of such membranes should be superior to state-of-the-art polymer-based filtration membranes, and experimental studies have recently begun to explore their potential. Here, we show that single-layer porous graphene can be used as a desalination membrane. Nanometre-sized pores are created in a graphene monolayer using an oxygen plasma etching process, which allows the size of the pores to be tuned. The resulting membranes exhibit a salt rejection rate of nearly 100% and rapid water transport. In particular, water fluxes of up to 106 g m-2 s-1 at 40 °C were measured using pressure difference as a driving force, while water fluxes measured using osmotic pressure as a driving force did not exceed 70 g m-2 s-1 atm-1.

  1. Electronic Band Engineering of Epitaxial Graphene by Atomic Intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasekera, Thushari; Sandin, Andreas; Xu, Shu; Wheeler, Virginia; Gaskill, D. K.; Rowe, J. E.; Kim, K. W.; Dougherty, Daniel B.; Buongiorno Nardelli, M.

    2012-02-01

    Using calculations from first principles, we have investigated possible ways of engineering the electronic band structure of epitaxial graphene on SiC. In particular, intercalation of different atomic species, such as Hydrogen, Fluorine, Sodium, Germanium, Carbon and Silicon is shown to modify and tune the interface electronic properties and band alignments. Our results suggest that intercalation in graphene is quite different from that in graphite, and could provide a fundamentally new way to achieve electronic control in graphene electronics.

  2. Graphene as an anti-permeation and protective layer for indium-free transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. L.; Ghosh, D. S.; Formica, N.; Pruneri, V.

    2012-10-01

    We show that graphene can be used as a protective layer for transparent electrodes made of materials which would otherwise deteriorate when exposed to the environment. In particular, we investigate aluminum-doped zinc oxides and ultrathin copper films capped with a one-atom graphene layer in damp heat (95% relative humidity and 95 °C) and high temperature (up to 180 °C) conditions. The results clearly indicate that a graphene layer can strongly reduce degradation of the electrodes’ electrical, optical properties and surface morphology, thus preserving the functionality of the transparent electrodes. The proposed technique is particularly suitable for flexible optoelectronic devices thanks to the mechanical strength of graphene when subjected to bending.

  3. Detection of interlayer interaction in few-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Lin, Jiangxiazi; Zhu, Wei; He, Mingquan; Xu, Shuigang; Chen, Xiaolong; Lu, Huanhuan; Ye, Weiguang; Han, Tianyi; Wu, Yingying; Long, Gen; Shen, Junying; Huang, Rui; Wang, Lin; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Lortz, Rolf; Su, Dangsheng; Wang, Ning

    2015-08-01

    Bernal-stacked few-layer graphene has been investigated by analyzing its Landau-level spectra through quantum capacitance measurements. We find that surface relaxation, which is insignificant in trilayer graphene, starts to manifest in Bernal-stacked tetralayer graphene. In trilayer graphene, the interlayer interaction parameters are generally similar to those of graphite. However, in tetralayer graphene, the hopping parameters of the two bulk layers are quite different from those of the two outer layers. This represents direct evidence of the surface relaxation phenomenon. Traditionally, the van der Waals interaction between the carbon layers is thought to be insignificant. However, we suggest that the interlayer interaction is an important factor in explaining the observed results, and the symmetry-breaking effects in graphene sublattice are not negligible.

  4. The optical conductivity in double and three layer graphene systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. H.; Chen, Y. Y.; Jiang, J. J.; Ao, Z. M.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the longitudinal optical conductivity in few-layer monolayer graphene systems, which is different from the bilayer or trilayer graphene structures analytically and numerically. Here, few isolated parallel two-dimensional (2D) monolayer graphene are separated by a distance d with no interlayer tunneling, where the finite width thickness has to be taken into account. The carrier's energy structure and states for each layer are unaffected by the others. The carrier density in each layer is assumed to be tuned by the corresponding gate voltage. The optical conductivity depends on the electron density, the number of layer, and the broadening width at low temperature. However, analytical and numerical results show that the optical conductivity has little dependence on the distance between the adjacent layers. It is found that two intra- and inter-band transition channels for optical transition via absorption scattering in each layer can be observed. When the optical energy is larger than two times the kinetic energy at the Fermi energy, the optical conductivity is proportional to the layer numbers of monolayer graphene that can determine the number of the monolayer graphene layer. In sharp contrast to the bilayer or trilayer graphene systems, several turning points can be observed. Increasing the broadening width, the turning area becomes gradual. The main difference on the optical conductivity for double layer graphene and bilayer graphene is in the intermediate energy region where the threshold structure is observed.

  5. Electroburning of few-layer graphene flakes, epitaxial graphene, and turbostratic graphene discs in air and under vacuum

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Nils; Convertino, Domenica; Coletti, Camilla; Balestro, Franck; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Kläui, Mathias; Affronte, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Summary Graphene-based electrodes are very promising for molecular electronics and spintronics. Here we report a systematic characterization of the electroburning (EB) process, leading to the formation of nanometer-spaced gaps, on different types of few-layer graphene (namely mechanically exfoliated graphene on SiO2, graphene epitaxially grown on the C-face of SiC and turbostratic graphene discs deposited on SiO2) under air and vacuum conditions. The EB process is found to depend on both the graphene type and on the ambient conditions. For the mechanically exfoliated graphene, performing EB under vacuum leads to a higher yield of nanometer-gap formation than working in air. Conversely, for graphene on SiC the EB process is not successful under vacuum. Finally, the EB is possible with turbostratic graphene discs only after the creation of a constriction in the sample using lithographic patterning. PMID:25821711

  6. Controllable synthesis of graphene sheets with different numbers of layers and effect of the number of graphene layers on the specific capacity of anode material in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Xin; Wang, Hui; Wang, Gang; Wan, Lijuan; Ren, Zhaoyu; Bai, Jintao; Bai, Jinbo

    2011-05-15

    High quality graphene sheets are synthesized through efficient oxidation process followed by rapid thermal expansion and reduction by H{sub 2}. The number of graphene layers is controlled by tuning the oxidation degree of GOs. The higher the oxidation degree of GOs is getting, the fewer the numbers of graphene layers can be obtained. The material is characterized by elemental analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. The obtained graphene sheets with single, triple and quintuplicate layers as anode materials exhibit a high reversible capacity of 1175, 1007, and 842 mA h g{sup -1}, respectively, which show that the graphene sheets with fewer layers have higher reversible capacity. -- Graphical abstract: The typical TEM images of the graphene sheets derived from GO3(a), GO2(b) and GO1(c). Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} With the oxidation degree of GO increasing, the numbers of graphene layers decreased. {yields} With the numbers of graphene layers decreasing, the reversible capacity improved. {yields} Graphene sheets with single-layer exhibit the best electrochemical performances.

  7. Controllable chemical vapor deposition growth of few layer graphene for electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dacheng; Wu, Bin; Guo, Yunlong; Yu, Gui; Liu, Yunqi

    2013-01-15

    Because of its atomic thickness, excellent properties, and widespread applications, graphene is regarded as one of the most promising candidate materials for nanoelectronics. The wider use of graphene will require processes that produce this material in a controllable manner. In this Account, we focus on our recent studies of the controllable chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of graphene, especially few-layer graphene (FLG), and the applications of this material in electronic devices. CVD provides various means of control over the morphologies of the produced graph ene. We studied several variables that can affect the CVD growth of graphene, including the catalyst, gas flow rate, growth time, and growth temperature and successfully achieved the controlled growth of hexagonal graphene crystals. Moreover, we developed several modified CVD methods for the controlled growth of FLGs. Patterned CVD produced FLGs with desired shapes in required areas. By introducing dopant precursor in the CVD process, we produced substitutionally doped FLGs, avoiding the typically complicated post-treatment processes for graphene doping. We developed a template CVD method to produce FLG ribbons with controllable morphologies on a large scale. An oxidation-activated surface facilitated the CVD growth of polycrystalline graphene without the use of a metal catalyst or a complicated postgrowth transfer process. In devices, CVD offers a controllable means to modulate the electronic properties of the graphene samples and to improve device performance. Using CVD-grown hexagonal graphene crystals as the channel materials in field-effect transistors (FETs), we improved carrier mobility. Substitutional doping of graphene in CVD opened a band gap for efficient FET operation and modulated the Fermi energy level for n-type or p-type features. The similarity between the chemical structure of graphene and organic semiconductors suggests potential applications of graphene in organic devices. We

  8. Selective catalytic burning of graphene by SiOx layer depletion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Jae; Ihm, Kyuwook; Kumar, Yogesh; Baik, Jaeyoon; Yang, Mihyun; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Kang, Tai-Hee; Chung, Sukmin; Hong, Byung Hee

    2014-01-01

    We report catalytic decomposition of few-layer graphene on an Au/SiOx/Si surface wherein oxygen is supplied by dissociation of the native SiOx layer at a relatively low temperature of 400 °C. The detailed chemical evolution of the graphene covered SiOx/Si surface with and without gold during the catalytic process is investigated using a spatially resolved photoelectron emission method. The oxygen atoms from the native SiOx layer activate the gold-mediated catalytic decomposition of the entire graphene layer, resulting in the formation of direct contact between the Au and the Si substrate. The notably low contact resistivity found in this system suggests that the catalytic depletion of a SiOx layer could realize a new way to micromanufacture high-quality electrical contact. PMID:24316816

  9. Monolayer Graphene as Ultimate Chemical Passivation Layer for Arbitrarily Shaped Metal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter E.; Albrecht, P.; Camino, F.E.; Sutter, P.

    2010-12-01

    Monolayer graphene was grown on polycrystalline Ru thin films on patterned fused silica. The Ru films grow with columnar structure with strongly aligned grains exposing flat (0 0 0 1) surface facets within the 3D geometric patterns and on the adjacent planar silica surface. The monolayer graphene was found to completely and uniformly cover the Ru films on the complex engineered substrates. In addition, we demonstrate that the single atomic layer graphene protects the underlying metal surface against reaction with ambient gases of particular importance for applications such as concave focusing mirrors, non-planar microelectrode arrays, etc.

  10. Work function engineering of single layer graphene by irradiation-induced defects

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong-Hun; Hwang, Jin Heui; Kwon, Sangku; Young Park, Jeong; Suh, Joonki; Tongay, Sefaattin; Hwang, C. C.; Wu, Junqiao

    2013-10-21

    We report the tuning of electrical properties of single layer graphene by α-beam irradiation. As the defect density increases upon irradiation, the surface potential of the graphene changes, as determined by Kelvin probe force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy studies. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicate that the formation of C/O bonding is promoted as the dose of irradiation increases when at atmospheric conditions. Our results show that the surface potential of the graphene can be engineered by introducing atomic-scale defects via irradiation with high-energy particles.

  11. Dielectric function for doped graphene layer with barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Ramos, Manuel; Garces Garcia, Eric; Magana, Fernado; Vazquez Fonseca, Gerardo Jorge

    2015-03-01

    The aim of our study is to calculate the dielectric function for a system formed with a graphene layer doped with barium titanate. Density functional theory, within the local density approximation, plane-waves and pseudopotentials scheme as implemented in Quantum Espresso suite of programs was used. We considered 128 carbon atoms with a barium titanate cluster of 11 molecules as unit cell with periodic conditions. The geometry optimization is achieved. Optimization of structural configuration is performed by relaxation of all atomic positions to minimize their total energies. Band structure, density of states and linear optical response (the imaginary part of dielectric tensor) were calculated. We thank Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, partial financial support by Grant IN-106514 and we also thank Miztli Super-Computing center the technical assistance.

  12. Selective growth of graphene in layer-by-layer via chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaehyun; An, Hyosub; Choi, Dong-Chul; Hussain, Sajjad; Song, Wooseok; An, Ki-Seok; Lee, Won-Jun; Lee, Naesung; Lee, Wan-Gyu; Jung, Jongwan

    2016-07-01

    Selective and precise control of the layer number of graphene remains a critical issue for the practical applications of graphene. First, it is highly challenging to grow a continuous and uniform few-layer graphene since once the monolayer graphene fully covers a copper (Cu) surface, the growth of the second layer stops, resulting in mostly nonhomogeneous films. Second, from the selective adlayer growth point of view, there is no clear pathway for achieving this. We have developed the selective growth of a graphene adlayer in layer-by-layer via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) which makes it possible to stack graphene on a specific position. The key idea is to deposit a thin Cu layer (~40 nm thick) on pre-grown monolayer graphene and to apply additional growth. The thin Cu atop the graphene/Cu substrate acts as a catalyst to decompose methane (CH4) gas during the additional growth. The adlayer is grown selectively on the pre-grown graphene, and the thin Cu is removed through evaporation during CVD, eventually forming large-area and uniform double layer graphene. With this technology, highly uniform graphene films with precise thicknesses of 1 to 5 layers and graphene check patterns with 1 to 3 layers were successfully demonstrated. This method provides precise LBL growth for a uniform graphene film and a technique for the design of new graphene devices.Selective and precise control of the layer number of graphene remains a critical issue for the practical applications of graphene. First, it is highly challenging to grow a continuous and uniform few-layer graphene since once the monolayer graphene fully covers a copper (Cu) surface, the growth of the second layer stops, resulting in mostly nonhomogeneous films. Second, from the selective adlayer growth point of view, there is no clear pathway for achieving this. We have developed the selective growth of a graphene adlayer in layer-by-layer via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) which makes it possible to stack graphene

  13. Spectroscopic characterization of charge carrier anisotropic motion in twisted few-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandyba, Viktor; Yablonskikh, Mikhail; Barinov, Alexei

    2015-11-01

    Graphene, a layer of carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice, captures enormous interest as probably the most promising component of future electronics thanks to its mechanical robustness, flexibility, and unique charge carrier quasiparticles propagating like massless high energy Dirac fermions. If several graphene layers form a stack, the interaction between them is, on the one hand, weak, allowing realization of various registries between the layers and, on the other hand, strong enough for a wide range tuning of the electronic properties. Here we grow few layer graphene with various number of layers and twist configurations and address the electronic properties of individual atomic layers in single microscopic domains using angle-resolved photoelectron spectromicroscopy. The dependence of the interlayer coupling on the twist angle is analyzed and, in the domains with tri-layers and more, if different rotations are present, the electrons in weaker coupled adjacent layers are shown to have different properties manifested by coexisting van Hove singularities, moiré superlattices with corresponding superlattice Dirac points, and charge carrier group velocity renormalizations. Moreover, pronounced anisotropy in the charge carrier motion, opening a possibility to transform strongly coupled graphene bilayers into quasi one-dimensional conductors, is observed.

  14. Spectroscopic characterization of charge carrier anisotropic motion in twisted few-layer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Kandyba, Viktor; Yablonskikh, Mikhail; Barinov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, a layer of carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice, captures enormous interest as probably the most promising component of future electronics thanks to its mechanical robustness, flexibility, and unique charge carrier quasiparticles propagating like massless high energy Dirac fermions. If several graphene layers form a stack, the interaction between them is, on the one hand, weak, allowing realization of various registries between the layers and, on the other hand, strong enough for a wide range tuning of the electronic properties. Here we grow few layer graphene with various number of layers and twist configurations and address the electronic properties of individual atomic layers in single microscopic domains using angle-resolved photoelectron spectromicroscopy. The dependence of the interlayer coupling on the twist angle is analyzed and, in the domains with tri-layers and more, if different rotations are present, the electrons in weaker coupled adjacent layers are shown to have different properties manifested by coexisting van Hove singularities, moiré superlattices with corresponding superlattice Dirac points, and charge carrier group velocity renormalizations. Moreover, pronounced anisotropy in the charge carrier motion, opening a possibility to transform strongly coupled graphene bilayers into quasi one-dimensional conductors, is observed. PMID:26548567

  15. Electromechanical coupling in atomically thin MoS2 and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzeli, Sajedeh; Benameur, Muhammed Malik; Allain, Adrien; Ghadimi, Amirhossein; Tosun, Mahmut; Kis, Andras; Gargiulo, Fernando; Autès, Gabriel; Yazyev, Oleg V.

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) based on novel materials such as graphene and MoS2 allow studying their electromechanical characteristics. Here, we incorporate single and bilayer MoS2 and graphene into NEMS and investigated their electromechanical behavior. We observe a Strain-induced bandgap modulation in atomically thin MoS2 membranes with a thickness dependent modulation rate. Finite element modeling is used to extract the piezoresistive gauge factor for MoS2. In the case of graphene, deflection of monolayer graphene nanoribbons results in a linear increase in their electrical resistance where an upper limit is estimated for the gauge factor. Surprisingly, we observe oscillations in the electromechanical response of bilayer graphene. Our numerical simulations indicate that these oscillations arise from quantum mechanical interference in the transition region induced by sliding of individual graphene layers with respect to each other. Our results reveal that atomically thin MoS2 membranes show strong piezoresistive effect, comparable to the state-of-the-art silicon sensors. Moreover, bilayer graphene conceals unexpectedly novel physics allowing the rare observation of room temperature electronic interference phenomena.

  16. Atomic force spectroscopy and density-functional study of graphene corrugation on Ru(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voloshina, Elena; Dedkov, Yuriy

    2016-06-01

    Graphene, the thinnest material in the world, can form moiré structures on different substrates, including graphite, h -BN, or metal surfaces. In such systems, the structure of graphene, i.e., its corrugation, as well as its electronic and elastic properties, are defined by the combination of the system geometry and local interaction strength at the interface. The corrugation in such structures on metals is heavily extracted from diffraction or local probe microscopy experiments, and it can be obtained only via comparison with theoretical data, which usually simulate the experimental findings. Here we show that graphene corrugation on metals can be measured directly employing atomic force spectroscopy, and the obtained value coincides with state-of-the-art theoretical results. The presented results demonstrate an unexpected space selectivity for the Δ f (z ) signal in the atomic force spectroscopy in the moiré graphene lattice on Ru(0001), which is explained by the different response of the graphene layer on the indentation process. We also address the elastic reaction of the formed graphene nanodoms on the indentation process by the scanning tip that is important for the modeling and fabrication of graphene-based nanoresonators on the nanoscale.

  17. On-Surface Synthesis of Atomically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Talirz, Leopold; Ruffieux, Pascal; Fasel, Roman

    2016-08-01

    The surface-assisted polymerization and cyclodehydrogenation of specifically designed organic precursors provides a route toward atomically precise graphene nanoribbons, which promises to combine the outstanding electronic properties of graphene with a bandgap that is sufficiently large for room-temperature digital-logic applications. Starting from the basic concepts behind the on-surface synthesis approach, this report covers the progress made in understanding the different reaction steps, in synthesizing atomically precise graphene nanoribbons of various widths and edge structures, and in characterizing their properties, ending with an outlook on the challenges that still lie ahead. PMID:26867990

  18. Water Desalination Using Nanoporous Single-Layer Graphene with Tunable Pore Size

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Surwade, Sumedh P.; Smirnov, Sergei N.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Dai, Sheng; Mahurin, Shannon Mark

    2015-03-23

    Graphene has great potential to serve as a separation membrane due to its unique properties such as chemical and mechanical stability, flexibility and most importantly its one-atom thickness. In this study, we demonstrate first experimental evidence of the use of single-layer porous graphene as a desalination membrane. Nanometer-sized pores are introduced into single layer graphene using a convenient oxygen plasma etching process that permits tuning of the pore size. The resulting porous graphene membrane exhibited high rejection of salt ions and rapid water transport, thus functioning as an efficient water desalination membrane. Salt rejection selectivity of nearly 100% and exceptionallymore » high water fluxes exceeding 105 g m-2 s-1 at 40 C were measured using saturated water vapor as a driving force.« less

  19. Silicon layer intercalation of centimeter-scale, epitaxially grown monolayer graphene on Ru(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jinhai; Huang, Li; Pan, Yi; Gao, Min; He, Junfeng; Zhou, Haitao; Guo, Haiming; Tian, Yuan; Zou, Qiang; Zhang, Lizhi; Zhang, Haigang; Wang, Yeliang; Du, Shixuan; Zhou, Xingjiang; Castro Neto, A. H.; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2012-02-01

    We develop a strategy for graphene growth on Ru(0001) followed by silicon-layer intercalation that not only weakens the interaction of graphene with the metal substrate but also retains its superlative properties. This G/Si/Ru architecture, produced by silicon-layer intercalation approach (SIA), was characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and angle resolved electron photoemission spectroscopy. These experiments show high structural and electronic qualities of this new composite. The SIA allows for an atomic control of the distance between the graphene and the metal substrate that can be used as a top gate. Our results show potential for the next generation of graphene-based materials with tailored properties.

  20. Water Desalination Using Nanoporous Single-Layer Graphene with Tunable Pore Size

    SciTech Connect

    Surwade, Sumedh P.; Smirnov, Sergei N.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Dai, Sheng; Mahurin, Shannon Mark

    2015-03-23

    Graphene has great potential to serve as a separation membrane due to its unique properties such as chemical and mechanical stability, flexibility and most importantly its one-atom thickness. In this study, we demonstrate first experimental evidence of the use of single-layer porous graphene as a desalination membrane. Nanometer-sized pores are introduced into single layer graphene using a convenient oxygen plasma etching process that permits tuning of the pore size. The resulting porous graphene membrane exhibited high rejection of salt ions and rapid water transport, thus functioning as an efficient water desalination membrane. Salt rejection selectivity of nearly 100% and exceptionally high water fluxes exceeding 105 g m-2 s-1 at 40 C were measured using saturated water vapor as a driving force.

  1. Nanoscale imaging of freestanding nitrogen doped single layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ganjigunte R S; Wang, Jian; Wells, Garth; Bradley, Michael P; Borondics, Ferenc

    2015-02-14

    Graphene can be p-type or n-type doped by introduction of specific species. Doping can modulate the electronic properties of graphene, but opening a sizable-well-tuned bandgap is essential for graphene-based tunable electronic devices. N-doped graphene is widely used for device applications and is mostly achieved by introducing ammonia into the synthesis gas during the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Post synthesis treatment studies to fine-tune the electron hole doping in graphene are limited. In this work realization of N-doping in large area freestanding single layer graphene (LFG) is achieved by post treatment in nitrogen plasma. The changes in the chemical and electronic properties of graphene are followed with Raman microscopy and mapped via synchrotron based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the nanoscale. PMID:25584935

  2. Evaluation of multi-layered graphene surface plasmon resonance-based transmission type fiber optic sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang Ah; Kulkarni, Atul; Kang, Junmo; Amin, Rashid; Choi, Jae-Boong; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Taesung

    2012-07-01

    Graphene is a zero band-gap semi-metal with remarkable electromagnetic and mechanical characteristics. This study is the first ever attempt to use graphene in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor as replacement material for gold/silver. Graphene, comprised of a single atomic layer of carbon, is a purely two-dimensional material and it is an ideal candidate for use as a biosensor because of its high surface-to-volume ratio. This sensor is based on the resonance occasion of the surface plasmon wave (SPW) according to the dielectric constants of each metal film and detected material in gas or aqueous phase. Graphene in the SPR sensor is expected to enlarge the range of analyte to bio-aerosols based on the superior electromagnetic properties of graphene. In this study, a SPR-based fiber optic sensor coated with multi-layered graphene is described. The multi-layered graphene film synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Ni substrate was transferred on the sensing region of an optical fiber. The graphene coated SPR sensor is used to analyze the interaction between structured DNA biotin and Streptavidin is analyzed. Transmitted light after passing through the sensing region is measured by a spectrometer and multimeter. As the light source, blue light which of 450 to 460 nm in wavelength was used. We observed the SPR phenomena in the sensor and show the contrary trends between bare fiber and graphene coated fiber. The fabricated graphene based fiber optic sensor shows excellent detection sensitivity of the interaction between structured DNA and Streptavidin. PMID:22966575

  3. Large-Area Quality Control of Atomically-Thin Layered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolen, Craig Merten

    Fast progress in chemical vapor deposition of graphene and other quasi-two-dimensional layered materials such as topological insulators call for development of a reliable high-throughput method of layered materials identification and quality control. The number of atomic planes in graphene or other ultra-thin films has to be determined very fast and over large wafer-scale areas. The previously existed methods of accurate counting of the number of atomic planes in few-layer graphene were primarily based on micro-Raman spectroscopy. These methods were local, slow, and could not be scaled up to characterize the whole wafers. In this dissertation research I proposed and developed an automatic approach for graphene inspection over the wafer-size areas. The proposed method can be scaled up for industrial use. It is based on the image processing analysis of the pseudo-color contrasts uniquely assigned to each few-layer graphene region characterized by a specific number of atomic planes. The initial calibration of the technique is performed with the help of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The image processing is also used to account for the lighting non-uniformity of the samples. Implementation of the technique developed in this dissertation research reduces the cost and time required for graphene identification and quality assessment, and can become the next major impetus for practical applications of graphene, few-layer graphene and other atomically-thin films. The technique was tested on mechanically exfoliated graphene and then extended to the chemical-vapor-deposited graphene, and to bismuth telluride topological insulator thin films. The second part of the dissertation research deals with development of the electrostatic transfer process. The investigated approach allows one to transfer the patterned few-layer graphene films controllably to Si3N4 substrates compatible with other materials. The large-area quality control and graphene transfer techniques developed in this

  4. Dynamical screening of the van der Waals interaction between graphene layers.

    PubMed

    Dappe, Y J; Bolcatto, P G; Ortega, J; Flores, F

    2012-10-24

    The interaction between graphene layers is analyzed combining local orbital DFT and second order perturbation theory. For this purpose we use the linear combination of atomic orbitals-orbital occupancy (LCAO-OO) formalism, that allows us to separate the interaction energy as the sum of a weak chemical interaction between graphene layers plus the van der Waals interaction (Dappe et al 2006 Phys. Rev. B 74 205434). In this work, the weak chemical interaction is calculated by means of corrected-LDA calculations using an atomic-like sp(3)d(5) basis set. The van der Waals interaction is calculated by means of second order perturbation theory using an atom-atom interaction approximation and the atomic-like-orbital occupancies. We also analyze the effect of dynamical screening in the van der Waals interaction using a simple model. We find that this dynamical screening reduces by 40% the van der Waals interaction. Taking this effect into account, we obtain a graphene-graphene interaction energy of 70 ± 5 meV/atom in reasonable agreement with the experimental evidence. PMID:23032606

  5. Dynamical screening of the van der Waals interaction between graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dappe, Y. J.; Bolcatto, P. G.; Ortega, J.; Flores, F.

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between graphene layers is analyzed combining local orbital DFT and second order perturbation theory. For this purpose we use the linear combination of atomic orbitals-orbital occupancy (LCAO-OO) formalism, that allows us to separate the interaction energy as the sum of a weak chemical interaction between graphene layers plus the van der Waals interaction (Dappe et al 2006 Phys. Rev. B 74 205434). In this work, the weak chemical interaction is calculated by means of corrected-LDA calculations using an atomic-like sp3d5 basis set. The van der Waals interaction is calculated by means of second order perturbation theory using an atom-atom interaction approximation and the atomic-like-orbital occupancies. We also analyze the effect of dynamical screening in the van der Waals interaction using a simple model. We find that this dynamical screening reduces by 40% the van der Waals interaction. Taking this effect into account, we obtain a graphene-graphene interaction energy of 70 ± 5 meV/atom in reasonable agreement with the experimental evidence.

  6. Nanoscale imaging of freestanding nitrogen doped single layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Ganjigunte R. S.; Wang, Jian; Wells, Garth; Bradley, Michael P.; Borondics, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    Graphene can be p-type or n-type doped by introduction of specific species. Doping can modulate the electronic properties of graphene, but opening a sizable-well-tuned bandgap is essential for graphene-based tunable electronic devices. N-doped graphene is widely used for device applications and is mostly achieved by introducing ammonia into the synthesis gas during the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Post synthesis treatment studies to fine-tune the electron hole doping in graphene are limited. In this work realization of N-doping in large area freestanding single layer graphene (LFG) is achieved by post treatment in nitrogen plasma. The changes in the chemical and electronic properties of graphene are followed with Raman microscopy and mapped via synchrotron based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the nanoscale.Graphene can be p-type or n-type doped by introduction of specific species. Doping can modulate the electronic properties of graphene, but opening a sizable-well-tuned bandgap is essential for graphene-based tunable electronic devices. N-doped graphene is widely used for device applications and is mostly achieved by introducing ammonia into the synthesis gas during the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Post synthesis treatment studies to fine-tune the electron hole doping in graphene are limited. In this work realization of N-doping in large area freestanding single layer graphene (LFG) is achieved by post treatment in nitrogen plasma. The changes in the chemical and electronic properties of graphene are followed with Raman microscopy and mapped via synchrotron based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the nanoscale. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05385k

  7. Direct Ablation by Laser of Single Graphene Monolayer and Graphene/Photopolymer Double Layer.

    PubMed

    Min, Jeong; Han, Jae-Hee; Lee, Jung-Hun; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Kwon, Sang Jik; Cho, Eou Sik

    2015-03-01

    A diode-pumped Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate (Nd:YVO4, λ = 1064 nm) laser was applied to obtain graphene patterns on a photopolymer layer by direct ablation. In the transfer process of the graphene layer, the photopolymer was employed as a graphene supporting layer and it was not removed for the simplification of the process. The laser ablation was carried out on graphene/photopolymer double layers for various beam conditions. The results showed that the laser-ablated widths on the graphene/photopolymer double layer were much greater than those on the graphene monolayer, especially at lower scanning speeds and at higher repetition rates. The photopolymer layer was not removed by the laser ablation, and the thermal energy was considered to have been dissipated in the lateral direction of graphene instead of being conducted vertically to the glass substrate. The Raman spectrum results showed that the graphene layer was clearly removed on the laser-ablated region of interest. PMID:26413616

  8. Controlling Interfacial Reactions and Intermetallic Compound Growth at the Interface of a Lead-free Solder Joint with Layer-by-Layer Transferred Graphene.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yong-Ho; Lee, Jong-Dae; Yoon, Taeshik; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2016-03-01

    The immoderate growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interface of a solder metal and the substrate during soldering can degrade the mechanical properties and reliability of a solder joint in electronic packaging. Therefore, it is critical to control IMC growth at the solder joints between the solder and the substrate. In this study, we investigated the control of interfacial reactions and IMC growth by the layer-by-layer transfer of graphene during the reflow process at the interface between Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (in wt %) lead-free solder and Cu. As the number of graphene layers transferred onto the surface of the Cu substrate increased, the thickness of the total IMC (Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn) layer decreased. After 10 repetitions of the reflow process for 50 s above 217 °C, the melting temperature of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, with a peak temperature of 250 °C, the increase in thickness of the total IMC layer at the interface with multiple layers of graphene was decreased by more than 20% compared to that at the interface of bare Cu without graphene. Furthermore, the average diameter of the Cu6Sn5 scallops at the interface with multiple layers of graphene was smaller than that at the interface without graphene. Despite 10 repetitions of the reflow process, the growth of Cu3Sn at the interface with multiple layers of graphene was suppressed by more than 20% compared with that at the interface without graphene. The multiple layers of graphene at the interface between the solder metal and the Cu substrate hindered the diffusion of Cu atoms from the Cu substrate and suppressed the reactions between Cu and Sn in the solder. Thus, the multiple layers of graphene transferred at the interface between dissimilar metals can control the interfacial reaction and IMC growth occurring at the joining interface. PMID:26856638

  9. Strong piezoelectricity in single-layer graphene deposited on SiO2 grating substrates

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha Rodrigues, Gonçalo; Zelenovskiy, Pavel; Romanyuk, Konstantin; Luchkin, Sergey; Kopelevich, Yakov; Kholkin, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Electromechanical response of materials is a key property for various applications ranging from actuators to sophisticated nanoelectromechanical systems. Here electromechanical properties of the single-layer graphene transferred onto SiO2 calibration grating substrates is studied via piezoresponse force microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy. The correlation of mechanical strains in graphene layer with the substrate morphology is established via Raman mapping. Apparent vertical piezoresponse from the single-layer graphene supported by underlying SiO2 structure is observed by piezoresponse force microscopy. The calculated vertical piezocoefficient is about 1.4 nm V−1, that is, much higher than that of the conventional piezoelectric materials such as lead zirconate titanate and comparable to that of relaxor single crystals. The observed piezoresponse and achieved strain in graphene are associated with the chemical interaction of graphene's carbon atoms with the oxygen from underlying SiO2. The results provide a basis for future applications of graphene layers for sensing, actuating and energy harvesting. PMID:26108468

  10. Spotting 2D atomic layers on aluminum nitride thin films.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Hareesh; Bharadwaj B, Krishna; Vaidyuala, Kranthi Kumar; Suran, Swathi; Bhat, Navakanta; Varma, Manoj; Srinivasan Raghavan

    2015-10-23

    Substrates for 2D materials are important for tailoring their fundamental properties and realizing device applications. Aluminum nitride (AIN) films on silicon are promising large-area substrates for such devices in view of their high surface phonon energies and reasonably large dielectric constants. In this paper epitaxial layers of AlN on 2″ Si wafers have been investigated as a necessary first step to realize devices from exfoliated or transferred atomic layers. Significant thickness dependent contrast enhancements are both predicted and observed for monolayers of graphene and MoS2 on AlN films as compared to the conventional SiO2 films on silicon, with calculated contrast values approaching 100% for graphene on AlN as compared to 8% for SiO2 at normal incidences. Quantitative estimates of experimentally measured contrast using reflectance spectroscopy show very good agreement with calculated values. Transistors of monolayer graphene on AlN films are demonstrated, indicating the feasibility of complete device fabrication on the identified layers. PMID:26422387

  11. Spotting 2D atomic layers on aluminum nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, Hareesh; Bharadwaj B, Krishna; Vaidyuala, Kranthi Kumar; Suran, Swathi; Bhat, Navakanta; Varma, Manoj; Raghavan, Srinivasan

    2015-10-01

    Substrates for 2D materials are important for tailoring their fundamental properties and realizing device applications. Aluminum nitride (AIN) films on silicon are promising large-area substrates for such devices in view of their high surface phonon energies and reasonably large dielectric constants. In this paper epitaxial layers of AlN on 2″ Si wafers have been investigated as a necessary first step to realize devices from exfoliated or transferred atomic layers. Significant thickness dependent contrast enhancements are both predicted and observed for monolayers of graphene and MoS2 on AlN films as compared to the conventional SiO2 films on silicon, with calculated contrast values approaching 100% for graphene on AlN as compared to 8% for SiO2 at normal incidences. Quantitative estimates of experimentally measured contrast using reflectance spectroscopy show very good agreement with calculated values. Transistors of monolayer graphene on AlN films are demonstrated, indicating the feasibility of complete device fabrication on the identified layers.

  12. High temperature and current density induced degradation of multi-layer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Baoming; Haque, M. A.; Mag-isa, Alexander E.; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo

    2015-10-19

    We present evidence of moderate current density, when accompanied with high temperature, promoting migration of foreign atoms on the surface of multi-layer graphene. Our in situ transmission electron microscope experiments show migration of silicon atoms at temperatures above 800 °C and current density around 4.2 × 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. Originating from the micro-machined silicon structures that clamp the freestanding specimen, the atoms are observed to react with the carbon atoms in the multi-layer graphene to produce silicon carbide at temperatures of 900–1000 °C. In the absence of electrical current, there is no migration of silicon and only pyrolysis of polymeric residue is observed.

  13. Ultrahigh conductivity of large area suspended few layer graphene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhi, Nima; Wang, Yung Yu; Burke, Peter J.

    2012-12-01

    Room-temperature (atmospheric-pressure) electrical conductivity measurements of wafer-scale, large-area suspended (few layer) graphene membranes with areas up to 1000 μm2 (30 μm × 30 μm) are presented. Multiple devices on one wafer can be fabricated with high yield from the same chemical vapor deposition grown graphene sheet, transferred from a nickel growth substrate to large opening in a suspended silicon nitride support membrane. This represents areas two to orders of magnitude larger than prior transport studies on any suspended graphene device (single or few layer). We find a sheet conductivity of ˜2500 e2/h (or about 10 Ω/sq) of the suspended graphene, which is an order of magnitude higher than any previously reported sheet conductance of few layer graphene.

  14. Plasmon modes of circular cylindrical double-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Hu, Min; Zhong, Renbin; Chen, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Ping; Gong, Sen; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Shenggang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a theoretical investigation on plasmon modes in a circular cylindrical double-layer graphene structure is presented. Due to the interlayer electromagnetic interaction, there exist two branches of plasmon modes, the optical plasmon mode and the acoustic plasmon mode. The characteristics of these two modes, such as mode pattern, effective mode index and propagation loss, are analyzed. The modal behaviors can be effectively tuned by changing the distance between two graphene layers, the chemical potential of graphene and the permittivity of interlayer dielectric. Importantly, the breakup of tradeoff between mode confinement and propagation loss is discovered in the distance-dependent modal behavior, which originates from the unique dispersion properties of a double-layer graphene system. As a consequence, both strong mode confinement and longer propagation length can be achieved. Our results may provide good opportunities for developing applications based on graphene plasmonics in circular cylindrical structure. PMID:27607651

  15. Surface stress of graphene layers supported on soft substrate

    PubMed Central

    Du, Feng; Huang, Jianyong; Duan, Huiling; Xiong, Chunyang; Wang, Jianxiang

    2016-01-01

    We obtain the surface stress of a single layer and multilayers of graphene supported on silicone substrates by measuring the deformation of the graphene-covered substrates induced by the surface tension of liquid droplets together with the Neumann’s triangle concept. We find that the surface stress of the graphene-covered substrate is significant larger than that of the bare substrate, and it increases with increasing graphene layers, and finally reaches a constant value of about 120 mN/m on three and more layers of graphene. This work demonstrates that the apparent surface stress of graphene-substrate systems can be tuned by the substrate and the graphene layers. The surface stress and the tuning effect of the substrate on it may have applications in design and characterization of graphene-based ultra-sensitive sensors and other devices. Moreover, the method may also be used to measure the surface stress of other ultrathin films supported on soft substrates. PMID:27166087

  16. Surface stress of graphene layers supported on soft substrate.

    PubMed

    Du, Feng; Huang, Jianyong; Duan, Huiling; Xiong, Chunyang; Wang, Jianxiang

    2016-01-01

    We obtain the surface stress of a single layer and multilayers of graphene supported on silicone substrates by measuring the deformation of the graphene-covered substrates induced by the surface tension of liquid droplets together with the Neumann's triangle concept. We find that the surface stress of the graphene-covered substrate is significant larger than that of the bare substrate, and it increases with increasing graphene layers, and finally reaches a constant value of about 120 mN/m on three and more layers of graphene. This work demonstrates that the apparent surface stress of graphene-substrate systems can be tuned by the substrate and the graphene layers. The surface stress and the tuning effect of the substrate on it may have applications in design and characterization of graphene-based ultra-sensitive sensors and other devices. Moreover, the method may also be used to measure the surface stress of other ultrathin films supported on soft substrates. PMID:27166087

  17. Surface stress of graphene layers supported on soft substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Feng; Huang, Jianyong; Duan, Huiling; Xiong, Chunyang; Wang, Jianxiang

    2016-05-01

    We obtain the surface stress of a single layer and multilayers of graphene supported on silicone substrates by measuring the deformation of the graphene-covered substrates induced by the surface tension of liquid droplets together with the Neumann’s triangle concept. We find that the surface stress of the graphene-covered substrate is significant larger than that of the bare substrate, and it increases with increasing graphene layers, and finally reaches a constant value of about 120 mN/m on three and more layers of graphene. This work demonstrates that the apparent surface stress of graphene-substrate systems can be tuned by the substrate and the graphene layers. The surface stress and the tuning effect of the substrate on it may have applications in design and characterization of graphene-based ultra-sensitive sensors and other devices. Moreover, the method may also be used to measure the surface stress of other ultrathin films supported on soft substrates.

  18. Silicon Layer Intercalation and Interface Properties between Graphene and Metal hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yeliang; Mao, Jinhai; Meng, Lei; Gao, Hongjun; Junfeng He Collaboration; Shixuan Du Collaboration; Xingjiang Zhou Collaboration; A. H. Castro Neto Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Graphene is being considered as a contender as the reference material with extraordinary properties for a post-CMOS technology. The availability of high quality and large scale single crystal graphene is fundamental for it to fulfill its promise in electronic applications. Graphene is usually grown on a metallic substrate from which it has to be transferred before it can be used. However, uncontrolled shear and strain, associated with the transfer and the presence of extended domains, lead to unavoidable tearing, rendering it useless for scalable production. We propose a way to overcome this bottleneck and produce high quality, free standing graphene by intercalating Si in graphene epitaxially grown on metals, like Ru(0001) & Ir(111). This G/Si/metal architecture, produced by the silicon-layer intercalation approach (SIA), was characterized by STM/STS, Raman, and angle resolved electron photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and proves the high structural and electronic qualities of the new composite. The SIA eliminates the need for the graphene transfer and also allows for an atomic control of the distance between the graphene and the metal. Graphene Research Center, Singapore National University.

  19. Investigation of the effect of low energy ion beam irradiation on mono-layer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yijun; II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich- Hund- Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen; State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 ; Zhang, Kun; Brüsewitz, Christoph; Hofsäss, Hans Christian; Wu, Xuemei; State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050

    2013-07-15

    In this paper, the effect of low energy irradiation on mono-layer graphene was studied. Mono-layer graphene films were irradiated with B, N and F ions at different energy and fluence. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that foreign ions implanted at ion energies below 35 eV could dope into the graphene lattice and form new chemical bonds with carbon atoms. The results of Raman measurement indicate that ion beam irradiation causes defects and disorder to the graphene crystal structure, and the level of defects increases with increasing of ion energy and fluence. Surface morphology images also prove that ion beam irradiation creates damages to graphene film. The experiment results suggest that low-energy irradiation with energies of about 30 eV and fluences up to 5·10{sup 14} cm{sup −2} could realize small amount of doping, while introducing weak damage to graphene. Low energy ion beam irradiation, provides a promising approach for controlled doping of graphene.

  20. Adsorption and intercalation of Cs atoms on epitaxial graphene on Ir(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazic, Predrag; Petrovic, Marin; Srut, Iva; Pletikosic, Ivo; Milun, Milorad; Pervan, Petar; Runte, Sven; Busse, Carsten; Michely, Thomas; Sokcevic, Damir; Brako, Radovan; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Sadowski, Jurek; Pan, Zhi-Hu; Valla, Tonica; Kralj, Marko

    2013-03-01

    From the experimental studies of surface adsorption of Cs atoms and their intercalation under epitaxial graphene on Ir(111) it is known that both - adsorbed and intercalated phase of Cs atoms coexist. However, adsorbed phase is realized as a diluted superlattice adlayer of Cs atom while intercalated phase is a dense Cs layer. The preference for intercalated phase at large Cs layer densities can not be obtained from the DFT calculations with semilocal (GGA) functionals. Only after the van der Waals interaction is taken into account the agreement with experiment is achieved. From the results of calculations it follows that the main energy contribution responsible for the switching of preference from adsorption to intercalation is the graphene delamination energy from the Ir(111) surface which is dominantly of the van der Waals nature.

  1. Atomic-Scale Interfacial Magnetism in Fe/Graphene Heterojunction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W. Q.; Wang, W. Y.; Wang, J. J.; Wang, F. Q.; Lu, C.; Jin, F.; Zhang, A.; Zhang, Q. M.; Laan, G. van der; Xu, Y. B.; Li, Q. X.; Zhang, R.

    2015-01-01

    Successful spin injection into graphene makes it a competitive contender in the race to become a key material for quantum computation, or the spin-operation-based data processing and sensing. Engineering ferromagnetic metal (FM)/graphene heterojunctions is one of the most promising avenues to realise it, however, their interface magnetism remains an open question up to this day. In any proposed FM/graphene spintronic devices, the best opportunity for spin transport could only be achieved where no magnetic dead layer exists at the FM/graphene interface. Here we present a comprehensive study of the epitaxial Fe/graphene interface by means of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The experiment has been performed using a specially designed FM1/FM2/graphene structure that to a large extent restores the realistic case of the proposed graphene-based transistors. We have quantitatively observed a reduced but still sizable magnetic moments of the epitaxial Fe ML on graphene, which is well resembled by simulations and can be attributed to the strong hybridization between the Fe 3dz2 and the C 2pz orbitals and the sp-orbital-like behavior of the Fe 3d electrons due to the presence of graphene. PMID:26145155

  2. Electronic and Atomic-Scale Properties of Ultraflat CVD Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Christopher; Rosenthal, Ethan; Dadgar, Ali; Brown, Lola; Lochocki, Edward; Shen, Kyle; Park, Jiwoong; Pasupathy, Abhay

    2014-03-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth on copper foils has proven to be a reliable and cost-effective method for the production of graphene. However, most films grown by this method suffer from misoriented graphene grains as well as topographic roughness due to the polycrystallinity of the underlying copper foil substrate. Recent methods of copper foil treatment have allowed for the growth of graphene predominantly on large single crystal Cu(111) facets. In this talk we discuss scanning tunneling microscope (STM) measurements on such samples that reveal large terraces and atomically-resolved images that allow us to analyze the graphene-copper interaction during the growth. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements and mapping are further employed to probe the electronic interaction between the graphene and copper substrate.

  3. Graphene Layer Growth Chemistry: Five-Six-Ring Flip Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Whitesides, Russell; Domin, Dominik; Lester Jr., William A.; Frenklach, Michael

    2007-03-24

    A theoretical study revealed a new reaction pathway, in which a fused five and six-membered ring complex on the zigzag edge of a graphene layer isomerizes to reverse its orientation, or 'flips,' after activation by a gaseous hydrogen atom. The process is initiated by hydrogen addition to or abstraction from the surface complex. The elementary steps of the migration pathway were analyzed using density-functional theory (DFT) calculations to examine the region of the potential energy surface associated with the pathway. The DFT calculations were performed on substrates modeled by the zigzag edges of tetracene and pentacene. Rate constants for the flip reaction were obtained by the solution of energy master equation utilizing the DFT energies, frequencies, and geometries. The results indicate that this reaction pathway is competitive with other pathways important to the edge evolution of aromatic species in high temperature environments.

  4. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei

    2012-08-01

    Since ancient times, pure carbon materials have been familiar in human society—not only diamonds in jewellery and graphite in pencils, but also charcoal and coal which have been used for centuries as fuel for living and industry. Carbon fibers are stronger, tougher and lighter than steel and increase material efficiency because of their lower weight. Today, carbon fibers and related composite materials are used to make the frames of bicycles, cars and even airplane parts. The two-dimensional allotrope, now called graphene, is just a single layer of carbon atoms, locked together in a strongly bonded honeycomb lattice. In plane, graphene is stiffer than diamond, but out-of-plane it is soft, like rubber. It is virtually invisible, may conduct electricity (heat) better than copper and weighs next to nothing. Carbon compounds with two carbon atoms as a base, such as graphene, graphite or diamond, have isoelectronic sister compounds made of boron-nitrogen pairs: hexagonal and cubic boron nitride, with almost the same lattice constant. Although the two 2D sisters, graphene and h-BN, have the same number of valence electrons, their electronic properties are very different: freestanding h-BN is an insulator, while charge carriers in graphene are highly mobile. The past ten years have seen a great expansion in studies of single-layer and few-layer graphene. This activity has been concerned with the π electron transport in graphene, in electric and magnetic fields. More than 30 years ago, however, single-layer graphene and h-BN on solid surfaces were widely investigated. It was noted that they drastically changed the chemical reactivity of surfaces, and they were known to 'poison' heterogeneous catalysts, to passivate surfaces, to prevent oxidation of surfaces and to act as surfactants. Also, it was realized that the controlled growth of h-BN and graphene on substrates yields the formation of mismatch driven superstructures with peculiar template functionality on the

  5. Atomic-scale control of graphene magnetism by using hydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Herrero, Héctor; Gómez-Rodríguez, José M.; Mallet, Pierre; Moaied, Mohamed; Palacios, Juan José; Salgado, Carlos; Ugeda, Miguel M.; Veuillen, Jean-Yves; Yndurain, Félix; Brihuega, Iván

    2016-04-01

    Isolated hydrogen atoms absorbed on graphene are predicted to induce magnetic moments. Here we demonstrate that the adsorption of a single hydrogen atom on graphene induces a magnetic moment characterized by a ~20–millielectron volt spin-split state at the Fermi energy. Our scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments, complemented by first-principles calculations, show that such a spin-polarized state is essentially localized on the carbon sublattice opposite to the one where the hydrogen atom is chemisorbed. This atomically modulated spin texture, which extends several nanometers away from the hydrogen atom, drives the direct coupling between the magnetic moments at unusually long distances. By using the STM tip to manipulate hydrogen atoms with atomic precision, it is possible to tailor the magnetism of selected graphene regions.

  6. Atomic-scale control of graphene magnetism by using hydrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    González-Herrero, Héctor; Gómez-Rodríguez, José M; Mallet, Pierre; Moaied, Mohamed; Palacios, Juan José; Salgado, Carlos; Ugeda, Miguel M; Veuillen, Jean-Yves; Yndurain, Félix; Brihuega, Iván

    2016-04-22

    Isolated hydrogen atoms absorbed on graphene are predicted to induce magnetic moments. Here we demonstrate that the adsorption of a single hydrogen atom on graphene induces a magnetic moment characterized by a ~20-millielectron volt spin-split state at the Fermi energy. Our scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments, complemented by first-principles calculations, show that such a spin-polarized state is essentially localized on the carbon sublattice opposite to the one where the hydrogen atom is chemisorbed. This atomically modulated spin texture, which extends several nanometers away from the hydrogen atom, drives the direct coupling between the magnetic moments at unusually long distances. By using the STM tip to manipulate hydrogen atoms with atomic precision, it is possible to tailor the magnetism of selected graphene regions. PMID:27102478

  7. Defect formation in single layer graphene under extreme ultraviolet irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, A.; Zoethout, E.; Sturm, J. M.; Lee, C. J.; Bijkerk, F.

    2014-10-01

    We study extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation induced defects in single-layer graphene. Two mechanisms for inducing defects in graphene were separately investigated: photon induced chemical reactions between graphene and background residual gases, and breaking sp2 bonds, due to photon and/or photoelectrons induced bond cleaving. Raman spectroscopy shows that D peak intensities grow after EUV irradiation with increasing water partial pressure in the exposure chamber. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments prove that EUV radiation results in water dissociation on the graphene surface. The oxidation of graphene, caused by water dissociation, is triggered by photon and/or photoelectron induced dissociation of water. Our studies show that the EUV photons break the sp2 bonds, forming sp3 bonds, leading to defects in graphene.

  8. Direct growth of ultrafast transparent single-layer graphene defoggers.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lifang; Zeng, Mengqi; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Linfeng; Wang, Jiao; Zhang, Tao; Eckert, Jürgen; Rümmeli, Mark H; Fu, Lei

    2015-04-17

    The idea flat surface, superb thermal conductivity and excellent optical transmittance of single-layer graphene promise tremendous potential for graphene as a material for transparent defoggers. However, the resistance of defoggers made from conventional transferred graphene increases sharply once both sides of the film are covered by water molecules which, in turn, leads to a temperature drop that is inefficient for fog removal. Here, the direct growth of large-area and continuous graphene films on quartz is reported, and the first practical single-layer graphene defogger is fabricated. The advantages of this single-layer graphene defogger lie in its ultrafast defogging time for relatively low input voltages and excellent defogging robustness. It can completely remove fog within 6 s when supplied a safe voltage of 32 V. No visible changes in the full defogging time after 50 defogging cycles are observed. This outstanding performance is attributed to the strong interaction forces between the graphene films and the substrates, which prevents the permeation of water molecules. These directly grown transparent graphene defoggers are expected to have excellent prospects in various applications such as anti-fog glasses, auto window and mirror defogging. PMID:25510608

  9. Ultraviolet laser deposition of graphene thin films without catalytic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, the formation of nanostructured graphene by ultraviolet laser ablation of a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite target under optimized conditions is demonstrated, without a catalytic layer, and a model for the growth process is proposed. Previously, graphene film deposition by low-energy laser (2.3 eV) was explained by photo-thermal models, which implied that graphene films cannot be deposited by laser energies higher than the C-C bond energy in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (3.7 eV). Here, we show that nanostructured graphene films can in fact be deposited using ultraviolet laser (5 eV) directly over different substrates, without a catalytic layer. The formation of graphene is explained by bond-breaking assisted by photoelectronic excitation leading to formation of carbon clusters at the target and annealing out of defects at the substrate.

  10. Length-dependent thermal conductivity in suspended single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangfan; Pereira, Luiz F. C.; Wang, Yu; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Kaiwen; Zhao, Xiangming; Bae, Sukang; Tinh Bui, Cong; Xie, Rongguo; Thong, John T. L.; Hong, Byung Hee; Loh, Kian Ping; Donadio, Davide; Li, Baowen; Özyilmaz, Barbaros

    2014-04-01

    Graphene exhibits extraordinary electronic and mechanical properties, and extremely high thermal conductivity. Being a very stable atomically thick membrane that can be suspended between two leads, graphene provides a perfect test platform for studying thermal conductivity in two-dimensional systems, which is of primary importance for phonon transport in low-dimensional materials. Here we report experimental measurements and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conduction in suspended single-layer graphene as a function of both temperature and sample length. Interestingly and in contrast to bulk materials, at 300 K, thermal conductivity keeps increasing and remains logarithmically divergent with sample length even for sample lengths much larger than the average phonon mean free path. This result is a consequence of the two-dimensional nature of phonons in graphene, and provides fundamental understanding of thermal transport in two-dimensional materials.

  11. Atomic oxidation of large area epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Velez-Fort, E.; Ouerghi, A.; Silly, M. G.; Sirtti, F.; Eddrief, M.; Marangolo, M.; Shukla, A.

    2014-03-03

    Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC were studied before and after an atomic oxidation process. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy indicates that oxygen penetrates into the substrate and decouples a part of the interface layer. Raman spectroscopy demonstrates the increase of defects due to the presence of oxygen. Interestingly, we observed on the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra a splitting of the π* peak into two distinct resonances centered at 284.7 and 285.2 eV. This double structure smears out after the oxidation process and permits to probe the interface architecture between graphene and the substrate.

  12. Chemical storage of hydrogen in few-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, K S; Kumar, Prashant; Maitra, Urmimala; Govindaraj, A; Hembram, K P S S; Waghmare, Umesh V; Rao, C N R

    2011-02-15

    Birch reduction of few-layer graphene samples gives rise to hydrogenated samples containing up to 5 wt % of hydrogen. Spectroscopic studies reveal the presence of sp(3) C-H bonds in the hydrogenated graphenes. They, however, decompose readily on heating to 500 °C or on irradiation with UV or laser radiation releasing all the hydrogen, thereby demonstrating the possible use of few-layer graphene for chemical storage of hydrogen. First-principles calculations throw light on the mechanism of dehydrogenation that appears to involve a significant reconstruction and relaxation of the lattice. PMID:21282617

  13. Chemical storage of hydrogen in few-layer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Subrahmanyam, K. S.; Kumar, Prashant; Maitra, Urmimala; Govindaraj, A.; Hembram, K. P. S. S.; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2011-01-01

    Birch reduction of few-layer graphene samples gives rise to hydrogenated samples containing up to 5 wt % of hydrogen. Spectroscopic studies reveal the presence of sp3 C-H bonds in the hydrogenated graphenes. They, however, decompose readily on heating to 500 °C or on irradiation with UV or laser radiation releasing all the hydrogen, thereby demonstrating the possible use of few-layer graphene for chemical storage of hydrogen. First-principles calculations throw light on the mechanism of dehydrogenation that appears to involve a significant reconstruction and relaxation of the lattice. PMID:21282617

  14. Chemical gating of epitaxial graphene through ultrathin oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larciprete, Rosanna; Lacovig, Paolo; Orlando, Fabrizio; Dalmiglio, Matteo; Omiciuolo, Luca; Baraldi, Alessandro; Lizzit, Silvano

    2015-07-01

    We achieved a controllable chemical gating of epitaxial graphene grown on metal substrates by exploiting the electrostatic polarization of ultrathin SiO2 layers synthesized below it. Intercalated oxygen diffusing through the SiO2 layer modifies the metal-oxide work function and hole dopes graphene. The graphene/oxide/metal heterostructure behaves as a gated plane capacitor with the in situ grown SiO2 layer acting as a homogeneous dielectric spacer, whose high capacity allows the Fermi level of graphene to be shifted by a few hundreds of meV when the oxygen coverage at the metal substrate is of the order of 0.5 monolayers. The hole doping can be finely tuned by controlling the amount of interfacial oxygen, as well as by adjusting the thickness of the oxide layer. After complete thermal desorption of oxygen the intrinsic doping of SiO2 supported graphene is evaluated in the absence of contaminants and adventitious adsorbates. The demonstration that the charge state of graphene can be changed by chemically modifying the buried oxide/metal interface hints at the possibility of tuning the level and sign of doping by the use of other intercalants capable of diffusing through the ultrathin porous dielectric and reach the interface with the metal.We achieved a controllable chemical gating of epitaxial graphene grown on metal substrates by exploiting the electrostatic polarization of ultrathin SiO2 layers synthesized below it. Intercalated oxygen diffusing through the SiO2 layer modifies the metal-oxide work function and hole dopes graphene. The graphene/oxide/metal heterostructure behaves as a gated plane capacitor with the in situ grown SiO2 layer acting as a homogeneous dielectric spacer, whose high capacity allows the Fermi level of graphene to be shifted by a few hundreds of meV when the oxygen coverage at the metal substrate is of the order of 0.5 monolayers. The hole doping can be finely tuned by controlling the amount of interfacial oxygen, as well as by adjusting

  15. Atomic layer-by-layer epitaxy of cuprate superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Bozovic, I.; Eckstein, J.N.; Virshup, G.F.

    1994-03-01

    A technique for atomic layer-by-layer epitaxy of cuprate superconductors and other complex oxides has been developed at Varian. The samples are engineered by stacking molecular layers of different compounds to assemble multilayers and superlattices, by adding or omitting atomic monolayers to create novel compounds, and by doping within specified atomic monolayers. Apart form manufacturing trilayer Josephson junctions with I{sub c}R{sub n}>5 mV, this technique enables one to address fundamental issues such as the dimensionality of HTSC state, existence of long-range proximity effects, occurrence of resonant tunneling etc., as well as to synthesize novel metastable HTSC compounds. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Characterization of Graphene and Transition Metal Dichalcogenide at the Atomic Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Lin, Yung-Chang; Warner, Jamie H.; Teng, Po-Yuan; Yeh, Chao-Hui; Chiu, Po-Wen; Iijima, Sumio; Suenga, Kazu

    2015-12-01

    Edge structures and atomic defects are of fundamental importance since they can significantly affect the physical and chemical properties of low-dimensional materials, such as nanoribbons, and therefore merit thorough investigations at the atomic level. Recent developments of direct imaging and analytical techniques using an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) have provided direct access to information on the local atomic structure and the chemical composition at the atomic scale. In this review, we report on the discrimination of single atoms including dopant atoms on a monolayered transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanoribbon and a single nitrogen adatom on graphene by time-resolved annular dark-field (ADF) imaging and spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). We also show that in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy can be used to monitor the structural transformation between semiconducting (2H) and metallic (1T) phases in monolayer MoS2, and can enable direct observation of in-plane graphene growth at a step edge of a bi-layer graphene and domain boundary formation during growth with atomic-resolution.

  17. Raman and ellipsometry spectroscopic analysis of graphene films grown directly on Si substrate via CVD technique for estimating the graphene atomic planes number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hazmi, F. S.; Beall, Gary W.; Al-Ghamdi, A. A.; Alshahrie, Ahmed; Shokr, F. S.; Mahmoud, Waleed E.

    2016-08-01

    Two reliable approaches for estimating the number of atomic planes of graphene films grown on Si substrate were demonstrated by Raman and ellipsometry spectroscopies. The first approach depends on the measurement of the ratio of the integrated Raman scattering intensity of the graphene G band to the optical phonon band of Si substrate (IG/ISi). The second approach belongs to ellipsometry measurement of the ratio of the amplitude of the reflected polarized light from the surface of the graphene films to the amplitude of reflected polarized light from the surface of the Si substrate (ΨG/ΨSi). These two approaches could efficiently recognize the number of atomic planes in the graphene films (1 ≤ n ≤ 10). The results were compared with atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement and showed a linear regression with slope of 0.36 ± 0.01 nm/graphene layer. The Two approaches will open a new avenue to efficiently count the number of graphene layers during the preparation process.

  18. Atomic intercalation - a practical method to determine the nanoscale adhesion energy of graphene on HOPG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Sorescu, Dan; Jeon, Seokmin; Belianinov, Alexei; Kalinin, Sergei; Baddorf, Arthur; Maksymovych, Petro

    A detailed analysis of atomic intercalates in graphite provides a direct estimate of the nanoscale elastic adhesion of a graphene sheet atop highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Atomic intercalation is carried out using conventional ion sputtering, creating ``blisters'' in the top-most layer of the HOPG surface. Scanning tunneling microscopy coupled with image analysis and density functional theory is used to reconstruct the atomic positions and the strain map within the deformed graphene sheet. To estimate the adhesion energy we invoke an analytical model originally devised for macroscopic deformations of graphene. This model yields a value of is 0.221 +/- 0.011 J/m2 for the adhesion energy of graphite, which is in surprisingly good agreement with reported experimental and theoretical values. This implies that mechanical properties of graphene scale at least to lengths of a few nanometers. The simplicity of our method enables analysis of elastic mechanical properties in many two-dimensional layered materials and provides a unique opportunity to investigate the local variability of mechanical properties on the nanoscale. Acknowledgements: Experiments were conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  19. Addressing Raman features of individual layers in isotopically labeled Bernal stacked bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Sara D.; Weis, Johan Ek; Frank, Otakar; Fridrichová, Michaela; Kalbac, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In this report important Raman modes for the evaluation of strain in graphene (the 2D and 2D‧) are analyzed. The isotope labeling is used to disentangle contribution of individual graphene layers of graphene bilayer to the studied Raman modes. It is shown that for Bernal-stacked bilayers, the 2D and the 2D‧ Raman modes have three distinct components that can be assigned to processes originating solely from the top graphene layer, bottom graphene layer, and from a combination of processes originating both from the top and bottom layers. The reported results thus enable addressing the properties of individual graphene layers in graphene bilayer by Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Extremely large magnetoresistance in few-layer graphene/boron–nitride heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Gopinadhan, Kalon; Shin, Young Jun; Jalil, Rashid; Venkatesan, Thirumalai; Geim, Andre K.; Neto, Antonio H. Castro; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding magnetoresistance, the change in electrical resistance under an external magnetic field, at the atomic level is of great interest both fundamentally and technologically. Graphene and other two-dimensional layered materials provide an unprecedented opportunity to explore magnetoresistance at its nascent stage of structural formation. Here we report an extremely large local magnetoresistance of∼2,000% at 400 K and a non-local magnetoresistance of >90,000% in an applied magnetic field of 9 T at 300 K in few-layer graphene/boron–nitride heterostructures. The local magnetoresistance is understood to arise from large differential transport parameters, such as the carrier mobility, across various layers of few-layer graphene upon a normal magnetic field, whereas the non-local magnetoresistance is due to the magnetic field induced Ettingshausen–Nernst effect. Non-local magnetoresistance suggests the possibility of a graphene-based gate tunable thermal switch. In addition, our results demonstrate that graphene heterostructures may be promising for magnetic field sensing applications. PMID:26388149

  1. Few-layer graphene growth from polystyrene as solid carbon source utilizing simple APCVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Shahrokh; Afzalzadeh, Reza

    2016-07-01

    This research article presents development of an economical, simple, immune and environment friendly process to grow few-layer graphene by controlling evaporation rate of polystyrene on copper foil as catalyst and substrate utilizing atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) method. Evaporation rate of polystyrene depends on molecular structure, amount of used material and temperature. We have found controlling rate of evaporation of polystyrene by controlling the source temperature is easier than controlling the material weight. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as Raman Spectroscopy has been used for characterization of the layers. The frequency of G‧ to G band ratio intensity in some samples varied between 0.8 and 1.6 corresponding to few-layer graphene. Topography characterization by atomic force microscopy confirmed Raman results.

  2. Atomic-Scale Sliding Friction on Graphene in Water.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, J G; Pimentel, Carlos; Pedraz, Patricia; Luo, Feng; Serena, Pedro A; Pina, Carlos M; Gnecco, Enrico; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-04-26

    The sliding of a sharp nanotip on graphene completely immersed in water is investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) and atomic force microscopy. MD simulations predict that the atomic-scale stick-slip is almost identical to that found in ultrahigh vacuum. Furthermore, they show that water plays a purely stochastic role in sliding (solid-to-solid) friction. These observations are substantiated by friction measurements on graphene grown on Cu and Ni, where, oppositely of the operation in air, lattice resolution is readily achieved. Our results promote friction force microscopy in water as a robust alternative to ultra-high-vacuum measurements. PMID:26982997

  3. Observing atomic collapse resonances in artificial nuclei on graphene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wong, Dillon; Shytov, Andrey V; Brar, Victor W; Choi, Sangkook; Wu, Qiong; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Regan, William; Zettl, Alex; Kawakami, Roland K; Louie, Steven G; Levitov, Leonid S; Crommie, Michael F

    2013-05-10

    Relativistic quantum mechanics predicts that when the charge of a superheavy atomic nucleus surpasses a certain threshold, the resulting strong Coulomb field causes an unusual atomic collapse state; this state exhibits an electron wave function component that falls toward the nucleus, as well as a positron component that escapes to infinity. In graphene, where charge carriers behave as massless relativistic particles, it has been predicted that highly charged impurities should exhibit resonances corresponding to these atomic collapse states. We have observed the formation of such resonances around artificial nuclei (clusters of charged calcium dimers) fabricated on gated graphene devices via atomic manipulation with a scanning tunneling microscope. The energy and spatial dependence of the atomic collapse state measured with scanning tunneling microscopy revealed unexpected behavior when occupied by electrons. PMID:23470728

  4. Friedel oscillations at the surfaces of rhombohedral N -layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutreix, C.; Katsnelson, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy physics of rhombohedral N -layer graphene mainly arises on the external layers, where most of the π electrons are located. Their Bloch band structure defines a two-band semimetal; the dispersion relation scales as ±qN with the momentum norm q in the vicinity of two nonequivalent valleys. In this paper, we address the problem of elastic scattering through a localized impurity located either on the surface of the material or within the bulk, and focus on the quantum interferences it induces on the two external layers. It is apprehended in the framework of a T -matrix approach, both numerically and analytically, regardless of the impurity magnitude, which enables the description of realistic scatters. In rhombohedral multilayer graphene, the impurity induces Friedel oscillations that always decay as 1 /r . As a result, monolayer graphene is the only material of the rhombohedral class that exhibits 1 /r2 -decaying Friedel oscillations. The interference patterns are subsequently analyzed in momentum space. This analysis enables a clear distinction between monolayer graphene and multilayer graphene. It also shows that the interference pattern reveals the whole Bloch band structure, and highlights the number of layers stacked in the material, as well as the π -quantized Berry phases that characterize the existence of nodal points in the semimetallic spectrum. Experimentally, these features may be probed from scanning tunneling microscopy, when imaging the local density of states at the surfaces of suspended rhombohedral N -layer graphene.

  5. Atomic Structures of Silicene Layers Grown on Ag(111): Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy Observations

    PubMed Central

    Resta, Andrea; Leoni, Thomas; Barth, Clemens; Ranguis, Alain; Becker, Conrad; Bruhn, Thomas; Vogt, Patrick; Le Lay, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Silicene, the considered equivalent of graphene for silicon, has been recently synthesized on Ag(111) surfaces. Following the tremendous success of graphene, silicene might further widen the horizon of two-dimensional materials with new allotropes artificially created. Due to stronger spin-orbit coupling, lower group symmetry and different chemistry compared to graphene, silicene presents many new interesting features. Here, we focus on very important aspects of silicene layers on Ag(111): First, we present scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM) observations of the major structures of single layer and bi-layer silicene in epitaxy with Ag(111). For the (3 × 3) reconstructed first silicene layer nc-AFM represents the same lateral arrangement of silicene atoms as STM and therefore provides a timely experimental confirmation of the current picture of the atomic silicene structure. Furthermore, both nc-AFM and STM give a unifying interpretation of the second layer (√3 × √3)R ± 30° structure. Finally, we give support to the conjectured possible existence of less stable, ~2% stressed, (√7 × √7)R ± 19.1° rotated silicene domains in the first layer. PMID:23928998

  6. Ordered carbon nanotube growth on graphene and few-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunley, D. Patrick; Johnson, Stephen; Stieha, Joseph; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Meacham, Aaron; Strachan, Douglas

    2011-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes are grown on graphene and few-layer graphene films through chemical vapor deposition. The nanotube growth is found to depend on the thickness of the few-layer graphene films. The thinnest films show significant alignment of the nanotubes with the crystallographic axes of the graphene. This alignment is compared to the orientation of the crystallographic etch tracks, permitting the orientation of the nanotubes to be determined. Related nanotube/graphene structures will also be presented and discussed. Supported in part by NSF Award No. DMR-0805136, the Kentucky NSF EPSCoR program, the University of Kentucky Center for Advanced Materials, and the University of Kentucky Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering.

  7. Formation of graphene layers by vacuum sublimation of silicon carbide using a scanning heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, A. N.; Cherednichenko, D. I.

    2011-12-15

    The kinetics of surface graphitization during dissociative vacuum evaporation of silicon carbide, under the effect of a scanning heat source, is studied. A model of the process is developed. The model provides a means for theoretically treating the dynamics of formation and the number of residual carbon atomic layers. The vapor stoichiometric coefficient which ensures the minimization of the number of structural defects in graphene, is optimized at the sublimation temperature: {theta} = 1/{eta}(T{sub max}). The proposed method can be used as a basis for graphene production technology.

  8. Atomically Sharp Interface in an h-BN-epitaxial graphene van der Waals Heterostructure

    PubMed Central

    Sediri, Haikel; Pierucci, Debora; Hajlaoui, Mahdi; Henck, Hugo; Patriarche, Gilles; Dappe, Yannick J.; Yuan, Sheng; Toury, Bérangère; Belkhou, Rachid; Silly, Mathieu G.; Sirotti, Fausto; Boutchich, Mohamed; Ouerghi, Abdelkarim

    2015-01-01

    Stacking various two-dimensional atomic crystals is a feasible approach to creating unique multilayered van der Waals heterostructures with tailored properties. Herein for the first time, we present a controlled preparation of large-area h-BN/graphene heterostructures via a simple chemical deposition of h-BN layers on epitaxial graphene/SiC(0001). Van der Waals forces, which are responsible for the cohesion of the multilayer system, give rise to an abrupt interface without interdiffusion between graphene and h-BN, as shown by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) and direct observation using scanning and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM/HRTEM). The electronic properties of graphene, such as the Dirac cone, remain intact and no significant charge transfer i.e. doping, is observed. These results are supported by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. We demonstrate that the h-BN capped graphene allows the fabrication of vdW heterostructures without altering the electronic properties of graphene. PMID:26585245

  9. Advanced atom chips with two metal layers.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, James E.; Blain, Matthew Glenn; Benito, Francisco M.; Biedermann, Grant

    2010-12-01

    A design concept, device layout, and monolithic microfabrication processing sequence have been developed for a dual-metal layer atom chip for next-generation positional control of ultracold ensembles of trapped atoms. Atom chips are intriguing systems for precision metrology and quantum information that use ultracold atoms on microfabricated chips. Using magnetic fields generated by current carrying wires, atoms are confined via the Zeeman effect and controllably positioned near optical resonators. Current state-of-the-art atom chips are single-layer or hybrid-integrated multilayer devices with limited flexibility and repeatability. An attractive feature of multi-level metallization is the ability to construct more complicated conductor patterns and thereby realize the complex magnetic potentials necessary for the more precise spatial and temporal control of atoms that is required. Here, we have designed a true, monolithically integrated, planarized, multi-metal-layer atom chip for demonstrating crossed-wire conductor patterns that trap and controllably transport atoms across the chip surface to targets of interest.

  10. Adsorption by design: Tuning atom-graphene van der Waals interactions via mechanical strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Nathan S.; Del Maestro, Adrian; Wexler, Carlos; Kotov, Valeri N.

    2016-05-01

    We aim to understand how the van der Waals force between neutral adatoms and a graphene layer is modified by uniaxial strain and electron correlation effects. A detailed analysis is presented for three atoms (He, H, and Na) and graphene strain ranging from weak to moderately strong. We show that the van der Waals potential can be significantly enhanced by strain, and present applications of our results to the problem of elastic scattering of atoms from graphene. In particular, we find that quantum reflection can be significantly suppressed by strain, meaning that dissipative inelastic effects near the surface become of increased importance. Furthermore, we introduce a method to independently estimate the Lennard-Jones parameters used in an effective model of He interacting with graphene, and determine how they depend on strain. At short distances, we find that strain tends to reduce the interaction strength by pushing the location of the adsorption potential minima to higher distances above the deformed graphene sheet. This opens up the exciting possibility of mechanically engineering an adsorption potential, with implications for the formation and observation of anisotropic low-dimensional superfluid phases.

  11. Chemical gating of epitaxial graphene through ultrathin oxide layers.

    PubMed

    Larciprete, Rosanna; Lacovig, Paolo; Orlando, Fabrizio; Dalmiglio, Matteo; Omiciuolo, Luca; Baraldi, Alessandro; Lizzit, Silvano

    2015-08-01

    We achieved a controllable chemical gating of epitaxial graphene grown on metal substrates by exploiting the electrostatic polarization of ultrathin SiO2 layers synthesized below it. Intercalated oxygen diffusing through the SiO2 layer modifies the metal-oxide work function and hole dopes graphene. The graphene/oxide/metal heterostructure behaves as a gated plane capacitor with the in situ grown SiO2 layer acting as a homogeneous dielectric spacer, whose high capacity allows the Fermi level of graphene to be shifted by a few hundreds of meV when the oxygen coverage at the metal substrate is of the order of 0.5 monolayers. The hole doping can be finely tuned by controlling the amount of interfacial oxygen, as well as by adjusting the thickness of the oxide layer. After complete thermal desorption of oxygen the intrinsic doping of SiO2 supported graphene is evaluated in the absence of contaminants and adventitious adsorbates. The demonstration that the charge state of graphene can be changed by chemically modifying the buried oxide/metal interface hints at the possibility of tuning the level and sign of doping by the use of other intercalants capable of diffusing through the ultrathin porous dielectric and reach the interface with the metal. PMID:26148485

  12. Direct visualization of atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yanfang; Li, Geng; Lu, Jianchen; Du, Shixuan E-mail: feng@mpip-mainz.mpg.de; Gao, Hong-Jun; Lin, Xiao; Berger, Reinhard; Feng, Xinliang E-mail: feng@mpip-mainz.mpg.de; Müllen, Klaus

    2014-07-14

    We have fabricated atomically precise nitrogen-doped chevron-type graphene nanoribbons by using the on-surface synthesis technique combined with the nitrogen substitution of the precursors. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy indicate that the well-defined nanoribbons tend to align with the neighbors side-by-side with a band gap of 1.02 eV, which is in good agreement with the density functional theory calculation result. The influence of the high precursor coverage on the quality of the nanoribbons is also studied. We find that graphene nanoribbons with sufficient aspect ratios can only be fabricated at sub-monolayer precursor coverage. This work provides a way to construct atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons.

  13. Absence of a stable atomic structure in fluorinated graphene.

    PubMed

    Boukhvalov, Danil W

    2016-05-21

    Based on the results of first-principles calculations we demonstrate that significant distortion of graphene sheets caused by adsorption of fluorine atoms leads to the formation of metastable patterns for which the next step of fluorination is considerably less energetically favorable. Existence of these stable patterns oriented along the armchair direction makes possible the synthesis of various CFx structures. The combination of strong distortion of the nonfluorinated graphene sheet with the doping caused by the polar nature of C-F bonds reduces the energy cost of migration and the energy of migration barriers, making possible the migration of fluorine atoms on the graphene surface as well as transformation of the shapes of fluorinated areas. The decreasing energy cost of migration with increasing fluorine content also leads to increasing numbers of single fluorine adatoms, which could be the source of magnetic moments. PMID:27116897

  14. Single-layer graphene on silicon nitride micromembrane resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Silvan; Guillermo Villanueva, Luis; Amato, Bartolo; Boisen, Anja; Bagci, Tolga; Zeuthen, Emil; Sørensen, Anders S.; Usami, Koji; Polzik, Eugene S.; Taylor, Jacob M.; Marcus, Charles M.; Cheol Shin, Yong; Kong, Jing

    2014-02-07

    Due to their low mass, high quality factor, and good optical properties, silicon nitride (SiN) micromembrane resonators are widely used in force and mass sensing applications, particularly in optomechanics. The metallization of such membranes would enable an electronic integration with the prospect for exciting new devices, such as optoelectromechanical transducers. Here, we add a single-layer graphene on SiN micromembranes and compare electromechanical coupling and mechanical properties to bare dielectric membranes and to membranes metallized with an aluminium layer. The electrostatic coupling of graphene covered membranes is found to be equal to a perfectly conductive membrane, without significantly adding mass, decreasing the superior mechanical quality factor or affecting the optical properties of pure SiN micromembranes. The concept of graphene-SiN resonators allows a broad range of new experiments both in applied physics and fundamental basic research, e.g., for the mechanical, electrical, or optical characterization of graphene.

  15. Molecular Layer-seeded Ultra-thin Top-gate Dielectrics for High Transconductance Graphene Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangwan, Vinod; Jariwala, Deep; Karmel, Hunter; Alaboson, Justice; Lauhon, Lincoln; Marks, Tobin; Hersam, Mark

    2012-02-01

    The potential of graphene in integrated analog and digital circuits can only be fully realized through incorporation of ultra-thin gate dielectrics to enable large-scale small-channel graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs). Atomic-layer deposition (ALD) is a viable technique to fabricate gate-dielectrics, however, it requires a seeding layer on otherwise inert graphene. Here, we demonstrate a single molecule thick perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride overlayer as an effective seeding layer to grow high-κ Al2O3 on mechanically exfoliated graphene for high-performance GFETs. Using an ultra-thin (< 1nm) seeding layer, in contrast to polymer films (5-10 nm), we demonstrate fabrication of the thinnest ALD-grown gate-dielectric (4 nm) reported to date in top-gated GFETs. This yields high performance GFETs with the intrinsic transconductance parameter approaching 2.4 mS and the field-effect mobility ˜3000 cm^2/Vs. We also demonstrate generalization of this molecular layer seeded-ALD growth method to higher- κ gate dielectrics, yielding further enhanced GFET transconductance for possible application to radio-frequency circuits.

  16. Nonlocal thermal transport across embedded few-layer graphene sheets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Ying; Huxtable, Scott T.; Yang, Bao; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Qiao, Rui

    2014-11-13

    Thermal transport across the interfaces between few-layer graphene sheets and soft materials exhibits intriguing anomalies when interpreted using the classical Kapitza model, e.g., the conductance of the same interface differs greatly for different modes of interfacial thermal transport. Using atomistic simulations, we show that such thermal transport follows a nonlocal flux-temperature drop constitutive law and is characterized jointly by a quasi-local conductance and a nonlocal conductance instead of the classical Kapitza conductance. Lastly, the nonlocal model enables rationalization of many anomalies of the thermal transport across embedded few-layer graphene sheets and should be used in studies of interfacial thermal transportmore » involving few-layer graphene sheets or other ultra-thin layered materials.« less

  17. Nonlocal thermal transport across embedded few-layer graphene sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ying; Huxtable, Scott T.; Yang, Bao; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Qiao, Rui

    2014-11-13

    Thermal transport across the interfaces between few-layer graphene sheets and soft materials exhibits intriguing anomalies when interpreted using the classical Kapitza model, e.g., the conductance of the same interface differs greatly for different modes of interfacial thermal transport. Using atomistic simulations, we show that such thermal transport follows a nonlocal flux-temperature drop constitutive law and is characterized jointly by a quasi-local conductance and a nonlocal conductance instead of the classical Kapitza conductance. Lastly, the nonlocal model enables rationalization of many anomalies of the thermal transport across embedded few-layer graphene sheets and should be used in studies of interfacial thermal transport involving few-layer graphene sheets or other ultra-thin layered materials.

  18. Imaging Stacking Order in Few-Layer Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    C Lui; Z Li; Z Chen; P Klimov; L Brus; T Heinz

    2011-12-31

    Few-layer graphene (FLG) has been predicted to exist in various crystallographic stacking sequences, which can strongly influence the material's electronic properties. We demonstrate an accurate and efficient method to characterize stacking order in FLG using the distinctive features of the Raman 2D-mode. Raman imaging allows us to visualize directly the spatial distribution of Bernal (ABA) and rhombohedral (ABC) stacking in tri- and tetralayer graphene. We find that 15% of exfoliated graphene tri- and tetralayers is composed of micrometer-sized domains of rhombohedral stacking, rather than of usual Bernal stacking. These domains are stable and remain unchanged for temperatures exceeding 800 C.

  19. Metal-doped graphene layers composed with boron nitride-graphene as an insulator: a nano-capacitor.

    PubMed

    Monajjemi, Majid

    2014-11-01

    A model of a nanoscale dielectric capacitor composed of a few dopants has been investigated in this study. This capacitor includes metallic graphene layers which are separated by an insulating medium containing a few h-BN layers. It has been observed that the elements from group IIIA of the periodic table are more suitable as dopants for hetero-structures of the {metallic graphene/hBN/metallic graphene} capacitors compared to those from groups IA or IIA. In this study, we have specifically focused on the dielectric properties of different graphene/h-BN/graphene including their hetero-structure counterparts, i.e., Boron-graphene/h-BN/Boron-graphene, Al-graphene/h-BN/Al-graphene, Mg-graphene/h-BN/Mg-graphene, and Be-graphene/h-BN/Be-graphene stacks for monolayer form of dielectrics. Moreover, we studied the multi dielectric properties of different (h-BN)n/graphene hetero-structures of Boron-graphene/(h-BN)n/Boron-graphene. PMID:25359456

  20. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei

    2012-08-01

    Since ancient times, pure carbon materials have been familiar in human society—not only diamonds in jewellery and graphite in pencils, but also charcoal and coal which have been used for centuries as fuel for living and industry. Carbon fibers are stronger, tougher and lighter than steel and increase material efficiency because of their lower weight. Today, carbon fibers and related composite materials are used to make the frames of bicycles, cars and even airplane parts. The two-dimensional allotrope, now called graphene, is just a single layer of carbon atoms, locked together in a strongly bonded honeycomb lattice. In plane, graphene is stiffer than diamond, but out-of-plane it is soft, like rubber. It is virtually invisible, may conduct electricity (heat) better than copper and weighs next to nothing. Carbon compounds with two carbon atoms as a base, such as graphene, graphite or diamond, have isoelectronic sister compounds made of boron-nitrogen pairs: hexagonal and cubic boron nitride, with almost the same lattice constant. Although the two 2D sisters, graphene and h-BN, have the same number of valence electrons, their electronic properties are very different: freestanding h-BN is an insulator, while charge carriers in graphene are highly mobile. The past ten years have seen a great expansion in studies of single-layer and few-layer graphene. This activity has been concerned with the π electron transport in graphene, in electric and magnetic fields. More than 30 years ago, however, single-layer graphene and h-BN on solid surfaces were widely investigated. It was noted that they drastically changed the chemical reactivity of surfaces, and they were known to 'poison' heterogeneous catalysts, to passivate surfaces, to prevent oxidation of surfaces and to act as surfactants. Also, it was realized that the controlled growth of h-BN and graphene on substrates yields the formation of mismatch driven superstructures with peculiar template functionality on the

  1. Compression behavior of single-layer graphenes.

    PubMed

    Frank, Otakar; Tsoukleri, Georgia; Parthenios, John; Papagelis, Konstantinos; Riaz, Ibtsam; Jalil, Rashid; Novoselov, Kostya S; Galiotis, Costas

    2010-06-22

    Central to most applications involving monolayer graphenes is its mechanical response under various stress states. To date most of the work reported is of theoretical nature and refers to tension and compression loading of model graphenes. Most of the experimental work is indeed limited to the bending of single flakes in air and the stretching of flakes up to typically approximately 1% using plastic substrates. Recently we have shown that by employing a cantilever beam we can subject single graphenes to various degrees of axial compression. Here we extend this work much further by measuring in detail both stress uptake and compression buckling strain in single flakes of different geometries. In all cases the mechanical response is monitored by simultaneous Raman measurements through the shift of either the G or 2D phonons of graphene. Despite the infinitely small thickness of the monolayers, the results show that graphenes embedded in plastic beams exhibit remarkable compression buckling strains. For large length (l)-to-width (w) ratios (> or =0.2) the buckling strain is of the order of -0.5% to -0.6%. However, for l/w < 0.2 no failure is observed for strains even higher than -1%. Calculations based on classical Euler analysis show that the buckling strain enhancement provided by the polymer lateral support is more than 6 orders of magnitude compared to that of suspended graphene in air. PMID:20496881

  2. Significantly reduced thermal diffusivity of free-standing two-layer graphene in graphene foam.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huan; Xu, Shen; Wang, Xinwei; Mei, Ning

    2013-10-18

    We report on a thermal diffusivity study of suspended graphene foam (GF) using the transient electro-thermal technique. Our Raman study confirms the GF is composed of two-layer graphene. By measuring GF of different lengths, we are able to exclude the radiation effect. Using Schuetz's model, the intrinsic thermal diffusivity of the free-standing two-layer graphene is determined with a high accuracy without using knowledge of the porosity of the GF. The intrinsic thermal diffusivity of the two-layer graphene is determined at 1.16-2.22 × 10(-4) m(2) s(-1). The corresponding intrinsic thermal conductivity is 182-349 W m(-1) K(-1), about one order of magnitude lower than those reported for single-layer graphene. Extensive surface impurity defects, wrinkles and rough edges are observed under a scanning electron microscope for the studied GF. These structural defects induce substantial phonon scattering and explain the observed significant thermal conductivity reduction. Our thermal diffusivity characterization of GF provides an advanced way to look into the thermal transport capacity of free-standing graphene with high accuracy and ease of experimental implementation. PMID:24060813

  3. Growth of Single-Layer Graphene on Pt(111) by Thermal Decomposition of Propylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Gregory; Geisler, Heike; Ventrice, Carl

    2009-10-01

    Graphene, which is a one-atom-thick layer of sp^2-bonded carbon, has sparked keen interest within the scientific community because it is predicted to have a wide range of unique properties. In particular, it has one of the highest known mobilities of all the semiconducting materials. Since its discovery in 2004, there have been several studies of the growth of graphene by various techniques. We have performed studies on the growth of graphene on the catalytically active Pt(111) surface by thermal decomposition of propylene in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber. Two methods have been used: deposition of a monolayer of propylene followed by annealing in UHV and growth of graphene in an atmosphere of 10-6 Torr of propylene at 500 ^oC. The crystal structure of the graphene films was monitored using low energy electron diffraction (LEED). In addition, we are currently performing high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) measurements of the electronic structure of the graphene films.

  4. Synthesis of Extended Atomically Perfect Zigzag Graphene - Boron Nitride Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Drost, Robert; Kezilebieke, Shawulienu; M. Ervasti, Mikko; Hämäläinen, Sampsa K.; Schulz, Fabian; Harju, Ari; Liljeroth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The combination of several materials into heterostructures is a powerful method for controlling material properties. The integration of graphene (G) with hexagonal boron nitride (BN) in particular has been heralded as a way to engineer the graphene band structure and implement spin- and valleytronics in 2D materials. Despite recent efforts, fabrication methods for well-defined G-BN structures on a large scale are still lacking. We report on a new method for producing atomically well-defined G-BN structures on an unprecedented length scale by exploiting the interaction of G and BN edges with a Ni(111) surface as well as each other. PMID:26584674

  5. Self-regulating homogenous growth of high-quality graphene on Co-Cu composite substrate for layer control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tianquan; Huang, Fuqiang; Wan, Dongyun; Bi, Hui; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2013-06-01

    The composite substrate of Co and Cu was proposed to grow homogenous high quality wafer-size graphene films by an atmosphere pressure CVD method. The composite substrate consists of a moderate-carbon-solubility metal top (Co coating) as a C-dissolving layer and a low-carbon-solubility metal base (Cu foil) as a C-rejecting layer. During the CVD process, the interdiffusion of Co and Cu atoms occurs in the composite. With the dynamic control on Co and Cu alloying process to affect the carbon solubility, active carbon atoms captured by the Co layer were segregated to form spontaneously a high-quality graphene film on the top of Cu-Co substrate. The tunable layer-number of the graphene films can be precisely controlled by adjusting the thickness of the Co layer. High quality single-layered graphene films with a 98% yield were prepared on an 80 nm-Co-coated Cu foil and insensitive to growth temperature and time. More importantly, this type of composite substrate has also been developed to grow AB-stacked bilayers and three-layer graphene with 99% surface coverage and absence of defects. The approach is opening up a new avenue for high-quality graphene production with precise layer control through composite substrate design.The composite substrate of Co and Cu was proposed to grow homogenous high quality wafer-size graphene films by an atmosphere pressure CVD method. The composite substrate consists of a moderate-carbon-solubility metal top (Co coating) as a C-dissolving layer and a low-carbon-solubility metal base (Cu foil) as a C-rejecting layer. During the CVD process, the interdiffusion of Co and Cu atoms occurs in the composite. With the dynamic control on Co and Cu alloying process to affect the carbon solubility, active carbon atoms captured by the Co layer were segregated to form spontaneously a high-quality graphene film on the top of Cu-Co substrate. The tunable layer-number of the graphene films can be precisely controlled by adjusting the thickness of the Co

  6. Graphene-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of thymine adsorbed on single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesenko, Olena; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Dementjev, Andrej; Karpicz, Renata; Kaplas, Tommi; Svirko, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    Graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) spectra and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of thymine molecules adsorbed on a single-layer graphene were studied. The enhancement factor was shown to depend on the molecular groups of thymine. In the GERS spectra of thymine, the main bands are shifted with respect to those for molecules adsorbed on a glass surface, indicating charge transfer for thymine on graphene. The probable mechanism of the GERS enhancement is discussed. CARS spectra are in accord with the GERS results, which indicates similar benefit from the chemical enhancement.

  7. Broadband single-layered graphene absorber using periodic arrays of graphene ribbons with gradient width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihong, Zhu; Chucai, Guo; Jianfa, Zhang; Ken, Liu; Xiaodong, Yuan; Shiqiao, Qin

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a broadband single-layered graphene absorber can be obtained in the THz range using periodic arrays of chemically doped graphene ribbons with gradient width, supported on a dielectric film placed on a thick piece of metal. The working bandwidth of 90% absorption for this structure is as high as 1.3 THz with a central frequency of 3 THz. The broadband operation mechanism is a result of the varying continuous plasmon resonances occurring in graphene ribbons with gradient width. The operation wavelength can be expanded to the far-infrared range.

  8. Synthesis of metal-incorporated graphitic microporous carbon terminated with highly-ordered graphene walls—Controlling the number of graphene layers by ambient-temperature metal sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Arghya Narayan; Min, Bong-Ki; Joo, Sang Woo

    2013-03-01

    Metal-incorporated, graphitic microporous carbon, containing highly ordered graphene layers, has been converted from highly thin amorphous carbon film by a metal nanoparticle sputtering process at ambient substrate temperature. A standard direct-current magnetron sputtering system is used in this purpose. The process consists of a dual effect of activation and graphitization of amorphous carbon to graphitic microporous carbon. The sputtering plasma, containing energetic ions and sub-atomic particles, act as dry-etchant to activate the a:C film to transform it into microporous carbon. Whereas, the inelastic 'knock-on' collision between metal nanoparticles/ions and the nuclei of C atoms manifests the atom displacement and re-arrangement into ordered structure to form graphitic domains within the microporous carbon network. The average number of graphene layer formation has been controlled by adjusting the sputtering voltage and current, as the carbon atom displacement rate is dependent on the irradiation current density. Raman spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy confirms the high controllability of the number of graphene layer formation as a function of sputtering parameters. The method is simple, cost-effective and compatible with modern solid-state device fabrication processing, as it comprises vacuum-based physical vapor deposition techniques, and also, can be adopted easily for transitional metal incorporation into graphene and other carbon nanostructures for potential hydrogen storage and related clean energy applications.

  9. Layer Number Dependence of Li(+) Intercalation on Few-Layer Graphene and Electrochemical Imaging of Its Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Evolution.

    PubMed

    Hui, Jingshu; Burgess, Mark; Zhang, Jiarui; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín

    2016-04-26

    A fundamental question facing electrodes made out of few layers of graphene (FLG) is if they display chemical properties that are different to their bulk graphite counterpart. Here, we show evidence that suggests that lithium ion intercalation on FLG, as measured via stationary voltammetry, shows a strong dependence on the number of layers of graphene that compose the electrode. Despite its extreme thinness and turbostratic structure, Li ion intercalation into FLG still proceeds through a staging process, albeit with different signatures than bulk graphite or multilayer graphene. Single-layer graphene does not show any evidence of ion intercalation, while FLG with four graphene layers displays limited staging peaks, which broaden and increase in number as the layer number increases to six. Despite these mechanistic differences on ion intercalation, the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) was observed on all electrodes. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in the feedback mode was used to demonstrate changes in the surface conductivity of FLG during SEI evolution. Observation of ion intercalation on large area FLG was conditioned to the fabrication of "ionic channels" on the electrode. SECM measurements using a recently developed Li-ion sensitive imaging technique evidenced the role of these channels in enabling Li-ion intercalation through localized flux measurements. This work highlights the impact of nanostructure and microstructure on macroscopic electrochemical behavior and provides guidance to the mechanistic control of ion intercalation using graphene, an atomically thin interface where surface and bulk reactivity converge. PMID:26943950

  10. Fingerprints of Multiple Electron Scatterings in Single-Layer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Minbok; Sohn, So-Dam; Park, Jonghyun; Lee, Keun-U.; Shin, Hyung-Joon

    2016-03-01

    The electrons in graphene exhibit unusual behaviours, which can be described by massless Dirac quasiparticles. Understanding electron scattering in graphene has been of significant importance for its future application in electronic devices because electron scattering determines electrical properties such as resistivity and electron transport. There are two types of electron scatterings in graphene: intervalley scattering and intravalley scattering. In single-layer graphene, to date, it has been difficult to observe intravalley scattering because of the suppression of backscattering resulting from the chiral nature of the electrons in graphene. Here, we report the multiple electron scattering behaviours in single-layer graphene on a metallic substrate. By applying one- and two-dimensional Fourier transforms to maps of the local density of states, we can distinguish individual scattering processes from complex interference patterns. These techniques enable us to provide direct evidence of intravalley scattering, revealing a linear dispersion relation with a Fermi velocity of ~7.4 × 105 m/s.

  11. Fingerprints of Multiple Electron Scatterings in Single-Layer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Minbok; Sohn, So-Dam; Park, Jonghyun; Lee, Keun-U; Shin, Hyung-Joon

    2016-01-01

    The electrons in graphene exhibit unusual behaviours, which can be described by massless Dirac quasiparticles. Understanding electron scattering in graphene has been of significant importance for its future application in electronic devices because electron scattering determines electrical properties such as resistivity and electron transport. There are two types of electron scatterings in graphene: intervalley scattering and intravalley scattering. In single-layer graphene, to date, it has been difficult to observe intravalley scattering because of the suppression of backscattering resulting from the chiral nature of the electrons in graphene. Here, we report the multiple electron scattering behaviours in single-layer graphene on a metallic substrate. By applying one- and two-dimensional Fourier transforms to maps of the local density of states, we can distinguish individual scattering processes from complex interference patterns. These techniques enable us to provide direct evidence of intravalley scattering, revealing a linear dispersion relation with a Fermi velocity of ~7.4 × 105 m/s. PMID:26936521

  12. Nanoscale Mechanical Characterization of Graphene/Polymer Nanocomposites using Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Minzhen

    Graphene materials, exhibiting outstanding mechanical properties, are excellent candidates as reinforcement in high-performance polymer nanocomposites. In this dissertation, advanced atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques are applied to study the nanomechanics of graphene/polymer nanocomposites, specifically the graphene/polymer interfacial strength and the stress transfer at the interface. Two novel methods to directly characterize the interfacial strength between individual graphene sheets and polymers using AFM are presented and applied to a series of polymers and graphene sheets. The interfacial strength of graphene/polymer varies greatly for different combinations. The strongest interaction is found between graphene oxide (GO) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), a strongly polar, water-based polymer. On the other hand, polystyrene, a non polar polymer, has the weakest interaction with GO. The interfacial bond strength is attributed to hydrogen bonding and physical adsorption. Further, the stress transfer in GO/PVA nanocomposites is studied quantitatively by monitoring the strain in individual GO sheet inside the polymer via AFM and Raman spectroscopy. For the first time, the strains of individual GO sheets in nanocomposites are imaged and quantified as a function of the applied external strains. The matrix strain is directly transferred to GO sheets for strains up to 8%. At higher strain levels, the onset of the nanocomposite failure and a stick-slip behavior is observed. This study reveals that GO is superior to pure graphene as reinforcement in nanocomposites. These results also imply the potential to make a new generation of nanocomposites with exceptional high strength and toughness. In the second part of this dissertation, AFM is used to study the structure of silk proteins and the morphology of spider silks. For the first time, shear-induced self-assembly of native silk fibroin is observed. The morphology of the Brown Recluse spider silk is investigated and a

  13. Fabrication of graphene/polyaniline composite multilayer films by electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, Jiaojiao; Chen, Yuze; Luo, Jing Liu, Xiaoya

    2014-10-15

    A novel graphene/polyaniline composite multilayer film was fabricated by electrostatic interactions induced layer-by-layer self-assembly technique, using water dispersible and negatively charged chemically converted graphene (CCG) and positively charged polyaniline (PANI) as building blocks. CCG was achieved through partly reduced graphene oxide, which remained carboxyl group on its surface. The remaining carboxyl groups not only retain the dispersibility of CCG, but also allow the growth of the multilayer films via electrostatic interactions between graphene and PANI. The structure and morphology of the obtained CCG/PANI multilayer film are characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrum (UV–vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical properties of the resulting film are studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), which showed that the resulting CCG/PANI multilayer film kept electroactivity in neutral solution and showed outstanding cyclic stability up to 100 cycles. Furthermore, the composite film exhibited good electrocatalytic ability toward ascorbic acid (AA) with a linear response from 1×10{sup −4} to 1.2×10{sup −3} M with the detect limit of 5×10{sup −6} M. This study provides a facile and effective strategy to fabricate graphene/PANI nanocomposite film with good electrochemical property, which may find potential applications in electronic devices such as electrochemical sensor. - Graphical abstract: A novel graphene/polyaniline (CCG/PANI) film was prepared by layer-by-layer assembly. - Highlights: • A novel graphene/polyaniline (CCG/PANI) film was prepared by layer-by-layer assembly. • The water dispersible and negatively charged graphene (CCG) was used as building block. • CCG was achieved through partly reduced graphene oxide with carboxyl group on its surface. • CCG/PANI film kept

  14. Crystallographic growth and alignment of carbon nanotubes on few-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, Aram; Hunley, Patrick D.; Nasseri, Mohsen; Boland, Mathias J.; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Hudak, Bethany M.; Guiton, Beth S.; Strachan, Douglas R.

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid carbon nanotube and graphene structures are emerging as an exciting material system built from a common sp2 carbon backbone. Such hybrid systems have promise for use in improving the performance of energy storage and high-speed electronic applications. Towards the attainment of such hybrid materials, the catalytic growth and crystallographic alignment of these integrated structures are investigated along with the atomic-scale features of their interfaces. The catalytic activity of nanoparticles to form carbon nanotubes on the surface of few-layer graphene is tuned through precise feedstock application. Through careful materials synthesis, the interfaces of these hybrid carbon nanotube - graphene systems are investigated through ultra-high resolution electron microscopy.

  15. Atomic-scale studies of nanometer-sized graphene on semiconducting surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, Justin; Ritter, Kyle; He, Kevin; Lyding, Joseph

    2008-03-01

    We have performed atomic level studies of graphene on semiconducting surfaces using ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM) [1]. By mechanically exfoliating graphite and using an in-situ dry contact transfer technique [2], we observe predominantly single and double layers of atomically clean graphene with lateral dimensions of 2-20 nm. Room temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of the 2-10 nm monolayer pieces display a size-dependent energy gap ranging from 0.1-1 eV, while monolayers with lateral dimensions of 20 nm exhibit a finite density of states at the Fermi level. [1] K.A. Ritter and J.W. Lyding, Nanotechnology, in press (http://arxiv.org/pdf/0711.0050). [2] P.M. Albrecht and J.W. Lyding, APL 83, 5029 (2003).

  16. Giant edge state splitting at atomically precise graphene zigzag edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiyong; Talirz, Leopold; Pignedoli, Carlo A.; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Zigzag edges of graphene nanostructures host localized electronic states that are predicted to be spin-polarized. However, these edge states are highly susceptible to edge roughness and interaction with a supporting substrate, complicating the study of their intrinsic electronic and magnetic structure. Here, we focus on atomically precise graphene nanoribbons whose two short zigzag edges host exactly one localized electron each. Using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, the graphene nanoribbons are transferred from the metallic growth substrate onto insulating islands of NaCl in order to decouple their electronic structure from the metal. The absence of charge transfer and hybridization with the substrate is confirmed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which reveals a pair of occupied/unoccupied edge states. Their large energy splitting of 1.9 eV is in accordance with ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations and reflects the dominant role of electron-electron interactions in these localized states.

  17. Giant edge state splitting at atomically precise graphene zigzag edges

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiyong; Talirz, Leopold; Pignedoli, Carlo A.; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Zigzag edges of graphene nanostructures host localized electronic states that are predicted to be spin-polarized. However, these edge states are highly susceptible to edge roughness and interaction with a supporting substrate, complicating the study of their intrinsic electronic and magnetic structure. Here, we focus on atomically precise graphene nanoribbons whose two short zigzag edges host exactly one localized electron each. Using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, the graphene nanoribbons are transferred from the metallic growth substrate onto insulating islands of NaCl in order to decouple their electronic structure from the metal. The absence of charge transfer and hybridization with the substrate is confirmed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which reveals a pair of occupied/unoccupied edge states. Their large energy splitting of 1.9 eV is in accordance with ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations and reflects the dominant role of electron–electron interactions in these localized states. PMID:27181701

  18. Giant edge state splitting at atomically precise graphene zigzag edges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiyong; Talirz, Leopold; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Zigzag edges of graphene nanostructures host localized electronic states that are predicted to be spin-polarized. However, these edge states are highly susceptible to edge roughness and interaction with a supporting substrate, complicating the study of their intrinsic electronic and magnetic structure. Here, we focus on atomically precise graphene nanoribbons whose two short zigzag edges host exactly one localized electron each. Using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, the graphene nanoribbons are transferred from the metallic growth substrate onto insulating islands of NaCl in order to decouple their electronic structure from the metal. The absence of charge transfer and hybridization with the substrate is confirmed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which reveals a pair of occupied/unoccupied edge states. Their large energy splitting of 1.9 eV is in accordance with ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations and reflects the dominant role of electron-electron interactions in these localized states. PMID:27181701

  19. Terahertz induced transparency in single-layer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Michael J.; Lee, Byounghwak; Wardini, Jenna L.; Thompson, Zachary J.; Stickel, Andrew D.; Mousavian, Ali; Minot, Ethan D.; Lee, Yun-Shik; Choi, Hyunyong

    2014-12-01

    We show that the transmission of a terahertz (THz) pulse through single-layer graphene is strongly nonlinear. As the peak electric field of the THz pulse exceeds 50 kV/cm, the graphene becomes increasingly transparent to the THz radiation. When field strength reaches 800 kV/cm, the increased transparency corresponds to a two-fold decrease in the time-average sheet conductivity of the graphene (time averaged over the duration of the pulse). Time-resolved measurements reveal that the leading portion of the pulse creates transparency for the trailing portion, with a 10-fold suppression in sheet conductivity at the tail of the strongest THz pulse. Comparing the THz-induced transparency phenomena in different sample geometries shows that substrate-free graphene is the best geometry for maximizing the nonlinear transparency effect.

  20. Vibrational analysis of single-layered graphene sheets.

    PubMed

    Sakhaee-Pour, A; Ahmadian, M T; Naghdabadi, R

    2008-02-27

    A molecular structural mechanics method has been implemented to investigate the vibrational behavior of single-layered graphene sheets. By adopting this approach, mode shapes and natural frequencies are obtained. Vibrational analysis is performed with different chirality and boundary conditions. Numerical results from the atomistic modeling are employed to develop predictive equations via a statistical nonlinear regression model. With the proposed equations, fundamental frequencies of single-layered graphene sheets with considered boundary conditions can be predicted within 3% difference with respect to the atomistic simulation. PMID:21730733

  1. High quality reduced graphene oxide through repairing with multi-layered graphene ball nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Hwan; Yang, MinHo; Cho, Kyeong Min; Jun, Young-Si; Lee, Sang Bok; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2013-01-01

    We present a simple and up-scalable method to produce highly repaired graphene oxide with a large surface area, by introducing spherical multi-layered graphene balls with empty interiors. These graphene balls are prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of Ni particles on the surface of the graphene oxides (GO). Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy results reveal that defects in the GO surfaces are well repaired during the CVD process, with the help of nickel nanoparticles attached to the functional groups of the GO surface, further resulting in a high electrical conductivity of 18,620 S/m. In addition, the graphene balls on the GO surface effectively prevent restacking of the GO layers, thus providing a large surface area of 527 m2/g. Two electrode supercapacitor cells using this highly conductive graphene material demonstrate ideal electrical double layer capacitive behavior, due to the effective use of the outstanding electric conductivity and the large surface area. PMID:24248235

  2. Dynamic negative compressibility of few-layer graphene, h-BN, and MoS2.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Ana Paula M; Chacham, Helio; Oliveira, Camilla K; Fernandes, Thales F D; Ferreira, Erlon H Martins; Archanjo, Braulio S; Batista, Ronaldo J C; de Oliveira, Alan B; Neves, Bernardo R A

    2012-05-01

    We report a novel mechanical response of few-layer graphene, h-BN, and MoS(2) to the simultaneous compression and shear by an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. The response is characterized by the vertical expansion of these two-dimensional (2D) layered materials upon compression. Such effect is proportional to the applied load, leading to vertical strain values (opposite to the applied force) of up to 150%. The effect is null in the absence of shear, increases with tip velocity, and is anisotropic. It also has similar magnitudes in these solid lubricant materials (few-layer graphene, h-BN, and MoS(2)), but it is absent in single-layer graphene and in few-layer mica and Bi(2)Se(3). We propose a physical mechanism for the effect where the combined compressive and shear stresses from the tip induce dynamical wrinkling on the upper material layers, leading to the observed flake thickening. The new effect (and, therefore, the proposed wrinkling) is reversible in the three materials where it is observed. PMID:22468807

  3. Selective nano-patterning of graphene using a heated atomic force microscope tip

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Young-Soo; Wu, Xuan; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2014-04-15

    In this study, we introduce a selective thermochemical nano-patterning method of graphene on insulating substrates. A tiny heater formed at the end of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is optimized by a finite element method. The cantilever device is fabricated using conventional micromachining processes. After preliminary tests of the cantilever device, nano-patterning experiments are conducted with various conducting and insulating samples. The results indicate that faster scanning speed and higher contact force are desirable to reduce the sizes of nano-patterns. With the experimental condition of 1 μm/s and 24 mW, the heated AFM tip generates a graphene oxide layer of 3.6 nm height and 363 nm width, on a 300 nm thick SiO{sub 2} layer, with a tip contact force of 100 nN.

  4. AA-stacked bilayer square ice between graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobrino Fernandez Mario, M.; Neek-Amal, M.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    Water confined between two graphene layers with a separation of a few Å forms a layered two-dimensional ice structure. Using large scale molecular dynamics simulations with the adoptable ReaxFF interatomic potential we found that flat monolayer ice with a rhombic-square structure nucleates between the graphene layers which is nonpolar and nonferroelectric. We provide different energetic considerations and H-bonding results that explain the interlayer and intralayer properties of two-dimensional ice. The controversial AA stacking found experimentally [Algara-Siller et al., Nature (London) 519, 443 (2015), 10.1038/nature14295] is consistent with our minimum-energy crystal structure of bilayer ice. Furthermore, we predict that an odd number of layers of ice has the same lattice structure as monolayer ice, while an even number of ice layers exhibits the square ice AA stacking of bilayer ice.

  5. Tribological characteristics of few-layer graphene over Ni grain and interface boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Manoj; Awaja, Firas; Paolicelli, Guido; Bartali, Ruben; Iacob, Erica; Valeri, Sergio; Ryu, Seunghwa; Signetti, Stefano; Speranza, Giorgio; Pugno, Nicola Maria

    2016-03-01

    The tribological properties of metal-supported few-layered graphene depend strongly on the grain topology of the metal substrate. Inhomogeneous distribution of graphene layers at such regions led to variable landscapes with distinguishable roughness. This discrepancy in morphology significantly affects the frictional and wetting characteristics of the FLG system. We discretely measured friction characteristics of FLG covering grains and interfacial grain boundaries of polycrystalline Ni metal substrate via an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. The friction coefficient of FLG covered at interfacial grain boundaries is found to be lower than that on grains in vacuum (at 10-5 Torr pressure) and similar results were obtained in air condition. Sliding history with AFM cantilever, static and dynamic pull-in and pull-off adhesion forces were addressed in the course of friction measurements to explain the role of the out-of-plane deformation of graphene layer(s). Finite element simulations showed good agreement with experiments and led to a rationalization of the observations. Thus, with interfacial grain boundaries the FLG tribology can be effectively tuned.The tribological properties of metal-supported few-layered graphene depend strongly on the grain topology of the metal substrate. Inhomogeneous distribution of graphene layers at such regions led to variable landscapes with distinguishable roughness. This discrepancy in morphology significantly affects the frictional and wetting characteristics of the FLG system. We discretely measured friction characteristics of FLG covering grains and interfacial grain boundaries of polycrystalline Ni metal substrate via an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. The friction coefficient of FLG covered at interfacial grain boundaries is found to be lower than that on grains in vacuum (at 10-5 Torr pressure) and similar results were obtained in air condition. Sliding history with AFM cantilever, static and dynamic pull-in and pull

  6. Topological properties of artificial graphene assembled by atom manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Wonhee; Mar, Warren; Gomes, Kenjiro K.; Manoharan, Hari C.

    2011-03-01

    Graphene exhibits special electronic properties stemming from its two-dimensional (2D) structure and embedded relativistic Dirac cones. However, many proposed topologically ordered ground states remain elusive in conventional measurements due to the difficulty in arranging the necessary quantum textures into natural graphene. By exploiting atomic manipulation with a custom-built ultrastable scanning tunneling microscope, we have constructed graphene-like structures by arranging molecules to create a honeycomb lattice of electrons drawn from normal 2D surface states. Spectroscopy reveals a spectacular transformation of nonrelativistic massive 2D electrons into massless Dirac fermions carrying a chiral pseudospin symmetry. We demonstrate the tailoring of this new class of graphene to reveal signature topological properties: an energy gap and emergent mass created by breaking the pseudospin symmetry or changing the hopping term non-uniformly with a Kekulé bond distortion; gauge fields generated by applying atomically engineered strains; and the condensation of electrons into quantum Hall-like states and topologically confined phases. Supported by the DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material Science and Engineering under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  7. Interfacial effect on the electrochemical properties of the layered graphene/metal sulfide composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yagang; Chen, Biao; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Li, Jiajun; Liu, Enzuo

    2016-09-01

    The layered graphene/metal sulfide composites exhibit excellent electrochemical properties as anode materials for lithium ion battery, due to the synergistic effect between metal sulfide and graphene which still needs to be further understood. In this study, Li adsorption and diffusion on MoS2 and SnS2 monolayers and Li2S surface, as well as at their interfaces with graphene, are systematically investigated through first-principles calculations. The analysis of charge density difference, Bader charge, and density of states indicates that the adsorbed Li atoms interact with both the S atoms at metal sulfide surfaces and C atoms in graphene, resulting in larger Li adsorption energies at the interfaces compared with that on the corresponding surfaces, but with almost no enhancement of the energy barriers for Li atom diffusion. The enhanced Li adsorption capability at Li2S/G interface contributes to the extra storage capacity of graphene/metal sulfide composites. Furthermore, the synergistic mechanism between metal sulfide and graphene is revealed. Moreover, band structure analysis shows the electronic conductivity is enhanced with the incorporation of graphene. The results corroborate the interfacial pseudocapacity-like Li atom storage mechanism, and are helpful for the design of layered graphene/metal sulfide composites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  8. Layered Atom Arrangements in Complex Materials

    SciTech Connect

    K.E. Sikafus; R.W.Grimes; S.M.Corish; A.R. Cleave; M.Tang; C.R.Stanek; B.P. Uberuaga; J.A.Valdez

    2005-04-15

    In this report, we develop an atom layer stacking model to describe systematically the crystal structures of complex materials. To illustrate the concepts, we consider a sequence of oxide compounds in which the metal cations progress in oxidation state from monovalent (M{sup 1+}) to tetravalent (M{sup 4+}). We use concepts relating to geometric subdivisions of a triangular atom net to describe the layered atom patterns in these compounds (concepts originally proposed by Shuichi Iida). We demonstrate that as a function of increasing oxidation state (from M{sup 1+} to M{sup 4+}), the layer stacking motifs used to generate each successive structure (specifically, motifs along a 3 symmetry axis), progress through the following sequence: MMO, MO, M{sub r}O, MO{sub r/s}O{sub u/v}, MOO (where M and O represent fully dense triangular atom nets and r/s and u/v are fractions used to describe partially filled triangular atom nets). We also develop complete crystallographic descriptions for the compounds in our oxidation sequence using trigonal space group R{bar 3}.

  9. Graphene-layered steps and their fields visualized by 4D electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Tae; Yurtsever, Aycan; Baskin, John Spencer; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced image contrast has been seen at graphene-layered steps a few nanometers in height by means of photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM) using synchronous femtosecond pulses of light and electrons. The observed steps are formed by the edges of graphene strips lying on the surface of a graphene substrate, where the strips are hundreds of nanometers in width and many micrometers in length. PINEM measurements reflect the interaction of imaging electrons and induced (near) electric fields at the steps, and this leads to a much higher contrast than that achieved in bright-field transmission electron microscopy imaging of the same strips. Theory and numerical simulations support the experimental PINEM findings and elucidate the nature of the electric field at the steps formed by the graphene layers. These results extend the range of applications of the experimental PINEM methodology, which has previously been demonstrated for spherical, cylindrical, and triangular nanostructures, to shapes of high aspect ratio (rectangular strips), as well as into the regime of atomic layer thicknesses. PMID:23690572

  10. Local, global, and nonlinear screening in twisted double-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chih-Pin; Rodriguez-Vega, Martin; Li, Guohong; Luican-Mayer, Adina; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Rossi, Enrico; Andrei, Eva Y

    2016-06-14

    One-atom-thick crystalline layers and their vertical heterostructures carry the promise of designer electronic materials that are unattainable by standard growth techniques. To realize their potential it is necessary to isolate them from environmental disturbances, in particular those introduced by the substrate. However, finding and characterizing suitable substrates, and minimizing the random potential fluctuations they introduce, has been a persistent challenge in this emerging field. Here we show that Landau-level (LL) spectroscopy offers the unique capability to quantify both the reduction of the quasiparticles' lifetime and the long-range inhomogeneity due to random potential fluctuations. Harnessing this technique together with direct scanning tunneling microscopy and numerical simulations we demonstrate that the insertion of a graphene buffer layer with a large twist angle is a very effective method to shield a 2D system from substrate interference that has the additional desirable property of preserving the electronic structure of the system under study. We further show that owing to its remarkable nonlinear screening capability a single graphene buffer layer provides better shielding than either increasing the distance to the substrate or doubling the carrier density and reduces the amplitude of the potential fluctuations in graphene to values even lower than the ones in AB-stacked bilayer graphene. PMID:27302949

  11. A graphene superficial layer for the advanced electroforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Hokyun; Park, Mina; Lee, Seungmin; Bae, Sukang; Kim, Tae-Wook; Ha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil. We also demonstrated that the electroformed free-standing Cu thin films could be utilized for patterning microstructures and incorporated onto a flexible substrate for LEDs. This innovative process could be beneficial for the advancement of flexible electronics and optoelectronics, which require a wide range of mechanical and physical properties.Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil

  12. Infrared dynamics of cold atoms on hot graphene membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Sanghita; Kotov, Valeri N.; Clougherty, Dennis P.

    2016-06-01

    We study the infrared dynamics of low-energy atoms interacting with a sample of suspended graphene at finite temperature. The dynamics exhibits severe infrared divergences order by order in perturbation theory as a result of the singular nature of low-energy flexural phonon emission. Our model can be viewed as a two-channel generalization of the independent boson model with asymmetric atom-phonon coupling. This allows us to take advantage of the exact nonperturbative solution of the independent boson model in the stronger channel while treating the weaker one perturbatively. In the low-energy limit, the exact solution can be viewed as a resummation (exponentiation) of the most divergent diagrams in the perturbative expansion. As a result of this procedure, we obtain the atom's Green function which we use to calculate the atom damping rate, a quantity equal to the quantum sticking rate. A characteristic feature of our results is that the Green's function retains a weak, infrared cutoff dependence that reflects the reduced dimensionality of the problem. As a consequence, we predict a measurable dependence of the sticking rate on graphene sample size. We provide detailed predictions for the sticking rate of atomic hydrogen as a function of temperature and sample size. The resummation yields an enhanced sticking rate relative to the conventional Fermi golden rule result (equivalent to the one-loop atom self-energy), as higher-order processes increase damping at finite temperature.

  13. Mode dependent lattice thermal conductivity of single layer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhiyong; Yang, Juekuan; Bi, Kedong; Chen, Yunfei

    2014-10-21

    Molecular dynamics simulation is performed to extract the phonon dispersion and phonon lifetime of single layer graphene. The mode dependent thermal conductivity is calculated from the phonon kinetic theory. The predicted thermal conductivity at room temperature exhibits important quantum effects due to the high Debye temperature of graphene. But the quantum effects are reduced significantly when the simulated temperature is as high as 1000 K. Our calculations show that out-of-plane modes contribute about 41.1% to the total thermal conductivity at room temperature. The relative contribution of out-of-plane modes has a little decrease with the increase of temperature. Contact with substrate can reduce both the total thermal conductivity of graphene and the relative contribution of out-of-plane modes, in agreement with previous experiments and theories. Increasing the coupling strength between graphene and substrate can further reduce the relative contribution of out-of-plane modes. The present investigations also show that the relative contribution of different mode phonons is not sensitive to the grain size of graphene. The obtained phonon relaxation time provides useful insight for understanding the phonon mean free path and the size effects in graphene.

  14. Electronic properties of impurity-infected few-layer graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Hamze; Bagheri, Mehran

    2015-02-01

    Spurred by achievements in devising different multilayered graphene-based nano-systems, based on the random tight-binding Hamiltonian model and within the coherent potential approximation, the influence of varying the number of layers and the effect of doping by the boron and nitrogen impurities on the density of states of a mono- and few-layer armchair- and zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbons are theoretically investigated. When the nanoribbons are pristine, with increasing the number of layers the band gap of the armchair nanoribbons is decreased, yet the zigzag ribbons remain metallic and depending on the number of the layers few peaks are appeared around the zero-energy level. Moreover, in the presence of impurities, the band gap of the armchair nanoribbons is decreased for each number of layers. The Van-Hove singularities are steadily broadened and the density of states move to a higher (lower) value of the energy as a result of doping with boron (nitrogen) atoms. This study could provide with us to explore and devise new optoelectronic devices based on the impurity-infected graphene nanoribbons with tunable widths and edges.

  15. Electron transport in molecular junctions with graphene as protecting layer

    SciTech Connect

    Hüser, Falco; Solomon, Gemma C.

    2015-12-07

    We present ab initio transport calculations for molecular junctions that include graphene as a protecting layer between a single molecule and gold electrodes. This vertical setup has recently gained significant interest in experiment for the design of particularly stable and reproducible devices. We observe that the signals from the molecule in the electronic transmission are overlayed by the signatures of the graphene sheet, thus raising the need for a reinterpretation of the transmission. On the other hand, we see that our results are stable with respect to various defects in the graphene. For weakly physiosorbed molecules, no signs of interaction with the graphene are evident, so the transport properties are determined by offresonant tunnelling between the gold leads across an extended structure that includes the molecule itself and the additional graphene layer. Compared with pure gold electrodes, calculated conductances are about one order of magnitude lower due to the increased tunnelling distance. Relative differences upon changing the end group and the length of the molecule on the other hand, are similar.

  16. Electron transport in molecular junctions with graphene as protecting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüser, Falco; Solomon, Gemma C.

    2015-12-01

    We present ab initio transport calculations for molecular junctions that include graphene as a protecting layer between a single molecule and gold electrodes. This vertical setup has recently gained significant interest in experiment for the design of particularly stable and reproducible devices. We observe that the signals from the molecule in the electronic transmission are overlayed by the signatures of the graphene sheet, thus raising the need for a reinterpretation of the transmission. On the other hand, we see that our results are stable with respect to various defects in the graphene. For weakly physiosorbed molecules, no signs of interaction with the graphene are evident, so the transport properties are determined by offresonant tunnelling between the gold leads across an extended structure that includes the molecule itself and the additional graphene layer. Compared with pure gold electrodes, calculated conductances are about one order of magnitude lower due to the increased tunnelling distance. Relative differences upon changing the end group and the length of the molecule on the other hand, are similar.

  17. Electron transport in molecular junctions with graphene as protecting layer.

    PubMed

    Hüser, Falco; Solomon, Gemma C

    2015-12-01

    We present ab initio transport calculations for molecular junctions that include graphene as a protecting layer between a single molecule and gold electrodes. This vertical setup has recently gained significant interest in experiment for the design of particularly stable and reproducible devices. We observe that the signals from the molecule in the electronic transmission are overlayed by the signatures of the graphene sheet, thus raising the need for a reinterpretation of the transmission. On the other hand, we see that our results are stable with respect to various defects in the graphene. For weakly physiosorbed molecules, no signs of interaction with the graphene are evident, so the transport properties are determined by offresonant tunnelling between the gold leads across an extended structure that includes the molecule itself and the additional graphene layer. Compared with pure gold electrodes, calculated conductances are about one order of magnitude lower due to the increased tunnelling distance. Relative differences upon changing the end group and the length of the molecule on the other hand, are similar. PMID:26646877

  18. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-04-28

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  19. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2014-09-16

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  20. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-22

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  1. Synthesis of Graphene/diamond Double-Layered Structure for Improving Electron Field Emission Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yu; Qi, Ting; Liu, Jie; He, Zhiyong; Yu, Shengwang; Shen, Yanyan; Hei, Hongjun

    2016-02-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films on silicon were prepared by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method using argon-rich CH4/H2/Ar plasmas. The graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were successfully transferred on to the UNCD surface to fabricate electron field emission (EFE) property-enhanced graphene/UNCD films. The surface morphology, structure and composition of the graphene/UNCD double-layered structures were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GXRD). GXRD clearly shows the characteristic diffraction peaks of both diamond and graphene. The Raman spectrum shows the characteristic band of diamond at 1332cm‑1 and D, G and 2D bands of graphene at 1360, 1550 and 2610cm‑1, respectively. The EFE behavior of the composite films can be turned on at E0=2.2V/μm, attaining a current density of 0.065mA/cm2 at an applied field of 7.3V/μm.

  2. Atomic layer deposition of nanoporous biomaterials.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, R. J.; Adiga, S. P.; Pellin, M. J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N. A.; Brigmon, R. L.; Elam, J. W.; Univ. of North Carolina; North Carolina State Univ.; Eastman Kodak Co.; North Dakota State Univ.; SRL

    2010-03-01

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials. Nanoporous alumina, also known as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), is a nanomaterial that exhibits several unusual properties, including high pore densities, straight pores, small pore sizes, and uniform pore sizes. In 1953, Keller et al. showed that anodizing aluminum in acid electrolytes results in a thick layer of nearly cylindrical pores, which are arranged in a close-packed hexagonal cell structure. More recently, Matsuda & Fukuda demonstrated preparation of highly ordered platinum and gold nanohole arrays using a replication process. In this study, a negative structure of nanoporous alumina was initially fabricated and a positive structure of a nanoporous metal was subsequently fabricated. Over the past fifteen years, nanoporous alumina membranes have been used as templates for growth of a variety of nanostructured materials, including nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, and nanoporous membranes.

  3. Structure and field emission of graphene layers on top of silicon nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bohr-Ran; Chan, Hui-Wen; Jou, Shyankay; Chen, Guan-Yu; Kuo, Hsiu-An; Song, Wan-Jhen

    2016-01-01

    Monolayer graphene was grown on copper foils and then transferred on planar silicon substrates and on top of silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays to form single- to quadruple-layer graphene films. The morphology, structure, and electron field emission (FE) of these graphene films were investigated. The graphene films on the planar silicon substrates were continuous. The single- to triple-layer graphene films on the SiNW arrays were discontinuous and while the quadruple-layer graphene film featured a mostly continuous area. The Raman spectra of the graphene films on the SiNW arrays showed G and Gʹ bands with a singular-Lorentzian shape together with a weak D band. The D band intensity decreased as the number of graphene layers increased. The FE efficiency of the graphene films on the planar silicon substrates and the SiNW arrays varied with the number of graphene layers. The turn-on field for the single- to quadruple-layer graphene films on planar silicon substrates were 4.3, 3.7, 3.5 and 3.4 V/μm, respectively. The turn-on field for the single- to quadruple-layer graphene films on SiNW arrays decreased to 3.9, 3.3, 3.0 and 3.3 V/μm, respectively. Correlation of the FE with structure and morphology of the graphene films is discussed.

  4. One-step transfer and integration of multifunctionality in CVD graphene by TiO₂/graphene oxide hybrid layer.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hee Jin; Kim, Ho Young; Jeong, Hyun; Han, Joong Tark; Jeong, Seung Yol; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Jeong, Mun Seok; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2014-05-28

    We present a straightforward method for simultaneously enhancing the electrical conductivity, environmental stability, and photocatalytic properties of graphene films through one-step transfer of CVD graphene and integration by introducing TiO2/graphene oxide layer. A highly durable and flexible TiO2 layer is successfully used as a supporting layer for graphene transfer instead of the commonly used PMMA. Transferred graphene/TiO2 film is directly used for measuring the carrier transport and optoelectronic properties without an extra TiO2 removal and following deposition steps for multifunctional integration into devices because the thin TiO2 layer is optically transparent and electrically semiconducting. Moreover, the TiO2 layer induces charge screening by electrostatically interacting with the residual oxygen moieties on graphene, which are charge scattering centers, resulting in a reduced current hysteresis. Adsorption of water and other chemical molecules onto the graphene surface is also prevented by the passivating TiO2 layer, resulting in the long term environmental stability of the graphene under high temperature and humidity. In addition, the graphene/TiO2 film shows effectively enhanced photocatalytic properties because of the increase in the transport efficiency of the photogenerated electrons due to the decrease in the injection barrier formed at the interface between the F-doped tin oxide and TiO2 layers. PMID:24578338

  5. Current-Phase Measurements in Single Layer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chialvo, Cesar; Moraru, Ion; Bahr, Daniel; Mason, Nadya; van Harlingen, Dale

    2009-03-01

    The current-phase relationship (CPR) of a Josephson junction can provide key information about the microscopic processes that make up a supercurrent. However, CPR has not been previously measured in graphene. We have successfully fabricated a variety of Josephson junctions containing single-layer graphene as a weak link, and with different junction width to length ratios. We present results of measurements based on a phase-sensitive SQUID technique, where we determine the supercurrent amplitude and phase, as well as a possibly anomalous shape of the CPR.

  6. Toward Two-Dimensional All-Carbon Heterostructures via Ion Beam Patterning of Single-Layer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has many claims to fame: it is the thinnest possible membrane, it has unique electronic and excellent mechanical properties, and it provides the perfect model structure for studying materials science at the atomic level. However, for many practical studies and applications the ordered hexagon arrangement of carbon atoms in graphene is not directly suitable. Here, we show that the atoms can be locally either removed or rearranged into a random pattern of polygons using a focused ion beam (FIB). The atomic structure of the disordered regions is confirmed with atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images. These structural modifications can be made on macroscopic scales with a spatial resolution determined only by the size of the ion beam. With just one processing step, three types of structures can be defined within a graphene layer: chemically inert graphene, chemically active amorphous 2D carbon, and empty areas. This, along with the changes in properties, gives promise that FIB patterning of graphene will open the way for creating all-carbon heterostructures to be used in fields ranging from nanoelectronics and chemical sensing to composite materials. PMID:26161575

  7. The influence of nanoscale roughness and substrate chemistry on the frictional properties of single and few layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, Jessica C.; Custer, James P.; Batteas, James D.

    2015-05-01

    Nanoscale carbon lubricants such as graphene, have garnered increased interest as protective surface coatings for devices, but its tribological properties have been shown to depend on its interactions with the underlying substrate surface and its degree of surface conformity. This conformity is especially of interest as real interfaces exhibit roughness on the order of ~10 nm that can dramatically impact the contact area between the graphene film and the substrate. To examine the combined effects of surface interaction strength and roughness on the frictional properties of graphene, a combination of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman microspectroscopy has been used to explore substrate interactions and the frictional properties of single and few-layer graphene as a coating on silica nanoparticle films, which yield surfaces that mimic the nanoscaled asperities found in realistic devices. The interactions between the graphene and the substrate have been controlled by comparing their binding to hydrophilic (silanol terminated) and hydrophobic (octadecyltrichlorosilane modified) silica surfaces. AFM measurements revealed that graphene only partially conforms to the rough surfaces, with decreasing conformity, as the number of layers increase. Under higher mechanical loading the graphene conformity could be reversibly increased, allowing for a local estimation of the out-of-plane bending modulus of the film. The frictional properties were also found to depend on the number of layers, with the largest friction observed on single layers, ultimately decreasing to that of bulk graphite. This trend however, was found to disappear, depending on the tip-sample contact area and interfacial shear strain of the graphene associated with its adhesion to the substrate.Nanoscale carbon lubricants such as graphene, have garnered increased interest as protective surface coatings for devices, but its tribological properties have been shown to depend on its interactions with the

  8. Fabrication of graphene thin films based on layer-by-layer self-assembly of functionalized graphene nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Park, Je Seob; Cho, Sung Min; Kim, Woo-Jae; Park, Juhyun; Yoo, Pil J

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we present a facile means of fabricating graphene thin films via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of charged graphene nanosheets (GS) based on electrostatic interactions. To this end, graphite oxide (GO) obtained from graphite powder using Hummers method is chemically reduced to carboxylic acid-functionalized GS and amine-functionalized GS to perform an alternate LbL deposition between oppositely charged GSs. Specifically, for successful preparation of positively charged GS, GOs are treated with an intermediate acyl-chlorination reaction by thionyl chloride and a subsequent amidation reaction in pyridine, whereby a stable GO dispersibility can be maintained within the polar reaction solvent. As a result, without the aid of additional hybridization with charged nanomaterials or polyelectrolytes, the oppositely charged graphene nanosheets can be electrostatically assembled to form graphene thin films in an aqueous environment, while obtaining controllability over film thickness and transparency. Finally, the electrical property of the assembled graphene thin films can be enhanced through a thermal treatment process. Notably, the introduction of chloride functions during the acyl-chlorination reaction provides the p-doping effect for the assembled graphene thin films, yielding a sheet resistance of 1.4 kΩ/sq with a light transmittance of 80% after thermal treatment. Since the proposed method allows for large-scale production as well as elaborate manipulation of the physical properties of the graphene thin films, it can be potentially utilized in various applications, such as transparent electrodes, flexible displays and highly sensitive biosensors. PMID:21207942

  9. A graphene superficial layer for the advanced electroforming process.

    PubMed

    Rho, Hokyun; Park, Mina; Lee, Seungmin; Bae, Sukang; Kim, Tae-Wook; Ha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil. We also demonstrated that the electroformed free-standing Cu thin films could be utilized for patterning microstructures and incorporated onto a flexible substrate for LEDs. This innovative process could be beneficial for the advancement of flexible electronics and optoelectronics, which require a wide range of mechanical and physical properties. PMID:26949072

  10. Atomic Scale Imaging of the Electronic Structure and Chemistry of Graphene and Its Precursors on Metal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, George W

    2015-02-16

    atom, provides information about the electronic structure of graphene and is particularly sensitive to the sign and magnitude of the charge transfer between graphene and any surface adsorbed species. Results: (A) Graphene on SiO2 In an effort designed to unravel aspects of the mechanisms for chemistry on graphene surfaces, STM and STS were employed to show that graphene on SiO2 is oxidized at lower temperatures than either graphite or multi-layer graphene. Two independent factors control this charge transfer: (1) the degree of graphene coupling to the substrate, and (2) exposure to oxygen and moisture. (B) Graphene on Copper In the case of graphene grown on copper surfaces, we found that the graphene grows primarily in registry with the underlying copper lattice for both Cu(111) and Cu(100). On Cu(111) the graphene has a hexagonal superstructure with a significant electronic component, whereas it has a linear superstructure on Cu(100). (C) Nitrogen Doped Graphene on Copper Using STM we have also studied the electronic structure and morphology of graphene films grown on a copper foil substrate in which N atoms substitute for carbon in the 2-D graphene lattice. The salient features of the results of this study were: (1) Nitrogen doped graphene on Cu foil exhibits a triangular structure with an “apparent” slight elevation of ~ 0.8 Å at N atom substitution sites; (2) Nitrogen doping results in ~0.4 electrons per N atom donated to the graphene lattice; (3) Typical N doping of graphene on Cu foil shows mostly single site Carbon atom displacement (~ 3N/1000C); (4) Some multi-site C atom displacement is observed (<10% of single site events). (D) Boron Doped Graphene on Copper We also used scanning tunneling microscopy and x-ray spectroscopy to characterize the atomic and electronic structure of boron-doped graphene created by chemical vapor deposition on copper substrates. Microscopic measurements show that boron, like nitrogen, incorporates into the carbon lattice

  11. Adsorption of two sodium atoms on graphene -- A first principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Rani, Babita; Gupta, Shuchi; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-28

    We perform a systematic density functional theory (DFT) study of the adsorption of two sodium atoms on graphene using the SIESTA package, in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The adsorption energy, geometry, magnetic moment and charge transfer of the Na{sub n}-graphene (n=1, 2) system are calculated. Three initial horizontal orientations of the pair of sodium atoms on graphene are studied. Our calculations reveal that sodium atoms bind weakly to the graphene surface which is in agreement with previous results. We also notice a charge transfer of 0.288e from a sodium adatom to the graphene sheet altering its magnetic moment (−0.318 µ{sub B}) that is reduced from the gas phase value of the isolated atom (1 µ{sub B}). The calculated adsorption energies suggest that clustering of Na atoms on graphene is energetically favorable.

  12. Intrinsic Negative Poisson's Ratio for Single-Layer Graphene.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Chang, Tienchong; Guo, Xingming; Park, Harold S

    2016-08-10

    Negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) materials have drawn significant interest because the enhanced toughness, shear resistance, and vibration absorption that typically are seen in auxetic materials may enable a range of novel applications. In this work, we report that single-layer graphene exhibits an intrinsic NPR, which is robust and independent of its size and temperature. The NPR arises due to the interplay between two intrinsic deformation pathways (one with positive Poisson's ratio, the other with NPR), which correspond to the bond stretching and angle bending interactions in graphene. We propose an energy-based deformation pathway criteria, which predicts that the pathway with NPR has lower energy and thus becomes the dominant deformation mode when graphene is stretched by a strain above 6%, resulting in the NPR phenomenon. PMID:27408994

  13. Tribological characteristics of few-layer graphene over Ni grain and interface boundaries.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Manoj; Awaja, Firas; Paolicelli, Guido; Bartali, Ruben; Iacob, Erica; Valeri, Sergio; Ryu, Seunghwa; Signetti, Stefano; Speranza, Giorgio; Pugno, Nicola Maria

    2016-03-17

    The tribological properties of metal-supported few-layered graphene depend strongly on the grain topology of the metal substrate. Inhomogeneous distribution of graphene layers at such regions led to variable landscapes with distinguishable roughness. This discrepancy in morphology significantly affects the frictional and wetting characteristics of the FLG system. We discretely measured friction characteristics of FLG covering grains and interfacial grain boundaries of polycrystalline Ni metal substrate via an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. The friction coefficient of FLG covered at interfacial grain boundaries is found to be lower than that on grains in vacuum (at 10(-5) Torr pressure) and similar results were obtained in air condition. Sliding history with AFM cantilever, static and dynamic pull-in and pull-off adhesion forces were addressed in the course of friction measurements to explain the role of the out-of-plane deformation of graphene layer(s). Finite element simulations showed good agreement with experiments and led to a rationalization of the observations. Thus, with interfacial grain boundaries the FLG tribology can be effectively tuned. PMID:26948836

  14. Spatially Resolved Electronic Structures of Atomically Precise Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Han; Wei, Dacheng; Sun, Jiatao; Wong, Swee Liang; Feng, Yuan Ping; Neto, A. H. Castro; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen

    2012-12-01

    Graphene has attracted much interest in both academia and industry. The challenge of making it semiconducting is crucial for applications in electronic devices. A promising approach is to reduce its physical size down to the nanometer scale. Here, we present the surface-assisted bottom-up fabrication of atomically precise armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) with predefined widths, namely 7-, 14- and 21-AGNRs, on Ag(111) as well as their spatially resolved width-dependent electronic structures. STM/STS measurements reveal their associated electron scattering patterns and the energy gaps over 1 eV. The mechanism to form such AGNRs is addressed based on the observed intermediate products. Our results provide new insights into the local properties of AGNRs, and have implications for the understanding of their electrical properties and potential applications.

  15. Spatially Resolved Electronic Structures of Atomically Precise Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Han; Wei, Dacheng; Sun, Jiatao; Wong, Swee Liang; Feng, Yuan Ping; Neto, A. H. Castro; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen

    2012-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much interest in both academia and industry. The challenge of making it semiconducting is crucial for applications in electronic devices. A promising approach is to reduce its physical size down to the nanometer scale. Here, we present the surface-assisted bottom-up fabrication of atomically precise armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) with predefined widths, namely 7-, 14- and 21-AGNRs, on Ag(111) as well as their spatially resolved width-dependent electronic structures. STM/STS measurements reveal their associated electron scattering patterns and the energy gaps over 1 eV. The mechanism to form such AGNRs is addressed based on the observed intermediate products. Our results provide new insights into the local properties of AGNRs, and have implications for the understanding of their electrical properties and potential applications. PMID:23248746

  16. Electronic structure of epitaxial graphene layers on SiC: effects of the substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Varchon, F.; Feng, R.; Hass, J.; Li, X.; Nguyen, B. Ngoc; Naud, C.; Mallet, P.; Veuillen, J.-Y.; Berger, C.; Conrad, E.H.; Magaud, L.

    2008-10-17

    A strong substrate-graphite bond is found in the first all-carbon layer by density functional theory calculations and x-ray diffraction for few graphene layers grown epitaxially on SiC. This first layer is devoid of graphene electronic properties and acts as a buffer layer. The graphene nature of the film is recovered by the second carbon layer grown on both the (0001) and (0001{sup -}) 4H-SiC surfaces. We also present evidence of a charge transfer that depends on the interface geometry. Hence the graphene is doped and a gap opens at the Dirac point after three Bernal stacked carbon layers are formed.

  17. Redistribution of carbon atoms in Pt substrate for high quality monolayer graphene synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yinying, Li; Xiaoming, Wu; Huaqiang, Wu; He, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional material graphene shows its extraordinary potential in many application fields. As the most effective method to synthesize large-area monolayer graphene, chemical vapor deposition has been well developed; however, it still faces the challenge of a high occurrence of multilayer graphene, which causes the small effective area of monolayer graphene. This phenomenon limits its applications in which only a big size of monolayer graphene is needed. In this paper, by introducing a redistribution stage after the decomposition of carbon source gas to redistribute the carbon atoms dissolved in Pt foils, the number of multilayer flakes on the monolayer graphene decreases. The mean area of monolayer graphene can be extended to about 16 000 μm2, which is eight times larger than that of the graphene grown without the redistribution stage. A Raman spectrograph is used to demonstrate the high quality of the monolayer graphene grown by the improved process.

  18. Effect of the intra-layer potential distributions and spatial currents on the performance of graphene SymFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Mehdi; Sensale-Rodriguez, Berardi

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, a two-dimensional (2-D) model for a graphene symmetric field effect transistor (SymFET), which considers (a) the intra-graphene layer potential distributions and (b) the internal current flows through the device, is presented and discussed. The local voltages along the graphene electrodes as well as the current-voltage characteristics of the device are numerically calculated based on a single-particle tunneling model. Our numerical results show that: (i) when the tunneling current is small, due to either a large tunneling thickness (≥ 2 atomic layers of BN) or a small coherence length, the voltage distributions along the graphene electrodes have almost zero variations upon including these distributed effects, (ii) when the tunnel current is large, due to either a small tunneling thickness (∼ 1 atomic layer of BN) or due to a large coherence length, the local voltage distributions along the graphene electrodes become appreciable and the device behavior deviates from that predicted by a 1-D approximation. These effects, which are not captured in one-dimensional SymFET models, can provide a better understanding about the electron dynamics in the device and might indicate potential novel applications for this proposed device.

  19. Single-Layer Graphene as a Barrier Layer for Intense UV Laser-Induced Damages for Silver Nanowire Network.

    PubMed

    Das, Suprem R; Nian, Qiong; Saei, Mojib; Jin, Shengyu; Back, Doosan; Kumar, Prashant; Janes, David B; Alam, Muhammad A; Cheng, Gary J

    2015-11-24

    Single-layer graphene (SLG) has been proposed as the thinnest protective/barrier layer for wide applications involving resistance to oxidation, corrosion, atomic/molecular diffusion, electromagnetic interference, and bacterial contamination. Functional metallic nanostructures have lower thermal stability than their bulk forms and are therefore susceptible to high energy photons. Here, we demonstrate that SLG can shield metallic nanostructures from intense laser radiation that would otherwise ablate them. By irradiation via a UV laser beam with nanosecond pulse width and a range of laser intensities (in millions of watt per cm(2)) onto a silver nanowire network, and conformally wrapping SLG on top of the nanowire network, we demonstrate that graphene "extracts and spreads" most of the thermal energy away from nanowire, thereby keeping it damage-free. Without graphene wrapping, the radiation would fragment the wires into smaller pieces and even decompose them into droplets. A systematic molecular dynamics simulation confirms the mechanism of SLG shielding. Consequently, particular damage-free and ablation-free laser-based nanomanufacturing of hybrid nanostructures might be sparked off by application of SLG on functional surfaces and nanofeatures. PMID:26447828

  20. Plasmons in spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Mehran; Bahrami, Mousa

    2014-05-01

    Motivated by innovative progresses in designing multi-layer graphene nanostructured materials in the laboratory, we theoretically investigate the Dirac plasmon modes of a spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbon system, made up of a vertically offset armchair and metallic graphene nanoribbon pair. We find striking features of the collective excitations in this novel Coulomb correlated system, where both nanoribbons are supposed to be either intrinsic (undoped/ungated) or extrinsic (doped/gated). In the former, it is shown the low-energy acoustical and the high-energy optical plasmon modes are tunable only by the inter-ribbon charge separation. In the later, the aforementioned plasmon branches are modified by the added doping factor. As a result, our model could be useful to examine the existence of a linear Landau-undamped low-energy acoustical plasmon mode tuned via the inter-ribbon charge separation as well as doping. This study might also be utilized for devising novel quantum optical waveguides based on the Coulomb coupled graphene nanoribbons.

  1. Plasmons in spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bagheri, Mehran; Bahrami, Mousa

    2014-05-07

    Motivated by innovative progresses in designing multi-layer graphene nanostructured materials in the laboratory, we theoretically investigate the Dirac plasmon modes of a spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbon system, made up of a vertically offset armchair and metallic graphene nanoribbon pair. We find striking features of the collective excitations in this novel Coulomb correlated system, where both nanoribbons are supposed to be either intrinsic (undoped/ungated) or extrinsic (doped/gated). In the former, it is shown the low-energy acoustical and the high-energy optical plasmon modes are tunable only by the inter-ribbon charge separation. In the later, the aforementioned plasmon branches are modified by the added doping factor. As a result, our model could be useful to examine the existence of a linear Landau-undamped low-energy acoustical plasmon mode tuned via the inter-ribbon charge separation as well as doping. This study might also be utilized for devising novel quantum optical waveguides based on the Coulomb coupled graphene nanoribbons.

  2. Spectral properties of multi-layered graphene in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishanov, E. N.; Popov, I. Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Solvable model of multi-layered graphene in a homogeneous magnetic field is constructed. The spectrum of the Hamiltonian has Hofstadter butterfly type. The comparison of the spectrum for single-layer graphene with that for two-layered and three-layered systems is made.

  3. Atomic cobalt on nitrogen-doped graphene for hydrogen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Huilong; Dong, Juncai; Arellano-Jiménez, M. Josefina; Ye, Gonglan; Dong Kim, Nam; Samuel, Errol L. G.; Peng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Zhuan; Qin, Fan; Bao, Jiming; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Chen, Dongliang; Tour, James M.

    2015-10-01

    Reduction of water to hydrogen through electrocatalysis holds great promise for clean energy, but its large-scale application relies on the development of inexpensive and efficient catalysts to replace precious platinum catalysts. Here we report an electrocatalyst for hydrogen generation based on very small amounts of cobalt dispersed as individual atoms on nitrogen-doped graphene. This catalyst is robust and highly active in aqueous media with very low overpotentials (30 mV). A variety of analytical techniques and electrochemical measurements suggest that the catalytically active sites are associated with the metal centres coordinated to nitrogen. This unusual atomic constitution of supported metals is suggestive of a new approach to preparing extremely efficient single-atom catalysts.

  4. Atomic cobalt on nitrogen-doped graphene for hydrogen generation

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Huilong; Dong, Juncai; Arellano-Jiménez, M. Josefina; Ye, Gonglan; Dong Kim, Nam; Samuel, Errol L.G.; Peng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Zhuan; Qin, Fan; Bao, Jiming; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Chen, Dongliang; Tour, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of water to hydrogen through electrocatalysis holds great promise for clean energy, but its large-scale application relies on the development of inexpensive and efficient catalysts to replace precious platinum catalysts. Here we report an electrocatalyst for hydrogen generation based on very small amounts of cobalt dispersed as individual atoms on nitrogen-doped graphene. This catalyst is robust and highly active in aqueous media with very low overpotentials (30 mV). A variety of analytical techniques and electrochemical measurements suggest that the catalytically active sites are associated with the metal centres coordinated to nitrogen. This unusual atomic constitution of supported metals is suggestive of a new approach to preparing extremely efficient single-atom catalysts. PMID:26487368

  5. Atomic cobalt on nitrogen-doped graphene for hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Fei, Huilong; Dong, Juncai; Arellano-Jiménez, M Josefina; Ye, Gonglan; Dong Kim, Nam; Samuel, Errol L G; Peng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Zhuan; Qin, Fan; Bao, Jiming; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Chen, Dongliang; Tour, James M

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of water to hydrogen through electrocatalysis holds great promise for clean energy, but its large-scale application relies on the development of inexpensive and efficient catalysts to replace precious platinum catalysts. Here we report an electrocatalyst for hydrogen generation based on very small amounts of cobalt dispersed as individual atoms on nitrogen-doped graphene. This catalyst is robust and highly active in aqueous media with very low overpotentials (30 mV). A variety of analytical techniques and electrochemical measurements suggest that the catalytically active sites are associated with the metal centres coordinated to nitrogen. This unusual atomic constitution of supported metals is suggestive of a new approach to preparing extremely efficient single-atom catalysts. PMID:26487368

  6. Touch stimulated pulse generation in biomimetic single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sul, Onejae; Chun, Hyunsuk; Choi, Eunseok; Choi, Jungbong; Cho, Kyeongwon; Jang, Dongpyo; Chun, Sungwoo; Park, Wanjun; Lee, Seung-Beck

    2016-02-01

    Detecting variation in contact pressure is a separate sensing mode in the human somatosensory system that differs from the detection of pressure magnitude. If pressure magnitude and variation sensing can be achieved simultaneously, an advanced biomimetic tactile system that better emulates human senses may be developed. We report on a novel single-layer graphene based artificial mechanoreceptor that generates a resistance pulse as the contact stimulus passes a specific threshold pressure, mimicking the generation of action potentials in a biological fast-adapting mechanoreceptor. The electric field from a flexible membrane gate electrode placed above a graphene channel raises the Fermi level from the valence band as pressure deflects the membrane. The threshold pressure is reached when the Fermi level crosses the Dirac point in the graphene energy band, which generates a sharp peak in the measured resistance. We found that by changing the gate potential it was possible to modulate the threshold pressure and using a series of graphene channels, a train of pulses were generated during a transient pressurizing stimulus demonstrating biomimetic behaviour.Detecting variation in contact pressure is a separate sensing mode in the human somatosensory system that differs from the detection of pressure magnitude. If pressure magnitude and variation sensing can be achieved simultaneously, an advanced biomimetic tactile system that better emulates human senses may be developed. We report on a novel single-layer graphene based artificial mechanoreceptor that generates a resistance pulse as the contact stimulus passes a specific threshold pressure, mimicking the generation of action potentials in a biological fast-adapting mechanoreceptor. The electric field from a flexible membrane gate electrode placed above a graphene channel raises the Fermi level from the valence band as pressure deflects the membrane. The threshold pressure is reached when the Fermi level crosses the Dirac

  7. Tunable electronic properties of graphene through controlling bonding configurations of doped nitrogen atoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Zhao, Chao; Liu, Na; Zhang, Huanxi; Liu, Jingjing; Fu, Yong Qing; Guo, Bin; Wang, Zhenlong; Lei, Shengbin; Hu, PingAn

    2016-01-01

    Single–layer and mono–component doped graphene is a crucial platform for a better understanding of the relationship between its intrinsic electronic properties and atomic bonding configurations. Large–scale doped graphene films dominated with graphitic nitrogen (GG) or pyrrolic nitrogen (PG) were synthesized on Cu foils via a free radical reaction at growth temperatures of 230–300 °C and 400–600 °C, respectively. The bonding configurations of N atoms in the graphene lattices were controlled through reaction temperature, and characterized using Raman spectroscopy, X–ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscope. The GG exhibited a strong n–type doping behavior, whereas the PG showed a weak n–type doping behavior. Electron mobilities of the GG and PG were in the range of 80.1–340 cm2 V−1·s−1 and 59.3–160.6 cm2 V−1·s−1, respectively. The enhanced doping effect caused by graphitic nitrogen in the GG produced an asymmetry electron–hole transport characteristic, indicating that the long–range scattering (ionized impurities) plays an important role in determining the carrier transport behavior. Analysis of temperature dependent conductance showed that the carrier transport mechanism in the GG was thermal excitation, whereas that in the PG, was a combination of thermal excitation and variable range hopping. PMID:27325386

  8. Short-range ordering of ion-implanted nitrogen atoms in SiC-graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Willke, P.; Druga, T.; Wenderoth, M.; Amani, J. A.; Weikert, S.; Hofsäss, H.; Thakur, S.; Maiti, K.

    2014-09-15

    We perform a structural analysis of nitrogen-doped graphene on SiC(0001) prepared by ultra low-energy ion bombardment. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we show that nitrogen atoms are incorporated almost exclusively as graphitic substitution in the graphene honeycomb lattice. With an irradiation energy of 25 eV and a fluence of approximately 5 × 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}, we achieve a nitrogen content of around 1%. By quantitatively comparing the position of the N-atoms in the topography measurements with simulated random distributions, we find statistically significant short-range correlations. Consequently, we are able to show that the dopants arrange preferably at lattice sites given by the 6 × 6-reconstruction of the underlying substrate. This selective incorporation is most likely triggered by adsorbate layers present during the ion bombardment. This study identifies low-energy ion irradiation as a promising method for controlled doping in epitaxial graphene.

  9. Tunable electronic properties of graphene through controlling bonding configurations of doped nitrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Zhao, Chao; Liu, Na; Zhang, Huanxi; Liu, Jingjing; Fu, Yong Qing; Guo, Bin; Wang, Zhenlong; Lei, Shengbin; Hu, PingAn

    2016-01-01

    Single-layer and mono-component doped graphene is a crucial platform for a better understanding of the relationship between its intrinsic electronic properties and atomic bonding configurations. Large-scale doped graphene films dominated with graphitic nitrogen (GG) or pyrrolic nitrogen (PG) were synthesized on Cu foils via a free radical reaction at growth temperatures of 230-300 °C and 400-600 °C, respectively. The bonding configurations of N atoms in the graphene lattices were controlled through reaction temperature, and characterized using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscope. The GG exhibited a strong n-type doping behavior, whereas the PG showed a weak n-type doping behavior. Electron mobilities of the GG and PG were in the range of 80.1-340 cm(2) V(-1)·s(-1) and 59.3-160.6 cm(2) V(-1)·s(-1), respectively. The enhanced doping effect caused by graphitic nitrogen in the GG produced an asymmetry electron-hole transport characteristic, indicating that the long-range scattering (ionized impurities) plays an important role in determining the carrier transport behavior. Analysis of temperature dependent conductance showed that the carrier transport mechanism in the GG was thermal excitation, whereas that in the PG, was a combination of thermal excitation and variable range hopping. PMID:27325386

  10. Role of barrier layer on dielectric function of graphene double layer system at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Digish K.; Ambavale, Sagar K.; Prajapati, Ketan; Sharma, A. C.

    2016-05-01

    We have theoretically investigated the static dielectric function of graphene double layer system (GDLS) at finite temperatures within the random phase approximation. GDLS has been suspended on a substrate and barrier layer of three different materials; h-BN, Al2O3 and HfO2 has been introduced between two graphene sheets of GDLS. We have reported dependence of the overall dielectric function of GDLS on interlayer distance and the effect of the dielectric environment at finite temperatures. Results show close relation between changing environment and behavior of dielectric constant of GDLS.

  11. Novel Infrared Dynamics of Cold Atoms on Hot Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Sanghita; Kotov, Valeri; Clougherty, Dennis

    The low-energy dynamics of cold atoms interacting with macroscopic graphene membranes exhibits severe infrared divergences when treated perturbatively. These infrared problems are even more pronounced at finite temperature due to the (infinitely) many flexural phonons excited in graphene. We have devised a technique to take account (resummation) of such processes in the spirit of the well-known exact solution of the independent boson model. Remarkably, there is also similarity to the infrared problems and their treatment (via the Bloch-Nordsieck scheme) in finite temperature ``hot'' quantum electrodynamics and chromodynamics due to the long-range, unscreened nature of gauge interactions. The method takes into account correctly the strong damping provided by the many emitted phonons at finite temperature. In our case, the inverse membrane size plays the role of an effective low-energy scale, and, unlike the above mentioned field theories, there remains an unusual, highly nontrivial dependence on that scale due to the 2D nature of the problem. We present detailed results for the sticking (atomic damping rate) rate of cold atomic hydrogen as a function of the membrane temperature and size. We find that the rate is very strongly dependent on both quantities.

  12. Low-energy phase change memory with graphene confined layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chengqiu; Ma, Jun; Ge, Xiaoming; Rao, Feng; Ding, Keyuan; Lv, Shilong; Wu, Liangcai; Song, Zhitang

    2016-06-01

    How to reduce the Reset operation energy is the key scientific and technological problem in the field of phase change memory (PCM). Here, we show in the Ge2Sb2Te5 based PCM cell, inserting an additional graphene monolayer in the Ge2Sb2Te5 layer can remarkably decrease both the Reset current and energy. Because of the small out-of-plane electrical and thermal conductivities of such monolayer graphene, the Set resistance and the heat dissipation towards top TiN electrode of the modified PCM cell are significantly increased and decreased, respectively. The mushroom-typed larger active phase transition volume thus can be confined inside the underlying thinner GST layer, resulting in the lower power consumption.

  13. Magnetoelectric effect in functionalized few-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Elton J. G.

    2013-04-01

    We show that the spin moment induced by sp3-type defects created by different covalent functionalizations on a few-layer graphene structure can be controlled by an external electric field. Based on ab initio density functional calculations, including van der Waals interactions, we find that this effect has a dependence on the number of stacked layers and concentration of point defects, but the interplay of both with the electric field drives the system to a half-metallic state. The calculated magnetoelectric coefficient α has a value comparable to those found for ferromagnetic thin films (e.g., Fe, Co, Ni) and magnetoelectric surfaces (e.g., CrO2). The value of α also agrees with the universal value predicted for ferromagnetic half-metals and also points to a novel route to induce half-metallicity in graphene using surface decoration.

  14. Electrostatic force microscopy and electrical isolation of etched few-layer graphene nano-domains

    SciTech Connect

    Hunley, D. Patrick; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Boland, Mathias J.; Strachan, Douglas R.

    2014-12-15

    Nanostructured bi-layer graphene samples formed through catalytic etching are investigated with electrostatic force microscopy. The measurements and supporting computations show a variation in the microscopy signal for different nano-domains that are indicative of changes in capacitive coupling related to their small sizes. Abrupt capacitance variations detected across etch tracks indicates that the nano-domains have strong electrical isolation between them. Comparison of the measurements to a resistor-capacitor model indicates that the resistance between two bi-layer graphene regions separated by an approximately 10 nm wide etch track is greater than about 1×10{sup 12} Ω with a corresponding gap resistivity greater than about 3×10{sup 14} Ω⋅nm. This extremely large gap resistivity suggests that catalytic etch tracks within few-layer graphene samples are sufficient for providing electrical isolation between separate nano-domains that could permit their use in constructing atomically thin nanogap electrodes, interconnects, and nanoribbons.

  15. Energetics of a Li Atom adsorbed on B/N doped graphene with monovacancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Babita; Jindal, V. K.; Dharamvir, Keya

    2016-08-01

    We use density functional theory (DFT) to study the adsorption properties and diffusion of Li atom across B/N-pyridinic graphene. Regardless of the dopant type, B atoms of B-pyridinic graphene lose electron density. On the other hand, N atoms (p-type dopants) have tendency to gain electron density in N-pyridinic graphene. Higher chemical reactivity and electronic conductivity of B/N-pyridinic graphene are responsible for stronger binding of Li with the substrates as compared to pristine graphene. The binding energy of Li with B/N-pyridinic graphene exceeds the cohesive energy of bulk Li, making it energetically unfavourable for Li to form clusters on these substrates. Li atom gets better adsorbed on N-pyridinic graphene due to an additional p-p hybridization of the orbitals while Li on B-pyridinic prefers the ionic bonding. Also, significant distortion of N-pyridinic graphene upon Li adsorption is a consequence of the change in bonding mechanism between Li atom and the substrate. Our results show that bonding character and hence binding energies between Li and graphene can be tuned with the help of B/N doping of monovacancy defects. Further, the sites for most stable adsorption are different for the two types of doped and defective graphene, leading to greater Li uptake capacity of B-pyridinic graphene near the defect. In addition, B-pyridinic graphene offering lower diffusion barrier, ensures better Li kinetics. Thus, B-pyridinic graphene presents itself as a better anode material for LIBs as compared to N-pyridinic graphene.

  16. Edge field emission of large-area single layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleshch, Victor I.; Bandurin, Denis A.; Orekhov, Anton S.; Purcell, Stephen T.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2015-12-01

    Field electron emission from the edges of large-area (∼1 cm × 1 cm) graphene films deposited onto quartz wafers was studied. The graphene was previously grown by chemical vapour deposition on copper. An extreme enhancement of electrostatic field at the edge of the films with macroscopically large lateral dimensions and with single atom thickness was achieved. This resulted in the creation of a blade type electron emitter, providing stable field emission at low-voltage with linear current density up to 0.5 mA/cm. A strong hysteresis in current-voltage characteristics and a step-like increase of the emission current during voltage ramp up were observed. These effects were explained by the local mechanical peeling of the graphene edge from the quartz substrate by the ponderomotive force during the field emission process. Specific field emission phenomena exhibited in the experimental study are explained by a unique combination of structural, electronic and mechanical properties of graphene. Various potential applications ranging from linear electron beam sources to microelectromechanical systems are discussed.

  17. Size-Selective Cu Nanocrystals Growth on Single and 2-3 Layers Graphene Films.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Yunfei; Guo, Haijie; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-09-01

    Cu nanoparticles decorated CVD growth single layer and 2-3 layers graphene films have been synthesized by sputtering deposition and annealing process. The wrinkles were observed on single layer graphene due to high annealing temperature (700 degrees C) and rapid cooling process, which were proved by HRSEM and Raman spectra. Smaller mean diameter and narrower size distribution of Cu nanoparticles were observed on 2-3 layers graphene film than that on single layer graphene. The large particles grow at the expense of small particles, and the particle growth was governed by the Ostwald ripening process. PMID:26716337

  18. Ruthenium / aerogel nanocomposits via Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, J; Baumann, T F; Wang, Y; Nelson, E J; Kucheyev, S O; Hamza, A V; Kemell, M; Ritala, M; Leskela, M

    2006-08-28

    We present a general approach to prepare metal/aerogel nanocomposites via template directed atomic layer deposition (ALD). In particular, we used a Ru ALD process consisting of alternating exposures to bis(cyclopentadienyl)ruthenium (RuCp{sub 2}) and air at 350 C to deposit metallic Ru nanoparticles on the internal surfaces of carbon and silica aerogels. The process does not affect the morphology of the aerogel template and offers excellent control over metal loading by simply adjusting the number of ALD cycles. We also discuss the limitations of our ALD approach, and suggest ways to overcome these.

  19. Variation in the c-axis conductivity of multi-layer graphene due to H2 exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaekyung; Kwak, Cheol Hwan; Jung, Woochan; Huh, Yun Suk; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2016-06-21

    The variation of the c-axis conductivity of a multilayer graphene (MLG) as a function of H2 pressure from vacuum to 20 bar has been investigated. MLG was connected to the electrodes vertically using a wet transfer process. After exposure to H2 gas pressure up to 20 bar, the chemisorption of dissociated atomic hydrogen on MLG affects its electrical and structural properties. The formation of C-H bonds causes a decoupling of graphene layers, and then interferes with charge transfer through the out of plane. As a result, the c-axis conductivity decreases. Furthermore, the electron doping effect and the decoupling of the layers were confirmed using Raman spectroscopy. Hydrogenated carbons induce a defect structure of MLG which results in the expansion of layers. We observed a 43.54% increase in the thickness of the MLG after H2 exposure using atomic force microscopy. PMID:27241072

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J; Pellin, M J; Antoine, C Z; Ciovati, G; Kneisel, P; Reece, C E; Rimmer, R A; Cooley, L; Gurevich, A V; Ha, Y; Proslier, Th; Zasadzinski, J

    2009-05-01

    We have begun using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to synthesize a variety of surface coatings on coupons and cavities as part of an effort to produce rf structures with significantly better performance and yield than those obtained from bulk niobium, The ALD process offers the possibility of conformally coating complex cavity shapes with precise layered structures with tightly constrained morphology and chemical properties. Our program looks both at the metallurgy and superconducting properties of these coatings, and also their performance in working structures. Initial results include: 1) evidence from point contact tunneling showing magnetic oxides can be a significant limitation to high gradient operation, 2) experimental results showing the production sharp niobium/oxide interfaces from a high temperature bake of ALD coated Al2O3 on niobium surfaces, 3) results from ALD coated structures.

  1. Atomic Layer Deposition for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Proslier, Th.; Ha, Y.; Zasadzinski, J.; Ciovati, G.; Kneissel, P.; Reece, C.; Rimmer, R.; Gurevich, A.; Cooley, L.; Wu, G.; Pellin, M.; /Argonne

    2009-05-01

    We have begun using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to synthesize a variety of surface coatings on coupons and cavities as part of an effort to produce rf structures with significantly better performance and yield than those obtained from bulk niobium, The ALD process offers the possibility of conformally coating complex cavity shapes with precise layered structures with tightly constrained morphology and chemical properties. Our program looks both at the metallurgy and superconducting properties of these coatings, and also their performance in working structures. Initial results include: (1) results from ALD coated cavities and coupons, (2) new evidence from point contact tunneling (PCT) showing magnetic oxides can be a significant limitation to high gradient operation, (3) a study of high pressure rinsing damage on niobium samples.

  2. Touch stimulated pulse generation in biomimetic single-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Sul, Onejae; Chun, Hyunsuk; Choi, Eunseok; Choi, Jungbong; Cho, Kyeongwon; Jang, Dongpyo; Chun, Sungwoo; Park, Wanjun; Lee, Seung-Beck

    2016-02-14

    Detecting variation in contact pressure is a separate sensing mode in the human somatosensory system that differs from the detection of pressure magnitude. If pressure magnitude and variation sensing can be achieved simultaneously, an advanced biomimetic tactile system that better emulates human senses may be developed. We report on a novel single-layer graphene based artificial mechanoreceptor that generates a resistance pulse as the contact stimulus passes a specific threshold pressure, mimicking the generation of action potentials in a biological fast-adapting mechanoreceptor. The electric field from a flexible membrane gate electrode placed above a graphene channel raises the Fermi level from the valence band as pressure deflects the membrane. The threshold pressure is reached when the Fermi level crosses the Dirac point in the graphene energy band, which generates a sharp peak in the measured resistance. We found that by changing the gate potential it was possible to modulate the threshold pressure and using a series of graphene channels, a train of pulses were generated during a transient pressurizing stimulus demonstrating biomimetic behaviour. PMID:26790981

  3. Negative Poisson's Ratio in Single-Layer Graphene Ribbons.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Park, Harold S

    2016-04-13

    The Poisson's ratio characterizes the resultant strain in the lateral direction for a material under longitudinal deformation. Though negative Poisson's ratios (NPR) are theoretically possible within continuum elasticity, they are most frequently observed in engineered materials and structures, as they are not intrinsic to many materials. In this work, we report NPR in single-layer graphene ribbons, which results from the compressive edge stress induced warping of the edges. The effect is robust, as the NPR is observed for graphene ribbons with widths smaller than about 10 nm, and for tensile strains smaller than about 0.5% with NPR values reaching as large as -1.51. The NPR is explained analytically using an inclined plate model, which is able to predict the Poisson's ratio for graphene sheets of arbitrary size. The inclined plate model demonstrates that the NPR is governed by the interplay between the width (a bulk property), and the warping amplitude of the edge (an edge property), which eventually yields a phase diagram determining the sign of the Poisson's ratio as a function of the graphene geometry. PMID:26986994

  4. Free Energy Relationships in the Electrical Double Layer over Single-Layer Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Achtyl, Jennifer L.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Dai, Sheng; Geiger, Franz M.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid/solid interfaces containing singlelayer graphene are important in the areas of chemistry, physics, biology, and materials science, yet this environment is difficult to access with experimental methods, especially under flow conditions and in a label-free manner. Herein, we demonstrate the use of second harmonic generation to quantify the interfacial free energy at the fused silica/single-layer graphene/water interface at pH 7 and under conditions of flowing aqueous electrolyte solutions ranging in NaCl concentrations from 10 4 to 10 1 M. Our analysis reveals that single-layer graphene reduces the interfacial free energy density of the fused silica/water interface by a factor of up to 7, which is substantial given that many interfacial processes, including those that are electrochemical in nature, are exponentially sensitive to interfacial free energy density.

  5. CVD films of narrow atomically precise graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhirev, Mikhail; Lipatov, Alexey; Harkleroad, Ashley; Sinitskii, Alexander

    Atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is a promising material for the next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. So far, solution-based and surface-assisted approaches have been the two main routes to synthesize GNRs with atomically smooth armchair edges. However, efficient processing of the resulting GNRs into uniform thin films to fabricate GNR-based functional devices remains a formidable challenge. In this presentation we will report the synthesis of narrow armchair GNRs using an alternative approach - a radical polymerization of rationally designed molecular precursors. The technique allows fabrication of thin, transparent and conductive films of GNRs on almost any substrate. Microscopic structure and electrical properties of the fabricated GNR films will also be discussed.

  6. Atomic-scale scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies of nanometer-sized graphene on the Si(111)-7x7 surface.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, Justin; Lyding, Joseph

    2009-03-01

    We have used ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy to perform atomic-level studies of graphene on the Si(111)-7x7 surface. We used a dry contact transfer technique (DCT) developed by Albrecht and Lyding [1] to deposit mechanically exfoliated graphene in-situ [2] onto atomically clean Si(111)-7x7 surfaces. The DCT method deposits single, double, and thicker layers of atomically clean graphene. We observe varying degrees of transparency of the graphene monolayers and bilayers on the Si(111)-7x7 surface, where the substrate atomic structure is clearly seen through the graphene. We believe that the electronic structure of a graphene monolayer on the Si(111)-7x7 surface leads to the transparency of monolayers and bilayers, similar to the findings of Rutter, et al [3]. Room-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements of the graphene monolayers and bilayers on the Si(111)-7x7 surface show predominantly metallic behavior. [1] P.M. Albrecht and J.W. Lyding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5029 (2003) [2] K.A. Ritter and J.W. Lyding, Nanotechnology 19, 015704 (2008) [3] G.M. Rutter, et al, Phys. Rev. B 76, 235416 (2007)

  7. Clean Nanotube Unzipping by Abrupt Thermal Expansion of Molecular Nitrogen: Graphene Nanoribbons with Atomically Smooth Edges

    SciTech Connect

    Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Terrones, M.; Endo, M; Munoz-Sandoval, Emilio; Kim, Y A; Morelos-Bomez, Aaron; Vega-Diaz, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel physicochemical route to produce highly crystalline nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons. The technique consists of an abrupt N2 gas expansion within the hollow core of nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNx-MWNTs) when exposed to a fast thermal shock. The multiwalled nanotube unzipping mechanism is rationalized using molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations, which highlight the importance of open-ended nanotubes in promoting the efficient introduction of N2 molecules by capillary action within tubes and surface defects, thus triggering an efficient and atomically smooth unzipping. The so-produced nanoribbons could be few-layered (from graphene bilayer onward) and could exhibit both crystalline zigzag and armchair edges. In contrast to methods developed previously, our technique presents various advantages: (1) the tubes are not heavily oxidized; (2) the method yields sharp atomic edges within the resulting nanoribbons; (3) the technique could be scaled up for the bulk production of crystalline nanoribbons from available MWNT sources; and (4) this route could eventually be used to unzip other types of carbon nanotubes or intercalated layered materials such as BN, MoS2, WS2, etc.

  8. Clean nanotube unzipping by abrupt thermal expansion of molecular nitrogen: graphene nanoribbons with atomically smooth edges.

    PubMed

    Morelos-Gómez, Aarón; Vega-Díaz, Sofia Magdalena; González, Viviana Jehová; Tristán-López, Ferdinando; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Mi, Xi; Shi, Yunfeng; Sakamoto, Hirotoshi; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Kaneko, Katsumi; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Meunier, Vincent; Endo, Morinobu; Muñoz-Sandoval, Emilio; Terrones, Mauricio

    2012-03-27

    We report a novel physicochemical route to produce highly crystalline nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons. The technique consists of an abrupt N(2) gas expansion within the hollow core of nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CN(x)-MWNTs) when exposed to a fast thermal shock. The multiwalled nanotube unzipping mechanism is rationalized using molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations, which highlight the importance of open-ended nanotubes in promoting the efficient introduction of N(2) molecules by capillary action within tubes and surface defects, thus triggering an efficient and atomically smooth unzipping. The so-produced nanoribbons could be few-layered (from graphene bilayer onward) and could exhibit both crystalline zigzag and armchair edges. In contrast to methods developed previously, our technique presents various advantages: (1) the tubes are not heavily oxidized; (2) the method yields sharp atomic edges within the resulting nanoribbons; (3) the technique could be scaled up for the bulk production of crystalline nanoribbons from available MWNT sources; and (4) this route could eventually be used to unzip other types of carbon nanotubes or intercalated layered materials such as BN, MoS(2), WS(2), etc. PMID:22360783

  9. Chemical bonding and stability of multilayer graphene oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Cheng; Kim, Suenne; Zhou, Si; Hu, Yike; Acik, Muge; de Heer, Walt; Berger, Claire; Bongiorno, Angelo; Riedo, Eliso; Chabal, Yves

    2014-03-01

    The chemistry of graphene oxide (GO) and its response to external stimuli such as temperature and light are not well understood and only approximately controlled. This understanding is however crucial to enable future applications of the material that typically are subject to environmental conditions. The nature of the initial GO is also highly dependent on the preparation and the form of the initial carbon material. Here, we consider both standard GO made from oxidizing graphite and layered GO made from oxidizing epitaxial graphene on SiC, and examine their evolution under different stimuli. The effect of the solvent on the thermal evolution of standard GO in vacuum is first investigated. In situ infrared absorption measurements clearly show that the nature of the last solvent in contact with GO prior to deposition on a substrate for vacuum annealing studies substantially affect the chemical evolution of the material as GO is reduced. Second, the stability of GO derived from epitaxial graphene (on SiC) is examined as a function of time. We show that hydrogen, in the form of CH, is present after the Hummers process, and that hydrogen favors the reduction of epoxide groups and the formation of water molecules. Importantly, this transformation can take place at room temperature, albeit slowly (~ one month). Finally, the chemical interaction (e.g. bonding) between GO layers in multilayer samples is examined with diffraction (XRD) methods, spectroscopic (IR, XPS, Raman) techniques, imaging (APF) and first principles modeling.

  10. Structural distortions in few-layer graphene creases.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Alex W; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Wu, Yimin A; Schäffel, Franziska; Büchner, Bernd; Rümmeli, Mark H; Warner, Jamie H

    2011-12-27

    Folds and creases are frequently found in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), due to the differing thermal expansion coefficients of graphene from the growth catalyst and the flexibility of the sheet during transfer from the catalyst. The structure of a few-layer graphene (FLG) crease is examined by aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (AC-HRTEM). A study of 2D fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) taken about the region of the crease allowed for the crystal stacking structure of the system to be elucidated. It was found that strain-induced stacking faults were created in the AB Bernal-stacked FLG bulk around the region proximal to the crease termination; this is of interest as the stacking order of FLG is known to have an effect on its electronic properties and thus should be considered when transferring CVD-grown FLG to alternate substrates for electronic device fabrication. The FFTs, along with analysis of the real space images, were used to determine the configuration of the layers in the crease itself and were corroborated by multislice atomistic TEM simulations. The termination of the crease part way through the FLG sheet is also examined and is found to show strong out of plane distortions in the area about it. PMID:22122696

  11. High yield production and purification of few layer graphene by Gum Arabic assisted physical sonication

    PubMed Central

    Chabot, Victor; Kim, Brian; Sloper, Brent; Tzoganakis, Costas; Yu, Aiping

    2013-01-01

    Exploiting the emulsification properties of low cost, environmentally safe Gum Arabic we demonstrate a high yield process to produce a few layer graphene with a low defect ratio, maintaining the pristine graphite structure. In addition, we demonstrate the need for and efficacy of an acid hydrolysis treatment to remove the polymer residues to produce 100% pure graphene. The scalable process gives yield of up to 5 wt% graphene based on 10 g starting graphite. The graphene product is compared with reduced graphene oxide produced through Hummer's method using UV-visible spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The two graphene materials show significant difference in these characterizations. Further, the film fabricated from this graphene exhibits 20 times higher electrical conductivity than that of the reduced graphene oxide. Sonication processing of graphite with environmentally approved biopolymers such as Gum Arabic opens up a scalable avenue for production of cheap graphene. PMID:23478744

  12. Effect of radial stretch on vibration characteristics of single-layered circular graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlani, Gunjan; Verma, Deepti; Gupta, Shakti

    Vibrations of single-layered circular graphene sheets are studied using molecular mechanics (MM) simulations. Interactions between bonded and non-bonded atoms are prescribed using MM3 potential. Frequencies of different modes of vibration are computed from the eigenvalues and eigen vectors of mass weighted Hessian of the system. This study is performed on graphene sheets of various diameters. A linear continuum membrane model for predicting vibrational frequencies is studied using finite element (FE) method. Frequencies for several modes computed from continuum and molecular model matched well for moderate values of radial stretch, however, with increased stretch those deviated from each other significantly. In particular for higher values of stretch the MM simulations predict considerably lower values of frequencies compared to that found from FE simulations. Also, at higher values of stretch the frequency vs. stretch curve obtained from MM simulations showed a hardening behavior which could not be captured by the linear continuum model. We have also found a similar behavior in two-layered graphene sheets using MM simulations.

  13. Graphene Layer Growth Chemistry: Five-Six-Ring Flip Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Whitesides, R.; Domin, D.; Salomon-Ferrer, R.; Lester Jr., W.A.; Frenklach, M.

    2007-12-01

    Reaction pathways are presented for hydrogen-mediated isomerization of a five and six member carbon ring complex on the zigzag edge of a graphene layer. A new reaction sequence that reverses orientation of the ring complex, or 'flips' it, was identified. Competition between the flip reaction and 'ring separation' was examined. Ring separation is the reverse of the five and six member ring complex formation reaction, previously reported as 'ring collision'. The elementary steps of the pathways were analyzed using density-functional theory (DFT). Rate coefficients were obtained by solution of the energy master equation and classical transition state theory utilizing the DFT energies, frequencies, and geometries. The results indicate that the flip reaction pathway dominates the separation reaction and should be competitive with other pathways important to the graphene zigzag edge growth in high temperature environments.

  14. Graphene as an efficient interfacial layer for electrochromic devices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Bult, Justin B; Nanayakkara, Sanjini; Dillon, Anne C; Richards, Ryan M; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Engtrakul, Chaiwat

    2015-06-01

    This study presents an interfacial modification strategy to improve the performance of electrochromic films that were fabricated by a magnetron sputtering technique. High-quality graphene sheets, synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, were used to modify fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates, followed by the deposition of high-performance nanocomposite nickel oxide electrochromic films. Electrochromic cycling results revealed that a near-complete monolayer graphene interfacial layer improves the electrochromic performance in terms of switching kinetics, activation period, coloration efficiency, and bleached-state transparency, while maintaining ∼100% charge reversibility. The present study offers an alternative route for improving the interfacial properties between electrochromic and transparent conducting oxide films without relying on conventional methods such as nanostructuring or thin film composition control. PMID:25950270

  15. Two-dimensional layered semiconductor/graphene heterostructures for solar photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, Mariyappan; Jacobs-Gedrim, Robin; Song, Eui Sang; Yu, Bin

    2014-10-01

    Schottky barriers formed by graphene (monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer) on 2D layered semiconductor tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets are explored for solar energy harvesting. The characteristics of the graphene-WS2 Schottky junction vary significantly with the number of graphene layers on WS2, resulting in differences in solar cell performance. Compared with monolayer or stacked bilayer graphene, multilayer graphene helps in achieving improved solar cell performance due to superior electrical conductivity. The all-layered-material Schottky barrier solar cell employing WS2 as a photoactive semiconductor exhibits efficient photon absorption in the visible spectral range, yielding 3.3% photoelectric conversion efficiency with multilayer graphene as the Schottky contact. Carrier transport at the graphene/WS2 interface and the interfacial recombination process in the Schottky barrier solar cells are examined.

  16. Two-dimensional layered semiconductor/graphene heterostructures for solar photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Mariyappan; Jacobs-Gedrim, Robin; Song, Eui Sang; Yu, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Schottky barriers formed by graphene (monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer) on 2D layered semiconductor tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets are explored for solar energy harvesting. The characteristics of the graphene-WS2 Schottky junction vary significantly with the number of graphene layers on WS2, resulting in differences in solar cell performance. Compared with monolayer or stacked bilayer graphene, multilayer graphene helps in achieving improved solar cell performance due to superior electrical conductivity. The all-layered-material Schottky barrier solar cell employing WS2 as a photoactive semiconductor exhibits efficient photon absorption in the visible spectral range, yielding 3.3% photoelectric conversion efficiency with multilayer graphene as the Schottky contact. Carrier transport at the graphene/WS2 interface and the interfacial recombination process in the Schottky barrier solar cells are examined. PMID:25210837

  17. Examination of humidity effects on measured thickness and interfacial phenomena of exfoliated graphene on silicon dioxide via amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinkins, K.; Camacho, J.; Farina, L.; Wu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The properties of Few-Layer Graphene (FLG) change with the number of layers and Amplitude Modulation (AM) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is commonly used to determine the thickness of FLG. However, AFM measurements have been shown to be sensitive to environmental conditions such as relative humidity (RH). In the present study, AM-AFM is used to measure the thickness and loss tangent of exfoliated graphene on silicon dioxide (SiO2) as RH is increased from 10% to 80%. We show that the measured thickness of graphene is dependent on RH. The loss tangent values of the graphene and oxide regions are both affected by humidity, with generally higher loss tangent for graphene than SiO2. As RH increases, we observe the loss tangent of both materials approaches the same value. We hypothesize that there is a layer of water trapped between the graphene and SiO2 substrate to explain this observation. Using this interpretation, the loss tangent images also indicate movement and change in this trapped water layer as RH increases, which impacts the measured thickness of graphene using AM-AFM.

  18. Examination of humidity effects on measured thickness and interfacial phenomena of exfoliated graphene on silicon dioxide via amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jinkins, K.; Farina, L.; Wu, Y.; Camacho, J.

    2015-12-14

    The properties of Few-Layer Graphene (FLG) change with the number of layers and Amplitude Modulation (AM) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is commonly used to determine the thickness of FLG. However, AFM measurements have been shown to be sensitive to environmental conditions such as relative humidity (RH). In the present study, AM-AFM is used to measure the thickness and loss tangent of exfoliated graphene on silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) as RH is increased from 10% to 80%. We show that the measured thickness of graphene is dependent on RH. The loss tangent values of the graphene and oxide regions are both affected by humidity, with generally higher loss tangent for graphene than SiO{sub 2}. As RH increases, we observe the loss tangent of both materials approaches the same value. We hypothesize that there is a layer of water trapped between the graphene and SiO{sub 2} substrate to explain this observation. Using this interpretation, the loss tangent images also indicate movement and change in this trapped water layer as RH increases, which impacts the measured thickness of graphene using AM-AFM.

  19. An ultrasensitive and low-cost graphene sensor based on layer-by-layer nano self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Cui, Tianhong

    2011-02-01

    The flexible cancer sensor based on layer-by-layer self-assembled graphene reported in this letter demonstrates features including ultrahigh sensitivity and low cost due to graphene material properties in nature, self-assembly technique, and polyethylene terephthalate substrate. According to the conductance change of self-assembled graphene, the label free and labeled graphene sensors are capable of detecting very low concentrations of prostate specific antigen down to 4 fg/ml (0.11 fM) and 0.4 pg/ml (11 fM), respectively, which are three orders of magnitude lower than carbon nanotube sensors under the same conditions of design, manufacture, and measurement.

  20. Atomic-scale characterization of graphene grown on copper (100) single crystals.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Haider I; Song, Emil B; Mecklenburg, Matthew; Regan, B C; Wang, Kang L; Weiller, Bruce H; Gimzewski, James K

    2011-08-17

    Growth of graphene on copper (100) single crystals by chemical vapor deposition has been accomplished. The atomic structure of the graphene overlayer was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy. A detailed analysis of moiré superstructures present in the graphene topography reveals that growth occurs in a variety of orientations over the square atomic lattice of the copper surface. Transmission electron microscopy was used to elucidate the crystallinity of the grown graphene. Pristine, defect-free graphene was observed over copper steps, corners, and screw dislocations. Distinct protrusions, known as "flower" structures, were observed on flat terraces, which are attributed to carbon structures that depart from the characteristic honeycomb lattice. Continuous graphene growth also occurs over copper adatoms and atomic vacancies present at the single-crystal surface. The copper atom mobility within vacancy islands covered with suspended graphene sheets reveals a weak graphene-substrate interaction. The observed continuity and room-temperature vacancy motion indicates that copper mobility likely plays a significant role in the mechanism of sheet extension on copper substrates. Lastly, these results suggest that the quality of graphene grown on copper substrates is ultimately limited by nucleation at the surface of the metal catalyst. PMID:21732685

  1. Layered Chalcogenides beyond Graphene: from Electronic Structure Evolution to the Spin Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hongtao

    2014-03-01

    Recent efforts on graphene-like atomic layer materials, aiming at novel electronic properties and quantum phenomena beyond graphene, have attracted much attention for potential electronics/spintronics applications. Compared to the weak spin-orbit-interaction (SOI) in graphene, metal chalcogenides MX2 have heavy 4d/5d elements with strong atomic SOI, providing a unique way for generating spin polarization based on valleytronics physics. Indeed, such a spin-polarized band structure has been demonstrated theoretically and supported by optical investigations. However, despite these exciting progresses, following two important issues in MX2 community remain elusive: 1. the quantitative band structure of MX2 compounds (where are the valleys -band maxima/minima- locating in the BZ) have not been experimentally confirmed. Especially for those cleaved ultrathin mono- and bi-layer flakes hosting most of recently-reported exotic phenomena at the 2D limit, the direct detection for band dispersion becomes of great importance for valleytronics. 2. Spin transports have seldom been reported even though such a strong SOI system can serve as an ideal platform for the spin polarization and spin transport. In this work, we started from the basic electronic structures of representative MX2, obtained by ARPES, and investigated both the band variation between these compounds and their band evolution from bulk to the monolayer limit. After having a systematic understanding on band structures, we reported a giant Zeeman-type spin-polarization generated and modulated by an external electric field in WSe2 electric-double-layer transistors. The non-magnetic approach for realizing such an intriguing spin splitting not only keeps the system time-reversally invariant but also suggests a new paradigm for manipulating the spin-degrees of freedom of electrons. Acknowledge the support from DoE, BES, Division of MSE under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  2. Graphene as transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics: studies in graphene morphology, hole transporting layers, and counter electrodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyesung; Brown, Patrick R; Bulović, Vladimir; Kong, Jing

    2012-01-11

    In this work, organic photovoltaics (OPV) with graphene electrodes are constructed where the effect of graphene morphology, hole transporting layers (HTL), and counter electrodes are presented. Instead of the conventional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) PEDOT:PSS HTL, an alternative transition metal oxide HTL (molybdenum oxide (MoO(3))) is investigated to address the issue of surface immiscibility between graphene and PEDOT:PSS. Graphene films considered here are synthesized via low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) using a copper catalyst and experimental issues concerning the transfer of synthesized graphene onto the substrates of OPV are discussed. The morphology of the graphene electrode and HTL wettability on the graphene surface are shown to play important roles in the successful integration of graphene films into the OPV devices. The effect of various cathodes on the device performance is also studied. These factors (i.e., suitable HTL, graphene surface morphology and residues, and the choice of well-matching counter electrodes) will provide better understanding in utilizing graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes in future solar cell applications. PMID:22107487

  3. High resolution transmission electron microscope Imaging and first-principles simulations of atomic-scale features in graphene membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Bhandari, Sagar; Yi, Wei; Bell, David; Westervelt, Robert; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2012-02-01

    Ultra-thin membranes such as graphene[1] are of great importance for basic science and technology applications. Graphene sets the ultimate limit of thinness, demonstrating that a free-standing single atomic layer not only exists but can be extremely stable and strong [2--4]. However, both theory [5, 6] and experiments [3, 7] suggest that the existence of graphene relies on intrinsic ripples that suppress the long-wavelength thermal fluctuations which otherwise spontaneously destroy long range order in a two dimensional system. Here we show direct imaging of the atomic features in graphene including the ripples resolved using monochromatic aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We compare the images observed in TEM with simulated images based on an accurate first-principles total potential. We show that these atomic scale features can be mapped through accurate first-principles simulations into high resolution TEM contrast. [1] Geim, A. K. & Novoselov, K. S. Nat. Mater. 6, 183-191, (2007). [2] Novoselov, K. S.et al. Science 306, 666-669, (2004). [3] Meyer, J. C. et al. Nature 446, 60-63, (2007). [4] Lee, C., Wei, X. D., Kysar, J. W. & Hone, J. Science 321, 385-388, (2008). [5] Nelson, D. R. & Peliti, L. J Phys-Paris 48, 1085-1092, (1987). [6] Fasolino, A., Los, J. H. & Katsnelson, M. I. Nat. Mater. 6, 858-861, (2007). [7] Meyer, J. C. et al. Solid State Commun. 143, 101-109, (2007).

  4. Atomic-scale study of lateral graphene/h-BN hybrid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaekwang; Park, Jewook; Li, An-Ping; Yoon, Mina

    2014-03-01

    Recently, atomically sharp 1D interfaces have been successfully implemented in lateral graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) hybrid structures. Graphene/h-BN interfaces are of particular interest, because their bandgap and magnetic properties can be engineered by controlling the arrangement of nonmagnetic B, C and N atoms. Despite the enormous interest in graphene/h-BN, there has been very limited experimental success in determining the local atomic structure of the graphene/h-BN interface. Here, using state-of-the-art scanning tunneling microscopy, we report the direct and precise observation of a graphene/h-BN interface bonding structure at the atomic scale. Based on the detailed atomic structure, first-principles density-functional calculations show that graphene zigzag edge states and the h-BN polarity are strongly coupled to each other near the interface and induce spatial modulation of physical properties along the lateral direction. In addition, we investigate how the d-orbitals of metal surfaces (Cu (111), Cu (001)) and the pi-orbital of graphene/h-BN hybridize and predict resulting modification of the electronic properties of graphene/h-BN. This research was conducted at the CNMS, which is sponsored at ORNL by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy. We acknowledge partial support provided by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development award (#7004).

  5. Graphene-Dielectric Integration for Graphene Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Lei; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2010-01-01

    Graphene is emerging as an interesting electronic material for future electronics due to its exceptionally high carrier mobility and single-atomic thickness. Graphene-dielectric integration is of critical importance for the development of graphene transistors and a new generation of graphene based electronics. Deposition of dielectric materials onto graphene is of significant challenge due to the intrinsic material incompatibility between pristine graphene and dielectric oxide materials. Here we review various strategies being researched for graphene-dielectric integration. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) can be used to directly deposit dielectric materials on graphene, but often introduces significant defects into the monolayer of carbon lattice; Atomic layer deposition (ALD) process has also been explored to to deposit high-κ dielectrics on graphene, which however requires functionalization of graphene surface with reactive groups, inevitably leading to a significant degradation in carrier mobilities; Using naturally oxidized thin aluminum or polymer as buffer layer for dielectric deposition can mitigate the damages to graphene lattice and improve the carrier mobility of the resulted top-gated transistors; Lastly, a physical assembly approach has recently been explored to integrate dielectric nanostructures with graphene without introducing any appreciable defects, and enabled top-gated graphene transistors with the highest carrier mobility reported to date. We will conclude with a brief summary and perspective on future opportunities. PMID:21278913

  6. Direct in situ observations of single Fe atom catalytic processes and anomalous diffusion at graphene edges

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiong; Deng, Qingming; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M.; Fu, Lei; Eckert, Jürgen; Rümmeli, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Single-atom catalysts are of great interest because of their high efficiency. In the case of chemically deposited sp2 carbon, the implementation of a single transition metal atom for growth can provide crucial insight into the formation mechanisms of graphene and carbon nanotubes. This knowledge is particularly important if we are to overcome fabrication difficulties in these materials and fully take advantage of their distinct band structures and physical properties. In this work, we present atomically resolved transmission EM in situ investigations of single Fe atoms at graphene edges. Our in situ observations show individual iron atoms diffusing along an edge either removing or adding carbon atoms (viz., catalytic action). The experimental observations of the catalytic behavior of a single Fe atom are in excellent agreement with supporting theoretical studies. In addition, the kinetics of Fe atoms at graphene edges are shown to exhibit anomalous diffusion, which again, is in agreement with our theoretical investigations. PMID:25331874

  7. Benzocyclobutene (BCB) Polymer as Amphibious Buffer Layer for Graphene Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun; Zou, Jianjun; Huo, Shuai; Lu, Haiyan; Kong, Yuecan; Chen, Tangshen; Wu, Wei; Xu, Jingxia

    2015-08-01

    Owing to the scattering and trapping effects, the interfaces of dielectric/graphene or substrate/graphene can tailor the performance of field-effect transistor (FET). In this letter, the polymer of benzocyclobutene (BCB) was used as an amphibious buffer layer and located at between the layers of substrate and graphene and between the layers of dielectric and graphene. Interestingly, with the help of nonpolar and hydrophobic BCB buffer layer, the large-scale top-gated, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene transistors was prepared on Si/SiO2 substrate, its cutoff frequency (fT) and the maximum cutoff frequency (fmax) of the graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) can be reached at 12 GHz and 11 GHz, respectively. PMID:26369142

  8. Epitaxial graphene on SiC: from carrier density engineering to quasi-free standing graphene by atomic intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forti, S.; Starke, U.

    2014-03-01

    Epitaxial graphene (EG) on SiC has been proven to be an excellent material to investigate the fundamental physical properties of graphene and also to directly implement new findings into devices realized on the versatile platform of SiC. Within this framework, this work aims to review some of the recent major achievements accomplished in the field of EG on SiC, related to the growth of EG on the SiC(0 0 0 1) surface, the control of its doping level, the decoupling of the graphene from the substrate and the intercalation of foreign atomic species at the interface.

  9. Growth of atomically smooth MgO films on graphene by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. H.; Han, W.; Pi, K.; McCreary, K. M.; Miao, F.; Bao, W.; Lau, C. N.; Kawakami, R. K.

    2008-11-03

    We investigate the growth of MgO films on graphene by molecular beam epitaxy and find that surface diffusion promotes a rough morphology. To reduce the mobility of surface atoms, the graphene surface is dressed by Ti atoms prior to MgO deposition. With as little as 0.5 ML (monolayer) of Ti, the MgO overlayer becomes atomically smooth. Furthermore, no aggregation of MgO is observed at the edges of the graphene sheet. These results are important for the fabrication of nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices.

  10. Monolayer and/or few-layer graphene on metal or metal-coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Peter Werner; Sutter, Eli Anguelova

    2015-04-14

    Disclosed is monolayer and/or few-layer graphene on metal or metal-coated substrates. Embodiments include graphene mirrors. In an example, a mirror includes a substrate that has a surface exhibiting a curvature operable to focus an incident beam onto a focal plane. A graphene layer conformally adheres to the substrate, and is operable to protect the substrate surface from degradation due to the incident beam and an ambient environment.

  11. Biomass derived solvents for the scalable production of single layered graphene from graphite.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Singh, Nripat; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2016-07-12

    Among four different biomass derived green and sustainable solvents namely levulinic acid (LA), ethyl lactate (EL), γ-valerolactone (GVL) and formic acid (FA) only LA was found to exfoliate graphite to single and few layered graphene sheets. During exfoliation, the formation of LA crystals embedded with single layered graphene sheets was observed. The process is scalable and the solvent can be recovered and reused in five subsequent cycles of exfoliation for the large scale production of graphene sheets. PMID:26898386

  12. Surface-plasmons lasing in double-graphene-layer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, A. A.; Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Ryzhii, V.; Shur, M. S.; Otsuji, T.

    2014-01-28

    We consider the concept of injection terahertz lasers based on double-graphene-layer (double-GL) structures with metal surface-plasmon waveguide and study the conditions of their operation. The laser under consideration exploits the resonant radiative transitions between GLs. This enables the double-GL laser room temperature operation and the possibility of voltage tuning of the emission spectrum. We compare the characteristics of the double-GL lasers with the metal surface-plasmon waveguides with those of such laser with the metal-metal waveguides.

  13. Enhanced resistance of single-layer graphene to ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, J. J.; Greer, F.; Greer, J. R.

    2010-05-15

    We report that single-layer graphene on a SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate withstands ion bombardment up to {approx}7 times longer than expected when exposed to focused Ga{sup +} ion beam. The exposure is performed in a dual beam scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam system at 30 kV accelerating voltage and 41 pA current. Ga{sup +} ion flux is determined by sputtering a known volume of hydrogenated amorphous carbon film deposited via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  14. Layer-dependent fluorination and doping of graphene via plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minjiang; Zhou, Haiqing; Qiu, Caiyu; Yang, Huaichao; Yu, Fang; Sun, Lianfeng

    2012-03-23

    In this work, the fluorination of n-layer graphene is systematically investigated using CHF₃ and CF₄ plasma treatments. The G and 2D Raman peaks of graphene show upshifts after each of the two kinds of plasma treatment, indicating p-doping to the graphene. Meanwhile, D, D' and D + G peaks can be clearly observed for monolayer graphene, whereas these peaks are weaker for thicker n-layer graphene (n ≥ 2) at the same experimental conditions. The upshifts of the G and 2D peaks and the ratio of I(2D)/I(G) for CF₄ plasma treated graphene are larger than those of CHF₃ plasma treated graphene. The ratio of I(D)/I(G) of the Raman spectra is notably small in CF₄ plasma treated graphene. These facts indicate that CF₄ plasma treatment introduces more p-doping and fewer defects for graphene. Moreover, the fluorination of monolayer graphene by CF₄ plasma treatment is reversible through thermal annealing while that by CHF₃ plasma treatment is irreversible. These studies explore the information on the surface properties of graphene and provide an optimal method of fluorinating graphene through plasma techniques. PMID:22382072

  15. Atomically controlled substitutional boron-doping of graphene nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Shigeki; Saito, Shohei; Osumi, Shinichiro; Yamaguchi, Shigehiro; Foster, Adam S.; Spijker, Peter; Meyer, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Boron is a unique element in terms of electron deficiency and Lewis acidity. Incorporation of boron atoms into an aromatic carbon framework offers a wide variety of functionality. However, the intrinsic instability of organoboron compounds against moisture and oxygen has delayed the development. Here, we present boron-doped graphene nanoribbons (B-GNRs) of widths of N=7, 14 and 21 by on-surface chemical reactions with an employed organoboron precursor. The location of the boron dopant is well defined in the centre of the B-GNR, corresponding to 4.8 atom%, as programmed. The chemical reactivity of B-GNRs is probed by the adsorption of nitric oxide (NO), which is most effectively trapped by the boron sites, demonstrating the Lewis acid character. Structural properties and the chemical nature of the NO-reacted B-GNR are determined by a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy, high-resolution atomic force microscopy with a CO tip, and density functional and classical computations. PMID:26302943

  16. Atomically controlled substitutional boron-doping of graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Shigeki; Saito, Shohei; Osumi, Shinichiro; Yamaguchi, Shigehiro; Foster, Adam S.; Spijker, Peter; Meyer, Ernst

    2015-08-01

    Boron is a unique element in terms of electron deficiency and Lewis acidity. Incorporation of boron atoms into an aromatic carbon framework offers a wide variety of functionality. However, the intrinsic instability of organoboron compounds against moisture and oxygen has delayed the development. Here, we present boron-doped graphene nanoribbons (B-GNRs) of widths of N=7, 14 and 21 by on-surface chemical reactions with an employed organoboron precursor. The location of the boron dopant is well defined in the centre of the B-GNR, corresponding to 4.8 atom%, as programmed. The chemical reactivity of B-GNRs is probed by the adsorption of nitric oxide (NO), which is most effectively trapped by the boron sites, demonstrating the Lewis acid character. Structural properties and the chemical nature of the NO-reacted B-GNR are determined by a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy, high-resolution atomic force microscopy with a CO tip, and density functional and classical computations.

  17. Development of the layer-by-layer biosensor using graphene films: application for cholesterol determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binh Nguyen, Hai; Chuc Nguyen, Van; Nguyen, Van Tu; Doan Le, Huu; Quynh Nguyen, Van; Thanh Tam Ngo, Thi; Phuc Do, Quan; Nghia Nguyen, Xuan; Phan, Ngoc Minh; Tran, Dai Lam

    2013-03-01

    The preparation and characterization of graphene films for cholesterol determination are described. The graphene films were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Methane gas (CH4) and copper tape were used as carbon source and catalyst in the graphene growth process, respectively. The intergrated array was fabricated by using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology in which Fe3O4-doped polyaniline (PANi) film was electropolymerized on Pt/Gr electrodes. The properties of the Pt/Gr/PANi/Fe3O4 films were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) has been immobilized onto the working electrode with glutaraldehyde agent. The cholesterol electrochemical biosensor shows high sensitivity (74 μA mM-1 cm-2) and fast response time (<5 s). A linear calibration plot was obtained in the wide cholesterol concentration range from 2 to 20 mM and correlation coefficient square (R2) of 0.9986. This new layer-by-layer biosensor based on graphene films promises many practical applications.

  18. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of SrO buffer layers on graphite and graphene for the integration of complex oxides

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ahmed, Adam S.; Wen, Hua; Ohta, Taisuke; Pinchuk, Igor V.; Zhu, Tiancong; Beechem, Thomas; Kawakami, Roland K.

    2016-04-27

    Here, we report the successful growth of high-quality SrO films on highly-ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and single-layer graphene by molecular beam epitaxy. The SrO layers have (001) orientation as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) while atomic force microscopy measurements show continuous pinhole-free films having rms surface roughness of <1.5 Å. Moreover, transport measurements of exfoliated graphene, after SrO deposition, show a strong dependence between the Dirac point and Sr oxidation. As a result, the SrO is leveraged as a buffer layer for more complex oxide integration via the demonstration of (001) oriented SrTiO3 grown atop a SrO/HOPG stack.

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of SrO buffer layers on graphite and graphene for the integration of complex oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Adam S.; Wen, Hua; Ohta, Taisuke; Pinchuk, Igor V.; Zhu, Tiancong; Beechem, Thomas; Kawakami, Roland K.

    2016-08-01

    We report the successful growth of high-quality SrO films on highly-ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and single-layer graphene by molecular beam epitaxy. The SrO layers have (001) orientation as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) while atomic force microscopy measurements show continuous pinhole-free films having rms surface roughness of <1.5 Å. Transport measurements of exfoliated graphene after SrO deposition show a strong dependence between the Dirac point and Sr oxidation. Subsequently, the SrO is leveraged as a buffer layer for more complex oxide integration via the demonstration of (001) oriented SrTiO3 grown atop a SrO/HOPG stack.

  20. Atomic resolution imaging and spectroscopy of barium atoms and functional groups on graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd, C B; Moreno, M S; Duchamp, M; Kovács, A; Monge, N; Morales, G M; Barbero, C A; Dunin-Borkowski, R E

    2014-10-01

    We present an atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM) study of the local structure and composition of graphene oxide modified with Ba(2+). In our experiments, which are carried out at 80kV, the acquisition of contamination-free high-resolution STEM images is only possible while heating the sample above 400°C using a highly stable heating holder. Ba atoms are identified spectroscopically in electron energy-loss spectrum images taken at 800°C and are associated with bright contrast in high-angle annular dark-field STEM images. The spectrum images also show that Ca and O occur together and that Ba is not associated with a significant concentration of O. The electron dose used for spectrum imaging results in beam damage to the specimen, even at elevated temperature. It is also possible to identify Ba atoms in high-resolution TEM images acquired using shorter exposure times at room temperature, thereby allowing the structure of graphene oxide to be studied using complementary TEM and STEM techniques over a wide range of temperatures. PMID:24726278

  1. Plasma-Assisted Synthesis of High-Mobility Atomically Layered Violet Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsu-Sheng; Lai, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Ching-Hung; Medina, Henry; Su, Teng-Yu; Ouyang, Hao; Chen, Tai-Hsiang; Liang, Jenq-Horng; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2015-07-01

    Two-dimensional layered materials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and black phosphorus have demonstrated outstanding properties due to electron confinement as the thickness is reduced to atomic scale. Among the phosphorus allotropes, black phosphorus, and violet phosphorus possess layer structure with the potential to be scaled down to atomically thin film. For the first time, the plasma-assisted synthesis of atomically layered violet phosphorus has been achieved. Material characterization supports the formation of violet phosphorus/InN over InP substrate where the layer structure of violet phosphorus is clearly observed. The identification of the crystal structure and lattice constant ratifies the formation of violet phosphorus indeed. The critical concept of this synthesis method is the selective reaction induced by different variations of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) of reactions. Besides, the Hall mobility of the violet phosphorus on the InP substrate greatly increases over the theoretical values of InP bulk material without much reduction in the carrier concentration, suggesting that the mobility enhancement results from the violet phosphorus layers. Furthermore, this study demonstrates a low-cost technique with high compatibility to synthesize the high-mobility atomically layered violet phosphorus and open the space for the study of the fundamental properties of this intriguing material as a new member of the fast growing family of 2D crystals. PMID:26070035

  2. Fabrication of hybrid graphene oxide/polyelectrolyte capsules by means of layer-by-layer assembly on erythrocyte cell templates

    PubMed Central

    Irigoyen, Joseba; Politakos, Nikolaos; Diamanti, Eleftheria; Rojas, Elena; Marradi, Marco; Ledezma, Raquel; Arizmendi, Layza; Rodríguez, J Alberto; Ziolo, Ronald F

    2015-01-01

    Summary A novel and facile method was developed to produce hybrid graphene oxide (GO)–polyelectrolyte (PE) capsules using erythrocyte cells as templates. The capsules are easily produced through the layer-by-layer technique using alternating polyelectrolyte layers and GO sheets. The amount of GO and therefore its coverage in the resulting capsules can be tuned by adjusting the concentration of the GO dispersion during the assembly. The capsules retain the approximate shape and size of the erythrocyte template after the latter is totally removed by oxidation with NaOCl in water. The PE/GO capsules maintain their integrity and can be placed or located on other surfaces such as in a device. When the capsules are dried in air, they collapse to form a film that is approximately twice the thickness of the capsule membrane. AFM images in the present study suggest a film thickness of approx. 30 nm for the capsules in the collapsed state implying a thickness of approx. 15 nm for the layers in the collapsed capsule membrane. The polyelectrolytes used in the present study were polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) and polystyrenesulfonate sodium salt (PSS). Capsules where characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Raman microscopy, the constituent layers by zeta potential and GO by TEM, XRD, and Raman and FTIR spectroscopies. PMID:26734521

  3. Enhanced memory effect with embedded graphene nanoplatelets in ZnO charge trapping layer

    SciTech Connect

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Cimen, Furkan; Alkis, Sabri; Okyay, Ali K.

    2014-07-21

    A charge trapping memory with graphene nanoplatelets embedded in atomic layer deposited ZnO (GNIZ) is demonstrated. The memory shows a large threshold voltage V{sub t} shift (4 V) at low operating voltage (6/−6 V), good retention (>10 yr), and good endurance characteristic (>10{sup 4} cycles). This memory performance is compared to control devices with graphene nanoplatelets (or ZnO) and a thicker tunnel oxide. These structures showed a reduced V{sub t} shift and retention characteristic. The GNIZ structure allows for scaling down the tunnel oxide thickness along with improving the memory window and retention of data. The larger V{sub t} shift indicates that the ZnO adds available trap states and enhances the emission and retention of charges. The charge emission mechanism in the memory structures with graphene nanoplatelets at an electric field E ≥ 5.57 MV/cm is found to be based on Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The fabrication of this memory device is compatible with current semiconductor processing, therefore, has great potential in low-cost nano-memory applications.

  4. Precise Control of the Number of Layers of Graphene by Picosecond Laser Thinning

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhe; Ye, Xiaohui; Han, Jinpeng; Chen, Qiao; Fan, Peixun; Zhang, Hongjun; Xie, Dan; Zhu, Hongwei; Zhong, Minlin

    2015-01-01

    The properties of graphene can vary as a function of the number of layers (NOL). Controlling the NOL in large area graphene is still challenging. In this work, we demonstrate a picosecond (ps) laser thinning removal of graphene layers from multi-layered graphene to obtain desired NOL when appropriate pulse threshold energy is adopted. The thinning process is conducted in atmosphere without any coating and it is applicable for graphene films on arbitrary substrates. This method provides many advantages such as one-step process, non-contact operation, substrate and environment-friendly, and patternable, which will enable its potential applications in the manufacturing of graphene-based electronic devices. PMID:26111758

  5. Synthesis and characterization of intercalated few-layer graphenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shogo; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Iwata, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    Toward achieving room-temperature superconductivity, FeCl3-intercalated few-layer graphenes (FeCl3-FLGs) and Ca-intercalated few-layer graphenes (Ca-FLGs) were synthesized. FeCl3-FLGs were synthesized by the two-zone method and Ca-FLGs were synthesized using Ca-Li alloy. The Raman spectra of the FeCl3-FLGs showed a lower-intensity peak at 1607 cm-1 than that of the corresponding bare G. The peak at 1607 cm-1 suggested that the sample was stage 4-5 FeCl3-FLGs. The room-temperature electrical resistivity of FeCl3-FLGs was 2.65 × 10-5 Ω·m, which linearly decreased with decreasing temperature with a marked change occurring at approximately 200 K. From a XRD pattern of Ca-FLGs, we concluded that Ca is intercalated in FLGs. The room-temperature resistivity of Ca-FLGs was 3.45 × 10-5 Ω·m, which increased with decreasing temperature.

  6. Layer-selective half-metallicity in bilayer graphene nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Gi Wan; Lee, Kyu Won; Lee, Cheol Eui

    2015-01-01

    Half-metallicity recently predicted in the zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) and the hydrogenated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) enables fully spin-polarized electric currents, providing a basis for carbon-based spintronics. In both carbon systems, the half-metallicity arises from the edge-localized electron states under an electric field, lowering the critical electric field Dc for the half-metallicity being an issue in recent works on ZGNRs. A properly chosen direction of the electric field alone has been predicted to significantly reduce Dc in the hydrogenated CNTs, which in this work turned out to be the case in narrow bilayer ZGNRs (biZGNRs). Here, our simple model based on the electrostatic potential difference between the edges predicts that for wide biZGNRs of width greater than ~2.0 nm (10 zigzag carbon chains), only one layer of the biZGNRs becomes half-metallic leaving the other layer insulating as confirmed by our density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The electric field-induced switching of the spin-polarized current path is believed to open a new route to graphene-based spintronics applications. PMID:25950724

  7. Material properties and field-effect transistor characteristics of hybrid organic/graphene active layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Tae-Jun; Lee, Jongho; Chowdhury, Sk. Fahad; Akinwande, Deji; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2012-10-01

    We report on the material properties and device characteristics of field-effect transistors (FETs) consisting of hybrid mono-layer graphene/organic semiconductor active layers. By capping with selected organic and polymeric layers, transformation of the electronic characteristics of mono-layer graphene FETs was observed. The off-state current is reduced while the on-state current and field-effect mobility are either unaffected or increased after depositing π-conjugated organic semiconductors. Significantly, capping mono-layer graphene FETs with fluoropolymer improved the on-off current ratio from 5 to 10 as well as increased the field-effect mobility by factor of two compared to plain graphene FETs. Removal of π-conjugated organic semiconductors or fluoropolymer from graphene FETs results in a return to the original electronic properties of mono-layer graphene FETs. This suggests that weak reversible electronic interactions between graphene and π-conjugated organic semiconductors/fluoropolymer favorably tune the material and electrical characteristics of mono-layer graphene.

  8. Large scale atomistic simulation of single-layer graphene growth on Ni(111) surface: molecular dynamics simulation based on a new generation of carbon-metal potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ziwei; Yan, Tianying; Liu, Guiwu; Qiao, Guanjun; Ding, Feng

    2015-12-01

    To explore the mechanism of graphene chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth on a catalyst surface, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of carbon atom self-assembly on a Ni(111) surface based on a well-designed empirical reactive bond order potential was performed. We simulated single layer graphene with recorded size (up to 300 atoms per super-cell) and reasonably good quality by MD trajectories up to 15 ns. Detailed processes of graphene CVD growth, such as carbon atom dissolution and precipitation, formation of carbon chains of various lengths, polygons and small graphene domains were observed during the initial process of the MD simulation. The atomistic processes of typical defect healing, such as the transformation from a pentagon into a hexagon and from a pentagon-heptagon pair (5|7) to two adjacent hexagons (6|6), were revealed as well. The study also showed that higher temperature and longer annealing time are essential to form high quality graphene layers, which is in agreement with experimental reports and previous theoretical results.To explore the mechanism of graphene chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth on a catalyst surface, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of carbon atom self-assembly on a Ni(111) surface based on a well-designed empirical reactive bond order potential was performed. We simulated single layer graphene with recorded size (up to 300 atoms per super-cell) and reasonably good quality by MD trajectories up to 15 ns. Detailed processes of graphene CVD growth, such as carbon atom dissolution and precipitation, formation of carbon chains of various lengths, polygons and small graphene domains were observed during the initial process of the MD simulation. The atomistic processes of typical defect healing, such as the transformation from a pentagon into a hexagon and from a pentagon-heptagon pair (5|7) to two adjacent hexagons (6|6), were revealed as well. The study also showed that higher temperature and longer annealing time are

  9. Graphene-based and graphene-like materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovskii, Alexander L.

    2012-07-01

    The review generalizes information on methods for modification of graphene-based carbon materials through creation of structural defects, introduction of substitutional impurities, adsorption of impurity atoms and mechanical deformations. Graphene ribbons and nano-flakes, graphene allotropes, as well as multi-layer graphenes and graphene-containing hybrid carbon structures are considered. Methods of synthesis and the results of studies on the properties and simulation of graphene derivatives (graphane, graphone and fluorographene) are discussed. The results obtained in studies of related non-carbon graphene-like materials including silicon-, germanium- and tin-based structural analogues of graphene, graphene-like binary phases SiC, GeC, SiGe, SiSn, etc., as well as compounds AIIIBV (white graphene, etc.) and AIIBVI (BeO, ZnO, ZnS) are generalized. Other graphene-like materials including metal dichalcogenides, oxides and carbides are briefly outlined. The bibliography includes 605 references.

  10. Atomic layer deposition of metallic cobalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jinhee; Saly, Mark; Kanjolia, Ravi; Chabal, Yves; University of Texas at Dallas Collaboration; SAFC Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    Metallic cobalt has rich catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which makes it critical to have a better control of Co thin film deposition for various applications. This work focuses on the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of cobalt using (tertiarybutylallyl)cobalttricarbonyl (t BuAllyl)Co(CO)3 and dimethylhydrazine (DMHy) on H-terminated Si to uncover the growth mechanisms. The first pulse of (t BuAllyl)Co(CO)3 reacts with surface H--Si bonds completely, forming one monolayer of metallic silicide. In situ infrared absorption spectra show that further deposition of Co is made possible only after linear carbonyl groups which remain after the first (t BuAllyl)Co(CO)3 pulse as the surface ligand are removed by subsequent ALD cycles. Further ALD cycles give rise to metallic Co growth through ligand exchange after a nucleation period of 8--10 cycles. The derived growth rate of cobalt is 0.6 +/- 0.1 Å/cycle. The resultant Co film shows low concentration of carbon and nitrogen impurities in the bulk according to X-ray photoemission spectroscopy.

  11. Tailoring nanoporous materials by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Detavernier, Christophe; Dendooven, Jolien; Sree, Sreeprasanth Pulinthanathu; Ludwig, Karl F; Martens, Johan A

    2011-11-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a cyclic process which relies on sequential self-terminating reactions between gas phase precursor molecules and a solid surface. The self-limiting nature of the chemical reactions ensures precise film thickness control and excellent step coverage, even on 3D structures with large aspect ratios. At present, ALD is mainly used in the microelectronics industry, e.g. for growing gate oxides. The excellent conformality that can be achieved with ALD also renders it a promising candidate for coating porous structures, e.g. for functionalization of large surface area substrates for catalysis, fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, filtration devices, sensors, membranes etc. This tutorial review focuses on the application of ALD for catalyst design. Examples are discussed where ALD of TiO(2) is used for tailoring the interior surface of nanoporous films with pore sizes of 4-6 nm, resulting in photocatalytic activity. In still narrower pores, the ability to deposit chemical elements can be exploited to generate catalytic sites. In zeolites, ALD of aluminium species enables the generation of acid catalytic activity. PMID:21695333

  12. Energy gaps of atomically precise armchair graphene sidewall nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Xiao; Zhou, Mei; Li, Xinqi; Li, Si-Yu; Wu, Xiaosong; Duan, Wenhui; He, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Theoretically, it has been demonstrated that armchair Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) can be divided into three families, i.e., Na=3 p ,Na=3 p +1 , and Na=3 p +2 (here Na is the number of dimer lines across the ribbon width and p is an integer), according to their electronic structures, and the energy gaps for the three families are quite different even with the same p . However, a systematic experimental verification of this fundamental prediction is still lacking, owing to very limited atomic-level control of the width of the armchair GNRs investigated. Here, we studied electronic structures of the armchair GNRs with atomically well-defined widths ranging from Na=6 to Na=26 by using a scanning tunneling microscope. Our result demonstrated explicitly that all the studied armchair GNRs exhibit semiconducting gaps and, more importantly, the observed gaps as a function of Na are well grouped into the three categories, as predicted by density-functional theory calculations. Such a result indicated that the electronic properties of the armchair GNRs can be tuned dramatically by simply adding or cutting one carbon dimer line along the ribbon width.

  13. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. II. Sticking

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfanti, Matteo; Jackson, Bret; Hughes, Keith H.; Burghardt, Irene

    2015-09-28

    Following our recent system-bath modeling of the interaction between a hydrogen atom and a graphene surface [Bonfanti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 124703 (2015)], we present the results of converged quantum scattering calculations on the activated sticking dynamics. The focus of this study is the collinear scattering on a surface at zero temperature, which is treated with high-dimensional wavepacket propagations with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. At low collision energies, barrier-crossing dominates the sticking and any projectile that overcomes the barrier gets trapped in the chemisorption well. However, at high collision energies, energy transfer to the surface is a limiting factor, and fast H atoms hardly dissipate their excess energy and stick on the surface. As a consequence, the sticking coefficient is maximum (∼0.65) at an energy which is about one and half larger than the barrier height. Comparison of the results with classical and quasi-classical calculations shows that quantum fluctuations of the lattice play a primary role in the dynamics. A simple impulsive model describing the collision of a classical projectile with a quantum surface is developed which reproduces the quantum results remarkably well for all but the lowest energies, thereby capturing the essential physics of the activated sticking dynamics investigated.

  14. Low-frequency phonons of few-layer graphene within a tight-binding model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Valentin N.; Van Alsenoy, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Few-layer graphene is a layered carbon material with covalent bonding in the layers and weak van der Waals interactions between the layers. The interlayer energy is more than two orders of magnitude smaller than the intralayer one, which hinders the description of the static and dynamic properties within electron band structure models. We overcome this difficulty by introducing two sets of matrix elements—one set for the covalent bonds in the graphene layers and another one for the van der Waals interactions between adjacent graphene layers in a tight-binding model of the band structure. Both sets of matrix elements are derived from an ab initio study on carbon dimers. The matrix elements are applied in the calculation of the phonon dispersion of graphite and few-layer graphene with AB and ABC layer stacking. The results for few-layer graphene with AB stacking agree well with the available experimental data, which justifies the application of the matrix elements to other layered carbon structures with van der Waals interactions such as few-layer graphene nanoribbons, multiwall carbon nanotubes, and carbon onions.

  15. Electrical Double Layer Capacitance in a Graphene-embedded Al2O3 Gate Dielectric

    PubMed Central

    Ki Min, Bok; Kim, Seong K.; Jun Kim, Seong; Ho Kim, Sung; Kang, Min-A; Park, Chong-Yun; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Graphene heterostructures are of considerable interest as a new class of electronic devices with exceptional performance in a broad range of applications has been realized. Here, we propose a graphene-embedded Al2O3 gate dielectric with a relatively high dielectric constant of 15.5, which is about 2 times that of Al2O3, having a low leakage current with insertion of tri-layer graphene. In this system, the enhanced capacitance of the hybrid structure can be understood by the formation of a space charge layer at the graphene/Al2O3 interface. The electrical properties of the interface can be further explained by the electrical double layer (EDL) model dominated by the diffuse layer. PMID:26530817

  16. Atomic layer deposition of metal sulfide materials.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Neil P; Meng, Xiangbo; Elam, Jeffrey W; Martinson, Alex B F

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: The field of nanoscience is delivering increasingly intricate yet elegant geometric structures incorporating an ever-expanding palette of materials. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful driver of this field, providing exceptionally conformal coatings spanning the periodic table and atomic-scale precision independent of substrate geometry. This versatility is intrinsic to ALD and results from sequential and self-limiting surface reactions. This characteristic facilitates digital synthesis, in which the film grows linearly with the number of reaction cycles. While the majority of ALD processes identified to date produce metal oxides, novel applications in areas such as energy storage, catalysis, and nanophotonics are motivating interest in sulfide materials. Recent progress in ALD of sulfides has expanded the diversity of accessible materials as well as a more complete understanding of the unique chalcogenide surface chemistry. ALD of sulfide materials typically uses metalorganic precursors and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As in oxide ALD, the precursor chemistry is critical to controlling both the film growth and properties including roughness, crystallinity, and impurity levels. By modification of the precursor sequence, multicomponent sulfides have been deposited, although challenges remain because of the higher propensity for cation exchange reactions, greater diffusion rates, and unintentional annealing of this more labile class of materials. A deeper understanding of these surface chemical reactions has been achieved through a combination of in situ studies and quantum-chemical calculations. As this understanding matures, so does our ability to deterministically tailor film properties to new applications and more sophisticated devices. This Account highlights the attributes of ALD chemistry that are unique to metal sulfides and surveys recent applications of these materials in photovoltaics, energy storage, and photonics. Within each application

  17. Enhanced ultra-low-frequency interlayer shear modes in folded graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Chunxiao; Yu, Ting

    2014-08-01

    Few-layer graphene has attracted tremendous attention owing to its exceptional electronic properties inherited from single-layer graphene and new features led by introducing extra freedoms such as interlayer stacking sequences or rotations. Effectively probing interlayer shear modes are critical for unravelling mechanical and electrical properties of few-layer graphene and further developing its practical potential. Unfortunately, shear modes are extremely weak and almost fully blocked by a Rayleigh rejecter in Raman measurements. This greatly hinders investigations of shear modes in few-layer graphene. Here, we demonstrate enhancing of shear modes by properly folding few-layer graphene. As a direct benefit of the strong signal, enhancement mechanism, vibrational symmetry, anharmonicity and electron-phonon coupling of the shear modes are uncovered through studies of Raman mapping, polarization- and temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy. This work complements Raman studies of graphene layers, and paves an efficient way to exploit low-frequency shear modes of few-layer graphene and other two-dimensional layered materials.

  18. Enhanced stability of hydrogen atoms at the graphene/graphane interface of nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Z. M.; Hernández-Nieves, A. D.; Peeters, F. M.; Li, S.

    2010-12-01

    The thermal stability of graphene/graphane nanoribbons (GGNRs) is investigated using density functional theory. It is found that the energy barriers for the diffusion of hydrogen atoms on the zigzag and armchair interfaces of GGNRs are 2.86 and 3.17 eV, respectively, while the diffusion barrier of an isolated H atom on pristine graphene was only ˜0.3 eV. These results unambiguously demonstrate that the thermal stability of GGNRs can be enhanced significantly by increasing the hydrogen diffusion barriers through graphene/graphane interface engineering. This may provide new insights for viable applications of GGNRs.

  19. Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin

    2016-03-01

    Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices. PMID:26839956

  20. Spin and valley resolved Landau level crossing in tri-layer ABA stacked graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Biswajit; Gupta, Vishakha; Borah, Abhinandan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Deshmukh, Mandar

    We present quantum Hall measurements on a high quality encapsulated tri-layer graphene device. Low temperature field effect mobility of this device is around 500,000 cm2/Vs and we see SdH oscillations at a magnetic field as low as 0.3 T. Quantum Hall measurements confirm that the chosen tri layer graphene is Bernal (ABA) stacked. Due to the presence of both mass-less monolayer like Dirac fermions and massive bi-layer like Dirac fermions in Bernal stacked tri-layer graphene, there are Landau level crossings between monolayer and bi-layer bands in quantum Hall regime. Although most of the Landau Level crossings are predominantly present on the electron sides, we also observe signatures of the crossings on the hole side. This behaviour is consistent with the asymmetry of electron and hole in ABA tri-layer graphene. We observe a series of crossings of the spin and valley resolved Landau Levels.

  1. Robust adhesion of flower-like few-layer graphene nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shibing; Li, Lin; Sun, Wangning; Xia, Xiaoxiang; Han, Dong; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured surface possessing ultrahigh adhesion like “gecko foot” or “rose petal” can offer more opportunities for bionic application. We grow flower-like few-layer graphene on silicon nanocone arrays to form graphene nanoclusters, showing robust adhesion. Their contact angle (CA) is 164° with a hysteresis CA of 155° and adhesive force for a 5 μL water droplet is about 254 μN that is far larger than present reported results. We bring experimental evidences that this great adhesion depends on large-area plentiful edges of graphene nanosheets tuned by conical nanostructure and intrinsic wetting features of graphene. Such new hierarchical few-layer graphene nanostructure provides a feasible strategy to understand the ultra-adhesive mechanism of the “gecko effect” or “rose effect” and enhance the wettability of graphene for many practical applications. PMID:22803004

  2. Robust adhesion of flower-like few-layer graphene nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shibing; Li, Lin; Sun, Wangning; Xia, Xiaoxiang; Han, Dong; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2012-07-01

    Nanostructured surface possessing ultrahigh adhesion like ``gecko foot'' or ``rose petal'' can offer more opportunities for bionic application. We grow flower-like few-layer graphene on silicon nanocone arrays to form graphene nanoclusters, showing robust adhesion. Their contact angle (CA) is 164° with a hysteresis CA of 155° and adhesive force for a 5 μL water droplet is about 254 μN that is far larger than present reported results. We bring experimental evidences that this great adhesion depends on large-area plentiful edges of graphene nanosheets tuned by conical nanostructure and intrinsic wetting features of graphene. Such new hierarchical few-layer graphene nanostructure provides a feasible strategy to understand the ultra-adhesive mechanism of the ``gecko effect'' or ``rose effect'' and enhance the wettability of graphene for many practical applications.

  3. Robust adhesion of flower-like few-layer graphene nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shibing; Li, Lin; Sun, Wangning; Xia, Xiaoxiang; Han, Dong; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured surface possessing ultrahigh adhesion like "gecko foot" or "rose petal" can offer more opportunities for bionic application. We grow flower-like few-layer graphene on silicon nanocone arrays to form graphene nanoclusters, showing robust adhesion. Their contact angle (CA) is 164° with a hysteresis CA of 155° and adhesive force for a 5 μL water droplet is about 254 μN that is far larger than present reported results. We bring experimental evidences that this great adhesion depends on large-area plentiful edges of graphene nanosheets tuned by conical nanostructure and intrinsic wetting features of graphene. Such new hierarchical few-layer graphene nanostructure provides a feasible strategy to understand the ultra-adhesive mechanism of the "gecko effect" or "rose effect" and enhance the wettability of graphene for many practical applications. PMID:22803004

  4. Thermoacoustic and photoacoustic characterizations of few-layer graphene by pulsed excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiong; Witte, Russell S.; Xin, Hao

    2016-04-01

    We characterized the thermoacoustic and photoacoustic properties of large-area, few-layer graphene by pulsed microwave and optical excitations. Due to its high electric conductivity and low heat capacity per unit area, graphene lends itself to excellent microwave and optical energy absorption and acoustic signal emanation due to the thermoacoustic effect. When exposed to pulsed microwave or optical radiation, distinct thermoacoustic and photoacoustic signals generated by the few-layer graphene are obtained due to microwave and laser absorption of the graphene, respectively. Clear thermoacoustic and photoacoustic images of large-area graphene sample are achieved. A numerical model is developed and the simulated results are in good accordance with the measured ones. This characterization work may find applications in ultrasound generator and detectors for microwave and optical radiation. It may also become an alternative characterization approach for graphene and other types of two-dimensional materials.

  5. Graphene-silicon layered structures on single-crystalline Ir(111) thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Que, Yande D.; Tao, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yeliang L.; Wu, Lijun J.; Zhu, Yimei M.; Kim, Kisslinger; Weinl, Michael; Schreck, Matthias; Shen, Chengmin M.; Du, Shixuan X.; Liu, Yunqi Q.; Gao, H. -J.; Huang, Li; Xu, Wenyan Y.

    2015-01-20

    Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal crystals, such as Ru,⁽¹⁻³⁾ Ir,⁽⁴⁻⁶⁾ and Ni,⁽⁷⁾ provides large-area, uniform graphene layers with controllable defect density, which is crucial for practical applications in future devices. To decrease the high cost of single-crystalline metal bulks, single-crystalline metal films are strongly suggested as the substrates for epitaxial growth large-scale high-quality graphene.⁽⁸⁻¹⁰⁾ Moreover, in order to weaken the interactions of graphene with its metal host, which may result in a suppression of the intrinsic properties of graphene,⁽¹¹ ¹²⁾ the method of element intercalation of semiconductors at the interface between an epitaxial graphene layer and a transition metal substrate has been successfully realized.⁽¹³⁻¹⁶⁾

  6. Graphene-silicon layered structures on single-crystalline Ir(111) thin films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Que, Yande D.; Tao, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yeliang L.; Wu, Lijun J.; Zhu, Yimei M.; Kim, Kisslinger; Weinl, Michael; Schreck, Matthias; Shen, Chengmin M.; et al

    2015-01-20

    Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal crystals, such as Ru,⁽¹⁻³⁾ Ir,⁽⁴⁻⁶⁾ and Ni,⁽⁷⁾ provides large-area, uniform graphene layers with controllable defect density, which is crucial for practical applications in future devices. To decrease the high cost of single-crystalline metal bulks, single-crystalline metal films are strongly suggested as the substrates for epitaxial growth large-scale high-quality graphene.⁽⁸⁻¹⁰⁾ Moreover, in order to weaken the interactions of graphene with its metal host, which may result in a suppression of the intrinsic properties of graphene,⁽¹¹ ¹²⁾ the method of element intercalation of semiconductors at the interface between an epitaxial graphene layer and a transitionmore » metal substrate has been successfully realized.⁽¹³⁻¹⁶⁾« less

  7. Graphene as an atomically thin interface for growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Rahul; Chen, Gugang; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Kalaga, Kaushik; Ishigami, Masahiro; Heinz, Tony F.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Harutyunyan, Avetik R.

    2013-01-01

    Growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests is highly sensitive to the nature of the substrate. This constraint narrows the range of available materials to just a few oxide-based dielectrics and presents a major obstacle for applications. Using a suspended monolayer, we show here that graphene is an excellent conductive substrate for CNT forest growth. Furthermore, graphene is shown to intermediate growth on key substrates, such as Cu, Pt, and diamond, which had not previously been compatible with nanotube forest growth. We find that growth depends on the degree of crystallinity of graphene and is best on mono- or few-layer graphene. The synergistic effects of graphene are revealed by its endurance after CNT growth and low contact resistances between the nanotubes and Cu. Our results establish graphene as a unique interface that extends the class of substrate materials for CNT growth and opens up important new prospects for applications. PMID:23712556

  8. Electronic compressibility of layer-polarized bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A. F.; Dean, C. R.; Meric, I.; Sorgenfrei, S.; Ren, H.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Hone, J.; Shepard, K. L.; Kim, P.

    2012-06-01

    We report on a capacitance study of dual gated bilayer graphene. The measured capacitance allows us to probe the electronic compressibility as a function of carrier density, temperature, and applied perpendicular electrical displacement D¯. As a band gap is induced with increasing D¯, the compressibility minimum at charge neutrality becomes deeper but remains finite, suggesting the presence of localized states within the energy gap. Temperature dependent capacitance measurements show that compressibility is sensitive to the intrinsic band gap. For large displacements, an additional peak appears in the compressibility as a function of density, corresponding to the presence of a one-dimensional van Hove singularity (vHs) at the band edge arising from the quartic bilayer graphene band structure. For D¯>0, the additional peak is observed only for electrons, while for D¯<0 the peak appears only for holes. This asymmetry can be understood in terms of the finite interlayer separation and may be useful as a direct probe of the layer polarization.

  9. Highly ordered ultralong magnetic nanowires wrapped in stacked graphene layers

    PubMed Central

    El Mel, Abdel-Aziz; Duvail, Jean-Luc; Gautron, Eric; Xu, Wei; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Angleraud, Benoit; Granier, Agnès

    2012-01-01

    Summary We report on the synthesis and magnetic characterization of ultralong (1 cm) arrays of highly ordered coaxial nanowires with nickel cores and graphene stacking shells (also known as metal-filled carbon nanotubes). Carbon-containing nickel nanowires are first grown on a nanograted surface by magnetron sputtering. Then, a post-annealing treatment favors the metal-catalyzed crystallization of carbon into stacked graphene layers rolled around the nickel cores. The observed uniaxial magnetic anisotropy field oriented along the nanowire axis is an indication that the shape anisotropy dominates the dipolar coupling between the wires. We further show that the thermal treatment induces a decrease in the coercivity of the nanowire arrays. This reflects an enhancement of the quality of the nickel nanowires after annealing attributed to a decrease of the roughness of the nickel surface and to a reduction of the defect density. This new type of graphene–ferromagnetic-metal nanowire appears to be an interesting building block for spintronic applications. PMID:23365798

  10. Layer-by-layer assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide for direct electrochemistry and glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Mascagni, Daniela Branco Tavares; Miyazaki, Celina Massumi; da Cruz, Nilson Cristino; de Moraes, Marli Leite; Riul, Antonio; Ferreira, Marystela

    2016-11-01

    We report an electrochemical glucose biosensor made with layer-by-layer (LbL) films of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and glucose oxidase (GOx). The LbL assembly using positively and negatively charged rGO multilayers represents a simple approach to develop enzymatic biosensors. The electron transport properties of graphene were combined with the specificity provided by the enzyme. rGO was obtained and functionalized using chemical methods, being positively charged with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) to form GPDDA, and negatively charged with poly(styrene sulfonate) to form GPSS. Stable aqueous dispersions of GPDDA and GPSS are easily obtained, enabling the growth of LbL films on various solid supports. The use of graphene in the immobilization of GOx promoted Direct Electron Transfer, which was evaluated by Cyclic Voltammetry. Amperometric measurements indicated a detection limit of 13.4μmol·L(-1) and sensitivity of 2.47μA·cm(-2)·mmol(-1)·L for glucose with the (GPDDA/GPSS)1/(GPDDA/GOx)2 architecture, whose thickness was 19.80±0.28nm, as determined by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The sensor may be useful for clinical analysis since glucose could be detected even in the presence of typical interfering agents and in real samples of a lactose-free milk and an electrolyte solution to prevent dehydration. PMID:27524075

  11. Sprayable, Paintable Layer-by-Layer Polyaniline Nanofiber/Graphene Electrodes for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Se Ra; Jeon, Ju-Won; Lutkenhus, Jodie

    2015-03-01

    Sprayable batteries are growing in interest for applications in structural energy storage and power or flexible power. Spray-assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, in which complementary species are alternately sprayed onto a surface, is particularly amenable toward this application. Here, we report on the fabrication of composite films containing polyaniline nanofibers (PANI NF) and graphene oxide (GO) sheets fabricated via spray-assisted LbL assembly. The resulting films are electrochemical reduced to yield PANI NF/electrochemically reduced graphene (ERGO) electrodes for use as a cathode in non-aqueous energy storage systems. Through the spray-assisted LbL process, the hybrid electrodes could be fabricated 74 times faster than competing dip-assisted LbL assembly. The resulting electrodes are highly porous (0.72 void fraction), and are comprised of 67 wt% PANI NF and 33 wt% ERGO. The sprayed electrodes showed better rate capability, higher specific power, as well as more stable cycle life than dip-assisted LbL electrodes. It is shown here that the spray-assisted LbL approach is well-suited towards the fabrication of paintable electrodes containing polyaniline nanofibers and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide sheets.

  12. Graphene-like two-dimensional layered nanomaterials: applications in biosensors and nanomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guohai; Zhu, Chengzhou; Du, Dan; Zhu, Junjie; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-08-01

    The development of nanotechnology provides promising opportunities for various important applications. The recent discovery of atomically-thick two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials can offer manifold perspectives to construct versatile devices with high-performance to satisfy multiple requirements. Many studies directed at graphene have stimulated renewed interest on graphene-like 2D layered nanomaterials (GLNs). GLNs including boron nitride nanosheets, graphitic-carbon nitride nanosheets and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g. MoS2 and WS2) have attracted significant interest in numerous research fields from physics and chemistry to biology and engineering, which has led to numerous interdisciplinary advances in nano science. Benefiting from the unique physical and chemical properties (e.g. strong mechanical strength, high surface area, unparalleled thermal conductivity, remarkable biocompatibility and ease of functionalization), these 2D layered nanomaterials have shown great potential in biochemistry and biomedicine. This review summarizes recent advances of GLNs in applications of biosensors and nanomedicine, including electrochemical biosensors, optical biosensors, bioimaging, drug delivery and cancer therapy. Current challenges and future perspectives in these rapidly developing areas are also outlined. It is expected that they will have great practical foundation in biomedical applications with future efforts.

  13. Room temperature broadband terahertz gains in graphene heterostructures based on inter-layer radiative transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Linlong; Du, Jinglei; Shi, Haofei Wei, Dongshan; Du, Chunlei

    2014-10-15

    We exploit inter-layer radiative transitions to provide gains to amplify terahertz waves in graphene heterostructures. This is achieved by properly doping graphene sheets and aligning their energy bands so that the processes of stimulated emissions can overwhelm absorptions. We derive an expression for the gain estimation and show the gain is insensitive to temperature variation. Moreover, the gain is broadband and can be strong enough to compensate the free carrier loss, indicating graphene based room temperature terahertz lasers are feasible.

  14. Ionic liquid-assisted exfoliation and dispersion: stripping graphene and its two-dimensional layered inorganic counterparts of their inhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravula, Sudhir; Baker, Sheila N.; Kamath, Ganesh; Baker, Gary A.

    2015-02-01

    Research on graphene--monolayers of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice--is proceeding at a relentless pace as scientists of both experimental and theoretical bents seek to explore and exploit its superlative attributes, including giant intrinsic charge mobility, record-setting thermal conductivity, and high fracture strength and Young's modulus. Of course, fully exploiting the remarkable properties of graphene requires reliable, large-scale production methods which are non-oxidative and introduce minimal defects, criteria not fully satisfied by current approaches. A major advance in this direction is ionic liquid-assisted exfoliation and dispersion of graphite, leading to the isolation of few- and single-layered graphene sheets with yields two orders of magnitude higher than the earlier liquid-assisted exfoliation approaches using surface energy-matched solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). In this Minireview, we discuss the emerging use of ionic liquids for the practical exfoliation, dispersion, and modification of graphene nanosheets. These developments lay the foundation for strategies seeking to overcome the many challenges faced by current liquid-phase exfoliation approaches. Early computational and experimental results clearly indicate that these same approaches can readily be extended to inorganic graphene analogues (e.g., BN, MoX2 (X = S, Se, Te), WS2, TaSe2, NbSe2, NiTe2, and Bi2Te3) as well.

  15. Graphene-GaAs-graphene stacked layers for the improvement of the transmission at the wavelength of 1.55 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajlani, Hosni; Azizi, Mohamed Karim; Gharsallah, Ali; Oueslati, Meherzi

    2016-07-01

    Transmission filter operating at the wavelength of 1.55 μm and based on stacked graphene-GaAs-graphene layers separated by air gaps is presented. By using the transfer matrix method (TMM), we show that the addition of a graphene layer at each interface of a GaAs-based stratified structure, which initially exhibit only 30% transmission at 1.55 μm, allows the active control of the transmission by the adjustment of the graphene chemical potential. Transmission of almost 100% at the wavelength of 1.55 μm is achieved after addition of graphene layers. These results show the potential role of stacked graphene-GaAs-graphene layers in the development of new optical active communications devices.

  16. Photodetection in Hybrid Single-Layer Graphene/Fully Coherent Germanium Island Nanostructures Selectively Grown on Silicon Nanotip Patterns.

    PubMed

    Niu, Gang; Capellini, Giovanni; Lupina, Grzegorz; Niermann, Tore; Salvalaglio, Marco; Marzegalli, Anna; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Zaumseil, Peter; Krause, Hans-Michael; Skibitzki, Oliver; Lehmann, Michael; Montalenti, Francesco; Xie, Ya-Hong; Schroeder, Thomas

    2016-01-27

    Dislocation networks are one of the most principle sources deteriorating the performances of devices based on lattice-mismatched heteroepitaxial systems. We demonstrate here a technique enabling fully coherent germanium (Ge) islands selectively grown on nanotip-patterned Si(001) substrates. The silicon (Si)-tip-patterned substrate, fabricated by complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible nanotechnology, features ∼50-nm-wide Si areas emerging from a SiO2 matrix and arranged in an ordered lattice. Molecular beam epitaxy growths result in Ge nanoislands with high selectivity and having homogeneous shape and size. The ∼850 °C growth temperature required for ensuring selective growth has been shown to lead to the formation of Ge islands of high crystalline quality without extensive Si intermixing (with 91 atom % Ge). Nanotip-patterned wafers result in geometric, kinetic-diffusion-barrier intermixing hindrance, confining the major intermixing to the pedestal region of Ge islands, where kinetic diffusion barriers are, however, high. Theoretical calculations suggest that the thin Si/Ge layer at the interface plays, nevertheless, a significant role in realizing our fully coherent Ge nanoislands free from extended defects especially dislocations. Single-layer graphene/Ge/Si-tip Schottky junctions were fabricated, and thanks to the absence of extended defects in Ge islands, they demonstrate high-performance photodetection characteristics with responsivity of ∼45 mA W(-1) and an Ion/Ioff ratio of ∼10(3). PMID:26709534

  17. Environmental Synthesis of Few Layers Graphene Sheets Using Ultrasonic Exfoliation with Enhanced Electrical and Thermal Properties

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Monir; Zakaria, Azmi; Radiman, Shahidan; Abdul Wahab, Zaidan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report how few layers graphene that can be produced in large quantity with low defect ratio from exfoliation of graphite by using a high intensity probe sonication in water containing liquid hand soap and PVP. It was founded that the graphene powder obtained by this simple exfoliation method after the heat treatment had an excellent exfoliation into a single or layered graphene sheets. The UV-visible spectroscopy, FESEM, TEM, X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy was used to analyse the graphene product. The thermal diffusivity of the samples was analysed using a highly accurate thermal-wave cavity photothermal technique. The data obtained showed excellent enhancement in the thermal diffusivity of the graphene dispersion. This well-dispersed graphene was then used to fabricate an electrically conductive polymer-graphene film composite. The results demonstrated that this low cost and environmental friendly technique allowed to the production of high quality layered graphene sheets, improved the thermal and electrical properties. This may find use in the wide range of applications based on graphene. PMID:27064575

  18. Environmental Synthesis of Few Layers Graphene Sheets Using Ultrasonic Exfoliation with Enhanced Electrical and Thermal Properties.

    PubMed

    Noroozi, Monir; Zakaria, Azmi; Radiman, Shahidan; Abdul Wahab, Zaidan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report how few layers graphene that can be produced in large quantity with low defect ratio from exfoliation of graphite by using a high intensity probe sonication in water containing liquid hand soap and PVP. It was founded that the graphene powder obtained by this simple exfoliation method after the heat treatment had an excellent exfoliation into a single or layered graphene sheets. The UV-visible spectroscopy, FESEM, TEM, X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy was used to analyse the graphene product. The thermal diffusivity of the samples was analysed using a highly accurate thermal-wave cavity photothermal technique. The data obtained showed excellent enhancement in the thermal diffusivity of the graphene dispersion. This well-dispersed graphene was then used to fabricate an electrically conductive polymer-graphene film composite. The results demonstrated that this low cost and environmental friendly technique allowed to the production of high quality layered graphene sheets, improved the thermal and electrical properties. This may find use in the wide range of applications based on graphene. PMID:27064575

  19. Graphene Layer Growth: Collision of Migrating Five-MemberRings

    SciTech Connect

    Whitesides, Russell; Kollias, Alexander C.; Domin, Dominik; Lester Jr., William A.; Frenklach, Michael

    2005-12-02

    A reaction pathway is explored in which two cyclopenta groups combine on the zigzag edge of a graphene layer. The process is initiated by H addition to a five-membered ring, followed by opening of that ring and the formation of a six-membered ring adjacent to another five-membered ring. The elementary steps of the migration pathway are analyzed using density functional theory to examine the region of the potential energy surface associated with the pathway. The calculations are performed on a substrate modeled by the zigzag edge of tetracene. Based on the obtained energetics, the dynamics of the system are analyzed by solving the energy transfer master equations. The results indicate energetic and reaction-rate similarity between the cyclopenta combination and migration reactions. Also examined in the present study are desorption rates of migrating cyclopenta rings which are found to be comparable to cyclopenta ring migration.

  20. Electrochemically Produced Graphene for Microporous Layers in Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Najafabadi, Amin Taheri; Leeuwner, Magrieta J; Wilkinson, David P; Gyenge, Előd L

    2016-07-01

    The microporous layer (MPL) is a key cathodic component in proton exchange membrane fuel cells owing to its beneficial influence on two-phase mass transfer. However, its performance is highly dependent on material properties such as morphology, porous structure, and electrical resistance. To improve water management and performance, electrochemically exfoliated graphene (EGN) microsheets are considered as an alternative to the conventional carbon black (CB) MPLs. The EGN-based MPLs decrease the kinetic overpotential and the Ohmic potential loss, whereas the addition of CB to form a composite EGN+CB MPL improves the mass-transport limiting current density drastically. This is reflected by increases of approximately 30 and 70 % in peak power densities at 100 % relative humidity (RH) compared with those for CB- and EGN-only MPLs, respectively. The composite EGN+CB MPL also retains the superior performance at a cathode RH of 20 %, whereas the CB MPL shows significant performance loss. PMID:27254459

  1. Facile Large Scale Production of Few-Layer Graphene Sheets by Shear Exfoliation in Volatile Solvent.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, M Wasim; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Youn Sop; Kim, Jong Seok

    2015-12-01

    Few layer graphene sheets were synthesized from natural graphite through mechanical shear mixer in 1-butanol as solvent. The liquid phase exfoliation of graphite through the shear mixer generated incising forces for 20 minutes which changed the large amount of graphite's flake into few layer graphene. The removal of solvent from the deposited dispersion was performed immediately by keeping at the room temperature. The deposited graphene thin films were characterized by AFM, HR-TEM, XRD, FT-IR and Raman Spectroscopy. The HR-TEM results showed the formation of few layers and well dispersed graphene. The Raman spectroscopy and XRD characterization confirmed the good quality and non-oxidized state of graphene. PMID:26682388

  2. Directed self-assembly of block copolymer films on atomically-thin graphene chemical patterns

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Xiong, Shisheng; Jacobberger, Robert M.; Mikael, Solomon; Suh, Hyo Seon; Liu, Chi-Chun; Geng, Dalong; Wang, Xudong; Arnold, Michael S.; Ma, Zhenqiang; Nealey, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Directed self-assembly of block copolymers is a scalable method to fabricate well-ordered patterns over the wafer scale with feature sizes below the resolution of conventional lithography. Typically, lithographically-defined prepatterns with varying chemical contrast are used to rationally guide the assembly of block copolymers. The directed self-assembly to obtain accurate registration and alignment is largely influenced by the assembly kinetics. Furthermore, a considerably broad processing window is favored for industrial manufacturing. Using an atomically-thin layer of graphene on germanium, after two simple processing steps, we create a novel chemical pattern to direct the assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate). Faster assembly kinetics are observed on graphene/germanium chemical patterns than on conventional chemical patterns based on polymer mats and brushes. This new chemical pattern allows for assembly on a wide range of guiding periods and along designed 90° bending structures. We also achieve density multiplication by a factor of 10, greatly enhancing the pattern resolution. The rapid assembly kinetics, minimal topography, and broad processing window demonstrate the advantages of inorganic chemical patterns composed of hard surfaces. PMID:27528258

  3. Directed self-assembly of block copolymer films on atomically-thin graphene chemical patterns.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Xiong, Shisheng; Jacobberger, Robert M; Mikael, Solomon; Suh, Hyo Seon; Liu, Chi-Chun; Geng, Dalong; Wang, Xudong; Arnold, Michael S; Ma, Zhenqiang; Nealey, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    Directed self-assembly of block copolymers is a scalable method to fabricate well-ordered patterns over the wafer scale with feature sizes below the resolution of conventional lithography. Typically, lithographically-defined prepatterns with varying chemical contrast are used to rationally guide the assembly of block copolymers. The directed self-assembly to obtain accurate registration and alignment is largely influenced by the assembly kinetics. Furthermore, a considerably broad processing window is favored for industrial manufacturing. Using an atomically-thin layer of graphene on germanium, after two simple processing steps, we create a novel chemical pattern to direct the assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate). Faster assembly kinetics are observed on graphene/germanium chemical patterns than on conventional chemical patterns based on polymer mats and brushes. This new chemical pattern allows for assembly on a wide range of guiding periods and along designed 90° bending structures. We also achieve density multiplication by a factor of 10, greatly enhancing the pattern resolution. The rapid assembly kinetics, minimal topography, and broad processing window demonstrate the advantages of inorganic chemical patterns composed of hard surfaces. PMID:27528258

  4. Raman Scattering from few-layer Graphene Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A.; Joshi, P.; Srinivas, T.; Eklund, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Few layer-graphene sheet (nGL's) films, where n is the number of graphene layers, are new two-dimensional sp^2 carbon systems that have been shown to produce exciting Fractional Quantum Hall phenomena. We report here on the first Raman scattering (RS) results of nGLs. nGLs with lateral dimensions of ˜1-3 μm were prepared by chemical delamination of graphite flake or HOPG and then transferred from solution onto substrates (mica, pyrex,In/pyrex and Au/pyrex). RS spectra have been collected on nGL's with n=1, 2, 3 and compared with the graphite. Graphite exhibits two E2g interlayer modes at 42 cm-1 and 1582 cm-1. The Raman spectra of (n=1-3) nGLs were found to exhibit peaks at 1350 cm-1 and 1620 cm-1, i.e., near frequencies associated with high phonon density of states. The high frequency E2g band is found to split into two bands when the nGL is supported on metallic substrates (In,Au). In both these cases, we observe bands at 1583 cm-1, ˜1592 cm-1 rather than one band at 1581 cm-1 when the nGL is on insulating pyrex. The splitting of the interlayer band when on metallic substrates is identified with charge transfer between the nGL and the substrate. The phonon density of states scattering observed does not appear to be due to disorder in the basal plane.

  5. Electronic band structure imaging of three layer twisted graphene on single crystal Cu(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Marquez Velasco, J.; Kelaidis, N.; Xenogiannopoulou, E.; Tsoutsou, D.; Tsipas, P.; Speliotis, Th.; Pilatos, G.; Likodimos, V.; Falaras, P.; Dimoulas, A.; Raptis, Y. S.

    2013-11-18

    Few layer graphene (FLG) is grown on single crystal Cu(111) by Chemical Vapor Deposition, and the electronic valence band structure is imaged by Angle-Resolved Photo-Emission Spectroscopy. It is found that graphene essentially grows polycrystalline. Three nearly ideal Dirac cones are observed along the Cu Γ{sup ¯}K{sup ¯} direction in k-space, attributed to the presence of ∼4° twisted three layer graphene with negligible interlayer coupling. The number of layers and the stacking order are compatible with Raman data analysis demonstrating the complementarity of the two techniques for a more accurate characterization of FLG.

  6. Design of graphene sheets-supported Pt catalyst layer in PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Seh K.; Shao, Yuyan; Wan, Haiying; Rieke, Peter C.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Liu, Jun; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Yong

    2011-03-01

    A series of cathodes using Pt supported onto graphene sheets with different contents of carbon black in the catalyst layer were prepared and characterized. Carbon black was added as a spacer between two-dimensional graphene sheets in the catalyst layer to study its effect on the performances of proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Electrochemical properties and surface morphology of the cathodes with and without carbon black were characterized using cyclic voltammetry, ac-impedance spectroscopy, electrochemical polarization technique, and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that carbon black effectively modifies the array of graphene supports, resulting in more Pt nanoparticles available for electrochemical reaction and better mass transport in the catalyst layer.

  7. Synthesis and Characterizations of Two-Dimensional Atomic Layers and Their Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yi-Hsien

    2015-03-01

    Monolayers of van der Waals (vdw) materials, including graphene, h-BN, and MoS2, have been highlighted regarding both scientific and industrial aspects due to novel physical phenomenon inherited from the reduced dimensionality. Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) atomic layers, being considered as the thinnest semiconductor, exhibit great potential for advanced nano-devices. Monolayer in the class of offered a burgeoning field in fundamental physics, energy harvesting, electronics and optoelectronics. Recently, atomically thin heterostructures of TMD monolayer with various geometrical and energy band alignments are expected to be the key materials for next generation flexible optoelectronics. The individual TMD monolayers can be adjoined vertically or laterally to construct diverse heterostructures which are difficult to reach with the laborious pick up-and-transfer method of the exfoliated flakes. The ability to produce copious amounts of high quality layered heterostructures on diverse surfaces is highly desirable but it has remained a challenging issue. Here, we have achieved a direct synthesis of various heterostructures of monolayer TMDs. The synthesis was performed using ambient-pressure CVD with aromatic molecules as seeding promoters. We discuss possible growth behaviors, and we examine the symmetry and the interface of these heterostructures using optical analysis and atomic-resolution scanning TEM. Our method offers a controllable synthesis of to obtain high-quality heterostructures of TMD atomic layers with diverse interface geometry.

  8. Contribution of dielectric screening to the total capacitance of few-layer graphene electrodes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhan, Cheng; Jiang, De-en

    2016-02-17

    We apply joint density functional theory (JDFT), which treats the electrode/electrolyte interface self-consistently, to an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) based on few-layer graphene electrodes. The JDFT approach allows us to quantify a third contribution to the total capacitance beyond quantum capacitance (CQ) and EDL capacitance (CEDL). This contribution arises from the dielectric screening of the electric field by the surface of the few-layer graphene electrode, and we therefore term it the dielectric capacitance (CDielec). We find that CDielec becomes significant in affecting the total capacitance when the number of graphene layers in the electrode is more than three. In conclusion,more » our investigation sheds new light on the significance of the electrode dielectric screening on the capacitance of few-layer graphene electrodes.« less

  9. Prediction of structural and mechanical properties of atom-decorated porous graphene via density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Reza; Ajori, Shahram; Malakpour, Sina

    2016-04-01

    The considerable demand for novel materials with specific properties has motivated the researchers to synthesize supramolecular nanostructures through different methods. Porous graphene is the first two-dimensional hydrocarbon synthesized quite recently. This investigation is aimed at studying the mechanical properties of atom-decorated (functionalized) porous graphene by employing density functional theory (DFT) calculation within both local density approximations (LDA) and generalized gradient approximations (GGA). The atoms are selected from period 3 of periodic table as well as Li and O atom from period 2. The results reveal that metallic atoms and noble gases are adsorbed physically on porous graphene and nonmetallic ones form chemical bonds with carbon atom in porous graphene structure. Also, it is shown that, in general, atom decoration reduces the values of mechanical properties such as Young's, bulk and shear moduli as well as Poisson's ratio, and this reduction is more considerable in the case of nonmetallic atoms (chemical adsorption), especially oxygen atoms, as compared to metallic atoms and noble gases (physical adsorption).

  10. Control of layer stacking in CVD graphene under quasi-static condition.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Kiran M; Sharma, Indu; Dhakate, Sanjay R

    2015-09-14

    The type of layer stacking in bilayer graphene has a significant influence on its electronic properties because of the contrast nature of layer coupling. Herein, different geometries of the reaction site for the growth of bilayer graphene by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique and their effects on the nature of layer stacking are investigated. Micro-Raman mapping and curve fitting analysis confirmed the type of layer stacking for the CVD grown bilayer graphene. The samples grown with sandwiched structure such as quartz/Cu foil/quartz along with a spacer, between the two quartz plates to create a sealed space, resulted in Bernal or AB stacked bilayer graphene while the sample sandwiched without a spacer produced the twisted bilayer graphene. The contrast difference in the layer stacking is a consequence of the difference in the growth mechanism associated with different geometries of the reaction site. The diffusion dominated process under quasi-static control is responsible for the growth of twisted bilayer graphene in sandwiched geometry while surface controlled growth with ample and continual supply of carbon in sandwiched geometry along with a spacer, leads to AB stacked bilayer graphene. Through this new approach, an efficient technique is presented to control the nature of layer stacking. PMID:26245487

  11. A platform for large-scale graphene electronics--CVD growth of single-layer graphene on CVD-grown hexagonal boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Jang, Sung Kyu; Jang, Won-Jun; Kim, Minwoo; Park, Seong-Yong; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kahng, Se-Jong; Choi, Jae-Young; Ruoff, Rodney S; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo

    2013-05-21

    Direct chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of single-layer graphene on CVD-grown hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) film can suggest a large-scale and high-quality graphene/h-BN film hybrid structure with a defect-free interface. This sequentially grown graphene/h-BN film shows better electronic properties than that of graphene/SiO2 or graphene transferred on h-BN film, and suggests a new promising template for graphene device fabrication. PMID:23576235

  12. Designing nanoscale constructs from atomic thin sheets of graphene, boron nitride and gold nanoparticles for advanced material applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasuja, Kabeer

    2011-12-01

    ' interaction with graphene, and applied to address the challenge of dispersing bare-surfaced GNPs for efficient liquid-phase catalysis. We also revisited the functionalization of graphene and present a non-invasive surface introduction of interfaceable moieties. Isostructural to graphene, ultrathin BN sheet is another atomic-thick nanomaterial possessing a highly diverse set of properties inconceivable from graphene. Exfoliating UTBNSs has been challenging due to their exceptional intersheet-bonding and chemical-inertness. To develop applications of BN monolayers and evolve research, a facile lab-scale approach was desired that can produce processable dispersions of BN monolayers. We demonstrated a novel chlorosulfonic acid based treatment that resulted in protonation assisted layer-by-layer exfoliation of BN monolayers with highest reported yields till date. Further, the BN monolayers exhibited extensively protonated N centers, which are utilized for chemically interfacing GNPs, demonstrating their ability to act as excellent nano-templates. The scientific details obtained from the research shown here will significantly support current research activities and greatly impact their future applications. Our research findings have been published in ACS Nano, Small, Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, MRS Proceedings and have gathered >45 citations.

  13. Charge neutrality of quasi-free-standing monolayer graphene induced by the intercalated Sn layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hidong; Dugerjav, Otgonbayar; Lkhagvasuren, Altaibaatar; Seo, Jae M.

    2016-04-01

    It has been confirmed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy that decoupled quasi-free-standing monolayer graphene (QFMLG), obtained by Sn intercalation between the ≤ft(6\\sqrt{3}× 6\\sqrt{3}\\right)R{{30}{^\\circ}} buffer layer and the 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1) substrate, is charge-neutral, i.e. the Dirac point matches with the Fermi level. By combined studies of scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and core-level/valence-band photoemission spectroscopy on this system, it has been found that the intercalated Sn atoms, bonding with the Si atoms of the top Si-C bilayer on the substrate comprise a hexagonal 10× 10 layer, which turns out to be metallic. Such a metallic character, which has never been found in intercalation using different elements, is a major cause of charge neutrality of QFMLG, since conduction electrons of the Sn layer compensate completely spontaneous polarization charges of 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1). This charge-neutral QFMLG is stable at a high temperature of 850 °C.

  14. In situ observation of graphene sublimation and multi-layer edge reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian Yu; Ding, Feng; Yakobson, Boris I.; Lu, Ping; Qi, Liang; Li, Ju

    2009-01-01

    We induced sublimation of suspended few-layer graphene by in situ Joule-heating inside a transmission electron microscope. The graphene sublimation fronts consisted of mostly {1100} zigzag edges. Under appropriate conditions, a fractal-like “coastline” morphology was observed. Extensive multiple-layer reconstructions at the graphene edges led to the formation of unique carbon nanostructures, such as sp2-bonded bilayer edges (BLEs) and nanotubes connected to BLEs. Flat fullerenes/nanopods and nanotubes tunneling multiple layers of graphene sheets were also observed. Remarkably, >99% of the graphene edges observed during sublimation are BLEs rather than monolayer edges (MLEs), indicating that BLEs are the stable edges in graphene at high temperatures. We reproduced the “coastline” sublimation morphologies by kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations. The simulation revealed geometrical and topological features unique to quasi-2-dimensional (2D) graphene sublimation and reconstructions. These reconstructions were enabled by bending, which cannot occur in first-order phase transformations of 3D bulk materials. These results indicate that substrate of multiple-layer graphene can offer unique opportunities for tailoring carbon-based nanostructures and engineering novel nano-devices with complex topologies. PMID:19515820

  15. Nanotribological properties of water films adsorbing atop, and absorbing below, graphene layers supported by metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zijian; Curtis, C. K.; Stine, R.; Sheehan, P.; Krim, J.

    The tribological properties of graphite, a common lubricant with known sensitivity to the presence of water, have been studied extensively at the macroscopic and microscopic scales. Although far less attention has been devoted to the tribological properties of graphene, it has been established that the tribological response to the presence of water is dissimilar from that of graphite. We report here a quartz crystal microbalance study of the nanotribological properties of water films adsorbed/absorbed on graphene layers prepared by either chemical decomposition on nickel(111) substrates or transfer of freestanding graphene layers to aluminum substrates. Sliding friction levels of the water films were also measured for metal surfaces in the absence of a graphene layer. We observe very high friction levels for water adsorbed atop graphene on Ni(111) and very low levels for water on aluminum. For the case of graphene/aluminum, the data indicate that the water is absorbing between the graphene layer and the aluminum. Dissipation levels moreover indicate the presence of an interstitial water increases sliding friction between the graphene and the aluminum substrate Work supported by NSF and NRL.

  16. Synthesis of few layer graphene by non-transferred arc plasma system.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jong-Jun; Kim, Tae-Hee; Park, Dong-Wha

    2013-11-01

    Graphene has recently been the focus of a great deal of attention owing to its outstanding properties, which include high mobility, high thermal conductivity and high structural stability. In this study, a few layer graphene was successfully synthesized from methane gas using a non-transferred direct current arc plasma system. Non-transferred thermal plasma offers high temperature, steep temperature gradient and high enthalpy to enhance the reaction kinetics of graphene synthesis. In order to prepare high quality few layer graphene, graphene products synthesized under several conditions was analyzed comparatively. Effects of gap distance between the plasma torch and graphite substrate, the flow rate of additional reactant gas, and different types of plasma forming gas on the synthesis of few layer graphene were investigated. Methane gas was injected into the plasma jet as a carbon source for the synthesis of graphene and a thermal plasma jet was generated by pure argon or a mixture of argon-hydrogen. The results revealed that hydrogen gas improved the quality of few layer graphene by inducing surface etching and increasing plasma power. PMID:24245266

  17. Investigations of the Electronic, Vibrational and Structural Properties of Single and Few-Layer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, Chun Hung

    Single and few-layer graphene (SLG and FLG) have stimulated great scientific interest because of their distinctive properties and potential for novel applications. In this dissertation, we investigate the mechanical, electronic and vibrational properties of these remarkable materials by various techniques, including atomic-force microscopy (AFM) and Raman, infrared (IR), and ultrafast optical spectroscopy. With respect to its mechanical properties, SLG is known to be capable of undergoing significant mechanical deformation. We have applied AFM to investigate how the morphology of SLG is influenced by the substrate on which it is deposited. We have found that SLG is strongly affected by the morphology of the underlying supporting surface. In particular, SLG deposited on atomically flat surfaces of mica substrates exhibits an ultraflat morphology, with height variation essentially indistinguishable from that observed for the surface of cleaved graphite. One of the most distinctive aspects of SLG is its spectrum of electronic excitations, with its characteristic linear energy-momentum dispersion relation. We have examined the dynamics of the corresponding Dirac fermions by optical emission spectroscopy. By analyzing the spectra of light emission induced in the spectral visible range by 30-femtosecond laser pulses, we find that the charge carriers in graphene cool by the emission of strongly coupled optical phonons in a few 10's of femtoseconds and thermalize among themselves even more rapidly. The charge carriers and the strongly coupled optical phonons are thus essentially in thermal equilibrium with one another on the picosecond time scale, but can be driven strongly out of equilibrium with the other phonons in the system. Temperatures exceeding 3000 K are achieved for the subsystem of the charge carriers and optical phonons under femtosecond laser excitation. While SLG exhibits remarkable physical properties, its few-layer counterparts are also of great interest

  18. Semiconducting properties of bilayer graphene modulated by an electric field for next-generation atomic-film electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukagoshi, K.; Li, S.-L.; Miyazaki, H.; Aparecido-Ferreira, A.; Nakaharai, S.

    2014-03-01

    A practical wide bandgap was induced in bilayer graphene using a perpendicular electric field. A self-assembled gate insulator was used to apply a large electric field. The wide bandgap allows the operation of fundamental logic gates composed of bilayer graphene transistors. The results reviewed here indicate the potential for graphene electronics to be realized as emerging transistors with an atomically thin semiconductor.

  19. USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

    2010-02-08

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

  20. Enhanced model for determining the number of graphene layers and their distribution from X-ray diffraction data

    PubMed Central

    Ademi, Abdulakim; Grozdanov, Anita; Paunović, Perica; Dimitrov, Aleksandar T

    2015-01-01

    Summary A model consisting of an equation that includes graphene thickness distribution is used to calculate theoretical 002 X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak intensities. An analysis was performed upon graphene samples produced by two different electrochemical procedures: electrolysis in aqueous electrolyte and electrolysis in molten salts, both using a nonstationary current regime. Herein, the model is enhanced by a partitioning of the corresponding 2θ interval, resulting in significantly improved accuracy of the results. The model curves obtained exhibit excellent fitting to the XRD intensities curves of the studied graphene samples. The employed equation parameters make it possible to calculate the j-layer graphene region coverage of the graphene samples, and hence the number of graphene layers. The results of the thorough analysis are in agreement with the calculated number of graphene layers from Raman spectra C-peak position values and indicate that the graphene samples studied are few-layered. PMID:26665083

  1. Large scale atomistic simulation of single-layer graphene growth on Ni(111) surface: molecular dynamics simulation based on a new generation of carbon-metal potential.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ziwei; Yan, Tianying; Liu, Guiwu; Qiao, Guanjun; Ding, Feng

    2016-01-14

    To explore the mechanism of graphene chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth on a catalyst surface, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of carbon atom self-assembly on a Ni(111) surface based on a well-designed empirical reactive bond order potential was performed. We simulated single layer graphene with recorded size (up to 300 atoms per super-cell) and reasonably good quality by MD trajectories up to 15 ns. Detailed processes of graphene CVD growth, such as carbon atom dissolution and precipitation, formation of carbon chains of various lengths, polygons and small graphene domains were observed during the initial process of the MD simulation. The atomistic processes of typical defect healing, such as the transformation from a pentagon into a hexagon and from a pentagon-heptagon pair (5|7) to two adjacent hexagons (6|6), were revealed as well. The study also showed that higher temperature and longer annealing time are essential to form high quality graphene layers, which is in agreement with experimental reports and previous theoretical results. PMID:26658834

  2. Coatings of nanostructured pristine graphene-IrOx hybrids for neural electrodes: Layered stacking and the role of non-oxygenated graphene.

    PubMed

    Pérez, E; Lichtenstein, M P; Suñol, C; Casañ-Pastor, N

    2015-10-01

    The need to enhance charge capacity in neural stimulation-electrodes is promoting the formation of new materials and coatings. Among all the possible types of graphene, pristine graphene prepared by graphite electrochemical exfoliation, is used in this work to form a new nanostructured IrOx-graphene hybrid (IrOx-eG). Graphene is stabilized in suspension by IrOx nanoparticles without surfactants. Anodic electrodeposition results in coatings with much smaller roughness than IrOx-graphene oxide. Exfoliated pristine graphene (eG), does not electrodeposit in absence of iridium, but IrOx-nanoparticle adhesion on graphene flakes drives the process. IrOx-eG has a significantly different electronic state than graphene oxide, and different coordination for carbon. Electron diffraction shows the reflection features expected for graphene. IrOx 1-2 nm cluster/nanoparticles are oxohydroxo-species and adhere to 10nm graphene platelets. eG induces charge storage capacity values five times larger than in pure IrOx, and if calculated per carbon atom, this enhancement is one order magnitude larger than the induced by graphene oxide. IrOx-eG coatings show optimal in vitro neural cell viability and function as cell culture substrates. The fully straightforward electrochemical exfoliation and electrodeposition constitutes a step towards the application of graphene in biomedical systems, expanding the knowledge of pristine graphene vs. graphene oxide, in bioelectrodes. PMID:26117758

  3. Doping, adsorption, and polarity of atomic-layer materials: A predictive theory from systematic first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Susumu; Fujimoto, Yoshitaka; Koretsune, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Based on the extensive first-principles electronic-structure study of various doped hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) atomic layers as well as that of various doped graphene and carbon nanotubes, we propose a simple but predictive theory of polarity in doped atomic-layer materials. We first report the electronic structure of the pristine h-BN, h-BN layers with B and B3N vacancies which have been experimentally produced and observed frequently, and doped h-BN layers, and show that both p-type and n-type h-BN layers can be produced in a variety of ways. We next review the electronic structure of doped graphene and carbon nanotubes and the effect of the H adsorption which can even change the polarity of the system. Finally we propose a simple but predictive theory which is based on the number of valence electrons of each system, and can explain the polarities of all the h-BN, graphene, and nanotube-based systems studied so far. Supported by MEXT 25107005 and 25104711, JSPS 22740252 and 26390062, and MEST TIES project.

  4. Structural Analysis and Direct Imaging of Rotational Stacking Faults in Few-Layer Graphene Synthesized from Solid Botanical Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Golap; Wakita, Koichi; Umeno, Masayoshi

    2011-07-01

    Here, we report the structural analysis and rotational stacking faults of few-layer graphene sheets derived by the controlled pyrolysis of the solid botanical derivative camphor (C10H16O). The second-order Raman spectra of the sheets show that the graphene layers are more than one single layer, and the numbers of layers can be controlled by adjusting the amount of camphor pyrolyzed. Transmission electron microscopy images show a minimum of 3 layers for thinner graphene sheets and a maximum of 12 layers for thicker graphene sheets. Low-voltage aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is also carried out to gain insight into the hexagonal structure and stacking of graphene layers. The transmission electron microscopy study showed the presence of moiré patterns with a relative rotation between graphene layers.

  5. Single layer nano graphene platelets derived from graphite nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kai; Delport, Géraud; Orcin-Chaix, Lucile; Drummond, Carlos; Lauret, Jean-Sebastien; Penicaud, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Solutions of calibrated nanographenides (negatively charged nanographenes) are obtained by dissolution of graphite nanofibre intercalation compounds (GNFICs). Deposits show homogeneous unfolded nanographene platelets of 1 to 2 layers thickness and 10 nm lateral size, evidenced by atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Upon oxidation, nanographenide solutions exhibit strong photoluminescence.Solutions of calibrated nanographenides (negatively charged nanographenes) are obtained by dissolution of graphite nanofibre intercalation compounds (GNFICs). Deposits show homogeneous unfolded nanographene platelets of 1 to 2 layers thickness and 10 nm lateral size, evidenced by atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Upon oxidation, nanographenide solutions exhibit strong photoluminescence. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Raman, SEM, TEM and XPS characterization of the raw nanofibres, detailed XPS spectra analysis of deposits from GNFIC/THF and GNFIC/NMP solutions, Raman and AFM characterization of fresh and aged solutions of nanofibres obtained from 3 different suppliers. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01512c

  6. Determination of the geometric corrugation of graphene on SiC(0001) by grazing incidence fast atom diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Zugarramurdi, A.; Debiossac, M.; Lunca-Popa, P.; Mayne, A. J.; Borisov, A. G.; Mu, Z.; Roncin, P.; Khemliche, H.; Momeni, A.

    2015-03-09

    We present a grazing incidence fast atom diffraction (GIFAD) study of monolayer graphene on 6H-SiC(0001). This system shows a Moiré-like 13 × 13 superlattice above the reconstructed carbon buffer layer. The averaging property of GIFAD results in electronic and geometric corrugations that are well decoupled; the graphene honeycomb corrugation is only observed with the incident beam parallel to the zigzag direction while the geometric corrugation arising from the superlattice is revealed along the armchair direction. Full-quantum calculations of the diffraction patterns show the very high GIFAD sensitivity to the amplitude of the surface corrugation. The best agreement between the calculated and measured diffraction intensities yields a corrugation height of 0.27 ± 0.03 Å.

  7. Synthesis of Few-Layer Graphene Using DC PE-CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyuk; Castro, Edward Joseph D.; Hwang, Yong Gyoo; Lee, Choong Hun

    2011-12-01

    Few layer graphene (FLG) had been successfully grown on polycrystalline Ni films or foils on a large scale using DC Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (DC PE-CVD) as a result of the Raman spectra drawn out of the sample. The size of graphene films is dependent on the area of the Ni film as well as the DC PE-CVD chamber size. Synthesis time has an effect on the quality of graphene produced. However, further analysis and experiments must be pursued to further identify the optimum settings and conditions of producing better quality graphene. Applied plasma voltage on the other hand, had an influence on the minimization of defects in the graphene grown. It has also presented a method of producing a free standing PMMA/graphene membrane on a FeCl3(aq) solution which could then be transferred to a desired substrate.

  8. Calculation of electron spectra and some problems in the thermodynamics of graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alisultanov, Z. Z.

    2016-02-01

    The expressions for the energy spectra of monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer graphene, as well as epitaxial graphene, are derived using the quantum Green's functions method. Analytic expressions are obtained for the densities of states of these systems. It is shown that a bandgap can appear the spectrum of an epitaxial graphene bilayer. A number of problems in the thermodynamics of electrons in free and epitaxial graphene layers are considered as applications. Analytic expressions are obtained for the chemical potential and heat capacity in the limiting cases of low and high temperatures. Quantum oscillations of heat capacity in graphene are analyzed taking into account the Coulomb interaction. The Berry phase of epitaxial graphene is investigated.

  9. Design and comparative study of lateral and vertical LEDs with graphene as current spreading layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palakurthy, Shivani; Singh, Sumitra; Pal, Suchandan; Dhanavantri, Chenna

    2015-10-01

    This study analyzes the current spreading effect of graphene on lateral and vertical light emitting diodes (LEDs). We observe an improvement in uniformity of current distribution, light output power and wall-plug efficiency in lateral LEDs (L-LEDs) with graphene current spreading layer (CSL) as compared to those with indium tin oxide (ITO) CSL. From the results we conclude that graphene CSL may be better alternative to ITO CSL. We further carried out a comparative study of lateral and vertical LEDs with graphene CSL. We observe 17% higher light output power, 16% higher wall-plug efficiency and 62% lower series resistance in the case of V-LEDs with graphene CSL when compared to that of L-LEDs with a graphene CSL. Reasons behind these results have been discussed.

  10. Graphene Growth on Pre-patterned Copper Film with Nickel as a Buffer Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Deng, Wu-Zhu; Wang, Dong-Zhao; Chen, Yang-Yang; Zhou, Wen-Li

    2015-11-01

    Selective graphene growth has been simultaneously achieved on oxidized silicon substrate with three kinds of pre-patterned rectangular metal films, i.e., Cu/Ni double layer, and Ni and Cu single layer film, by atmospheric chemical vapor deposition at 1020°C. The top graphene maintains the micron-scale patterning of the metal film underneath. It was found that single layer graphene growth is more favorable on the Cu/Ni double layer film than on either single layer. The morphology and structure study of the pre-patterned metal substrates before and after graphene growth indicated that Ni functions as a buffer layer to significantly weaken the lattice mismatch between the copper and silicon substrate, resulting in a smoother and larger grain-sized Cu surface. It is also suggested that Ni diffuses to the Cu surface and participates in the graphene growth during the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Defect-free single layer graphene growth can be obtained when the ratio of Cu/Ni is appropriate with respect to their thickness and the feature size of rectangular patterning.

  11. Determining charge state of graphene vacancy by noncontact atomic force microscopy and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Weinert, M.; Li, L.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene vacancies are engineered for novel functionalities, however, the charge state of these defects, the key parameter that is vital to charge transfer during chemical reactions and carrier scattering, is generally unknown. Here, we carried out atomic resolution imaging of graphene vacancy defects created by Ar plasma using noncontact atomic force microscopy, and made the first determination of their charge state by local contact potential difference measurements. Combined with density functional theory calculations, we show that graphene vacancies are typically positively charged, with size-dependent charge states that are not necessarily integer-valued. These findings provide new insights into carrier scattering by vacancy defects in graphene, as well as its functionalization for chemical sensing and catalysis, and underline the tunability of these functions by controlling the size of vacancy defect.

  12. Single-layer graphene based SPR biochips for tuberculosis bacillus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Nan-Fu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Kuo, Chun-Chuan; Lee, Wei-Che; Hsieh, Min-Hua; Lai, Hsin-Chih

    2012-06-01

    This paper is intended to demonstrate a facile and effective method to construct single layer graphene films onto the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) at Au electrodes based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biochips integrated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for tuberculosis bacillus (TB) detection. It is a novel Au-SAM-graphene nanocomposites and taking advantages of the striking properties of both graphene and Au film, fundamental understanding in hybrid material manipulation and new electrochemical properties can be obtained. The sensitivity of TB detection in the LAMP-based assay for the amplification of the Insertion Sequence 6110 (IS6110) samples was determined by a single-layer graphene/Au thin film and compared with that of a conventional Au/Cr-based SPR chips. The results show that a graphene/Au SPR offers a potentially powerful assay, with a highly sensitive analysis, that may be applicable as an important tool for bio-marker detection.

  13. Direct synthesis of few-layer graphene supported platinum nanocatalyst for methanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hong; Ma, Xiaohui; Sheng, Leimei; An, Kang; Yu, Liming; Zhao, Hongbin; Xu, Jiaqiang; Ren, Wei; Zhao, Xinluo

    2014-11-01

    High-crystalline few-layer graphene supported Pt nanoparticles have been synthesized by arc discharge evaporation of carbon electrodes containing Pt element. A high-temperature treatment under hydrogen atmosphere has been carried out to obtain a new type of Pt/graphene catalyst for methanol oxidation in direct methanol fuel cell. The morphology and structure characterizations of as-grown few-layer graphene supported Pt nanoparticles and Pt/graphene catalysts have been studied by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperometric curves show that our present Pt/graphene catalysts have larger current density for methanol oxidation, higher tolerance to carbon monoxide poisoning, and better stability during the operating procedure, compared to commercial Pt/C catalysts.

  14. Temperature-dependent dielectric functions in atomically thin graphene, silicene, and arsenene

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J. Y.; Liu, L. H.

    2015-08-31

    The dielectric functions of atomically thin graphene, silicene, and arsenene have been investigated as a function of temperature. With zero energy gap, more carriers in graphene and silicene are thermally excited as temperature increases and intraband transition strengthens, resulting in the strengthened absorption peak. Yet with large energy gap, interband transition dominates optical absorption of arsenene but it reduces as lattice vibration enhances, inducing the redshift and decreased absorption peak. To validate the theoretical method, the calculated optical constants of isolated graphene are compared with ellipsometry results and demonstrate good agreement.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of bi-layered graphene sheet, double-walled carbon nanotube and nanotube bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajbhiye, Sachin O.; Singh, S. P.

    2016-05-01

    Due to strong van der Waals (vdW) interactions, the graphene sheets and nanotubes stick to each other and form clusters of these corresponding nanostructures, viz. bi-layered graphene sheet (BLGS), double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) and nanotube bundle (NB) or ropes. This research work is concerned with the study of nonlinear dynamics of BLGS, DWCNT and NB due to nonlinear interlayer vdW forces using multiscale atomistic finite element method. The energy between two adjacent carbon atoms is represented by the multibody interatomic Tersoff-Brenner potential, whereas the nonlinear interlayer vdW forces are represented by Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential function. The equivalent nonlinear material model of carbon-carbon bond is used to model it based on its force-deflection relation. Newmark's algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear matrix equation governing the motion of the BLGS, DWCNT and NB. An impulse and harmonic excitations are used to excite these nanostructures under cantilevered, bridged and clamped boundary conditions. The frequency responses of these nanostructures are computed, and the dominant resonant frequencies are identified. Along with the forced vibration of these structures, the eigenvalue extraction problem of armchair and zigzag NB is also considered. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes are extracted for the different length and boundary conditions of the nanotube bundle.

  16. Switchable graphene-substrate coupling through formation/dissolution of an intercalated Ni-carbide layer

    PubMed Central

    Africh, Cristina; Cepek, Cinzia; Patera, Laerte L.; Zamborlini, Giovanni; Genoni, Pietro; Menteş, Tevfik O.; Sala, Alessandro; Locatelli, Andrea; Comelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Control over the film-substrate interaction is key to the exploitation of graphene’s unique electronic properties. Typically, a buffer layer is irreversibly intercalated “from above” to ensure decoupling. For graphene/Ni(111) we instead tune the film interaction “from below”. By temperature controlling the formation/dissolution of a carbide layer under rotated graphene domains, we reversibly switch graphene’s electronic structure from semi-metallic to metallic. Our results are relevant for the design of controllable graphene/metal interfaces in functional devices. PMID:26804138

  17. Layer-by-layer assembly of 3D tissue constructs with functionalized graphene

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Su Ryon; Aghaei-Ghareh-Bolagh, Behnaz; Gao, Xiguang; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Jung, Sung Mi; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Kim, Sang Bok; Kim, Sun Min; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Tang, Xiaowu (Shirley); Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have been considered as promising candidates to mimic certain structure and function of native extracellular matrix materials for tissue engineering. Significant progress has been made in fabricating carbon nanoparticle-incorporated cell culture substrates, but limited studies have been reported on the development of three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using these nanomaterials. Here, we present a novel approach to engineer 3D multi-layered constructs using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of cells separated with self-assembled graphene oxide (GO)-based thin films. The GO-based structures are shown to serve as cell adhesive sheets that effectively facilitate the formation of multi-layer cell constructs with interlayer connectivity. By controlling the amount of GO deposited in forming the thin films, the thickness of the multi-layer tissue constructs could be tuned with high cell viability. Specifically, this approach could be useful for creating dense and tightly connected cardiac tissues through the co-culture of cardiomyocytes and other cell types. In this work, we demonstrated the fabrication of stand-alone multi-layer cardiac tissues with strong spontaneous beating behavior and programmable pumping properties. Therefore, this LbL-based cell construct fabrication approach, utilizing GO thin films formed directly on cell surfaces, has great potential in engineering 3D tissue structures with improved organization, electrophysiological function, and mechanical integrity. PMID:25419209

  18. Layer-by-layer assembly of 3D tissue constructs with functionalized graphene.

    PubMed

    Shin, Su Ryon; Aghaei-Ghareh-Bolagh, Behnaz; Gao, Xiguang; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Jung, Sung Mi; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Kim, Sang Bok; Kim, Sun Min; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Tang, Xiaowu Shirley; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-10-22

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have been considered as promising candidates to mimic certain structure and function of native extracellular matrix materials for tissue engineering. Significant progress has been made in fabricating carbon nanoparticle-incorporated cell culture substrates, but limited studies have been reported on the development of three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using these nanomaterials. Here, we present a novel approach to engineer 3D multi-layered constructs using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of cells separated with self-assembled graphene oxide (GO)-based thin films. The GO-based structures are shown to serve as cell adhesive sheets that effectively facilitate the formation of multi-layer cell constructs with interlayer connectivity. By controlling the amount of GO deposited in forming the thin films, the thickness of the multi-layer tissue constructs could be tuned with high cell viability. Specifically, this approach could be useful for creating dense and tightly connected cardiac tissues through the co-culture of cardiomyocytes and other cell types. In this work, we demonstrated the fabrication of stand-alone multi-layer cardiac tissues with strong spontaneous beating behavior and programmable pumping properties. Therefore, this LbL-based cell construct fabrication approach, utilizing GO thin films formed directly on cell surfaces, has great potential in engineering 3D tissue structures with improved organization, electrophysiological function, and mechanical integrity. PMID:25419209

  19. Graphene:. Synthesis, Functionalization and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, C. N. R.; Subrahmanyam, K. S.; Ramakrishna Matte, H. S. S.; Maitra, Urmimala; Moses, Kota; Govindaraj, A.

    Graphenes with varying number of layers can be synthesized by different strategies. Thus, single-layer graphene is obtained by the reduction of single layer graphene oxide, CVD and other methods besides micromechanical cleavage. Few-layer graphenes are prepared by the conversion of nanodiamond, arcdischarge of graphite and other means. We briefly present the various methods of synthesis and the nature of graphenes obtained. We then discuss the various properties of graphenes. The remarkable property of graphene of quenching fluorescence of aromatic molecules is shown to be associated with photo-induced electron transfer, on the basis of fluorescence decay and time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopic measurements. The interaction of electron donor and acceptor molecules with few-layer graphene samples has been discussed. Decoration of metal nano-particles on graphene sheets and the resulting changes in electronic structure are examined. Few-layer graphenes exhibit ferromagnetic features along with antiferromagnetic properties, independent of the method of preparation. Graphene-like MoS2 and WS2 have been prepared by chemical methods, and the materials are characterized by electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and other methods. Boron nitride analogues of graphene have been obtained by a simple chemical procedure starting with boric acid and urea and have been characterized by various techniques.

  20. Graphene:. Synthesis, Functionalization and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, C. N. R.; Subrahmanyam, K. S.; Ramakrishna Matte, H. S. S.; Govindaraj, A.

    Graphenes with varying number of layers can be synthesized by different strategies. Thus, single-layer graphene is obtained by the reduction of single layer graphene oxide, CVD and other methods besides micromechanical cleavage. Few-layer graphenes are prepared by the conversion of nanodiamond, arc-discharge of graphite and other means. We briefly present the various methods of synthesis and the nature of graphenes obtained. We then discuss the various properties of graphenes. The remarkable property of graphene of quenching fluorescence of aromatic molecules is shown to be associated with photo-induced electron transfer, on the basis of fluorescence decay and time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopic measurements. The interaction of electron donor and acceptor molecules with few-layer graphene samples has been discussed. Decoration of metal nano-particles on graphene sheets and the resulting changes in electronic structure are examined. Few-layer graphenes exhibit ferromagnetic features along with antiferromagnetic properties, independent of the method of preparation. Graphene-like MoS2 and WS2 have been prepared by chemical methods, and the materials are characterized by electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and other methods. Boron nitride analogues of graphene have been obtained by a simple chemical procedure starting with boric acid and urea and have been characterized by various techniques.

  1. Simulation of High Density Lipoprotein Behavior on a Few Layer Graphene Undergoing Non-Uniform Mechanical Load.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, Olga E; Prytkova, Tatiana R; Savostyanov, George V

    2016-04-21

    Effect of a nonuniform external mechanical load on high density lipoprotein (HDL) in aqueous medium was investigated using course-grained molecular dynamics simulations. The nonuniform load was achieved by a few layer graphene on one side and closed single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) (7, 7) on the opposite side of lipoprotein. The tube had a diameter of 1 nm and was oriented perpendicularly to the graphene. HDL was located between them. The tube was approaching to HDL on graphene deforming it. We considered two cases of the tube movement with velocities of 20 and 5 m/s. Coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics with application of the MARTINI force field for HDL and coarse-grained model with an all-atom (AA)/CG mapping ratio of 1.5 for carbon nanotube (CNT) (each CG bead was modeled by the 4-site CG benzene) were used. Coarse-grained model of HDL was received by method of self-assembly. HDL was static but not fixed that gave the possibility to compensate its external influence in some way. It was established that in water medium HDL interacted with graphene substrate. It was established that in water HDL interacts with graphene substrate, slightly flattening but retaining its shape of the whole. It was also observed that during the calculations HDL partially dodged nanotube. Lipoprotein belts unfolded on the graphene substrate in the way of the best compensation for the impact of nanotubes. Finally, we observed that the approaching tube has passed through the less dense medium of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and its pressure on the macromolecule decreased. Inhomogeneity of the external exposure deformed HDL at approximately 10-50%. The character of deformation demonstrated that lipoprotein has viscoelastic properties similar to a fluid. The discovered ability of lipoprotein may help to establish mechanism of interaction of lipoproteins with arterial walls and dynamic behavior of lipoproteins in arterial intima. PMID:27046673

  2. Atomic-scaled characterization of graphene PN junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Wang, Dennis; Dadgar, Ali; Agnihotri, Pratik; Lee, Ji Ung; Reuter, Mark C.; Ross, Frances M.; Pasupathy, Abhay N.

    Graphene p-n junctions are essential devices for studying relativistic Klein tunneling and the Veselago lensing effect in graphene. We have successfully fabricated graphene p-n junctions using both lithographically pre-patterned substrates and the stacking of vertical heterostructures. We then use our 4-probe STM system to characterize the junctions. The ability to carry out scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in our STM instrument is essential for us to locate and measure the junction interface. We obtain both the topography and dI/dV spectra at the junction area, from which we track the shift of the graphene chemical potential with position across the junction interface. This allows us to directly measure the spatial width and roughness of the junction and its potential barrier height. We will compare the junction properties of devices fabricated by the aforementioned two methods and discuss their effects on the performance as a Veselago lens.

  3. Energetics, diffusion, and magnetic properties of cobalt atom in a monolayer graphene: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Raji, Abdulrafiu T.; Lombardi, Enrico B.

    2015-09-21

    We use ab initio methods to study the binding, diffusion, and magnetic properties of cobalt atom embedded in graphene vacancies. We investigate the diffusion of Co-monovacancy (Co-MV) and Co-divacancy (Co-DV) defect complexes, and determine the minimum energy path (MEP), as well as the activation energy barrier of migration. We obtained similar activation energy barriers, of ∼5.8 eV, for Co-MV and Co-DV diffusion, respectively. Our calculations also suggest that, at electron–irradiation energy of 200 keV as used in a related experiment, the maximum energy transfer to the Co atom, of approximately 9.0 eV is sufficiently high to break metal-carbon bonding. The incident electron energy is also high enough to displace graphene's carbon atoms from their lattice positions. The breaking of metal-carbon bonding and the displacement of graphene atoms may act to facilitate the migration of Co. We conclude therefore that the detrapping and diffusion of cobalt as observed experimentally is likely to be radiation-induced, similar to what has been observed for Au and Fe in electron-irradiated graphene. Furthermore, we show that Co migration in graphene is such that its magnetic moment varies along the diffusion path. The magnetic moment of Co is consistently higher in Co-DV diffusion when compared to that of Co-MV diffusion.

  4. Incorporating isolated molybdenum (Mo) atoms into Bilayer Epitaxial Graphene on 4H-SiC(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Han; Wan, Wen; Li, Hui; Wong, Swee Liang; Lv, Lu; Gao, Yongli; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2014-03-01

    The atomic structures and electronic properties of isolated Mo atoms in bilayer epitaxial graphene (BLEG) on 4H-SiC(0001) are investigated by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM). LT-STM results reveal that isolated Mo dopants prefer to substitute C atoms at α-sites, and preferentially locate between the graphene bilayers. First-principles calculations confirm that the embedding of single Mo dopants within BLEG is energetically favorable as compared to monolayer graphene. The calculated bandstructures show that Mo-doped BLEG is n-doped, and each Mo atom introduces a local magnetic moment of 1.81 μB. Our findings demonstrate a simple and stable method to incorporate single transition metal dopants into the graphene lattice to tune its electronic and magnetic properties for possible use in graphene spin devices. NRF-CRP (Singapore) grants R-143-000-360-281and R-144-000-295-281. ``Shenghua Professorship'' startup funding from CSU and the support from the NSF of China (Grant No.11304398).

  5. A further comparison of graphene and thin metal layers for plasmonics.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyong; Gao, Pingqi; Shi, Wangzhou

    2016-05-21

    Which one is much more suitable for plasmonic materials, graphene or metal? To address this problem well, the plasmonic properties of thin metal sheets at different thicknesses have been investigated and compared with a graphene layer. As demonstration examples, the propagation properties of insulator-metal-insulator and metamaterials (MMs) structures are also shown. The results manifest that the plasmonic properties of the graphene layer are comparable to that of thin metal sheets with the thickness of tens of nanometers. For the graphene MMs structure, by using the periodic stack structure in the active region, the resonant transmission strength significantly improves. At the optimum period number, 3-5 periods of graphene/SiO2, the graphene MMs structure manifests good frequency and amplitude tunable properties simultaneously, and the resonant strength is also strong with large values of the Q-factor. Therefore, graphene is a good tunable plasmonic material. The results are very helpful to develop novel graphene plasmonic devices, such as modulators, antenna and filters. PMID:27138936

  6. Deformation sensor based on polymer-supported discontinuous graphene multi-layer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Carotenuto, G.; Schiavo, L.; Romeo, V.; Nicolais, L.

    2014-05-15

    Graphene can be conveniently used in the modification of polymer surfaces. Graphene macromolecules are perfectly transparent to the visible light and electrically conductive, consequently these two properties can be simultaneously provided to polymeric substrates by surface coating with thin graphene layers. In addition, such coating process provides the substrates of: water-repellence, higher surface hardness, low-friction, self-lubrication, gas-barrier properties, and many other functionalities. Polyolefins have a non-polar nature and therefore graphene strongly sticks on their surface. Nano-crystalline graphite can be used as graphene precursor in some chemical processes (e.g., graphite oxide synthesis by the Hummer method), in addition it can be directly applied to the surface of a polyolefin substrate (e.g., polyethylene) to cover it by a thin graphene multilayer. In particular, the nano-crystalline graphite perfectly exfoliate under the application of a combination of shear and friction forces and the produced graphene single-layers perfectly spread and adhere on the polyethylene substrate surface. Such polymeric materials can be used as ITO (indium-tin oxide) substitute and in the fabrication of different electronic devices. Here the fabrication of transparent resistive deformation sensors based on low-density polyethylene films coated by graphene multilayers is described. Such devices are very sensible and show a high reversible and reproducible behavior.

  7. High mobility Single Layer Epitaxial Graphene on 4H-SiC (000-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yike; Guo, Zelei; Ruan, Ming; Hankinson, John; Palmer, James; Zhang, Baiqian; Dong, Rui; Kunc, Jan; Berger, Claire; Deheer, Walt

    2012-02-01

    Multi-layer Epitaxial Graphene on 4H-SiC (000-1) has demonstrated very high mobility up to˜27,000 cm^2/Vs [1]. Recently single layer graphene grown by the Confinement Control Growth method [2] exhibits mobility up to ˜ 25,000cm^2/V.s at 4K and 13,000 cm^2/V.s at 300K with p=3 x 10^12 cm-2 The relation between Raman G peak features (FWHM and position) and carrier density of Epitaxial Graphene on carbon face is revealed. Quantum Hall Effect [3] is observed both for p and n type carriers on top gated sample. This indicates that top gated single layer graphene can be produced on the Carbon face with high quality and high carrier mobility. [4pt] [1] Science 312, 1191 (2006) [0pt] [2] PNAS 108 (41) 16900 (2011) [0pt] [3] APL 95, 223108 (2009)

  8. Graphene layer growth on silicon substrates with nickel film by pulse arc plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, K.; Banno, K.; Aryal, H. R.; Egawa, T.

    2012-10-15

    Carbon layer has been grown on a Ni/SiO{sub 2}/Si(111) substrate under high vacuum pressure by pulse arc plasma deposition. From the results of Raman spectroscopy for the sample, it is found that graphene was formed by ex-situ annealing of sample grown at room temperature. Furthermore, for the sample grown at high temperature, graphene formation was shown and optimum temperature was around 1000 Degree-Sign C. Transmission electron microscopy observation of the sample suggests that the graphene was grown from step site caused by grain of Ni film. The results show that the pulse arc plasma technique has the possibility for acquiring homogenous graphene layer with controlled layer thickness.

  9. Absorption of THz electromagnetic wave in two mono-layers of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Cole B.; Shoufie Ukhtary, M.; Saito, Riichiro

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 100% absorption of an electromagnetic (EM) wave in terahertz (THz) frequency is proposed for a system consisting of two mono-layers of graphene. Here, we demonstrate that the system can almost perfectly absorb an EM wave with frequency of 2 THz, even though we have a low electron mobility of roughly 1000 cm2  Vs‑1. The absorption probability is calculated by using the transfer matrix method. We show that the two mono-layers of the graphene system is needed to obtain nearly 100% absorption when the graphene has a relatively low Fermi energy. The absorption dependence on the distance between the graphene layers is also discussed.

  10. Temperature dependence of proximity-induced supercurrent in single and multi-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Akinobu; Goto, Hidenori; Tomori, Hikari; Tanaka, Sho; Ootuka, Youiti; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Hayashi, Masahiko; Yoshioka, Hideo

    2010-03-01

    Graphene is an attracting material for the superconducting proximity effect. In single layer graphene (SLG), the peculiar band structure leads to the relativistic Josephson effect, while in multilayer graphene (MLG), the layered structure with large modulation of carrier density from negative to positive values provides a novel situation of conventional proximity effect. Here we present experimental study on superconducting proximity effect in SLG and MLG. For SLG with junction length of 220 nm, we observed gate-voltage dependent critical supercurrent Ic, and its temperature dependences for all gate voltages were well explained by a conventional theory for short and dirty junctions (KO1 theory). On the other hand, in MLG junctions, Ic(T) (-(T/T0)^2), where T0 is a sample- and gate- dependent constant. This behavior can be explained by a successive transition model, in which a graphene layer with larger carrier density has a higher temperature for the onset of supercurrent.

  11. Mesoscale imperfections in MoS2 atomic layers grown by a vapor transport technique.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingnan; Ghosh, Rudresh; Wu, Di; Ismach, Ariel; Ruoff, Rodney; Lai, Keji

    2014-08-13

    The success of isolating small flakes of atomically thin layers through mechanical exfoliation has triggered enormous research interest in graphene and other two-dimensional materials. For device applications, however, controlled large-area synthesis of highly crystalline monolayers with a low density of electronically active defects is imperative. Here, we demonstrate the electrical imaging of dendritic ad-layers and grain boundaries in monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) grown by a vapor transport technique using microwave impedance microscopy. The micrometer-sized precipitates in our films, which appear as a second layer of MoS2 in conventional height and optical measurements, show ∼ 2 orders of magnitude higher conductivity than that of the single layer. The zigzag grain boundaries, on the other hand, are shown to be more resistive than the crystalline grains, consistent with previous studies. Our ability to map the local electrical properties in a rapid and nondestructive manner is highly desirable for optimizing the growth process of large-scale MoS2 atomic layers. PMID:25019334

  12. Three-dimensional spirals of atomic layered MoS2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liming; Liu, Kaihui; Wong, Andrew Barnabas; Kim, Jonghwan; Hong, Xiaoping; Liu, Chong; Cao, Ting; Louie, Steven G; Wang, Feng; Yang, Peidong

    2014-11-12

    Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, including graphene, boron nitride, and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), can exhibit novel phenomena distinct from their bulk counterparts and hold great promise for novel electronic and optoelectronic applications. Controlled growth of such 2D materials with different thickness, composition, and symmetry are of central importance to realize their potential. In particular, the ability to control the symmetry of TMD layers is highly desirable because breaking the inversion symmetry can lead to intriguing valley physics, nonlinear optical properties, and piezoelectric responses. Here we report the first chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of spirals of layered MoS2 with atomically thin helical periodicity, which exhibits a chiral structure and breaks the three-dimensional (3D) inversion symmetry explicitly. The spirals composed of tens of connected MoS2 layers with decreasing areas: each basal plane has a triangular shape and shrinks gradually to the summit when spiraling up. All the layers in the spiral assume an AA lattice stacking, which is in contrast to the centrosymmetric AB stacking in natural MoS2 crystals. We show that the noncentrosymmetric MoS2 spiral leads to a strong bulk second-order optical nonlinearity. In addition, we found that the growth of spirals involves a dislocation mechanism, which can be generally applicable to other 2D TMD materials. PMID:25343743

  13. Graphene oxide/metal nanocrystal multilaminates as the atomic limit for safe and selective hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Eun Seon; Ruminski, Anne M.; Aloni, Shaul; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Guo, Jinghua; Urban, Jeffrey J.

    2016-02-01

    Interest in hydrogen fuel is growing for automotive applications; however, safe, dense, solid-state hydrogen storage remains a formidable scientific challenge. Metal hydrides offer ample storage capacity and do not require cryogens or exceedingly high pressures for operation. However, hydrides have largely been abandoned because of oxidative instability and sluggish kinetics. We report a new, environmentally stable hydrogen storage material constructed of Mg nanocrystals encapsulated by atomically thin and gas-selective reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. This material, protected from oxygen and moisture by the rGO layers, exhibits exceptionally dense hydrogen storage (6.5 wt% and 0.105 kg H2 per litre in the total composite). As rGO is atomically thin, this approach minimizes inactive mass in the composite, while also providing a kinetic enhancement to hydrogen sorption performance. These multilaminates of rGO-Mg are able to deliver exceptionally dense hydrogen storage and provide a material platform for harnessing the attributes of sensitive nanomaterials in demanding environments.

  14. Graphene oxide/metal nanocrystal multilaminates as the atomic limit for safe and selective hydrogen storage

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cho, Eun Seon; Ruminski, Anne M.; Aloni, Shaul; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Guo, Jinghua; Urban, Jeffrey J.

    2016-02-23

    Interest in hydrogen fuel is growing for automotive applications; however, safe, dense, solid-state hydrogen storage remains a formidable scientific challenge. Metal hydrides offer ample storage capacity and do not require cryogens or exceedingly high pressures for operation. However, hydrides have largely been abandoned because of oxidative instability and sluggish kinetics. We report a new, environmentally stable hydrogen storage material constructed of Mg nanocrystals encapsulated by atomically thin and gas-selective reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. This material, protected from oxygen and moisture by the rGO layers, exhibits exceptionally dense hydrogen storage (6.5 wt% and 0.105 kg H2 per litre in themore » total composite). As rGO is atomically thin, this approach minimizes inactive mass in the composite, while also providing a kinetic enhancement to hydrogen sorption performance. In conclusion, these multilaminates of rGO-Mg are able to deliver exceptionally dense hydrogen storage and provide a material platform for harnessing the attributes of sensitive nanomaterials in demanding environments.« less

  15. Graphene oxide/metal nanocrystal multilaminates as the atomic limit for safe and selective hydrogen storage

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Seon; Ruminski, Anne M.; Aloni, Shaul; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Guo, Jinghua; Urban, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in hydrogen fuel is growing for automotive applications; however, safe, dense, solid-state hydrogen storage remains a formidable scientific challenge. Metal hydrides offer ample storage capacity and do not require cryogens or exceedingly high pressures for operation. However, hydrides have largely been abandoned because of oxidative instability and sluggish kinetics. We report a new, environmentally stable hydrogen storage material constructed of Mg nanocrystals encapsulated by atomically thin and gas-selective reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. This material, protected from oxygen and moisture by the rGO layers, exhibits exceptionally dense hydrogen storage (6.5 wt% and 0.105 kg H2 per litre in the total composite). As rGO is atomically thin, this approach minimizes inactive mass in the composite, while also providing a kinetic enhancement to hydrogen sorption performance. These multilaminates of rGO-Mg are able to deliver exceptionally dense hydrogen storage and provide a material platform for harnessing the attributes of sensitive nanomaterials in demanding environments. PMID:26902901

  16. Graphene oxide/metal nanocrystal multilaminates as the atomic limit for safe and selective hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Seon; Ruminski, Anne M; Aloni, Shaul; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Guo, Jinghua; Urban, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Interest in hydrogen fuel is growing for automotive applications; however, safe, dense, solid-state hydrogen storage remains a formidable scientific challenge. Metal hydrides offer ample storage capacity and do not require cryogens or exceedingly high pressures for operation. However, hydrides have largely been abandoned because of oxidative instability and sluggish kinetics. We report a new, environmentally stable hydrogen storage material constructed of Mg nanocrystals encapsulated by atomically thin and gas-selective reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. This material, protected from oxygen and moisture by the rGO layers, exhibits exceptionally dense hydrogen storage (6.5 wt% and 0.105 kg H2 per litre in the total composite). As rGO is atomically thin, this approach minimizes inactive mass in the composite, while also providing a kinetic enhancement to hydrogen sorption performance. These multilaminates of rGO-Mg are able to deliver exceptionally dense hydrogen storage and provide a material platform for harnessing the attributes of sensitive nanomaterials in demanding environments. PMID:26902901

  17. Hierarchical Layered WS2 /Graphene-Modified CdS Nanorods for Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Quanjun; Cheng, Feiyue; Lang, Di

    2016-05-10

    Graphene-based ternary composite photocatalysts with genuine heterostructure constituents have attracted extensive attention in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Here we report a new graphene-based ternary composite consisting of CdS nanorods grown on hierarchical layered WS2 /graphene hybrid (WG) as a high-performance photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution under visible light irradiation. The optimal content of layered WG as a co-catalyst in the ternary CdS/WS2 /graphene composites was found to be 4.2 wt %, giving a visible light photocatalytic H2 -production rate of 1842 μmol h(-1)  g(-1) with an apparent quantum efficiency of 21.2 % at 420 nm. This high photocatalytic H2 -production activity is due to the deposition of CdS nanorods on layered WS2 /graphene sheets, which can efficiently suppress charge recombination, improve interfacial charge transfer, and provide reduction active sites. The proposed mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of CdS nanorods modified with hierarchical layered WG was further confirmed by transient photocurrent response. This work shows that a noble-metal-free hierarchical layered WS2 /graphene nanosheets hybrid can be used as an effective co-catalyst for photocatalytic water splitting. PMID:27059296

  18. High-yield synthesis of few-layer graphene flakes through electrochemical expansion of graphite in propylene carbonate electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junzhong; Manga, Kiran Kumar; Bao, Qiaoliang; Loh, Kian Ping

    2011-06-15

    High-yield production of few-layer graphene flakes from graphite is important for the scalable synthesis and industrial application of graphene. However, high-yield exfoliation of graphite to form graphene sheets without using any oxidation process or super-strong acid is challenging. Here we demonstrate a solution route inspired by the lithium rechargeable battery for the high-yield (>70%) exfoliation of graphite into highly conductive few-layer graphene flakes (average thickness <5 layers). A negative graphite electrode can be electrochemically charged and expanded in an electrolyte of Li salts and organic solvents under high current density and exfoliated efficiently into few-layer graphene sheets with the aid of sonication. The dispersible graphene can be ink-brushed to form highly conformal coatings of conductive films (15 ohm/square at a graphene loading of <1 mg/cm(2)) on commercial paper. PMID:21557613

  19. Conducting atomic force microscopy of alkane layers on graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, D.L.; McEuen, P.L.

    1995-05-08

    We have used an atomic force microscope with a conducting tip to investigate the layering of hexadecane on graphite. Discrete jumps were observed in both the tip--sample conductance and separation as individual liquid layers are penetrated. These conductance measurements extend solvation studies to higher force scales than have been previously achieved, and can be used to determine when the tip makes contact with the substrate. The layering also enables the formation of stable tunneling junctions.

  20. Thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet with quantum effects

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lifeng Hu, Haiyan

    2014-06-21

    The thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet is investigated by using a rectangular nonlocal elastic plate model with quantum effects taken into account when the law of energy equipartition is unreliable. The relation between the temperature and the Root of Mean Squared (RMS) amplitude of vibration at any point of the rectangular single-layered graphene sheet in simply supported case is derived first from the rectangular nonlocal elastic plate model with the strain gradient of the second order taken into consideration so as to characterize the effect of microstructure of the graphene sheet. Then, the RMS amplitude of thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet simply supported on an elastic foundation is derived. The study shows that the RMS amplitude of the rectangular single-layered graphene sheet predicted from the quantum theory is lower than that predicted from the law of energy equipartition. The maximal relative difference of RMS amplitude of thermal vibration appears at the sheet corners. The microstructure of the graphene sheet has a little effect on the thermal vibrations of lower modes, but exhibits an obvious effect on the thermal vibrations of higher modes. The quantum effect is more important for the thermal vibration of higher modes in the case of smaller sides and lower temperature. The relative difference of maximal RMS amplitude of thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet decreases monotonically with an increase of temperature. The absolute difference of maximal RMS amplitude of thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet increases slowly with the rising of Winkler foundation modulus.

  1. Compositional characterization of atomic layer deposited alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Anu; Thomas, Subin; Kumar, K. Rajeev

    2014-01-28

    As the microelectronic industry demands feature size in the order of few and sub nanometer regime, the film composition and other film properties become critical issues and ALD has emerged as the choice of industry. Aluminum oxide is a material with wide applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices and protective and ion barrier layers. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is an excellent dielectric because of its large band gap (8.7eV), large band offsets with silicon. We have deposited thin layers of alumina on silicon wafer (p-type) for gate dielectric applications by ALD technique and compositional characterizations of the deposited thin films were done using EDS, XPS and FTIR spectra.

  2. Power Enhancement of Lithium-Ion Batteries by a Graphene Interfacial Layer.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Il; An, Ja Hwa; Kim, Tae Yoo; Lee, Jung Woo; Yoo, Young Zo; Suh, Su Jeong; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2015-11-01

    We achieved a method for power enhancement of heavy-duty lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) by synthesizing a graphene interfacial layer onto the anode copper current collector (ACCC). We tested fabricated coin cells, which used either 35-μm-thick rolled pristine copper foil or graphene synthesized onto the pristine copper foil for power output estimation of the LIBs. We observed the copper surface morphology with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Raman spectroscopy was used to measure the bonding characteristics and estimate the layers of graphene films. In addition, transmittance and electrical resistance were measured by ultra-violet visible near-infrared spectroscopy (UV-Vis IR) and 4 point probe surface resistance measurement. The graphene films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate obtained a transmittance of 97.5% and sheet resistance of 429 Ω/square. Power enhancement performances was evaluated using LIB coin cells. After 5C current discharge rate of -1.7 A/g reversible capacity of 293 mAh/g and 326 mAh/g were obtained for pristine and synthesized graphene anode current collectors, respectively. The graphene synthesized onto the ACCC showed superior power performance. The results presented herein demonstrate a power enhancement of LIBs by a decrease in electron flow resistivity between active materials and the ACCC and removal of the native oxide layer on the anode copper surface using high quality graphene synthesized onto the ACCC. PMID:26726638

  3. Atomic Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy of Defects in Hexagonal Boron Nitride and Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, Ashley; Alem, Nasim; Song, Chengyu; Ciston, Jim; Zettl, Alex

    2014-03-01

    Monolayer sheets of sp2-bonded materials such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) have been studied extensively due to their properties including high mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, stability, interesting electronic properties, and potential for integration into novel devices. Understanding the atomic scale structure of defects in these materials is important because defects can significantly affect the physical properties in these materials. In particular, understanding the dynamics of these defects explains much about the material's stability. We have synthesized h-BN and graphene using low pressure chemical vapor deposition and imaged defects using atomic resolution aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy.

  4. Morphology Control of Zinc Oxide Nanostructure on Single Layer Graphene.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seungbae; Vijayarangamuthu, K; Jeon, Ki-Jeon

    2016-05-01

    Various morphologies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on single layer graphene were synthesized by electrodeposition method. The current density was utilized to control the morphology of the ZnO. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to examine the surface morphology of the samples. SEM analysis shows morphology changes to nanorod, flower, and flakes with increase in the current density from 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mA/cm(-1) respectively. The XRD, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy were adopted to characterize the ZnO nanostructure and to understand the formation of various morphologies. The Raman result clearly shows extra modes due to for flakes structure caused by c-axis orientation along the substrate direction. Further, XPS data also supports formation of ZnO without any other intermediate compound such as Zn(OH)2. The formation of various morphologies was correlated to the formation different ratio of Zn2+ and OH- ions and the change in growth direction due to various current densities. PMID:27483766

  5. Internal transmission coefficient in charges carrier generation layer of graphene/Si based solar cell device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad; Winata, Toto

    2016-04-01

    Internal transmission profile in charges carrier generation layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been explored theoretically. Photovoltaic device was constructed from graphene/Si heterojunction forming a multilayer stuck with Si as generation layer. The graphene/Si sheet was layered on ITO/glass wafer then coated by Al forming Ohmic contact with Si. Photon incident propagate from glass substrate to metal electrode and assumed that there is no transmission in Al layer. The wavelength range spectra used in this calculation was 200 - 1000 nm. It found that transmission intensity in the generation layer show non-linear behavior and partitioned by few areas which related with excitation process. According to this information, it may to optimize the photons absorption to create more excitation process by inserting appropriate material to enhance optical properties in certain wavelength spectra because of the exciton generation is strongly influenced by photon absorption.

  6. Observation of Localized Vibrational Modes of Graphene Nanodomes by Inelastic Atom Scattering.

    PubMed

    Maccariello, D; Al Taleb, A; Calleja, F; Vázquez de Parga, A L; Perna, P; Camarero, J; Gnecco, E; Farías, D; Miranda, R

    2016-01-13

    Inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS) is suitable to determine low-energy (few meV) vibrations spatially localized on structures in the nanometer range. This is illustrated for the nanodomes that appear often on graphene (Gr) epitaxially grown on single crystal metal surfaces. The nature of the inelastic losses observed in Gr/Ru(0001) and Gr/Cu/Ru(0001) has been clarified by intercalation of Cu below the Gr monolayer, which decouples the Gr layer from the Ru substrate and changes substantially the out-of-plane, flexural phonon dispersion of epitaxial Gr, while maintaining the nanodomes and their localized vibrations. He diffraction proves that the Cu-intercalated Gr layer is well ordered structurally, while scanning tunneling microscopy reveals the persistence of the (slightly modified) periodic array of Gr nanodomes. A simple model explains the order of magnitude of the energy losses associated with the Gr nanodomes and their size dependence. The dispersionless, low-energy phonon branches may radically alter the transport of heat in intercalated Gr. PMID:26630565

  7. Atomic-Layer Engineering of Oxide Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Bozovic I.; Bollinger, A.T.; Eckstein, J.N.; Dubuis, G.; Pavuna, D.

    2012-03-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy technique has enabled synthesis of atomically smooth thin films, multilayers, and superlattices of cuprates and other complex oxides. Such heterostructures show high temperature superconductivity and enable novel experiments that probe the basic physics of this phenomenon. For example, it was established that high temperature superconductivity and anti-ferromagnetic phases separate on Angstrom scale, while the pseudo-gap state apparently mixes with high temperature superconductivity over an anomalously large length scale (the 'Giant Proximity Effect'). We review some recent experiments on such films and superlattices, including X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, angle-resolved time of flight ion scattering and recoil spectroscopy, transport measurements, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, resonant X-ray scattering, low-energy muon spin resonance, and ultrafast photo-induced reflection high energy electron diffraction. The results include an unambiguous demonstration of strong coupling of in-plane charge excitations to out-of-plane lattice vibrations, a discovery of interface high temperature superconductivity that occurs in a single CuO{sub 2} plane, evidence for local pairs, and establishing tight limits on the temperature range of superconducting fluctuations.

  8. Mesoporous Few-Layer Graphene Platform for Affinity Biosensing Application.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Azahar; Singh, Chandan; Mondal, Kunal; Srivastava, Saurabh; Sharma, Ashutosh; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2016-03-30

    A label-free, highly reproducible, sensitive, and selective biosensor is proposed using antiapolipoprotein B 100 (AAB) functionalized mesoporous few-layer reduced graphene oxide and nickel oxide (rGO-NiO) nanocomposite for detection of low density lipoprotein (LDL) molecules. The formation of mesoporous rGO-NiO composite on indium tin oxide conductive electrode has been accomplished via electrophoretic technique using colloidal suspension of rGO sheets and NiO nanoparticles. This biosensor shows good stability obtained by surface conjugation of antibody AAB molecules with rGO-NiO matrix by EDC-NHS coupling chemistry. The defect-less few layer rGO sheets, NiO nanoparticles (nNiO) and formation of nanocomposite has been confirmed by Raman mapping, electron microscopic studies, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical techniques. The synthesized rGO-NiO composite is mesoporous dominated with a small percentage of micro and macroporous structure as is evident by the results of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller experiment. Further, the bioconjugation of AAB with rGO-NiO has been investigated by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies. The kinetic studies for binding of antigen-antibody (LDL-AAB) and analytical performance of this biosensor have been evaluated by the impedance spectroscopic method. This biosensor exhibits an excellent sensitivity of 510 Ω (mg/dL)(-1) cm(-2) for detection of LDL molecules and is sensitive to 5 mg/dL concentration of LDL in a wide range of 0-130 mg/dL. Thus, this fabricated biosensor is an efficient and highly sensitive platform for the analysis of other antigen-antibody interactions and biomolecules detection. PMID:26950488

  9. Correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale crystallographic orientation of monolayer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Sik; Chang, Young Jun; Woo, Sungjong; Son, Young-Woo; Park, Yeonggu; Lee, Mi Jung; Byun, Ik-Su; Kim, Jin-Soo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Park, Bae Ho

    2014-01-01

    Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzag directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. The correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene. PMID:25434431

  10. Correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale crystallographic orientation of monolayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Sik; Chang, Young Jun; Woo, Sungjong; Son, Young-Woo; Park, Yeonggu; Lee, Mi Jung; Byun, Ik-Su; Kim, Jin-Soo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Park, Bae Ho

    2014-12-01

    Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzag directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. Lastly, the correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene.

  11. Correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale crystallographic orientation of monolayer graphene

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Choi, Jin Sik; Chang, Young Jun; Woo, Sungjong; Son, Young-Woo; Park, Yeonggu; Lee, Mi Jung; Byun, Ik-Su; Kim, Jin-Soo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Bostwick, Aaron; et al

    2014-12-01

    Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzagmore » directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. Lastly, the correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene.« less

  12. Highly atom-economic synthesis of graphene/Mn₃O₄ hybrid composites for electrochemical supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Jiangying, Qu; Feng, Gao; Quan, Zhou; Zhiyu, Wang; Han, Hu; Beibei, Li; Wubo, Wan; Xuzhen, Wang; Jieshan, Qiu

    2013-04-01

    A highly atom-economic procedure for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide/Mn3O4 (rGO/Mn3O4) composites is reported. Pristine graphene oxide/manganese sulfate (GO/MnSO4) suspension produced by modified Hummers method is utilized with high efficiency, which has been in situ converted into GO/Mn3O4 hybrid composite by air oxidation, then into rGO/Mn3O4 composite by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma-assisted deoxygenation. The Mn3O4 content of the rGO/Mn3O4 composites can be readily tailored. It is observed that Mn3O4 nanoparticles of 15-24 nm are well-dispersed on graphene sheets with Mn3O4 loading as high as 90%. The specific capacitance of the as-prepared rGO/Mn3O4 hybrids with 90% Mn3O4 reaches 193 F g(-1) when employed as the electrode material in neutral Na2SO4 electrolyte solutions (76 F g(-1) for pristine graphene and 95 F g(-1) for pure Mn3O4), which indicates the positive synergetic effects from both graphene and attached Mn3O4. The method developed in this study should offer a new technique for the large scale and highly atom-economic production of graphene/MnOx composites for many applications. PMID:23459860

  13. Realization of a tunable artificial atom at a supercritically charged vacancy in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jinhai; Jiang, Yuhang; Moldovan, Dean; Li, Guohong; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Masir, Massoud Ramezani; Peeters, Francois M.; Andrei, Eva Y.

    2016-06-01

    Graphene's remarkable electronic properties have fuelled the vision of a graphene-based platform for lighter, faster and smarter electronics and computing applications. One of the challenges is to devise ways to tailor graphene's electronic properties and to control its charge carriers. Here we show that a single-atom vacancy in graphene can stably host a local charge and that this charge can be gradually built up by applying voltage pulses with the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope. The response of the conduction electrons in graphene to the local charge is monitored with scanning tunnelling and Landau level spectroscopy, and compared to numerical simulations. As the charge is increased, its interaction with the conduction electrons undergoes a transition into a supercritical regime where itinerant electrons are trapped in a sequence of quasi-bound states which resemble an artificial atom. The quasi-bound electron states are detected by a strong enhancement of the density of states within a disc centred on the vacancy site which is surrounded by halo of hole states. We further show that the quasi-bound states at the vacancy site are gate tunable and that the trapping mechanism can be turned on and off, providing a mechanism to control and guide electrons in graphene.

  14. Epitaxial B-Graphene: Large-Scale Growth and Atomic Structure.

    PubMed

    Usachov, Dmitry Yu; Fedorov, Alexander V; Petukhov, Anatoly E; Vilkov, Oleg Yu; Rybkin, Artem G; Otrokov, Mikhail M; Arnau, Andrés; Chulkov, Evgueni V; Yashina, Lada V; Farjam, Mani; Adamchuk, Vera K; Senkovskiy, Boris V; Laubschat, Clemens; Vyalikh, Denis V

    2015-07-28

    Embedding foreign atoms or molecules in graphene has become the key approach in its functionalization and is intensively used for tuning its structural and electronic properties. Here, we present an efficient method based on chemical vapor deposition for large scale growth of boron-doped graphene (B-graphene) on Ni(111) and Co(0001) substrates using carborane molecules as the precursor. It is shown that up to 19 at. % of boron can be embedded in the graphene matrix and that a planar C-B sp(2) network is formed. It is resistant to air exposure and widely retains the electronic structure of graphene on metals. The large-scale and local structure of this material has been explored depending on boron content and substrate. By resolving individual impurities with scanning tunneling microscopy we have demonstrated the possibility for preferential substitution of carbon with boron in one of the graphene sublattices (unbalanced sublattice doping) at low doping level on the Ni(111) substrate. At high boron content the honeycomb lattice of B-graphene is strongly distorted, and therefore, it demonstrates no unballanced sublattice doping. PMID:26121999

  15. Vertically aligned GaAs nanowires on graphite and few-layer graphene: generic model and epitaxial growth.

    PubMed

    Munshi, A Mazid; Dheeraj, Dasa L; Fauske, Vidar T; Kim, Dong-Chul; van Helvoort, Antonius T J; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove; Weman, Helge

    2012-09-12

    By utilizing the reduced contact area of nanowires, we show that epitaxial growth of a broad range of semiconductors on graphene can in principle be achieved. A generic atomic model is presented which describes the epitaxial growth configurations applicable to all conventional semiconductor materials. The model is experimentally verified by demonstrating the growth of vertically aligned GaAs nanowires on graphite and few-layer graphene by the self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid technique using molecular beam epitaxy. A two-temperature growth strategy was used to increase the nanowire density. Due to the self-catalyzed growth technique used, the nanowires were found to have a regular hexagonal cross-sectional shape, and are uniform in length and diameter. Electron microscopy studies reveal an epitaxial relationship of the grown nanowires with the underlying graphitic substrates. Two relative orientations of the nanowire side-facets were observed, which is well explained by the proposed atomic model. A prototype of a single GaAs nanowire photodetector demonstrates a high-quality material. With GaAs being a model system, as well as a very useful material for various optoelectronic applications, we anticipate this particular GaAs nanowire/graphene hybrid to be promising for flexible and low-cost solar cells. PMID:22889019

  16. Facile oxygen intercalation between full layer graphene and Ru(0001) under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Aiyi; Fu, Qiang; Wei, Mingming; Liu, Yun; Ning, Yanxiao; Yang, Fan; Bluhm, Hendrik; Bao, Xinhe

    2015-04-01

    Graphene coatings have been widely considered as protection layers on metal surfaces to prevent surface oxidation and corrosion in gaseous atmospheres. Here, using in-situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy we demonstrate that oxygen intercalation readily occurs at full monolayer graphene/Ru(0001) interfaces in 0.5 Torr O2 around 150 °C, resulting in decoupling of the graphene overlayer from the Ru surface and oxidation of the metal surface. Moreover, oxygen intercalation has been observed even upon illumination of the graphene/Ru(0001) surface with an infrared lamp in air. These results indicate that the stability of graphene/metal interfaces under ambient conditions should be taken into consideration for future applications.

  17. 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer as the ultimate copper diffusion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba-Son; Lin, Jen-Fin

    2014-02-24

    We demonstrate the thinnest ever reported Cu diffusion barrier, a 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra show that the graphene is thermally stable at up to 750 °C against Cu diffusion. Transmission electron microscopy images show that there was no inter-diffusion in the Cu/graphene/Si structure. Raman analyses indicate that the graphene may have degraded into a nanocrystalline structure at 750 °C. At 800 °C, the perfect carbon structure was damaged, and thus the barrier failed. The results of this study suggest that graphene could be the ultimate Cu interconnect diffusion barrier.

  18. Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of vertical LED with patterned graphene as current spreading layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sumitra; Sai Nandini, Annam Deepthi; Pal, Suchandan; Dhanavantri, Chenna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report an optimised pattern of surface textured graphene current spreading layer (CSL) for the enhancement of light extraction efficiency (LEE) in InGaN/GaN vertical light emitting diodes (V-LEDs). It is found that by texturing graphene surface LEE improves drastically. This improvement is attributed to better current spreading of graphene and increased random and multiple scattering of light through textured surfaces. Simulation results illustrate that V-LEDs with surface textured (hexagonal pattern) ITO as CSL shows threefold improvement in light extraction efficiency compared to V-LEDs with no surface texturing on ITO CSL. Further, LEE of V-LEDs having patterned graphene CSL is compared with that for indium tin oxide (ITO) CSL. V-LEDs with optimised hexagonal patterning on graphene CSL shows 13.42% enhancement of LEE compared to that of LED with hexagonal patterning on ITO surface.

  19. Few layers isolated graphene domains grown on copper foils by microwave surface wave plasma CVD using camphor as a precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Aryal, Hare; Adhikari, Sudip; Uchida, Hideo; Wakita, Koichi; Umeno, Masayoshi

    2016-03-01

    Few layers isolated graphene domains were grown by microwave surface wave plasma CVD technique using camphor at low temperature. Graphene nucleation centers were suppressed on pre-annealed copper foils by supplying low dissociation energy. Scanning electron microscopy study of time dependent growth reveals that graphene nucleation centers were preciously suppressed, which indicates the possibility of controlled growth of large area single crystal graphene domains by plasma processing. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the graphene domains are few layered which consist of relatively low defects.

  20. Watering Graphene for Devices and Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wanlin; Yin, Jun; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Zhuhua

    2013-03-01

    Graphene bring us into a fantastic two-dimensional (2D) age of nanotechnology, which can be fabricated and applied at wafer scale, visible at single layer but showing exceptional properties distinguished from its bulk form graphite, linking the properties of atomic layers with the engineering scale of our mankind. We shown that flow-induced-voltage in graphene can be 20 folds higher than in graphite, not only due to the giant Seebeck coefficient of single layer graphene, but also the exceptional interlayer interaction in few layer graphene. Extremely excitingly, water flow over graphene can generate electricity through unexpected interaction of the ions in the water with the graphene. We also find extraordinary mechanical-electric-magnetic coupling effects in graphene and BN systems. Such extraordinary multifield coupling effects in graphene and functional nanosystems open up new vistas in nanotechnology for efficient energy conversion, self-powering flexible devices and novel functional systems.

  1. Large area graphene ion sensitive field effect transistors with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers for pH measurement at the Nernstian limit

    SciTech Connect

    Fakih, Ibrahim Sabri, Shadi; Szkopek, Thomas; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Nannini, Matthieu; Siaj, Mohamed

    2014-08-25

    We have fabricated and characterized large area graphene ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers and demonstrated pH sensitivities approaching the Nernstian limit. Low temperature atomic layer deposition was used to deposit tantalum pentoxide atop large area graphene ISFETs. The charge neutrality point of graphene, inferred from quantum capacitance or channel conductance, was used to monitor surface potential in the presence of an electrolyte with varying pH. Bare graphene ISFETs exhibit negligible response, while graphene ISFETs with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers show increased sensitivity reaching up to 55 mV/pH over pH 3 through pH 8. Applying the Bergveld model, which accounts for site binding and a Guoy-Chapman-Stern picture of the surface-electrolyte interface, the increased pH sensitivity can be attributed to an increased buffer capacity reaching up to 10{sup 14} sites/cm{sup 2}. ISFET response was found to be stable to better than 0.05 pH units over the course of two weeks.

  2. Atomically-Smooth MgO films grown on Epitaxial Graphene by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Sean; Sandin, Andreas; Rowe, Jack; Dougherty, Dan; Ulrich, Marc

    2013-03-01

    The growth of high quality insulating films on graphene is a crucial materials science task for graphene electronic and spintronic applications. It has been demonstrated that direct spin injection from a magnetic electrode to graphene is possible using MgO tunnel barriers of sufficient quality. We have used pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to grow thin magnesium oxide films directly on epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001). We observe very smooth film morphologies (typical rms roughness of ~ 0.4 nm) that are nearly independent of film thickness and conform to the substrate surface which had ~ 0.2 nm rms roughness. Surface roughness of 0.04 nm have been recorded for ~ 1nm films with no pinholes seen by AFM. XPS and XRD data show non crystalline, hydroxylated MgO films with uniform coverage. This work shows that PLD is a good technique to produce graphene-oxide interfaces without pre-deposition of an adhesion layer or graphene functionalization. The details and kinetics of the deposition process will be described with comparisons being made to other dielectric-on-graphene deposition approaches. Funded by ARO Staff Research Contract # W911NF.

  3. The effect of spin-orbit coupling in band structure of few-layer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Sahdan, Muhammad Fauzi Darma, Yudi

    2014-03-24

    Topological insulators are electronic materials that have a bulk band gap like an ordinary insulator but have protected conducting states on their edge or surface. This can be happened due to spin-orbit coupling and time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, the edge current flows through their edge or surface depends on its spin orientation and also it is robust against non-magnetic impurities. Therefore, topological insulators are predicted to be useful ranging from spintronics to quantum computation. Graphene was first predicted to be the precursor of topological insulator by Kane-Mele. They developed a Hamiltonian model to describe the gap opening in graphene. In this work, we investigate the band structure of few-layer graphene by using this model with analytical approach. The results of our calculations show that the gap opening occurs at K and K’ point, not only in single layer, but also in bilayer and trilayer graphene.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of porous, mixed phase, wrinkled, few layer graphene like nanocarbon from charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoj, B.

    2015-12-01

    A technique to synthesis wrinkled graphene like nano carbon (GNC) from charcoal is reported in the current study. The charcoal produced by thermal decomposition and is intercalated by Hummers method. It is separated by centrifugation and sonication to get few layer graphene sheets. The structural and chemical changes of the nanostructure is elucidated by Raman spectroscopy, TEM, SEM-EDS and XPS. Raman spectra revealed the existence of highly graphitized amorphous carbon, which is confirmed by the appearance of five peaks in the deconvoluted first order Raman spectra. The SEM analysis reveals the formation of large area graphene sheets with nano-porous structure in it. The TEM/SAED analysis exhibits the presence of short range few layer graphene.

  5. Large-area few-layered graphene film determination by multispectral imaging microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Huang, Shih-Wei; Yang, Jhe-Ming; Wu, Guan-Huang; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Feng, Shih-Wei; Lee, Min Kai; Kuo, Chie-Tong

    2015-05-21

    A multispectral imaging method for the rapid and accurate identification of few-layered graphene using optical images is proposed. Commonly rapid identification relies on optical interference effects which limits the choice of substrates and light sources. Our method is based on the comparison of spectral characteristics with principle components from a database which is populated by correlation of micro-Raman registration, spectral characteristics, and optical microscopy. Using this approach the thickness and extent of different graphene layers can be distinguished without the contribution of the optical interference effects and allows characterization of graphene on glass substrates. The high achievable resolution, easy implementation and large scale make this approach suitable for the in-line metrology of industrial graphene production. PMID:25921320

  6. A highly sensitive pressure sensor using a double-layered graphene structure for tactile sensing.

    PubMed

    Chun, Sungwoo; Kim, Youngjun; Oh, Hyeong-Sik; Bae, Giyeol; Park, Wanjun

    2015-07-21

    In this paper, we propose a graphene sensor using two separated single-layered graphenes on a flexible substrate for use as a pressure sensor, such as for soft electronics. The working pressure corresponds to the range in which human perception recognizes surface morphologies. A specific design of the sensor structure drives the piezoresistive character due to the contact resistance between two graphene layers and the electromechanical properties of graphene itself. Accordingly, sensitivity in resistance change is given by two modes for low pressure (-0.24 kPa(-1)) and high pressure (0.039 kPa(-1)) with a crossover pressure (700 Pa). This sensor can detect infinitesimal pressure as low as 0.3 Pa with uniformly applied vertical force. With the attachment of the artificial fingerprint structure (AFPS) on the sensor, the detection ability for both the locally generated shear force and actual human touch confirms recognition of the surface morphology constructed by periodic structures. PMID:26098064

  7. Large networks of vertical multi-layer graphenes with morphology-tunable magnetoresistance.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zengji; Levchenko, Igor; Kumar, Shailesh; Seo, Donghan; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shixue; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2013-10-01

    We report on the comparative study of magnetotransport properties of large-area vertical few-layer graphene networks with different morphologies, measured in a strong (up to 10 T) magnetic field over a wide temperature range. The petal-like and tree-like graphene networks grown by a plasma enhanced CVD process on a thin (500 nm) silicon oxide layer supported by a silicon wafer demonstrate a significant difference in the resistance-magnetic field dependencies at temperatures ranging from 2 to 200 K. This behaviour is explained in terms of the effect of electron scattering at ultra-long reactive edges and ultra-dense boundaries of the graphene nanowalls. Our results pave a way towards three-dimensional vertical graphene-based magnetoelectronic nanodevices with morphology-tuneable anisotropic magnetic properties. PMID:23603856

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly nitrogen-doped few-layer graphene via solid–gas reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Xianqing; Zhong, Jun; Shi, Yalin; Guo, Jin; Huang, Guolong; Hong, Caihao; Zhao, Yidong

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • A novel approach to synthesis of N-doped few-layer graphene has been developed. • The high doping levels of N in products are achieved. • XPS and XANES results reveal a thermal transformation of N bonding configurations. • The developed method is cost-effective and eco-friendly. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene sheets with high doping concentration were facilely synthesized through solid–gas reaction of graphene oxide (GO) with ammonia vapor in a self-designed hydrothermal system. The morphology, surface chemistry and electronic structure of N-doped graphene sheets were investigated by TEM, AFM, XRD, XPS, XANES and Raman characterizations. Upon hydrothermal treatment, up to 13.22 at% of nitrogen could be introduced into the crumpled few-layer graphene sheets. Both XPS and XANES analysis reveal that the reaction between oxygen functional groups in GO and ammonia vapor produces amide and amine species in hydrothermally treated GO (HTGO). Subsequent thermal annealing of the resultant HTGO introduces a gradual transformation of nitrogen bonding configurations in graphene sheets from amine N to pyridinic and graphitic N with the increase of annealing temperature. This study provides a simple but cost-effective and eco-friendly method to prepare N-doped graphene materials in large-scale for potential applications.

  9. Basics of quantum field theory of electromagnetic interaction processes in single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-09-01

    The content of this work is the study of electromagnetic interaction in single-layer graphene by means of the perturbation theory. The interaction of electromagnetic field with Dirac fermions in single-layer graphene has a peculiarity: Dirac fermions in graphene interact not only with the electromagnetic wave propagating within the graphene sheet, but also with electromagnetic field propagating from a location outside the graphene sheet and illuminating this sheet. The interaction Hamiltonian of the system comprising electromagnetic field and Dirac fermions fields contains the limits at graphene plane of electromagnetic field vector and scalar potentials which can be shortly called boundary electromagnetic field. The study of S-matrix requires knowing the limits at graphene plane of 2-point Green functions of electromagnetic field which also can be shortly called boundary 2-point Green functions of electromagnetic field. As the first example of the application of perturbation theory, the second order terms in the perturbative expansions of boundary 2-point Green functions of electromagnetic field as well as of 2-point Green functions of Dirac fermion fields are explicitly derived. Further extension of the application of perturbation theory is also discussed.

  10. In situ formation of graphene layers on graphite surfaces for efficient anodes of microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiahuan; Chen, Shanshan; Yuan, Yong; Cai, Xixi; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-09-15

    Graphene can be used to improve the performance of the anode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) due to its good biocompatibility, high electrical conductivity and large surface area. However, the chemical production and modification of the graphene on the anode are environmentally hazardous because of the use of various harmful chemicals. This study reports a novel method based on the electrochemical exfoliation of a graphite plate (GP) for the in situ formation of graphene layers on the surface of a graphite electrode. When the resultant graphene-layer-based graphite plate electrode (GL/GP) was used as an anode in an MFC, a maximum power density of 0.67 ± 0.034 W/m(2) was achieved. This value corresponds to 1.72-, 1.56- and 1.26-times the maximum power densities of the original GP, exfoliated-graphene-modified GP (EG/GP) and chemically-reduced-graphene-modified GP (rGO/GP) anodes, respectively. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the high performance of the GL/GP anode was attributable to its macroporous structure, improved electron transfer and high electrochemical capacitance. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis technique for the fabrication of high-performance graphene-based electrodes for use in microbial energy harvesting. PMID:25950933

  11. Regimes of gas transport through macroscopic areas of multi-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutilier, Michael; Karnik, Rohit; Sun, Chengzhen; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    Nanoporous graphene membranes have the potential to surpass the permeance and selectivity limits of current gas separation membranes. Recent experiments and simulations on individual graphene nanopores have demonstrated that molecule-size-selective nanopores can be created and used to separate components of a gas mixture. However, micrometer-scale tears and nanometer-scale intrinsic defects, inherently present in macroscopic areas of graphene, can severely limit the gas separation performance of graphene membranes of practical size. In this study, we measure the inherent permeance of macroscopic, multi-layer graphene membranes to various gases. A model for the transport of gases through these membranes is developed and shown to accurately explain the measured flow rates. The results quantify the separate contributions of tears and intrinsic defects to the inherent permeance of macroscopic areas of multi-layer graphene. The model is then extended to graphene membranes with engineered selective nanopores to optimize design parameters for defect-tolerant gas separation membranes. This work was supported in part by the MIT Energy Initiative and in part by a NSERC PGS-D3 Fellowship.

  12. Suppressing Manganese Dissolution from Lithium Manganese Oxide Spinel Cathodes with Single-Layer Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila; Puntambekar, Kanan P.; Kim, Soo; Aykol, Muratahan; Luo, Langli; Wu, Jinsong; Myers, Benjamin D.; Iddir, Hakim; Russell, John T.; Saldana, Spencer J.; Kumar, Rajan; Thackeray, Michael M.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Wolverton, Christopher M.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2015-06-24

    Spinel-structured LiMn 2 O 4 (LMO) is a desirable cathode material for Li-ion batteries due to its low cost, abundance, and high power capability. However, LMO suffers from limited cycle life that is triggered by manganese dissolution into the electrolyte during electrochemical cycling. Here, it is shown that single-layer graphene coatings suppress manganese dissolution, thus enhancing the performance and lifetime of LMO cathodes. Relative to lithium cells with uncoated LMO cathodes, cells with graphene-coated LMO cathodes provide improved capacity retention with enhanced cycling stability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that graphene coatings inhibit manganese depletion from the LMO surface. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that a stable solid electrolyte interphase is formed on graphene, which screens the LMO from direct contact with the electrolyte. Density functional theory calculations provide two mechanisms for the role of graphene in the suppression of manganese dissolution. First, common defects in single-layer graphene are found to allow the transport of lithium while concurrently acting as barriers for manganese diffusion. Second, graphene can chemically interact with Mn 3+ at the LMO electrode surface, promoting an oxidation state change to Mn 4+ , which suppresses dissolution.

  13. Raman enhancement effect on two-dimensional layered materials: graphene, h-BN and MoS2.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Fang, Wenjing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Araujo, Paulo T; Zhang, Xu; Rodriguez-Nieva, Joaquin F; Lin, Yuxuan; Zhang, Jin; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2014-06-11

    Realizing Raman enhancement on a flat surface has become increasingly attractive after the discovery of graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS). Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, exhibiting a flat surface without dangling bonds, were thought to be strong candidates for both fundamental studies of this Raman enhancement effect and its extension to meet practical applications requirements. Here, we study the Raman enhancement effect on graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), by using the copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecule as a probe. This molecule can sit on these layered materials in a face-on configuration. However, it is found that the Raman enhancement effect, which is observable on graphene, hBN, and MoS2, has different enhancement factors for the different vibrational modes of CuPc, depending strongly on the surfaces. Higher-frequency phonon modes of CuPc (such as those at 1342, 1452, 1531 cm(-1)) are enhanced more strongly on graphene than that on h-BN, while the lower frequency phonon modes of CuPc (such as those at 682, 749, 1142, 1185 cm(-1)) are enhanced more strongly on h-BN than that on graphene. MoS2 demonstrated the weakest Raman enhancement effect as a substrate among these three 2D materials. These differences are attributed to the different enhancement mechanisms related to the different electronic properties and chemical bonds exhibited by the three substrates: (1) graphene is zero-gap semiconductor and has a nonpolar C-C bond, which induces charge transfer (2) h-BN is insulating and has a strong B-N bond, while (3) MoS2 is semiconducting with the sulfur atoms on the surface and has a polar covalent bond (Mo-S) with the polarity in the vertical direction to the surface. Therefore, the different Raman enhancement mechanisms differ for each material: (1) charge transfer may occur for graphene; (2) strong dipole-dipole coupling may occur for h-BN, and (3) both charge transfer and dipole-dipole coupling may

  14. Evaporation of carbon atoms from the open surface of silicon carbide and through graphene cells: Semiempirical quantum-chemical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, N. I.; Luchinin, V. V.; Charykov, N. A.

    2013-11-01

    The evaporation of silicon atoms during the epitaxial growth of graphene on the singular carbon and silicon faces of silicon carbide SiC was modeled by the semiempirical AM1 and PM3 methods. The analysis was performed for evaporation of atoms both from the open surface of SiC and through the surface of the formed graphene monolayers. The total activation barrier of the evaporation of the silicon atoms, their passage from the graphene cell, and further evaporation from graphene was shown to be lower than the barrier to evaporation of the silicon atom on a free surface of SiC. Passage through graphene is thus not the limiting stage of the process, but contributes significantly to the effective evaporation time.

  15. Near-field microwave microscopy of high-κ oxides grown on graphene with an organic seeding layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselev, Alexander; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Jariwala, Deep; Marks, Tobin J.; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Hersam, Mark C.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2013-12-01

    Near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) is used for non-destructive nanoscale characterization of Al2O3 and HfO2 films grown on epitaxial graphene on SiC by atomic layer deposition using a self-assembled perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride seeding layer. SMM allows imaging of buried inhomogeneities in the dielectric layer with a spatial resolution close to 100 nm. The results indicate that, while topographic features on the substrate surface cannot be eliminated as possible sites of defect nucleation, the use of a vertically heterogeneous Al2O3/HfO2 stack suppresses formation of large outgrowth defects in the oxide film, ultimately improving lateral uniformity of the dielectric film.

  16. Near-field microwave microscopy of high-κ oxides grown on graphene with an organic seeding layer

    SciTech Connect

    Tselev, Alexander Kalinin, Sergei V.; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Jariwala, Deep; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2013-12-09

    Near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) is used for non-destructive nanoscale characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} films grown on epitaxial graphene on SiC by atomic layer deposition using a self-assembled perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride seeding layer. SMM allows imaging of buried inhomogeneities in the dielectric layer with a spatial resolution close to 100 nm. The results indicate that, while topographic features on the substrate surface cannot be eliminated as possible sites of defect nucleation, the use of a vertically heterogeneous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2} stack suppresses formation of large outgrowth defects in the oxide film, ultimately improving lateral uniformity of the dielectric film.

  17. A graphene meta-interface for enhancing the stretchability of brittle oxide layers.

    PubMed

    Won, Sejeong; Jang, Jae-Won; Choi, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Sang Bong; Hwangbo, Yun; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Yoon, Soon-Gil; Lee, Hak-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Soon-Bok

    2016-03-01

    Oxide materials have recently attracted much research attention for applications in flexible and stretchable electronics due to their excellent electrical properties and their compatibility with established silicon semiconductor processes. Their widespread uptake has been hindered, however, by the intrinsic brittleness and low stretchability. Here we investigate the use of a graphene meta-interface to enhance the electromechanical stretchability of fragile oxide layers. Electromechanical tensile tests of indium tin oxide (ITO) layers on polymer substrates were carried out with in situ observations using an optical microscope. It was found that the graphene meta-interface reduced the strain transfer between the ITO layer and the substrate, and this behavior was well described using a shear lag model. The graphene meta-interface provides a novel pathway for realizing flexible and stretchable electronic applications based on oxide layers. PMID:26540317

  18. Tunable and Sizable Band Gap of Single Layer Graphene Sandwiched between Hexagonal Boron Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Qu, Heruge; Liu, Qihang; Qin, Rui; Zhou, Jing; Yu, Dapeng; Gao, Zhengxiang; Lu, Jing; Luo, Guangfu; Nagase, Shigeru; Mei, Wai-Ning

    2012-02-01

    It is a big challenge to open a tunable and sizable band gap of single layer graphene without big loss in structural integrity and carrier mobility. By using density functional theory calculations, we show that the band gap of single layer graphene can be opened to 0.16 (without electrical field) and 0.34 eV (with a strong electrical field) when sandwiched between two hexagonal boron nitride single layers in a proper way. The zero-field band gaps are increased by about 50% when many-body effects are included. Ab initio quantum transport simulation of a dual-gated FET out of such a sandwich structure further confirms an electrical field-enhanced transport gap. The tunable and sizeable band gap and structural integrity render this sandwich structure a promising candidate for high-performance single layer graphene field effect transistors.

  19. Electronic structures of single- and multi-layer epitaxial graphene on SiC (0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seungchul; Ihm, Jisoon; Son, Young-Woo

    2009-03-01

    The electronic structures of single- and multi-layered epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (0001) surface are studied theoretically. To calculate energy bands of the systems, we construct the simple Hamiltonian with tight-binding approximations. We confirm that the present simple model do give identical electronic structure to the previous ab-initio study on the single layer case [1]. We extend the model up to four epitaxial graphene layers to explain various interesting experimental findings. The roles of the coupling between graphenes and the buffer layer, and their large scale reconstructions to the electronic structures are also investigated. [1] S. Kim, J. Ihm, H. J. Choi, Y.-W. Son, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 176802 (2008).

  20. Large networks of vertical multi-layer graphenes with morphology-tunable magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Zengji; Levchenko, Igor; Kumar, Shailesh; Seo, Donghan; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shixue; Ostrikov, Kostya (Ken)

    2013-09-01

    We report on the comparative study of magnetotransport properties of large-area vertical few-layer graphene networks with different morphologies, measured in a strong (up to 10 T) magnetic field over a wide temperature range. The petal-like and tree-like graphene networks grown by a plasma enhanced CVD process on a thin (500 nm) silicon oxide layer supported by a silicon wafer demonstrate a significant difference in the resistance-magnetic field dependencies at temperatures ranging from 2 to 200 K. This behaviour is explained in terms of the effect of electron scattering at ultra-long reactive edges and ultra-dense boundaries of the graphene nanowalls. Our results pave a way towards three-dimensional vertical graphene-based magnetoelectronic nanodevices with morphology-tuneable anisotropic magnetic properties.We report on the comparative study of magnetotransport properties of large-area vertical few-layer graphene networks with different morphologies, measured in a strong (up to 10 T) magnetic field over a wide temperature range. The petal-like and tree-like graphene networks grown by a plasma enhanced CVD process on a thin (500 nm) silicon oxide layer supported by a silicon wafer demonstrate a significant difference in the resistance-magnetic field dependencies at temperatures ranging from 2 to 200 K. This behaviour is explained in terms of the effect of electron scattering at ultra-long reactive edges and ultra-dense boundaries of the graphene nanowalls. Our results pave a way towards three-dimensional vertical graphene-based magnetoelectronic nanodevices with morphology-tuneable anisotropic magnetic properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S6, a schematic of the experimental setup, SEM and TEM characterizations, and details of electrical measurements. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00550j