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Sample records for atomic oxygen durability

  1. Atomic-Oxygen-Durable Microsheet Glass Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Advanced solar dynamic concentrator concepts being considered by the NASA Lewis Research Center for space power systems include one utilizing microsheet glass coated with silver. For this material, a 5000-angstrom layer of silver is deposited on the back side of a contoured piece of microsheet glass, 0.2-mm thick. The silvered side is then bonded to a contoured aluminum, magnesium, or graphite epoxy face sheet with a space-qualified, pressure-sensitive thin-film adhesive. Experience gained from the development of this technology suggests that this material may reduce the cost and improve the performance of solar dynamic concentrators. This microsheet glass technology provides an effective barrier to atomic oxygen attack and provides the opportunity to utilize silver-reflective coatings in low-Earth-orbit solar dynamic applications.

  2. Atomic Oxygen Durability of Second Surface Silver Microsheet Glass Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Smith, Daniela C.; Mroz, Thaddeus S.

    1996-01-01

    Second surface silver microsheet glass concentrators are being developed for potential use in future solar dynamic space power systems. Traditional concentrators are aluminum honeycomb sandwich composites with either aluminum or graphite epoxy face sheets, where a reflective aluminum layer is deposited onto an organic leveling layer on the face sheet. To protect the underlying layers, a SiO2 layer is applied on top of the aluminum reflective layer. These concentrators may be vulnerable to atomic oxygen degradation due to possible atomic oxygen attack of the organic layers at defect sites in the protective and reflective coatings. A second surface microsheet glass concentrator would be inherently more atomic oxygen durable than these first surface concentrators. In addition, a second surface microsheet glass concentrator design provides a smooth optical surface and allows for silver to be used as a reflective layer, which would improve the reflectivity of the concentrator and the performance of the system. A potential threat to the performance of second surface microsheet glass concentrators is atomic oxygen attack of the underlying silver at seams and edges or at micrometeoroid and debris (MMD) impacts sites. Second surface silver microsheet glass concentrator samples were fabricated and tested for atomic oxygen durability. The samples were iteratively exposed to an atomic oxygen environment in a plasma asher. Samples were evaluated for potential degradation at fabrication seams, simulated MMD impact sites, and edges. Optical microscopy was used to evaluate atomic oxygen degradation. Reflectance was obtained for an impacted sample prior to and after atomic oxygen exposure. After an initial atomic oxygen exposure to an effective fluence of approx. 1 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(exp 2), oxidation of the silver at defect sites and edges was observed. Exposure to an additional approx. 1 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(exp 2) caused no observed increase in oxidation. Oxidation at an

  3. Low earth orbital atomic oxygen simulation for materials durability evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1989-01-01

    The erosion yields of numerous materials have been evaluated in low earth orbital space tests. There appears to be three classes of materials: materials of high erosion yield which include most of the hydrocarbon organic materials; materials which either do not react with atomic oxygen or form self-protecting oxides which allow the underlying material to appear durable to atomic oxygen, and materials with low but nonnegligeable erosion yields, such as fluoropolymers. A NASA atomic oxygen effects test program has been established to utilize collective data from a multitude of simulation facilities to promote an understanding of mechanism and erosion yield dependencies. Atomic oxygen protective coatings for Kapton polymide solar array blankets, fiberglass-epoxy composite mast structures, and solar dynamic power system concentrator surfaces have been identified and evaluated under atomic oxygen exposure in RF plasma asher laboratory tests. The control of defect density in protective coatings appears to be the key to the assurance of long-term protection of oxidizable materials in low earth orbit.

  4. Low Earth orbit atomic oxygen simulation for durability evaluation of solar reflector surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the performance and durability of solar reflector surfaces in the atomic oxygen environment typical of low Earth orbit (LEO), one must expose the reflector surface either directly to LEO or to ground-laboratory atomic oxygen environments. Although actual LEO exposures are most desired, such opportunities are typically scarce, expensive, and of limited duration. As a result, ground-laboratory exposures must be relied upon as the most practical long-term durability evaluation technique. Plasma ashers are widely used as LEO simulation facilities by producing atomic oxygen environments for durability evaluation of potential spacecraft materials. Atomic oxygen arrival differs between ground and space exposure in that plasma asher exposure produces isotropic arrival and space solar tracking produces sweeping arrival. Differences in initial impact reaction probability occur, dependent upon the energy and species existing in these environments. Due to the variations in ground-laboratory and space atomic oxygen, quantification of in-space performance based on plasma asher testing is not straightforward. The various atomic oxygen interactions that can occur with reflector surfaces, such as undercutting in organic substrates at protective coating defect sites, ground-laboratory techniques recommended for evaluating the atomic oxygen durability of reflectors based on asher exposures, and computational techniques which make use of ground-laboratory atomic oxygen exposure to predict in-space LEO durability are addressed.

  5. Atomic Oxygen Durability Evaluation of Protected Polymers Using Thermal Energy Plasma Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Degroh, Kim K.; Stidham, Curtis R.; Gebauer, Linda; Lamoreaux, Cynthia M.

    1995-01-01

    The durability evaluation of protected polymers intended for use in low Earth orbit (LEO) has necessitated the use of large-area, high-fluence, atomic oxygen exposure systems. Two thermal energy atomic oxygen exposure systems which are frequently used for such evaluations are radio frequency (RF) plasma ashers and electron cyclotron resonance plasma sources. Plasma source testing practices such as ample preparation, effective fluence prediction, atomic oxygen flux determination, erosion measurement, operational considerations, and erosion yield measurements are presented. Issues which influence the prediction of in-space durability based on ground laboratory thermal energy plasma system testing are also addressed.

  6. Durability Issues for the Protection of Materials from Atomic Oxygen Attack in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce; Lenczewski, Mary; Demko, Rikako

    2002-01-01

    Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen is capable of eroding most polymeric materials typically used on spacecraft. Solar array blankets, thermal control polymers, and carbon fiber matrix composites are readily oxidized to become thinner and less capable of supporting the loads imposed upon them. Protective coatings have been developed that are durable to atomic oxygen to prevent oxidative erosion of the underlying polymers. However, the details of the surface roughness, coating defect density, and coating configuration can play a significant role as to whether or not the coating provides long duration atomic oxygen protection. Identical coatings on different surface roughness surfaces can have drastically different durability results. Examples and analysis of the causes of resultant differences in atomic oxygen protection are presented. Implications based on in-space experiences, ground laboratory testing, and computational modeling indicate that thin film vacuum-deposited aluminum protective coatings offer much less atomic oxygen protection than sputter-deposited silicon dioxide coatings.

  7. Atomic Oxygen Durability Testing of an International Space Station Solar Array Validation Coupon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forkapa, Mark J.; Stidham, Curtis; Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Ma, David H.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    1996-01-01

    An International Space Station solar array validation coupon was exposed in a directed atomic oxygen beam for space environment durability testing at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Exposure to atomic oxygen and intermittent tensioning of the solar array were conducted to verify the solar array#s durability to low Earth orbital atomic oxygen and to the docking threat of plume loading both of which are anticipated over its expected mission life of fifteen years. The validation coupon was mounted on a specially designed rotisserie. The rotisserie mounting enabled the solar and anti-solar facing side of the array to be exposed to directed atomic oxygen in a sweeping arrival process replicating space exposure. The rotisserie mounting also enabled tensioning, in order to examine the durability of the array and its hinge to simulated plume loads. Flash testing to verify electrical performance of the solar array was performed with a solar simulator before and after the exposure to atomic oxygen and tensile loading. Results of the flash testing indicated little or no degradation in the solar array#s performance. Photographs were also taken of the array before and after the durability testing and are included along with comparisons and discussions in this report. The amount of atomic oxygen damage appeared minor with the exception of a very few isolated defects. There were also no indications that the simulated plume loadings had weakened or damaged the array, even though there was some erosion of Kapton due to atomic oxygen attack. Based on the results of this testing, it is apparent that the International Space Station#s solar arrays should survive the low Earth orbital atomic oxygen environment and docking threats which are anticipated over its expected mission life.

  8. The effect of leveling coatings on the atomic oxygen durability of solar concentrator surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Dever, Therese M.; Quinn, William F.

    1990-01-01

    Space power systems for Space Station Freedom will be exposed to the harsh environment of low earth orbit (LEO). Neutral atomic oxygen is the major constituent in LEO and has the potential of severely reducing the efficiency of solar dynamic power systems through degradation of the concentrator surfaces. Several transparent dielectric thin films have been found to provide atomic oxygen protection, but atomic oxygen undercutting at inherent defect sites is still a threat to solar dynamic power system survivability. Leveling coatings smooth microscopically rough surfaces, thus eliminating potential defect sites prone to oxidation attack on concentrator surfaces. The ability of leveling coatings to improve the atomic oxygen durability of concentrator surfaces was investigated. The application of a EPO-TEK 377 epoxy leveling coating on a graphite epoxy substrate resulted in an increase in solar specular reflectance, a decrease in the atomic oxygen defect density by an order of magnitude and a corresponding order of magnitude decrease in the percent loss of specular reflectance during atomic oxygen plasma ashing.

  9. Atomic Oxygen Durability Evaluation of a UV Curable Ceramer Protective Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Karniotis, Christina A.; Dworak, David; Soucek, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The exposure of most silicones to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO) results in the oxidative loss of methyl groups with a gradual conversion to oxides of silicon. Typically there is surface shrinkage of oxidized silicone protective coatings which leads to cracking of the partially oxidized brittle surface. Such cracks widen and branch crack with continued atomic oxygen exposure ultimately allowing atomic oxygen to reach any hydrocarbon polymers under the silicone coating. A need exists for a paintable silicone coating that is free from such surface cracking and can be effectively used for protection of polymers and composites in LEO. A new type of silicone based protective coating holding such potential was evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in an RF atomic oxygen plasma exposure facility. The coating consisted of a UV curable inorganic/organic hybrid coating, known as a ceramer, which was fabricated using a methyl substituted polysiloxane binder and nanophase silicon-oxo-clusters derived from sol-gel precursors. The polysiloxane was functionalized with a cycloaliphatic epoxide in order to be cured at ambient temperature via a cationic UV induced curing mechanism. Alkoxy silane groups were also grafted onto the polysiloxane chain, through hydrosilation, in order to form a network with the incorporated silicon-oxo-clusters. The prepared polymer was characterized by H-1 and Si-29 NMR, FT-IR, and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. The paper will present the results of atomic oxygen protection ability of thin ceramer coatings on Kapton H as evaluated over a range of atomic oxygen fluence levels.

  10. Modified polymeric materials for durability in the atomic oxygen space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, R. L.; Anderson, R. A.; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Thibeault, S. A.

    2003-08-01

    Organometallic compounds have been incorporated into organic polymers to improve their durability to the environment of the low earth orbit (LEO), particularly their resistance to erosion by atomic oxygen (AO). Bis(triphenyltin) oxide (BTO) was added to a thermoplastic polyetherimide, Ultem, and exposed on the Mir space station. The addition of the BTO to Ultem significantly reduced the mass loss in LEO. Aluminum acetylacetonate was added to a thermoset, PMDA-ODA polyimide. that is currently deployed on the International Space Station. Two films are placed in the ram direction exposed to AO and space radiation. Three films are placed in the wake direction and are exposed to space radiation but not AO. The doped films show superior resistance to AO.

  11. Atomic oxygen durability evaluation of the flexible batten for the photovoltaic array mast on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stidham, Curtis R.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Flaherty, David S.; Roig, David M.; Edwards, Jonathan L.

    1994-01-01

    A test program was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lewis Research Center (LeRC) to evaluate the long term low Earth orbital (LEO) atomic oxygen (AO) durability of a flexible (fiberglass-epoxy composite) batten. The flexible batten is a component used to provide structural rigidity in the photovoltaic array mast on Space Station. The mast is used to support and articulate the photovoltaic array, therefore, the flexible batten must be preloaded for the 15 year lifetime of an array blanket. Development hardware and composite materials were evaluated in ground testing facilities for AO durability and dynamic retraction-deployment cyclic loading representative of expected full life in-space application. The CV1144 silicone (AO protective) coating was determined to provide adequate protection against AO degradation of the composite material and provided fiber containment, thus the structural integrity of the flexible batten was maintained. Both silicone coated and uncoated flexible battens maintained load carrying capabilities. Results of the testing did indicate that the CV1144 silicone protective coating was oxidized by AO reactions to form a brittle glassy (SiO2) skin that formed cracking patterns on all sides of the coated samples. The cracking was observed in samples that were mechanically stressed as well as samples in non-stressed conditions. The oxidized silicon was observed to randomly spall in small localized areas, on the flexible battens that underwent retraction-deployment cycling. Some darkening of the silicon, attributed to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, was observed.

  12. Atomic oxygen durability evaluation of the flexible batten for the photovoltaic array mast on Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Stidham, C.R.; Rutledge, S.K.; Sechkar, E.A.; Flaherty, D.S.; Roig, D.M.; Edwards, J.L.

    1994-12-01

    A test program was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lewis Research Center (LeRC) to evaluate the long term low Earth orbital (LEO) atomic oxygen (AO) durability of a flexible (fiberglass-epoxy composite) batten. The flexible batten is a component used to provide structural rigidity in the photovoltaic array mast on Space Station. The mast is used to support and articulate the photovoltaic array, therefore, the flexible batten must be preloaded for the 15 year lifetime of an array blanket. Development hardware and composite materials were evaluated in ground testing facilities for AO durability and dynamic retraction-deployment cyclic loading representative of expected full life in-space application. The CV1144 silicone (AO protective) coating was determined to provide adequate protection against AO degradation of the composite material and provided fiber containment, thus the structural integrity of the flexible batten was maintained. Both silicone coated and uncoated flexible battens maintained load carrying capabilities. Results of the testing did indicate that the CV1144 silicone protective coating was oxidized by AO reactions to form a brittle glassy (SiO2) skin that formed cracking patterns on all sides of the coated samples. The cracking was observed in samples that were mechanically stressed as well as samples in non-stressed conditions. The oxidized silicon was observed to randomly spall in small localized areas, on the flexible battens that underwent retraction-deployment cycling. Some darkening of the silicon, attributed to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, was observed.

  13. Atomic oxygen durability evaluation of the flexible batten for the photovoltaic array mast on Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Stidham, C.R.; Rutledge, S.K.; Sechkar, E.A.; Flaherty, D.S.; Roig, D.M.; Edwards, J.L.

    1995-10-01

    A test program was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s Lewis Research Center (LeRC) to evaluate the long term low Earth orbital (LEO) atomic oxygen (AO) durability of a flexible (fiberglass-epoxy composite) batten. The flexible batten is a component used to provide structural rigidity in the photovoltaic array mast on Space Station. The mast is used to support and articulate the photovoltaic array, therefore, the flexible batten must provide a preload for the 15 year lifetime of an array blanket. Development hardware and composite materials were evaluated in ground testing facilities for AO durability and dynamic retraction-deployment cyclic loading representative of expected full life in-space application. The CV1144 silicone (AO protective) coating was determined to provide adequate protection against AO degradation of the composite material and provided fiber containment, thus the structural integrity of the flexible batten was maintained. Both silicone coated and uncoated flexible battens maintained load carrying capabilities. Results of the testing did indicate that the CV1144 silicone protective coating was oxidized by AO reactions to form a brittle glassy (SiO{sub 2}) skin that formed cracking patterns on all sides of the coated samples. The cracking was observed in samples that were mechanically stressed as well as samples in non-stressed conditions. The oxidized silicone was observed to randomly spall in small localized areas, on the flexible battens that underwent retraction-deployment cycling. Some darkening of the silicone, attributed to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, was observed.

  14. Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation and Atomic Oxygen Durability Evaluation of HST Bi-Stem Thermal Shield Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce; deGroh, Kim K.

    2002-01-01

    Bellows-type thermal shields were used on the bi-stems of replacement solar arrays installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the first HST servicing mission (SMI) in December 1993. These thermal shields helped reduce the problem of thermal gradient- induced jitter observed with the original HST solar arrays during orbital thermal cycling and have been in use on HST for eight years. This paper describes ground testing of the candidate solar array bi-stem thermal shield materials including backside aluminized Teflon(R)FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) with and without atomic oxygen (AO) and ultraviolet radiation protective surface coatings for durability to AO and combined AO and vacuum ultraviolet (VOV) radiation. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) conducted VUV and AO exposures of samples of candidate thermal shield materials at HST operational temperatures and pre- and post-exposure analyses as part of an overall program coordinated by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to determine the on-orbit durability of these materials. Coating adhesion problems were observed for samples having the AO- and combined AO/UV-protective coatings. Coating lamination occurred with rapid thermal cycling testing which simulated orbital thermal cycling. This lack of adhesion caused production of coating flakes from the material that would have posed a serious risk to HST optics if the coated materials were used for the bi-stem thermal shields. No serious degradation was observed for the uncoated aluminized Teflon(R) as evaluated by optical microscopy, although atomic force microscopy (AFM) microhardness testing revealed that an embrittled surface layer formed on the uncoated Teflon(R) surface due to vacuum ultraviolet radiation exposure. This embrittled layer was not completely removed by AO erosion, No cracks or particle flakes were produced for the embrittled uncoated material upon exposure to VUV and AO at operational temperatures to an equivalent exposure of

  15. Atomic oxygen durability of solar concentrator materials for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Terlep, Judith A.; Dever, Therese M.

    1990-01-01

    The findings are reviewed of atomic oxygen exposure testing of candidate solar concentrator materials containing SiO2 and Al2O3 protective coatings for use on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power modules. Both continuous and iterative atomic oxygen exposure tests were conducted. Iterative air plasma ashing resulted in larger specular reflectance decreases and solar absorptance increases than continuous ashing to the same fluence, and appears to provide a more severe environment than the continuous atomic oxygen exposure that would occur in the low Earth orbit environment. First generation concentrator fabrication techniques produced surface defects including scratches, macroscopic bumps, dendritic regions, porosity, haziness, and pin hole defects. Several of these defects appear to be preferential sites for atomic oxygen attack leading to erosive undercutting. Extensive undercutting and flaking of reflective and protective coatings were found to be promoted through an undercutting tearing propagation process. Atomic oxygen erosion processes and effects on optical performance is presented.

  16. Atomic-Oxygen-Durable and Electrically-Conductive CNT-POSS-Polyimide Flexible Films for Space Applications.

    PubMed

    Atar, Nurit; Grossman, Eitan; Gouzman, Irina; Bolker, Asaf; Murray, Vanessa J; Marshall, Brooks C; Qian, Min; Minton, Timothy K; Hanein, Yael

    2015-06-10

    In low Earth orbit (LEO), hazards such as atomic oxygen (AO) or electrostatic discharge (ESD) degrade polymeric materials, specifically, the extensively used polyimide (PI) Kapton. We prepared PI-based nanocomposite films that show both AO durability and ESD protection by incorporating polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and carbon nanotube (CNT) additives. The unique methods that are reported prevent CNT agglomeration and degradation of the CNT properties that are common in dispersion-based processes. The influence of the POSS content on the electrical, mechanical, and thermo-optical properties of the CNT-POSS-PI films was investigated and compared to those of control PI and CNT-PI films. CNT-POSS-PI films with 5 and 15 wt % POSS content exhibited sheet resistivities as low as 200 Ω/□, and these resistivities remained essentially unchanged after exposure to AO with a fluence of ∼2.3 × 10(20) O atoms cm(-2). CNT-POSS-PI films with 15 wt % POSS content exhibited an erosion yield of 4.8 × 10(-25) cm(3) O atom(-1) under 2.3 × 10(20) O atoms cm(-2) AO fluence, roughly one order of magnitude lower than that of pure PI films. The durability of the conductivity of the composite films was demonstrated by rolling film samples with a tight radius up to 300 times. The stability of the films to thermal cycling and ionizing radiation was also demonstrated. These properties make the prepared CNT-POSS-PI films with 15 wt % POSS content excellent candidates for applications where AO durability and electrical conductivity are required for flexible and thermally stable materials. Hence, they are suggested here for LEO applications such as the outer layers of spacecraft thermal blankets. PMID:25945409

  17. Prediction of In-Space Durability of Protected Polymers Based on Ground Laboratory Thermal Energy Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Rutledge, Sharon; DiFilippo, Frank J.

    1996-01-01

    The probability of atomic oxygen reacting with polymeric materials is orders of magnitude lower at thermal energies (greater than O.1 eV) than at orbital impact energies (4.5 eV). As a result, absolute atomic oxygen fluxes at thermal energies must be orders of magnitude higher than orbital energy fluxes, to produce the same effective fluxes (or same oxidation rates) for polymers. These differences can cause highly pessimistic durability predictions for protected polymers and polymers which develop protective metal oxide surfaces as a result of oxidation if one does not make suitable calibrations. A comparison was conducted of undercut cavities below defect sites in protected polyimide Kapton samples flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) with similar samples exposed in thermal energy oxygen plasma. The results of this comparison were used to quantify predicted material loss in space based on material loss in ground laboratory thermal energy plasma testing. A microindent hardness comparison of surface oxidation of a silicone flown on the Environmental Oxygen Interaction with Materials-III (EOIM-III) experiment with samples exposed in thermal energy plasmas was similarly used to calibrate the rate of oxidation of silicone in space relative to samples in thermal energy plasmas exposed to polyimide Kapton effective fluences.

  18. Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation enables a means for actively measuring atomic oxygen fluence (accumulated atoms of atomic oxygen per area) that has impinged upon spacecraft surfaces. Telemetered data from the device provides spacecraft designers, researchers, and mission managers with real-time measurement of atomic oxygen fluence, which is useful for prediction of the durability of spacecraft materials and components. The innovation is a compact fluence measuring device that allows in-space measurement and transmittance of measured atomic oxygen fluence as a function of time based on atomic oxygen erosion yields (the erosion yield of a material is the volume of material that is oxidized per incident oxygen atom) of materials that have been measured in low Earth orbit. It has a linear electrical response to atomic oxygen fluence, and is capable of measuring high atomic oxygen fluences (up to >10(exp 22) atoms/sq cm), which are representative of multi-year low-Earth orbital missions (such as the International Space Station). The durability or remaining structural lifetime of solar arrays that consist of polymer blankets on which the solar cells are attached can be predicted if one knows the atomic oxygen fluence that the solar array blanket has been exposed to. In addition, numerous organizations that launch space experiments into low-Earth orbit want to know the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence that their materials or components have been exposed to. The device is based on the erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite. It uses two 12deg inclined wedges of graphite that are over a grit-blasted fused silica window covering a photodiode. As the wedges erode, a greater area of solar illumination reaches the photodiode. A reference photodiode is also used that receives unobstructed solar illumination and is oriented in the same direction as the pyrolytic graphite covered photodiode. The short-circuit current from the photodiodes is measured and either sent to an onboard data logger, or

  19. A technique for synergistic atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation durability evaluation of materials for use in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1996-01-01

    Material erosion data collected during flight experiments such as the Environmental Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM)-3 and the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) have raised questions as to the sensitivity of material erosion to levels of atomic oxygen exposure and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. The erosion sensitivity of some materials such as FEP Teflon used as a thermal control material on satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO), is particularly important but difficult to determine. This is in large part due to the inability to hold all but one exposure parameter constant during a flight experiment. This is also difficult to perform in a ground based facility, because often the variation of the level of atomic oxygen or VUV radiation also results in a change in the level of the other parameter. A facility has been developed which allows each parameter to be changed almost independently and offer broad area exposure. The resulting samples can be made large enough for mechanical testing. The facility uses an electron cyclotron resonance plasma source to provide the atomic oxygen. A series of glass plates is used to focus the atomic oxygen while filtering the VUV radiation from the plasma source. After filtering, atomic oxygen effective flux levels can still be measured which are as high as 7 x 10(exp 15) atoms/cm(exp 2)-sec which is adequate for accelerated testing. VUV radiation levels after filtering can be as low as 0.3 suns. Additional VUV suns can be added with the use of deuterium lamps which allow the VUV level to be changed while keeping the flux of atomic oxygen constant. This paper discusses the facility, and results from exposure of Kapton and FEP at pre-determined atomic oxygen flux and VUV sun levels.

  20. The use of plasma ashers and Monte Carlo modeling for the projection of atomic oxygen durability of protected polymers in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Auer, Bruce M.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Degroh, Kim K.; Gebauer, Linda

    1992-01-01

    The results of ground laboratory and in-space exposure of polymeric materials to atomic oxygen has enabled the development of a Monte Carlo computational model which simulates the oxidation processes of both environments. The cost effective projection of long-term low-Earth-orbital durability of protected polymeric materials such as SiO(x)-coated polyimide Kapton photovoltaic array blankets will require ground-based testing to assure power system reliability. Although silicon dioxide thin film protective coatings can greatly extend the useful life of polymeric materials in ground-based testing, the projection of in-space durability based on these results can be made more reliable through the use of modeling which simulates the mechanistic properties of atomic oxygen interaction, and replicates test results in both environments. Techniques to project long-term performance of protected materials, such as the Space Station Freedom solar array blankets, are developed based on ground laboratory experiments, in-space experiments, and computational modeling.

  1. Design and demonstration of a system for the deposition of atomic-oxygen durable coatings for reflective solar dynamic power system concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A system for the vacuum deposition of atomic-oxygen durable coatings for reflective solar dynamic power systems (SDPS) concentrators was designed and demonstrated. The design issues pertinent to SDPS were developed by the Government Aerospace Systems Division of the Harris Corporation and are described in NASA-CR-179489. Both design and demonstration phases have been completed. At the time of this report the deposition system was ready for coating of facets for SDPS concentrators. The materials issue relevant to the coating work were not entirely resolved. These issues can only be resolved when substrates which are comparable to those which will be used in flight hardware are available. The substrates available during the contract period were deficient in the areas of surface roughness and contamination. These issues are discussed more thoroughly in the body of the report.

  2. Atomic Layer-by-Layer Deposition of Pt on Pd Nanocubes for Catalysts with Enhanced Activity and Durability toward Oxygen Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Shuifen; Choi, Sang; Lu, Ning; Roling, Luke T.; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Zhang, Lei; Park, Jinho; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J.; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2014-06-11

    An effective strategy for reducing the Pt content while retaining the activity of a Pt-based catalyst is to deposit the Pt atoms as ultrathin skins of only a few atomic layers thick on nanoscale substrates made of another metal. During deposition, however, the Pt atoms often take an island growth mode because of a strong bonding between Pt atoms. Here we report a versatile route to the conformal deposition of Pt as uniform, ultrathin shells on Pd nanocubes in a solution phase. The introduction of the Pt precursor at a relatively slow rate and high temperature allowed the deposited Pt atoms to spread across the entire surface of a Pd nanocube to generate a uniform shell. The thickness of the Pt shell could be controlled from one to six atomic layers by varying the amount of Pt precursor added into the system. Compared to a commercial Pt/C catalyst, the Pd@PnL (n = 1-6) core-shell nanocubes showed enhancements in specific activity and durability toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on model (100) surfaces suggest that the enhancement in specific activity can be attributed to the weakening of OH binding through ligand and strain effects, which, in turn, increases the rate of OH hydrogenation. A volcano-type relationship between the ORR specific activity and the number of Pt atomic layers was derived, in good agreement with the experimental results. Both theoretical and experimental studies indicate that the ORR specific activity was maximized for the catalysts based on Pd@Pt2-3L nanocubes. Because of the reduction in Pt content used and the enhancement in specific activity, the Pd@Pt1L nanocubes showed a Pt mass activity with almost three-fold enhancement relative to the Pt/C catalyst.

  3. Atomic Oxygen Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, which is the most predominant species in low Earth orbit, is highly reactive and can break chemical bonds on the surface of a wide variety of materials leading to volatilization or surface oxidation which can result in failure of spacecraft materials and components. This presentation will give an overview of how atomic oxygen reacts with spacecraft materials, results of space exposure testing of a variety of materials, and examples of failures caused by atomic oxygen.

  4. Atomic Oxygen Textured Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hunt, Jason D.; Drobotij, Erin; Cales, Michael R.; Cantrell, Gidget

    1995-01-01

    Atomic oxygen can be used to microscopically alter the surface morphology of polymeric materials in space or in ground laboratory facilities. For polymeric materials whose sole oxidation products are volatile species, directed atomic oxygen reactions produce surfaces of microscopic cones. However, isotropic atomic oxygen exposure results in polymer surfaces covered with lower aspect ratio sharp-edged craters. Isotropic atomic oxygen plasma exposure of polymers typically causes a significant decrease in water contact angle as well as altered coefficient of static friction. Such surface alterations may be of benefit for industrial and biomedical applications. The results of atomic oxygen plasma exposure of thirty-three (33) different polymers are presented, including typical morphology changes, effects on water contact angle, and coefficient of static friction.

  5. Atomic oxygen effects on materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Brady, Joyce A.; Merrow, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Understanding of the basic processes of atomic oxygen interaction is currently at a very elementary level. However, measurement of erosion yields, surface morphology, and optical properties for low fluences have brought about much progress in the past decade. Understanding the mechanisms and those factors that are important for proper simulation of low Earth orbit is at a much lower level of understanding. The ability to use laboratory simulations with confidence to quantifiably address the functional performance and durability of materials in low Earth orbit will be necessary to assure long-term survivability to the natural space environment.

  6. Atomic transport of oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Routbort, J.L.; Tomlins, G.W.

    1994-06-15

    Atomic transport of oxygen in nonstoichiometric oxides is an extremely important topic which overlaps science and technology. In many cases the diffusion of oxygen controls sintering, grain growth, and creep. High oxygen diffusivity is critical for efficient operation of many fuel cells. Additionally, oxygen diffusivities are an essential ingredient in any point defect model. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is the most accurate modern technique to measure oxygen tracer diffusion. This paper briefly reviews the principles and applications of SIMS for the measurement of oxygen transport. Case studies are taken from recent work on ZnO and some high-temperature superconductors.

  7. Atomic Oxygen Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.

    1997-01-01

    This report details work performed by the Center for Applied Optics (CAO) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) on the contract entitled 'Atomic Oxygen Task' for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (contract NAS8-38609, Delivery Order 109, modification number 1). Atomic oxygen effects on exposed materials remain a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The basic objective of atomic oxygen research in NASA's Materials & Processes (M&P) Laboratory is to provide the solutions to material problems facing present and future space missions. The objective of this work was to provide the necessary research for the design of specialized experimental test configurations and development of techniques for evaluating in-situ space environmental effects, including the effects of atomic oxygen and electromagnetic radiation on candidate materials. Specific tasks were performed to address materials issues concerning accelerated environmental testing as well as specifically addressing materials issues of particular concern for LDEF analysis and Space Station materials selection.

  8. Atomic Oxygen Protection of Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Demko, Rikako

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft polymeric materials as well as polymer-matrix carbon-fiber composites can be significantly eroded as a result of exposure to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO). Several new materials now exist, as well as modifications to conventionally used materials, that provide much more resistance to atomic oxygen attack than conventional hydrocarbon polymers. Protective coatings have also been developed which are resistant to atomic oxygen attack and provide protection of underlying materials. However, in actual spacecraft applications, the configuration, choice of materials, surface characteristics and functional requirements of quasi-durable materials or protective coatings can have great impact on the resulting performance and durability. Atomic oxygen degradation phenomena occurring on past and existing spacecraft will be presented. Issues and considerations involved in providing atomic oxygen protection for materials used on spacecraft in low Earth orbit will be addressed. Analysis of in-space results to determine the causes of successes and failures of atomic oxygen protective coatings is presented.

  9. Hyperthermal atomic oxygen generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, Govind S.; Wu, Dongchuan

    1990-01-01

    Characterization of the transport properties of oxygen through silver was continued. Specifically, experiments measuring the transport through Ag(111), Ag(110), Ag(100) single crystals and through Ag0.05 Zr alloy were completed. In addition, experiments using glow discharge excitation of oxygen to assist in the transport were completed. It was found that the permeability through the different orientations of single crystal Ag was the same, but significant differences existed in the diffusivity. The experimental ratio of diffusivities, however, was in reasonable agreement with theoretical estimates. Since the solubilities of orientations must be the same, this suggests some problems with the assumption K = DS. The glow discharge experiments show that there is a substantial increase in transport (factor of six) when the upstream pressure is dissociated to some fraction of atoms (which have a much higher sticking coefficient). These results indicate that there is a significant surface limitation because of dissociative adsorption of the molecules. Experiments with the Ag0.05 Zr alloy and its high-grain boundary and defect density show a permeability of greater than a factor of two over ordinary polycrystalline Ag, but it is unclear as to whether this is because of enhanced transport through these defects or whether the Zr and defects on the surface increased the sticking coefficient and therefore the transport.

  10. Mass spectrometers and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunton, D. E.; Trzcinski, E.; Cross, J. B.; Spangler, L. H.; Hoffbauer, M. H.; Archuleta, F. H.; Visentine, J. T.

    1987-01-01

    The likely role of atmospheric atomic oxygen in the recession of spacecraft surfaces and in the shuttle glow has revived interest in the accurate measurement of atomic oxygen densities in the upper atmosphere. The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory is supplying a quadrupole mass spectrometer for a materials interactions flight experiment being planned by the Johnson Space Center. The mass spectrometer will measure the flux of oxygen on test materials and will also identify the products of surface reactions. The instrument will be calibrated at a new facility for producing high energy beams of atomic oxygen at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The plans for these calibration experiments are summarized.

  11. Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is formed in the low Earth orbital environment (LEO) by photo dissociation of diatomic oxygen by short wavelength (< 243 nm) solar radiation which has sufficient energy to break the 5.12 eV O2 diatomic bond in an environment where the mean free path is sufficiently long ( 108 meters) that the probability of reassociation or the formation of ozone (O3) is small. As a consequence, between the altitudes of 180 and 650 km, atomic oxygen is the most abundant species. Spacecraft impact the atomic oxygen resident in LEO with sufficient energy to break hydrocarbon polymer bonds, causing oxidation and thinning of the polymers due to loss of volatile oxidation products. Mitigation techniques, such as the development of materials with improved durability to atomic oxygen attack, as well as atomic oxygen protective coatings, have been employed with varying degrees of success to improve durability of polymers in the LEO environment. Atomic oxygen can also oxidize silicones and silicone contamination to produce non-volatile silica deposits. Such contaminants are present on most LEO missions and can be a threat to performance of optical surfaces. The LEO atomic oxygen environment, its interactions with materials, results of space testing, computational modeling, mitigation techniques, and ground laboratory simulation procedures and issues are presented.

  12. Reaction and Protection of Electrical Wire Insulators in Atomic-oxygen Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Cantrell, Gidget

    1994-01-01

    Atomic-oxygen erosion on spacecraft in low Earth orbit is an issue which is becoming increasingly important because of the growing number of spacecraft that will fly in the orbits which have high concentrations of atomic oxygen. In this investigation, the atomic-oxygen durability of three types of electrical wire insulation (carbon-based, fluoropolymer, and polysiloxane elastomer) were evaluated. These insulation materials were exposed to thermal-energy atomic oxygen, which was obtained by RF excitation of air at a pressure of 11-20 Pa. The effects of atomic-oxygen exposure on insulation materials indicate that all carbon-based materials erode at about the same rate as polyamide Kapton and, therefore, are not atomic-oxygen durable. However, the durability of fluoropolymers needs to be evaluated on a case by case basis because the erosion rates of fluoropolymers vary widely. For example, experimental data suggest the formation of atomic fluorine during atomic-oxygen amorphous-fluorocarbon reactions. Dimethyl polysiloxanes (silicone) do not lose mass during atomic-oxygen exposure, but develop silica surfaces which are under tension and frequently crack as a result of loss of methyl groups. However, if the silicone sample surfaces were properly pretreated to provide a certain roughness, atomic oxygen exposure resulted in a sturdy, non-cracked atomic-oxygen durable SiO2 layer. Since the surface does not crack during such silicone-atomic oxygen reaction, the crack-induced contamination by silicone can be reduced or completely stopped. Therefore, with proper pretreatment, silicone can be either a wire insulation material or a coating on wire insulation materials to provide atomic-oxygen durability.

  13. Advances in atomic oxygen simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froechtenigt, Joseph F.; Bareiss, Lyle E.

    1990-01-01

    Atomic oxygen (AO) present in the atmosphere at orbital altitudes of 200 to 700 km has been shown to degrade various exposed materials on Shuttle flights. The relative velocity of the AO with the spacecraft, together with the AO density, combine to yield an environment consisting of a 5 eV beam energy with a flux of 10(exp 14) to 10(exp 15) oxygen atoms/sq cm/s. An AO ion beam apparatus that produces flux levels and energy similar to that encountered by spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) has been in existence since 1987. Test data was obtained from the interaction of the AO ion beam with materials used in space applications (carbon, silver, kapton) and with several special coatings of interest deposited on various surfaces. The ultimate design goal of the AO beam simulation device is to produce neutral AO at sufficient flux levels to replicate on-orbit conditions. A newly acquired mass spectrometer with energy discrimination has allowed 5 eV neutral oxygen atoms to be separated and detected from the background of thermal oxygen atoms of approx 0.2 eV. Neutralization of the AO ion beam at 5 eV was shown at the Martin Marietta AO facility.

  14. Atomic oxygen studies on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morison, W. D.; Tennyson, R. C.; French, J. B.; Braithwaite, T.; Moisan, M.; Hubert, J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose was to study the effects of atomic oxygen on the erosion of polymer based materials. The development of an atomic oxygen neutral beam facility using a SURFATRON surface wave launcher that can produce beam energies between 2 and 3 eV at flux levels as high as approx. 10 to the 17th power atoms/cm (2)-sec is described. Thin film dielectric materials were studied to determine recession rates and and reaction efficiencies as a function of incident beam energy and fluence. Accelerated testing was also accomplished and the values of reaction efficiency compared to available space flight data. Electron microscope photomicrographs of the samples' surface morphology were compared to flight test specimens.

  15. Monte Carlo modeling of atomic oxygen attack of polymers with protective coatings on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Auer, Bruce M.; Gebauer, Linda; Edwards, Jonathan L.

    1993-01-01

    Characterization of the behavior of atomic oxygen interaction with materials on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) assists in understanding of the mechanisms involved. Thus the reliability of predicting in-space durability of materials based on ground laboratory testing should be improved. A computational model which simulates atomic oxygen interaction with protected polymers was developed using Monte Carlo techniques. Through the use of an assumed mechanistic behavior of atomic oxygen interaction based on in-space atomic oxygen erosion of unprotected polymers and ground laboratory atomic oxygen interaction with protected polymers, prediction of atomic oxygen interaction with protected polymers on LDEF was accomplished. However, the results of these predictions are not consistent with the observed LDEF results at defect sites in protected polymers. Improved agreement between observed LDEF results and predicted Monte Carlo modeling can be achieved by modifying of the atomic oxygen interactive assumptions used in the model. LDEF atomic oxygen undercutting results, modeling assumptions, and implications are presented.

  16. Large faceted Pd nanocrystals supported small Pt nanoparticles as highly durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Geng; Lu, Wangting; Cao, Longsheng; Qin, Xiaoping; Ding, Fei; Tang, Shun; Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yi, Baolian

    2016-09-01

    The reduction of Pt content together with the improvement of the durability of the catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is required to the large-scale commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. In this work, a novel ORR catalyst consisting of large Pd nanocrystal as the core with small Pt nanoparticles supported on the Pd core is prepared by a facile one-step synthesis method. The Pd substrate is presented in the form of well-defined cuboctahedrons and icosahedrons. The type of metal precursors and Pt/Pd molar ratio are important factors to obtain this Pd-supporting-Pt structure. The Pd2-s-Pt1 catalyst with a nominal Pt/Pd atomic ratio at 1/2 shows improved ORR activity: its mass specific activity and area specific activity is 2.5 and 3.5 times that of commercial Pt/C, respectively. More importantly, the Pd2-s-Pt1 catalyst demonstrates outstanding durability against potential cycling which can be ascribed to the slow dissolution of Pd core and the structure transformation from Pd@Pt to hollow PdPt alloyed nanocages. This exciting result provides a new pathway to the design of ORR catalyst with excellent durability.

  17. Atomic oxygen effects on metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, Albert T.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of specimen geometry on the attack of metals by atomic oxygen is addressed. This is done by extending the coupled-currents approach in metal oxidation to spherical and cylindrical geometries. Kinetic laws are derived for the rates of oxidation of samples having these geometries. It is found that the burn-up time for spherical particles of a given diameter can be as much as a factor of 3 shorter than the time required to completely oxidize a planar sample of the same thickness.

  18. Method for producing an atomic oxygen beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, Ronald A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing an atomic oxygen beam is provided by the present invention. First, a material 10' is provided which dissociates molecular oxygen and dissolves atomic oxygen into its bulk. Next, molecular oxygen is exposed to entrance surface 11' of material 10'. Next, material 10' is heated by heater 17' to facilitate the permeation of atomic oxygen through material 10' to the UHV side 12'. UHV side 12' is interfaced with an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment provided by UHV pump 15'. The atomic oxygen on the UHV side 12' is excited to a non-binding state by exciter 14' thus producing the release of atomic oxygen to form an atomic oxygen beam 35'.

  19. Attenuation of Scattered Thermal Energy Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Seroka, Katelyn T.; McPhate, Jason B.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    The attenuation of scattered thermal energy atomic oxygen is relevant to the potential damage that can occur within a spacecraft which sweeps through atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO). Although there can be significant oxidation and resulting degradation of polymers and some metals on the external surfaces of spacecraft, there are often openings on a spacecraft such as telescope apertures, vents, and microwave cavities that can allow atomic oxygen to enter and scatter internally to the spacecraft. Atomic oxygen that enters a spacecraft can thermally accommodate and scatter to ultimately react or recombine on surfaces. The atomic oxygen that does enter a spacecraft can be scavenged by use of high erosion yield polymers to reduce its reaction on critical surfaces and materials. Polyoxymethylene and polyethylene can be used as effective atomic oxygen scavenging polymers.

  20. Atomic oxygen damage characterization by photothermal scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. W.; Wood, N. J.; Zakaria, A. B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we use a photothermal imaging technique to characterize the damage caused to an imperfectly coated gold-coated Kapton sample exposed to successively increased fluences of atomic oxygen in a laboratory atomic source.

  1. Issues and Consequences of Atomic Oxygen Undercutting of Protected Polymers in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Snyder, Aaron; Miller, Sharon K.; Demko, Rikako

    2002-01-01

    Hydrocarbon based polymers that are exposed to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit are slowly oxidized which results in recession of their surface. Atomic oxygen protective coatings have been developed which are both durable to atomic oxygen and effective in protecting underlying polymers. However, scratches, pin window defects, polymer surface roughness and protective coating layer configuration can result in erosion and potential failure of protected thin polymer films even though the coatings are themselves atomic oxygen durable. This paper will present issues that cause protective coatings to become ineffective in some cases yet effective in others due to the details of their specific application. Observed in-space examples of failed and successfully protected materials using identical protective thin films will be discussed and analyzed. Proposed approaches to prevent the failures that have been observed will also be presented.

  2. Atomic Oxygen Effects on Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K. R.; deGroh, Kim K.; Demko, Rikako

    2003-01-01

    Low Earth orbital (LEO) atomic oxygen cannot only erode the external surfaces of polymers on spacecraft, but can cause degradation of surfaces internal to components on the spacecraft where openings to the space environment exist. Although atomic oxygen attack on internal or interior surfaces may not have direct exposure to the LEO atomic oxygen flux, scattered impingement can have can have serious degradation effects where sensitive interior surfaces are present. The effects of atomic oxygen erosion of polymers interior to an aperture on a spacecraft is simulated using Monte Carlo computational techniques. A 2-dimensional model is used to provide quantitative indications of the attenuation of atomic oxygen flux as a function of distance into a parallel walled cavity. The degree of erosion relative is compared between the various interior locations and the external surface of an LEO spacecraft.

  3. Scattered Atomic Oxygen Effects on Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K. R.; deGroh, Kim K.; Demko, Rikako

    2003-01-01

    Low Earth orbital (LEO) atomic oxygen cannot only erode the external surfaces of polymers on spacecraft, but can cause degradation of surfaces internal to components on the spacecraft where openings to the space environment exist. Although atomic oxygen attack on internal or interior surfaces may not have direct exposure to the LEO atomic oxygen flux scattered impingement can have serious degradation effects where sensitive interior surfaces are present. The effects of atomic oxygen erosion of polymer interior to an aperture on a spacecraft is simulated using Monte Carlo computational techniques. A 2-dimensional model is used to provide quantitative indications of the attenuation of atomic oxygen flux as a function of distance into a parallel walled cavity. The degree of erosion re1ative is compared between the various interior locations and the external surface of a LEO spacecraft.

  4. Modified Truncated Cone Target Hyperthermal Atomic Oxygen Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, J. A.; Kamenetsky, R. R.; Finckenor, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    The modified truncated cone target is a docking target planned for use on the International Space Station. The current design consists of aluminum treated with a black dye anodize, then crosshairs are laser etched for a silvery color. Samples of the treated aluminum were exposed to laboratory simulation of atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation to determine if significant degradation might occur. Durability was evaluated based on the contrast ratio between the black and silvery white areas of the target. Degradation of optical properties appeared to level off after an initial period of exposure to atomic oxygen. The sample that was not alodined according to MIL-C-5541, type 1A, performed better than alodined samples.

  5. MISSE Scattered Atomic Oxygen Characterization Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment designed to measure the atomic oxygen (AO) erosion profile of scattered AO was exposed to Low Earth Orbital (LEO) AO for almost four years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 1 and 2 (MISSE 1 and 2). The experiment was flown in MISSE Passive Experiment Carrier 2 (PEC 2), Tray 1, attached to the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) Quest Airlock. The experiment consisted of an aperture disk lid of Kapton H (DuPont) polyimide coated on the space exposed surface with a thin AO durable silicon dioxide film. The aperture lid had a small hole in its center to allow AO to enter into a chamber and impact a base disk of aluminum. The AO that scattered from the aluminum base could react with the under side of the aperture lid which was coated sporadically with microscopic sodium chloride particles. Scattered AO erosion can occur to materials within a spacecraft that are protected from direct AO attack but because of apertures in the spacecraft the AO can attack the interior materials after scattering. The erosion of the underside of the Kapton lid was sufficient to be able to use profilometry to measure the height of the buttes that remained after washing off the salt particles. The erosion pattern indicated that peak flux of scattered AO occurred at and angle of approximately 45 from the incoming normal incidence on the aluminum base unlike the erosion pattern predicted for scattering based on Monte Carlo computational predictions for AO scattering from Kapton H polyimide. The effective erosion yield for the scattered AO was found to be a factor of 0.214 of that for direct impingement on Kapton H polyimide.

  6. Simulation of the low earth orbital atomic oxygen interaction with materials by means of an oxygen ion beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Steuber, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is the predominant species in low-Earth orbit between the altitudes of 180 and 650 km. These highly reactive atoms are a result of photodissociation of diatomic oxygen molecules from solar photons having a wavelength less than or equal to 2430A. Spacecraft in low-Earth orbit collide with atomic oxygen in the 3P ground state at impact energies of approximately 4.2 to 4.5 eV. As a consequence, organic materials previously used for high altitude geosynchronous spacecraft are severely oxidized in the low-Earth orbital environment. The evaluation of materials durability to atomic oxygen requires ground simulation of this environment to cost effectively screen materials for durability. Directed broad beam oxygen sources are necessary to evaluate potential spacecraft materials performance before and after exposure to the simulated low-Earth orbital environment. This paper presents a description of a low energy, broad oxygen ion beam source used to simulate the low-Earth orbital atomic oxygen environment. The results of materials interaction with this beam and comparison with actual in-space tests of the same meterials will be discussed. Resulting surface morphologies appear to closely replicate those observed in space tests.

  7. Energetic oxygen atom material degradation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    As part of a study designed to test potential Shuttle surface materials for the extents of degradation and mass loss expected to be suffered in space from the velocity impacts of ambient oxygen atoms, a novel technique was developed for generation of a high flux of energetic oxygen atoms. The generation technique involves laser-induced breakdown of molecular oxygen followed by a rapid expansion of energetic oxygen atoms. The high-velocity streams developed in an evacuated hypersonic nozzle have average O-atom velocities of about 5 to 13 km/s, with an estimated total production of 10 to the 18th atoms per pulse over pulse durations of several microseconds. Results on preliminary material degradation tests conducted with this test facility have been reported by Caledonia et al. (1987). Diagrams of the experimental setup are included.

  8. Atomic oxygen exposure of LDEF experiment trays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic oxygen exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The calculations are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation on atomic oxygen flux. Results incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the 6-year flight of the spacecraft. To facilitate use of the data, both detailed tabulations and summary charts for atomic oxygen fluences are presented.

  9. Protocol for Atomic Oxygen Testing of Materials in Ground-Based Facilities. No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Timothy K.

    1995-01-01

    A second version of standard guidelines is proposed for improving materials testing in ground-based atomic oxygen environments for the purpose of predicting the durability of the tested materials in low Earth orbit (LEO). Accompanying these guidelines are background information and notes about testing. Both the guidelines and the additional information are intended to aid users who wish to evaluate the potential hazard of atomic oxygen in LEO to a candidate space component without actually flying the component in space, and to provide a framework for more consistent atomic oxygen testing in the future.

  10. Comparison of Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yields of Materials at Various Energy and Impact Angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Waters, Deborah L.; Thorson, Stephen D.; deGroh, Kim, K.; Snyder, Aaron; Miller, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    The atomic oxygen erosion yields of various materials, measured in volume of material oxidized per incident atomic oxygen atom, are compared to the commonly accepted standard of Kapton H (DuPont) polyimide. The ratios of the erosion yield of Kapton H to the erosion yield of various materials are not consistent at different atomic oxygen energies. Although it is most convenient to use isotropic thermal energy RF plasma ashers to assess atomic oxygen durability, the results can be misleading because the relative erosion rates at thermal energies are not necessarily the same as low Earth orbital (LEO) energies of approx.4.5 eV. An experimental investigation of the relative atomic oxygen erosion yields of a wide variety of polymers and carbon was conducted using isotropic thermal energy (approx.0.1 eV) and hyperthermal energy (approx.70 eV) atomic oxygen using an RF plasma asher and an end Hall ion source. For hyperthermal energies, the atomic oxygen erosion yields relative to normal incident Kapton H were compared for sweeping atomic oxygen arrival with that of normal incidence arrival. The results of isotropic thermal energy, normal incident, and sweeping incident atomic oxygen are also compared with measured or projected LEO values.

  11. Techniques for Measuring Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Demko, Rikako

    2002-01-01

    Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) are commonly used spacecraft materials due to their desirable properties such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP, a low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen reaction with polymers causes erosion, which is a threat to spacecraft durability. It is therefore important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. The most common technique for determining E is through mass loss measurements. For limited duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle experiments, where the atomic oxygen fluence is often so low that mass loss measurements can not produce acceptable uncertainties, recession measurements based on atomic force microscopy analyses can be used. Equally necessary to knowing the mass loss or recession depth for determining the erosion yield of polymers is the knowledge of the atomic oxygen fluence that the polymers were exposed to in space. This paper discusses the procedures and relevant issues for mass loss and recession depth measurements for passive atomic oxygen erosion yield characterization of polymers, along with techniques for active atomic oxygen fluence and erosion characterization. One active atomic oxygen erosion technique discussed is a new technique based on optical measurements. Details including the use of both semi-transparent and opaque polymers for active erosion measurement are reviewed.

  12. The NASA atomic oxygen effects test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Brady, Joyce A.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Atomic Oxygen Effects Test Program was established to compare the low earth orbital simulation characteristics of existing atomic oxygen test facilities and utilize the collective data from a multitude of simulation facilities to promote understanding of mechanisms and erosion yield dependence upon energy, flux, metastables, charge, and environmental species. Four materials chosen for this evaluation include Kapton HN polyimide, FEP Teflon, polyethylene, and graphite single crystals. The conditions and results of atomic oxygen exposure of these materials is reported by the participating organizations and then assembled to identify degrees of dependency of erosion yields that may not be observable from any single atomic oxygen low earth orbital simulation facility. To date, the program includes 30 test facilities. Characteristics of the participating test facilities and results to date are reported.

  13. Continuum ionization transition probabilities of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Petrosky, V. E.

    1974-01-01

    The technique of photoelectron spectroscopy was employed in the investigation. Atomic oxygen was produced in a microwave discharge operating at a power of 40 W and at a pressure of approximately 20 mtorr. The photoelectron spectrum of the oxygen with and without the discharge is shown. The atomic states can be clearly seen. In connection with the measurement of the probability for transitions into the various ionic states, the analyzer collection efficiency was determined as a function of electron energy.

  14. Making Excited Oxygen Molecules And Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    Oxidation of semiconductors and high-temperature superconductors achieved at lower temperatures by use of oxygen molecules or atoms raised into specific excited states. Use of excited oxygen (or other species) of interest in research on kinetics and mechanisms of chemical reactions. Used in ultra-high-vacuum chamber also equipped for such surface-analytical techniques as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  15. Oxidation of platinum nickel nanowires to improve durability of oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Alia, Shaun M.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Dameron, Arrelaine; Neyerlin, Kenneth C.; Kocha, Shyam S.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2016-01-12

    In this study, the impact of heat treating platinum-coated nickel (Pt-Ni) nanowires in oxygen is examined to determine the effect on oxygen reduction (ORR) activity and durability. Pt-Ni nanowires exhibit promising ORR mass activities (3 times greater than Pt nanoparticles, 1.5 times greater than U.S. Department of Energy target) both before and after potential cycling for all but the highest annealing temperatures explored. The annealing of Pt-Ni nanowires in oxygen with increasing temperature is found to reduce surface area and ORR activity in comparison to the untreated material, but also reduces activity losses following durability testing. Following potential cycling, unannealedmore » Pt-Ni nanowires show significant losses in surface area (23%) and specific activity (18%) while Pt-Ni nanowires annealed at 200°C show modest increases in surface area (2%) and specific activity (6%) after potential cycling. Increasing annealing temperatures also show a clear trend of decreasing Ni dissolution rates. While oxygen annealing has shown the ability to improve durability of Pt-Ni nanowires, significant Ni dissolution was observed in all samples and suggests oxide passivation while showing promise for improved durability, when employed by itself is insufficient to prevent all contamination concerns involving Ni dissolution.« less

  16. Sensitive Technique Developed Using Atomic Force Microscopy to Measure the Low-Earth-Orbit Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim D.; Banks, Bruce A.; Clark, Gregory W.; Hammerstrom, Anne; Youngstrom, Erica; Kaminski, Carolyn; Fine, Elizabeth; Marx, Laura

    2001-01-01

    A recession measurement technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to determine the atomic oxygen durability of polymers exposed to the space environment for short durations. Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene, DuPont) are commonly used in spacecraft because of their desirable properties, such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP, low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low- Earth-orbit environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen, resulting in erosion and potential structural loss. It is, therefore, important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. Because long-term space exposure data are rare and very costly, short-term exposures, such as on the space shuttles, are often relied on for atomic oxygen erosion determination. The most common technique for determining E is through mass-loss measurements. For limited-duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle flight experiments, the atomic oxygen fluence is often so small that mass-loss measurements are not sensitive enough. Therefore, a recession measurement technique has been developed at Glenn to obtain accurate erosion yields of polymers exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences.

  17. Pulsed source of energetic atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    A pulsed high flux source of nearly monoenergetic atomic oxygen was designed, built, and successfully demonstrated. Molecular oxygen at several atmospheres pressure is introduced into an evacuated supersonic expansion nozzle through a pulsed molecular beam valve. An 18 J pulsed CO2 TEA laser is focused to intensities greater than 10(9) W/sq cm in the nozzle throat to generate a laser-induced breakdown. The resulting plasma is heated in excess of 20,000 K by a laser supported detonation wave, and then rapidly expands and cools. Nozzle geometry confines the expansion to provide rapid electron-ion recombination into atomic oxygen. Average O atom beam velocities from 5 to 13 km/s were measured at estimated fluxes to 10(18) atoms per pulse. Preliminary materials testing has produced the same surface oxygen enrichment in polyethylene samples as obtained on the STS-8 mission. Scanning electron microscope examinations of irradiated polymer surfaces reveal an erosion morphology similar to that obtained in low Earth orbit, with an estimated mass removal rate of approx. 10(-24) cu cm/atom. The characteristics of the O atom source and the results of some preliminary materials testing studies are reviewed.

  18. Oxygen atom loss coefficient of carbon nanowalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozetic, Miran; Vesel, Alenka; Stoica, Silviu Daniel; Vizireanu, Sorin; Dinescu, Gheorghe; Zaplotnik, Rok

    2015-04-01

    Extremely high values of atomic oxygen loss coefficient on carbon nanowall (CNW) surface are reported. CNW layers consisting of interconnected individual nanostructures with average length of 1.1 μm, average thickness of 66 nm and surface density of 3 CNW/μm2 were prepared by plasma jet enhanced chemical-vapor deposition using C2H2/H2/Ar gas mixtures. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectrometry (RS) as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface loss coefficient was measured at room temperature in a flowing afterglow at different densities of oxygen atoms supplied from inductively coupled radiofrequency O2 plasma. The RF generator operated at 13.56 MHz and different nominal powers up to 900 W corresponding to different O-atom density in the afterglow up to 1.3 × 1021 m-3. CNW and several different samples of known coefficients for heterogeneous surface recombination of neutral oxygen atoms have been placed separately in the afterglow chamber and the O-atom density in their vicinity was measured with calibrated catalytic probes. Comparison of measured results allowed for determination of the loss coefficient for CNWs and the obtained value of 0.59 ± 0.03 makes this material an extremely effective sink for O-atoms.

  19. Determination of atomic oxygen fluence using spectrophotometric analysis of infrared transparent witness coupons for long duration exposure tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podojil, Gregg M.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    Atomic oxygen degradation is one of several major threats to the durability of spaceborne systems in low Earth orbit. Ground-based simulations are conducted to learn how to minimize the adverse effects of atomic oxygen exposure. Assessing the fluence of atomic oxygen in test chambers such as a plasma asher over long periods of time is necessary for accurate determination of atomic oxygen exposure. Currently, an atomic oxygen susceptible organic material such as Kapton is placed next to samples as a witness coupon and its mass loss is monitored and used to determine the effective atomic oxygen fluence. However, degradation of the Kapton witness coupons occurs so rapidly in plasma ashers that for any long term test many witness coupons must be used sequentially in order to keep track of the fluence. This necessitates opening vacuum to substitute fresh coupons. A passive dosimetry technique was sought to monitor atomic oxygen exposure over longer periods without the need to open the plasma asher to the atmosphere. This paper investigates the use of spectrophotometric analysis of durable IR transparent witness coupons to measure atomic oxygen exposure for longer duration testing. The method considered would be conductive to making in situ measurements of atomic oxygen fluence.

  20. Atomic Oxygen Used to Restore Artworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2004-01-01

    Techniques developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to produce atomic oxygen in order to simulate the low-Earth-orbit environment for spacecraft materials testing can also be applied in the field of art restoration. Defaced or fire-damaged artwork can be treated with atomic oxygen to remove the damage and enable restoration that could not be accomplished with conventional methods. The process has been patented (U.S. Patents 5,560,781 and 5,693,241) and has been used to restore several works of art.

  1. Method and apparatus for producing a thermal atomic oxygen beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Atomic oxygen atoms are routed to a material through a sufficiently tortuous path so that vacuum ultraviolet radiation is obstructed from arriving at the surface of the material. However, the material surface continues to be exposed to the atomic oxygen.

  2. Atomic Oxygen Treatment and Its Effect on a Variety of Artist's Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.; Banks, Bruce A.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2005-01-01

    Atomic oxygen treatment has been investigated as an unconventional option for art restoration where conventional methods have not been effective. Exposure of surfaces to atomic oxygen was first performed to investigate the durability of materials in the low Earth orbit environment of space. The use of the ground based environmental simulation chambers, developed for atomic oxygen exposure testing, has been investigated in collaboration with conservators at a variety of institutions, as a method to clean the surfaces of works of art. The atomic oxygen treatment technique has been evaluated as a method to remove soot and char from the surface of oil paint (both varnished and unvarnished), watercolors, acrylic paint, and fabric as well as the removal of graffiti and other marks from surfaces which are too porous to lend themselves to conventional solvent removal techniques. This paper will discuss the treatment of these surfaces giving an example of each and a discussion of the treatment results.

  3. Benefits of oxygen incorporation in atomic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlqvist, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Atomic laminates such as MAX phases benefit from the addition of oxygen in many ways, from the formation of a protective oxide surface layer with self-healing capabilities when cracks form to the tuning of anisotropic conductivity. In this paper oxygen incorporation and vacancy formation in M 2AlC (M  =  Ti, V, Cr) MAX phases have been studied using first-principles calculations where the focus is on phase stability and electronic structure for different oxygen and/or vacancy configurations. Oxygen prefers different lattice sites depending on M-element and this can be correlated to the number of available non-bonding M d-electrons. In Ti2AlC, oxygen substitutes carbon while in Cr2AlC it is located interstitially within the Al-layer. I predict that oxygen incorporation in Ti2AlC stabilizes the material, which explains the experimentally observed 12.5 at% oxygen (x  =  0.5) in Ti2Al(C1‑x O x ). In addition, it is also possible to use oxygen to stabilize the hypothetical Zr2AlC and Hf2AlC. Hence, oxygen incorporation may be beneficial in many ways. Not only can it make a material more stable, but it also can act as a reservoir for internal self-healing with shorter diffusion paths.

  4. MISSE PEACE Polymers Atomic Oxygen Erosion Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim, K.; Banks, Bruce A.; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Rucker, Rochelle N.; Roberts, Lily M.; Berger, Lauren A.

    2006-01-01

    Forty-one different polymer samples, collectively called the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers, have been exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly 4 years as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2). The objective of the PEACE Polymers experiment was to determine the atomic oxygen erosion yield of a wide variety of polymeric materials after long term exposure to the space environment. The polymers range from those commonly used for spacecraft applications, such as Teflon (DuPont) FEP, to more recently developed polymers, such as high temperature polyimide PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants). Additional polymers were included to explore erosion yield dependence upon chemical composition. The MISSE PEACE Polymers experiment was flown in MISSE Passive Experiment Carrier 2 (PEC 2), tray 1, on the exterior of the ISS Quest Airlock and was exposed to atomic oxygen along with solar and charged particle radiation. MISSE 2 was successfully retrieved during a space walk on July 30, 2005, during Discovery s STS-114 Return to Flight mission. Details on the specific polymers flown, flight sample fabrication, pre-flight and post-flight characterization techniques, and atomic oxygen fluence calculations are discussed along with a summary of the atomic oxygen erosion yield results. The MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers experiment is unique because it has the widest variety of polymers flown in LEO for a long duration and provides extremely valuable erosion yield data for spacecraft design purposes.

  5. Synergistic effects of ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling and atomic oxygen on altered and coated Kapton surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Rodriguez, Elvin

    1992-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) power system for Space Station Freedom (SSF) uses solar array blankets which provide structural support for the solar cells and house the electrical interconnections. In the low earth orbital (LEO) environment where SSF will be located, surfaces will be exposed to potentially damaging environmental conditions including solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen. It is necessary to use ground based tests to determine how these environmental conditions would affect the mass loss and optical properties of candidate SSF blanket materials. Silicone containing, silicone coated, and SiO(x) coated polyimide film materials were exposed to simulated LEO environmental conditions to determine their durability and whether the environmental conditions of UV, thermal cycling and oxygen atoms act synergistically on these materials. A candidate PV blanket material called AOR Kapton, a polysiloxane polyimide cast from a solution mixture, shows an improvement in durability to oxygen atoms erosion after exposure to UV radiation or thermal cycling combined with UV radiation. This may indicate that the environmental conditions react synergistically with this material, and the damage predicted by exposure to atomic oxygen alone is more severe than that which would occur in LEO where atomic oxygen, thermal cycling and UV radiation are present together.

  6. Synergistic effects of ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen on altered and coated Kapton surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Rodriguez, Elvin

    1992-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) power system for Space Station Freedom (SSF) uses solar array blankets which provide structural support for the solar cells and house the electrical interconnections. In the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment where SSF will be located, surfaces will be exposed to potentially damaging environmental conditions including solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen. It is necessary to use ground based tests to determine how these environmental conditions would affect the mass loss and optical properties of candidate SSF blanket materials. Silicone containing, silicone coated, and SiO(x) coated polyimide film materials were exposed to simulated LEO environmental conditions to determine there durability and whether the environmental conditions of UV, thermal cycling and oxygen atoms act synergistically on these materials. A candidate PV blanket material called AOR Kapton, a polysiloxane polyimide cast from a solution mixture, shows an improvement in durability to oxygen atoms erosion after exposure to UV radiation or thermal cycling combined with UV radiation. This may indicate that the environmental conditions react synergistically with this material, and the damage predicted by exposure to atomic oxygen alone is more severe than that which would occur in LEO where atomic oxygen, thermal cycling and UV radiation are present together.

  7. Simulation of the synergistic low Earth orbit effects of vacuum thermal cycling, vacuum UV radiation, and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Stidham, Curtis R.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Dever, Therese M.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Terlep, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the low Earth orbit (LEO) durability of candidate space materials, it is necessary to use ground laboratory facilities which provide LEO environmental effects. A facility combining vacuum thermal cycling and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation has been designed and constructed at NASA Lewis Research Center for this purpose. This facility can also be operated without the VUV lamps. An additional facility can be used to provide VUV exposure only. By utilizing these facilities, followed by atomic oxygen exposure in an RF plasma asher, the effects of the individual vacuum thermal cycling and VUV environments can be compared to the effect of the combined vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environment on the atomic oxygen durability of materials. The synergistic effects of simulated LEO environmental conditions on materials were evaluated by first exposing materials to vacuum thermal cycling, VUV, and vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environments followed by exposure to atomic oxygen in an RP plasma asher. Candidate space power materials such as atomic oxygen protected polyimides and solar concentrator mirrors were evaluated using these facilities. Characteristics of the Vacuum Thermal Cycling/VUV Exposure Facility which simulates the temperature sequences and solar ultraviolet radiation exposure that would be experienced by a spacecraft surface in LEO are discussed. Results of durability evaluations of some candidate space power materials to the simulated LEO environmental conditions will also be discussed. Such results have indicated that for some materials, atomic oxygen durability is affected by previous exposure to thermal cycling and/or VUV exposure.

  8. Two photon excitation of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindzola, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    A standard perturbation expansion in the atom-radiation field interaction is used to calculate the two photon excitation cross section for 1s(2) 2s(2) 2p(4) p3 to 1s(2) 2s(2) 2p(3) (s4) 3p p3 transition in atomic oxygen. The summation over bound and continuum intermediate states is handled by solving the equivalent inhomogeneous differential equation. Exact summation results differ by a factor of 2 from a rough estimate obtained by limiting the intermediate state summation to one bound state. Higher order electron correlation effects are also examined.

  9. Atomic Oxygen Effects on Coated Tether Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gittemeier, Keith A.; Hawk, Clark W.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Watts, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville s Propulsion Research Center has teamed with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to research the effects of atomic oxygen (AO) bombardment on coated tether materials. Tethers Unlimited Inc. has provided several candidate tether materials with various coatings for (AO) exposure in MSFC's Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility. Additional samples were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation at MSFC. AO erodes most organic materials, and ultraviolet radiation embrittles polymers. This test series was performed to determine the effect of AO and UV on the mechanical integrity of tether materials that were treated with AO-protective coatings, such as Photosil or metallization. Both TUI's Multi-Application Survivable Tether (MAST) Experiment and Marshall Space Flight Center's Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) programs will benefit from this research by helping to determine tether materials and coatings that give the longest life with the lowest mass penalty.

  10. Small UHV compatible hyperthermal oxygen atom generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, Ronald A. (Inventor); Davison, Mark R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A high purity, hyperthermal, continuous beam atomic oxygen source capable of retrofitting to existing UHV systems has been developed. The instrument complements a general system capability, while its small size and simplicity of design permits tailoring the instrument for most experimental geometries. The flux level presently available is near 1 x 10 (exp 14) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1)(3P) but may be extended toward the theoretical limit of 3x10(exp 15 cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). The energy distribution of the emitted neutrals shows that the mean kinetic energy is about the same as observed for the ions or about 4 eV. The energy of the oxygen atoms may be substantially reduced for other applications by collision with a temperature controlled, non-reactive surface (with a concomitant spread in the energy distribution).

  11. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  12. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  13. Working group written presentation: Atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Lubert J.; Visentine, James T.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier Shuttle flight experiments have shown NASA and SDIO spacecraft designed for operation in low-Earth orbit (LEO) must take into consideration the highly oxidative characteristics of the ambient flight environment. Materials most adversely affected by atomic oxygen interactions include organic films, advanced (carbon-based) composites, thermal control coatings, organic-based paints, optical coatings, and thermal control blankets commonly used in spacecraft applications. Earlier results of NASA flight experiments have shown prolonged exposure of sensitive spacecraft materials to the LEO environment will result in degraded systems performance or, more importantly, lead to requirements for excessive on-orbit maintenance, with both conditions contributing significantly to increased mission costs and reduced mission objectives. Flight data obtained from previous Space Shuttle missions and results of the Solar Max recovery mission are limited in terms of atomic oxygen exposure and accuracy of fluence estimates. The results of laboratory studies to investigate the long-term (15 to 30 yrs) effects of AO exposure on spacecraft surfaces are only recently available, and qualitative correlations of laboratory results with flight results have been obtained for only a limited number of materials. The working group recommended the most promising ground-based laboratories now under development be made operational as soon as possible to study the full-life effects of atomic oxygen exposure on spacecraft systems.

  14. Atomic oxygen beam source for erosion simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuthbertson, J. W.; Langer, W. D.; Motley, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    A device for production of low-energy (5-10 eV) neutral atomic beams for surface modification studies, which recreates the flux of atomic oxygen in LEO, is described. The beam is produced by acceleration of plasma ions onto a negatively biased plate of high-Z metal; the ions are neutralized and reflected by the surface, retaining a large fraction of their incident kinetic energy, forming a beam of atoms. The device is based on a magnetically confined (3-4 kG) coaxial plasma source and the atom energy can be varied by adjusting the bias voltage. The source provides a neutral flux of roughly 5 x 10 to the 16th/sq cm/s at a distance of 10 cm and a fluence of roughly 10 to the 21st/sq cm in five hours. The source has been characterized with plasma diagnostics and by measuring the energy of an atomic argon beam using a mass spectrometer. Samples of carbon film, carbon-based paint, Kapton, Mylar, and Teflon exposed to atomic O beams show erosion quite similar to those observed in orbit on the Space Shuttle.

  15. Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Atomic Oxygen Correlation for the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambler, Arielle H.; Inoshita, Karen E.; Roberts, Lily M.; Barbagallo, Claire E.; deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2) Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) polymers were exposed to the environment of low Earth orbit (LEO) for 3.95 years from 2001 to 2005. There were 41 different PEACE polymers, which were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) in order to determine their atomic oxygen erosion yields. In LEO, atomic oxygen is an environmental durability threat, particularly for long duration mission exposures. Although spaceflight experiments, such as the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment, are ideal for determining LEO environmental durability of spacecraft materials, ground-laboratory testing is often relied upon for durability evaluation and prediction. Unfortunately, significant differences exist between LEO atomic oxygen exposure and atomic oxygen exposure in ground-laboratory facilities. These differences include variations in species, energies, thermal exposures and radiation exposures, all of which may result in different reactions and erosion rates. In an effort to improve the accuracy of ground-based durability testing, ground-laboratory to in-space atomic oxygen correlation experiments have been conducted. In these tests, the atomic oxygen erosion yields of the PEACE polymers were determined relative to Kapton H using a radio-frequency (RF) plasma asher (operated on air). The asher erosion yields were compared to the MISSE 2 PEACE erosion yields to determine the correlation between erosion rates in the two environments. This paper provides a summary of the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment; it reviews the specific polymers tested as well as the techniques used to determine erosion yield in the asher, and it provides a correlation between the space and ground laboratory erosion yield values. Using the PEACE polymers asher to in-space erosion yield ratios will allow more accurate in-space materials performance predictions to be made based on plasma asher durability evaluation.

  16. Three-Body Recombination of Oxygen Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, D. L.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    Dayside photodissociation of O2 and CO2 in the atmospheres of Earth, Venus, and Mars produces oxygen atoms that eventually undergo three-body recombination O + O + M -> O2* + M The variety of electronic states produced is observable as nightglow emissions, which have been the subject of many laboratory and interpretive investigations. Here we review the current understanding of the overall temperature-dependent rate coefficient for three-body recombination of oxygen atoms and describe a strategy for its measurement. The most recent measurement [1] is almost 30 years old. The most comprehensive review [2] is more than 25 years old and shows that the absolute rate coefficients for recombination and the reverse process, collision-induced dissociation, as well as the dependence on temperature and collider, are poorly determined, in spite of the relatively narrow error bars reported in the various studies. The most recent high-temperature dissociation study [3] actually increases the divergence. We plan experiments with a commercial F2 laser, providing roughly 50 mJ of 157 nm radiation in a 3-4 mm beam, to achieve greater than 80% dissociation of molecular oxygen, in the range from 0.5 to 5 torr. In a high-pressure N2 background (30-200 torr) the oxygen atoms will recombine in a time scale from 0.1 to 10 ms, as monitored by 845 nm fluorescence excited by two photons at 226 nm. [1] I. M. Campbell and C. N. Gray, Chem. Phys. Lett. 18, 607 (1973). [2] D. L. Baulch, D. D. Drysdale, J. Duxbury, and S. J. Grant, Evaluated Kinetic Data for High Temperature Reactions Vol. 3 ``Homogeneous Gas Phase Reactions of the O2--O3 System, the CO--O2--H2 System, and of Sulphur-Containing Species," (Butterworths, London, 1976). [3] V. Naudet, S. Abid, and C. E. Paillard, J. Chim. Phys. 96, 1123 (1999).

  17. Atomic oxygen beam source for erosion simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuthbertson, J. W.; Langer, W. D.; Motley, R. W.; Vaughn, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    A device for the production of low energy (3 to 10 eV) neutral atomic beams for surface modification studies is described that reproduces the flux of atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit. The beam is produced by the acceleration of plasma ions onto a negatively biased plate of high-Z metal; the ions are neutralized and reflected by the surface, retaining some fraction of their incident kinetic energy, forming a beam of atoms. The plasma is generated by a coaxial RF exciter which produces a magnetically-confined (4 kG) plasma column. At the end of the column, ions fall through the sheath to the plate, whose bias relative to the plasma can be varied to adjust the beam energy. The source provides a neutral flux approximately equal to 5 x 10(exp 16)/sq cm at a distance of 9 cm and a fluence approximately equal to 10(exp 20)/sq cm in five hours. The composition and energy of inert gas beams was diagnosed using a mass spectometer/energy analyzer. The energy spectra of the beams demonstrate energies in the range 5 to 15 eV, and qualitatively show expected dependences upon incident and reflecting atom species and potential drop. Samples of carbon film, carbon-based paint, Kapton, mylar, and teflon exposed to atomic O beams show erosion quite similar to that observed in orbit on the space shuttle.

  18. Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on Atomic Oxygen Effects. [low earth orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    A workshop was held to address the scientific issues concerning the effects of atomic oxygen on materials in the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment. The program included 18 invited speakers plus contributed posters covering topics such as LEO spaceflight experiments, interaction mechanisms, and atomic oxygen source development. Discussion sessions were also held to organize a test program to evaluate atomic oxygen exposure facilities. The key issues raised in the workshop were: (1) the need to develop a reliable predictive model of the effects of long-term exposure of materials to the LEO environment; (2) the ability of ground-based exposure facilities to provide useful data for development of durable materials; and (3) accurate determination of the composition of the LEO environment. These proceedings include the invited papers, the abstracts for the contributed posters, and an account of the test program discussion sessions.

  19. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation effects on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.

    1991-01-01

    Because atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet radiation present in the low earth orbital (LEO) environment can alter the chemistry of polymers resulting in degradation, their effects and mechanisms of degradation must be determined in order to determine the long term durability of polymeric surfaces to be exposed on missions such as Space Station Freedom. The effects of atomic oxygen on polymers which contain protective coatings must also be explored, since unique damage mechanisms can occur in areas where the protective coatings has failed. Mechanisms can be determined by utilizing results from previous LEO missions, by performing ground based LEO simulation tests and analysis, and by carrying out focussed space experiments. A survey is presented of the interactions and possible damage mechanisms for environmental atomic oxygen and UV radiation exposure of polymers commonly used in LEO.

  20. The effect of atomic oxygen on polysiloxane-polyimide for spacecraft applications in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Cooper, Jill M.; Olle, Raymond M.

    1991-01-01

    Polysiloxane-polyimide films are of interest as a replacement for polyimide Kapton in the Space Station Freedom solar array blanket. The blanket provides the structural support for the solar cells as well as providing transport of heat away from the back of the cells. Polyimide Kapton would be an ideal material to use; however, its high rate of degradation due to attack by atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit, at the altitudes Space Station Freedom will fly, is of such magnitude that if left unprotected, the blanket will undergo structural failure in much less than the desired 15 year operating life. Polysiloxane-polyimide is of interest as a replacement material because it should from its own protective silicon dioxide coating upon exposure to atomic oxygen. Mass, optical, and photomicrographic data obtained in the evaluation of the durability of polysiloxane-polyimide to an atomic oxygen environment are presented.

  1. Preparation of atomic oxygen resistant polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tortorelli, Victor J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Connell, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    Polyphenyl quinoxalines (PPQs) are an important family of high performance polymers that offer good chemical and thermal stability coupled with excellent mechanical properties. These aromatic heterocyclic polymers are potentially useful as films, coatings, adhesives, and composite materials that demand stability in harsh environments. Our approach was to prepare PPQs with pendent siloxane groups using the appropriate chemistry and then evaluate these polymers before and after exposure to simulated atomic oxygen. Either monomer, the bis(o-diamine)s or the bis(alpha-diketone)s can be synthesized with a hydroxy group to which the siloxane chain will be attached. Several novel materials were prepared.

  2. Facile synthesis of Rh-Pd alloy nanodendrites as highly active and durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yue; Wu, Jianbo; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Yingying; Jin, Chuanhong; Fu, Maoshen; Yang, Hong; Yang, Deren

    2014-05-01

    In addition to activity, durability of Pd-based catalysts in a highly corrosive medium has become one of the most important barriers to limit their industrial applications such as low-temperature fuel cell technologies. Here, Rh with a unique capability to resist against oxidation etching was incorporated into Pd-based catalysts to enhance both their activity and durability for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This idea was achieved through the synthesis of the Rh-Pd alloy nanodendrites by co-reducing Rh and Pd salt precursors in oleylamine (OAm) containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). In this synthesis, Rh-Pd alloy nanostructures with Rh-Pd atomic ratios from 19 : 1 to 1 : 4 were generated by varying the molar ratios of Rh and Pd salt precursors. Interestingly, this variation of the molar ratios of the precursors from Rh rich to Pd rich would lead to the shape evolution of Rh-Pd alloy from dendritic nanostructures to spherical aggregations. We found that Br- ions derived from CTAB were also indispensible to the production of Rh-Pd alloy nanodendrites. Owing to the addition of highly stable Rh as well as the radical structure with a large number of low-coordinated sites on the arms, Rh-Pd alloy nanodendrites with a Rh-Pd atomic ratio of 4 : 1 (Rh80Pd20) exhibited a substantially enhanced electrocatalytic performance towards ORR with a 5% loss of mass activity during the accelerated stability test for 10 000 cycles compared to ~50% loss of the commercial Pt/C (E-TEK).In addition to activity, durability of Pd-based catalysts in a highly corrosive medium has become one of the most important barriers to limit their industrial applications such as low-temperature fuel cell technologies. Here, Rh with a unique capability to resist against oxidation etching was incorporated into Pd-based catalysts to enhance both their activity and durability for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This idea was achieved through the synthesis of the Rh-Pd alloy nanodendrites by co

  3. Atomic oxygen in the Martian thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, A. I. F.; Alexander, M. J.; Meier, R. R.; Paxton, L. J.; Bougher, S. W.; Fesen, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    Modern models of thermospheric composition and temperature and of excitation and radiative transfer processes are used to simulate the O I 130-nm emission from Mars measured by the Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer. This paper uses the Mars thermospheric general circulation model calculations (MTGCM) of Bougher et al. (1988) and the Monte Carlo partial frequency redistribution multiple scattering code of Meier and Lee (1982). It is found that the decline in atomic oxygen through the daylight hours predicted by the MTGCM cannot be reconciled with the excess afternoon brightness seen in the data. Oxygen concentrations inferred from the data show a positive gradient through the day, in agreement with the original analysis by Strickland et al. (1973). In addition, the data suggest that the oxygen abundance increases toward high southerly latitudes, in contrast with the MTGCM prediction of high values in the Northern Hemisphere. It appears that solar forcing alone cannot account for the observed characteristics of the Martian thermosphere and that wave and tidal effects may profoundly affect the structure, winds, and composition.

  4. Continuum ionization transition probabilities of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. R.; Petrosky, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    The technique of photoelectron spectroscopy was used to obtain the relative continuum transition probabilities of atomic oxygen at 584 A for transitions from 3P ground state into the 4S, D2, and P2 states of the ion. Transition probability ratios for the D2 and P2 states relative to the S4 state of the ion are 1.57 + or - 0.14 and 0.82 + or - 0.07, respectively. In addition, transitions from excited O2(a 1 Delta g) state into the O2(+)(2 Phi u and 2 Delta g) were observed. The adiabatic ionization potential of O2(+)(2 Delta g) was measured as 18.803 + or - 0.006 eV.

  5. Polymeric Materials Resistant to Erosion by Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Thibeault, Sheila A.

    2004-01-01

    Polymer-matrix composites are ideally suited for space vehicles because of high strength to weight ratios. The principal component of the low earth orbit (LEO) is atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen causes surface erosion to polymeric materials. Polymer films with an organometallic additive showed greater resistance to atomic oxygen than the pure polymer in laboratory experiments and in the OPM/MIR experiment. In MISSE, the film with the organometallic additive was still intact after the pure film had completely eroded.

  6. Atomic oxygen reactor having at least one sidearm conduit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for treating a microporous structure with atomic oxygen is presented. The apparatus includes a main gas chamber for flowing gas in an axial direction and a source of gas, containing atomic oxygen, connected for introducing the gas into the main gas chamber. The apparatus employs at least one side arm extending from the main atomic oxygen-containing chamber. The side arm has characteristic relaxation times such that a uniform atomic oxygen dose rate is delivered to a specimen positioned transversely in the side arm spaced from the main gas chamber.

  7. N-doped carbon nanomaterials are durable catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in acidic fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Shui, Jianglan; Wang, Min; Du, Feng; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The availability of low-cost, efficient, and durable catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a prerequisite for commercialization of the fuel cell technology. Along with intensive research efforts of more than half a century in developing nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) to replace the expensive and scarce platinum-based catalysts, a new class of carbon-based, low-cost, metal-free ORR catalysts was demonstrated to show superior ORR performance to commercial platinum catalysts, particularly in alkaline electrolytes. However, their large-scale practical application in more popular acidic polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells remained elusive because they are often found to be less effective in acidic electrolytes, and no attempt has been made for a single PEM cell test. We demonstrated that rationally designed, metal-free, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes and their graphene composites exhibited significantly better long-term operational stabilities and comparable gravimetric power densities with respect to the best NPMC in acidic PEM cells. This work represents a major breakthrough in removing the bottlenecks to translate low-cost, metal-free, carbon-based ORR catalysts to commercial reality, and opens avenues for clean energy generation from affordable and durable fuel cells. PMID:26601132

  8. A unique platinum-graphene hybrid structure for high activity and durability in oxygen reduction reaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengming; Ma, Liang; Liao, Lingwen; Bai, Song; Long, Ran; Zuo, Ming; Xiong, Yujie

    2013-01-01

    It remains a grand challenge to achieve both high activity and durability in Pt electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. Here we develop a class of Pt highly concave cubic (HCC) nanocrystals, which are enriched with high-index facets, to enable high ORR activity. The durability of HCC nanocrystals can be significantly improved via assembly with graphene. Meanwhile, the unique hybrid structure displays further enhanced specific activity, which is 7-fold greater than the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts. Strikingly, it exhibits impressive performance in terms of half-wave potential (E1/2). The E1/2 of 0.967 V at the Pt loading as low as 46 μg cm−2, which stands as 63 mV higher than that of the Pt/C catalysts, is slightly superior to the record observed for the most active porous Pt-Ni catalyst in literature. This work paves the way to designing high-performance electrocatalysts by modulating their surface and interface with loading substrates. PMID:23999570

  9. The ABCs of DME: a home care durable medical equipment/home oxygen program.

    PubMed

    Fry, L M; Rice, M J

    1992-01-01

    With the evolution of high-tech healthcare in the home setting, patients and families now need to learn the skills to perform the tasks that previously were done in hospital settings by health professionals. Numerous private and federally funded home health organizations are offering services to this patient population. The mission of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) is to improve the quality of care provided to the public (JCAHO, 1991b). In 1988, the commission implemented standards for the accreditation of home care and began to survey home care providers (JCAHO, 1988). Standards governing the provision of durable medical equipment are included in the JCAHO Accreditation Manual for Home Care (1991a). The article describes an effective collaborative approach used to develop a comprehensive durable medical equipment/home oxygen (DME/home O2) program at the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center (DVAMC), now called the Veterans Health Administration Medical Center, in East Orange, NJ. Project management principles were used by the quality management (QM) staff to develop and implement the DME/home O2 program successfully. PMID:10119891

  10. Palladium–platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-07-02

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can be attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability.

  11. Palladium-platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-07-01

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can be attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. These results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability.

  12. New Active Optical Technique Developed for Measuring Low-Earth-Orbit Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Demko, Rikako

    2003-01-01

    Polymers such as polyimide Kapton (DuPont) and Teflon FEP (DuPont, fluorinated ethylene propylene) are commonly used spacecraft materials because of desirable properties such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP, a low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low-Earth-orbit (LEO) environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen reaction with polymers causes erosion, which is a threat to spacecraft performance and durability. It is, therefore, important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield E (the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. The most common technique for determining E is a passive technique based on mass-loss measurements of samples exposed to LEO atomic oxygen during a space flight experiment. There are certain disadvantages to this technique. First, because it is passive, data are not obtained until after the flight is completed. Also, obtaining the preflight and postflight mass measurements is complicated by the fact that many polymers absorb water and, therefore, the mass change due to water absorption can affect the E data. This is particularly true for experiments that receive low atomic oxygen exposures or for samples that have a very low E. An active atomic oxygen erosion technique based on optical measurements has been developed that has certain advantages over the mass-loss technique. This in situ technique can simultaneously provide the erosion yield data on orbit and the atomic oxygen exposure fluence, which is needed for erosion yield determination. In the optical technique, either sunlight or artificial light can be used to measure the erosion of semitransparent or opaque polymers as a result of atomic oxygen attack. The technique is simple and adaptable to a rather wide range of polymers, providing that they have a sufficiently high optical absorption coefficient. If one covers a photodiode with a

  13. Operation of the computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Gruenbaum, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    A computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure has been developed to extend atomic oxygen modeling capability to include shadowing and reflections. The model uses average exposure conditions established by the direct exposure model and extends the application of these conditions to treat surfaces of arbitrary shape and orientation.

  14. Atomic oxygen undercutting of LDEF aluminized Kapton multilayer insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degroh, Kim K.

    1991-06-01

    Atomic oxygen undercutting is a potential threat to vulnerable spacecraft materials which have been shielded with an atomic oxygen protective coating. This is due to atomic oxygen attack of oxidizable materials at the point of microscopic defects in the protective coatings which occur during fabrication and handling, or from micrometeoroid and debris bombardment in space. An aluminized Kapton multilayer insulation sample which was flown on the leading edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was used to study low Earth orbit (LEO) directed ram oxygen undercutting. Cracks in the aluminized coatings around the vent holes provided excellent locations for evaluation of atomic oxygen undercutting. The undercutting profiles were compared to Monte Carlo models which predict LEO ram atomic oxygen attack. The shape of the undercurrent profile was found to vary with crack width, which is proportional to the number of atomic oxygen atoms entering the crack. The resulting atomic oxygen undercut profiles which occurred on LDEF indicated wide undercut cavities in spite of the fixed ram orientation. Potential causes of the observed undercutting profiles will be presented. Implications of the undercutting profiles relevant to Space Station Freedom will also be discussed.

  15. Atomic Oxygen Effects on Seal Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, John R.; Underwood, Steve D.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    1999-01-01

    Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM provides the structural interface between separate International Space Station (ISS) elements, such as the Laboratory and Node modules. The CBM consists of an active and a passive half that join together with structural bolts. The seal at this interface is the CBM-to-CBM molded seal. The CBM-to-CBM interface is assembled on orbit, thus the seals can be exposed to the space environment for up to 65 hours. Atomic Oxygen/Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation (AO/VUV) in space is a potential hazard to the seals. Testing was conducted to determine the effect on leakage of the CBM-to-CBM seal material exposed to AO/VUV. The sealing materials were S383 silicone and V835 fluorocarbon material. Control samples, which were not exposed to the AO/VUV environment, were used to ensure that ff any changes in leakage occurred, they could be attributed to the AO/VUV exposure. After exposure to the AO/VUV environment the leakage increase was dramatic for the fluorocarbon. This testing was a major contributing factor in selecting silicone as the CBM-to-CBM seal material.

  16. Atomic Oxygen Effects on Seal Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, John R.; Underwood, Steve D.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    1998-01-01

    Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) provides the structural interface between separate International Space Station (ISS) elements, such as the Laboratory and Node modules. The CBM consists of an active and a passive half that join together with structural bolts. The seal at this interface is the CBM-to-CBM molded seal. The CBM-to-CBM interface is assembled on orbit, thus the seals can be exposed to the space environment for up to 65 hours. Atomic Oxygen/Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation (AO/VUV) in space is a potential hazard to the seals. Testing was conducted to determine the effect on leakage of the CBM-to-CBM seal material exposed to AO/VUV. The sealing materials were S383 silicone and V835 fluorocarbon material. Control samples, which were not exposed to the AO/VUV environment, were used to ensure that if any changes in leakage occurred, they could be attributed to the AO/VUV exposure. After exposure to the AO/VUV environment the leakage increase was dramatic for the fluorocarbon. This testing was a major contributing factor in selecting silicone as the CBM-to-CBM seal material.

  17. Atomic oxygen interactions with FEP Teflon and silicones on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Gebauer, Linda; Hill, Carol M.

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft has enabled the measurement of the effects of fixed orientation exposure of high fluence atomic oxygen on fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP Teflon) and silicones. The atomic oxygen erosion yield for the FEP Teflon was found to be 3.64 x 10(exp -25) cm(exp 3)/atom. This erosion yield is significantly higher than that measured from previous low fluence orbital data. The FEP Teflon erosion yield was found to have the same dependence on oxygen arrival angle as Kapton and Mylar. Atomic oxygen interaction with silicon polymers results in the crazing of silicon. Released silicone contaminants were found to darken upon further atomic oxygen exposure.

  18. Loss of atomic oxygen in mass spectrometer ion sources.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, L. R.; Nier, A. O.

    1973-01-01

    A gas beam consisting of a mixture of atomic and molecular oxygen has been directed at the ion source of a mass spectrometer like those used in sounding rockets for determining the neutral composition of the lower thermosphere. The loss of atomic oxygen on mass spectrometer surfaces was evaluated by flagging the beam in several ways and comparing the experimental results with predicted values. The results obtained suggest that in rocket flights using similar instruments the atomic oxygen densities computed assuming no-loss conditions may be low by a factor of 2.5. Studies made using a beam containing tracer O-18 indicate that carbon dioxide observed when atomic oxygen enters the source is formed in a reaction involving atomic oxygen from the beam and carbon monoxide from the surfaces bombarded.

  19. A Sensitive Technique Using Atomic Force Microscopy to Measure the Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Clark, Gregory W.; Hammerstrom, Anne M.; Youngstrom, Erica E.; Kaminski, Carolyn; Fine, Elizabeth S.; Marx, Laura M.

    2001-01-01

    Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) are commonly used spacecraft materials due to their desirable properties such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers occurs in LEO and is a threat to spacecraft durability. It is therefore important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. Because long-term space exposure data is rare and very costly, short-term exposures such as on the shuttle are often relied upon for atomic oxygen erosion determination. The most common technique for determining E is through mass loss measurements. For limited duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle experiments, the atomic oxygen fluence is often so small that mass loss measurements can not produce acceptable uncertainties. Therefore, a recession measurement technique has been developed using selective protection of polymer samples, combined with postflight atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis, to obtain accurate erosion yields of polymers exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. This paper discusses the procedures used for this recession depth technique along with relevant characterization issues. In particular, a polymer is salt-sprayed prior to flight, then the salt is washed off postflight and AFM is used to determine the erosion depth from the protected plateau. A small sample was salt-sprayed for AFM erosion depth analysis and flown as part of the Limited Duration Candidate Exposure (LDCE-4,-5) shuttle flight experiment on STS-51. This sample was used to study issues such as use of contact versus non-contact mode imaging for determining recession depth measurements. Error analyses were conducted and the percent probable

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling effects on atomic oxygen protective photovoltaic array blanket materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, J.; Banks, B.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of synergistic environmental exposure is demonstrated through the evaluation of DuPont 93-1 in simulated LEO environment. Changes in optical properties, surface condition, and mass loss data are described. The qualitative results indicate the necessity for exposure of materials to a series of simulated LEO environments in order to properly determine synergistic effects and demonstrate the overall LEO durability of candidate materials. It is shown that synergistic effects may occur with vacuum thermal cycling combined with VUV radiation followed by atomic oxygen exposure. Testing the durability of candidate solar array blanket materials in a test sequence with necessary synergistic effects makes it possible to determine the appropriate material for providing structural support and maintaining the proper operating temperature for solar cells in the SSF Photovaltaic Power System.

  1. Kinetics and mechanisms of some atomic oxygen reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cvetanovic, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Mechanisms and kinetics of some reactions of the ground state of oxygen atoms, O(3P), are briefly summarized. Attention is given to reactions of oxygen atoms with several different types of organic and inorganic compounds such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, and some oxygen, nitrogen, halogen and sulfur derivatives of these compounds. References to some recent compilations and critical evaluations of reaction rate constants are given.

  2. Undercutting of defects in thin film protective coatings on polymer surfaces exposed to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Mihelcic, Judith A.

    1989-01-01

    Protection for polymeric surfaces is needed to make them durable in the low Earth orbital environment, where oxidation by atomic oxygen is the predominant failure mechanism. Thin film coatings of oxides such as silicon dioxide are viable candidates to provide this protection, but concern has been voiced over the ability of these coatings to protect when defects are present in the coating due to surface anomalies occurring during the deposition process, handling, or micrometeoroid and debris bombardment in low Earth orbit. When a defected coating protecting a polymer substrate is exposed to atomic oxygen, the defect provides a pathway to the underlying polymer allowing oxidation and subsequent undercutting to occur. Defect undercutting was studied for sputter deposited coatings of silicon dioxide on polyimide Kapton. Preliminary results indicate that undercutting may be limited as long as the coating remains intact with the substrate. Therefore, coatings may not need to be defect free to give protection to the underlying surface.

  3. Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Effective Atomic-Oxygen Fluence Determined for DC 93-500 Silicone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Ma, David

    2005-01-01

    Surfaces on the leading edge of spacecraft in low Earth orbit (e.g., surface facing the velocity direction), such as on the International Space Station, are subject to atomic oxygen attack, and certain materials are susceptible to erosion. Therefore, ground-based laboratory testing of the atomic oxygen durability of spacecraft materials is necessary for durability assessment when flight data are not available. For accurate space simulation, the facility is commonly calibrated on the basis of the mass loss of Kapton (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) as a control sample for effective fluence determination. This is because Kapton has a well-characterized atomic oxygen erosion yield (E(sub y), in cubic centimeters per atom) in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Silicones, a family of commonly used spacecraft materials, do not chemically erode away with atomic oxygen attack like other organic materials that have volatile oxidation products. Instead, silicones react with atomic oxygen and form an oxidized hardened silicate surface layer. Often the loss of methyl groups causes shrinkage of the surface skin and "mud-tile" crazing degradation. But silicones often do not lose mass, and some silicones actually gain mass during atomic oxygen exposure. Therefore, the effective atomic oxygen fluence for silicones in a ground-test facility should not be determined on the basis of traditional mass-loss measurements, as it is with polymers that erode. Another method for determining effective fluence needs to be employed for silicones. A new technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for determining the effective atomic oxygen fluence for silicones in ground-test facilities. This technique determines the equivalent amount of atomic oxygen oxidation on the basis of changes in the surface-oxide hardness. The specific approach developed was to compare changes in the surface hardness of ground-laboratory-exposed DC93-500 silicone with DC93-500 exposed to LEO atomic oxygen

  4. Matrix reactions of methylsilanes and oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Withnall, R.; Andrews, L.

    1988-02-11

    The reaction of oxygen atoms and substituted methylsilanes have been investigated in argon matrices at 14-17 K. Products were identified by using isotopic /sup 18/O/sub 3/ precursor and deuterium substitution in the Si-H bonds. With MeSiH/sub 3/, Me/sub 2/SiH/sub 2/, and Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/, the silanols MeSiH/sub 2/OH, Me/sub 2/SiHOH, and SiH/sub 3/SiH/sub 2/OH were formed, respectively. These molecules contain the Si-O-H functional group with 3708-3711-cm/sup -1/ O-H stretching frequencies. For Me/sub 4/Si, the carbinol Me/sub 3/SiCH/sub 2/OH was produced with a lower 3637-cm/sup -1/ O-H stretching frequency. Me/sub 3/SiH was different: the silanol was not observed, but instead a product tentatively identified as CH/sub 2/=Si(OH)Me was formed. Also, the silanones H/sub 2/SiO and Me(H)SiO were produced from MeSIH/sub 2/, Me(H)SiO and Me/sub 2/SiH/sub 2/ were formed with Me/sub 2/SiH/sub 2/, and Me/sub 2/SiO was again observed with Me/sub 2/SiH. These silanones contain the Si=O functional group with stretching frequencies of 1201-1209 cm/sup -1/.

  5. Performance and durability of improved air-atomizing splash-cone fuel nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    An improved design of air-atomizing fuel nozzles was determined from a study of four differently shaped splash-cone fuel nozzles after 56 hr of durability testing in a combustor segment. Test conditions included fuel-air ratios of 0.008 to 0.018, inlet-air total pressures of 41 to 203 N/cm, inlet-air temperatures of 477 to 811 K, and a reference velocity of 21.3 m/sec. Flat-tip fuel nozzles showed the least erosion damage and at a combustor operating condition of 700 K and 101 N/sq cm an oxides-of-nitrogen emission index of 12 and a smoke number of approximately 18 with a fuel-air ratio of 0.018. Emission indices for carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were 44 and 16, respectively, at simulated idle conditions of 477 K and 41 N/sq cm.

  6. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center atomic oxygen investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the MSFC atomic oxygen investigations is provided, including descriptions of flight studies, ground-based testing, contractual efforts, and future focus. Summary results of flight experiments on STS-5, STS-8, and STS 41-G are presented. The development of the MSFC Atomic Oxygen Resistive Monitor for the upcoming EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials 3) flight experiment is reviewed. Materials characterization work and ground-based testing are described. Contractual efforts, such as the development of atomic oxygen resistant coatings for the space station, are discussed. Future emphasis is placed on ground-based testing via the development and operation of a state-of-the-art atomic oxygen simulation system and on the continuation of flight studies in support of multi-programs.

  7. Use of Atomic Oxygen for the Determination of Document Alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Klubnik, Larisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, which normally is found only the near Earth space environment, causes oxidation and erosion of polymers on spacecraft. The development of technology to prevent this degradation has required NASA to develop ground laboratory facilities that generate atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen has also been found to be able to oxidize most types of ink from a variety of types of pens. The use of atomic oxygen to identify alteration of documents has been investigated and is reported. Results of testing indicates that for many types of ink, pen, and paper, identification of document alteration of pen and ink numbers and evidence of alteration can be made visible by exposing the questionable writing to atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen provides discrimination because different inks may oxidize at different rates, the amount of time between delayed alteration may add to ink thickness at crossings, and the end of pen strokes tend to have much thicker ink deposits than the rest of the character. Examples and techniques of using atomic oxygen to identify document alteration indicate that the technology can, in many but not all cases, provide discrimination between original and altered documents.

  8. Materials screening chamber for testing materials resistance to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.; Carruth, Ralph

    1989-01-01

    A unique test chamber for exposing material to a known flux of oxygen atoms is described. The capabilities and operating parameters of the apparatus include production of an oxygen atom flux in excess of 5 x 10 to the 16th atoms/sq cm-sec, controlled heating of the sample specimen, RF circuitry to contain the plasma within a small volume, and long exposure times. Flux measurement capabilities include a calorimetric probe and a light titration system. Accuracy and limitations of these techniques are discussed. An extension to the main chamber to allow simultaneous ultraviolet and atomic oxygen exposure is discussed. The oxygen atoms produced are at thermal energies. Sample specimens are maintained at any selected temperature between ambient and 200 C, to within + or - 2 C. A representative example of measurements made using the chamber is presented.

  9. Boron nitride nanosheets as oxygen-atom corrosion protective coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhao, Xiaohu; Liang, Shuaishuai; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-07

    The research of two-dimensional nanomaterials for anticorrosion applications is just recently burgeoning. Herein, we demonstrate the boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) coatings for protecting polymer from oxygen-atom corrosion. High-quality BNNSs, which are produced by an effective fluid dynamics method with multiple exfoliation mechanisms, can be assembled into coatings with controlled thickness by vacuum filtration. After exposed in atom oxygen, the naked polymer is severely corroded with remarkable mass loss, while the BNNSs-coated polymer remains intact. Barrier and bonding effects of the BNNSs are responsible for the coating's protective performance. These preliminary yet reproducible results pave a way for resisting oxygen-atom corrosion.

  10. Atomic oxygen interactions with FEP Teflon and silicones on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Gebauer, Linda

    1991-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft represents the first controlled unidirectional exposure of high-fluence atomic oxygen on fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP Teflon) and silicones. The atomic oxygen erosion yield for FEP Teflon was found to be significantly in excess of previous low fluence orbital data and is an order of magnitude below that of polyimide Kapton. LDEF FEP Teflon erosion yield data as a function of angle of attack is presented. Atomic oxygen interaction with silicon polymers results in crazing of the silicones as well as deposition of dark contaminant oxidation products on adjoining surfaces. Documentation of results and possible mechanistic explanations are presented.

  11. A review on recent upper atmosphere atomic oxygen measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Martin; Ern, Manfred; Riese, Martin; Zhu, Yajun

    2016-07-01

    Atomic oxygen is a key player in the upper mesosphere lower and thermosphere chemistry, energy balance, and dynamics. In recent years, a few new global datasets of this species have been presented. They are based on airglow measurements from low earth satellites. Surprisingly, the atomic oxygen abundance differs by 30-50% for similar atmospheric conditions. This paper gives an overview on the various atomic oxygen datasets available so far and presents most recent results obtained from measurements of the SCIAMACHY instrument on Envisat. Differences between the datasets are discussed.

  12. Introduction to simulation of upper atmosphere oxygen satellite exposed to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peplinski, D. R.; Arnold, G. S.; Borson, E. N.

    1984-01-01

    A brief review of atmospheric composition in low Earth orbit is presented. The flux of ambient atomic oxygen incident on a surface orbiting in this environment is described. Estimates are presented of the fluence of atomic oxygen to which satellite surfaces in various orbits are exposed.

  13. Palladium-platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-01-01

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can be attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. These results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability. PMID:26133469

  14. Palladium–platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; et al

    2015-07-02

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can bemore » attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability.« less

  15. Proposed reference models for atomic oxygen in the terrestrial atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llewellyn, E. J.; Mcdade, I. C.; Lockerbie, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    A provisional Atomic Oxygen Reference model was derived from average monthly ozone profiles and the MSIS-86 reference model atmosphere. The concentrations are presented in tabular form for the altitude range 40 to 130 km.

  16. Hypervelocity supersonic nozzle beam source of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, A.; Unkel, W.; Silver, J.; Kolb, C.

    1984-01-01

    A hypervelocity source of atomic oxygen was developed. Dissociation of molecular oxygen is accomplished by injection into a flow of helium and/or argon which has been heated in a commercial plasma torch. Atomic velocities of up to 4 kms(-1) were produced; recent improvements offer the possibility of even higher velocities. This source was utilized in studies of translational-to-vibrational energy transfer in carbon dioxide and in an investigation of the shuttle glow effect.

  17. Collisions of Electrons with Atomic Oxygen: Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. V.; Kanik, I.; Tayal, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    In 1990, two significant reviews of electron-atomic-oxygen collision processes were published. Since that time, a large volume of both experimental and theoretical research into these processes has occurred. These data are reviewed and recommendations regarding existing data sets and future research in this area are made. Attention is given to the challenges associated with handling atomic oxygen in terms of both experiment and theory.

  18. The effects of atomic oxygen on the thermal emittance of high temperature radiator surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, S.K.; Hotes, D.L.; Paulsen, P.E.

    1994-09-01

    Radiator surfaces on high temperature space power systems such as the SP-100 space nuclear power system must maintain a high emittance level in order to reject waste heat effectively. one of the primary materials under consideration for the radiators is carbon-carbon composite. Since carbon is susceptible to attack by atomic oxygen in the low Earth orbital environment, it is important to determine the durability of carbon composites in this environment as well as the effect atomic oxygen has on the thermal emittance of the surface if it is to be considered for use as a radiator. Results indicate that the thermal emittance of carbon-carbon composite (as low as 0.42) can be enhanced by exposure to a directed beam of atomic oxygen to levels above 0.85 at 800 K. This emittance enhancement is due to a change in the surface morphology as a result of oxidation. High aspect ratio cones are formed on the surface which allow more efficient trapping of incident radiation. Erosion of the surface due to oxidation is similar to that for carbon; so that at altitudes less than {approximately}600 km, thickness loss of the radiator could be significant (as much as 0.1 cm/year). A protective coating or oxidation barrier forming additive may be needed to prevent atomic oxygen attack after the initial high emittance surface is formed. Textured surfaces can be formed in ground based facilities or possibly in space if emittance is not sensitive to the orientation of the atomic oxygen arrival that forms the texture.

  19. The effects of atomic oxygen on the thermal emittance of high temperature radiator surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hotes, Deborah L.; Paulsen, Phillip E.

    1989-01-01

    Radiator surfaces on high temperature space power systems such as SP-100 space nuclear power system must maintain a high emittance level in order to reject waste heat effectively. One of the primary materials under consideration for the radiators is carbon-carbon composite. Since carbon is susceptible to attack by atomic oxygen in the low earth orbital environment, it is important to determine the durability of carbon composites in this environment as well as the effect atomic oxygen has on the thermal emittance of the surface if it is to be considered for use as a radiator. Results indicate that the thermal emittance of carbon-carbon composite (as low as 0.42) can be enhanced by exposure to a directed beam of atomic oxygen to levels above 0.85 at 800 K. This emittance enhancement is due to a change in the surface morphology as a result of oxidation. High aspect ratio cones are formed on the surface which allow more efficient trapping of incident radiation. Erosion of the surface due to oxidation is similar to that for carbon, so that at altitudes less than approximately 600 km, thickness loss of the radiator could be significant (as much as 0.1 cm/year). A protective coating or oxidation barrier forming additive may be needed to prevent atomic oxygen attack after the initial high emittance surface is formed. Textured surfaces can be formed in ground based facilities or possibly in space if emittance is not sensitive to the orientation of the atomic oxygen arrival that forms the texture.

  20. Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, formed in Earth s thermosphere, interacts readily with many materials on spacecraft flying in low Earth orbit (LEO). All hydrocarbon based polymers and graphite are easily oxidized upon the impact of approx.4.5 eV atomic oxygen as the spacecraft ram into the residual atmosphere. The resulting interactions can change the morphology and reduce the thickness of these materials. Directed atomic oxygen erosion will result in the development of textured surfaces on all materials with volatile oxidation products. Examples from space flight samples are provided. As a result of the erosive properties of atomic oxygen on polymers and composites, protective coatings have been developed and are used to increase the functional life of polymer films and composites that are exposed to the LEO environment. The atomic oxygen erosion yields for actual and predicted LEO exposure of numerous materials are presented. Results of in-space exposure of vacuum deposited aluminum protective coatings on polyimide Kapton indicate high rates of degradation are associated with aluminum coatings on both surfaces of the Kapton. Computational modeling predictions indicate that less trapping of the atomic oxygen occurs, with less resulting damage, if only the space-exposed surface is coated with vapor deposited aluminum rather than having both surfaces coated.

  1. Oxygen atom reaction with shuttle materials at orbital altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    Surfaces of materials used in the space shuttle orbiter payload bay and exposed during STS-1 through STS-3 were examined after flight. Paints and polymers, in particular Kapton used on the television camera thermal blanket, showed significant change. Generally, the change was a loss of surface gloss on the polymer with apparent aging on the paint surfaces. The Kapton surfaces showed the greatest change, and postflight analyses showed mass loss of 4.8 percent on STS-2 and 35 percent on STS-3 for most heavily affected surfaces. Strong shadow patterns were evident. The greatest mass loss was measured on surfaces which were exposed to solar radiation in conjunction with exposure in the vehicle velocity vector. A mechanism which involves the interaction of atomic oxygen with organic polymer surfaces is proposed. Atomic oxygen is the major ambient species at low orbital altitudes and presents a flux of 8 x 10 to the 14th power atoms/cu cm sec for reaction. Correlation of the expected mass loss based on ground-based oxygen atom/polymer reaction rates shows lower mass loss of the Kapton than measured. Consideration of solar heating effects on reaction rates as well as the high oxygen atom energy due to the orbiter's orbital velocity brings the predicted and measured mass loss in surprisingly good agreement. Flight sample surface morphology comparison with ground based Kapton/oxygen atom exposures provides additional support for the oxygen interaction mechanism.

  2. Production of pulsed atomic oxygen beams via laser vaporization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E.; Coulter, Daniel R.; Liang, Ranty H.; Gupta, Amitava

    1986-01-01

    The generation of energetic pulsed atomic oxygen beams by laser-driven evaporation of cryogenically frozen ozone/oxygen films and thin indium-tin oxide (ITO) films is reported. Mass spectroscopy is used in the mass and energy characterization of beams from the ozone/oxygen films, and a peak flux of 3 x 10 to the 20th/sq m per sec at 10 eV is found. Analysis of the time-of-flight data suggests that several processes contribute to the formation of the oxygen beam. Results show the absence of metastable states such as the 2p(3)3s(1)(5S) level of atomic oxygen blown-off from the ITO films. The present process has application to the study of the oxygen degradation problem of LEO materials.

  3. Laboratory simulation of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.; Oakes, David B.

    1994-01-01

    A pulsed fast oxygen atom source has been used extensively over the last 7 years to investigate the effects of ambient oxygen atoms impacting materials placed in low Earth orbit. In this period, we irradiated well over 2000 material samples with 8 km/s oxygen atoms generated in our source. Typical irradiance level is 3 x 10(exp 20) O atoms/sq cm although some materials have been irradiated to fluence levels as high as 6 x 10(exp 21) O atoms/sq cm. The operating principles and characteristics of our source are reviewed along with diagnostic and handling procedures appropriate to material testing. Representative data is presented on the velocity dependence of oxygen atom erosion rates (the PSI source provides oxygen atoms tunable over the velocity range of 5 to 12 km/s) as well as the dependence on material temperature. Specific examples of non-linear oxidative effects related to surface contamination and test duration are also be provided.

  4. Angular distribution of photoelectrons from atomic oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S. T.; Kennedy, D. J.; Starace, A. F.; Dill, D.

    1974-01-01

    The angular distribution of photoelectrons from atomic oxygen is investigated using Hartree-Fock (HF) wave functions. The correct formulation is used to compare HS and HF results. Agreement between these results is good and the HS calculations have been extended to atomic nitrogen and carbon as well.

  5. Recovery of a Charred Painting Using Atomic Oxygen Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Chichernea, Virgil A.

    1999-01-01

    A noncontact method is described which uses atomic oxygen to remove soot and char from the surface of a painting. The atomic oxygen was generated by the dissociation of oxygen in low pressure air using radio frequency energy. The treatment, which is an oxidation process, allows control of the amount of material to be removed. The effectiveness of char removal from half of a fire-damaged oil painting was studied using reflected light measurements from selected areas of the painting and by visual and photographic observation. The atomic oxygen was able to effectively remove char and soot from the treated half of the painting. The remaining loosely bound pigment was lightly sprayed with a mist to replace the binder and then varnish was reapplied. Caution should he used when treating an untested paint medium using atomic oxygen. A representative edge or corner should he tested first in order to determine if the process would be safe for the pigments present. As more testing occurs, a greater knowledge base will be developed as to what types of paints and varnishes can or cannot be treated using this technique. With the proper precautions, atomic oxygen treatment does appear to be a technique with great potential for allowing very charred, previously unrestorable art to be salvaged.

  6. Atomic oxygen effects on LDEF experiment AO171

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Norwood, Joseph K.

    1993-01-01

    The Solar Array Materials Passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment (SAMPLE), AO171, contained in total approximately 100 materials and materials processes with a 300 specimen complement. With the exception of experiment solar cell and solar cell modules, all test specimens were weighed before flight, thus allowing an accurate determination of mass loss as a result of space exposure. Since almost all of the test specimens were thermal vacuum baked before flight, the mass loss sustained can be attributed principally to atomic oxygen attack. The atomic oxygen effects observed and measured in five classes of materials is documented. The atomic oxygen reactivity values generated for these materials are compared to those values derived for the same materials from exposures on short term shuttle flights. An assessment of the utility of predicting long term atomic oxygen effects from short term exposures is given. This experiment was located on Row 8 position A which allowed all experiment materials to be exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 6.93 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(sup 2) as a result of being positioned 38 degrees off the RAM direction.

  7. Intelsat solar array coupon atomic oxygen flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S.; King, G.; Dunnet, A.; Kirkendahl, T.; Linton, R.; Vaughn, J.

    1994-01-01

    A Hughes communications satellite (INTELSAT series) belonging to the INTELSAT Organization was marooned in low-Earth orbit (LEO) on March 14, 1990, following failure of the Titan launch vehicle third stage to separate properly. The satellite, INTELSAT 6, was designed for service in geosynchronous orbit and contains several materials that are potentially susceptible to attack by atomic oxygen. Analysis showed that direct exposure of the silver interconnects in the satellite photovoltaic array to atomic oxygen in LEO was the key materials issue. Available data on atomic oxygen degradation of silver are limited and show high variance, so solar array configurations of the INTELSAT 6 type and individual interconnects were tested in ground-based facilities and during STS-41 (Space Shuttle Discovery, October 1990) as part of the ISAC flight experiment. Several materials for which little or no flight data exist were also tested for atomic oxygen reactivity. Dry lubricants, elastomers, and polymeric and inorganic materials were exposed to an oxygen atom fluence of 1.1 x 10(exp 20) atoms cm(exp 2). Many of the samples were selected to support Space Station Freedom design and decision making. This paper provides an overview of the ISAC flight experiment and a brief summary of results. In addition to new data on materials not before flown, ISAC provided data supporting the decision to rescue INTELSAT 6, which was successfully undertaken in May 1992.

  8. Energetic Metastable Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms in the Terrestrial Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharchenko, Vasili

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the impact of hot metastable oxygen atoms on the product yields and rate coefficients of atmospheric reactions involving O( (sup 1)D). The contribution of the metastable oxygen atoms to the thermal balance of the terrestrial atmosphere between 50 and 200 km has been determined. We found that the presence of hot O((sup l)D) atoms in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere significantly increases the production rate of the rotationally-vibrationally excited NO molecules. The computed yield of the NO molecules in N2O+ O((sup 1)D) atmospheric collisions, involving non-Maxwellian distributions of the metastable oxygen atoms, is more than two times larger than the NO-yield at a thermal equilibrium. The calculated non-equilibrium rate and yield functions are important for ozone and nitrous oxide modeling in the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

  9. Electron-Impact-Induced Emission Cross Sections of Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noren, C.; Kanik, I.; James, G. K.; Ajello, J. M.; Khakoo, M. A.

    1998-05-01

    One cannot overstate the importance of ultraviolet (UV) lines of neutral atomic oxygen. For example, the atomic oxygen resonance transition at 130.4 nm is a prominent emission feature in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrum of the Earth's aurora and dayglow as well as the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. In this poster, we present our measurements of the electron-impact emission cross sections of the 130.4 nm atomic oxygen feature from threshold to 100 eV impact energy. A high-density atomic oxygen beam, created by a microwave discharge source, was intersected at a right angle by a magnetically focused electron beam. A 0.2m UV spectrometer system was used in the present measurements. It consists of an electron-impact collision chamber in tandem with an UV spectrometer equipped with a CsI coated channel electron multiplier detector. Emitted photons corresponding to radiative decay of collisionally excited state of the 130.4 nm atomic oxygen feature were detected.

  10. Texturing Carbon-carbon Composite Radiator Surfaces Utilizing Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raack, Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Future space nuclear power systems will require radiator technology to dissipate excess heat created by a nuclear reactor. Large radiator fins with circulating coolant are in development for this purpose and an investigation of how to make them most efficient is underway. Maximizing the surface area while minimizing the mass of such radiator fins is critical for obtaining the highest efficiency in dissipating heat. Processes to develop surface roughness are under investigation to maximize the effective surface area of a radiator fin. Surface roughness is created through several methods including oxidation and texturing. The effects of atomic oxygen impingement on carbon-carbon surfaces are currently being investigated for texturing a radiator surface. Early studies of atomic oxygen impingement in low Earth orbit indicate significant texturing due to ram atomic oxygen. The surface morphology of the affected surfaces shows many microscopic cones and valleys which have been experimentally shown to increase radiation emittance. Further study of this morphology proceeded in the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Atomic oxygen experiments on the LDEF successfully duplicated the results obtained from materials in spaceflight by subjecting samples to 4.5 eV atomic oxygen from a fixed ram angle. These experiments replicated the conical valley morphology that was seen on samples subjected to low Earth orbit.

  11. LDEF experiment A0034: Atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Reynolds, John M.; Burris, Charles L.

    1992-01-01

    The passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment A0034, 'Atomic Oxygen Stimulated Outgassing', consisted of two identical one-sixth tray modules, exposing selected thermal control coatings to atomic oxygen and the combined space environment on the leading edge, and for reference, to the relative 'wake' environment of the trailing edge. Optical mirrors were included adjacent to the thermal coatings for deposition of the outgassing products. Ultraviolet grade windows and metal covers were provided for additional assessment of the effects of various environmental factors. Preliminary results indicate that orbital atomic oxygen is both a degrading and optically restorative factor in the thermo-optical properties of selected thermal coatings. There is evidence of more severe optical degradation on collector mirrors adjacent to coatings that were exposed to RAM-impinging atomic oxygen. This evidence of atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing is discussed in relation to alternative factors that could affect degradation. The general effects of the space environment on the experiment hardware as well as the specimens are discussed.

  12. Production of pulsed atomic oxygen beams via laser vaporization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E.; Coulter, Daniel R.; Liang, Ranty H.; Gupta, Amitava

    1987-01-01

    Energetic pulsed atomic oxygen beams were generated by laser-driven evaporation of cryogenically frozen ozone/oxygen films and thin films of indium-tin oxide (ITO). Mass and energy characterization of beams from the ozone/oxygen films were carried out by mass spectrometry. The peak flux, found to occur at 10 eV, is estimated from this data to be 3 x 10(20) m(-2) s(-1). Analysis of the time-of-flight data indicates a number of processes contribute to the formation of the atomic oxygen beam. The absence of metastable states such as the 2p(3) 3s(1) (5S) level of atomic oxygen blown off from ITO films is supported by the failure to observe emission at 777.3 nm from the 2p(3) 3p(1) (5P sub J) levels. Reactive scattering experiments with polymer film targets for atomic oxygen bombardment are planned using a universal crossed molecular beam apparatus.

  13. Energetic Metastable Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms in the Terrestrial Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharchenko, Vasili; Dalgarno, A.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes our research performed under NASA Grant NAG5-11857. The three-year grant have been supported by the Geospace Sciences SR&T program. We have investigated the energetic metastable oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the terrestrial stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere. Hot atoms in the atmosphere are produced by solar radiation, the solar wind and various ionic reactions. Nascent hot atoms arise in ground and excited electronic states, and their translational energies are larger by two - three orders of magnitude than the thermal energies of the ambient gas. The relaxation kinetics of hot atoms determines the rate of atmospheric heating, the intensities of aeronomic reactions, and the rate of atom escape from the planet. Modeling of the non-Maxwellian energy distributions of metastable oxygen and nitrogen atoms have been focused on the determination of their impact on the energetics and chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere between 25 and 250 km . At this altitudes, we have calculated the energy distribution functions of metastable O and N atoms and computed non-equilibrium rates of important aeronomic reactions, such as destruction of the water molecules by O(1D) atoms and production of highly excited nitric oxide molecules. In the upper atmosphere, the metastable O(lD) and N(2D) play important role in formation of the upward atomic fluxes. We have computed the upward fluxes of the metastable and ground state oxygen atoms in the upper atmosphere above 250 km. The accurate distributions of the metastable atoms have been evaluated for the day and night-time conditions.

  14. Electron temperature and concentration in a thermal atomic oxygen source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedrow, Patrick Dennis

    1990-01-01

    A thermal atomic oxygen source for materials screening was built for NASA by Boeing Aerospace. The objective here was to use a microwave interferometer and Langmuir probe to characterize the electron concentration in this thermal atomic oxygen source. Typical operating conditions in the thermal atomic oxygen source were found to produce electron concentrations that were well below the detection threshold of the interferometer (10(exp 8) cm (sup -3)). The researchers calibrated (with the interferometer) the Langmuir probe at an artificially high plasma density and then used the circular and the square Langmuir probes to measure the low electron concentrations that exist during materials exposure tests. Electron concentration was measured as a function of power and position. The electrons were lost to the walls through ambipolar diffusion, and their concentration was accurately described by an equation. The electron concentration was proportional to power squared and decayed exponentially with distance.

  15. Atomic oxygen effects on POSS polyimides in low earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Minton, Timothy K; Wright, Michael E; Tomczak, Sandra J; Marquez, Sara A; Shen, Linhan; Brunsvold, Amy L; Cooper, Russell; Zhang, Jianming; Vij, Vandana; Guenthner, Andrew J; Petteys, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    Kapton polyimde is extensively used in solar arrays, spacecraft thermal blankets, and space inflatable structures. Upon exposure to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO), Kapton is severely eroded. An effective approach to prevent this erosion is to incorporate polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) into the polyimide matrix by copolymerizing POSS monomers with the polyimide precursor. The copolymerization of POSS provides Si and O in the polymer matrix on the nano level. During exposure of POSS polyimide to atomic oxygen, organic material is degraded, and a silica passivation layer is formed. This silica layer protects the underlying polymer from further degradation. Laboratory and space-flight experiments have shown that POSS polyimides are highly resistant to atomic-oxygen attack, with erosion yields that may be as little as 1% those of Kapton. The results of all the studies indicate that POSS polyimide would be a space-survivable replacement for Kapton on spacecraft that operate in the LEO environment. PMID:22188314

  16. Cleaning of Fire Damaged Watercolor and Textiles Using Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Chichernea, Virgil A.; Haytas, Christy A.

    2000-01-01

    A noncontact technique is described that uses atomic oxygen generated under low pressure in the presence of nitrogen to remove soot from the surface of a test watercolor panel and strips of cotton, wool and silk. The process, which involves surface oxidation, permits control of the amount of surface material removed. The effectiveness of soot removal from test panels of six basic watercolors (alizarin crimson, burnt sienna, lemon yellow, yellow ochre, cerulean blue and ultramarine blue) and strips of colored cotton, wool and silk was measured using reflectance spectroscopy. The atomic oxygen removed soot effectively from the treated areas and enabled partial recovery of charred watercolors. However, overexposure can result in removal of sizing, bleaching, and weakening of the structure. With the proper precautions, atomic oxygen treatment appears to have great potential to salvage heavily smoke damaged artworks which were previously considered unrestorable.

  17. Rapid evaluation of the durability of cortical neural implants using accelerated aging with reactive oxygen species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takmakov, Pavel; Ruda, Kiersten; Phillips, K. Scott; Isayeva, Irada S.; Krauthamer, Victor; Welle, Cristin G.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. A challenge for implementing high bandwidth cortical brain-machine interface devices in patients is the limited functional lifespan of implanted recording electrodes. Development of implant technology currently requires extensive non-clinical testing to demonstrate device performance. However, testing the durability of the implants in vivo is time-consuming and expensive. Validated in vitro methodologies may reduce the need for extensive testing in animal models. Approach. Here we describe an in vitro platform for rapid evaluation of implant stability. We designed a reactive accelerated aging (RAA) protocol that employs elevated temperature and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to create a harsh aging environment. Commercially available microelectrode arrays (MEAs) were placed in a solution of hydrogen peroxide at 87 °C for a period of 7 days. We monitored changes to the implants with scanning electron microscopy and broad spectrum electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (1 Hz-1 MHz) and correlated the physical changes with impedance data to identify markers associated with implant failure. Main results. RAA produced a diverse range of effects on the structural integrity and electrochemical properties of electrodes. Temperature and ROS appeared to have different effects on structural elements, with increased temperature causing insulation loss from the electrode microwires, and ROS concentration correlating with tungsten metal dissolution. All array types experienced impedance declines, consistent with published literature showing chronic (>30 days) declines in array impedance in vivo. Impedance change was greatest at frequencies <10 Hz, and smallest at frequencies 1 kHz and above. Though electrode performance is traditionally characterized by impedance at 1 kHz, our results indicate that an impedance change at 1 kHz is not a reliable predictive marker of implant degradation or failure. Significance. ROS, which are known to be present in vivo, can create

  18. Photoionization research on atomic beams. 2: The photoionization cross section of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comes, F. J.; Speier, F.; Elzer, A.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment to determine the absolute value of the photo-ionization cross section of atomic oxygen is described. The atoms are produced in an electrical discharge in oxygen gas with 1% hydrogen added. In order to prevent recombination a crossed beam technique is employed. The ions formed are detected by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The concentration of oxygen atoms in the beam is 57%. The measured photoionization cross section of atomic oxygen is compared with theoretical data. The results show the participation of autoionization processes in ionization. The cross section at the autoionizing levels detected is considerably higher than the absorption due to the unperturbed continuum. Except for wavelengths where autoionization occurs, the measured ionization cross section is in fair agreement with theory. This holds up to 550 A whereas for shorter wavelengths the theoretical values are much higher.

  19. Theoretical model for electrophilic oxygen atom insertion into hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, R.D.; Su, M.D. ); Andres, J.L. Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI ); McDouall, J.J.W. )

    1993-06-30

    A theoretical model suggesting the mechanistic pathway for the oxidation of saturated-alkanes to their corresponding alcohols and ketones is described. Water oxide (H[sub 2]O-O) is employed as a model singlet oxygen atom donor. Molecular orbital calculations with the 6-31G basis set at the MP2, QCISD, QCISD(T), CASSCF, and MRCI levels of theory suggest that oxygen insertion by water oxide occurs by the interaction of an electrophilic oxygen atom with a doubly occupied hydrocarbon fragment orbital. The electrophilic oxygen approaches the hydrocarbon along the axis of the atomic carbon p orbital comprising a [pi]-[sub CH(2)] or [pi]-[sub CHCH(3)] fragment orbital to form a carbon-oxygen [sigma] bond. A concerted hydrogen migration to an adjacent oxygen lone pair of electrons affords the alcohol insertion product in a stereoselective fashion with predictable stereochemistry. Subsequent oxidation of the alcohol to a ketone (or aldehyde) occurs in a similar fashion and has a lower activation barrier. The calculated (MP4/6-31G*//MP2/6-31G*) activation barriers for oxygen atom insertion into the C-H bonds of methane, ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, and methanol are 10.7, 8.2, 3.9, 4.8, 4.5, and 3.3 kcal/mol, respectively. We use ab initio molecular orbital calculations in support of a frontier MO theory that provides a unique rationale for both the stereospecificity and the stereoselectivity of insertion of electrophilic oxygen and related electrophiles into the carbon-hydrogen bond. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Study of the reaction of atomic oxygen with aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akers, F. I.; Wightman, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of disappearance of atomic oxygen was measured at several pressures in a fast flow pyrex reactor system with its walls treated with (NH4)2SO4 (s), H2SO4 (l), and NH4CL (s). Atomic oxygen, P-3 was generated by dissociation of pure, low pressure oxygen in a microwave discharge. Concentrations of atomic oxygen were measured at several stations in the reactor system using chemiluminescent titration with NO2. Recombination efficiencies calculated from experimentally determined wall recombination rate constants are in good agreement with reported values for clean Pyrex and an H2SO4 coated wall. The recombination efficiency for (NH4)2SO4, results in a slightly lower value than for H2S04. A rapid exothermic reaction between atomic oxygen and the NH4Cl wall coating prevented recombination efficiency determination for this coating. The results show that the technique is highly useful for wall recombination measurements and as a means of extrapolating to the case of free stream aerosol-gas interactions.

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet radiation/atomic oxygen synergism in materials reactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven; Leger, Lubert; Albyn, Keith; Cross, Jon

    1990-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which indicate that low fluxes of vacuum UV (VUV) radiation exert a pronounced influence on the atomic oxygen reactivity of such fluorocarbon and fluorocarbon spacecraft materials as the FEP Teflon and PCTFE that are under consideration for the Space Station Freedom. With simultaneous exposure to VUV fluxes comparable to those experienced in LEO, the reactivity of these materials becomes comparable to that of Kapton; VUV radiation has also been shown to increase the reactivity of Kapton with thermal-energy oxygen atoms.

  2. Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Dependence Upon Texture Development in Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Loftus, Ryan J.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2016-01-01

    The atomic oxygen erosion yield (volume of a polymer that is lost due to oxidation per incident atom) of polymers is typically assumed to be reasonably constant with increasing fluence. However polymers containing ash or inorganic pigments, tend to have erosion yields that decrease with fluence due to an increasing presence of protective particles on the polymer surface. This paper investigates two additional possible causes for erosion yields of polymers that are dependent upon atomic oxygen. These are the development of surface texture which can cause the erosion yield to change with fluence due to changes in the aspect ratio of the surface texture that develops and polymer specific atomic oxygen interaction parameters. The surface texture development under directed hyperthermal attack produces higher aspect ratio surface texture than isotropic thermal energy atomic oxygen attack. The fluence dependence of erosion yields is documented for low Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) effective fluences for a variety of polymers under directed hyperthermal and isotropic thermal energy attack.

  3. The survivability of large space-borne reflectors under atomic oxygen and micrometeoroid impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    Solar dynamic power system mirrors for use on space station and other spacecraft flown in low Earth orbit (LEO) are exposed to the harshness of the LEO environment. Both atomic oxygen and micrometeoroids/space debris can degrade the performance of such mirrors. Protective coatings will be required to protect oxidizable reflecting media, such as silver and aluminum, from atomic oxygen attack. Several protective coating materials have been identified as good candidates for use in this application. The durability of these coating/mirror systems after pinhole defects have been inflicted during their fabrication and deployment or through micrometeoroid/space debris impact once on-orbit is of concern. Studies of the effect of an oxygen plasma environment on protected mirror surfaces with intentionally induced pinhole defects have been conducted at NASA Lewis and are reviewed. It has been found that oxidation of the reflective layer and/or the substrate in areas adjacent to a pinhole defect, but not directly exposed by the pinhole, can occur.

  4. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen environmental simulation facility for space materials evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stidham, Curtis R.; Banks, Bruce A.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Dever, Joyce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Bruckner, Eric J.

    1993-01-01

    Simulation of low Earth orbit atomic oxygen for accelerated exposure in ground-based facilities is necessary for the durability evaluation of space power system component materials for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and future missions. A facility developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations's (NASA) Lewis Research Center provides accelerated rates of exposure to a directed or scattered oxygen beam, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, and offers in-situ optical characterization. The facility utilizes an electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source to generate a low energy oxygen beam. Total hemispherical spectral reflectance of samples can be measured in situ over the wavelength range of 250 to 2500 nm. Deuterium lamps provide VUV radiation intensity levels in the 115 to 200 nm range of three to five equivalent suns. Retarding potential analyses show distributed ion energies below 30 electron volts (eV) for the operating conditions most suited for high flux, low energy testing. Peak ion energies are below the sputter threshold energy (approximately 30 eV) of the protective coatings on polymers that are evaluated in the facility, thus allowing long duration exposure without sputter erosion. Neutral species are expected to be at thermal energies of approximately .04 eV to .1 eV. The maximum effective flux level based on polyimide Kapton mass loss is 4.4 x 10 exp 6 atoms/((sq. cm)*s), thus providing a highly accelerated testing capability.

  5. The survivability of large space-borne reflectors under atomic oxygen and micrometeoroid impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    Solar dynamic power system mirrors for use on Space Station and other spacecraft flown in low earth orbit (LEO) are exposed to the harshness of the LEO environment. Both atomic oxygen and micrometeoroids/space debris can degrade the performance of such mirrors. Protective coatings will be required to protect oxidizable reflecting media, such as silver and aluminum, from atomic oxygen attack. Several protective coating materials have been identified as good candidates for use in this application. The durability of these coating/mirror systems after pinhole defects have been inflicted during their fabrication and deployment or through micrometeoroid/space debris impact once on-orbit is of concern. Studies of the effect of an oxygen plasma environment on protected mirror surfaces with intentionally induced pinhole defects have been conducted at NASA Lewis and are reviewed. It has been found that oxidation of the reflective layer and/or the substrate in areas adjacent to a pinhole defect, but not directly exposed by the pinhole, can occur.

  6. A Comparison of Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yields of Carbon and Selected Polymers Exposed in Ground Based Facilities and in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of the relative erosion yields (volume of material removed per oxygen atom arriving) for FEP Teflon, polyethylene, and pyrolytic graphite with respect to Kapton HN was performed in an atomic oxygen directed beam system, in a plasma asher, and in space on the EOIM-III (Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials-III) flight experiment. This comparison was performed to determine the sensitivity of material reaction to atomic oxygen flux, atomic oxygen fluence, and vacuum ultraviolet radiation for enabling accurate estimates of durability in ground based facilities. The relative erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite was found not to be sensitive to these factors, that for FEP was sensitive slightly to fluence and possibly ions, and that for polyethylene was found to be partially VUV and flux sensitive but more sensitive to an unknown factor. Results indicate that the ability to use these facilities for material relative durability prediction is great as long as the sensitivity of particular materials to conditions such as VUV, and atomic oxygen flux and fluence are taken into account. When testing materials of a particular group such as teflon, it may be best to use a witness sample made of a similar material that has some available space data on it. This would enable one to predict an equivalent exposure in the ground based facility.

  7. Coating Pt-Ni Octahedra with Ultrathin Pt Shells to Enhance the Durability without Compromising the Activity toward Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinho; Liu, Jingyue; Peng, Hsin-Chieh; Figueroa-Cosme, Legna; Miao, Shu; Choi, Sang-Il; Bao, Shixiong; Yang, Xuan; Xia, Younan

    2016-08-23

    We describe a new strategy to enhance the catalytic durability of Pt-Ni octahedral nanocrystals in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by conformally depositing an ultrathin Pt shell on the surface. The Pt-Ni octahedra were synthesized according to a protocol reported previously and then employed directly as seeds for the conformal deposition of ultrathin Pt shells by introducing a Pt precursor dropwise at 200 °C. The amount of Pt precursor was adjusted relative to the number of Pt-Ni octahedra involved to obtain Pt-Ni@Pt1.5L octahedra of 12 nm in edge length for the systematic evaluation of their chemical stability and catalytic durability compared to Pt-Ni octahedra. Specifically, we compared the elemental compositions of the octahedra before and after treatment with acetic and sulfuric acids. We also examined their electrocatalytic stability toward the ORR through an accelerated durability test by using a rotating disk electrode method. Even after treatment with sulfuric acid for 24 h, the Pt-Ni@Pt1.5L octahedra maintained their original Ni content, whereas 11 % of the Ni was lost from the Pt-Ni octahedra. After 10 000 cycles of ORR, the mass activity of the Pt-Ni octahedra decreased by 75 %, whereas the Pt-Ni@Pt1.5L octahedra only showed a 25 % reduction. PMID:27460459

  8. Pickup ions near Mars associated with escaping oxygen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravens, T. E.; Hoppe, A.; Ledvina, S. A.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.

    2002-08-01

    Ions produced by ionization of Martian neutral atoms or molecules and picked up by the solar wind flow are expected to be an important ingredient of the Martian plasma environment. Significant fluxes of energetic (55-72 keV) oxygen ions were recorded in the wake of Mars and near the bow shock by the solar low-energy detector (SLED) charged particle detector onboard the Phobos 2 spacecraft. Also, copious fluxes of oxygen ions in the ranges 0.5-25 and 0.01-6 keV/q were detected in the Martian wake by the Automatic Space Plasma Experiment with Rotating Analyzer (ASPERA) instrument on Phobos 2. This paper provides a quantitative analysis of the SLED energetic ion data using a test particle model in which one million ion trajectories were numerically calculated. These trajectories were used to determine the ion flux as a function of energy in the vicinity of Mars for conditions appropriate for Circular Orbit 42 of Phobos 2. The electric and magnetic fields required by the test particle model were taken from a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the solar wind interaction with Mars. The ions were started at rest with a probability proportional to the density expected for exospheric hot oxygen. The test particle model supports the identification of the ions observed in channel 1 of the SLED instrument as pick-up oxygen ions that are created by the ionization of oxygen atoms in the distant part of the exosphere. The flux of 55-72 keV oxygen ions near the orbit of the Phobos 2 should be proportional to the oxygen density at radial distances from Mars of about 10 Rm (Martian radii) and hence proportional to the direct oxygen escape rate from Mars that is an important part of the overall oxygen loss rate at Mars. The modeled energetic oxygen fluxes also exhibit a spin modulation as did the SLED fluxes during Circular Orbit 42.

  9. High velocity atomic oxygen/surface accommodation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krech, R. H.; Gauthier, M. J.; Caledonia, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides the first experimental evaluation of the energy-accommodation coefficients of 8km/s oxygen atoms on selected materials. Preliminary measurements have been provided for three materials at normal incidence. Neglecting chemical energy, the accommodation coefficients for Ni, Au, and reaction-cured glass are approximately 0.6 +/- 50 percent.

  10. Atomic oxygen effects on LDEF experiment A0171

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Norwood, Joseph K.

    1992-01-01

    Mass and thickness changes measured in thin films, composites, polymers, metals, and paints from LDEF Experiment A0171 are presented. Atomic oxygen accommodation and reactivity numbers along with morphology features are shown for a variety of A0171 materials. The validity of predicting long term erosion rates will be assessed from short term environmental exposures.

  11. Atomic Oxygen Lamp Cleaning Facility Fabricated and Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sechkar, Edward A.; Stueber, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Atomic Oxygen Lamp Cleaning Facility was designed to produce an atomic oxygen plasma within a metal halide lamp to remove carbon-based contamination. It is believed that these contaminants contribute to the high failure rate realized during the production of these lamps. The facility is designed to evacuate a metal halide lamp and produce a radio frequency generated atomic oxygen plasma within it. Oxygen gas, with a purity of 0.9999 percent and in the pressure range of 150 to 250 mtorr, is used in the lamp for plasma generation while the lamp is being cleaned. After cleaning is complete, the lamp can be backfilled with 0.9999-percent pure nitrogen and torch sealed. The facility comprises various vacuum components connected to a radiation-shielded box that encloses the bulb during operation. Radiofrequency power is applied to the two parallel plates of a capacitor, which are on either side of the lamp. The vacuum pump used, a Leybold Trivac Type D4B, has a pumping speed of 4-m3/hr, has an ultimate pressure of <8x10-4, and is specially adapted for pure oxygen service. The electronic power supply, matching network, and controller (500-W, 13.56-MHz) used to supply the radiofrequency power were purchased from RF Power Products Inc. Initial test results revealed that this facility could remove the carbon-based contamination from within bulbs.

  12. A sputtering derived atomic oxygen source for studying fast atom reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrieri, Richard A.; Yung, Y. Chu; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for the generation of fast atomic oxygen was developed. These atoms are created by ion beam sputtering from metal oxide surfaces. Mass resolved ion beams at energies up to 60 KeV are produced for this purpose using a 150 cm isotope separator. Studies have shown that particles sputtered with 40 KeV Ar(+) on Ta2O5 were dominantly neutral and exclusively atomic. The atomic oxygen also resided exclusively in its 3P ground state. The translational energy distribution for these atoms peaked at ca 7 eV (the metal-oxygen bond energy). Additional measurements on V2O5 yielded a bimodal distribution with the lower energy peak at ca 5 eV coinciding reasonably well with the metal-oxygen bond energy. The 7 eV source was used to investigate fast oxygen atom reactions with the 2-butene stereoisomers. Relative excitation functions for H-abstraction and pi-bond reaction were measured with trans-2-butene. The abstraction channel, although of minor relative importance at thermal energy, becomes comparable to the addition channel at 0.9 eV and dominates the high-energy regime. Structural effects on the specific channels were also found to be important at high energy.

  13. The Dependence of Atomic Oxygen Undercutting of Protected Polyimide Kapton(tm) H upon Defect Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Aaron; deGroh, Kim K.

    2001-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of polymeric materials when exposed to the low-Earth-orbit (LEO) environment is important in predicting performance characteristics such as in-space durability. Atomic oxygen (AO) present in LEO is known to be the principal agent in causing undercutting erosion of SiO(x) protected polyimide Kapton(R) H film, which serves as a mechanically stable blanket material in solar arrays. The rate of undercutting is dependent on the rate of arrival, directionality and energy of the AO with respect to the film surface. The erosion rate also depends on the distribution of the size of defects existing in the protective coating. This paper presents results of experimental ground testing using low energy, isotropic AO flux together with numerical modeling to determine the dependence of undercutting erosion upon defect size.

  14. Undercutting of defects in thin film protective coatings on polymer surfaces exposed to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Mihelcic, Judith A.

    1989-01-01

    Protection for polymeric surfaces is needed to make them durable in the low earth orbital environment. Thin film coatings of oxides such as SiO2 are viable candidates to provide this protection, but concern has been voiced over the ability of these coatings to protect when defects are present in the coating due to surface anomalies. When a defected coating protecting a polymer substrate is exposed to atomic oxygen, the defect provides a pathway to the underlying polymer allowing oxidation and subsequent undercutting to occur. Defect undercutting was studied for sputter deposited coatings of SiO2 on polyimide Kapton. Preliminary results indicate that undercutting may be limited as long as the coating remains intact with the substrate. Therefore, coatings may not need to be defect free to give protection to the underlying surface.

  15. Novel oxygen atom source for material degradation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krech, R. H.; Caledonia, G. E.

    1988-01-01

    Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has developed a high flux pulsed source of energetic (8 km/s) atomic oxygen to bombard specimens in experiments on the aging and degradation of materials in a low earth orbit environment. The proof-of-concept of the PSI approach was demonstrated in a Phase 1 effort. In Phase 2 a large O-atom testing device (FAST-2) has been developed and characterized. Quantitative erosion testing of materials, components, and even small assemblies (such as solar cell arrays) can be performed with this source to determine which materials and/or components are most vulnerable to atomic oxygen degradation. The source is conservatively rated to irradiate a 100 sq cm area sample at greater than 10(exp 17) atoms/s, at a 10 Hz pulse rate. Samples can be exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence equivalent to the on-orbit ram direction exposure levels incident on Shuttle surfaces at 250 km during a week-long mission in a few hours.

  16. Laboratory investigations involving high-velocity oxygen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Lubert J.; Koontz, Steven L.; Visentine, James T.; Cross, Jon B.

    1989-01-01

    Facilities for measuring material reactive characteristics have been under development for several years and span the atom energy range from thermal to 5 eV, the orbital collision energy. One of the high-atom energy facilities (The High Intensity/Energy Atomic Oxygen Source) capable of simulating the reactive part of LEO is described, along with results of beam characterization and preliminary material studies. The oxygen atom beam source was a continuous wave plasma produced by focusing a high-power CO2 laser through a lens system into a rare gas/molecular oxygen mixture chamber at elevated temperature. Material samples were exposed to the high velocity beam through an external feedthrough. The facility showed good stability in continued operation for more than 100 hours, producing fluences of 10 to the 21st to 10 to the 22nd atoms/sq cm. Reaction efficiencies and surface morphology have been measured for several materials at energies of 1.5 and 2.8 eV, matching with data generated from previous space flights. Activation energies for carbon and Kapton as measured in this facility were 800 cal/mole.

  17. Alternative Methods of the Thermospheric Atomic Oxygen Density Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett. Adam C.; Omidvar, Kazem; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Atomic oxygen density in the upper thermosphere (approximately 300 km) can be calculated using ground based incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Burnside et al. [1991] was the first to try this method, but Buonsanto et al. provided an extensive treatment of the method in 1997. This paper further examines the method using 46 nights of data collected over six years and the latest information on the oxygen collision frequency. The method is compared with the MSIS-86 atomic oxygen prediction values, which are based upon in situ rocket born and satellite measurements from the 70's to the mid-80's In general, the method supports the MSIS-86 model, but indicates several areas of discrepancy. Furthermore, no direct correlation is found between the geomagnetic conditions and the difference between the method and MSIS-86 predictions.

  18. Alternative Method for the Thermospheric Atomic Oxygen Density Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, A. C.; Omidvar, K.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atomic oxygen density in the upper thermosphere (approximately 300 km) can be calculated using ground based incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Burnside et al. was the first to try this method, but Buonsanto et al. provided an extensive treatment of the method in 1997. This paper further examines the method using 46 nights of data collected over six years and the latest information on the oxygen collision frequency. The method is compared with the MSIS (Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter)-86 atomic oxygen prediction values, which are based upon in situ rocket born and satellite measurements from the 70s to the mid-80s. In general, the method supports the MSIS-86 model, but indicates several areas of discrepancy. Furthermore, no direct correlation is found between the geomagnetic conditions and the difference between the method and MSIS-86 predictions.

  19. Velocity distributions of oxygen atoms incident on spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, P. N.; Sisk, R. C.; Gregory, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The angular distributions of oxygen atoms incident on surfaces in low earth orbit have been calculated for a number of ambient gas temperatures. Atom fluxes to surfaces were modeled by integrals over all permitted angles of incidence. Angles of incidence are limited by masking structures, and a number of types of mask were considered. Combustible surfaces exposed to the orbital atmosphere are heavily etched, creating profiles in mask shadows that are sensitive to ambient temperatures. The influence of the angular distributions on the characteristics of etched surfaces is discussed. Profiles measured for a September, 1983 flight were fitted to this model profile with a temperature of 750 + or - 50 K, which agrees with estimates based on solar activity at that time. Applications to sensing ambient temperatures and oxygen atom densities are discussed.

  20. LEO atomic oxygen effects on spacecraft materials: STS-5 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of low Earth orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen were measured on a variety of spacecraft materials which obtained exposure on STS-5. Material degradation dependency on temperature was found in one material. Of the five paints flown, only S13GLO was unaffected. Generally, the glossy paints became Lambertian and the diffuse coatings improved. Scanning electron microscope examinations indicated removal of urethane and epoxy paint binder materials. Reaction products were evident on the surfaces of Z302 paint and Mylar. Thin films showed thickness losses ranging from negligible loss in Teflon to considerable loss in Mylar and Kapton. Glossy films such as black Kapton and white Tedlar became diffused. Kevlar 29 rope lost tensile strength and silver solar cell interconnect material oxidized. Oxidation on the backside of an elevated specimen indicated that reflections of oxygen atoms were occurring and that reflecting surfaces, probably Kapton, were not fully accommodating the incident atoms.

  1. Pd@Pt core-shell concave decahedra: A class of catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction with enhanced activity and durability

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Xue; Vera, Madeline; Chi, Miaofang; Xia, Younan; Luo, Ming; Huang, Hongwen; Ruditskiy, Aleksey; Park, Jinho; Bao, Shixiong; Liu, Jingyue; et al

    2015-11-13

    Here, we report a facile synthesis of multiply twinned Pd@Pt core shell concave decahedra by controlling the deposition of Pt on preformed Pd decahedral seeds. The Pt atoms are initially deposited on the vertices of a decahedral seed, followed by surface diffusion to other regions along the edges/ridges and then across the faces. Different from the coating of a Pd icosahedral seed, the Pt atoms prefer to stay at the vertices and edges/ridges of a decahedral seed even when the deposition is conducted at 200 degrees C, naturally generating a core shell structure covered by concave facets. The nonuniformity inmore » the Pt coating can be attributed to the presence of twin boundaries at the vertices, as well as the {100} facets and twin defects along the edges/ridges of a decahedron, effectively trapping the Pt adatoms at these high-energy sites. As compared to a commercial Pt/C catalyst, the Pd@Pt concave decahedra show substantial enhancement in both catalytic activity and durability toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For the concave decahedra with 29.6% Pt by weight, their specific (1.66 mA/cm2pt) and mass (1.60 A/mg/2pt) ORR activities are enhanced by 4.4 and 6.6 times relative to those of the Pt/C catalyst (0.36 mA/cm2pt and 0.32 A/mgpt, respectively). After 10 000 cycles of accelerated durability test, the concave decahedra still exhibit a mass activity of 0.69 A/mgpt, more than twice that of the pristine Pt/C catalyst.« less

  2. Pd@Pt core-shell concave decahedra: A class of catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction with enhanced activity and durability

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue; Vera, Madeline; Chi, Miaofang; Xia, Younan; Luo, Ming; Huang, Hongwen; Ruditskiy, Aleksey; Park, Jinho; Bao, Shixiong; Liu, Jingyue; Howe, Jane; Xie, Zhaoxiong

    2015-11-13

    Here, we report a facile synthesis of multiply twinned Pd@Pt core shell concave decahedra by controlling the deposition of Pt on preformed Pd decahedral seeds. The Pt atoms are initially deposited on the vertices of a decahedral seed, followed by surface diffusion to other regions along the edges/ridges and then across the faces. Different from the coating of a Pd icosahedral seed, the Pt atoms prefer to stay at the vertices and edges/ridges of a decahedral seed even when the deposition is conducted at 200 degrees C, naturally generating a core shell structure covered by concave facets. The nonuniformity in the Pt coating can be attributed to the presence of twin boundaries at the vertices, as well as the {100} facets and twin defects along the edges/ridges of a decahedron, effectively trapping the Pt adatoms at these high-energy sites. As compared to a commercial Pt/C catalyst, the Pd@Pt concave decahedra show substantial enhancement in both catalytic activity and durability toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For the concave decahedra with 29.6% Pt by weight, their specific (1.66 mA/cm2pt) and mass (1.60 A/mg/2pt) ORR activities are enhanced by 4.4 and 6.6 times relative to those of the Pt/C catalyst (0.36 mA/cm2pt and 0.32 A/mgpt, respectively). After 10 000 cycles of accelerated durability test, the concave decahedra still exhibit a mass activity of 0.69 A/mgpt, more than twice that of the pristine Pt/C catalyst.

  3. Changes in Polymeric Tether Properties Due to Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Watts, Edward W.

    2003-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta II second stage and collects current fiom the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the spent stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-km non-conductive tether, which is then attached to an endmass containing several scientific instruments. Atomic oxygen (AO) erodes most organic materials. As the orbit of the Delta II second stage decas, the AO flux (atoms/sq cm sec) increases. A nominal AO fluence of 1 x l0(exp 21) atoms/sq cm was agreed upon by the investigators as an adequate level for evaluating the performance of the tether materials. A test series was performed to determine the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) on the mechanical integrity and possible strength loss of ProSEDS tether materials. The tether materials in this study were Dyneema, an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene material used as the non-conducting portion of the ProSEDS tether, and the Kevlar core strength fiber used in the conductive tether. Samples of Dyneema and Kevlar were exposed to various levels of atomic oxygen up to 1.07 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm in the Marshall Space Flight Center Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility (AOBF). Changes in mass were noted after AO exposure. The tethers were then tensile-tested until failure. AO affected both the Dyneema and Kevlar tether material strength. Dyneema exposed to 1.07 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm of atomic oxygen failed due to normal handling when removed fiom the AOBF and was not tensile-tested. Another test series was performed to determine the effect of AO on the electrical properties of the ProSEDS conductive tether. The conductive tether consists of seven individually coated strands of 28 AWG 1350

  4. Resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization studies of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixit, S. N.; Levin, D.; Mckoy, V.

    1987-01-01

    In resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI), an atom absorbs several photons making a transition to a resonant intermediate state and subsequently ionizing out of it. With currently available tunable narrow-band lasers, the extreme sensitivity of REMPI to the specific arrangement of levels can be used to selectively probe minute amounts of a single species (atom) in a host of background material. Determination of the number density of atoms from the observed REMPI signal requires a knowledge of the multiphoton ionization cross sections. The REMPI of atomic oxygen was investigated through various excitation schemes that are feasible with available light sources. Using quantum defect theory (QDT) to estimate the various atomic parameters, the REMPI dynamics in atomic oxygen were studied incorporating the effects of saturation and a.c. Stark shifts. Results are presented for REMPI probabilities for excitation through various 2p(3) (4S sup o) np(3)P and 2p(3) (4S sup o) nf(3)F levels.

  5. Atomic oxygen patterning from a biomedical needle-plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Seán; Turner, Miles M.

    2013-09-01

    A "plasma needle" is a cold plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. Such sources interact strongly with living cells, but experimental studies on bacterial samples show that this interaction has a surprising pattern resulting in circular or annular killing structures. This paper presents numerical simulations showing that this pattern occurs because biologically active reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced dominantly where effluent from the plasma needle interacts with ambient air. A novel solution strategy is utilised coupling plasma produced neutral (uncharged) reactive species to the gas dynamics solving for steady state profiles at the treated biological surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental reports corroborating evidence for atomic oxygen as a key bactericidal species. Surface losses are considered for interaction of plasma produced reactants with reactive solid and liquid interfaces. Atomic oxygen surface reactions on a reactive solid surface with adsorption probabilities above 0.1 are shown to be limited by the flux of atomic oxygen from the plasma. Interaction of the source with an aqueous surface showed hydrogen peroxide as the dominant species at this interface.

  6. Atomic oxygen patterning from a biomedical needle-plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Seán; Turner, Miles M.

    2013-09-28

    A “plasma needle” is a cold plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. Such sources interact strongly with living cells, but experimental studies on bacterial samples show that this interaction has a surprising pattern resulting in circular or annular killing structures. This paper presents numerical simulations showing that this pattern occurs because biologically active reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced dominantly where effluent from the plasma needle interacts with ambient air. A novel solution strategy is utilised coupling plasma produced neutral (uncharged) reactive species to the gas dynamics solving for steady state profiles at the treated biological surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental reports corroborating evidence for atomic oxygen as a key bactericidal species. Surface losses are considered for interaction of plasma produced reactants with reactive solid and liquid interfaces. Atomic oxygen surface reactions on a reactive solid surface with adsorption probabilities above 0.1 are shown to be limited by the flux of atomic oxygen from the plasma. Interaction of the source with an aqueous surface showed hydrogen peroxide as the dominant species at this interface.

  7. International Test Program for Synergistic Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K.

    2001-01-01

    The components and materials of spacecraft in low Earth orbit can degrade in thermal and optical performance through interaction with atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, which are predominant in low Earth orbit. Because of the importance of low Earth orbit durability and performance to manufacturers and users, an international test program for assessing the durability of spacecraft materials and components was initiated. Initial tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center consisted of exposure of samples representing a variety of thermal control paints, multilayer insulation materials, and Sun sensors that have been used in space. Materials donated from various international sources were tested alongside materials whose performance is well known, such as Teflon FEP, Kapton H, or Z-93-P white paint. The optical, thermal, or mass loss data generated during the tests were then provided to the participating material suppliers. Data were not published unless the participant donating the material consented to publication. The test program is intended to give spacecraft builders and users a better understanding of degradation processes and effects so that they can improve their predictions of spacecraft performance.

  8. International Test Program for Synergistic Atomic Oxygen and VUV Exposure of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon; Banks, Bruce; Dever, Joyce; Savage, William

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are subject to degradation in thermal and optical performance of components and materials through interaction with atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation which are predominant in LEO. Due to the importance of LEO durability and performance to manufacturers and users, an international test program for assessing the durability of spacecraft materials and components was initiated. Initial tests consisted of exposure of samples representing a variety of thermal control paints and multilayer insulation materials that have been used in space. Materials donated from various international sources were tested alongside a material whose performance is well known such as Teflon FEP or Kapton H for multilayer insulation, or Z-93-P for white thermal control paints. The optical, thermal or mass loss data generated during the test was then provided to the participating material supplier. Data was not published unless the participant donating the material consented to publication. This paper presents a description of the types of tests and facilities that have been used for the test program as well as some examples of data that have been generated. The test program is intended to give spacecraft builders and users a better understanding of degradation processes and effects to enable improved prediction of spacecraft performance.

  9. MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers Experiment Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Catherine E.; Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim, K.

    2010-01-01

    Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers in low Earth orbit (LEO) poses a serious threat to spacecraft performance and durability. To address this, 40 different polymer samples and a sample of pyrolytic graphite, collectively called the PEACE (Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment) Polymers, were exposed to the LEO space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly 4 years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 1 & 2 (MISSE 1 & 2). The purpose of the PEACE Polymers experiment was to obtain accurate mass loss measurements in space to combine with ground measurements in order to accurately calculate the atomic oxygen erosion yields of a wide variety of polymeric materials exposed to the LEO space environment for a long period of time. Error calculations were performed in order to determine the accuracy of the mass measurements and therefore of the erosion yield values. The standard deviation, or error, of each factor was incorporated into the fractional uncertainty of the erosion yield for each of three different situations, depending on the post-flight weighing procedure. The resulting error calculations showed the erosion yield values to be very accurate, with an average error of 3.30 percent.

  10. Durability of Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) in PEM Fuel Cells Operated on Pure Hydrogen and Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanic, Vesna; Braun, James; Hoberecht, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy sources that have the potential to replace alkaline fuel cells for space programs. Broad power ranges, high peak-to-nominal power capabilities, low maintenance costs, and the promise of increased life are the major advantages of PEM technology in comparison to alkaline technology. The probability of PEM fuel cells replacing alkaline fuel cells for space applications will increase if the promise of increased life is verified by achieving a minimum of 10,000 hours of operating life. Durability plays an important role in the process of evaluation and selection of MEAs for Teledyne s Phase I contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center entitled Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel cell (PEMFC) Power Plant Technology Development for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). For this contract, MEAs that are typically used for H2/air operation were selected as potential candidates for H2/O2 PEM fuel cells because their catalysts have properties suitable for O2 operation. They were purchased from several well-established MEA manufacturers who are world leaders in the manufacturing of diverse products and have committed extensive resources in an attempt to develop and fully commercialize MEA technology. A total of twelve MEAs used in H2/air operation were initially identified from these manufacturers. Based on the manufacturers specifications, nine of these were selected for evaluation. Since 10,000 hours is almost equivalent to 14 months, it was not possible to perform continuous testing with each MEA selected during Phase I of the contract. Because of the lack of time, a screening test on each MEA was performed for 400 hours under accelerated test conditions. The major criterion for an MEA pass or fail of the screening test was the gas crossover rate. If the gas crossover rate was higher than the membrane intrinsic permeability after 400 hours of testing, it was considered that the MEA had failed the test. Three types of

  11. Removal of Biologically Active Organic Contaminants using Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Banks, Michael A. (Inventor); Banks, Eric B. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Biomedical devices that are to come into contact with living tissue, such as prosthetic and other implants for the human body and the containers used to store and transport them, are together cleaned of non-living, but biologically active organic materials, including endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides, and assembled into a hermetically sealed package without recontamination. This is achieved by cleaning both the device and package components together in an apparatus, which includes a hermetically sealed chamber, in which they are contacted with atomic oxygen which biocleans them, by oxidizing the biologically active organic materials. The apparatus also includes means for manipulating the device and container and hermetically sealing the cleaned device into the cleaned container to form the package. A calibrated witness coupon visually indicates whether or not the device and container have received enough exposure to the atomic oxygen to have removed the organic materials from their surfaces. Gamma radiation is then used to sterilize the device in the sealed container.

  12. Energetic Atomic Oxygen in the Region of the Terrestrial Exobase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizgal, B.; Sospedra-Alfonso, R.

    2012-12-01

    Translationally energetic atoms in the terrestrial exosphere with energies considerably above thermal energies are responsible for nonthermal emissions and enhanced nonthermal escape of atmospheric species. These escape mechanisms play an important role in the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. The existence of an extended coronae of translationally energetic oxygen atoms O* has been firmly established [1]. One mechanism to produce energetic oxygen atoms is the dissociative recombination reaction, O2+ + e- -> O* + O*. There is a continued interest in a better understanding of the physics of this process for the terrestrial exosphere. The terrestrial atmosphere can be divided into three main regions characterized by their relaxation properties [1]. The lower thermosphere (200-250 km), the upper exosphere (700-800 km) and the transition region (300-700). The lower thermosphere has a predominance of elastic collisions and therefore the particles are essentially in local equilibrium. In contrast, the thermalization in the upper exosphere is less predominant, although the production rate of nonthermal particles is also low. In the transition region, the production rate of nonthermal particles is significant and there is a decrease in the thermalization rate. This region is the main source of the nonthermal geocorona [1]. The relaxation properties of this region implies that the particle distribution can deviate from statistical equilibrium, and the distribution of nonthermal particles can be described with kinetic theory. In [2], we modeled the energetic oxygen distribution with a linear Boltzmann equation that included a source term for the production of hot oxygen owing to dissociative recombination. The distribution function was assumed to be isotropic and the objective was to determine the departure of the distribution function from Maxwellian and the departure of the density profile from barometric. In the present work, we consider a two component system of

  13. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.; Choi, H. J.; Kang, S. W.; Shin, S. E.; Choi, G. S.; Bae, D. H.

    2016-03-01

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (<300 nm) surrounding the larger grains (~15 μm). The metal/non-metal interstitial alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design.

  14. A Comprehensive X-Ray Absorption Model for Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorczyca, T. W.; Bautista, M. A.; Hasoglu, M. F.; Garcia, J.; Gatuzz, E.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kallman, T. R.; Manson, S. T.; Mendoza, C.; Raassen, A. J. J.; de Vries, C. P.; Zatsarinny, O.

    2013-01-01

    An analytical formula is developed to accurately represent the photoabsorption cross section of atomic Oxygen for all energies of interest in X-ray spectral modeling. In the vicinity of the K edge, a Rydberg series expression is used to fit R-matrix results, including important orbital relaxation effects, that accurately predict the absorption oscillator strengths below threshold and merge consistently and continuously to the above-threshold cross section. Further, minor adjustments are made to the threshold energies in order to reliably align the atomic Rydberg resonances after consideration of both experimental and observed line positions. At energies far below or above the K-edge region, the formulation is based on both outer- and inner-shell direct photoionization, including significant shake-up and shake-off processes that result in photoionization-excitation and double-photoionization contributions to the total cross section. The ultimate purpose for developing a definitive model for oxygen absorption is to resolve standing discrepancies between the astronomically observed and laboratory-measured line positions, and between the inferred atomic and molecular oxygen abundances in the interstellar medium from XSTAR and SPEX spectral models.

  15. Degradation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria by neutral oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Cvelbar, U.; Mozetic, M.; Hauptman, N.; Klanjsek-Gunde, M.

    2009-11-15

    The degradation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria during treatment with neutral oxygen atoms was monitored by scanning electron microscopy. Experiments were performed in an afterglow chamber made from borosilicate glass. The source of oxygen atoms was remote inductively coupled radiofrequency oxygen plasma. The density of atoms at the samples was 8x10{sup 20} m{sup -3}. The treatment was performed at room temperature. The first effect was the removal of dried capsule. Capsule on exposed parts of bacteria was removed after receiving the dose of 6x10{sup 23} at./m{sup 2}, while the parts of capsule filling the gaps between bacteria were removed after receiving the dose of 2.4x10{sup 24} m{sup -2}. After removing the capsule, degradation continued as etching of bacterial cell wall. The etching was rather nonuniform as holes with diameter of several 10 nm were observed. The cell wall was removed after receiving the dose of about 7x10{sup 24} m{sup -2}. The etching probabilities were about 2x10{sup -5} for the capsule and 2x10{sup -6} for the cell wall. The results were explained by different compositions of capsule and the cell wall.

  16. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Choi, H J; Kang, S W; Shin, S E; Choi, G S; Bae, D H

    2016-01-01

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C; the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (<300 nm) surrounding the larger grains (~15 μm). The metal/non-metal interstitial alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design. PMID:26976372

  17. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H.; Choi, H. J.; Kang, S. W.; Shin, S. E.; Choi, G. S.; Bae, D. H.

    2016-01-01

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C; the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (<300 nm) surrounding the larger grains (~15 μm). The metal/non-metal interstitial alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design. PMID:26976372

  18. Experimental results on atomic oxygen corrosion of silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, Albert T.

    1988-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the reaction kinetics of silver with atomic oxygen in 10 degree increments over the temperature range of 0 to 70 C is reported. The silver specimens, of the order of 10,000 A in thickness, were prepared by thermal evaporation onto 3 inch diameter polished silicon wafers. There were later sliced into pieces having surface areas of the order of 1/4 to 1/2 square inch. Atomic oxygen was generated by a gas discharge in a commercial plasmod asher operating in the megahertz frequency range. The sample temperature within the chamber was controlled by means of a thermoelectric unit. Exposure of the silver specimens to atomic oxygen was incremental, with oxide film thickness measurements being carried out between exposures by means of an automated ellipsometer. For the early growth phase, the data can be described satisfactorily by a logarithmic growth law: the oxide film thickness increases as the logarithm of the exposure time. Furthermore, the oxidation process is thermally activated, the rate increasing with increasing temperature. However, the empirical activation energy parameter deduced from Arrhenius plots is quite low, being of the order of 0.1 eV.

  19. Electron stimulated desorption of atomic oxygen from silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, R. A.; Peregoy, W. K.; Hoflund, Gar B.; Corallo, Gregory R.

    1987-01-01

    The electron stimulated desorption (ESD) of neutral oxygen atoms from polycrystalline silver and of oxygen ions from Ag(110) has been studied. Polycrystalline Ag charged with (16)O2 and (18)O2 and bombarded by low-energy electrons (approx 100 eV) under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions emitted O atom flux levels of 1 x 10 to the 12th power/sq cm/s at a Ag temperature of 300 C. The flux was detected with a quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the appearance potential mode. The neutral cross section at about 100 C was determined to be 7 x 10 to the -19 sq cm. Ancillary experiments conducted in a UHV chamber equipped with a cylindrical mirror analyzer and rigged for ion energy distribution and ion angular distribution were used to study O ions desorbed from Ag(110). Two primary O(+) energies of 2.4 and 5.4 eV were detected from the Ag(110) after having been dosed with 2500 L of (16)O2. It also appears that in both experiments there was strong evidence for directionality of the emitted flux. The results of this study serve as a proof of concept for the development of a laboratory atomic oxygen beam generator that simulates the gas flux environment experienced by orbiting vehicles.

  20. Theoretical approach to oxygen atom degradation of silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, Albert T., Jr.; Noh, Seung; Beshears, Ronald; Whitaker, Ann F.; Little, Sally A.

    1987-01-01

    Based on available Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and ellipsometry data obtained on silver specimens subjected to atomic oxygen attack in low Earth orbit STS flight 41-G, a theory was developed to model the oxygen atom degradation of silver. The diffusion of atomic oxygen in a microscopically nonuniform medium is an essential constituent of the theory. The driving force for diffusion is the macroscopic electrochemical potential gradient developed between the specimen surface exposed to the ambient and the bulk of the silver specimen. The longitudinal electric effect developed parallel to the gradient is modified by space charge of the diffusing charged species. Lateral electric fields and concentration differences also exist due to the nonuniform nature of the medium. The lateral concentration differences are found to be more important than the lateral electric fields in modifying the diffusion rate. The model was evaluated numerically. Qualitative agreement exists between the kinetics predicted by the theory and kinetic data taken in ground-based experiments utilizing a plasma asher.

  1. The effects of low earth orbit atomic oxygen on the properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooshangi, Zhila; Hossein Feghhi, Seyed Amir; Saeedzadeh, Rezgar

    2016-02-01

    Polymers are widely used in space systems as the structural materials. The low earth orbit (LEO) space environment includes hazards such as atomic oxygen. Exposure of polymeric materials to atomic oxygen results in destructive effects on the chemical, electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties as well as surface degradation. In the present work, the effects of atomic oxygen on the mechanical, thermal, and optical properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene film have been investigated. The atomic oxygen density was calculated by SPENVIS tool. After the atomic oxygen exposure by using radio-frequency (RF) plasma source, the appearance of the samples changed, and the mass of the samples reduced because of outgassing. The results of thermal analysis showed that atomic oxygen flux does not affect thermal degradation of samples regarding TGA diagrams. By increasing the atomic oxygen flux, the amount of absorbance increased showing that atomic oxygen had damaged the surface of Polytetrafluoroethylene, and it had oxidized the surface of the polymer.

  2. Towards high-energy and durable lithium-ion batteries via atomic layer deposition: elegantly atomic-scale material design and surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangbo

    2015-01-01

    Targeted at fueling future transportation and sustaining smart grids, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are undergoing intensive investigation for improved durability and energy density. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling uniform and conformal nanofilms, has recently made possible many new advances for superior LIBs. The progress was summarized by Liu and Sun in their latest review [1], offering many insightful views, covering the design of nanostructured battery components (i.e., electrodes and solid electrolytes), and nanoscale modification of electrode/electrolyte interfaces. This work well informs peers of interesting research conducted and it will also further help boost the applications of ALD in next-generation LIBs and other advanced battery technologies.

  3. Kinetically-controlled growth of cubic and octahedral Rh-Pd alloy oxygen reduction electrocatalysts with high activity and durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yucong; Zhan, Fangwei; Du, Jingshan; Jiang, Yingying; Jin, Chuanhong; Fu, Maoshen; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2014-11-01

    Rh is a promising candidate as an indispensible component in bimetallic catalysts due to its unique capability to resist against the aggressive corrosion from the reaction medium. However, Rh has a very strong oxygen binding ability and is generally not suitable for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we have demonstrated shape-controlled synthesis of Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals with high activity and durability for ORR by retarding the reaction kinetics at an ultra-slow injection rate of metal salts using a syringe pump. Under precise control of sluggish reaction kinetics, Pd followed a preferential overgrowth along the <100> direction, whereas the growth behavior of Rh was dominant along the <111> direction. These different kinetically-controlled growth behaviors associated with Rh and Pd were essential for achieving the shape transition between the cube and the octahedron of their alloys. The Rh8Pd92 alloy octahedra exhibited the highest mass activity with a value of 0.18 mA μg-1 in terms of the equivalent Pt cost, and were two-fold higher than that of commercial Pt/C. Significantly, all Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals were highly stable with only less than 25% loss in mass activity after 30 000 CV cycles in O2 saturated acid solution compared to ~56% loss of the commercial Pt/C (E-TEK). Indeed, the mass activity of Rh8Pd92 was 3.3 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C after the accelerated stability test (ADT). This improvement in activity and durability may arise possibly from synergistic effects between the facet and the surface composition.Rh is a promising candidate as an indispensible component in bimetallic catalysts due to its unique capability to resist against the aggressive corrosion from the reaction medium. However, Rh has a very strong oxygen binding ability and is generally not suitable for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we have demonstrated shape-controlled synthesis of Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals with high activity and durability for

  4. Atomic Oxygen Recombination at Surface Defects on Reconstructed (0001) α-Quartz Exposed to Atomic and Molecular Oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Meana-Paneda, Ruben; Paukku, Yuliya Y.; Duanmu, Kaining; Norman, Paul; Schwartzentruber, Thomas E.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2015-04-30

    The surface chemistry of silica is strongly affected by the nature of chemically active sites (or defects) occurring on the surface. Here, we employ quantum mechanical electronic structure calculations to study an uncoordinated silicon defect, a non-bridging oxygen defect, and a peroxyl defect on the reconstructed (0001) surface of α-quartz. We characterized the spin states and energies of the defects, and calculated the reaction profiles for atomic oxygen recombination at the defects. We elucidated the diradical character by analyzing the low-lying excited states using multireference wave function methods. We show that the diradical defects consist of weakly coupled doublet radicals, and the atomic oxygen recombination can take place through a barrierless process at defects. We have delineated the recombination mechanism and computed the formation energy of the peroxyl and non-bridging oxygen defects. We found that key recombination reaction paths are barrierless. In addition, we characterize the electronically excited states that may play a role in the chemical and physical processes that occur during recombination on these surface defect sites.

  5. A comparison of measurements of the oxygen nightglow and atomic oxygen in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siskind, David E.; Sharp, William E.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between the oxygen nightglow and the atomic oxygen density in the lower thermosphere was investigated. This was done using data from two sounding rocket experiments conducted over White Sands Missile Range (32-deg N, 106-deg W). The first flight was launched on November 2, 1978 while the second was launched on December 7, 1981. Both flights contained resonance lamps to measure the atomic oxygen density. The peak density in both cases was near 1.9 x 10 to the 11th/cu cm. In addition, the 1978 flight contained a photometer to measure the 5577 A green line, while the 1981 flight contained photometers to measure the green line, the UV nightglow, and the 7620 A (0,0) atmospheric band. Empirical models of these airglow features were used to compare with the O density measurements. In the case of the atmospheric band, excellent agreement is seen concerning the shape of the atomic oxygen profile, while some discrepancies were seen with the Herzberg band and the green line. In all cases, the absolute value of our peak O density appeared to be about 2.5 times lower, for a given airglow intensity, than previous measurements.

  6. Variable energy, high flux, ground-state atomic oxygen source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A variable energy, high flux atomic oxygen source is described which is comprised of a means for producing a high density beam of molecules which will emit O(-) ions when bombarded with electrons; a means of producing a high current stream of electrons at a low energy level passing through the high density beam of molecules to produce a combined stream of electrons and O(-) ions; means for accelerating the combined stream to a desired energy level; means for producing an intense magnetic field to confine the electrons and O(-) ions; means for directing a multiple pass laser beam through the combined stream to strip off the excess electrons from a plurality of the O(-) ions to produce ground-state O atoms within the combined stream; electrostatic deflection means for deflecting the path of the O(-) ions and the electrons in the combined stream; and, means for stopping the O(-) ions and the electrons and for allowing only the ground-state O atoms to continue as the source of the atoms of interest. The method and apparatus are also adaptable for producing other ground-state atoms and/or molecules.

  7. Atomic scale observation of oxygen delivery during silver–oxygen nanoparticle catalysed oxidation of carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yonghai; Yuchi, Datong; Guan, Pengfei; Xu, Jia; Guo, Lin; Liu, Jingyue

    2016-01-01

    To probe the nature of metal-catalysed processes and to design better metal-based catalysts, atomic scale understanding of catalytic processes is highly desirable. Here we use aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy to investigate the atomic scale processes of silver-based nanoparticles, which catalyse the oxidation of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. A direct semi-quantitative estimate of the oxidized carbon atoms by silver-based nanoparticles is achieved. A mechanism similar to the Mars–van Krevelen process is invoked to explain the catalytic oxidation process. Theoretical calculations, together with the experimental data, suggest that the oxygen molecules dissociate on the surface of silver nanoparticles and diffuse through the silver nanoparticles to reach the silver/carbon interfaces and subsequently oxidize the carbon. The lattice distortion caused by oxygen concentration gradient within the silver nanoparticles provides the direct evidence for oxygen diffusion. Such direct observation of atomic scale dynamics provides an important general methodology for investigations of catalytic processes. PMID:27406595

  8. Atomic scale observation of oxygen delivery during silver-oxygen nanoparticle catalysed oxidation of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yonghai; Yuchi, Datong; Guan, Pengfei; Xu, Jia; Guo, Lin; Liu, Jingyue

    2016-01-01

    To probe the nature of metal-catalysed processes and to design better metal-based catalysts, atomic scale understanding of catalytic processes is highly desirable. Here we use aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy to investigate the atomic scale processes of silver-based nanoparticles, which catalyse the oxidation of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. A direct semi-quantitative estimate of the oxidized carbon atoms by silver-based nanoparticles is achieved. A mechanism similar to the Mars-van Krevelen process is invoked to explain the catalytic oxidation process. Theoretical calculations, together with the experimental data, suggest that the oxygen molecules dissociate on the surface of silver nanoparticles and diffuse through the silver nanoparticles to reach the silver/carbon interfaces and subsequently oxidize the carbon. The lattice distortion caused by oxygen concentration gradient within the silver nanoparticles provides the direct evidence for oxygen diffusion. Such direct observation of atomic scale dynamics provides an important general methodology for investigations of catalytic processes. PMID:27406595

  9. Atomic scale observation of oxygen delivery during silver-oxygen nanoparticle catalysed oxidation of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yonghai; Yuchi, Datong; Guan, Pengfei; Xu, Jia; Guo, Lin; Liu, Jingyue

    2016-07-01

    To probe the nature of metal-catalysed processes and to design better metal-based catalysts, atomic scale understanding of catalytic processes is highly desirable. Here we use aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy to investigate the atomic scale processes of silver-based nanoparticles, which catalyse the oxidation of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. A direct semi-quantitative estimate of the oxidized carbon atoms by silver-based nanoparticles is achieved. A mechanism similar to the Mars-van Krevelen process is invoked to explain the catalytic oxidation process. Theoretical calculations, together with the experimental data, suggest that the oxygen molecules dissociate on the surface of silver nanoparticles and diffuse through the silver nanoparticles to reach the silver/carbon interfaces and subsequently oxidize the carbon. The lattice distortion caused by oxygen concentration gradient within the silver nanoparticles provides the direct evidence for oxygen diffusion. Such direct observation of atomic scale dynamics provides an important general methodology for investigations of catalytic processes.

  10. Photochemistry of molecular and atomic oxygen in the terrestrial nightglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lednyts'kyy, Olexandr; Von Savigny, Christian; Sinnhuber, Miriam

    2016-07-01

    The electronic states of molecular oxygen ({O}_2) are in constant communication through collisions in high vibrational levels of {O}_2 in the MLT (Mesosphere/Lower Thermosphere) region. We assume that the Herzberg {O}_2 electronic states transfer energy to O-atoms to generate the green line. Our Multiple Nightglow Chemistry model is based on more than 80 (odd oxygen and odd hydrogen) aeronomical reactions to implement this concept. We retrieved atomic oxygen concentration ([O]) profiles in the MLT region with help of SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) and SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) infrared radiometer observations of the nightglow. Particularly, we obtained volume emission rate (VER) profiles (due to the infrared atmospheric {O}_2(a^1Δ_g) nightglow at 1.27 μm) from SABER to retrieve [O] profiles. We discussed quenching profiles that correspond to retrieved [O] profiles to reflect complex molecularity of infrared atmospheric and green line nightglow emissions.

  11. Ultrathin amorphous α-Co(OH)2 nanosheets grown on Ag nanowire surfaces as a highly active and durable electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeonghun; Kim, Youngmin; Noh, Yuseong; Kim, Won Bae

    2016-09-21

    Ultrathin α-Co(OH)2 nanosheets, prepared via simple hydrolysis at room temperature, were directly grown on Ag nanowires. The catalyst exhibited improved activity for the oxygen evolution reaction, with a reduced onset overpotential (220 mV) and superior durability because of the enhanced electron conductivity and stability of Ag nanowires in alkaline media. PMID:27518694

  12. Facile synthesis of iron phosphide nanorods for efficient and durable electrochemical oxygen evolution.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Dehua; Wang, Xiaoguang; Li, Wei; Liu, Lifeng

    2016-07-01

    Iron phosphide (FeP) nanorods have been fabricated by a facile hydrothermal synthesis of iron oxyhydroxide precursors, followed by a convenient phosphorization process. The FeP nanorods dispersed on carbon fiber paper current collectors exhibit outstanding catalytic activity and excellent long-term stability toward the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). PMID:27333123

  13. K-shell auger decay of atomic oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.C.; Lu, Y.; Samson, J.A.R.

    1997-04-01

    The aim of the present research is to understand the interaction between the ejected photoelectron and Auger electron produced by the Auger decay of a 1s hole in atomic oxygen, and to understand the influence this interaction has on the shape of the ionization cross sections. To accomplish this the authors have measured the relative ion yields (ion/photon) in the vicinity of the oxygen K-shell (525 - 533 eV) for O{sup +} and O{sup 2+}. The measurements were performed at the ALS on beamline, 6.3.2. The atomic oxygen was produced by passing molecular oxygen through a microwave-driven discharge. A Rydberg analysis of the two series leading to the [1s]2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 4}P) and [1s]2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 2}P) limits were obtained. This analysis shows some differences to the recently published results by Menzel et al. The energy position of the main 1s{sup 1}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}({sup 3}P) resonance differs by approximately 1 eV from the authors value, all members of the ({sup 2}P)np series differ by 0.3 eV, but the members of the ({sup 4}P)np series agree. The molecular resonance at 530.5 eV and those between 539 eV and 543 eV, measured with the microwave discharge off show identical results in both experiments.

  14. Spatial aspects of electron energy degradation in atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, R. P.; Green, A. E. S.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial (radial and longitudinal) yield spectra for electron energy degradation in atomic oxygen have been obtained using a Monte Carlo method for 25 eV to 10 keV incident electrons. Four-dimensional yield spectra have been analytically represented in terms of a model containing three simple microplumes. We find that the scaled spatial yield spectra for O is approximately the same as for N2. This feature provides a basis for inferring yield spectra for any atmosphere gas or mixture of gases.

  15. Solar photolysis of ozone to singlet D oxygen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Thomas E.; Bairai, Solomon T.; Stedman, Donald H.

    1992-01-01

    The ground-level photolysis frequency of ozone J(O3) to produce metastable singlet D oxygen atoms (O (D-1)) is measured using a novel instrumental technique involving electrical conductivity. The O(D-1) atoms produced react with nitrous oxide (N2O) carrier gas to form higher oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)). These oxides were detected by mixing with methanol and determining the increase in electrical conductivity with a continuous-flow dual conductivity cell. Over 70 days of data were collected under varying sky conditions. The effect of temperature on J(O3) was measured. The results agree with model predictions. The effects of atmospheric aerosols, changes in overhead ozone column, and local cloudiness are discussed.

  16. Highly Durable and Active PtFe Nanocatalyst for Electrochemical Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Chung, Dong Young; Jun, Samuel Woojoo; Yoon, Gabin; Kwon, Soon Gu; Shin, Dong Yun; Seo, Pilseon; Yoo, Ji Mun; Shin, Heejong; Chung, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyunjoong; Mun, Bongjin Simon; Lee, Kug-Seung; Lee, Nam-Suk; Yoo, Sung Jong; Lim, Dong-Hee; Kang, Kisuk; Sung, Yung-Eun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2015-12-16

    Demand on the practical synthetic approach to the high performance electrocatalyst is rapidly increasing for fuel cell commercialization. Here we present a synthesis of highly durable and active intermetallic ordered face-centered tetragonal (fct)-PtFe nanoparticles (NPs) coated with a "dual purpose" N-doped carbon shell. Ordered fct-PtFe NPs with the size of only a few nanometers are obtained by thermal annealing of polydopamine-coated PtFe NPs, and the N-doped carbon shell that is in situ formed from dopamine coating could effectively prevent the coalescence of NPs. This carbon shell also protects the NPs from detachment and agglomeration as well as dissolution throughout the harsh fuel cell operating conditions. By controlling the thickness of the shell below 1 nm, we achieved excellent protection of the NPs as well as high catalytic activity, as the thin carbon shell is highly permeable for the reactant molecules. Our ordered fct-PtFe/C nanocatalyst coated with an N-doped carbon shell shows 11.4 times-higher mass activity and 10.5 times-higher specific activity than commercial Pt/C catalyst. Moreover, we accomplished the long-term stability in membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for 100 h without significant activity loss. From in situ XANES, EDS, and first-principles calculations, we confirmed that an ordered fct-PtFe structure is critical for the long-term stability of our nanocatalyst. This strategy utilizing an N-doped carbon shell for obtaining a small ordered-fct PtFe nanocatalyst as well as protecting the catalyst during fuel cell cycling is expected to open a new simple and effective route for the commercialization of fuel cells. PMID:26670103

  17. A comprehensive X-ray absorption model for atomic oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Gorczyca, T. W.; Bautista, M. A.; Mendoza, C.; Hasoglu, M. F.; García, J.; Gatuzz, E.; Kaastra, J. S.; Raassen, A. J. J.; De Vries, C. P.; Kallman, T. R.; Manson, S. T.; Zatsarinny, O.

    2013-12-10

    An analytical formula is developed to accurately represent the photoabsorption cross section of O I for all energies of interest in X-ray spectral modeling. In the vicinity of the K edge, a Rydberg series expression is used to fit R-matrix results, including important orbital relaxation effects, that accurately predict the absorption oscillator strengths below threshold and merge consistently and continuously to the above-threshold cross section. Further, minor adjustments are made to the threshold energies in order to reliably align the atomic Rydberg resonances after consideration of both experimental and observed line positions. At energies far below or above the K-edge region, the formulation is based on both outer- and inner-shell direct photoionization, including significant shake-up and shake-off processes that result in photoionization-excitation and double-photoionization contributions to the total cross section. The ultimate purpose for developing a definitive model for oxygen absorption is to resolve standing discrepancies between the astronomically observed and laboratory-measured line positions, and between the inferred atomic and molecular oxygen abundances in the interstellar medium from XSTAR and SPEX spectral models.

  18. MISSE 6 Stressed Polymers Experiment Atomic Oxygen Erosion Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Yi, Grace T.; Guo, Aobo; Ashmeade, Claire C.; Roberts, Lily M.; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Polymers and other oxidizable materials used on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded away by reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). For spacecraft design, it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield, Ey (volume loss per incident oxygen atom), of materials susceptible to AO erosion. The Stressed Polymers Experiment was developed and flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6) to compare the AO erosion yields of stressed and non-stressed polymers to determine if erosion is dependent upon stress while in LEO. The experiment contained 36 thin film polymer samples that were exposed to ram AO for 1.45 years. This paper provides an overview of the Stressed Polymers Experiment with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the AO fluence, and the erosion yield results. The MISSE 6 data are compared to data for similar samples flown on previous MISSE missions to determine fluence or solar radiation effects on erosion yield.

  19. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra of oxygen atoms in flames.

    PubMed

    Teets, R E; Bechtel, J H

    1981-10-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) was used to detect oxygen atoms (electronic Raman scattering) and oxygen molecules (rotational Raman scattering) in both hydrogen-oxygen and methane-oxygen flames. The high spectral resolution of CARS is useful for distinguishing the oxygen-atom signals from larger nearby rotational Raman signals. Saturation of the molecular CARS signal that is due to stimulated Raman scattering was observed. This effect limits the sensitivity of the CARS method. PMID:19710736

  20. On the linearity of fast atomic oxygen effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of bombardment of 8 km per second atomic oxygen (AO) experienced by exposed surfaces of satellites in low Earth orbit must be considered in the selection of materials to be used in instruments and functional systems on these satellites. The degree of importance of the effects varies widely depending on the material, the application, and the exposure (fluence of atoms) to which it is to be subjected. Some highly erodible thin polymer film materials might be considered unacceptable on a long-lived space station, but may be perfectly serviceable on a normal shuttle flight. In order to determine the acceptability of a material for a particular environment, a designer must know the relationship between the magnitude of the effect (for example, mass-loss) and the magnitude of the fluence. To determine this relationship, we need data over a useful range of fluence. Until the return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), the bulk of the data on materials effects was obtained from a few shuttle flights, and the bulk of that data from the flight of experiment Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-2) on STS-8 in 1983. EOIM-2 obtained a fluence of 3.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms cm(exp -2), while the LDEF fluence approached 10(exp 22) atoms cm(exp -2), or about 30 times greater. Although other flight exposures had been obtained with lower fluences, considerable uncertainty was attached to these results because of the possibility of large relative systematic errors and of other factors such as sweeping angle of attack. In the future, it is hoped that simulation facilities in the laboratory will allow testing of materials without the necessity of flying them in space. In addition, if the relationship of effect with oxygen fluence is well determined, it should not be necessary to expose a material for an entire mission fluence. In this paper, we shall avoid a comparison of flight data with results from simulators, though that comparison is important for

  1. ATOMIC SCALE CHARACTERIZATION OF OXYGEN VACANCY DYNAMICS BY IN SITU REDUCTION AND ANALYTICAL ATOMIC RESOLUTION STEM.

    SciTech Connect

    KLIE,R.F.; BROWNING,N.D.; ZHU,Y.

    2002-08-04

    In this study, we present nano-scale investigations of point defect dynamics in perovskite oxides by correlated atomic resolution high angle annular dark field imaging (HAADF) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The point defect dynamics and interactions during in-situ reduction in the microscope column are analyzed. In particular, oxygen vacancy creation, diffusion and clustering are studied, as oxygen vacancies comprise the majority of the point defects present in these perovskite oxide systems [1]. The results have been acquired using the JEOL2010F, a STEM/TEM, equipped with a 200 keV field emission gun, a high angle annular dark field detector and a post column Gatan imaging filter (GIF). The combination of the Z-contrast and EELS techniques [2] allows us to obtain direct images (spatial resolution of 2 {angstrom}) of the atomic structure and to correlate this information with the atomically resolved EELS information (3s acquisition time, 1.2 eV energy resolution). In-situ heating of the material is performed in a Gatan double tilt holder with a temperature range of 300 K-773 K at an oxygen partial pressure of P{sub O{sub 2}} = 5 * 10{sup -8} Pa.

  2. Operation of the computer model for direct atomic oxygen exposure of Earth satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.; Gillis, J. R.; Hargraves, C. R.

    1995-01-01

    One of the primary causes of material degradation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is exposure to atomic oxygen. When atomic oxygen molecules collide with an orbiting spacecraft, the relative velocity is 7 to 8 km/sec and the collision energy is 4 to 5 eV per atom. Under these conditions, atomic oxygen may initiate a number of chemical and physical reactions with exposed materials. These reactions contribute to material degradation, surface erosion, and contamination. Interpretation of these effects on materials and the design of space hardware to withstand on-orbit conditions requires quantitative knowledge of the atomic oxygen exposure environment. Atomic oxygen flux is a function of orbit altitude, the orientation of the orbit plan to the Sun, solar and geomagnetic activity, and the angle between exposed surfaces and the spacecraft heading. We have developed a computer model to predict the atomic oxygen exposure of spacecraft in low Earth orbit. The application of this computer model is discussed.

  3. Atomic oxygen protective coating with resistance to undercutting at defect sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Structures composed at least partially of an organic substrate may be protected from oxidation by applying a catalyst onto said substrate for promoting the combination of atomic oxygen to molecular oxygen. The structure may also be protected by applying both a catalyst and an atomic oxygen shielding layer onto the substrate. The structures to be protected include spacecraft surfaces.

  4. Spatial and temporal behavior of atomic oxygen determined by Ogo 6 airglow observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Guenther, B.; Thomas, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Maps are produced of the atomic oxygen density near 97 km showing a strong variation in latitude, longitude, universal time, and time of year. These densities are deduced from atomic oxygen green nightglow observations carried out from Ogo 6. Meridional wind patterns needed to support the asymmetries observed in local oxygen production and loss rates are deduced.

  5. Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6) Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    An atomic oxygen fluence monitor was flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6). The monitor was designed to measure the accumulation of atomic oxygen fluence with time as it impinged upon the ram surface of the MISSE 6B Passive Experiment Container (PEC). This was an active experiment for which data was to be stored on a battery-powered data logger for post-flight retrieval and analysis. The atomic oxygen fluence measurement was accomplished by allowing atomic oxygen to erode two opposing wedges of pyrolytic graphite that partially covered a photodiode. As the wedges of pyrolytic graphite erode, the area of the photodiode that is illuminated by the Sun increases. The short circuit current, which is proportional to the area of illumination, was to be measured and recorded as a function of time. The short circuit current from a different photodiode, which was oriented in the same direction and had an unobstructed view of the Sun, was also to be recorded as a reference current. The ratio of the two separate recorded currents should bear a linear relationship with the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence and be independent of the intensity of solar illumination. Ground hyperthermal atomic oxygen exposure facilities were used to evaluate the linearity of the ratio of short circuit current to the atomic oxygen fluence. In flight, the current measurement circuitry failed to operate properly, thus the overall atomic oxygen mission fluence could only be estimated based on the physical erosion of the pyrolytic graphite wedges. The atomic oxygen fluence was calculated based on the knowledge of the space atomic oxygen erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite measured from samples on the MISSE 2. The atomic oxygen fluence monitor, the expected result and comparison of mission atomic oxygen fluence based on the erosion of the pyrolytic graphite and Kapton H atomic oxygen fluence witness samples are presented in this paper.

  6. Cumulative effect of transition metals on nitrogen and fluorine co-doped graphite nanofibers: an efficient and highly durable non-precious metal catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Peera, S Gouse; Arunchander, A; Sahu, A K

    2016-08-14

    Nitrogen and fluorine co-doped graphite nanofibers (N/F-GNF) and their cumulative effect with Fe and Co have been developed as an alternative non-precious metal catalyst for efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media. The synergistic effect between the doped hetero atoms and the co-ordinated Fe and Co towards ORR activity and durability of the catalyst is deeply investigated. A high ORR onset potential comparable with commercial Pt/C catalyst is observed with the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst, which indicates that this catalyst is a potential alternative to Pt/C. A fivefold increase in mass activity is achieved by the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst compared to the simple N/F-GNF catalyst, which endorses the significant role of transition metal atoms in enhancing ORR activity. The advanced Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst also exhibits complete tolerance to CH3OH and CO. The Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst also exhibits excellent durability towards the ORR with only a 10 mV negative shift in its half wave potential after a 10 000 repeated potential cycling test, whereas in the case of a commercial Pt/C catalyst there was an ∼110 mV negative shift under similar environmental conditions. More stringent corrosive test cycles were also performed by maintaining the cell as high as 1.4 V with a later decrease to 0.6 V vs. RHE for 300 cycles, which showed the excellent durability of the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst in comparison with the Pt/C catalyst. XPS analysis of the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst presents the ORR active chemical states of N (pyridinic-N and graphitic-N) and F (semi-ionic-F) and the co-ordinated sites of Fe and Co species with the dopants. The excellent performance and durability of the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst is due to the synergistic effect between the hetero atoms dopants (N and F) and strong co-ordinating bonds of M-N-C, which protect the graphene layers around the metallic species and greatly mitigates the leaching of Co and Fe during the long term cycling test. The high activity

  7. Simulations of Ground and Space-Based Oxygen Atom Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, T. K.; Cline, J. A.; Braunstein, M.

    2002-01-01

    Fast, pulsed atomic oxygen sources are a key tool in ground-based investigations of spacecraft contamination and surface erosion effects. These technically challenging ground-based studies provide a before and after picture of materials under low-earth-orbit (LEO) conditions. It would be of great interest to track in real time the pulsed flux from the source to the surface sample target and beyond in order to characterize the population of atoms and molecules that actually impact the surface and those that make it downstream to any coincident detectors. We have performed simulations in order to provide such detailed descriptions of these ground-based measurements and to provide an assessment of their correspondence to the actual LEO environment. Where possible we also make comparisons to measured fluxes and erosion yields. To perform the calculations we use a detailed description of a measurement beam and surface geometry based on the W, pulsed apparatus at Montana State University. In this system, a short pulse (on the order of 10 microseconds) of an O/O2 beam impacts a flat sample about 40 cm downstream and slightly displaced &om the beam s central axis. Past this target, at the end of the beam axis is a quadrupole mass spectrometer that measures the relative in situ flux of 0102 to give an overall normalized erosion yield. In our simulations we use the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, and track individual atoms within the atomic oxygen pulse. DSMC techniques are typically used to model rarefied (few collision) gas-flows which occur at altitudes above approximately 110 kilometers. These techniques are well suited for the conditions here, and multi-collision effects that can only be treated by this or a similar technique are included. This simulation includes collisions with the surface and among gas atoms that have scattered from the surface. The simulation also includes descriptions of the velocity spread and spatial profiles of the O/O2 beam

  8. Flight Validation of Atomic Oxygen Resistant Resistant Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Orwoll, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Because of its high reactivity, atomic oxygen causes surface erosion on polymeric materials. although the reaction efficiency depends on the chemical structure of the polymer. We have found an organotin compound, bis(triphenyltin) oxide (BTO), which has an unusually high solubility in solutions of a number of commercial high performance polymers. Films of these polymers containing BTO showed a substantial reduction in erosion by atomic oxygen when compared with films of the pure material. Analysis has shown that in the presence of atomic oxygen, erosion of the exposed surfaces of the BTO-containing films leaves a residual protective tin oxide coating . Since the additive is uniformly distributed throughout the polymeric material, any break or puncture in the protective coating is "healed" by the material below. Samples were exposed to the environment of the low earth orbit (LEO) on two Space Shuttle flights, STS-46, in June of 1992, and STS-51 in September of 1993. The analysis of these samples has been reported previously. For both flights, the samples were small (1.3 cm and 1.9 cm respectively) thus limiting the scope of analysis. In the research under this cooperative agreement, films of a polyetherimide, were exposed to the LEO environment on Space Shuttle flight STS-85 in August of 1997 as part of the Evaluation of Space Environment and Effects on Materials (ESEM) experiment. The polyetherimide chosen is available commercially as Ultem, registered to the General Electric Company. Films of pure Ultem, Ultem with 10% BTO by mass, and Ultem with 20% BTO by mass were exposed in the ram direction for 40 hours during STS-85. Ultem has a Tg of 215 deg C and is soluble in common chlorinated solvents. Granules of the polymer were dried at 120 deg C, but otherwise were used as received. Films were cast on a glass plate from a solution of the polymer in a 60/40 (w/w) mixture of chloroform and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane. The plate was placed in a dust-free box for at least

  9. Atomic oxygen interaction at defect sights in protective coatings on polymers flown on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Auer, Bruce M.; Gebauer, Linda; Lamoreaux, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Although the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has exposed materials with a fixed orientation relative to the ambient low-Earth-orbital environment, arrival of atomic oxygen is angularly distributed as a result of the atomic oxygen's high temperature Maxwellian velocity distribution and the LDEF's orbital inclination. Thus, atomic oxygen entering defects in protective coatings on polymeric surfaces can cause wider undercut cavities than the size of the defect in the protective coating. Because only a small fraction of atomic oxygen reacts upon first impact with most polymeric materials, secondary reactions with lower energy thermally accommodated atomic oxygen can occur. The secondary reactions of scattered and/or thermally accommodated atomic oxygen also contribute to widening the undercut cavity beneath the protective coating defect. As the undercut cavity enlarges, exposing more polymer, the probability of atomic oxygen reacting with underlying polymeric material increases because of multiple opportunities for reaction. Thus, the effective atomic oxygen erosion yield for atoms entering defects increases above that of the unprotected material. Based on the results of analytical modeling and computational modeling, aluminized Kapton multilayer insulation exposed to atomic oxygen on row 9 lost the entire externally exposed layer of polyimide Kapton, yet based on the results of this investigation, the bottom surface aluminum film must have remained in place, but crazed. Atomic oxygen undercutting at defect sites in protective coatings on graphite epoxy composites indicates that between 40 to 100 percent of the atomic oxygen thermally accommodates upon impact, and that the reaction probability of thermally accommodated atomic oxygen may range from 7.7 x 10(exp -6) to 2.1 x 10(exp -3), depending upon the degree of thermal accommodation upon each impact.

  10. Oxygen atom roaming and multiple dissociation pathways of NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubb, Michael; Warter, Michelle; Johnson, Kurt; North, Simon

    2011-03-01

    The role of nitrate radical (NO3) photolysis in atmospheric has long been known, but mysteries remain regarding the mechanism of the dissociation. In particular, the NO + O2 channel has proven to be a challenge both theoretically and experimentally. High resolution velocity map ion imaging studies reveal that there are two distinct mechanisms to form the NO + O2 products. Additionally, the dominant of these mechanisms appears to be the non-traditional state ``roaming'' mechanism recently identified in formaldehyde dissociation. The roaming mechanism involves large amplitude motion associated with a frustrated radical dissociation before roaming oxygen atom abstraction to form O2 . The identification of roaming in the NO3 reaction may imply the widespread importance of this type of mechanism in atmospheric chemistry.

  11. Atomic Oxygen Energy in Low Frequency Hyperthermal Plasma Ashers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K R.; Kneubel, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and analytical analysis of the atomic oxygen erosion of pyrolytic graphite as well as Monte Carlo computational modeling of the erosion of Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) polyimide was performed to determine the hyperthermal energy of low frequency (30 to 35 kHz) plasma ashers operating on air. It was concluded that hyperthermal energies in the range of 0.3 to 0.9 eV are produced in the low frequency air plasmas which results in texturing similar to that in low Earth orbit (LEO). Monte Carlo computational modeling also indicated that such low energy directed ions are fully capable of producing the experimentally observed textured surfaces in low frequency plasmas.

  12. Hyperthermal atomic oxygen reactions with kapton and polyethylene. [in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.; Koontz, S. L.; Gregory, J. C.; Edgell, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Gas phase reaction products produced by the interaction of high kinetic energy (1-3 eV) 3p ground state atomic oxygen (AO) with polyethylene and kapton were found to be H2, H2O, CO, and CO2 with NO being a possible secondary product from kapton. Hydrogen abstraction at high AO kinetic energy is postulated to be the key reaction controlling the erosion rate of kapton and polyethylene. An Arrhenius-like expression having an activation barrier of 0.4 eV can be fit to the data, which suggests that the rate limiting step in the AO/kapton reaction mechanism can be overcome by translational energy.

  13. Complexes of self-interstitials with oxygen atoms in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Khirunenko, L. I.; Pomozov, Yu. V.; Sosnin, M. G.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.

    2014-02-21

    Interactions of germanium self-interstitials with interstitial oxygen atoms in Ge subjected to irradiation at ∼80 K and subsequently to annealing have been studied. To distinguish the processes involving vacancies and self-interstitials the doping with tin was used. It was shown that absorption lines with maximum at 602, 674, 713 and 803 cm{sup −1} are self-interstitials-related. Two lines at 602 and 674, which develop upon annealing in the temperature range 180–240 K, belong to IO complexes, while the bands at 713 and 803 cm{sup −1}, which emerge after annealing at T>220 K, are associated with I{sub 2}O. It is argued that the annealing of IO occurs by two mechanisms: by dissociation and by diffusion.

  14. Reactions of atomic oxygen /O(3P)/ with polymer films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.

    1992-01-01

    The reactions of polymer films with oxygen atoms are reviewed focusing on laboratory tests on polybutadienes with different amount of 1,4 or 1,2 double bonds and their polyalkenamer homologues, polyimide (Kapton), and a series of polyolefines with increasing fluorine content. It is found that etch rates increase with decrease in -CH=CH- unsaturation, starting with 1,4 -polybutadiene and reaching the maximum rate with polyethylene or ethylene-propylene rubber. IN polybutadienes with both 1,4 and 1,2 double bonds, the rate of O(3P)-induced etching is lower the higher the 1,2 content. The reactions are confined to the polymer surface.

  15. Investigation of Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polyimide Kapton H Exposed to a Plasma Asher Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Aaron

    1999-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the erosion characteristics of the polyimide Kapton H, which serves as a blanket material in solar arrays. This polymer has a number of characteristics that make it a suitable choice for both terrestrial and space applications. In this paper attention is focused on the durability of protected Kapton when exposed to atomic oxygen (AO) in a plasma asher. A strip of 0.025-mm thick Kapton film, coated on both sides with SiO2, was studied during a 1306 hour exposure. The erosion, located at defect sites in the protective coating and measured optically, is described in terms of volume loss as a function of AO fluence. Three simple geometric profiles are used to generate a useful array of cavity shapes to model erosion evolution. These models connect the volume erosion rate to the observed lateral expansion of the developing cavities via their diameters, measured adviacent to the upper and lower protective film, and fitted by least-squares regression to simple power law functions of fluence. The rationale for the choice of models is discussed. It was found that lateral growth in cavity size evolves less than linearly with fluence.

  16. The reaction efficiency of thermal energy oxygen atoms with polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Nordine, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The reaction efficiency of several polymeric materials with thermal-energy (0.04 eV translational energy), ground-state (O3P) oxygen atoms was determined by exposing the materials to a room temperature gas containing a known concentration of atomic oxygen. The reaction efficiency measurements were conducted in two flowing afterglow systems of different configuration. Atomic oxygen concentration measurements, flow, transport and surface dose analysis is presented in this paper. The measured reaction efficiencies of Kapton, Mylar, polyethylene, D4-polyethylene and Tedlar are .001 to .0001 those determined with high-energy ground-state oxygen atoms in low earth orbit or in a high-velocity atom beam. D4-polyethylene exhibits a large kinetic isotope effect with atomic oxygen at thermal but not hyperthermal atom energies.

  17. Enhancement of burning velocity by dissociated oxygen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Green technology, such as preventing global warming, has been developed for years. Researches on plasma assisted combustion is one of the technologies and have been done for investigating more efficient combustion, more efficient use of fossil fuel with plasmas or applying electric fields. In the ignition time delay analyses with the dissociated oxygen atoms which is generated by non-equilibrium plasma had significant effect on the ignition time. In this paper, dissociated oxygen could effect on burning velocity or not has been examined using CHEMKIN. As a result, no effect can be seen with dissociation degree of lower than 10-3. But there is an effect on the enhancement of burning velocity with higher degree of 10-3. At the dissociation degree of 5×10-2, the burning velocity is enhanced at a factor of 1.24. And it is found that the distributions of each species in front of preheat zone are completely different. The combustion process is proceeded several steps in advance, and generation of H2O, CO and CO2 can be seen before combustion in higher dissociation case. This work was supported by KAKENHI (22340170).

  18. Thermal relaxation of molecular oxygen in collisions with nitrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    Andrienko, Daniil A; Boyd, Iain D

    2016-07-01

    Investigation of O2-N collisions is performed by means of the quasi-classical trajectory method on the two lowest ab initio potential energy surfaces at temperatures relevant to hypersonic flows. A complete set of bound-bound and bound-free transition rates is obtained for each precollisional rovibrational state. Special attention is paid to the vibrational and rotational relaxations of oxygen as a result of chemically non-reactive interaction with nitrogen atoms. The vibrational relaxation of oxygen partially occurs via the formation of an intermediate NO2 complex. The efficient energy randomization results in rapid vibrational relaxation at low temperatures, compared to other molecular systems with a purely repulsive potential. The vibrational relaxation time, computed by means of master equation studies, is nearly an order of magnitude lower than the relaxation time in N2-O collisions. The rotational nonequilibrium starts to play a significant effect at translational temperatures above 8000 K. The present work provides convenient relations for the vibrational and rotational relaxation times as well as for the quasi-steady dissociation rate coefficient and thus fills a gap in data due to a lack of experimental measurements for this system. PMID:27394110

  19. Thermal relaxation of molecular oxygen in collisions with nitrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, Daniil A.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2016-07-01

    Investigation of O2-N collisions is performed by means of the quasi-classical trajectory method on the two lowest ab initio potential energy surfaces at temperatures relevant to hypersonic flows. A complete set of bound-bound and bound-free transition rates is obtained for each precollisional rovibrational state. Special attention is paid to the vibrational and rotational relaxations of oxygen as a result of chemically non-reactive interaction with nitrogen atoms. The vibrational relaxation of oxygen partially occurs via the formation of an intermediate NO2 complex. The efficient energy randomization results in rapid vibrational relaxation at low temperatures, compared to other molecular systems with a purely repulsive potential. The vibrational relaxation time, computed by means of master equation studies, is nearly an order of magnitude lower than the relaxation time in N2-O collisions. The rotational nonequilibrium starts to play a significant effect at translational temperatures above 8000 K. The present work provides convenient relations for the vibrational and rotational relaxation times as well as for the quasi-steady dissociation rate coefficient and thus fills a gap in data due to a lack of experimental measurements for this system.

  20. The effects of atomic oxygen on polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orwoll, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    At the altitudes of low-earth orbit (LEO), atomic oxygen (AO) is the most abundant chemical species. This strong oxidizing agent reacts with virtually any organic material that is not already fully oxidized. Erosion by AO can be extensive and jeopardizes any protective coatings, thermal blankets, adhesives, and structural composites exposed on the exterior of satellites in LEO. Researchers prepared and tested organic materials for their susceptibility to AO using a commercial plasma asher which approximately simulates the oxygen effects in LEO. Experiments were performed on a polyimide, a polysulfone, and two epoxy adhesives into which low molecular-weight additives have been dissolved. Incorporated in the molecular structure of these additives are elements such as silicon whose nonvolatile oxides, which are formed on exposure to AO, remain as a coating on the surface to create a barrier between the remainder of the organic material and the AO. We find that the additives protect the materials, but the low solubility of some limit their utility. Concurrent studies are underway to measure the effect of the additives on the thermal expansion coefficients of the materials. Tows of aramid fibers, which are important components in the proposed tether satellite systems, have been eroded in the asher. The results which show that the square root of the mass remaining decreases linearly with the time of exposure (see the figure) are consistent with a constant rate of surface erosion. The tensile strength of these eroded tows decreases with time of exposure also; additional measurements are in progress.

  1. Atomic oxygen erosion considerations for spacecraft materials selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite carried 57 experiments that were designed to define the low-Earth orbit (LEO) space environment and to evaluate the impact of this environment on potential engineering materials and material processes. Deployed by the Shuttle Challenger in April of 1984, LDEF made over 32,000 orbits before being retrieved nearly 6 years later by the Shuttle Columbia in January of 1990. The Solar Array Passive LDEF Experiment (SAMPLE) AO171 contained approximately 300 specimens, representing numerous material classes and material processes. AO171 was located on LDEF in position A8 at a yaw of 38.1 degrees from the ram direction and was subjected to an atomic oxygen (AO) fluence of 6.93 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm. LDEF AO171 data, as well as short-term shuttle data, will be discussed in this paper as it applies to engineering design applications of composites, bulk and thin film polymers, glassy ceramics, thermal control paints, and metals subjected to AO erosion.

  2. Durability of Environmental Barrier Coatings in a Water Vapor/Oxygen Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holchin, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Silicon carbide (Sic) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) show potential for application in the hot sections of advanced jet engines. The oxidation behavior of these materials has been studied in great detail. In a pure oxygen environment, a silica (SiO2) layer forms on the surface and provides protection from further oxidation. Initial oxidation is rapid, but slows as silica layer grows; this is known as parabolic oxidation. When exposed to model fuel-lean combustion applications (standard in jet engines), wherein the partial pressure of water vapor is approximately 0.5 atm., these materials exhibit different characteristics. In such an environment, the primary oxidant to form silica is water vapor. At the same time, water vapor reacts with the surface oxide to form gaseous silicon hydroxide (Si(OH)4). The simultaneous formation of both silica and Si(OH)4 -the latter which is lost to the atmosphere- the material continues to recede. Recession rates for uncoated Sic and Si3N4 are unacceptably high, for use in jet engines, - on the order of 1mm/4000h. External coatings have been developed that protect Si-based materials from water vapor attack. One such coating consists of a Ba(0.75)Sr(0.25)Al2Si2O8 (BSAS) topcoat, a mullite/BSAS intermediate layer and a Si bond coat. The key function of the topcoat is to protect the Si-base material from water vapor; therefore it must be fairly stable in water vapor (recession rate of about 1mm/40,000h) and remain crack free. Although BSAS is much more resistant to water vapor attack than pure silica, it exhibits a linear weight loss in 50% H2O - 50% O2 at 1500 C. The objective of my research is to determine the oxidation behavior of a number of alternate hot-pressed monolithic top coat candidates. Potential coatings were exposed at 1500 C to a 50% H2O - 50% O2 gas mixture flowing at 4.4 cm/s . These included rare- earth silicates, barium-strontium aluminosilicates. When weight changes were measured with a continuously recording

  3. Adsorption of oxygen atom on MoSi2 (110) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S. P.; Li, X. P.; Wang, H. J.; Jiang, Y.; Yi, D. Q.

    2016-09-01

    The adsorption energy, structural relaxation and electronic properties of oxygen atom on MoSi2 (110) surface have been investigated by first-principles calculations. The energetic stability of MoSi2 low-index surfaces was analyzed, and the results suggested that MoSi2 (110) surface had energetically stability. The site of oxygen atom adsorbed on MoSi2 (110) surface were discussed, and the results indicated that the preference adsorption site of MoSi2 (110) surface for oxygen atom was H site (hollow position). Our calculated work should help to understand further the interaction between oxygen atoms and MoSi2 surfaces.

  4. Beneficial Role of Copper in the Enhancement of Durability of Ordered Intermetallic PtFeCu Catalyst for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Balamurugan; Tamaki, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2015-08-01

    Design of Pt alloy catalysts with enhanced activity and durability is a key challenge for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. In the present work, we compare the durability of the ordered intermetallic face-centered tetragonal (fct) PtFeCu catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) relative to its counterpart bimetallic catalysts, i.e., the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst and the commercial catalyst from Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo, TKK-PtC. Although both fct catalysts initially exhibited an ordered structure and mass activity approximately 2.5 times higher than that of TKK-Pt/C, the presence of Cu at the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst led to a significant enhancement in durability compared to that of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst. The ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst retained more than 70% of its mass activity and electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) over 10 000 durability cycles carried out at 60 °C. In contrast, the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst maintained only about 40% of its activity. The temperature of the durability experiment is also shown to be important: the catalyst was more severely degraded at 60 °C than at room temperature. To obtain insight into the observed enhancement in durability of fct-PtFeCu catalyst, a postmortem analysis of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst was carried out using scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDX) line scan. The STEM-EDX line scans of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst over 10 000 durability cycles showed a smaller degree of Fe and Cu dissolution from the catalyst. Conversely, large dissolution of Fe was identified in the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst, indicating a lesser retention of Fe that causes the destruction of ordered structure and gives rise to poor durability. The enhancement in the durability of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst is ascribed to

  5. Atomic Resolution of Calcium and Oxygen Sublattices of Calcite in Ambient Conditions by Atomic Force Microscopy Using qPlus Sensors with Sapphire Tips.

    PubMed

    Wastl, Daniel S; Judmann, Michael; Weymouth, Alfred J; Giessibl, Franz J

    2015-01-01

    Characterization and imaging at the atomic scale with atomic force microscopy in biocompatible environments is an ongoing challenge. We demonstrate atomically resolved imaging of the calcite (101̅4) surface plane using stiff quartz cantilevers ("qPlus sensors", stiffness k = 1280 N/m) equipped with sapphire tips in ambient conditions without any surface preparation. With 10 atoms in one surface unit cell, calcite has a highly complex surface structure comprising three different chemical elements (Ca, C, and O). We obtain true atomic resolution of calcite in air at relative humidity ranging from 20% to 40%, imaging atomic steps and single atomic defects. We observe a great durability of sapphire tips with their Mohs hardness of 9, only one step below diamond. Depending on the state of the sapphire tip, we resolve either the calcium or the oxygen sublattice. We determine the tip termination by comparing the experimental images with simulations and discuss the possibility of chemical tip identification in air. The main challenges for imaging arise from the presence of water layers, which form on almost all surfaces and have the potential to dissolve the crystal surface. Frequency shift versus distance spectra show the presence of at least three ordered hydration layers. The measured height of the first hydration layer corresponds well to X-ray diffraction data and molecular dynamic simulations, namely, ∼220 pm. For the following hydration layers we measure ∼380 pm for the second and third layer, ending up in a total hydration layer thickness of at least 1 nm. Understanding the influence of water layers and their structure is important for surface segregation, surface reactions including reconstructions, healing of defects, and corrosion. PMID:25816927

  6. Selective reabsorption leading to multiple oscillations in the 8446-A atomic-oxygen laser.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feld, M. S.; Feldman, B. J.; Javan, A.; Domash, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    Laser oscillation of atomic oxygen at 8446 A occurs in four closely spaced lines with peculiar intensity ratios, all detuned from the atomic center frequencies of the three fine-structure transitions. These anomalies are caused by the selective reabsorption of resonance radiation from the lower laser level by ground-state oxygen atoms. The selectivity results from the fact that the velocity distribution of the laser levels is considerably wider than that of the ground state, because of the dissociative mode of production of excited oxygen atoms. Possible extension of this mechanism to the atomic-hydrogen system is discussed.

  7. Effect of Solar Exposure on the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Hubble Space Telescope Aluminized-Teflon Thermal Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Aobo; Ashmead, Claire C.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2012-01-01

    When exposed to low Earth orbital (LEO) environment, external spacecraft materials degrade due to radiation, thermal cycling, micrometeoroid and debris impacts, and atomic oxygen (AO) interaction. Collisions between AO and spacecraft can result in oxidation of external spacecraft surface materials, which can lead to erosion and severe structural and/or optical property deterioration. It is therefore essential to understand the AO erosion yield (Ey), the volume loss per incident oxygen atom (cu cm/atom), of polymers to assure durability of spacecraft materials. The objective of this study was to determine whether solar radiation exposure can increase the rate of AO erosion of polymers in LEO. The material studied was a section of aluminized-Teflon (DuPont) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) thermal shield exposed to space on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for 8.25 years. Retrieved samples were sectioned from the circular thermal shield and exposed to ground laboratory thermal energy AO. The results indicate that the average Ey of the solar facing HST Al-FEP was 1.9 10(exp -24)cu cm/atom, while the average Ey of the anti-solar HST Al-FEP was 1.5 10(exp -24)cu cm/atom. The Ey of the pristine samples was 1.6- 1.7 10(exp -24)cu cm/atom. These results indicate that solar exposure affects the post-flight erosion rate of FEP in a plasma asher. Therefore, it likely affects the erosion rate while in LEO.

  8. Effect of Solar Exposure on the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Hubble Space Telescope Aluminized-Teflon Thermal Shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Aobo; Ashmead, Claire C.; de Groh, Kim K.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    When exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) environment, external spacecraft materials degrade due to radiation, thermal cycling, micrometeoroid and debris impacts, and interaction with atomic oxygen (AO). Collisions between AO and spacecraft can result in oxidation of external spacecraft surface materials, which can lead to erosion and severe structural and/or optical properties deterioration. It is therefore essential to understand the AO erosion yield (Ey), the volume loss per incident oxygen atom (cm3/atom) of polymers to assure durability of spacecraft materials. The objective of this study was to determine whether solar radiation exposure can increase the rate of AO erosion of polymers in LEO. The material studied was a section of aluminized-Teflon® fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) thermal shield exposed to space on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for 8.25 years. Retrieved samples were sectioned from the circular thermal shield and exposed to ground laboratory thermal energy AO. The results indicate that the average Ey of the solar facing HST Al-FEP was 1.9 × 10-24 cm3/atom, while the average Ey of the anti-solar HST Al-FEP was 1.5 × 10-24 cm3/atom. The Ey of the pristine samples was 1.6 to 1.7 × 10-24 cm3/atom. These results indicate that solar exposure affects the post-flight erosion rate of FEP in a plasma asher. Therefore, it likely affects the erosion rate while in LEO.

  9. Evaluation of atomic oxygen resistant protective coatings for fiberglass-epoxy composites in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Brady, Joyce A.

    1989-01-01

    Fiberglass-epoxy composite masts are the prime structural members for the Space Station Freedom solar array. At the altitude where Space Station Freedom will operate, atomic oxygen atoms are the most predominant species. Atomic oxygen is highly reactive and has been shown to oxidize organic and some metallic materials. Tests with random and directed atomic oxygen exposure have shown that the epoxy is removed from the composite exposing brittle glass fibers which could be easily removed from the surface where they could contaminate Space Station Freedom Systems. Protection or fiber containment systems; inorganic based paints, aluminum braid, and a metal coating; were evaluated for resistance to atomic oxygen, vacuum ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and mechanical flexing. All appeared to protect well against atomic oxygen and provide fiber containment except for the single aluminum braid covering. UV radiation resistance was acceptable and in general, thermal cycling and flexure had little to no effect on the mass loss rate for most coatings.

  10. Pt-Pd alloy nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes: a durable and methanol tolerant oxygen reduction electrocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sourov; Sahu, Ranjan K.; Retna Raj, C.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the decoration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) with Pt-Pd alloy nanoelectrocatalysts of three different compositions and their electrocatalytic performance toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The decoration of the MCNTs involves polymer-assisted impregnation of metal precursors {{PtCl}}_{6}^{2-} and {{PdCl}}_{4}^{2-} and the subsequent reduction of the impregnated precursors by a modified polyol route. The composition of the catalyst was controlled by tuning the molar ratio of the precursors during their impregnation. Electron probe microscopic analysis shows that the catalysts have compositions of Pt46Pd54, Pt64Pd36 and Pt28Pd72. The Pt46Pd54 and Pt64Pd36 catalysts have truncated octahedral and icosahedral shapes with a size ranging from 8 to 10 nm. On the other hand, the catalyst of Pt28Pd72 composition has a spherical/quasispherical shape with a size distribution of 1-2 nm. The XPS measurement confirms the signature of metallic Pt and Pd. The Pt46Pd54 catalyst has a pronounced electrocatalytic activity toward the ORR with a specific and mass activity of 378 ~\\mu {A}~{{cm}}_{{Pt}-{Pd}}^{-2} and 6 4~\\mu {A}~\\mu {{g}}_{{Pt}-{Pd}}^{-1}, respectively at 0.8 V. Moreover, the Pt46Pd54 nanoelectrocatalyst is highly durable and it retains its initial catalytic activity even after 1000 extensive cycles. Interestingly, this catalyst has a very high tolerance toward methanol and it does not favor the oxidation of methanol in the potential window of 0.1-1.4 V. The electrocatalytic activity of the alloy electrocatalyst is compared with commercially available Pt black and MCNT-supported spherical Pt nanoparticles. The catalytic activity of the Pt46Pd54 nanoelectrocatalyst is higher than the other catalysts. The Pt46Pd54 catalyst outperforms the electrocatalytic activity of all other catalysts.

  11. Cumulative effect of transition metals on nitrogen and fluorine co-doped graphite nanofibers: an efficient and highly durable non-precious metal catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peera, S. Gouse; Arunchander, A.; Sahu, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen and fluorine co-doped graphite nanofibers (N/F-GNF) and their cumulative effect with Fe and Co have been developed as an alternative non-precious metal catalyst for efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media. The synergistic effect between the doped hetero atoms and the co-ordinated Fe and Co towards ORR activity and durability of the catalyst is deeply investigated. A high ORR onset potential comparable with commercial Pt/C catalyst is observed with the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst, which indicates that this catalyst is a potential alternative to Pt/C. A fivefold increase in mass activity is achieved by the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst compared to the simple N/F-GNF catalyst, which endorses the significant role of transition metal atoms in enhancing ORR activity. The advanced Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst also exhibits complete tolerance to CH3OH and CO. The Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst also exhibits excellent durability towards the ORR with only a 10 mV negative shift in its half wave potential after a 10 000 repeated potential cycling test, whereas in the case of a commercial Pt/C catalyst there was an ~110 mV negative shift under similar environmental conditions. More stringent corrosive test cycles were also performed by maintaining the cell as high as 1.4 V with a later decrease to 0.6 V vs. RHE for 300 cycles, which showed the excellent durability of the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst in comparison with the Pt/C catalyst. XPS analysis of the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst presents the ORR active chemical states of N (pyridinic-N and graphitic-N) and F (semi-ionic-F) and the co-ordinated sites of Fe and Co species with the dopants. The excellent performance and durability of the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst is due to the synergistic effect between the hetero atoms dopants (N and F) and strong co-ordinating bonds of M-N-C, which protect the graphene layers around the metallic species and greatly mitigates the leaching of Co and Fe during the long term cycling test. The high activity and

  12. Atomic oxygen effects on SiO(x) coated Kapton for photovoltaic arrays in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Olle, Raymond M.; Cooper, Jill M.

    1991-01-01

    Commercially applied SiOx was evaluated as a protective coating for the polyimide Kapton solar array blankets for Space Station Freedom. Three different rolls of coated material were tested in a plasma asher to determine their durability to attack by atomic oxygen. Mass loss data indicated that all of the coatings tested would structurally survive for 15 years in LEO (low earth orbit), except for one which had several uncoated lines across the sample which were caused by ridgelanes in the Kapton. It appears that the size rather than number of defects alone effects the mass loss the most. Careful handling of the material after coating and during processing may be critical for array survival.

  13. Synthesis of low color, atomic oxygen resistant polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacInnes, Dave

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop low color, atomic oxygen resistant polyimides for potential applications on spacecraft in low earth orbit. The material is needed in order to protect satellites and spacecraft from the gases and radiation found at those altitudes. Phosphorous containing polyimides have been shown to be especially resistant to corrosion and weight loss under oxygen plasma. Unfortunately the color of these phosphorous containing polyimides is still too high for them to be good heat insulators. While they are not as effective as teflon, the current material of choice. polyimides are much less dense than teflon and would be especially valuable if they could be made with low color. The approach taken was to synthesize a monomer which would contain the elements needed for giving the final polyimide its desired properties. In particular the monomer should incorporate phosphine or phosphine oxides and have bulky side groups to block any color forming charge transfer structures. The target molecule, 3,5-di-(trifluoromethylphenyl)-bis(3-aminophenyl) phosphine oxide, (containing both a phosphine oxide group and a bulky ditrifluoromethylphenyl group) was synthesized via three reactions in overall yield of 21 percent. In addition, a model compound, bis(3-phenylamine) phenyl phosphine oxide, was synthesized two different ways in order to establish the conditions for the nitration of phosphine oxides and their reduction to the amine. Finally, a trisubstituted phosphine oxide was synthesized. In all, seven phosphorus containing organic compounds were synthesized, purified and characterized. The model compound was reacted with oxydiphthalic anhydride to form a polyamic acid with inherent viscosity of 0.34. This material was cast into a film and heated, forming a normally colored fairly strong polyimide with a Tg of 240 C. The target compound was reacted with 6-fluorodiphthalic anhydride to give a polyamic acid with inherent viscosity of 0.19 and cast to

  14. LDEF spacecraft, ground laboratory, and computational modeling implications on Space Station Freedom's solar array materials and surfaces durability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; De Groh, Kim K.; Auer, Bruce M.; Mirtich, Michael J.; Gebauer, Linda; Hill, Carol M.; Lebed, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    The low earth orbital (LEO) durability of Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar array materials and surfaces is evaluated using results from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), ground laboratory simulation tests, and Monte Carlo modeling. These results indicate that thin-film SiOx protective coatings are adequately durable to atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeroid or debris impact.

  15. Use of Atomic Oxygen for Increased Water Contact Angles of Various Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beger, Lauren; Roberts, Lily; deGroh, Kim; Banks, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    In the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment, spacecraft surfaces can be altered during atomic oxygen exposure through oxidation and erosion. There can be terrestrial benefits of such interactions, such as the modification of hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties of polymers due to chemical modification and texturing. Such modification of the surface may be useful for biomedical applications. For example, atomic oxygen texturing may increase the hydrophilicity of polymers, such as chlorotrifluoroethylene (Aclar), thus allowing increased adhesion and spreading of cells on textured Petri dishes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of atomic oxygen exposure on the hydrophilicity of nine different polymers. To determine whether hydrophilicity remains static after atomic oxygen exposure or changes with exposure, the contact angles between the polymer and a water droplet placed on the polymer s surface were measured. The polymers were exposed to atomic oxygen in a radio frequency (RF) plasma asher. Atomic oxygen plasma treatment was found to significantly alter the hydrophilicity of non-fluorinated polymers. Significant decreases in the water contact angle occurred with atomic oxygen exposure. Fluorinated polymers were found to be less sensitive to changes in hydrophilicity for equivalent atomic oxygen exposures, and two of the fluorinated polymers became more hydrophobic. The majority of change in water contact angle of the non-fluorinated polymers was found to occur with very low fluence exposures, indicating potential cell culturing benefit with short treatment time.

  16. Atomic oxygen effects measurements for shuttle missions STS-8 and 41-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, James T. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the atomic oxygen interactions upon optical coatings, thin metallized films, and advanced spacecraft materials, such as high temperature coatings for infrared optical systems are summarized. Also included is a description of a generic model proposed by JPL, which may explain the atomic oxygen interaction mechanisms that lead to surface recession and weight loss.

  17. Atomic oxygen interaction with solar array blankets at protective coating defect sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Auer, Bruce M.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hill, Carol M.

    1991-01-01

    Atomic oxygen in the low-Earth-orbital environment oxidizes SiOx protected polyimide Kapton solar array blankets at sites which are not protected such as pin windows or scratches in the protective coatings. The magnitude and shape of the atomic oxygen undercutting which occurs at these sites is dependent upon the exposure environment details such as arrival direction and reaction probability. The geometry of atomic oxygen undercutting at defect sites exposed to atomic oxygen in plasma asher was used to develop a Monte Carlo model to simulate atomic oxygen erosion processes at defect sites in protected Kapton. Comparisons of Monte Carlo predictions and experimental results are presented for plasma asher atomic oxygen exposures for large and small defects as well as for protective coatings on one or both sides of Kapton. The model is used to predict in-space exposure results at defect sites for both directed and sweeping atomic oxygen exposure. A comparison of surface textures predicted by the Monte Carlo model and those experimentally observed from both directed space ram and laboratory plasma asher atomic oxygen exposure indicate substantial agreement.

  18. Calculated values of atomic oxygen fluences and solar exposure on selected surfaces of LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. R.; Pippin, H. G.; Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    Atomic oxygen (AO) fluences and solar exposure have been modeled for selected hardware from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The atomic oxygen exposure was modeled using the microenvironment modeling code SHADOWV2. The solar exposure was modeled using the microenvironment modeling code SOLSHAD version 1.0.

  19. Low-Energy Elastic Electron Scattering by Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zatsarinny O.; Bartschat, K.; Tayal, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    The B-spline R-matrix method is employed to investigate the low-energy elastic electron scattering by atomic oxygen. Flexible non-orthogonal sets of radial functions are used to construct the target description and to represent the scattering functions. A detailed investigation regarding the dependence of the predicted partial and total cross sections on the scattering model and the accuracy of the target description is presented. The predicted angle-integrated elastic cross sections are in good agreement with experiment, whereas significant discrepancies are found in the angle-differential elastic cross sections near the forward direction. .The near-threshold results are found to strongly depend on the treatment of inner-core short-range correlation effects in the target description, as well as on a proper account of the target polarizability. A sharp increase in the elastic cross sections below 1 eV found in some earlier calculations is judged to be an artifact of an unbalanced description of correlation in the N-electron target structure and the (N+l)-electron-collision problems.

  20. Model of spacecraft atomic oxygen and solar exposure microenvironments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Pippin, H. G.

    1993-01-01

    Computer models of environmental conditions in Earth orbit are needed for the following reasons: (1) derivation of material performance parameters from orbital test data, (2) evaluation of spacecraft hardware designs, (3) prediction of material service life, and (4) scheduling spacecraft maintenance. To meet these needs, Boeing has developed programs for modeling atomic oxygen (AO) and solar radiation exposures. The model allows determination of AO and solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposures for spacecraft surfaces (1) in arbitrary orientations with respect to the direction of spacecraft motion, (2) overall ranges of solar conditions, and (3) for any mission duration. The models have been successfully applied to prediction of experiment environments on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and for analysis of selected hardware designs for deployment on other spacecraft. The work on these models has been reported at previous LDEF conferences. Since publication of these reports, a revision has been made to the AO calculation for LDEF, and further work has been done on the microenvironments model for solar exposure.

  1. Further investigations of experiment A0034 atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal control coatings within the recessed compartments of LDEF Experiment A0034 experienced the maximum leading edge fluence of atomic oxygen with considerably less solar UV radiation exposure than top-surface mounted materials of other LDEF experiments on either the leading or the trailing edge. This combination of exposure within A0034 resulted in generally lower levels of darkening attributable to solar UV radiation than for similar materials on other LDEF experiments exposed to greater cumulative solar UV radiation levels. Changes in solar absorptance and infrared thermal emittance of the exposed coatings are thus unique to this exposure. Analytical results for other applications have been found for environmentally induced changes in fluorescence, surface morphology, light scattering, and the effects of coating outgassing products on adjacent mirrors and windows of the A0034 experiment. Some atmospheric bleaching of the thermal control coatings, in addition to that presumably experience during reentry and recovery operations, has been found since initial post-flight observations and measurements.

  2. Calculation of muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to atomic oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Dupays, Arnaud; Lepetit, Bruno; Beswick, J. Alberto; Rizzo, Carlo; Bakalov, Dimitar

    2003-06-01

    The muon-transfer probabilities between muonic hydrogen and an oxygen atom are calculated in a constrained geometry one-dimensional model for collision energies between 10{sup -6} and 10{sup 3} eV. For relative translational energies below 10{sup -1} eV, for which the de Broglie wavelength (>1 Aa) is much larger than the characteristic distance of the potential interaction ({approx}0.1 Aa), the problem corresponds to an ultracold collision. The close-coupling time-independent quantum equations are written in terms of hyperspherical coordinates and a diabatic-by-sectors basis set. The muon-transfer probabilities are qualitatively interpreted in terms of a model involving two Landau-Zener crossings together with the threshold energy dependence. Based on this analysis, a simple procedure to estimate the energy dependence of the muon-transfer rate in three dimensions is proposed. These estimated rates are discussed in the light of previous model calculations and available experimental data for this process. It is concluded that the high transfer rates at epithermal energies inferred from experiments are unlikely to be correct.

  3. An Atmospheric Atomic Oxygen Source for Cleaning Smoke Damaged Art Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Norris, Mary Jo

    1998-01-01

    Soot and other carbonaceous combustion products deposited on the surfaces of porous ceramic, stone, ivory and paper can be difficult to remove and can have potentially unsatisfactory results using wet chemical and/or abrasive cleaning techniques. An atomic oxygen source which operates in air at atmospheric pressure, using a mixture of oxygen and helium, has been developed to produce an atomic oxygen beam which is highly effective in oxidizing soot deposited on surfaces by burning candles made of paraffin, oil or rendered animal fat. Atomic oxygen source operating conditions and the results of cleaning soot from paper, gesso, ivory, limestone and water color-painted limestone are presented,

  4. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3x10(exp 17) and 9x10(exp 17) cm(exp -3). The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  5. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3 x 10(exp 17) and 9 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3). The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  6. Atomic oxygen-metal surface studies as applied to mass spectrometer measurements of upper planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjolander, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of atomic oxygen loss in mass spectrometer ion sources can be reduced to an understanding of the possible surface interactions between oxygen atoms and the metal surface of the ion source. Results are presented for an experimental study in which an atomic oxygen beam apparatus and a mass spectrometer were used to measure the oxygen atom reflection, recombination, general surface reaction, and occlusion probabilities on six different engineering surfaces as a function of atomic oxygen exposure. The materials studied are gold, Nichrome V, aluminum, titanium, silver, and platinum. The variation in measured reflection probability seems to occur with metals that form oxides, Nichrome V being stable in terms of reflection stability. Recombination is observed an all surfaces except aluminum and platinum. Variation in the complete set of measurements in a single experiment is the result of varying surface conditions.

  7. Monte Carlo Computational Modeling of the Energy Dependence of Atomic Oxygen Undercutting of Protected Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Norris, Mary Jo

    1998-01-01

    A Monte Carlo computational model has been developed which simulates atomic oxygen attack of protected polymers at defect sites in the protective coatings. The parameters defining how atomic oxygen interacts with polymers and protective coatings as well as the scattering processes which occur have been optimized to replicate experimental results observed from protected polyimide Kapton on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission. Computational prediction of atomic oxygen undercutting at defect sites in protective coatings for various arrival energies was investigated. The atomic oxygen undercutting energy dependence predictions enable one to predict mass loss that would occur in low Earth orbit, based on lower energy ground laboratory atomic oxygen beam systems. Results of computational model prediction of undercut cavity size as a function of energy and defect size will be presented to provide insight into expected in-space mass loss of protected polymers with protective coating defects based on lower energy ground laboratory testing.

  8. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3 times 10 ^{17} and 9 times 10^{17} cm ^{-3}. The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  9. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3 x 10(exp 17) and 9 x 10(exp 17)/cu cm. The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  10. A spectral study of a radio-frequency plasma-generated flux of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, Carmen E.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Lewis, Beverley W.

    1994-01-01

    The active environment of a radio-frequency (RF) plasma generator, with and without low-pressure oxygen, has been characterized through the identification of emission lines in the spectral region from 250 to 900 nm. The environment is shown to be dependent on the partial pressure of oxygen and the power applied to the RF generator. Atomic oxygen has been found in significant amounts as well as atomic hydrogen and the molecular oxygen species O2((sup 1)Sigma). The only charged species observed was the singly charged molecular ion O2(+). With a polymer specimen in the plasma chamber, carbon monoxide was also observed. The significance of these observations with respect to previous studies using this type of generator to stimulate material degradation in space is discussed. The possibility of using these generators as atomic oxygen sources in the development of oxygen atom fluorescence sensors is explored.

  11. Development of a Supersonic Atomic Oxygen Nozzle Beam Source for Crossed Beam Scattering Experiments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sibener, S. J.; Buss, R. J.; Lee, Y. T.

    1978-05-01

    A high pressure, supersonic, radio frequency discharge nozzle beam source was developed for the production of intense beams of ground state oxygen atoms. An efficient impedance matching scheme was devised for coupling the radio frequency power to the plasma as a function of both gas pressure and composition. Techniques for localizing the discharge directly behind the orifice of a water-cooled quartz nozzle were also developed. The above combine to yield an atomic oxygen beam source which produces high molecular dissociation in oxygen seeded rare gas mixtures at total pressures up to 200 torr: 80 to 90% dissociation for oxygen/argon mixtures and 60 to 70% for oxygen/helium mixtures. Atomic oxygen intensities are found to be greater than 10{sup 17} atom sr{sup -1} sec{sup -1}. A brief discussion of the reaction dynamics of 0 + IC1 ..-->.. I0 + C1 is also presented.

  12. Cumulative effect of transition metals on nitrogen and fluorine co-doped graphite nanofibers: an efficient and highly durable non-precious metal catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peera, S. Gouse; Arunchander, A.; Sahu, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen and fluorine co-doped graphite nanofibers (N/F-GNF) and their cumulative effect with Fe and Co have been developed as an alternative non-precious metal catalyst for efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media. The synergistic effect between the doped hetero atoms and the co-ordinated Fe and Co towards ORR activity and durability of the catalyst is deeply investigated. A high ORR onset potential comparable with commercial Pt/C catalyst is observed with the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst, which indicates that this catalyst is a potential alternative to Pt/C. A fivefold increase in mass activity is achieved by the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst compared to the simple N/F-GNF catalyst, which endorses the significant role of transition metal atoms in enhancing ORR activity. The advanced Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst also exhibits complete tolerance to CH3OH and CO. The Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst also exhibits excellent durability towards the ORR with only a 10 mV negative shift in its half wave potential after a 10 000 repeated potential cycling test, whereas in the case of a commercial Pt/C catalyst there was an ~110 mV negative shift under similar environmental conditions. More stringent corrosive test cycles were also performed by maintaining the cell as high as 1.4 V with a later decrease to 0.6 V vs. RHE for 300 cycles, which showed the excellent durability of the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst in comparison with the Pt/C catalyst. XPS analysis of the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst presents the ORR active chemical states of N (pyridinic-N and graphitic-N) and F (semi-ionic-F) and the co-ordinated sites of Fe and Co species with the dopants. The excellent performance and durability of the Fe-Co/NF-GNF catalyst is due to the synergistic effect between the hetero atoms dopants (N and F) and strong co-ordinating bonds of M-N-C, which protect the graphene layers around the metallic species and greatly mitigates the leaching of Co and Fe during the long term cycling test. The high activity and

  13. Thermochemical analyses of the oxidative vaporization of metals and oxides by oxygen molecules and atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.; Leisz, D. M.; Fryburg, G. C.; Stearns, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Equilibrium thermochemical analyses are employed to describe the vaporization processes of metals and metal oxides upon exposure to molecular and atomic oxygen. Specific analytic results for the chromium-, platinum-, aluminum-, and silicon-oxygen systems are presented. Maximum rates of oxidative vaporization predicted from the thermochemical considerations are compared with experimental results for chromium and platinum. The oxidative vaporization rates of chromium and platinum are considerably enhanced by oxygen atoms.

  14. The reaction pathways of the oxygen plasma pulse in the hafnium oxide atomic layer deposition process

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Hyeongtag; Won, Youngdo

    2008-09-22

    The plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process for the HfO{sub 2} thin film is modeled as simple reactions between Hf(OH){sub 3}NH{sub 2} and reactive oxygen species. The density functional theory calculation was performed for plausible reaction pathways to construct the reaction profile. While the triplet molecular oxygen is unlikely to form a reactive complex, the singlet molecular oxygen forms the stable adduct that goes through the transition state and completes the reaction pathway to the products. Either two singlet or two triplet oxygen atoms make the singlet adduct complex, which follows the same pathway to the product as the singlet molecular oxygen reacts.

  15. Exposure of LDEF materials to atomic oxygen: Results of EOIM 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggers, C. H.; Meshishnek, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    The third Effects of Oxygen Atom Interaction with Materials (EOIM 3) experiment flew on STS-46 from July 31 to August 8, 1992. The EOIM-3 sample tray was exposed to the low-earth orbit space environment for 58.55 hours at an altitude of 124 nautical miles resulting in a calculated total atomic oxygen (AO) fluence of 1.99 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. Five samples previously flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment M0003 were included on the Aerospace EOIM 3 experimental tray: (1) Chemglaze A276 white thermal control paint from the LDEF trailing edge (TE); (2) S13GLO white thermal control paint from the LDEF TE; (3) S13GLO from the LDEF leading edge (LE) with a visible contamination layer from the LDEF mission; (4) Z306 black thermal control paint from the LDEF TE with a contamination layer from the LDEF mission; and (5) anodized aluminum from the LDEF TE with a contamination layer from the LDEF mission. The purpose of this experiment was twofold: (l) investigate the response of trailing edge LDEF materials to atomic oxygen exposure, thereby simulating LDEF leading edge phenomena; (2) investigate the response of contaminated LDEF samples to atomic oxygen in attempts to understand LDEF contamination-atomic oxygen interactions. This paper describes the response of these materials to atomic oxygen exposure, and compares the results of the EOIM 3 experiment to the LDEF mission and to ground-based atomic oxygen exposure studies.

  16. Hyperthermal atomic oxygen source for near-space simulation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, James A.; Baker, Paul M.; Hwang, Eunsook S.; Sporleder, David; Stearns, Jaime A.; Chambreau, Steven D.; Braunstein, Matthew; Conforti, Patrick F.

    2009-09-15

    A hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) beam facility has been developed to investigate the collisions of high-velocity AO atoms with vapor-phase counterflow. Application of 4.5 kW, 2.4 GHz microwave power in the source chamber creates a continuous discharge in flowing O{sub 2} gas. The O{sub 2} feedstock is introduced into the source chamber in a vortex flow to constrain the plasma to the center region, with the chamber geometry promoting resonant excitation of the TM{sub 011} mode to localize the energy deposition in the vicinity of the aluminum nitride (AlN) expansion nozzle. The approximately 3500 K environment serves to dissociate the O{sub 2}, resulting in an effluent consisting of 40% AO by number density. Downstream of the nozzle, a silicon carbide (SiC) skimmer selects the center portion of the discharge effluent, prior to the expansion reaching the first shock front and rethermalizing, creating a beam with a derived 2.5 km s{sup -1} velocity. Differential pumping of the skimmer chamber, an optional intermediate chamber and reaction chamber maintains a reaction chamber pressure in the mid-10{sup -6} to mid-10{sup -5} Torr range. The beam has been characterized with regard to total AO beam flux, O{sub 2} dissociation fraction, and AO spatial profile using time-of-flight mass spectrometric and Kapton-H erosion measurements. A series of reactions AO+C{sub n}H{sub 2n} (n=2-4) has been studied under single-collision conditions using mass spectrometric product detection, and at higher background pressure detecting dispersed IR emissions from primary and secondary products using a step-scan Michelson interferometer. In a more recent AO crossed-beam experiment, number densities and predicted IR emission intensities have been modeled using the direct simulation Monte Carlo technique. The results have been used to guide the experimental conditions. IR emission intensity predictions are compared to detected signal levels to estimate absolute reaction cross sections.

  17. Hyperthermal atomic oxygen source for near-space simulation experiments.

    PubMed

    Dodd, James A; Baker, Paul M; Hwang, Eunsook S; Sporleder, David; Stearns, Jaime A; Chambreau, Steven D; Braunstein, Matthew; Conforti, Patrick F

    2009-09-01

    A hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) beam facility has been developed to investigate the collisions of high-velocity AO atoms with vapor-phase counterflow. Application of 4.5 kW, 2.4 GHz microwave power in the source chamber creates a continuous discharge in flowing O(2) gas. The O(2) feedstock is introduced into the source chamber in a vortex flow to constrain the plasma to the center region, with the chamber geometry promoting resonant excitation of the TM(011) mode to localize the energy deposition in the vicinity of the aluminum nitride (AlN) expansion nozzle. The approximately 3500 K environment serves to dissociate the O(2), resulting in an effluent consisting of 40% AO by number density. Downstream of the nozzle, a silicon carbide (SiC) skimmer selects the center portion of the discharge effluent, prior to the expansion reaching the first shock front and rethermalizing, creating a beam with a derived 2.5 km s(-1) velocity. Differential pumping of the skimmer chamber, an optional intermediate chamber and reaction chamber maintains a reaction chamber pressure in the mid-10(-6) to mid-10(-5) Torr range. The beam has been characterized with regard to total AO beam flux, O(2) dissociation fraction, and AO spatial profile using time-of-flight mass spectrometric and Kapton-H erosion measurements. A series of reactions AO+C(n)H(2n) (n=2-4) has been studied under single-collision conditions using mass spectrometric product detection, and at higher background pressure detecting dispersed IR emissions from primary and secondary products using a step-scan Michelson interferometer. In a more recent AO crossed-beam experiment, number densities and predicted IR emission intensities have been modeled using the direct simulation Monte Carlo technique. The results have been used to guide the experimental conditions. IR emission intensity predictions are compared to detected signal levels to estimate absolute reaction cross sections. PMID:19791929

  18. Development of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser with production of atomic iodine in a chemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Censky, M; Spalek, O; Jirasek, V; Kodymova, J; Jakubec, I

    2009-11-30

    The alternative method of atomic iodine generation for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (COIL) in chemical reactions with gaseous reactants is investigated experimentally. The influence of the configuration of iodine atom injection into the laser cavity on the efficiency of the atomic iodine generation and small-signal gain is studied. (lasers)

  19. Formation of surface oxides and Ag2O thin films with atomic oxygen on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derouin, Jonathan; Farber, Rachael G.; Heslop, Stacy L.; Killelea, Daniel R.

    2015-11-01

    The nature of the oxygen species adsorbed to silver surfaces is a key component of the heterogeneously catalyzed epoxidation of ethylene and partial oxidation of methanol over silver catalysts. We report the formation of two different silver-oxygen species depending on the flux and energy of incident gas-phase oxygen atoms on an Ag(111) surface. A combination of surface science techniques was used to characterize the oxidized surfaces. Atomic oxygen was generated with an Ir filament; lower temperatures created surface oxides previously reported. When O was deposited with a higher filament temperature, the surface became highly corrugated, little subsurface oxygen was observed, and thin layers of Ag2O were likely formed. These results show that the energy and flux of oxygen are important parameters in the chemical identity and abundance of oxygen on silver surfaces and suggest that formation of the Ag2O thin film hinders formation of subsurface oxygen.

  20. Neutral atomic oxygen beam produced by ion charge exchange for Low Earth Orbital (LEO) simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce; Rutledge, Sharon; Brdar, Marko; Olen, Carl; Stidham, Curt

    1987-01-01

    A low energy neutral atomic oxygen beam system was designed and is currently being assembled at the Lewis Research Center. The system utilizes a 15 cm diameter Kaufman ion source to produce positive oxygen ions which are charge exchange neutralized to produce low energy (variable from 5 to 150 eV) oxygen atoms at a flux simulating real time low Earth orbital conditions. An electromagnet is used to direct only the singly charged oxygen ions from the ion source into the charge exchange cell. A retarding potential grid is used to slow down the oxygen ions to desired energies prior to their charge exchange. Cryogenically cooled diatomic oxygen gas in the charge exchange cell is then used to transfer charge to the oxygen ions to produce a neutral atomic oxygen beam. Remaining non-charge exchanged oxygen ions are then swept from the beam by electromagnetic or electrostatic deflection depending upon the desired experiment configuration. The resulting neutral oxygen beam of 5 to 10 cm in diameter impinges upon target materials within a sample holder fixture that can also provide for simultaneous heating and UV exposure during the atomic oxygen bombardment.

  1. Materials preparation and longevity in hyperthermal atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bareiss, Lyle E.; Sjolander, Gary P.; Gregory, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Flight hardware fabrication, the design and fabrication of an atom beam source, construction of a surface science laboratory, and progress in research on processes and mechanisms of interaction of hyperthermal atoms at solid surfaces are discussed.

  2. Atomic structures and oxygen dynamics of CeO2 grain boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bin; Sugiyama, Issei; Hojo, Hajime; Ohta, Hiromichi; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Material performance is significantly governed by grain boundaries (GBs), a typical crystal defects inside, which often exhibit unique properties due to the structural and chemical inhomogeneity. Here, it is reported direct atomic scale evidence that oxygen vacancies formed in the GBs can modify the local surface oxygen dynamics in CeO2, a key material for fuel cells. The atomic structures and oxygen vacancy concentrations in individual GBs are obtained by electron microscopy and theoretical calculations at atomic scale. Meanwhile, local GB oxygen reduction reactivity is measured by electrochemical strain microscopy. By combining these techniques, it is demonstrated that the GB electrochemical activities are affected by the oxygen vacancy concentrations, which is, on the other hand, determined by the local structural distortions at the GB core region. These results provide critical understanding of GB properties down to atomic scale, and new perspectives on the development strategies of high performance electrochemical devices for solid oxide fuel cells. PMID:26838958

  3. Atomic structures and oxygen dynamics of CeO2 grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bin; Sugiyama, Issei; Hojo, Hajime; Ohta, Hiromichi; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Material performance is significantly governed by grain boundaries (GBs), a typical crystal defects inside, which often exhibit unique properties due to the structural and chemical inhomogeneity. Here, it is reported direct atomic scale evidence that oxygen vacancies formed in the GBs can modify the local surface oxygen dynamics in CeO2, a key material for fuel cells. The atomic structures and oxygen vacancy concentrations in individual GBs are obtained by electron microscopy and theoretical calculations at atomic scale. Meanwhile, local GB oxygen reduction reactivity is measured by electrochemical strain microscopy. By combining these techniques, it is demonstrated that the GB electrochemical activities are affected by the oxygen vacancy concentrations, which is, on the other hand, determined by the local structural distortions at the GB core region. These results provide critical understanding of GB properties down to atomic scale, and new perspectives on the development strategies of high performance electrochemical devices for solid oxide fuel cells.

  4. Oxygen Atom Adsorption on and Diffusion into Nb(110) and Nb(100) from First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Tafen, De Nyago; Gao, Michael C

    2013-11-01

    In order to understand the dynamics of oxidation of Nb, we examine the adsorption, absorption, and diffusion of an oxygen atom on, in, and into Nb(110) and Nb(100) surfaces, respectively, using density functional theory. Our calculations predict that the oxygen atom adsorbs on the threefold site on Nb(110) and the fourfold hollow site on Nb(100), and the adsorption energy is -5.08 and -5.18 eV respectively. We find the long and short bridge sites to be transition states for O diffusion on Nb(110), while the on top site is a rank-2 saddle point. In the subsurface region, the oxygen atom prefers the octahedral site, as in bulk niobium. Our results also show that the O atom is more stable on Nb(110) subsurface than on Nb(100) subsurface. The diffusion of oxygen atoms into niobium surfaces passes through transition states where the oxygen atom is coordinated to four niobium atoms. The diffusion barriers of the oxygen atom into Nb(110) and Nb(100) are 1.81 and 2.05 eV, respectively. Analysis of the electronic density of states reveals the emergence of well localized electronic states below the lowest states of clean Nb surfaces due to d-p orbital hybridization.

  5. Line Profile Measurements of Atomic Oxygen at 1300 A with a VUV Raman Shifter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Surendra P.; Exberger, Richard J.; Meyer, Scott A.; Gilmore, John O.

    1994-01-01

    We are currently developing an atomic oxygen diagnostic to study the degree of oxygen dissociation in ground-based facilities. The absorption of the (sub 3)P - (sup 3)S(sup 0) resonance triplet in the vacuum ultraviolet is a direct measure of the ground state number density of atomic oxygen. Although the integrated line strength is well known for these transitions, the line profile is not. We report the results of a series of experiments in which the line profile is measured in shock-heated oxygen. An ArF excimer laser and a hydrogen Raman shifter generate tunable VUV radiation at the resonance wavelength. The test gas is dissociated oxygen, generated in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. By measuring the absorption of known concentrations of atomic oxygen, we are able to study the absorption line profile. The results will serve as a calibration to apply this diagnostic in other flowfields.

  6. Comparison of the Atomic Oxygen Erosion Depth and Cone Height of Various Materials at Hyperthermal Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Deborah L.; Banks, Bruce A.; Thorson, Stephen D.; deGroh, Kim, K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2007-01-01

    Atomic oxygen readily reacts with most spacecraft polymer materials exposed to the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment. If the atomic oxygen arrival comes from a fixed angle of impact, the resulting erosion will foster the development of a change in surface morphology as material thickness decreases. Hydrocarbon and halopolymer materials, as well as graphite, are easily oxidized and textured by directed atomic oxygen in LEO at energies of approx.4.5 eV. What has been curious is that the ratio of cone height to erosion depth is quite different for different materials. The formation of cones under fixed direction atomic oxygen attack may contribute to a reduction in material tensile strength in excess of that which would occur if the cone height to erosion depth ratio was very low because of greater opportunities for crack initiation. In an effort to understand how material composition affects the ratio of cone height to erosion depth, an experimental investigation was conducted on 18 different materials exposed to a hyperthermal energy directed atomic oxygen source (approx.70 eV). The materials were first salt-sprayed to provide microscopic local areas that would be protected from atomic oxygen. This allowed erosion depth measurements to be made by scanning microscopy inspection. The polymers were then exposed to atomic oxygen produced by an end Hall ion source that was operated on pure oxygen. Samples were exposed to an atomic oxygen effective fluence of 1.0x10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm based on Kapton H polyimide erosion. The average erosion depth and average cone height were determined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The experimental ratio of average cone height to erosion depth is compared to polymer composition and other properties.

  7. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen micrometeoroid, and debris interactions with photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Degroh, Kim K.

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide Kapton solar array blankets can be protected from atomic oxygen in low earth orbit if SiO sub x thin film coatings are applied to their surfaces. The useful lifetime of a blanket protected in this manner strongly depends on the number and size of defects in the protective coatings. Atomic oxygen degradation is dominated by undercutting at defects in protective coatings caused by substrate roughness and processing rather than micrometeoroid or debris impacts. Recent findings from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and ground based studies show that interactions between atomic oxygen and silicones may cause grazing and contamination problems which may lead to solar array degradation.

  8. Performance and properties of atomic oxygen protective coatings for polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Lamoreaux, Cynthia

    Such large LEO spacecraft as the Space Station Freedom will encounter high atomic oxygen fluences which entail the use of protective coatings for their polymeric structural materials. Such coatings have demonstrated polymer mass losses due to oxidation that are much smaller than those of unprotected materials. Attention is here given to protective and/or electrically conductive coatings of SiO(x), Ge, and indium-tin oxide which have been exposed to atomic oxygen in order to ascertain mass loss, electrical conductivity, and optical property dependence on atomic oxygen exposure.

  9. Performance and properties of atomic oxygen protective coatings for polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Lamoreaux, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Such large LEO spacecraft as the Space Station Freedom will encounter high atomic oxygen fluences which entail the use of protective coatings for their polymeric structural materials. Such coatings have demonstrated polymer mass losses due to oxidation that are much smaller than those of unprotected materials. Attention is here given to protective and/or electrically conductive coatings of SiO(x), Ge, and indium-tin oxide which have been exposed to atomic oxygen in order to ascertain mass loss, electrical conductivity, and optical property dependence on atomic oxygen exposure.

  10. Changes of properties of the materials of spacecraft solar arrays under the action of atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvalov, V. A.; Kochubei, G. S.; Priimak, A. I.; Pis'mennyi, N. I.; Tokmak, N. A.

    2007-08-01

    A procedure is developed for physical and chemical modeling and investigation of the weight, geometrical, and thermo-optical characteristics of polymer paneling materials of solar arrays and of the electric power of solar cells under the prolonged action of supersonic fluxes of atomic oxygen in orbit. The behavior of changes in the material characteristics as a function of the integral fluence of atomic oxygen is found. It is established that the electric power of solar cells is virtually invariable within the errors of measurements under irradiation by atomic oxygen flux with a fluence of no higher than 5 · 1021 cm-2.

  11. Absolute rate parameters for the reaction of ground state atomic oxygen with dimethyl sulfide and episulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Timmons, R. B.; Stief, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    It is pointed out that the investigated reaction of oxygen with dimethyl sulfide may play an important role in photochemical smog formation and in the chemical evolution of dense interstellar clouds. Kinetic data were obtained with the aid of the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence method. The photodecomposition of molecular oxygen provided the oxygen atoms for the experiments. The decay of atomic oxygen was studied on the basis of resonance fluorescence observations. Both reactions investigated were found to be fast processes. A negative temperature dependence of the rate constants for reactions with dimethyl sulfide was observed.

  12. Poly(arylene ether)s That Resist Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Novel poly(arylene ether)s containing phosphine oxide (PAEPO's) made via aromatic nucleophilic displacement reactions of activated aromatic dihalides (or, in some cases, activated aromatic dinitro compounds) with new bisphenol monomers containing phosphine oxide. Exhibited favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties and resistance to monatomic oxygen in oxygen plasma environment. Useful as adhesives, coatings, films, membranes, moldings, and composite matrices.

  13. The interstellar oxygen crisis, or where have all the oxygen atoms gone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu; Li, Aigen; Jiang, B. W.

    2015-11-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM) seems to have a significant surplus of oxygen which was dubbed as the `O crisis': independent of the adopted interstellar reference abundance, the total number of O atoms depleted from the gas phase far exceeds that tied up in solids by as much as ˜160 ppm of O/H. Recently, it has been hypothesized that the missing O could be hidden in μm-sized H2O ice grains. We examine this hypothesis by comparing the infrared (IR) extinction and far-IR emission arising from these grains with that observed in the Galactic diffuse ISM. We find that it is possible for the diffuse ISM to accommodate ˜160 ppm of O/H in μm-sized H2O ice grains without violating the observational constraints including the absence of the 3.1 μm O-H absorption feature. More specifically, H2O ice grains of radii ˜4 μm and O/H = 160 ppm are capable of accounting for the observed flat extinction at ˜3-8 μm and produce no excessive emission in the far-IR. These grains could be present in the diffuse ISM through rapid exchange of material between dense molecular clouds where they form and diffuse clouds where they are destroyed by photosputtering.

  14. The Effect of Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Exposure on Phenylphosphine Oxide-Containing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of phenylphosphine oxide-containing polymers were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard a space shuttle flight (STS-85) as part of flight experiment designated Evaluation of Space Environment and Effects on Materials (ESEM). This flight experiment was a cooperative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The thin film samples described herein were part of an atomic oxygen exposure experiment (AOE) and were exposed to primarily atomic oxygen (1 X 1019 atoms/cm2). The thin film samples consisted of three phosphine oxide containing polymers (arylene ether, benzimidazole and imide). Based on post-flight analyses using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and weight loss data, it was found that atomic oxygen exposure of these materials efficiently produces a phosphate layer at the surface of the samples. This layer provides a barrier towards further attack by AO. Consequently, these materials do not exhibit linear erosion rates which is in contrast with most organic polymers. Qualitatively, the results obtained from these analyses compare favorably with those obtained from samples exposed to atomic oxygen and or oxygen plasma in ground based exposure experiments. The results of the low Earth orbit atomic oxygen exposure on these materials will be compared with those of ground based exposure to AO.

  15. Beta cloth durability assessment for Space Station Freedom (SSF) Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blanket covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Jacobs, Stephen; Le, Julie

    1993-01-01

    MLI blankets for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) must comply with general program requirements and recommendations for long life and durability in the low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet/vacuum ultraviolet are the most important factors in the SSF natural environment which affect materials life. Two types of Beta cloth (Teflon coated woven glass fabric), which had been proposed as MLI blanket covers, were tested for long-term durability in the LEO environment. General resistance to atomic oxygen attack and permeation were evaluated in the high velocity atomic oxygen beam system at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Long-term exposure to the LEO environment was simulated in the laboratory using a radio frequency oxygen plasma asher. The plasma asher treated Beta cloth specimens were tested for thermo-optical properties and mechanical durability. Space exposure data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility and the Intelsat Solar Array Coupon were also used in the durability assessment. Beta cloth fabricated to Rockwell specification MBO 135-027 (Chemglas 250) was shown to have acceptable durability for general use as an MLI blanket cover material in the LEO environment while Sheldahl G414500 should be used only in locations which are protected from direct Ram atomic oxygen.

  16. Anti-Adhesion Elastomer Seal Coatings for Ultraviolet and Atomic Oxygen Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Groh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Waters, Deborah L.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation blocking sunscreen coatings have been developed for the protection of elastomer seals used in low-Earth-orbit (LEO). The coatings protect the seals from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen (AO) damage. The coatings were developed for use on NASA docking seals. Docking seal damage from the UV and AO present in LEO can constrain mission time-line, flight mode options, and increases risk. A low level of adhesion is also required for docking seals so undocking push-off forces can be low. The coatings presented also mitigate this unwanted adhesion. Greases with low collected volatile condensable materials (CVCM) and low total mass loss (TML) were mixed with slippery and/or UV blocking powders to create the protective coatings. Coatings were applied at rates up to 2 milligrams per square centimeter. Coated seals were exposed to AO and UV in the NUV (near-UV) and UV-C wavelength ranges (300 to 400 nanometers and 254 nanometers, respectively). Ground based ashers were used to simulate the AO of space. The Sun's UV energy was mimicked assuming a nose forward flight mode, resulting in an exposure rate of 2.5 megajoules per square meter per day. Exposures between 0 and 147 megajoules per square meter (UV-C) and 245 megajoules per square meter (NUV) were accomplished. The protective coatings were durable, providing protection from UV after a simulated docking and undocking cycle. The level of protection begins to decline at coverage rates less than 0.9 milligrams per square centimeter. The leakage of seals coated with Braycote plus 20 percent Z-cote ZnO sunscreen increased by a factor of 40 after moderate AO exposure; indicating that this coating might not be suitable due to AO intolerance. Seals coated with DC-7-16.4 percent Z-cote ZnO sunscreen were not significantly affected by combined doses of 2 x 10 (sup 21) atoms per square AO with 73 megajoules per square meter UV-C. Unprotected seals were significantly damaged at UV-C exposures of 0.3 megajoules per

  17. Characterization of a 5-eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, J. A.; Linton, R. C.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Whitaker, A. F.; Cuthbertson, J. W.; Langer, W. D.; Motley, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental effort to characterize an existing 5-eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facility being developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is described. This characterization effort includes atomic oxygen flux and flux distribution measurements using a catalytic probe, energy determination using a commercially designed quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), and the exposure of oxygen-sensitive materials in this beam facility. Also, comparisons were drawn between the reaction efficiencies of materials exposed in plasma ashers, and the reaction efficiencies previously estimated from space flight experiments. The results of this study show that the beam facility is capable of producing a directional beam of neutral atomic oxygen atoms with the needed flux and energy to simulate low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions for real time accelerated testing. The flux distribution in this facility is uniform to +/- 6 percent of the peak flux over a beam diameter of 6 cm.

  18. Application of an atomic oxygen beam facility to the investigation of shuttle glow chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. S.; Peplinski, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A facility for the investigation of the interactions of energetic atomic oxygen with solids is described. The facility is comprised of a four chambered, differentially pumped molecular beam apparatus which can be equipped with one of a variety of sources of atomic oxygen. The primary source is a dc arc heated supersonic nozzle source which produces a flux of atomic oxygen in excess of 10 to the 15th power sq cm/sec at the target, at a velocity of 3.5 km/sec. Results of applications of this facility to the study of the reactions of atomic oxygen with carbon and polyimide films are briefly reviewed and compared to data obtained on various flights of the space shuttle. A brief discussion of possible application of this facility to investigation of chemical reactions which might contribute to atmosphere induced vehicle glow is presented.

  19. Quantitative inactivation-mechanisms of P. digitatum and A. niger spores based on atomic oxygen dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masafumi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Hori, Masaru

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated inactivation mechanisms of Penicillium digitatum and Asperguills niger spores using atmospheric-pressure radical source quantitatively. The radical source was specially developed for supplying only neutral radicals without charged species and UV-light emissions. Reactive oxygen radical densities such as grand-state oxygen atoms, excited-state oxygen molecules and ozone were measured using VUV and UV absorption spectroscopies. The measurements and the treatments of spores were carried out in an Ar-purged chamber for eliminating the influences of OH, NOx and so on. The results revealed that the inactivation of spores can be explained by atomic-oxygen dose under the conditions employing neutral ROS irradiations. On the basis of the dose, we have observed the changes of intracellular organelles and membrane functions using TEM, SEM and confocal- laser fluorescent microscopy. From these results, we discuss the detail inactivation-mechanisms quantitatively based on atomic-oxygen dose.

  20. Atomic oxygen ground-based accelerated tests of spacecraft materials and structures for long-term LEO missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernik, Vladimir; Novikov, Lev; Smirnova, Tatyana; Shumov, Andrey

    Spacecraft materials are degradated during long-term low earth orbit (LEO) flight. The Internation Space Station (ISS) is planed to be prolonged the term of action up to 20-25 years. To specify so long life one requires a validation of spacecraft material behaviour conservation for the period. The LEO environment includes atomic oxygen (AO) destructive incident flow. The appropriate AO fluence is proposed to be as high as 10E22-10E23 atom O/sq cm. The simulative ground-based test is evident to be acceptable if its duration is not too long usually under several hundreds of hours. In that case the rate of the test acceleration exceeds 100-200. One way to accelerate test is to increase oxygen particles energy. We test materials under oxygen plasma beam, formed by a magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator, with the oxygen particle energy of 20 -30 eV. In this way we determine an AO effective fluence by a kapton equivalent technique. The beam varies from LEO incident flow by energy, flux and rates of the oxygen dissociation / ionization/ excitation. To evaluate the test adequacy we measured and compared with LEO data erosion yields of a number of polymer materials, applied on spacecraft external surfaces. There were: polyimide (kapton), polyamide (nylon), polyethylene, polyvinyl fluoride (tedlar), polysteren, polymethyl methacrylate, epoxy, polyethylene terephthalate (mylar), graphite. Their relative erosion yields, measured and normalized by polyimide in this way, practically coincide with the data of flight experiments on the ISS. The results ground to use our plasma mode for accelerated tests of spacecraft material durability for long-term LEO flights. We tested quite a number of polymer-based materials and structures usable on ISS and another LEO spacecrafts. The effective AO fluencies ran up to 3,5 10E22 atom O/sq cm corresponding to the ISS flight duration about 20 years. We studied material behaviors like mass and thickness losses, erosion yield, surface morphology

  1. Atomic oxygen fine-structure splittings with tunable far-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zink, Lyndon R.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Matsushima, Fusakazu; Nelis, Thomas; Robinson, Ruth L.

    1991-01-01

    Fine-structure splittings of atomic oxygen (O-16) in the ground state have been accurately measured using a tunable far-infrared spectrometer. The 3P0-3pl splitting is 2,060,069.09 (10) MHz, and the 3Pl-3P2 splitting is 4,744,777.49 (16) MHz. These frequencies are important for measuring atomic oxygen concentration in earth's atmosphere and the interstellar medium.

  2. TiO2-Coated Transparent Conductive Oxide (SnO2:F) Films Prepared by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition with High Durability against Atomic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambe, Mika; Sato, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kurokawa, Yasuyoshi; Miyajima, Shinsuke; Fukawa, Makoto; Taneda, Naoki; Yamada, Akira; Konagai, Makoto

    2006-03-01

    The durability of textured transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thin films against atomic hydrogen was investigated. An ultrathin TiO2 layer of 2 nm thickness was deposited on textured fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO2:F) films, successively by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD). TCO films with a TiO2 layer showed a higher optical transmittance and a lower resistivity after exposure to atomic hydrogen excited by very high frequency (VHF) plasma, while TCO films without a TiO2 layer showed a lower optical transmittance and a higher resistivity after the exposure. These TCO films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) before and after the exposure to atomic hydrogen.

  3. Atomic oxygen distributions in the Venus thermosphere: Comparisons between Venus Express observations and global model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, A. S.; Bougher, S. W.; Gérard, J.-C.; Soret, L.

    2012-02-01

    Nightglow emissions provide insight into the global thermospheric circulation, specifically in the transition region (˜70-120 km). The O 2 IR nightglow statistical map created from Venus Express (VEx) Visible and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) observations has been used to deduce a three-dimensional atomic oxygen density map. In this study, the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model (VTGCM) is utilized to provide a self-consistent global view of the atomic oxygen density distribution. More specifically, the VTGCM reproduces a 2D nightside atomic oxygen density map and vertical profiles across the nightside, which are compared to the VEx atomic oxygen density map. Both the simulated map and vertical profiles are in close agreement with VEx observations within a ˜30° contour of the anti-solar point. The quality of agreement decreases past ˜30°. This discrepancy implies the employment of Rayleigh friction within the VTGCM may be an over-simplification for representing wave drag effects on the local time variation of global winds. Nevertheless, the simulated atomic oxygen vertical profiles are comparable with the VEx profiles above 90 km, which is consistent with similar O 2 ( 1Δ) IR nightglow intensities. The VTGCM simulations demonstrate the importance of low altitude trace species as a loss for atomic oxygen below 95 km. The agreement between simulations and observations provides confidence in the validity of the simulated mean global thermospheric circulation pattern in the lower thermosphere.

  4. Kinetic modeling of primary and secondary oxygen atom fluxes at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balyukin, Igor; Katushkina, Olga; Alexashov, Dmitry; Izmodenov, Vladislav

    2016-07-01

    The first quantitative measurements of the interstellar heavy (oxygen and neon) neutral atoms obtained on the IBEX spacecraft were presented in Park et al. (ApJS, 2015). Qualitative analysis of these data shows that the secondary component of the interstellar oxygen atoms was also measured along with the primary interstellar atoms. This component is formed near the heliopause due to process of charge exchange of interstellar oxygen ions with hydrogen atoms and its existence in the heliosphere was previously predicted theoretically (Izmodenov et al, 1997, 1999, 2001). Quantitative analysis of fluxes of interstellar heavy neutral atoms is only possible with the help of a model which takes into account both filtration of the primary and origin of the secondary interstellar oxygen in the region of interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium as well as a detailed simulation of the motion of interstellar atoms inside the heliosphere. This simulation must take into account the temporal and heliolatitudinal dependences of ionization, the process of charge exchange with the protons of the solar wind and the effect of the solar gravitational attraction. This paper presents the results of modeling interstellar oxygen and neon atoms in the heliospheric shock layer and inside the heliosphere based on a new three-dimensional kinetic-MHD model of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (Izmodenov and Alexashov, ApJS, 2015) and the comparison of this results with the data obtained on the IBEX spacecraft.

  5. Atomic Oxygen Exposure of Power System and other Spacecraft Materials: Results of the EOIM-3 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1997-01-01

    In order to test their reactivity with Atomic Oxygen, twenty five materials were flown on the EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials) portion of the STS-46 Mission. These materials include refractory metals, candidate insulation materials, candidate radiator coatings, and a selection of miscellaneous materials. This report documents the results of the pre- and post-flight analysis of these materials.

  6. Growth control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through dose of oxygen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the dose-dependent effects of neutral oxygen radicals on the proliferation as well as the inactivation of microorganisms, we treated suspensions of budding yeast cells with oxygen radicals using an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source, varying the fluxes of O(3Pj) from 1.3 × 1016 to 2.3 × 1017 cm-2 s-1. Proliferation was promoted at doses of O(3Pj) ranging from 6 × 1016 to 2 × 1017 cm-3, and suppressed at doses ranging from 3 × 1017 to 1 × 1018 cm-3; cells were inactivated by O(3Pj) doses exceeding 1 × 1018 cm-3, even when the flux was varied over the above flux range. These results showed that the growth of cells was regulated primarily in response to the total dose of O(3Pj).

  7. MoS2 interactions with 1.5 eV atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. A.; Cross, J. B.; Pope, L. E.

    1989-01-01

    Exposures of MoS2 to 1.5-eV atomic oxygen in an anhydrous environment reveal that the degree of oxidation is essentially independent of crystallite orientation, and that the surface-adsorbed reaction products are MoO3 and MoO2. A mixture of oxides and sulfide exists over a depth of about 90 A, and this layer has a low diffusion rate for oxygen. It is concluded that a protective oxide layer forms on MoS2 on exposure to the atomic-oxygen-rich environment of LEO.

  8. Reaction Mechanism of Oxygen Atoms with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons by the Crossed-Molecular-Beams Method

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Buss, R. J.; Baseman, R. J.; Guozhong, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    1982-04-01

    From a series of studies of the reaction of oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons using the crossed molecular beam method, the dominant reaction mechanisms were found to be the simple substitution reactions with oxygen atoms replacing H, Cl, Br atom or alkyl groups. Complication due to secondary reaction was avoided by carrying out experiments under single collisions and observing primary products directly. Primary products were identified by measuring the angular and velocity distributions of products at all the mass numbers which could be detected by the mass spectrometer, and from comparison of these distributions, applying the requirement of energy and momentum conservation.

  9. Effect of reactor loading on atomic oxygen concentration as measured by NO chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, N. R.

    1989-01-01

    It has previously been observed that the etch rate of polyethylene samples in the afterglow of an RF discharge in oxygen increases with reactor loading. This enhancement of the etch rate is attributed to reactive gas phase products of the polymer etching. In the present work, emission spectroscopy is employed to examine the species present in the gas phase during etching of polyethylene. In particular, the concentration of atomic oxygen downstream from the polyethylene samples is studied as a function of the reactor loading. It is found that the concentration of atomic oxygen increases as the reactor loading is increased. The increase of etch rate with increased reactor loading is attributed to the increase of atomic oxygen concentration in the vicinity of the sample.

  10. Passivation of CdZnTe surfaces by oxidation in low energy atomic oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Chen, K.; Burger, A.; George, M.A.; Gregory, J.C.; Nag, P.K.; Weimer, J.J.; James, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    A method of surface passivation of Cd{sub 1{minus}x}Zn{sub x}Te (CZT) x-ray and gamma ray detectors has been established by using microwave-assisted atomic oxygen bombardment. Detector performance is significantly enhanced due to the reduction of surface leakage current. CZT samples were exposed to an atomic oxygen environment at the University of Alabama in Huntsville{close_quote}s Thermal Atomic Oxygen Facility. This system generates neutral atomic oxygen species with kinetic energies of 0.1{endash}0.2 eV. The surface chemical composition and its morphology modification due to atomic oxygen exposure were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy and the results were correlated with current-voltage measurements and with room temperature spectral responses to {sup 133}Ba and {sup 241}Am radiation. A reduction of leakage current by about a factor of 2 is reported, together with significant improvement in the gamma-ray line resolution. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Vacuum Society.}

  11. Ozone-stimulated emission due to atomic oxygen population inversions in an argon microwave plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Lukina, N. A.; Sergeichev, K. F.

    2008-06-15

    It is shown that, in a microwave torch discharge in an argon jet injected into an oxygen atmosphere at normal pressure, quasi-resonant energy transfer from metastable argon atoms to molecules of oxygen and ozone generated in the torch shell and, then, to oxygen atoms produced via the dissociation of molecular oxygen and ozone leads to the inverse population of metastable levels of atomic oxygen. As a result, the excited atomic oxygen with population inversions becomes a gain medium for lasing at wavelengths of 844.6 and 777.3 nm (the 3{sup 3}P-3{sup 3}S and 3{sup 5}P-3{sup 5}S transitions). It is shown that an increase in the ozone density is accompanied by an increase in both the lasing efficiency at these wavelength and the emission intensity of the plasma-forming argon at a wavelength of 811.15 nm (the {sup 2}P{sup 0}4s-{sup 2}P{sup 0}4p transition). When the torch operates unstably, the production of singlet oxygen suppresses ozone generation; as a result, the lasing effect at these wavelengths disappears.

  12. Electron-Impact Induced Fluorescence Cross Sections of Atomic Oxygen Important to Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noren, C.; Kanik, I.; James, G. K.; Ajello, J. M.

    1997-10-01

    There is a severe lack of available experimental cross section data, especially in the low energy regime, for electron-atom collisions involving neutral species such as OI, NI, CI, etc. This situation is in imbalance with the wealth of observational data currently available from UV spectrographs (IUE, HST, Copernicus, Voyager etc.). One cannot overstate the importance of ultraviolet (UV) lines of neutral oxygen, which is the third most abundant element within normal stars. In this poster we present the preliminary measurements of the emission cross sections of the atomic oxygen 1304-ÅEUV triplet lines resulting from low energy electron impact. A high density atomic oxygen beam, created by a microwave discharge source, was intersected at a right angle by a magnetically focused electron beam. A 0.2m Acton spectrometer in tandem with a CsI coated channel electron multiplier was used to analyze the resulting EUV lines emitted perpendicular to both the atomic and electron beams.

  13. New oxygen radical source using selective sputtering of oxygen atoms for high rate deposition of TiO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Yoji; Lei, Hao; Hoshi, Yoichi

    2012-11-15

    We have developed a new oxygen radical source based on the reactive sputtering phenomena of a titanium target for high rate deposition of TiO{sub 2} films. In this oxygen radical source, oxygen radicals are mainly produced by two mechanisms: selective sputter-emission of oxygen atoms from the target surface covered with a titanium oxide layer, and production of high-density oxygen plasma in the space near the magnetron-sputtering cathode. Compared with molecular oxygen ions, the amount of atomic oxygen radicals increased significantly with an increase in discharge current so that atomic oxygen radicals were mainly produced by this radical source. It should be noted that oxygen atoms were selectively sputtered from the target surface, and titanium atoms sputter-emitted from the target cathode were negligibly small. The amount of oxygen radicals supplied from this radical source increased linearly with increasing discharge current, and oxygen radicals of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} atoms/s/cm{sup 2} were supplied to the substrate surface at a discharge current of 1.2 A. We conclude that our newly developed oxygen radical source can be a good tool to achieve high rate deposition and to control the structure of TiO{sub 2} films for many industrial design applications.

  14. Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Silicone Contamination on Spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.

    2001-01-01

    Silicones have been widely used on spacecraft as potting compounds, adhesives, seals, gaskets, hydrophobic surfaces, and atomic oxygen protective coatings. Contamination of optical and thermal control surfaces on spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) has been an ever-present problem as a result of the interaction of atomic oxygen with volatile species from silicones and hydrocarbons onboard spacecraft. These interactions can deposit a contaminant that is a risk to spacecraft performance because it can form an optically absorbing film on the surfaces of Sun sensors, star trackers, or optical components or can increase the solar absorptance of thermal control surfaces. The transmittance, absorptance, and reflectance of such contaminant films seem to vary widely from very transparent SiOx films to much more absorbing SiOx-based films that contain hydrocarbons. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, silicone contamination that was oxidized by atomic oxygen has been examined from LEO spacecraft (including the Long Duration Exposure Facility and the Mir space station solar arrays) and from ground laboratory LEO simulations. The findings resulted in the development of predictive models that may help explain the underlying issues and effects. Atomic oxygen interactions with silicone volatiles and mixtures of silicone and hydrocarbon volatiles produce glassy SiOx-based contaminant coatings. The addition of hydrocarbon volatiles in the presence of silicone volatiles appears to cause much more absorbing (and consequently less transmitting) contaminant films than when no hydrocarbon volatiles are present. On the basis of the LDEF and Mir results, conditions of high atomic oxygen flux relative to low contaminant flux appear to result in more transparent contaminant films than do conditions of low atomic oxygen flux with high contaminant flux. Modeling predictions indicate that the deposition of contaminant films early in a LEO flight should depend much more on atomic oxygen flux than

  15. Laboratory Studies of Ice Growth in the Presence of Oxygen Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, C. G.; Boulter, J. E.; Marschall, J.

    2003-12-01

    In the mesopause region, where noctilucent clouds (NLCs) form and polar summertime echoes are present, atomic oxygen is the dominant reactive species. Observations by Gumbel et al. (1998) reveal sharp gradients and distinctive minima in oxygen atom concentration coinciding with observed NLC layers. These observations suggest an interaction between oxygen atoms and NLC particles. Recent laboratory studies conclude that the uptake coefficient of atomic oxygen on ice is not large enough to change the gas-phase concentrations in the mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) region (Murray and Plane, 2003). However, the question of whether or not atomic oxygen can affect the formation and growth of ice has not been experimentally addressed. To gain insight into possible interactions between atomic oxygen and ice surfaces, we directly measure ice growth rates at temperatures associated with the summertime mesopause region (110-150 K), with and without exposure of the growing ice layer to partially dissociated oxygen. A liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat is used to control the temperature of a gold mirror in a high vacuum chamber. Water vapor, either from the residual background or from an introduced source, is allowed to condense on the mirror. A microwave discharge is used to partially dissociate an oxygen stream, which is sampled into the chamber through a small orifice facing the gold mirror. Grazing angle Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIR-RAS) is used to monitor the rate of ice growth. Preliminary results at 130 K indicate that the ice growth rate in the presence of oxygen slows when the microwave discharge is activated and the ratio of water to oxygen is low. For H2O/O2 = ˜0.3 %, at a total chamber pressure of about 7 μ Torr, the growth rate reduction amounts to 24+/-9 %. Changes in the FTIR-RAS absorption profile of the OH stretching vibrations are also noted, which may indicate changes in ice morphology. Both results suggest that the

  16. Atmospheric Pressure Method and Apparatus for Removal of Organic Matter with Atomic and Ionic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A gas stream containing ionic and atomic oxygen in inert gas is used to remove organic matter from a substrate. The gas stream is formed by flowing a mixture of gaseous oxygen in an inert gas such as helium at atmospheric pressure past a high voltage, current limited, direct current arc which contacts the gas mixture and forms the ionic and atomic oxygen. The arc is curved at the cathode end and the ionic oxygen formed by the arc nearer to the anode end of the arc is accelerated in a direction towards the cathode by virtue of its charge. The relatively high mass to charge ratio of the ionic oxygen enables at least some of it to escape the arc before contacting the cathode and it is directed onto the substrate. This is useful for cleaning delicate substrates such as fine and historically important paintings and delicate equipment and the like.

  17. Atmospheric Pressure Method and Apparatus for Removal of Organic Matter with Atomic and Ionic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A gas stream containing ionic and atomic oxygen in inert gas is used to remove organic matter from a substrate. The gas stream is formed by flowing a mixture of gaseous oxygen in an inert gas such as helium at atmospheric pressure past a high voltage, current limited, direct current arc which contacts the gas mixture and forms the ionic and atomic oxygen. The arc is curved at the cathode end and the ionic oxygen formed by the arc nearer to the anode end of the arc is accelerated in a direction towards the cathode by virtue of its charge. The relatively high mass to charge ratio of the ionic oxygen enables at least some of it to escape the arc before contacting the cathode and it is directed onto the substrate. This is useful for cleaning delicate substrates such as fine and historically important paintings and delicate equipment and the like.

  18. Carbon fiber CVD coating by carbon nanostructured for space materials protection against atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Micheli, Davide

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the emphasis in space research has been shifting from space exploration to commercialization of space. In order to utilize space for commercial purposes it is necessary to understand the low earth orbit (LEO) space environment where most of the activities will be carried out. The studies on the LEO environment are mainly focused towards understanding the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) on spacecraft materials. In the first few shuttle flights, materials looked frosty because they were actually being eroded and textured: AO reacts with organic materials on spacecraft exteriors, gradually damaging them. When a spacecraft travel in LEO (where crewed vehicles and the International Space Station fly), the AO formed from the residual atmosphere can react with the spacecraft surfaces, causing damage to the vehicle. Polymers are widely used in space vehicles and systems as structural materials, thermal blankets, thermal control coatings, conformal coatings, adhesives, lubricants, etc. Exposure of polymers and composites to the space environment may result in different detrimental effects via modification of their chemical, electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties as well as surface erosion. The major degradation effects in polymers are due to their exposure to atomic oxygen, vacuum ultraviolet and synergistic effects, which result in different damaging effects by modification of the polymer's chemical properties. In hydrocarbon containing polymers the main AO effect is the surface erosion via chemical reactions and the release of volatile reaction products associated with the mass loss. The application of a thin protective coating to the base materials is one of the most commonly used methods of preventing AO degradation. The purpose is to provide a barrier between base material and AO environment or, in some cases, to alter AO reactions to inhibit its diffusion. The effectiveness of a coating depends on its continuity, porosity, degree of

  19. Monte Carlo Technique Used to Model the Degradation of Internal Spacecraft Surfaces by Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is one of the predominant constituents of Earth's upper atmosphere. It is created by the photodissociation of molecular oxygen (O2) into single O atoms by ultraviolet radiation. It is chemically very reactive because a single O atom readily combines with another O atom or with other atoms or molecules that can form a stable oxide. The effects of atomic oxygen on the external surfaces of spacecraft in low Earth orbit can have dire consequences for spacecraft life, and this is a well-known and much studied problem. Much less information is known about the effects of atomic oxygen on the internal surfaces of spacecraft. This degradation can occur when openings in components of the spacecraft exterior exist that allow the entry of atomic oxygen into regions that may not have direct atomic oxygen attack but rather scattered attack. Openings can exist because of spacecraft venting, microwave cavities, and apertures for Earth viewing, Sun sensors, or star trackers. The effects of atomic oxygen erosion of polymers interior to an aperture on a spacecraft were simulated at the NASA Glenn Research Center by using Monte Carlo computational techniques. A two-dimensional model was used to provide quantitative indications of the attenuation of atomic oxygen flux as a function of the distance into a parallel-walled cavity. The model allows the atomic oxygen arrival direction, the Maxwell Boltzman temperature, and the ram energy to be varied along with the interaction parameters of the degree of recombination upon impact with polymer or nonreactive surfaces, the initial reaction probability, the reaction probability dependence upon energy and angle of attack, degree of specularity of scattering of reactive and nonreactive surfaces, and the degree of thermal accommodation upon impact with reactive and non-reactive surfaces to be varied to allow the model to produce atomic oxygen erosion geometries that replicate actual experimental results from space. The degree of

  20. Self-lubricating performance and durability of ball bearings for the LE-7 liquid oxygen rocket-turbopump

    SciTech Connect

    Nosaka, Masataka; Oike, Mamoru; Kikuchi, Masataka; Kamijo, Kenjiro; Tajiri, Masanori National Aerospace Lab., Kakuda NTN Corp., Aerospace Bearing Engineering Dept., Kuwana )

    1993-09-01

    The durability of ball bearings, 32-mm- and 45-mm-bore, with a retainer or glass cloth-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) laminate was tested under a high radial load at a speed of 20,000 rpm in LOX or LN2. The retainers were characterized as good self-lubricators because the abrasive glass-cloth fiber tips exposed on the retainer were chemicaly etched away with hydrofluoric acid (HF). During testing, the bearing-cartridge-acceleration was monitored to detect bearing damage. Testing in LOX for about 2.2 hr showed that excellent lubricating conditions were obtained for all bearings. Testing in LN2 for about 5.1 hr detected that the fatigue life of the bearing was about the same as the calculated B10 fatigue life. The HF chemical treatment resulted in a reacted fluoride-oxide material which remained in the etched part of the glass fiber. Several chemical products, particularly MgO, CaO, and CaCO3, enhanced adhesion of PTFE transfer film to the counterface, resulting in the formation of a durable lubricating film and the reduction of the friction and wear in the bearing. 12 refs.

  1. Atomic Oxygen Removes Varnish And Lacquer From Old Paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Dry and relatively nondestructive plasma process found effective in removing protective coats from old paintings. Process generates monatomic oxygen, which reacts with varnish, lacquer, polyurethane, acrylic, and other organic coating materials; reactions produce mostly carbon monoxide and water vapor, then simply pumped away by vacuum system in which plasma generated. Does not attack oxide-based pigments in underlying paint layers, and brush-stroke marks remain undisturbed.

  2. Carbon fiber CVD coating by carbon nanostructured for space materials protection against atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Micheli, Davide

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the emphasis in space research has been shifting from space exploration to commercialization of space. In order to utilize space for commercial purposes it is necessary to understand the low earth orbit (LEO) space environment where most of the activities will be carried out. The studies on the LEO environment are mainly focused towards understanding the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) on spacecraft materials. In the first few shuttle flights, materials looked frosty because they were actually being eroded and textured: AO reacts with organic materials on spacecraft exteriors, gradually damaging them. When a spacecraft travel in LEO (where crewed vehicles and the International Space Station fly), the AO formed from the residual atmosphere can react with the spacecraft surfaces, causing damage to the vehicle. Polymers are widely used in space vehicles and systems as structural materials, thermal blankets, thermal control coatings, conformal coatings, adhesives, lubricants, etc. Exposure of polymers and composites to the space environment may result in different detrimental effects via modification of their chemical, electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties as well as surface erosion. The major degradation effects in polymers are due to their exposure to atomic oxygen, vacuum ultraviolet and synergistic effects, which result in different damaging effects by modification of the polymer's chemical properties. In hydrocarbon containing polymers the main AO effect is the surface erosion via chemical reactions and the release of volatile reaction products associated with the mass loss. The application of a thin protective coating to the base materials is one of the most commonly used methods of preventing AO degradation. The purpose is to provide a barrier between base material and AO environment or, in some cases, to alter AO reactions to inhibit its diffusion. The effectiveness of a coating depends on its continuity, porosity, degree of

  3. Growth control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through dose of oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Ito, Masafumi; Hori, Masaru

    2015-08-31

    To investigate the dose-dependent effects of neutral oxygen radicals on the proliferation as well as the inactivation of microorganisms, we treated suspensions of budding yeast cells with oxygen radicals using an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source, varying the fluxes of O({sup 3}P{sub j}) from 1.3 × 10{sup 16} to 2.3 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Proliferation was promoted at doses of O({sup 3}P{sub j}) ranging from 6 × 10{sup 16} to 2 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3}, and suppressed at doses ranging from 3 × 10{sup 17} to 1 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}; cells were inactivated by O({sup 3}P{sub j}) doses exceeding 1 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}, even when the flux was varied over the above flux range. These results showed that the growth of cells was regulated primarily in response to the total dose of O({sup 3}P{sub j})

  4. A review of the stability and durability of non-precious metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banham, Dustin; Ye, Siyu; Pei, Katie; Ozaki, Jun-ichi; Kishimoto, Takeaki; Imashiro, Yasuo

    2015-07-01

    A major hurdle to the widespread commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is the high loading of noble metal (Pt/Pt-alloy) catalyst at the cathode, which is necessary to facilitate the inherently sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). To eliminate the use of Pt/Pt-alloy catalysts at the cathode of PEMFCs and thus significantly reduce the cost, extensive research on non-precious metal catalysts (NPMCs) has been carried out over the past decade. Major advances in improving the ORR activity of NPMCs, particularly Fe- and Co-based NPMCs, have elevated these materials to a level at which they can start to be considered as potential alternatives to Pt/Pt-alloy catalysts. Unfortunately, the stability (performance loss following galvanostatic experiments) of these materials is currently unacceptably low and the durability (performance loss following voltage cycling) remains uncertain. The three primary mechanisms of instability are: (a) Leaching of the metal site, (b) Oxidative attack by H2O2, and (c) Protonation followed by possible anion adsorption of the active site. While (a) has largely been solved, further work is required to understand and prevent losses from (b) and/or (c). Thus, this review is focused on historical progress in (and possible future strategies for) improving the stability/durability of NPMCs.

  5. Durability to oxygen reactive ion etching enhanced by addition of synthesized bis(trimethylsilyl)phenyl-containing (meth)acrylates in ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Shunya; Sato, Hiroki; Tasaki, Yuhei; Watanuki, Kimihito; Nemoto, Nobukatsu; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the selection of bis(trimethylsilyl)phenyl-containing (meth)acrylates as additives to improve the durability to oxygen reactive ion etching (O2 RIE) of sub-50 nm imprint resist patterns suitable for bubble-defect-free UV nanoimprinting with a readily condensable gas. 2,5-Bis(2-acryloyloxyethoxy)-1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, which has a diacrylate chemical structure similar to that of glycerol 1,3-diglycerolate diacrylate used as a base monomer, and 3-(2-methacryloyloxyethoxy)-1-(hydroxylethoxy)-2-propoxy-3,5-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, which has a hydroxy group similar to the base monomer, were synthesized taking into consideration the Ohnishi and ring parameters, and the oxidization of the trimethylsilyl moiety to inorganic species during O2 RIE. The addition of the latter liquid additive to the base monomer decreased etching rate owing to the good miscibility of the additive in the base monomer, while the addition of the former crystalline additive caused phase separation after UV nanoimprinting. The latter additive worked as a compatibilizer to the former additive, which is preferred for etching durability improvement. The coexistence of the additives enabled the fabrication of a 45 nm line-and-space resist pattern by UV nanoimprinting, and its residual layer could be removed by O2 RIE.

  6. Atomic Oxygen Emission Cross Sections resulting from Electron Impact in the FUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noren, C.; Kanik, I.; James, G. K.; Khakoo, M. A.

    1998-10-01

    The atomic oxygen emissions from astronomical sources provide valuable (perhaps unique) information on densities, gas dynamics, etc. of the atmospheres of the planets and their satellites. For example, the atomic oxygen resonance transition at 130.4 nm is a prominent emission feature in the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum of the Earth's aurora and day glow as well as the atmospheres of Europa, Ganymede, Mars and Venus. In this poster we present our measurements of the electron impact emission cross sections of the 130.4 nm atomic oxygen feature from threshold to 1000 eV impact energy. A high density atomic oxygen beam, created by a microwave discharge source, was intersected at right angles by a magnetically focused electron beam. The experimental apparatus consists of an electron impact collision chamber in tandem with a 0.2m UV spectrometer equipped with a CsI coated channel electron multiplier detector. Emitted photons corresponding to radiative decay of collisionally excited state of the 130.4 nm atomic oxygen feature were detected.

  7. Effects of atomic oxygen on polymeric materials flown on EOIM-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Linton, Roger C.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    1995-01-01

    Diverse polymeric materials, including several variations of Kapton, were flown on STS-46 as part of the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials Experiment (EOIM-3). These materials were flown in the cargo bay and exposed to the space environment July 31 - August 8, 1992, including 40 hours of direct atomic oxygen impingement. The atomic oxygen exposure was approximately 2.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. Polymeric materials flown on EOIM-3 include coated and uncoated Kapton, Tefzel ETFE, Lexan, FEP and TFE Teflon, bulk Halar and PEEK, S383 silicone and Viton elastomeric seal material. Analyses performed included thickness measurements using Dektak and eddy current methods, mass loss, resistance, permeability, hardness, and FTIR. The effects of stress and the space environment on Kapton were also evaluated. Previous EOIM missions on STS-5 and STS-8 and the Long Duration Exposure Facility also contained polymeric material samples. Data from these previous flights are shown for comparison, as well as ground simulation of space environment effects using both thermal energy flow tubes and 5 eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facilities. Reaction efficiencies for the various atomic oxygen exposure conditions are discussed.

  8. A kinetic study of the interaction between atomic oxygen and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akers, F. I.; Wightman, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    This study was concerned with the effects of NH4Cl and (NH4)2SO4 aerosols on the kinetics of disappearance of atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen was generated by a 2.45-GHz microwave discharge and the kinetics of disappearance measured in a fast flow system using NO2 titration. Values of the recombination coefficient for heterogeneous wall recombination were determined for clean, H2SO4-coated, and (NH4)2SO4-coated Pyrex to be 0.000050, 0.000020, and 0.000019, respectively. A rapid exothermic chemical reaction was found to occur between atomic oxygen and an NH4Cl wall coating; the products were NH3, NO, H2O, and HCl. The NH4Cl aerosol was generated by gas phase reaction of NH3 with HCl. The aerosol particles were approximately spherical and nearly monodisperse with a mean diameter of 1.6 plus or minus 0.2 micron. The rate constant for the disappearance of atomic oxygen in the presence of NH4Cl aerosol was measured. No significant decrease was observed in the rate of disappearance of atomic oxygen in the presence of an (NH4)2SO4 aerosol at a concentration of 285 mg per cu m.

  9. The surface properties of fluorinated polyimides exposed to VUV and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, John S.; George, Graeme A.; Hill, David J. T.; Odonnell, James H.; Pomery, Peter J.; Rasoul, Firas A.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of atomic oxygen flux and VUV radiation alone and in combination on the surface of fluorinated polyimide films was studied using XPS spectroscopy. Exposure of fluorinated polyimides to VUV radiation alone caused no observable damage to the polymer surface, while an atomic oxygen flux resulted in substantial oxidation of the surface. On the other hand, exposure to VUV radiation and atomic oxygen in combination caused extensive oxidation of the polymer surface after only 2 minutes of exposure. The amount of oxidized carbon on the polymer surface indicated that there is aromatic ring opening oxidation. The changes in the O1s/C1s, N1s/C1s, and F1s/C1s ratios suggested that an ablative degradation process is highly favorable. A synergistic effect of VUV radiation in the presence of atomic oxygen is clearly evidenced from the XPS study. The atomic oxygen could be considered as the main factor in the degradation process of fluorinated polyimide films exposed to a low earth orbit environment.

  10. Consequences of Atomic Oxygen Interaction With Silicone and Silicone Contamination on Surfaces in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Haytas, Christy A.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of silicones to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit causes oxidation of the surface, resulting in conversion of silicone to silica. This chemical conversion increases the elastic modulus of the surface and initiates the development of a tensile strain. Ultimately, with sufficient exposure, tensile strain leads to cracking of the surface enabling the underlying unexposed silicone to be converted to silica resulting in additional depth and extent of cracking. The use of silicone coatings for the protection of materials from atomic oxygen attack is limited because of the eventual exposure of underlying unprotected polymeric material due to deep tensile stress cracking of the oxidized silicone. The use of moderate to high volatility silicones in low Earth orbit has resulted in a silicone contamination arrival at surfaces which are simultaneously being bombarded with atomic oxygen, thus leading to conversion of the silicone contaminant to silica. As a result of these processes, a gradual accumulation of contamination occurs leading to deposits which at times have been up to several microns thick (as in the case of a Mir solar array after 10 years in space). The contamination species typically consist of silicon, oxygen and carbon. which in the synergistic environment of atomic oxygen and UV radiation leads to increased solar absorptance and reduced solar transmittance. A comparison of the results of atomic oxygen interaction with silicones and silicone contamination will be presented based on the LDEF, EOIM-111, Offeq-3 spacecraft and Mir solar array in-space results. The design of a contamination pin-hole camera space experiment which uses atomic oxygen to produce an image of the sources of silicone contamination will also be presented.

  11. Promotion of oxygen reduction reaction durability of carbon-supported PtAu catalysts by surface segregation and TiO₂ addition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Wei; Chen, Hong-Shuo; Lai, Chien-Ming; Lin, Jiunn-Nan; Tsai, Li-Duan; Wang, Kuan-Wen

    2014-02-12

    Highly effective carbon supported-Pt75Au25 catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are prepared though titanium dioxide modification and post heat treatment. After accelerated durability test (ADT) of 1700 cycles, the ORR activity of PtAu/C catalysts modified by TiO2 and air heat treatment is 3 times higher than that of the commercial Pt/C. The enhancement of ORR activity is attributed to surface and structural alteration by air-induced Pt surface segregation and lower unfilled d states. On the contrary, for TiO2 modified and H2 treated PtAu/C catalysts, the deterioration of the ORR activity may be due to the loss of electrochemical surface area after ADT and the increase of d-band vacancy. PMID:24447040

  12. Fast Three-Dimensional Method of Modeling Atomic Oxygen Undercutting of Protected Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Aaron; Banks, Bruce A.

    2002-01-01

    A method is presented to model atomic oxygen erosion of protected polymers in low Earth orbit (LEO). Undercutting of protected polymers by atomic oxygen occurs in LEO due to the presence of scratch, crack or pin-window defects in the protective coatings. As a means of providing a better understanding of undercutting processes, a fast method of modeling atomic-oxygen undercutting of protected polymers has been developed. Current simulation methods often rely on computationally expensive ray-tracing procedures to track the surface-to-surface movement of individual "atoms." The method introduced in this paper replaces slow individual particle approaches by substituting a model that utilizes both a geometric configuration-factor technique, which governs the diffuse transport of atoms between surfaces, and an efficient telescoping series algorithm, which rapidly integrates the cumulative effects stemming from the numerous atomic oxygen events occurring at the surfaces of an undercut cavity. This new method facilitates the systematic study of three-dimensional undercutting by allowing rapid simulations to be made over a wide range of erosion parameters.

  13. Single Cobalt Atoms with Precise N-Coordination as Superior Oxygen Reduction Reaction Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Yin, Peiqun; Yao, Tao; Wu, Yuen; Zheng, Lirong; Lin, Yue; Liu, Wei; Ju, Huanxin; Zhu, Junfa; Hong, Xun; Deng, Zhaoxiang; Zhou, Gang; Wei, Shiqiang; Li, Yadong

    2016-08-26

    A new strategy for achieving stable Co single atoms (SAs) on nitrogen-doped porous carbon with high metal loading over 4 wt % is reported. The strategy is based on a pyrolysis process of predesigned bimetallic Zn/Co metal-organic frameworks, during which Co can be reduced by carbonization of the organic linker and Zn is selectively evaporated away at high temperatures above 800 °C. The spherical aberration correction electron microscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements both confirm the atomic dispersion of Co atoms stabilized by as-generated N-doped porous carbon. Surprisingly, the obtained Co-Nx single sites exhibit superior ORR performance with a half-wave potential (0.881 V) that is more positive than commercial Pt/C (0.811 V) and most reported non-precious metal catalysts. Durability tests revealed that the Co single atoms exhibit outstanding chemical stability during electrocatalysis and thermal stability that resists sintering at 900 °C. Our findings open up a new routine for general and practical synthesis of a variety of materials bearing single atoms, which could facilitate new discoveries at the atomic scale in condensed materials. PMID:27491018

  14. DFT studies of oxygen dissociation on the 116-atom platinum truncated octahedron particle.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Paul C; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Neyman, Konstantin M; Johnston, Roy L

    2014-12-28

    Density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate oxygen dissociation on 116-atom truncated octahedron platinum particles. This work builds on results presented previously [Jennings et al., Nanoscale, 2014, 6, 1153], where it was shown that shell flexibility played an important role in facilitating fast oxygen dissociation. In this study, through investigation of the larger particle size, it is shown that oxygen dissociation on the (111) facet of pure platinum species is still aided by shell flexibility at larger sizes. Only the hollow sites close to the edges of the (111) facet mediate oxygen dissociation; oxygen is bound too weakly at other hollow sites for dissociation to occur. Further studies are performed on the (100) facet, which is larger for the Pt116 particle than for either the Pt38 or Pt79 ones. Much higher dissociation barriers are found on the (100) facet compared to the (111) facet, where the bridge sites are favourable for oxygen dissociation. PMID:25070716

  15. Vibrational relaxation of CO2(ν2) by atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, Karen J.; Kleissas, Katherine M.; Rhinehart, Justin M.; Hwang, Eunsook S.; Dodd, James A.

    2006-09-01

    In the Earth's upper atmosphere, collisions with ambient O atoms efficiently excite the CO2 [0000] vibrational ground-state population to the first excited, [0110] or ν2, vibrational bend state. Subsequent relaxation of the ν2 population occurs through spontaneous emission of 15-μm radiation. Much of this radiation escapes into space, thereby removing ambient kinetic energy from the atmosphere. This cooling mechanism is especially important at altitudes between the mesopause and the lower thermosphere, approximately 80-120 km, where the O-atom density is relatively high and the kinetic temperature is rising. Laboratory measurements have been performed to better characterize the CO2(ν2)-O vibrational relaxation rate coefficient kO(ν2). A 266-nm laser pulse photolyzed trace amounts of O3 in a CO2-O3-rare gas mixture, simultaneously creating O atoms and raising the gas temperature to create a nonequilibrium CO2 vibrational distribution. Transient diode laser absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor CO2 vibrational level population reequilibration. A global nonlinear least squares fitting technique was used to interpret the kinetic data, yielding kO(ν2) = (1.8 ± 0.3) × 10-12 cm3s-1. The result is in good agreement with previous laboratory measurements, with published kO(ν2) values in the (1.2-1.5) × 10-12 cm3s-1 range and at the low end of the (2-6) × 10-12 cm3s-1 range estimated from the analysis of upper atmospheric data.

  16. Longitudinal structure in atomic oxygen concentrations observed with WINDII on UARS. [Wind Imaging Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, G. G.; Thuillier, G.; Solheim, B. H.; Chandra, S.; Cogger, L. L.; Duboin, M. L.; Evans, W. F. J.; Gattinger, R. L.; Gault, W. A.; Herse, M.

    1993-01-01

    WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, began atmospheric observations on September 28, 1991 and since then has been collecting data on winds, temperatures and emissions rates from atomic, molecular and ionized oxygen species, as well as hydroxyl. The validation of winds and temperatures is not yet complete, and scientific interpretation has barely begun, but the dominant characteristic of these data so far is the remarkable structure in the emission rate from the excited species produced by the recombination of atomic oxygen. The latitudinal and temporal variability has been noted before by many others. In this preliminary report on WINDII results we draw attention to the dramatic longitudinal variations of planetary wave character in atomic oxygen concentration, as reflected in the OI 557.7 nm emission, and to similar variations seen in the Meine1 hydroxyl band emission.

  17. Analyses of atomic oxygen, the green line, and Herzberg bands in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Measured altitude profiles of atomic oxygen, 557.7-nm emissions, and Herzberg I emission between 80 and 120 km were used to test the proposed mechanisms leading to these emissions. As generally assumed, the O2(A 3 Sigma u +) that emits the Herzberg I bands is excited by three-body recombination of atomic oxygen. The quenching of this state is by N2 or O2; for N2 the lifetime times the rate is 2.75 x 10 to the -13th per cu cm; other quenchers are insignificant. It is found that the atomic oxygen O(1S) emitting the green line is excited by the Barth mechanism.

  18. Atomic oxygen effects on thermal control and mirror coatings: Evaluation of experiment A0034

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of the degradation attributed to contamination of the collector mirrors in Experiment A0034, which were exposed to an earth orbital environment while on the leading and trailing edges of the LDEF, has provided some evidence for outgassing of coatings stimulated by atomic oxygen. Effects of the natural space environment on the coatings and mirrors, including the effects of incident and re-directed atomic oxygen flux, were investigated. The effects of exposure on the coatings and mirrors were evaluated by optical, surface profiling, chemical, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. Preliminary results of these analyses are discussed for application to both the issues of mirror and coating stability and the specific issue of atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing.

  19. Neutralizer and sample chamber for the Atomic Oxygen Simulation System (AOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albridge, Royal G.; Barnes, Alan V.; Tolk, Norman H.

    1992-01-01

    A neutralizer system capable of converting a beam of oxygen ions (O(+) or O2(+)) into a beam of low-energy neutral oxygen atoms (O) was developed. The neutralizer system is to be designed to be compatible with the Atomic Oxygen Simulation System (AOSS) located in the Physical Science Branch of MSFC. The Center for Molecular and Atomic Studies at Surfaces (CMASS) at Vanderbilt University has met these objectives by developing a system that neutralizes the ions through electron transfer during a grazing-incidence reflection of an ion beam from a smooth nickel surface. The purpose is to describe the system, provide schematic representations of the system, and to discuss the use of the system in relation to the AOSS at the Physical Science Branch of MSFC.

  20. Atomic oxygen undercutting of defects on SiO2 protected polyimide solar array blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Auer, Bruce M.; Difilippo, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Low Earth Orbital (LEO) atomic oxygen can oxidize SiO2-protected polyimide kapton solar array blanket material which is not totally protected as a result of pinholes or scratches in the SiO2 coatings. The probability of atomic oxygen reaction upon initial impact is low, thus inviting oxidation by secondary impacts. The secondary impacts can produce atomic oxygen undercutting which may lead to coating mechanical failure and ever increasing mass loss rates of kapton. Comparison of undercutting effects in isotropic plasma asher and directed beam tests are reported. These experimental results are compared with computational undercutting profiles based on Monte Carlo methods and their implication on LEO performance of protected polymers.

  1. Atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation mission total exposures for LDEF experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Rousslang, Ken W.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic oxygen and solar radiation exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the LDEF. Calculated atomic oxygen exposures are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation. Results also incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the six year flight of the spacecraft. Solar radiation exposure calculations are based on the form factors reported in the Solar Illumination Data Package prepared by NASA Langley. The earth albedo value for these calculations was based on the Nimbus 7 earth radiation data set. Summary charts for both atomic oxygen and solar radiation exposure are presented to facilitate the use of the data generated by LDEF experimenters.

  2. Atomic oxygen degradation of Intelsat 4-type solar array interconnects: Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Cross, J. B.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Kirkendahl, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    A Hughes 506 type communication satellite belonging to the Intelsat organization was marooned in low Earth orbit on March 14, 1990, following failure of the Titan third stage to separate properly. The satellite, Intelsat VI, was designed for service in geosynchronous orbit and contains several material configurations which are susceptible to attack by atomic oxygen. Analysis showed the silver foil interconnects in the satellite photovoltaic array to be the key materials issue because the silver is exposed directly to the atomic oxygen ram flux. The results are reported of atomic oxygen degradation testing of Intelsat VI type silver foil interconnects both as virgin material and in a configured solar cell element. Test results indicate that more than 80 pct. of the original thickness of silver in the Intelsat VI solar array interconnects should remain after completion of the proposed Space Shuttle rescue and/or reboost mission.

  3. Materials selection for long life in LEO: A critical evaluation of atomic oxygen testing with thermal atom systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Kuminecz, J.; Leger, L.; Nordine, P.

    1988-01-01

    The use of thermal atom test methods as a materials selection and screening technique for low-Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft is critically evaluated. The chemistry and physics of thermal atom environments are compared with the LEO environment. The relative reactivities of a number of materials determined to be in thermal atom environments are compared to those observed in LEO and in high quality LEO simulations. Reaction efficiencies measured in a new type of thermal atom apparatus are one-hundredth to one-thousandth those observed in LEO, and many materials showing nearly identical reactivities in LEO show relative reactivities differing by as much as a factor of 8 in thermal atom systems. A simple phenomenological kinetic model for the reaction of oxygen atoms with organic materials can be used to explain the differences in reactivity in different environments. Certain specific thermal test environments can be used as reliable materials screening tools. Using thermal atom methods to predict material lifetime in LEO requires direct calibration of the method against LEO data or high quality simulation data for each material.

  4. Transition Metal Nitride Coated with Atomic Layers of Pt as a Low-Cost, Highly Stable Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinlong; Luo, Junming; Nan, Haoxiong; Zou, Haobin; Chen, Rong; Shu, Ting; Li, Xiuhua; Li, Yingwei; Song, Huiyu; Liao, Shijun; Adzic, Radoslav R

    2016-02-10

    The main challenges to the commercial viability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are (i) the high cost associated with using large amounts of Pt in fuel cell cathodes to compensate for the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction, (ii) catalyst degradation, and (iii) carbon-support corrosion. To address these obstacles, our group has focused on robust, carbon-free transition metal nitride materials with low Pt content that exhibit tunable physical and catalytic properties. Here, we report on the high performance of a novel catalyst with low Pt content, prepared by placing several layers of Pt atoms on nanoparticles of titanium nickel binary nitride. For the ORR, the catalyst exhibited a more than 400% and 200% increase in mass activity and specific activity, respectively, compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. It also showed excellent stability/durability, experiencing only a slight performance loss after 10,000 potential cycles, while TEM results showed its structure had remained intact. The catalyst's outstanding performance may have resulted from the ultrahigh dispersion of Pt (several atomic layers coated on the nitride nanoparticles), and the excellent stability/durability may have been due to the good stability of nitride and synergetic effects between ultrathin Pt layer and the robust TiNiN support. PMID:26796872

  5. Transition metal nitride coated with atomic layers of Pt as a low-cost, highly stable electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tian, Xinlong; Adzic, Radoslav R.; Luo, Junming; Nan, Haoxiong; Zou, Haobin; Chen, Rong; Shu, Ting; Li, Xiuhua; Li, Yingwei; Song, Huiyi; et al

    2016-01-21

    Here, the main challenges to the commercial viability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are (i) the high cost associated with using large amounts of Pt in fuel cell cathodes to compensate for the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction, (ii) catalyst degradation, and (iii) carbon-support corrosion. To address these obstacles, our group has focused on robust, carbon-free transition metal nitride materials with low Pt content that exhibit tunable physical and catalytic properties. Here, we report on the high performance of a novel catalyst with low Pt content, prepared by placing several layers of Pt atoms on nanoparticles ofmore » titanium nickel binary nitride. For the ORR, the catalyst exhibited a more than 400% and 200% increase in mass activity and specific activity, respectively, compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. It also showed excellent stability/durability, experiencing only a slight performance loss after 10,000 potential cycles, while TEM results showed its structure had remained intact. The catalyst’s outstanding performance may have resulted from the ultrahigh dispersion of Pt (several atomic layers coated on the nitride nanoparticles), and the excellent stability/durability may have been due to the good stability of nitride and synergetic effects between ultrathin Pt layer and the robust TiNiN support.« less

  6. A ground-based radio frequency inductively coupled plasma apparatus for atomic oxygen simulation in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongxian; Tian, Xiubo; Yang, Shiqin; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-10-01

    A radio frequency (rf) inductively coupled plasma apparatus has been developed to simulate the atomic oxygen environment encountered in low Earth orbit (LEO). Basing on the novel design, the apparatus can achieve stable, long lasting operation, pure and high density oxygen plasma beam. Furthermore, the effective atomic oxygen flux can be regulated. The equivalent effective atomic oxygen flux may reach (2.289-2.984)×1016at./cm2s at an oxygen pressure of 1.5Pa and rf power of 400W. The equivalent atomic oxygen flux is about 100 times than that in the LEO environment. The mass loss measured from the polyimide sample changes linearly with the exposure time, while the density of the eroded holes becomes smaller. The erosion mechanism of the polymeric materials by atomic oxygen is complex and involves initial reactions at the gas-surface interface as well as steady-state material removal.

  7. A ground-based radio frequency inductively coupled plasma apparatus for atomic oxygen simulation in low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongxian; Tian, Xiubo; Yang, Shiqin; Chu, Paul K

    2007-10-01

    A radio frequency (rf) inductively coupled plasma apparatus has been developed to simulate the atomic oxygen environment encountered in low Earth orbit (LEO). Basing on the novel design, the apparatus can achieve stable, long lasting operation, pure and high density oxygen plasma beam. Furthermore, the effective atomic oxygen flux can be regulated. The equivalent effective atomic oxygen flux may reach (2.289-2.984) x 10(16) at.cm(2) s at an oxygen pressure of 1.5 Pa and rf power of 400 W. The equivalent atomic oxygen flux is about 100 times than that in the LEO environment. The mass loss measured from the polyimide sample changes linearly with the exposure time, while the density of the eroded holes becomes smaller. The erosion mechanism of the polymeric materials by atomic oxygen is complex and involves initial reactions at the gas-surface interface as well as steady-state material removal. PMID:17979410

  8. On the electron affinity of the oxygen atom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Langhoff, S. R.; Partridge, H.; Taylor, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    The electron affinity (EA) of oxygen is computed to be 1.287 eV, using 2p electron full configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions expanded in a 6s5p3d2f Slater-type orbital basis. The best complete active space self-consistent field - multireference CI (CASSCF-MRCI) result including only 2p correlation is 1.263 eV. However, inclusion of 2s intrashell and 2s2p intershell correlation increases the computed EA to 1.290 at the CASSCF-MRCI level. At the full CI basis set limit, the 2s contribution to the electron affinity is estimated to be as large as 0.1 eV. This study clearly establishes the synergistic effect between the higher excitations and basis set completeness on the electron affinity when the 2s electrons are correlated.

  9. Atomic oxygen effects on thin film space coatings studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and laser light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synowicki, R. A.; Hale, Jeffrey S.; Woollam, John A.

    1992-01-01

    The University of Nebraska is currently evaluating Low Earth Orbit (LEO) simulation techniques as well as a variety of thin film protective coatings to withstand atomic oxygen (AO) degradation. Both oxygen plasma ashers and an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source are being used for LEO simulation. Thin film coatings are characterized by optical techniques including Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Optical spectrophotometry, and laser light scatterometry. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is also used to characterize surface morphology. Results on diamondlike carbon (DLC) films show that DLC degrades with simulated AO exposure at a rate comparable to Kapton polyimide. Since DLC is not as susceptible to environmental factors such as moisture absorption, it could potentially provide more accurate measurements of AO fluence on short space flights.

  10. Use of Atomic Oxygen for Increased Water Contact Angles of Various Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim; Berger, Lauren; Roberts, Lily

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) exposure on the hydrophilicity of nine different polymers for biomedical applications. Atomic oxygen treatment can alter the chemistry and morphology of polymer surfaces, which may increase the adhesion and spreading of cells on Petri dishes and enhance implant growth. Therefore, nine different polymers were exposed to atomic oxygen and water-contact angle, or hydrophilicity, was measured after exposure. To determine whether hydrophilicity remains static after initial atomic oxygen exposure, or changes with higher fluence exposures, the contact angles between the polymer and water droplet placed on the polymer s surface were measured versus AO fluence. The polymers were exposed to atomic oxygen in a 100-W, 13.56-MHz radio frequency (RF) plasma asher, and the treatment was found to significantly alter the hydrophilicity of non-fluorinated polymers. Pristine samples were compared with samples that had been exposed to AO at various fluence levels. Minimum and maximum fluences for the ashing trials were set based on the effective AO erosion of a Kapton witness coupon in the asher. The time intervals for ashing were determined by finding the logarithmic values of the minimum and maximum fluences. The difference of these two values was divided by the desired number of intervals (ideally 10). The initial desired fluence was then multiplied by this result (2.37), as was each subsequent desired fluence. The flux in the asher was determined to be approximately 3.0 x 10(exp 15) atoms/sq cm/sec, and each polymer was exposed to a maximum fluence of 5.16 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm.

  11. Atomic Oxygen and Space Environment Effects on Aerospace Materials Flown with EOIM-3 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.; Clatterbuck, Carroll H.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Park, Gloria; Kolos, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Polymer materials samples mounted on a passive carrier tray were flown aboard the STS-46 Atlantis shuttle as complement to the EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials) experiment to evaluate the effects of atomic oxygen on the materials and to measure the gaseous shuttle bay environment. The morphological changes of the samples produced by the atomic oxygen fluence of 2.07 x 10(exp 20) atoms/cm(exp 2) are being reported. The changes have been verified using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), gravimetric measurement, microscopic observations and thermo-optical measurements. The samples, including Kapton, Delrin, epoxies, Beta Cloth, Chemglaze Z306, silver Teflon, silicone coatings, 3M tape and Uralane and Ultem, PEEK, Victrex (PES), Polyethersulfone and Polymethylpentene thermoplastic, have been characterized by their oxygen reaction efficiency on the basis of their erosion losses and the oxygen fluence. Those efficiencies have been compared to results from other experiments, when available. The efficiencies of the samples are all in the range of E-24 g/atom. The results indicate that the reaction efficiencies of the reported materials can be grouped in about three ranges of values. The least affected materials which have efficiencies varying from 1 to 10(exp 25) g/atom, include silicones, epoxies, Uralane and Teflon. A second group with efficiency from 10 to 45(exp 25) g/atom includes additional silicone coatings, the Chemglaze Z306 paint and Kapton. The third range from 50 to 75(exp 25) includes organic compound such as Pentene, Peek, Ultem, Sulfone and a 3M tape. A Delrin sample had the highest reaction efficiency of 179(exp 25) g/atom. Two samples, the aluminum Beta cloth X389-7 and the epoxy fiberglass G-11 nonflame retardant, showed a slight mass increase.

  12. Atomic Oxygen Cleaning Shown to Remove Organic Contaminants at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and filed for a patent on a method to produce atomic oxygen at atmospheric pressure by using a direct current arc in a gas flow mixture of oxygen and helium. A prototype device has been tested for its ability to remove various soot residues from surfaces exposed to fire, and various varnishes such as acrylic and egg white.

  13. Electron Terms and Resonant Charge Exchange Involving Oxygen Atoms and Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kosarim, A.V.; Smirnov, B.M.

    2005-10-01

    The electron terms are constructed for oxygen dimer ions at large ion-atom distances taking into account a certain scheme of summation of electron momenta on the basis of a hierarchy of various ion-atom interactions. Because the number of interaction types exceeds that in the Hund scheme, a realistic hierarchy of interactions and corresponding quantum numbers of the diatomic ion are outside the Hund coupling scheme. Electron terms are evaluated for the oxygen dimer ion in the case where the ground and first excited states of an atom and an ion belong to the respective valence electron shells p{sup 4} and p{sup 3} and correspond to the range of separations that determine the cross sections of resonant charge exchange in plasma. These electron terms allow us to calculate the partial and average cross sections for resonant charge exchange involving an oxygen ion and atom in the ground and first excited states in the range of collision energies of interest for oxygen plasmas. The specific features of electron terms of the oxygen ion dimer and the cross section of electron transfer are analyzed.

  14. Basicity of the framework oxygen atom of alkali and alkaline earth-exchanged zeolites: a hard soft acid base approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Ramesh Ch; Kinkar Roy, Ram; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2000-12-01

    The basicity of framework oxygen atoms of alkali and alkaline earth-exchanged zeolites has been studied using reactivity descriptors based on a local hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) concept. We have calculated the `local softness' and the `relative nucleophilicity' values of the framework oxygen atoms of zeolite clusters as the measure of basicity. The local softness and relative nucleophilicity appear to be more reliable descriptors to predict the experimental basicity trend, compared to the negative charge on the oxygen atom.

  15. Atomic oxygen flux and fluence calculation for Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, Roger J.; Gillis, James R.

    1991-01-01

    The LDEF mission was to study the effects of the space environment on various materials over an extended period of time. One of the important factors for materials degradation in low earth orbit is the atomic oxygen fluxes and fluences experienced by the materials. These fluxes and fluences are a function of orbital parameters, solar and geomagnetic activity, and material surface orientation. Calculations of atomic oxygen fluences and fluxes for the LDEF mission are summarized. Included are descriptions of LDEF orbital parameters, solar and geomagnetic data, computer code FLUXAV, which was used to perform calculations of fluxes and fluences, along with a discussion of the calculated fluxes and fluences.

  16. Enhanced oxidative vaporization of Cr2O3 and chromium by oxygen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Rates of oxidative vaporization of Cr2O3 have been found to be markedly enhanced in the presence of oxygen atoms. Investigations were conducted over the temperature range 200-1250 C. For Cr2O3 the enhancement was about 10 to the 9th power at 550 C in oxygen containing 2.5% atoms. Rapid oxidative vaporization of bare chromium was observed below 800 C, the rate being about one-half that of Cr2O3. Results are interpreted in terms of thermochemical analysis.

  17. Issues and Effects of Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Silicone Contamination on Spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce; Rutledge, Sharon; Sechkar, Edward; Stueber, Thomas; Snyder, Aaron; deGroh, Kim; Haytas, Christy; Brinker, David

    2000-01-01

    The continued presence and use of silicones on spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) has been found to cause the deposition of contaminant films on surfaces which are also exposed to atomic oxygen. The composition and optical properties of the resulting SiO(x)- based (where x is near 2) contaminant films may be dependent upon the relative rates of arrival of atomic oxygen, silicone contaminant and hydrocarbons. This paper presents results of in-space silicone contamination tests, ground laboratory simulation tests and analytical modeling to identify controlling processes that affect contaminant characteristics.

  18. A Fiber Optic Catalytic Sensor for Neutral Atom Measurements in Oxygen Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Zaplotnik, Rok; Vesel, Alenka; Mozetic, Miran

    2012-01-01

    The presented sensor for neutral oxygen atom measurement in oxygen plasma is a catalytic probe which uses fiber optics and infrared detection system to measure the gray body radiation of the catalyst. The density of neutral atoms can be determined from the temperature curve of the probe, because the catalyst is heated predominantly by the dissipation of energy caused by the heterogeneous surface recombination of neutral atoms. The advantages of this sensor are that it is simple, reliable, easy to use, noninvasive, quantitative and can be used in plasma discharge regions. By using different catalyst materials the sensor can also be applied for detection of neutral atoms in other plasmas. Sensor design, operation, example measurements and new measurement procedure for systematic characterization are presented. PMID:22666005

  19. Laser Diagnostics of Atomic Hydrogen and Oxygen Production in RF and Microwave Plasma Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preppernau, Bryan Lee

    1993-01-01

    The research for this thesis involved the application of two-photon allowed laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) to the study of atomic hydrogen and oxygen production in industrial scale radio-frequency and microwave plasma discharge apparatus. Absolute atomic hydrogen concentration profiles were measured in a Gaseous Electronics Conference Reference Cell installed at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio operating with a simple H_2 discharge. Two -dimensional atomic hydrogen concentration profiles were also measured in an ASTEX HPMM microwave plasma diamond deposition reactor during actual diamond growth. In addition, absolute atomic oxygen concentrations were measured in the ASTEX system. Particular attention was paid to refining the concentration calibration technique and in determining a correction to account for the collisional quenching of excited state fluorescence in high pressure gases.

  20. Oxygen-free atomic layer deposition of indium sulfide

    DOEpatents

    Martinson, Alex B.; Hock, Adam S.; McCarthy, Robert; Weimer, Matthew S.

    2016-07-05

    A method for synthesizing an In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor including cooling a mixture comprised of diisopropylcarbodiimide and diethyl ether to approximately -30.degree. C., adding methyllithium drop-wise into the mixture, allowing the mixture to warm to room temperature, adding indium(III) chloride as a solid to the mixture to produce a white solid, dissolving the white solid in pentane to form a clear and colorless solution, filtering the mixture over a celite plug, and evaporating the solution under reduced pressure to obtain a solid In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor. This precursor has been further used to develop a novel atomic layer deposition technique for indium sulfide by dosing a reactor with the precursor, purging with nitrogen, dosing with dilute hydrogen sulfide, purging again with nitrogen, and repeating these steps to increase growth.

  1. Mechanism and kinetics of interaction of Fe, Cr, Mo, and Mn atoms with molecular oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmadov, U.S.; Zaslonko, I.S.; Smirnov, V.N.

    1988-09-01

    By means of resonance atomic absorption in shock waves, rate constants have been measured for the interaction of atoms of a number of transition metals (Fe, Cr, Mo, and Mn) with molecular oxygen. A new method is proposed and used for determining the exponent ..gamma.. in the modified Lambert-Beer law D = element of(ZN)/sup ..gamma../. The bond strength in CrO and MoO molecules has been estimated.

  2. Hot oxygen atoms: Their generation and chemistry. [Production by sputtering; reaction with butenes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Chu, Yung Y.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen atoms with energies between 1 and 10 eV have been produced through ion beam sputtering from metal oxide targets. Argon ion beams were used on Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. Results show that some control may be exerted over the atom's kinetic energy by changing the target. Reactions of the hot O(/sup 3/P) with cis- and trans-butenes were investigated. (DLC)

  3. Trapping cold molecules and atoms: Simultaneous magnetic deceleration and trapping of cold molecular Oxygen with Lithium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerman, Nitzan; Karpov, Michael; Segev, Yair; Bibelink, Natan; Narevicius, Julia; Narevicius, Edvardas

    2016-05-01

    Cooling molecules to the ultra-cold regime remains a major challenge in the growing field of cold molecules. The molecular internal degrees of freedom complicate the effort of direct application of laser cooling. An alternative and general path towards ultra-cold molecules relies on sympathetic cooling via collisions with laser-cooled atoms. Here, we demonstrate the first step towards application of sympathetic cooling by co-trapping of molecular Oxygen with Lithium atoms in a magnetic trap at a temperature of 300 mK. Our experiment begins with a pulsed supersonic beam which is a general source for cold high-flux atomic and molecular beams. Although the supersonic expansion efficiently cools the beam to temperatures below 1K, it also accelerates the beam to high mean velocities. We decelerate a beam of O2 in a moving magnetic trap decelerator from 375 m/s to a stop. We entrained the molecular beam with Li atoms by laser ablation prior to deceleration. The deceleration ends with loading the molecules and atoms into a static quadrupole trap, which is generated by two permanent magnets. We estimate 109 trapped molecules with background limited lifetime of 0.6 Sec. Our achievement enables application of laser cooling on the Li atoms in order to sympathetically cool the O2.

  4. Spontaneous incorporation of gold in palladium-based ternary nanoparticles makes durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Deli; Liu, Sufen; Wang, Jie; Lin, Ruoqian; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Rus, Eric; Silberstein, Katharine E.; Lowe, Michael A.; Lin, Feng; Nordlund, Dennis; et al

    2016-06-23

    Replacing platinum by a less precious metal such as palladium, is highly desirable for lowering the cost of fuel-cell electrocatalysts. However, the instability of palladium in the harsh environment of fuel-cell cathodes renders its commercial future bleak. Here we show that by incorporating trace amounts of gold in palladium-based ternary (Pd6CoCu) nanocatalysts, the durability of the catalysts improves markedly. Using aberration-corrected analytical transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that gold not only galvanically replaces cobalt and copper on the surface, but also penetrates through the Pd–Co–Cu lattice and distributes uniformly within the particles. Themore » uniform incorporation of Au provides a stability boost to the entire host particle, from the surface to the interior. The spontaneous replacement method we have developed is scalable and commercially viable. This work may provide new insight for the large-scale production of non-platinum electrocatalysts for fuel-cell applications.« less

  5. Spontaneous incorporation of gold in palladium-based ternary nanoparticles makes durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deli; Liu, Sufen; Wang, Jie; Lin, Ruoqian; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Rus, Eric; Silberstein, Katharine E; Lowe, Michael A; Lin, Feng; Nordlund, Dennis; Liu, Hongfang; Muller, David A; Xin, Huolin L; Abruña, Héctor D

    2016-01-01

    Replacing platinum by a less precious metal such as palladium, is highly desirable for lowering the cost of fuel-cell electrocatalysts. However, the instability of palladium in the harsh environment of fuel-cell cathodes renders its commercial future bleak. Here we show that by incorporating trace amounts of gold in palladium-based ternary (Pd6CoCu) nanocatalysts, the durability of the catalysts improves markedly. Using aberration-corrected analytical transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that gold not only galvanically replaces cobalt and copper on the surface, but also penetrates through the Pd-Co-Cu lattice and distributes uniformly within the particles. The uniform incorporation of Au provides a stability boost to the entire host particle, from the surface to the interior. The spontaneous replacement method we have developed is scalable and commercially viable. This work may provide new insight for the large-scale production of non-platinum electrocatalysts for fuel-cell applications. PMID:27336795

  6. Spontaneous incorporation of gold in palladium-based ternary nanoparticles makes durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Deli; Liu, Sufen; Wang, Jie; Lin, Ruoqian; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Rus, Eric; Silberstein, Katharine E.; Lowe, Michael A.; Lin, Feng; Nordlund, Dennis; Liu, Hongfang; Muller, David A.; Xin, Huolin L.; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2016-06-01

    Replacing platinum by a less precious metal such as palladium, is highly desirable for lowering the cost of fuel-cell electrocatalysts. However, the instability of palladium in the harsh environment of fuel-cell cathodes renders its commercial future bleak. Here we show that by incorporating trace amounts of gold in palladium-based ternary (Pd6CoCu) nanocatalysts, the durability of the catalysts improves markedly. Using aberration-corrected analytical transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that gold not only galvanically replaces cobalt and copper on the surface, but also penetrates through the Pd-Co-Cu lattice and distributes uniformly within the particles. The uniform incorporation of Au provides a stability boost to the entire host particle, from the surface to the interior. The spontaneous replacement method we have developed is scalable and commercially viable. This work may provide new insight for the large-scale production of non-platinum electrocatalysts for fuel-cell applications.

  7. Spontaneous incorporation of gold in palladium-based ternary nanoparticles makes durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Deli; Liu, Sufen; Wang, Jie; Lin, Ruoqian; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Rus, Eric; Silberstein, Katharine E.; Lowe, Michael A.; Lin, Feng; Nordlund, Dennis; Liu, Hongfang; Muller, David A.; Xin, Huolin L.; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2016-01-01

    Replacing platinum by a less precious metal such as palladium, is highly desirable for lowering the cost of fuel-cell electrocatalysts. However, the instability of palladium in the harsh environment of fuel-cell cathodes renders its commercial future bleak. Here we show that by incorporating trace amounts of gold in palladium-based ternary (Pd6CoCu) nanocatalysts, the durability of the catalysts improves markedly. Using aberration-corrected analytical transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that gold not only galvanically replaces cobalt and copper on the surface, but also penetrates through the Pd–Co–Cu lattice and distributes uniformly within the particles. The uniform incorporation of Au provides a stability boost to the entire host particle, from the surface to the interior. The spontaneous replacement method we have developed is scalable and commercially viable. This work may provide new insight for the large-scale production of non-platinum electrocatalysts for fuel-cell applications. PMID:27336795

  8. Measurement of atomic oxygen in the middle atmosphere using solid electrolyte sensors and catalytic probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhart, M.; Löhle, S.; Steinbeck, A.; Binder, T.; Fasoulas, S.

    2015-09-01

    The middle- and upper-atmospheric energy budget is largely dominated by reactions involving atomic oxygen (O). Modeling of these processes requires detailed knowledge about the distribution of this oxygen species. Understanding the mutual contributions of atomic oxygen and wave motions to the atmospheric heating is the main goal of the rocket project WADIS (WAve propagation and DISsipation in the middle atmosphere). It includes, amongst others, our instruments for the measurement of atomic oxygen that have both been developed with the aim of resolving density variations on small vertical scales along the trajectory. In this paper the instrument based on catalytic effects (PHLUX: Pyrometric Heat Flux Experiment) is introduced briefly. The experiment employing solid electrolyte sensors (FIPEX: Flux φ(Phi) Probe Experiment) is presented in detail. These sensors were laboratory calibrated using a microwave plasma as a source of atomic oxygen in combination with mass spectrometer reference measurements. The spectrometer was in turn calibrated for O with a method based on methane. In order to get insight into the horizontal variability, the rocket payload had instrument decks at both ends. Each housed several sensor heads measuring during both the up- and downleg of the trajectory. The WADIS project comprises two rocket flights during different geophysical conditions. Results from WADIS-1 are presented, which was successfully launched in June 2013 from the Andøya Space Center, Norway. FIPEX data were sampled at 100 Hz and yield atomic oxygen density profiles with a vertical resolution better than 9 m. This allows density variations to be studied on very small spatial scales. Numerical simulations of the flow field around the rocket were done at several points of the trajectory to assess the influence of aerodynamic effects on the measurement results. Density profiles peak at 3 × 1010 cm-3 at altitudes of 93.6 and 96 km for the up- and downleg, respectively.

  9. Measurement of atomic oxygen in the middle atmosphere using solid electrolyte sensors and catalytic probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhart, M.; Löhle, S.; Steinbeck, A.; Binder, T.; Fasoulas, S.

    2015-03-01

    The atmospheric energy budget is largely dominated by reactions involving atomic oxygen (O). Modeling of these processes requires detailed knowledge about the distribution of this oxygen species. Understanding the mutual contributions of atomic oxygen and wave motions to the atmospheric heating is the main goal of the rocket campaign WADIS. It includes, amongst others, two of our instruments for the measurement of atomic oxygen that have both been developed with the aim of resolving density variations on small vertical scales along the trajectory. In this paper the instrument based on catalytic effects (PHLUX) is introduced briefly. The experiment employing solid electrolyte sensors (FIPEX) is presented in detail. These sensors were laboratory calibrated using a microwave plasma as a source for atomic oxygen in combination with mass spectrometer reference measurements. The spectrometer was in turn calibrated for O with a method based on methane. In order to get insight into the horizontal variability the rocket payload had instrument decks at both ends. Each housed several sensor heads measuring during both the up- and downleg of the trajectory. The WADIS campaign comprises two rocket flights during different geophysical conditions. Results from WADIS-1 are presented which was successfully launched in June 2013 from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway. FIPEX data was sampled with 100 Hz and yield atomic oxygen density profiles with a vertical resolution better than 10 m. Numerical simulations of the flow field around the rocket were done at several points of the trajectory to assess the influence of aerodynamic effects on the measurement results. Density profiles peak at 3 × 1010 cm-3 at altitudes of 93.6 and 96 km for up- and downleg respectively.

  10. Characterization and calibration of the EOIM-III flight mass spectrometer in a high velocity oxygen atom beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Cross, J. B.; Hunton, D.; Lan, E.

    1990-01-01

    Calibration and characterization of the quadrupole mass spectrometer component of the Evaluation of Oxygen Effects on Materials III (EOIM-III) space-flight experiment are reported in this paper. A high-velocity atom beam system was used to characterize the response of the flight mass spectrometer to high velocity oxygen atoms as well as the reaction/scattering products formed when the atom beam struck a surface. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and water were observed to form in the mass spectrometer whenever high velocity oxygen atoms were present. The major gaseous products formed from high-velocity atom-beam polymer reactions were easily detected and identified.

  11. Atomic layer-by-layer deposition of platinum on palladium octahedra for enhanced catalysts toward the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinho; Zhang, Lei; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T; Lu, Ning; Herron, Jeffrey A; Xie, Shuifen; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-03-24

    We systematically evaluated two different approaches to the syntheses of Pd@PtnL (n = 2-5) core-shell octahedra. We initially prepared the core-shell octahedra using a polyol-based route by titrating a Pt(IV) precursor into the growth solution containing Pd octahedral seeds at 200 °C through the use of a syringe pump. The number of Pt atomic layers could be precisely controlled from two to five by increasing the volume of the precursor solution while fixing the amount of seeds. We then demonstrated the synthesis of Pd@PtnL octahedra using a water-based route at 95 °C through the one-shot injection of a Pt(II) precursor. Due to the large difference in reaction temperature, the Pd@PtnL octahedra obtained via the water-based route showed sharper corners than their counterparts obtained through the polyol-based route. When compared to a commercial Pt/C catalyst based upon 3.2 nm Pt particles, the Pd@PtnL octahedra prepared using both methods showed similar remarkable enhancement in terms of activity (both specific and mass) and durability toward the oxygen reduction reaction. Calculations based upon periodic, self-consistent density functional theory suggested that the enhancement in specific activity for the Pd@PtnL octahedra could be attributed to the destabilization of OH on their PtnL*/Pd(111) surface relative to the {111} and {100} facets exposed on the surface of Pt/C. The destabilization of OH facilitates its hydrogenation, which was found to be the rate-limiting step of the oxygen reduction reaction on all these surfaces. PMID:25661922

  12. TiO2-modified CNx nanowires as a Pt electrocatalyst support with high activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Tang, J; Meng, H M

    2016-01-21

    A Pt/TiO2-modified carbon nitride nanofiber (Pt/TiO2-CNx) catalyst has been synthesized by a chemical method for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The material characteristics confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) have indicated that the TiO2-CNx nanowires have a diameter of about 35-85 nm, the TiO2 nanoparticles are embedded in CNx nanowires and Pt nanoparticles are about 2.21 nm in size. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) show that Ti has a shift in the binding energy of Ti 2p, implying suboxide formation. Pt/0.2 g TiO2-CNx has about 3% loss in the (electrochemical surface area) ESA after 1000 cycles, however, the Pt/C catalyst has about 50.8% loss in the ESA. Pt/0.2 g TiO2-CNx has much better activity than Pt/C, which is proposed to be due to the high total surface area of Pt. The durability test shows that the Pt/0.2 g TiO2-CNx catalyst has no loss of activity after 5000 cycles. After 5000 cycles, the average size of Pt nanoparticles and the peaks of Pt 4f almost remain unchanged. The high durability of Pt/0.2 g TiO2-CNx is attributed to the corrosion-resistance of 0.2 g TiO2-CNx nanowires support and the good interaction between the 0.2 g TiO2-CNx support and the Pt nanoparticles. PMID:26660293

  13. Nitrogen-doped Co/Co9S8/partly-graphitized carbon as durable catalysts for oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Dai, Ying; Chen, Baibing; Zou, Jinlong; Jiang, BaoJiang; Fu, Honggang

    2016-03-01

    Durability of catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is the key factor for governing the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The cobalt (Co) chelated polyaniline (PANI) is used as the nitrogen and carbon sources to prepare the N-doped Co/Co9S8/partly-graphitized carbon (Co/Co9S8/NPGC) catalysts. Structure-activity correlations for Co/Co9S8/NPGC are explored by tuning the heating temperature (600-1000 °C) to investigate how the active components (Co/Co9S8) and N-doped functionalities (N-species) influence the ORR activity. As temperature increases, the gradual crystallization of Co originating from the reduction of Co9S8 is conducted to form the Co/Co9S8 heterojunction. MFCs with Co/Co9S8/NPGC (800 °C) cathode obtain the highest power density (1156 mW m-2) and the lowest charge transfer resistance (11.1 Ω) after 75 d running, which are better than commercial Pt/C (10 wt.%). Although the sole Co9S8 plays a limited role in ORR, the resulting Co/Co9S8 is found to be indispensable to achieve high activity and durability in MFCs cathodes. The dominant ORR pathways of Co/Co9S8/NPGC (800 and 900 °C) are the four-electron O2 reduction, which are attributed to the co-existence of pyridinic N, graphitic N and Co-Nx species. These new N-doped metal sulfide/PGC composites show promise for applications in MFCs.

  14. Comparison of atomic oxygen measurements by incoherent scatter and satellite-borne mass spectrometer techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.; Alcayde, D.

    1974-01-01

    Atomic oxygen densities determined by the incoherent scatter technique are compared to densities deduced from satellite-borne mass spectrometer measurements and are found to agree within experimental error. The diurnal variations inferred from the incoherent scatter measurements do show, however, some departure from diurnal variations found by modeling the mass spectrometer results. Some implications of these departures are briefly discussed.

  15. Atomic Oxygen Treatment for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Protective Coatings from Painting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Current techniques for removal of varnish (lacquer) and other organic protective coatings from paintings involve contact with the surface. This contact can remove pigment, or alter the shape and location of paint on the canvas surface. A thermal energy atomic oxygen plasma, developed to simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit, easily removes these organic materials. Uniform removal of organic protective coatings from the surfaces of paintings is accomplished through chemical reaction. Atomic oxygen will not react with oxides so that most paint pigments will not be affected by the reaction. For paintings containing organic pigments, the exposure can be carefully timed so that the removal stops just short of the pigment. Color samples of Alizarin Crimson, Sap Green, and Zinc White coated with Damar lacquer were exposed to atomic oxygen. The lacquer was easily removed from all of the samples. Additionally, no noticeable change in appearance was observed after the lacquer was reapplied. The same observations were made on a painted canvas test sample obtained from the Cleveland Museum of Art. Scanning electron microscope photographs showed a slight microscopic texturing of the vehicle after exposure. However, there was no removal or disturbance of the paint pigment on the surface. It appears that noncontact cleaning using atomic oxygen may provide a viable alternative to other cleaning techniques. It is especially attractive in cases where the organic protective surface cannot be acceptably or safely removed by conventional techniques.

  16. Atomic Oxygen Treatment as a Method of Recovering Smoke Damaged Paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Forkapa, Mark; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward; Malinowski, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Smoke damage, as a result of a fire, can be difficult to remove from some types of painting media without causing swelling, leaching or pigment movement or removal. A non-contact technique has been developed which can remove soot from the surface of a painting by use of a gently flowing gas containing atomic oxygen. The atomic oxygen chemically reacts with the soot on the surface creating gasses such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide which can be removed through the use of an exhaust system. The reaction is limited to the surface so that the process can be timed to stop when the paint layer is reached. Atomic oxygen is a primary component of the low Earth orbital environment, but can be generated on Earth through various methods. This paper will discuss the results of atomic oxygen treatment of soot exposed acrylic gesso, ink on paper, and a varnished oil painting. Reflectance measurements were used to characterize the surfaces before and after treatment.

  17. Atomic Oxygen and Energy Balance in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Marshall, T.; Mertens, C. J.; Russell, J. M.; Mast, J. C.; Thompson, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    We use atomic oxygen concentrations measured by SABER in conjunction with measurements of infrared radiative cooling and solar heating to assess the energy balance in the Earth's mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Atomic oxygen plays a central role, particularly in the mesopause region, through heating due to exothermic chemical reactions. The SABER data reveal approximate balance in global heating and cooling on annual timescales. In the 11-year SABER record there is also clear evidence of the solar cycle variation in all of the heat budget terms including atomic oxygen. Long-term changes in heating and cooling rates appear consistent with each other. Uncertainty in the energy budget is due largely to uncertainty in recombination rate coefficients governing exothermic chemical reactions at mesospheric temperatures. In this talk we will show the multitude of energy budget terms derived from SABER observations, the global energy budget, the variability due to the solar cycle, and the uncertainty in the energy balance. We also examine the constraints on the global atomic oxygen concentration based on energy balance considerations.

  18. Variation with Temperature of the Recombination of Oxygen Atoms on a Platinum Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryburg, George C.; Petrus, Helen M.

    1960-01-01

    The development of vehicles capable of flight at high Mach speeds and at extreme altitudes has re-stimulated interest in the "catalytic efficiency" of metals for recombination of atomic species of hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Most of the work to date has been of an exploratory nature, comparing the relative efficiencies of the different metals.

  19. Atomic oxygen interactions with protected organic materials on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Bucholz, Justine L.; Cales, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has provided an excellent opportunity to understand the nature of directed atomic oxygen interactions with protected polymers and composites. Although there were relatively few samples of materials with protective coatings on their external surfaces on LDEF which were exposed to a high atomic oxygen fluence, analysis of such samples has enabled an examination of the shape of atomic oxygen undercut cavities at defect sites in the protective coatings. Samples of front-surface aluminized (Kapton) polyimide were inspected by scanning electron microscopy to identify and measure crack defects in the aluminum protective coatings. After chemical removal of the aluminum coating, measurements were also made of the width of the oxidized undercut cavities below the crack defects. The LDEF flight undercut cavity geometries were then compared with Monte Carlo computational model undercut cavity predictions. The comparison of the LDEF results and computational modeling indicates agreement in specific undercut cavity geometries for atomic oxygen reaction probabilities dependent upon the 0.68 to 3.0 power of the energy. However, no single energy dependency was adequate to replicate flight results over a variety of aluminum crack widths.

  20. Microbial hydroxylation of quinoline in contaminated groundwater: evidence for incorporation of the oxygen atom of water.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.; Updegraff, D.M.; Bennett, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in an aquifer contaminated by creosote suggest that quinoline is converted to 2(1H)quinolinone by an indigenous consortium of microorganisms. Laboratory microbial experiments using H218O indicate that water is the source of the oxygen atom for this hydroxylation reaction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  1. Microbial hydroxylation of quinoline in contaminated groundwater: evidence for incorporation of the oxygen atom of water.

    PubMed

    Pereira, W E; Rostad, C E; Leiker, T J; Updegraff, D M; Bennett, J L

    1988-03-01

    Studies conducted in an aquifer contaminated by creosote suggest that quinoline is converted to 2(1H)quinolinone by an indigenous consortium of microorganisms. Laboratory microbial experiments using H218O indicate that water is the source of the oxygen atom for this hydroxylation reaction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. PMID:3377494

  2. Atomic oxygen dynamics in an air dielectric barrier discharge: a combined diagnostic and modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldus, Sabrina; Schröder, Daniel; Bibinov, Nikita; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker; Awakowicz, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas are a promising alternative therapy for treatment of chronic wounds, as they have already shown in clinical trials. In this study an air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) developed for therapeutic use in dermatology is characterized with respect to the plasma produced reactive oxygen species, namely atomic oxygen and ozone, which are known to be of great importance to wound healing. To understand the plasma chemistry of the applied DBD, xenon-calibrated two-photon laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and optical absorption spectroscopy are applied. The measured spatial distributions are shown and compared to each other. A model of the afterglow chemistry based on optical emission spectroscopy is developed to cross-check the measurement results and obtain insight into the dynamics of the considered reactive oxygen species. The atomic oxygen density is found to be located mostly between the electrodes with a maximum density of {{n}\\text{O}}=6× {{10}16} cm-3 . Time resolved measurements reveal a constant atomic oxygen density between two high voltage pulses. The ozone is measured up to 3 mm outside the active plasma volume, reaching a maximum value of {{n}{{\\text{O}3}}}=3× {{10}16} cm-3 between the electrodes.

  3. Measurement of atomic oxygen and related airglows in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Young, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Instruments on board a sounding rocket were used to make simultaneous observations of atomic oxygen density and airglow emissions between 80 and 120 km. Atomic oxygen was measured with a resonance lamp and was found to have a peak density of 6 x 10 to the 11th at 94 km. Similar structure is seen in the oxygen density profile on both uplegs and downlegs. The following airglow emissions were measured by using vertical-viewing photometers: Herzberg I bands near 300 nm; O(1S) green line at 557.7 nm; background at 566 nm; O2(1 Delta g) bands at 1.27 microns; and OH (X 2 pi) Meinel bands near 1.7 microns.

  4. Atomic oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase Ag/Ag2O deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2010-11-01

    The flux of atomic oxygen generated in a electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma source was quantified by two different methods. The commonly applied approach of monitoring the frequency change of a silver-coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) deposition rate monitor as the silver is oxidized was found to underestimate the atomic oxygen flux by an order of magnitude compared to a more direct deposition approach. In the mixed-phase Ag/Ag2O deposition method, silver films were deposited in the presence of the plasma such that the films were partially oxidized to Ag2O; x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was utilized for quantification of the oxidized fraction. The inaccuracy of the QCM oxidation method was tentatively attributed to efficient catalytic recombination of O atoms on the silver surface.

  5. Rate constant for the reaction of atomic oxygen with phosphine at 298 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stief, L. J.; Payne, W. A.; Nava, D. F.

    1987-01-01

    The rate constant for the reaction of atomic oxygen with phosphine has been measured at 298 K using flash photolysis combined with time-resolved detection of O(3P) via resonance fluorescence. Atomic oxygen was produced by flash photolysis of N2O or NO highly diluted in argon. The results were shown to be independent of (PH3), (O), total pressure and the source of O(3P). The mean value of all the experiments is k1 = (3.6 + or -0.8) x 10 to the -11th cu cm/s (1 sigma). Two previous measurements of k1 differed by more than an order of magnitude, and the results support the higher value obtained in a discharge flow-mass spectrometry study. A comparison with rate data for other atomic and free radical reactions with phosphine is presented, and the role of these reactions in the aeronomy or photochemistry of Jupiter and Saturn is briefly considered.

  6. Relative rate constants for the reactions of atomic oxygen with HO2 anad OH radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    Relative rate constants for the reactions O + HO2 - OH + O2 (1) and O + OH - H + O2 (2) were obtained by using the discharge-flow resonance fluorescence technique at 2 torr total pressure and 299 K. HO2 radicals were generated by reacting atomic hydrogen with an excess of O2. Quasi-steady-state concentrations of OH and HO2 were established in the presence of excess atomic oxygen. Observed concentration ratios, namely the ratio of the OH concentration to the HO2 concentration, resulted in a value of 1.7 + or 0.2 for k1/k2. The error limits are twice the standard deviation obtained from the data analysis. Overall experimental error is estimated to be + or - 25 percent. This result confirms earlier direct measurements of k1 and k2 which required knowledge of absolute radical or atomic oxygen concentrations.

  7. ESCA Study of Poly (Vinylidene Fluoride) Tetrafluoroethylene - Ethylene Copolymer and Polyethylene Exposed to Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Cormia, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    The ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) spectra of films of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), tetrafluoroethylene-ethylene copolymer (TFE/ET) and polyethylene (PE) exposed to atomic oxygen (O(P-3)), in or out of the glow of a radio-frequency O2 plasma, were compared. ESCA spectra of PE films exposed to (O(P-3)) in low Earth orbit (LEO) on the STS-8 Space Shuttle were also examined. Apart from O(P-3)-induced surface recession (etching), the various polymer films exhibited surface oxidation, which proceeded towards equilibrium saturation oxygen levels. The maximum surface oxygen uptakes for in-glow or out-of-glow exposures were in the order: PE greater than TFE/ET greater than PVDF; for PE itself, the oxygen uptakes were in the order: in glow greater than out of glow greater than LEO. Given prior ESCA data on poly(vinyl fluoride) and polytetrafluoroethylene films exposed to O(P-3), the extent of surface oxidation is seen to decrease regularly with increase in fluorine substitution in a family of ethylene-type polymers. (Keywords: ESCA; poly(vinylidene fluoride); tetrafluoroethylene ethylene copolymer; polyethylene; atomic oxygen; radio-frequency oxygen plasma; low Earth orbit)

  8. Two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence measurement of atomic oxygen density in an atmospheric pressure air plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, J.; Gogna, G. S.; Gaman, C.; Turner, M. M.; Daniels, S.

    2016-08-01

    Atomic oxygen number density [O] is measured in an air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) using two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF). Gas flow is fixed at 8 slpm, the RF power coupled into the plasma jet varied between 5 W and 20 W, and the resulting changes in atomic oxygen density measured. Photolysis of molecular oxygen is employed to allow in situ calibration of the TALIF system. During calibration, O2 photo-dissociation and two-photon excitation of the resulting oxygen atoms are achieved within the same laser pulse. The atomic oxygen density produced by photolysis is time varying and spatially non-uniform which needs to be corrected for to calibrate the TALIF system for measurement of atomic oxygen density in plasma. Knowledge of the laser pulse intensity I 0(t), wavelength, and focal spot size allows correction factors to be determined using a rate equation model. Atomic oxygen is used for calibration and measurement, so the laser intensity can be increased outside the TALIF quadratic laser power dependence region without affecting the calibration reliability as the laser power dependence will still be the same for both. The atomic O density results obtained are not directly benchmarked against other known density measurement techniques. The results show that the plasma jet atomic oxygen content increases as the RF power coupled into the plasma increases.

  9. Effects of combined irradiation of 500 keV protons and atomic oxygen on polyimide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Lev; Chernik, Vladimir; Zhilyakov, Lev; Voronina, Ekaterina; Chirskaia, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    Polyimide films are widely used on the spacecraft surface as thermal control coating, films in different constuctions, etc. However, the space ionizing radiation of different types can alter the mechanical, optical and electrical properties of polyimide films. For example, it is well known that 20-100 keV proton irradiation causes breaking of chemical bonds and destruction of the surface layer in polyimide, deterioration of its optical properties, etc. In low-Earth orbits serious danger for polymeric materials is atomic oxygen of the upper atmosphere of the Earth, which is the main component in the range of heights of 200-800 km. Due to the orbital spacecraft velocity, the collision energy of oxygen atoms with the surface ( 5 eV) enhances their reactivity and opens additional pathways of their reaction with near-surface layers of materials. Hyperthermal oxygen atom flow causes erosion of the polyimide surface by breaking chemical bonds and forming of volatiles products (primarily, CO and CO _{2}), which leads to mass losses and degradation of material properties. Combined effect of protons and oxygen plasma is expected to give rise to synergistic effects enhancing the destruction of polyimide surface layers. This paper describes experimental investigation of polyimide films sequential irradiation with protons and oxygen plasma. The samples were irradiated by 500 keV protons at fluences of 10 ^{14}-10 ^{16} cm ^{-2} produced with SINP cascade generator KG-500 and 5-20 eV neutral oxygen atoms at fluence of 10 ^{20} cm ^{-2} generated by SINP magnetoplasmodynamics accelerator. The proton bombardment causes the decrease in optical transmission coefficient of samples, but their transmittance recovers partially after the exposure to oxygen plasma. The results of the comparative analysis of polyimide optical transmission spectra, Raman and XPS spectra obtained at different stages of the irradiation of samples, data on mass loss of samples due to erosion of the surface are

  10. Atomic and molecular oxygen adsorbed on (111) transition metal surfaces: Cu and Ni

    SciTech Connect

    López-Moreno, S.; Romero, A. H.

    2015-04-21

    Density functional theory is used to investigate the reaction of oxygen with clean copper and nickel [111]-surfaces. We study several alternative adsorption sites for atomic and molecular oxygen on both surfaces. The minimal energy geometries and adsorption energies are in good agreement with previous theoretical studies and experimental data. From all considered adsorption sites, we found a new O{sub 2} molecular precursor with two possible dissociation paths on the Cu(111) surface. Cross barrier energies for the molecular oxygen dissociation have been calculated by using the climbing image nudge elastic band method, and direct comparison with experimental results is performed. Finally, the structural changes and adsorption energies of oxygen adsorbed on surface when there is a vacancy nearby the adsorption site are also considered.

  11. Atomic and molecular oxygen adsorbed on (111) transition metal surfaces: Cu and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Moreno, S.; Romero, A. H.

    2015-04-01

    Density functional theory is used to investigate the reaction of oxygen with clean copper and nickel [111]-surfaces. We study several alternative adsorption sites for atomic and molecular oxygen on both surfaces. The minimal energy geometries and adsorption energies are in good agreement with previous theoretical studies and experimental data. From all considered adsorption sites, we found a new O2 molecular precursor with two possible dissociation paths on the Cu(111) surface. Cross barrier energies for the molecular oxygen dissociation have been calculated by using the climbing image nudge elastic band method, and direct comparison with experimental results is performed. Finally, the structural changes and adsorption energies of oxygen adsorbed on surface when there is a vacancy nearby the adsorption site are also considered.

  12. Atomic and molecular oxygen adsorbed on (111) transition metal surfaces: Cu and Ni.

    PubMed

    López-Moreno, S; Romero, A H

    2015-04-21

    Density functional theory is used to investigate the reaction of oxygen with clean copper and nickel [111]-surfaces. We study several alternative adsorption sites for atomic and molecular oxygen on both surfaces. The minimal energy geometries and adsorption energies are in good agreement with previous theoretical studies and experimental data. From all considered adsorption sites, we found a new O2 molecular precursor with two possible dissociation paths on the Cu(111) surface. Cross barrier energies for the molecular oxygen dissociation have been calculated by using the climbing image nudge elastic band method, and direct comparison with experimental results is performed. Finally, the structural changes and adsorption energies of oxygen adsorbed on surface when there is a vacancy nearby the adsorption site are also considered. PMID:25903900

  13. Isolation, Characterization of an Intermediate in an Oxygen Atom-Transfer Reaction, and the Determination of the Bond Dissociation Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nemykin, Victor N.; Laskin, Julia; Basu, Partha

    2004-07-19

    Redox reactions coupled with the formal loss or gain of an oxygen atom are ubiquitous in chemical processes. Such reactions proceed through the reduction of the donor center (XO) and the oxidation of the acceptor (Y) molecule. Among many examples of the metal centered oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactivity, those involving molybdenum complexes have been widely investigated due to their involvement in mononuclear molybdenum enzymes. The heat of reaction of the overall atom transfer process can be expressed as a difference between the bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of the oxygen-donor(X) and oxygen-acceptor(Y) bond, i.e., H=DX=o-DY=O.

  14. Atomic oxygen dosimetry measurements made on STS-46 by CONCAP 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Miller, G. P.; Pettigrew, P. J.; Raikar, G. N.; Cross, Jon B.; Lan, E.; Renschler, C. L.; Sutherland, W. T.

    1995-01-01

    With increasing flight duration and the possibility of a permanent facility in space, long-term monitoring of material degradation due to atomic oxygen is increasing in importance. Reliance on models to determine the fluence of atomic oxygen is not only necessarily complex but also imprecise due to the strong dependence of oxygen concentration on day/night, latitude and solar activity. Mass-spectroscopy, the traditional method for determining the gas phase species densities at low pressure, is not only expensive but is limited in the area that it can monitor. Our group has developed a simple and inexpensive dosimeter to measure the atomic oxygen fluence via the change in resistance as the sensor element is gradually oxidized. The sensors consisted of thin-film circuit elements deposited on a suitable substrate. Four-point resistance measurements were used to monitor the change in resistance. Results obtained using silver and carbon dosimeters flown on STS-46 (CONCAP 2-01) will be discussed.

  15. Atomic oxygen characteristics in a dielectric barrier discharge developed for wound treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldus, Sabrina; Schroeder, Daniel; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays, infected chronic wounds are a major problem of society. Atmospheric pressure plasmas like dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) have already shown their ability of improving the wound healing process of chronic wounds in clinical trials. Yet, the mechanism of action is poorly understood. A DBD comprising a single driven electrode is a beneficial configuration for wound treatment. The patient itself functions as the counter electrode. Hence, reactive oxygen species (ROS) like ozone or atomic oxygen produced in the plasma reach the wound directly. Some ROS, including superoxide or nitric oxide, are produced by skin cells to repulse invading bacteria. Nevertheless, a very high amount of ROS leads to oxidative stress and can cause cell damage or even cell death. Therefore it is crucial to have a well characterized plasma for effective wound treatment. Plasma parameters are determined using absolutely calibrated optical emission spectroscopy. Density of atomic oxygen is measured applying xenon-calibrated two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. A simulation of the afterglow chemistry, developed to gain insight in the characteristics of the atomic oxygen and its flux towards the treated surface, is cross-checked with measurement results. Work supported by the German Research Foundation within PAK816.

  16. Atomic oxygen interaction with nickel multilayer and antimony oxide doped MoS{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, M.T.

    1994-12-31

    Sputtered MoS{sub 2} is a solid lubricant capable of ultralow friction coefficients (below 0.05) load-bearing capacity. Since it exhibits low friction in vacuum, low outgassing rate, is non-migrating and lacks organic binders, this material is an attractive lubricant for space mechanisms. To exploit these new materials to their fullest potential, designers of space-based motion systems require data on the effects of atomic oxygen exposure on dense, sputtered MoS{sub 2}. This paper describes the effects of atomic oxygen in low earth orbit on the friction and surface composition of sputtered MoS{sub 2} films. Sputtered multilayer films of MoS{sub 2} with nickel (0.7 nm Ni per 10 nm MoS{sub 2}, for 1 {mu}m total film thickness), and MoS{sub 2} cosputtered with antimony oxide (nominally 2 {mu}m thick) were exposed to 2.2 to 2.5 x 10{sup 20} oxygen/cm{sup 2} over a period of 42.25 hours in earth orbit on the United States space shuttle. Identical specimens were kept as controls in desiccated storage for the duration of the mission, and another set was exposed to an equivalent fluence of atomic oxygen in the laboratory. The friction coefficient in air and vacuum, and the composition of worn surfaces, were determined prior to the shuttle flight and again after the shuttle flight. Results are described.

  17. In-space technology development: Atomic oxygen and orbital debris effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, James T.; Potter, Andrew E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier Shuttle flight experiments have shown atomic oxygen within the orbital environment can interact with many materials to produce surface recession and mass loss and combine catalytically with other constituents to generate visible and infrared glows. In addition to these effects, examinations of returned satellite hardware have shown many spacecraft materials are also susceptible to damage from high velocity impacts with orbital space debris. These effects are of particular concern for large, multi-mission spacecraft, such as Space Station and SDI operational satellites, that will operate in low-Earth orbit (LEO) during the late 1990's. Not only must these spacecraft include materials and exterior coatings that are resistant to atomic oxygen surface interactions, but these materials must also provide adequate protection against erosion and pitting that could result from numerous impacts with small particles (less than 100 microns) of orbital space debris. An overview of these concerns is presented, and activities now underway to develop materials and coatings are outlined that will provide adequate atomic protection for future spacecraft. The report also discusses atomic oxygen and orbital debris flight experiments now under development to expand our limited data base, correlate ground-based measurments with flight results, and develop an orbital debris collision warning system for use by future spacecraft.

  18. Rates and mechanisms of the atomic oxygen reaction with nickel at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. D.; Gilbreath, W. P.

    1973-01-01

    The oxidation of nickel by atomic oxygen at pressure from 1 to 45 N/sq m between 1050 and 1250 K was investigated. In these ranges, the oxidation was found to follow the parobolic rate law, viz., K sub p = 0.0000114 exp(-13410/T) g squared/cm4/sec for films of greater than 1 micron thickness and was pressure independent. The activation enthalpy for the oxidation reaction was 112 + or - 11 kj/mole (27 + or - 3 kcal/mole). Of a number of possible mechanisms and defect structures considered, it was shown that the most likely was a saturated surface defect model for atomic oxidation, based on reaction activation enthalpies, impurity effects, pressure independence, and magnitudes of rates. A model judged somewhat less likely was one having doubly ionized cationic defects rate controlling in both atomic and molecular oxygen. From comparisons of the appropriate processes, the following enthalpy values were derived: enthalpy of activation (Ni diffusion in Ni0) = 110 + or - 30 kj/mole and standard enthalpy change for reaction formation (doubly ionized cation vacancies in Ni0 from atomic oxygen)= -9 + or - 25 kj/mole.

  19. Mathematical modeling of chemical composition modification and etching of polymers under the atomic oxygen influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirskaia, Natalia; Novikov, Lev; Voronina, Ekaterina

    2016-07-01

    Atomic oxygen (AO) of the upper atmosphere is one of the most important space factors that can cause degradation of spacecraft surface. In our previous mathematical model the Monte Carlo method and the "large particles" approximation were used for simulating processes of polymer etching under the influence of AO [1]. The interaction of enlarged AO particles with the polymer was described in terms of probabilities of reactions such as etching of polymer and specular and diffuse scattering of the AO particles on polymer. The effects of atomic oxygen on protected polymers and microfiller containing composites were simulated. The simulation results were in quite good agreement with the results of laboratory experiments on magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator of the oxygen plasma of SINP MSU [2]. In this paper we present a new model that describes the reactions of AO interactions with polymeric materials in more detail. Reactions of formation and further emission of chemical compounds such as CO, CO _{2}, H _{2}O, etc. cause the modification of the chemical composition of the polymer and change the probabilities of its consequent interaction with the AO. The simulation results are compared with the results of previous simulation and with the results of laboratory experiments. The reasons for the differences between the results of natural experiments on spacecraft, laboratory experiments and simulations are discussed. N. Chirskaya, M. Samokhina, Computer modeling of polymer structures degradation under the atomic oxygen exposure, WDS'12 Proceedings of Contributed Papers: Part III - Physics, Matfyzpress Prague, 2012, pp. 30-35. E. Voronina, L. Novikov, V. Chernik, N. Chirskaya, K. Vernigorov, G. Bondarenko, and A. Gaidar, Mathematical and experimental simulation of impact of atomic oxygen of the earth's upper atmosphere on nanostructures and polymer composites, Inorganic Materials: Applied Research, 2012, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 95-101.

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet radiation/atomic oxygen synergism in fluorinated ethylene propylene Teflon erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, A. E.; Brinza, David E.; Laue, Eric G.; Anderson, Mark S.; Liang, Ranty H.

    1992-01-01

    A micrographic investigation is reported of samples of the fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon thermal-blanketing materials recovered from the Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite. The samples are taken from the trailing edge and row 8 which correspond to exposures to vacuum UV (VUV) and VUV + atomic O, respectively. Data are taken from SEM and IR-spectra observations, and the LDEF leading-edge FEP shows a high degree of erosion, roughening, and sharp peaks angled in the direction of the flow of atomic O. The trailing edge sample influenced primarily by VUV shows a hard brittle layer and some cracked mosaic patterns. Comparisons to a reference sample suggest that the brittle layer is related to exposure to VUV and is removed by atomic-O impingement. Polymers that are stable to VUV radiation appear to be more stable in terms of atomic oxygen.

  1. Ab initio study of molecular and atomic oxygen on GeTe(111) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Deringer, Volker L.; Dronskowski, Richard

    2014-11-07

    Oxidation of the phase-change material germanium telluride (GeTe) is an atomic-scale process of fundamental importance, as it is detrimental to the stability of GeTe-based data-storage devices. Here, we present comprehensive density-functional theory simulations of molecular and atomic oxygen in contact with GeTe(111) surfaces. Molecular O{sub 2} is predicted to readily adsorb on the Ge-terminated (111) surface; the pristine Te-terminated counterpart, by contrast, appears quite inert. The coverage-dependent adsorption of O atoms is then investigated, and based on these data, a surface phase diagram for GeTe(111)/O is constructed. These results afford a detailed, atom-resolved picture of the initial surface oxidation of GeTe, and they harmonize well with a previous X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on this very topic.

  2. Large-Area Atomic Oxygen Facility Used to Clean Fire-Damaged Artwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Steuber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    In addition to completely destroying artwork, fires in museums and public buildings can soil a displayed artwork with so much accumulated soot that it can no longer be used for study or be enjoyed by the public. In situations where the surface has not undergone extensive charring or melting, restoration can be attempted. However, soot deposits can be very difficult to remove from some types of painted surfaces, particularly when the paint is fragile or flaking or when the top surface of the paint binder has been damaged. Restoration typically involves the use of organic solvents to clean the surface, but these solvents may cause the paint layers to swell or leach out. Also, immersion of the surface or swabbing during solvent cleaning may move or remove pigment through mechanical contact, especially if the fire damage extends into the paint binder. A noncontact technique of removing organic deposits from surfaces was developed out of NASA research on the effects of oxygen atoms on various materials. Atomic oxygen is present in the atmosphere surrounding the Earth at the altitudes where satellites typically orbit. It can react chemically with surface coatings or deposits that contain carbon. In the reaction, the carbon is converted to carbon monoxide and some carbon dioxide. Water vapor is also a byproduct of the reaction if the surface contains carbon-hydrogen bonds. To study this reaction, NASA developed Earth-based facilities to produce atomic oxygen for material exposure and testing. A vacuum facility designed and built by the Electro-Physics Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to provide atomic oxygen over a large area for studying reactions in low Earth orbit has been used to successfully clean several full-size paintings. (This facility can accommodate paintings up to 1.5 by 2.1 m. The atomic oxygen plasma is produced between two large parallel aluminum plates using a radiofrequency power source operating at roughly 400 W. Atomic oxygen is

  3. Atomic Ordering Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity of Nanoalloys for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Loukrakpam, Rameshwori; Shan, Shiyao; Petkov, Valeri; Yang, Lefu; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2013-10-01

    For oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) over alloy electrocatalysts, the understanding of how the atomic arrangement of the metal species in the nanocatalysts is responsible for the catalytic enhancement is challenging for achieving better design and tailoring of nanoalloy catalysts. This paper reports results of an investigation of the atomic structures and the electrocatalytic activities of ternary and binary nanoalloys, aiming at revealing a fundamental insight into the unique atomic-scale structure-electrocatalytic activity relationship. PtIrCo catalyst and its binary counterparts (PtCo and PtIr) are chosen as a model system for this study. The effect of thermochemical treatment temperature on the atomic-scale structure of the catalysts was examined as a useful probe to the structure-activity correlation. The structural characterization of the binary and ternary nanoalloy catalysts was performed by combining surface sensitive techniques such as XPS and 3D atomic ordering sensitive techniques such as high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis (HE-XRD/PDFs) and computer simulations. The results show that the thermal treatment temperature tunes the nanoalloy’s atomic and chemical ordering in a different way depending on the chemical composition, leading to differences in the nanoalloy’s mass and specific activities. A unique structural tunability of the atomic ordering in a platinum-iridium-cobalt nanoalloy has been revealed for enhancing greatly the electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction, which has significant implication for rational design and nanoengineering of advanced catalysts for electrochemical energy conversion and storage.

  4. Angular distribution of photoelectrons from atomic oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. [in upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S. J.; Kennedy, D. J.; Starace, A. F.; Dill, D.

    1974-01-01

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons from atomic oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon are calculated. Both Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Slater (Herman-Skillman) wave functions are used for oxygen, and the agreement is excellent; thus only Hartree-Slater functions are used for carbon and nitrogen. The pitch-angle distribution of photoelectrons is discussed, and it is shown that previous approximations of energy-independent isotropic or sin squared theta distributions are at odds with the authors' results, which vary with energy. This variation with energy is discussed, as is the reliability of these calculations.

  5. Characterization of material surfaces exposed to atomic oxygen on space shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    Material samples prepared for exposure to ambient atomic oxygen encountered during space shuttle flights in low Earth orbit were characterized by the experimental techniques of ELLIPSOMETRY, ESCA, PIXE, and RBS. The first group of samples, which were exposed during the STS-8 mission, exhibited some very interesting results. The second group of samples, which are to be exposed during the upcoming STS-17 mission, have been especially prepared to yield quantitative information on the optical changes, oxygen solution, and surface layer formation on metal films of silver, gold, nickel, chromium, aluminum, platinum, and palladium evaporated onto optically polished silicon wafers.

  6. Total photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen from threshold to 44.3 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, G. C.; Samson, James A. R.

    1988-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the relative photoionization cross section of atomic oxygen for the production of singly charged ions over the 44.3-910.5-A wavelength range. Measurement of the contribution of multiple ionization to the cross sections has made possible the determination of total photoionization cross sections below 250 A. The series of autoionizing resonances leading to the 4P state of the oxygen ion has been observed using an ionization-type experimental procedure for the first time.

  7. Surface reactions of molecular and atomic oxygen with carbon phosphide films.

    PubMed

    Gorham, Justin; Torres, Jessica; Wolfe, Glenn; d'Agostino, Alfred; Fairbrother, D Howard

    2005-11-01

    The surface reactions of atomic and molecular oxygen with carbon phosphide films have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Carbon phosphide films were produced by ion implantation of trimethylphosphine into polyethylene. Atmospheric oxidation of carbon phosphide films was dominated by phosphorus oxidation and generated a carbon-containing phosphate surface film. This oxidized surface layer acted as an effective diffusion barrier, limiting the depth of phosphorus oxidation within the carbon phosphide film to < 3 nm. The effect of atomic oxygen (AO) exposure on this oxidized carbon phosphide layer was subsequently probed in situ using XPS. Initially AO exposure resulted in a loss of carbon atoms from the surface, but increased the surface concentration of phosphorus atoms as well as the degree of phosphorus oxidation. For more prolonged AO exposures, a highly oxidized phosphate surface layer formed that appeared to be inert toward further AO-mediated erosion. By utilizing phosphorus-containing hydrocarbon thin films, the phosphorus oxides produced during exposure to AO were found to desorb at temperatures >500 K under vacuum conditions. Results from this study suggest that carbon phosphide films can be used as AO-resistant surface coatings on polymers. PMID:16853637

  8. The Kinetics of Oxygen Atom Recombination in the Presence of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, C. S.; Garcia, R. M.; Pejakovic, D.; Kalogerakis, K.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding processes involving atomic oxygen is crucial for the study and modeling of composition, energy transfer, airglow, and transport dynamics in planetary atmospheres. Significant gaps and uncertainties exist in the understanding of these processes and often the relevant input from laboratory measurements is missing or outdated. We are conducting laboratory experiments to measure the rate coefficient for O + O + CO2 recombination and investigating the O2 excited states produced following the recombination. These measurements will provide key input for a quantitative understanding and reliable modeling of the atmospheres of the CO2 planets and their airglow. An excimer laser providing pulsed output at either 193 nm or 248 nm is employed to produce O atoms by dissociating carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, or ozone. In an ambient-pressure background of CO2, O atoms recombine in a time scale of a few milliseconds. Detection of laser-induced fluorescence at 845 nm following two-photon excitation near 226 nm monitors the decay of the oxygen atom population. From the temporal evolution of the signal the recombination rate coefficient is extracted. Fluorescence spectroscopy is used to detect the products of O-atom recombination and subsequent relaxation in CO2. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Planetary Astronomy Program. Rosanne Garcia’s participation was funded by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program.

  9. Efficient and durable oxygen reduction and evolution of a hydrothermally synthesized La(Co0.55Mn0.45)0.99O3-δ nanorod/graphene hybrid in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xiaoming; Goh, F. W. Thomas; Li, Bing; Hor, T. S. Andy; Zhang, Jie; Xiao, Peng; Wang, Xin; Zong, Yun; Liu, Zhaolin

    2015-05-01

    The increasing global energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuels have stimulated intense research on fuel cells and batteries. Oxygen electrocatalysis plays essential roles as the electrocatalytic reduction and evolution of di-oxygen are always the performance-limiting factors of these devices relying on oxygen electrochemistry. A novel perovskite with the formula La(Co0.55Mn0.45)0.99O3-δ (LCMO) is designed from molecular orbital principles. The hydrothermally synthesized LCMO nanorods have unique structural and chemical properties and possess high intrinsic activities for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The synergic covalent coupling between LCMO and NrGO enhances the bifunctional ORR and OER activities of the novel LCMO/NrGO hybrid catalyst. The ORR activity of LCMO/NrGO is comparable to the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst and its OER activity is competitive to the state-of-the-art Ir/C catalyst. LCMO/NrGO generally outperforms Pt/C and Ir/C with better bifunctional ORR and OER performance and operating durability. LCMO/NrGO represents a new class of low-cost, efficient and durable electrocatalysts for fuel cells, water electrolysers and batteries.The increasing global energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuels have stimulated intense research on fuel cells and batteries. Oxygen electrocatalysis plays essential roles as the electrocatalytic reduction and evolution of di-oxygen are always the performance-limiting factors of these devices relying on oxygen electrochemistry. A novel perovskite with the formula La(Co0.55Mn0.45)0.99O3-δ (LCMO) is designed from molecular orbital principles. The hydrothermally synthesized LCMO nanorods have unique structural and chemical properties and possess high intrinsic activities for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The synergic covalent coupling between LCMO and NrGO enhances the bifunctional ORR and OER activities of the novel LCMO/NrGO hybrid

  10. Preparation of a silanone through oxygen atom transfer to a stable cyclic silylene.

    PubMed

    Linden, Michael M; Reisenauer, Hans Peter; Gerbig, Dennis; Karni, Miriam; Schäfer, Annemarie; Müller, Thomas; Apeloig, Yitzhak; Schreiner, Peter R

    2015-10-12

    We report the evaporation of a stable cyclic silylene and its oxidation (with ozone or N2 O) through oxygen atom transfer to form the corresponding silanone under matrix isolation conditions. As uncomplexed silanones are rare owing to their very high reactivity, this method provides an alternative route to these sought-after molecules. The silanone, as well as a novel bicyclic silane with a bridgehead silicon atom derived from an intramolecular silylene CH bond insertion, were characterized by comparison of high-resolution infrared spectra with density functional theory (DFT) computations at the M06-2X/cc-pVDZ level of theory. PMID:26315924

  11. Enhancement of oxidative vaporization of chromium (III) oxide and chromium by oxygen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Rates of oxidative vaporization of Cr2O3 were found to be markedly enhanced in the presence of O atoms. Investigations were conducted over the temperature range 470 to 1520 K. For Cr2O3 the enhancement was about 10 to the 9th power at 820 K in oxygen containing 2.5 percent atoms. Rapid oxidative vaporization of bare chromium was observed below 1070 K, the rate being about one-half that of Cr2O3. Results are interpreted in terms of thermochemical analysis.

  12. Bonded Radii and the Contraction of the Electron Density of the Oxygen Atom by Bonded Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Gerald V.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Spackman, M. A.

    2013-02-21

    The bonded radii for more than 550 bonded pairs of atoms, comprising more than 50 crystals, determined from experimental and theoretical electron density distributions, are compared with the effective ionic, ri(M), and crystal radii, rc(M), for metal atoms, M, bonded to O atoms. At odds with the fixed ionic radius of 1.40 Å, assumed for the O atom in the compilation of the ionic radii, the bonded radius for the atom, rb(O), is not fixed but displays a relatively wide range of values as the O atom is progressively polarized by the M-O bonded interactions: as such, rb(O) decreases systematically from 1.40 Å (the Pauling radius of the oxide anion) as bond lengths decrease when bonded to an electropositive atom like sodium, to 0.64 Å (Bragg’s atomic radius of the O atom) when bonded to an electronegative atom like nitrogen. Both rb(M) and rb(O) increase in tandum with the increasing coordination number of the M atom. The bonded radii of the M atoms are highly correlated with both ri(M) and rc(M), but they both depart systematically from rb(M) and become smaller as the electronegativity of the M atom increases and the M-O bond length decreases. The well-developed correlations between both sets of radii and rb(M) testifies to the relative precision of both sets of radii and the fact that both sets are highly correlated the M-O bond 1 lengths. On the other hand, the progressive departure of rb(O) from the fixed ionic radius of the O atom with the increasing electronegativity of the bonded M atom indicates that any compilation of sets of ionic radii, assuming that the radius for the oxygen atom is fixed in value, is problematical and impacts on the accuracy of the resulting sets of ionic and crystal radii thus compiled. The assumption of a fixed O atom radius not only results in a negative ionic radii for several atoms, but it also results in values of rb(M) that are much as ~ 0.6 Å larger than the ri(M) and rc(M) values, respectively, particularly for the more

  13. Pinhole cameras as sensors for atomic oxygen in orbit: Application to attitude determination of the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Images produced by pinhole cameras using film sensitive to atomic oxygen provide information on the ratio of spacecraft orbital velocity to the most probable thermal speed of oxygen atoms, provided the spacecraft orientation is maintained stable relative to the orbital direction. Alternatively, information on the spacecraft attitude relative to the orbital velocity can be obtained, provided that corrections are properly made for thermal spreading and a corotating atmosphere. The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) orientation, uncorrected for a corotating atmosphere, was determined to be yawed 8.0 +/- 0.4 degrees from its nominal attitude, with an estimated +/- 0.35 degree oscillation in yaw. The integrated effect of inclined orbit and corotating atmosphere produces an apparent oscillation in the observed yaw direction, suggesting that the LDEF attitude measurement will indicate even better stability when corrected for a corotating atmosphere. The measured thermal spreading is consistent with major exposure occurring during high solar activity, which occurred late during the LDEF mission.

  14. The rate constant for the reaction of oxygen /3P/ atoms with dichlorine monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miziolek, A. W.; Molina, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    A fast flow discharge apparatus was used to measure the rate constant for the reaction of ground state oxygen atoms with dichlorine monoxide in the temperature range 236-295 K. The air afterflow technique (NO2 chemiluminescence) was used for detection of oxygen atoms. The Arrhenius expression for the rate constant was found to be 2.7 plus or minus 0.3 times 10 to the -11th power exp(-560 plus or minus 80/T) cu cm per molecule per sec. At 295 K the rate constant is 4.1 plus or minus 0.5 times 10 to the -12th power cu cm per molecule per sec.

  15. Results of apparent atomic oxygen reactions with spacecraft materials during shuttle flight STS-41G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimcik, D. G.; Maag, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of atomic oxygen interaction experienced by polymeric-based spacecraft materials is described. An experimental package (ACOMEX) flown on shuttle mission STS-41G carried out the investigation of advanced composite specimens such as carbon-epoxy and Kevlar-epoxy both with and without protective coatings added to thermal protective paints and films. Information on the exposure environment of the specimens was provided by a carbon coated atomic oxygen fluence monitor together with a photographic record. Mass loss measurements and photomicrographs made possible the analysis of the effect of interaction. After a total of about 38 hours of equivalent normal exposure at 225 km altitude the results showed that unprotected exposed surfaces exhibited severe erosion and mass loss with the possibility of seriously degrading structural and thermal performance. However, the specimens with a thin fluorocarbon overcoat showed promise of providing a protective barrier to the attack without altering the base properties of the material.

  16. Determination of atomic oxygen density and temperature of the thermosphere by remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ramesh D.; Harlow, Harry B.; Riehl, James P.

    1988-06-01

    Measurement of emission from the earth's atmosphere in the far infrared due to transitions between fine structure levels of the ground state (3P) of atomic oxygen at 63 microns, (3P1 to 3P2) and 147 microns (3P0 to 3P1) is proposed. These magnetic-dipole allowed transitions with long radiative lifetimes (about 3.2 h for the 63 micron transition and about 16.3 h for the 147 micron transition) are assumed to be in equilibrium with the local translational temperature. A one-dimensional onion-peel inversion of the limb emissions at 63 and 147 microns from a model atmosphere is shown to yield reasonable results for both the temperature and atomic oxygen density in the 90-250 km altitude range.

  17. Aurora Borealis: stochastic cellular automata simulations of the excited-state dynamics of oxygen atoms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seybold, P. G.; Kier, L. B.; Cheng, C.-K.

    1999-12-01

    Emissions from the 1S and 1D excited states of atomic oxygen play a prominent role in creating the dramatic light displays (aurora borealis) seen in the skies over polar regions of the Northern Hemisphere. A probabilistic asynchronous cellular automaton model described previously has been applied to the excited-state dynamics of atomic oxygen. The model simulates the time-dependent variations in ground (3P) and excited-state populations that occur under user-defined probabilistic transition rules for both pulse and steady-state conditions. Although each trial simulation is itself an independent "experiment", deterministic values for the excited-state emission lifetimes and quantum yields emerge as limiting cases for large numbers of cells or large numbers of trials. Stochastic variations in the lifetimes and emission yields can be estimated from repeated trials.

  18. Atomic Oxygen Sensors Based on Nanograin ZnO Films Prepared by Pulse Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yunfei; Chen Xuekang; Li Zhonghua; Zheng Kuohai; Wang Lanxi; Feng Zhanzu; Yang Shengsheng

    2009-01-05

    High-quality nanograin ZnO thin films were deposited on c-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by pulse laser deposition (PLD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the samples. The structural and morphological properties of ZnO films under different deposition temperature have been investigated before and after atomic oxygen (AO) treatment. XRD has shown that the intensity of the (0 0 2) peak increases and its FWHM value decreases after AO treatment. The AO sensing characteristics of nano ZnO film also has been investigated in a ground-based atomic oxygen simulation facility. The results show that the electrical conductivity of nanograin ZnO films decreases with increasing AO fluence and that the conductivity of the films can be recovered by heating.

  19. Ground radiation tests and flight atomic oxygen tests of ITO protective coatings for Galileo Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, Frank L.; Maag, Carl R.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation simulation tests (protons and electrons) were performed along with atomic oxygen flight tests aboard the Shuttle to space qualify the surface protective coatings. The results, which contributed to the selection of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated polyester as the material for the thermal blankets of the Galileo Spacecraft, are given here. Two candidate materials, polyester and Fluorglas, were radiation-tested to determine changes at simulated Jovian radiation levels. The polyester exhibited a smaller weight loss (2.8) than the Fluorglas (8.8 percent). Other changes of polyester are given. During low-earth orbit, prior to transit to Jupiter, the thermal blankets would be exposed to atomic oxygen. Samples of uncoated and ITO-coated polyesters were flown on the Shuttle. Qualitative results are given which indicated that the ITO coating protected the underlying polyester.

  20. Comparison of Hyperthermal Ground Laboratory Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yields With Those in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Dill, Grace C.; Loftus, Ryan J.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic oxygen erosion yields of 26 materials (all polymers except for pyrolytic graphite) were measured in two directed hyperthermal radio frequency (RF) plasma ashers operating at 30 or 35 kHz with air. The hyperthermal asher results were compared with thermal energy asher results and low Earth orbital (LEO) results from the Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 and 7 (MISSE 2 and 7) flight experiments. The hyperthermal testing was conducted to a significant portion of the atomic oxygen fluence similar polymers were exposed to during the MISSE 2 and 7 missions. Comparison of the hyperthermal asher prediction of LEO erosion yields with thermal energy asher erosion yields indicates that except for the fluorocarbon polymers of PTFE and FEP, the hyperthermal energy ashers are a much more reliable predictor of LEO erosion yield than thermal energy asher testing, by a factor of four.

  1. Oxidation of diamond films by atomic oxygen: High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpilman, Z.; Gouzman, I.; Grossman, E.; Akhvlediani, R.; Hoffman, A.

    2007-12-01

    Diamond surface oxidation by atomic oxygen, annealing up to ˜700°C, and in situ exposure to thermally activated hydrogen were studied by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). After atomic oxygen (AO) exposure, HREELS revealed peaks associated with CHx groups, carbonyl, ether, and peroxide-type species and strong quenching of the diamond optical phonon and its overtones. Upon annealing of the oxidized surfaces, the diamond optical phonon overtones at 300 and 450meV emerge and carbonyl and peroxide species gradually desorb. The diamond surface was not completely regenerated after annealing to ˜700°C and in situ exposure to thermally activated hydrogen, probably due to the irreversible deterioration of the surface by AO.

  2. Importance of atomic oxygen in preheating zone in plasma-assisted combustion of a steady-state premixed burner flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaima, K.; Akashi, H.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-09-01

    It is widely believed that electron impact processes play essential roles in plasma-assisted combustion. However, the concrete roles of high-energy electrons have not been fully understood yet. In this work, we examined the density of atomic oxygen in a premixed burner flame with the superposition of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The density of atomic oxygen in the reaction zone was not affected by the superposition of DBD, indicating that the amount of atomic oxygen produced by combustion reactions was much larger than that produced by electron impact processes. On the other hand, in the preheating zone, we observed high-frequency oscillation of the density of atomic oxygen at the timings of the pulsed current of DBD. The oscillation suggests the rapid consumption of additional atomic oxygen by combustion reactions. A numerical simulation using Chemkin indicates the shortened ignition delay time when adding additional atomic oxygen in the period of low-temperature oxidation. The present results reveals the importance of atomic oxygen, which is produced by the effect of high-energy electrons, in the preheating zone in plasma-assisted combustion of the steady-state premixed burner flame.

  3. The Effect of Ash and Inorganic Pigment Fill on the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers and Paints (ISMSE-12)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Simmons, Julie C.; de Groh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    Low atomic oxygen fluence (below 1x10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm) exposure of polymers and paints that have a small ash content and/or inorganic pigment fill does not cause a significant difference in erosion yield compared to unfilled (neat) polymers or paints. However, if the ash and/or inorganic pigment content is increased, the surface population of the inorganic content will begin to occupy a significant fraction of the surface area as the atomic oxygen exposure increases because the ash is not volatile and remains as a loosely attached surface layer. This results in a reduction of the flux of atomic oxygen reacting with the polymer and a reduction in the rate of erosion of the polymer remaining. This paper presents the results of ground laboratory and low Earth orbital (LEO) investigations to evaluate the fluence dependence of atomic oxygen erosion yields of polymers and paints having inorganic fill content.

  4. Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Predictive Tool for Spacecraft Polymers in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bank, Bruce A.; de Groh, Kim K.; Backus, Jane A.

    2008-01-01

    A predictive tool was developed to estimate the low Earth orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen erosion yield of polymers based on the results of the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers experiment flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2). The MISSE 2 PEACE experiment accurately measured the erosion yield of a wide variety of polymers and pyrolytic graphite. The 40 different materials tested were selected specifically to represent a variety of polymers used in space as well as a wide variety of polymer chemical structures. The resulting erosion yield data was used to develop a predictive tool which utilizes chemical structure and physical properties of polymers that can be measured in ground laboratory testing to predict the in-space atomic oxygen erosion yield of a polymer. The properties include chemical structure, bonding information, density and ash content. The resulting predictive tool has a correlation coefficient of 0.914 when compared with actual MISSE 2 space data for 38 polymers and pyrolytic graphite. The intent of the predictive tool is to be able to make estimates of atomic oxygen erosion yields for new polymers without requiring expensive and time consumptive in-space testing.

  5. Europa - Ultraviolet emissions and the possibility of atomic oxygen and hydrogen clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, F.-M.; Judge, D. L.; Carlson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Emission signals from Europa with wavelength below 800 A were detected by the Pioneer 10 ultraviolet photometer. In the present paper, improved procedures for data reduction are used to determine the spatial region as well as the intensity of the suggested emission sources. The observations indicate a cloud with a radius of about 1.5 Jupiter radii and an apparent brightness of approximately 10 rayleighs for a wavelength of 500 A. It is argued that neutral oxygen atoms, along with neutral hydrogen, are produced through dissociation of water ice on the surface of Europa by particle impact. Electron impact ionization excitation of oxygen atoms in the resulting cloud then gives rise to the observed emission. The present source brightness and cloud radius results are used to estimate an oxygen column density of the order of 10 trillion per sq cm, while the density of atomic hydrogen is at most 100 billion per sq cm and 1 trillion per sq cm for molecular hydrogen.

  6. Global atomic oxygen density derived from OGO-6 1304 A airglow measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, D. J.; Thomas, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for analysis of data on the atomic oxygen 1304-A triplet in the earth's dayglow between 400 and 1100 km which were obtained with the OGO-6 UV photometer during a 40-day period that included both quiet and disturbed conditions. Variations in the atomic oxygen column density are analyzed by obtaining best-fit models in which the 1304-A emission is produced by solar resonance scattering and photoelectron excitation. It is shown that the column density can be determined uniquely from the measured 1304-A intensity, provided the excitation processes can be described quantitatively. The values of the excitation parameters are determined directly from the data, and the deduced variations in column density over the daytime atmosphere are found to agree well with the Jacchia (1971) models. The latitudinal dependence of the column-density variations during a geomagnetic storm are discussed, the results are compared with recent measurements of the solar 1304-A fluxes as well as with calculations of the photoelectron excitation, and a method is suggested for determining the absolute atomic oxygen densities.

  7. Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Prediction for Spacecraft Polymers in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Backus, Jane A.; Manno, Michael V.; Waters, Deborah L.; Cameron, Kevin C.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to predict the atomic oxygen erosion yield of polymers based on their chemistry and physical properties has been only partially successful because of a lack of reliable low Earth orbit (LEO) erosion yield data. Unfortunately, many of the early experiments did not utilize dehydrated mass loss measurements for erosion yield determination, and the resulting mass loss due to atomic oxygen exposure may have been compromised because samples were often not in consistent states of dehydration during the pre-flight and post-flight mass measurements. This is a particular problem for short duration mission exposures or low erosion yield materials. However, as a result of the retrieval of the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2), the erosion yields of 38 polymers and pyrolytic graphite were accurately measured. The experiment was exposed to the LEO environment for 3.95 years from August 16, 2001 to July 30, 2005 and was successfully retrieved during a space walk on July 30, 2005 during Discovery s STS-114 Return to Flight mission. The 40 different materials tested (including Kapton H fluence witness samples) were selected specifically to represent a variety of polymers used in space as well as a wide variety of polymer chemical structures. The MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers experiment used carefully dehydrated mass measurements, as well as accurate density measurements to obtain accurate erosion yield data for high-fluence (8.43 1021 atoms/sq cm). The resulting data was used to develop an erosion yield predictive tool with a correlation coefficient of 0.895 and uncertainty of +/-6.3 10(exp -25)cu cm/atom. The predictive tool utilizes the chemical structures and physical properties of polymers to predict in-space atomic oxygen erosion yields. A predictive tool concept (September 2009 version) is presented which represents an improvement over an earlier (December 2008) version.

  8. Additives to reduce susceptibility of thermosets and thermoplastics to erosion from atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orwoll, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Polymeric materials have many attractive features such as light weight, high strength, and broad applicability in the form of films, fibers, and molded objects. In low earth orbit (LEO), these materials, when exposed on the exterior of the spacecraft, have the serious disadvantage of being susceptible to erosion by atomic oxygen (AO). AO is the most common chemical species at LEO altitudes. AO can be an extremely efficient oxidizing agent as was apparent from the extensive erosion of organic films exposed in STS missions. The mechanism for erosion involves the reaction of oxygen atoms at the surface of the substrate to form small molecular species. The susceptibility of polymeric materials varies with their chemical composition. Films with silicon atoms incorporated in the molecular structures have large coefficients of thermal expansion. This limits their utility. In an alternative approach additives were sought that mix physically and form a protective oxide layer when the film is exposed to AO. A large number of organic compounds containing silicon, germanium, or tin atoms were screened. Most were found to have very limited solubility in the polyetherimide (Ultem) films that were being protected from AO. However, one, bis(triphenyl tin) oxide, (BTO), is miscible in Ultem up to about 25 percent. Films of Ultem polyimide containing up to 25 wt percent BTO were prepared by evaporation of solvent from a solution of Ultem and BTO. The effects of AO on these films were simulated in the oxygen atmosphere of a radio frequency glow-discharge chamber. In the second part of this study, atoms were incorporated in epoxy resins. Experiments are in progress to measure the resistance of films of the cured epoxy to AO in the discharge chamber.

  9. High intensity 5 eV atomic oxygen source and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) simulation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.; Spangler, L. H.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Archuleta, F. A.; Leger, Lubert; Visentine, James

    1987-01-01

    An atomic oxygen exposure facility has been developed for studies of material degradation. The goal of these studies is to provide design criteria and information for the manufacture of long life (20 to 30 years) construction materials for use in LEO. The studies that are being undertaken using the facility will provide: absolute reaction cross sections for use in engineering design problems; formulations of reaction mechanisms; and calibration of flight hardware (mass spectrometers, etc.) in order to directly relate experiments performed in LEO to ground based investigations. The facility consists of: (1) a CW laser sustained discharge source of O atoms having a variable energy up to 5 eV and an intensity between 10(15) and 10(17) O atoms s(-1) cm(-2); (2) an atomic beam formation and diagnostics system consisting of various stages of differential pumping, a mass spectrometer detector, and a time of flight analyzer; (3) a spinning rotor viscometer for absolute O atom flux measurements; and (4) provision for using the system for calibration of actual flight instruments. Surface analysis equipment is available for the characterization of material surfaces before and after exposure to O atoms.

  10. Twilight rocket measurements of high-latitude atomic oxygen density during the DYANA campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulwick, J. C.; Ratkowski, A. J.; Makhlouf, U.

    1994-12-01

    During the DYANA (DYnamics Adapted Network for the Atmosphere) campaign, a rocket containing a resonance fluorescence experiment for measurement of atomic oxygen concentrations was launced at twilight-dawn from ESRANGE, Kiruna, Sweden in March 1990. The measured atomic oxygen concetration rose very sharply near 80 km to about 10(exp 11) atoms/cu cm, achieved a peak value of 3 x 10(exp 11) atoms/cu cm between 90 to 105 km, and decreased with increasing rocket altitude to about 155 km where the instrument's noise level was reached. In addition, ground-based, near-infrared radiometric and spectral measurements of the mesospheric and lower thermospheric hydroxyl (OH) airglow emissions were also obtained during the night up to the time of rocket launch. We have used least-squares spectral fitting procedures to obtain the OH Meinel (3-1) band intensities and accurate (+/-2.5K) rotational temperatures from individual scans. The band intensities show considerable structure throughout the night, dropping sharply by about a factor of 3 during sunrise when the rocket was launched. The rotational temperatures were consistently around 225 K throughout the night and during the rocket flight. During the MAP/WINE campaign in February 1984, similar measurements using identical rocket-borne and ground-based techniques were made at night from ESRANGE. In this paper, the DYANA and MAP/WINE measurements are inter-compared and discussed and further compared with model calculations.

  11. Interaction of atomic oxygen with solid surfaces at orbital altitudes (A0114)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Peters, P. N.

    1984-01-01

    The basic approach to this experiment is to expose a wide variety of material surfaces to the atomic flux in orbit. The experiment is passive and depends on preflight and postflight measurements of the test surfaces in the laboratory. The experiment will also include a reflectometer device to measure atomic beam reflection angles and thus momentum accommodations, and a unique passive spacecraft attitude sensor. Samples consisting of solid disks or thin film coatings on substrate disks will be mounted in a panel. The face of this panel will be flown on Long Duration Exposure Facility normal to the incident stream of oxygen atoms. Each disk will have part of its front surface masked so exposure to the atomic-oxygen reaction will be limited to selected areas, the shadowed areas being used as control surfaces in the measurements. A typical sample is an optically flat quartz disk overcoated with a film of the material of interest. These include Ag, Au, Pt, Nb, Ni, Al, C, Si, Ge, LiF, and a few engineering materials. Some materials for which the expected removal rate is high, such as carbon, will be solid disks rather than thin films.

  12. Oxygen chemisorption effects on the spatial atomic distribution of CuNi, CuPd and NiPt nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montejano-Carrizales, J. M.; Morán-López, J. L.

    1993-05-01

    The spatial atomic distribution in cubo-octahedral CuNi, CuPd and NiPt clusters with a total number of atoms, N = 147, in the presence of chemisorbed oxygen, is studied. The equilibrium atomic configuration is obtained by calculating the free energy within the regular solution model and by assuming that the surface of the cluster is covered by oxygen atoms. Depending on the interaction between oxygen and the cluster components, the atomic distribution in the cluster can be completely modified as compared to the case of clusters with a clean surface. We present result for the temperature dependence of the concentration at the different shells around the central atom.

  13. Efficient and durable oxygen reduction and evolution of a hydrothermally synthesized La(Co0.55Mn0.45)0.99O3-δ nanorod/graphene hybrid in alkaline media.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaoming; Goh, F W Thomas; Li, Bing; Hor, T S Andy; Zhang, Jie; Xiao, Peng; Wang, Xin; Zong, Yun; Liu, Zhaolin

    2015-05-21

    The increasing global energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuels have stimulated intense research on fuel cells and batteries. Oxygen electrocatalysis plays essential roles as the electrocatalytic reduction and evolution of di-oxygen are always the performance-limiting factors of these devices relying on oxygen electrochemistry. A novel perovskite with the formula La(Co0.55Mn0.45)0.99O3-δ (LCMO) is designed from molecular orbital principles. The hydrothermally synthesized LCMO nanorods have unique structural and chemical properties and possess high intrinsic activities for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The synergic covalent coupling between LCMO and NrGO enhances the bifunctional ORR and OER activities of the novel LCMO/NrGO hybrid catalyst. The ORR activity of LCMO/NrGO is comparable to the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst and its OER activity is competitive to the state-of-the-art Ir/C catalyst. LCMO/NrGO generally outperforms Pt/C and Ir/C with better bifunctional ORR and OER performance and operating durability. LCMO/NrGO represents a new class of low-cost, efficient and durable electrocatalysts for fuel cells, water electrolysers and batteries. PMID:25921031

  14. XPS study of the effect of hydrocarbon contamination on polytetrafluoroethylene (teflon) exposed to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Wydeven, Theodore; Cormia, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of hydrocarbon contamination on the surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) markedly affects the oxygen uptake, and hence the wettability, of this polymer when exposed to an oxygen plasma. As revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, the oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C) for such a polymer can increase sharply, and correspondingly the fluorine-to-carbon ratio (F/C) can decrease sharply, at very short exposure times; at longer times, however, such changes in the O/C and F/C ratios reverse direction, and these ratios then assume values similar to those of the unexposed PTFE. The greater the extent of hydrocarbon contamination in the PTFE, the larger are the amplitudes of the 'spikes' in the O/C- and F/C-exposure time plots. In contrast, a pristine PTFE experiences a very small, monotonic increase of surface oxidation or O/C ratio with time of exposure to oxygen atoms, while the F/C ratio is virtually unchanged from that of the unexposed polymer (2.0). Unless the presence of adventitious hydrocarbon is taken into account, anomalous surface properties relating to polymer adhesion may be improperly ascribed to PTFE exposed to an oxygen plasma.

  15. Global Dynamics of Hot Atomic Oxygen in Mars' Upper Atmosphere and Comparison with Recent Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V.; Bougher, S. W.

    2012-12-01

    The production of energetic particles in Mars's upper thermosphere and exosphere results in the formation of hot atom coronae. Dissociative recombination (DR) of O2+ ion is the dominant source of the production of hot atomic oxygen and the most important reaction for the exosphere on Mars, which occurs mostly deep in the dayside thermosphere of Mars. In this investigation, we have carried out the study of the global dynamics of energetic particles in Mars' upper atmosphere using our newly developed self-consistent Monte-Carlo model. The calculated total global escapes of hot oxygen are presented for different solar activities (solar maximum and minimum) and Martian seasons (aphelion, equinox, and perihelion). To describe self-consistently the exosphere and the upper thermosphere, a combination of our 3D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model [Valeille, A., Combi, M., Bougher, S., Tenishev, V., Nagy, A., 2009. J. Geophys. Res. 114, E11006. doi:10.1029/2009JE003389] and the 3D Mars Thermosphere General Circulation Model (MTGCM) [Bougher, S.W., Bell, J.M., Murphy, J.R., Lopez-Valverde, M.A., Withers, P.G., 2006. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024059. L02203] is used. Profiles of density and temperature, atmospheric loss rates, and return fluxes are studied using the model for the cases considered. Progress in updating the model physics is also described. Along with comparisons of our DSMC model outputs with those from other recent exosphere model studies, we present a comparison of our model results with the derived neutral oxygen density from atomic oxygen emission at 1304Å that was detected by Alice instrument on board European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft [Feldman, P., Steffl, A., Parker, J, A'Hearn, M., Bertaux, J., Stern, S., Weaver, H., Slater, D., Versteeg, M., Throop, H., Cunningham, N., Feaga, L., 2011. Icarus. 214, 2, 394-399, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.06.013].

  16. Large-scale circulation of atomic oxygen in the MLT region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, G.; Liu, G.; Roble, R.

    The atomic oxygen green line airglow at 557.7 nm, originating from the O(1S) level, has a long history of observation, beginning with John Strutt (Lord Rayleigh IV). He drew attention to its variability, a topic that has puzzled successive investigators for decades. More recently, global observations of the oxygen airglow, interpreted with the help of global circulation models have provided some understanding. Zonally averaged satellite observations clearly demonstrate the dynamical influence of tides on the daily variations. Global maps for a single day show a longitudinal variation results from planetary waves. For a single ground-station, the observations are influenced by both, involving variability over days or weeks. During the course of the year both annual and semi-annual components of the variation have been identified. In the present investigation these are studied using data from the WIND Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, and model results from the TIME-GCM model. The annual variation can be described in terms of a rapid buildup of atomic oxygen in the fall, manifested as high airglow levels at polar latitudes in early winter that decay gradually during the winter period, and are abruptly terminated by a strong atomic oxygen depletion in spring that has been called the springtime transition. The summer values remain low until the sudden autumn rise that can be called the autumnal transition. However, the observations show significant differences between the northern and southern hemispheres. The semi-annual variation dominates at latitudes below 30 and appears to be the result of changes in the mixing intensity that may be linked to the semi-annual variation in the amplitude of the diurnal tide.

  17. Chemical reaction of atomic oxygen with evaporated films of copper, part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, A. T.; Williams, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Evaporated copper films were exposed to an atomic oxygen flux of 1.4 x 10(exp 17) atoms/sq cm per sec at temperatures in the range 285 to 375 F (140 to 191 C) for time intervals between 2 and 50 minutes. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) was used to determine the thickness of the oxide layers formed and the ratio of the number of copper to oxygen atoms in the layers. Oxide film thicknesses ranged from 50 to 3000 A (0.005 to 0.3 microns, or equivalently, 5 x 10(exp -9) to 3 x 10(exp -7); it was determined that the primary oxide phase was Cu2O. The growth law was found to be parabolic (L(t) varies as t(exp 1/2)), in which the oxide thickness L(t) increases as the square root of the exposure time t. The analysis of the data is consistent with either of the two parabolic growth laws. (The thin-film parabolic growth law is based on the assumption that the process is diffusion controlled, with the space charge within the growing oxide layer being negligible. The thick-film parabolic growth law is also based on a diffusion controlled process, but space-charge neutrality prevails locally within very thick oxides.) In the absence of a voltage measurement across the growing oxide, a distinction between the two mechanisms cannot be made, nor can growth by the diffusion of neutral atomic oxygen be entirely ruled out. The activation energy for the reaction is on the order of 1.1 eV (1.76 x 10(exp -19) joule, or equivalently, 25.3 kcal/mole).

  18. Laboratory Measurement of OH(υ = 2) Collisional Deactivation by Oxygen Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, J.; Kalogerakis, K. S.; Copeland, R. A.

    2001-05-01

    Vibrationally excited hydroxyl radicals (υ = 6-9) are generated in the 80 to 100 km altitude range of the Earth's atmosphere by the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ozone. Low vibrational levels (υ < 5) are populated from the higher vibrational levels via collisions with molecular oxygen. For these low vibrational levels molecular oxygen relaxation is inefficient (1.3 - 17 x10-13 cm3-s-1 at room temperature [1]) and collisions with oxygen atoms may play an important role in the collisional lifetime in the atmosphere. Given the importance of O-atom collisions, we have developed an experimental approach and performed experiments on the collisional removal of OH(υ = 2) with O-atoms. In our experimental approach, we use the output of a pulsed excimer laser at 248 nm to photodissociate ozone in an O3/H2O/N2 mixture and the wavelength tunable output of a frequency-double Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser to probe the transient population of OH in the υ = 0, 1, and 2 vibrational levels using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Vibrationally excited OH molecules are produced, in vibrational levels up to and including υ = 2, through the exothermic reaction of O(1D) with water. By adjusting the composition of the O3/H2O/N2 mixture and by varying the 248 nm laser fluence to control the ozone dissociation fraction, the dominant relaxation partner can be varied systematically from ozone and water to atomic oxygen. We can dissociate > 90% of the ozone in the beam with easily obtainable laser fluences, generating copious amounts of O atoms. Using this method we obtained a preliminary rate constant of 4 \\pm 1 x10-11 cm3-s-1 for removal of OH(υ = 2) with O atoms. This rate constant is only slightly larger than the value of 3.3 \\pm 0.7 x10-11 cm3-s-1 for the reaction of OH(υ = 0) with O atoms to generate H atoms and oxygen molecules [2]. This weak dependence of OH loss rates on vibrational excitation is in contrast to previous measurements indicating a factor of 3 to 5 increase

  19. Surface Passivation of MoO₃ Nanorods by Atomic Layer Deposition toward High Rate Durable Li Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, B; Shahid, Muhammad; Nagaraju, D H; Anjum, D H; Hedhili, Mohamed N; Alshareef, H N

    2015-06-24

    We demonstrate an effective strategy to overcome the degradation of MoO3 nanorod anodes in lithium (Li) ion batteries at high-rate cycling. This is achieved by conformal nanoscale surface passivation of the MoO3 nanorods by HfO2 using atomic layer deposition (ALD). At high current density such as 1500 mA/g, the specific capacity of HfO2-coated MoO3 electrodes is 68% higher than that of bare MoO3 electrodes after 50 charge/discharge cycles. After 50 charge/discharge cycles, HfO2-coated MoO3 electrodes exhibited specific capacity of 657 mAh/g; on the other hand, bare MoO3 showed only 460 mAh/g. Furthermore, we observed that HfO2-coated MoO3 electrodes tend to stabilize faster than bare MoO3 electrodes because nanoscale HfO2 layer prevents structural degradation of MoO3 nanorods. Additionally, the growth temperature of MoO3 nanorods and the effect of HfO2 layer thickness was studied and found to be important parameters for optimum battery performance. The growth temperature defines the microstructural features and HfO2 layer thickness defines the diffusion coefficient of Li-ions through the passivation layer to the active material. Furthermore, ex situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were carried out to explain the capacity retention mechanism after HfO2 coating. PMID:26039512

  20. Atomic Oxygen Abundance in Molecular Clouds: Absorption Toward Sagittarius B2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lis, D. C.; Keene, Jocelyn; Phillips, T. G.; Schilke, P.; Werner, M. W.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2001-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution (approximately 35 km/s) spectra toward the molecular cloud Sgr B2 at 63 micrometers, the wavelength of the ground-state fine-structure line of atomic oxygen (O(I)), using the ISO-LWS instrument. Four separate velocity components are seen in the deconvolved spectrum, in absorption against the dust continuum emission of Sgr B2. Three of these components, corresponding to foreground clouds, are used to study the O(I) content of the cool molecular gas along the line of sight. In principle, the atomic oxygen that produces a particular velocity component could exist in any, or all, of three physically distinct regions: inside a dense molecular cloud, in the UV illuminated surface layer (PDR) of a cloud, and in an atomic (H(I)) gas halo. For each of the three foreground clouds, we estimate, and subtract from the observed O(I) column density, the oxygen content of the H(I) halo gas, by scaling from a published high-resolution 21 cm spectrum. We find that the remaining O(I) column density is correlated with the observed (13)CO column density. From the slope of this correlation, an average [O(I)]/[(13)CO] ratio of 270 +/- 120 (3-sigma) is derived, which corresponds to [O(I)]/[(13)CO] = 9 for a CO to (13)CO abundance ratio of 30. Assuming a (13)CO abundance of 1x10(exp -6) with respect to H nuclei, we derive an atomic oxygen abundance of 2.7x10(exp -4) in the dense gas phase, corresponding to a 15% oxygen depletion compared to the diffuse ISM in our Galactic neighborhood. The presence of multiple, spectrally resolved velocity components in the Sgr B2 absorption spectrum allows, for the first time, a direct determination of the PDR contribution to the O(I) column density. The PDR regions should contain O(I) but not (13)CO, and would thus be expected to produce an offset in the O(I)-(13)CO correlation. Our data do not show such an offset, suggesting that within our beam O(I) is spatially coexistent with the molecular gas, as traced by (13)CO

  1. Spatial Resolution of Combined Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy for Atomic Oxygen Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Makoto; Nakajima, Daisuke

    2015-09-01

    For developments of thermal protection system, atomic oxygen plays important role. However, its measurement method has not been established because the pressure in front of TPS test materials is as high as a few kPa. Our group proposed combined wavelength modulation and integrated output spectroscopies based on the forbidden transition at OI 636 nm to measure the ground-state number densities. In this study, WM-ICOS system is developed and applied to a microwave oxygen plasma to evaluate measurable region. As a result, the estimated number density by ICOS could be measured as low as 1021 m21. For the condition, WM-ICOS was applied. The signal to noise ratio of the 2f signal was 40.4. Then, the sensitivity was improved about 26. This result corresponding to the measurement limit of the partial atomic oxygen pressure of 250 Pa. The sensitivity of WM-ICOS was found to enough to diagnose the shock layer in high enthalpy flows. However, the spatial resolution was as large as 8 mm. The size of the beam pattern depends on the cavity length, robust ness of the cavity and accuracy of the cavity alignment. In this presentation, the relationship among these parameters will be discussed.

  2. Determination of Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Effective Atomic Oxygen Fluence for DC 93?500 Silicone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Ma, David

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to calibrate the ground-to-space effective atomic oxygen fluence for DC 93-500 silicone in a thermal energy electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) oxygen plasma facility. Silicones, commonly used spacecraft materials, do not chemically erode with atomic oxygen attack like other organic materials but form an oxidized hardened silicate surface layer. Therefore, the effective atomic oxygen fluence in a ground test facility should not be determined based on mass loss measurements, as they are with organic polymers. A technique has been developed at the Glenn Research Center to determine the equivalent amount of atomic oxygen exposure in an ECR ground test facility to produce the same degree of atomic oxygen damage as in space. The approach used was to compare changes in the surface hardness of ground test (ECR) exposed DC 93-500 silicone with DC 93-500 exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen as part of a shuttle flight experiment. The ground to in-space effective atomic oxygen fluence correlation was determined based on the fluence in the ECR source that produced the same hardness for the fluence in-space. Nanomechanical hardness versus contact depth measurements were obtained for five ECR exposed DC 93-500 samples (ECR exposed for 18 to 40 hrs, corresponding to Kapton effective fluences of 4.2 x 10(exp 20) to 9.4 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm, respectively) and for space exposed DC 93-500 from the Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials III (EOIM III) shuttle flight experiment, exposed to LEO atomic oxygen for 2.3 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. Pristine controls were also evaluated. A ground-to-space correlation value was determined based on correlation values for four contact depths (150, 200, 250, and 300 nm), which represent the near surface depth data. The results indicate that the Kapton effective atomic oxygen fluence in the ECR facility needs to be 2.64 times higher than in LEO to replicate equivalent exposure damage in the

  3. THERMAL REACTIONS OF OXYGEN ATOMS WITH ALKENES AT LOW TEMPERATURES ON INTERSTELLAR DUST

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Michael D.; Price, Stephen D. E-mail: s.d.price@ucl.ac.uk

    2011-11-10

    Laboratory experiments show that the thermal heterogeneous reactions of oxygen atoms may contribute to the synthesis of epoxides in interstellar clouds. The data set also indicates that the contribution of these pathways to epoxide formation, in comparison to non-thermal routes, is likely to be strongly temperature dependent. Our results indicate that an increased abundance of epoxides, relative to the corresponding aldehydes, could be an observational signature of a significant contribution to molecular oxidation via thermal O atom reactions with alkenes. Specifically surface science experiments show that both C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O and C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O are readily formed from reactions of ethene and propene molecules with thermalized oxygen atoms at temperatures in the range of 12-90 K. It is clear from our experiments that these reactions, on a graphite surface, proceed with significantly reduced reaction barriers compared with those operating in the gas phase. For both the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + O and the C{sub 3}H{sub 6} + O reactions, the surface reaction barriers we determine are reduced by approximately an order of magnitude compared with the barriers in the gas phase. The modeling of our experimental results, which determines these reaction barriers, also extracts desorption energies and rate coefficients for the title reactions. Our results clearly show that the major product from the O + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} reaction is ethylene oxide, an epoxide.

  4. Thermal Reactions of Oxygen Atoms with Alkenes at Low Temperatures on Interstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Michael D.; Price, Stephen D.

    2011-11-01

    Laboratory experiments show that the thermal heterogeneous reactions of oxygen atoms may contribute to the synthesis of epoxides in interstellar clouds. The data set also indicates that the contribution of these pathways to epoxide formation, in comparison to non-thermal routes, is likely to be strongly temperature dependent. Our results indicate that an increased abundance of epoxides, relative to the corresponding aldehydes, could be an observational signature of a significant contribution to molecular oxidation via thermal O atom reactions with alkenes. Specifically surface science experiments show that both C2H4O and C3H6O are readily formed from reactions of ethene and propene molecules with thermalized oxygen atoms at temperatures in the range of 12-90 K. It is clear from our experiments that these reactions, on a graphite surface, proceed with significantly reduced reaction barriers compared with those operating in the gas phase. For both the C2H4 + O and the C3H6 + O reactions, the surface reaction barriers we determine are reduced by approximately an order of magnitude compared with the barriers in the gas phase. The modeling of our experimental results, which determines these reaction barriers, also extracts desorption energies and rate coefficients for the title reactions. Our results clearly show that the major product from the O + C2H4 reaction is ethylene oxide, an epoxide.

  5. Doping SrTiO3 supported FeSe by excess atoms and oxygen vacancies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shanavas, Kavungal Veedu; Singh, David J.

    2015-07-24

    Photoemission studies of FeSe monolayer films on SrTiO3 substrate have shown electronic structures that deviate from pristine FeSe, consistent with heavy electron doping. With the help of first-principles calculations we studied the effect of excess Fe and Se atoms on the monolayer and oxygen vacancies in the substrate in order to understand the reported Fermi surface in this system. We find that both excess Fe and Se atoms prefer the same adsorption site above the bottom Se atoms on the monolayer. The adsorbed Fe is strongly magnetic and contributes electrons to the monolayer, while excess Se hybridizes with the monolayermore » Fe-d states and partially opens a gap just above the Fermi energy. We also find that the two-dimensional electron gas generated by the oxygen vacancies is partly transferred to the monolayer and can potentially suppress the hole pockets around the Γ point. Furthermore, both O vacancies in the SrTiO3 substrate and excess Fe over the monolayer can provide high levels of electron doping.« less

  6. Submolecular Imaging by Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy with an Oxygen Atom Rigidly Connected to a Metallic Probe.

    PubMed

    Mönig, Harry; Hermoso, Diego R; Díaz Arado, Oscar; Todorović, Milica; Timmer, Alexander; Schüer, Simon; Langewisch, Gernot; Pérez, Rubén; Fuchs, Harald

    2016-01-26

    In scanning probe microscopy, the imaging characteristics in the various interaction channels crucially depend on the chemical termination of the probe tip. Here we analyze the contrast signatures of an oxygen-terminated copper tip with a tetrahedral configuration of the covalently bound terminal O atom. Supported by first-principles calculations we show how this tip termination can be identified by contrast analysis in noncontact atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy (NC-AFM, STM) on a partially oxidized Cu(110) surface. After controlled tip functionalization by soft indentations of only a few angstroms in an oxide nanodomain, we demonstrate that this tip allows imaging an organic molecule adsorbed on Cu(110) by constant-height NC-AFM in the repulsive force regime, revealing its internal bond structure. In established tip functionalization approaches where, for example, CO or Xe is deliberately picked up from a surface, these probe particles are only weakly bound to the metallic tip, leading to lateral deflections during scanning. Therefore, the contrast mechanism is subject to image distortions, artifacts, and related controversies. In contrast, our simulations for the O-terminated Cu tip show that lateral deflections of the terminating O atom are negligible. This allows a detailed discussion of the fundamental imaging mechanisms in high-resolution NC-AFM experiments. With its structural rigidity, its chemically passivated state, and a high electron density at the apex, we identify the main characteristics of the O-terminated Cu tip, making it a highly attractive complementary probe for the characterization of organic nanostructures on surfaces. PMID:26605698

  7. Global Distribution of Atomic Oxygen in the Mesopause Region as Derived from SCIAMACHY O(1S) Green Line Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, M.; Zhu, Y.; Ern, M.; Ungermann, J.; Riese, M.

    2014-12-01

    A new dataset of atomic oxygen abundance in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere is presented. The data is derived from the nighttime atomic oxygen green line limb emission measurements of the SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY) instrument on the European Environmental Satellite (Envisat). The temporal coverage is October 2002 until April 2012 and the latitudinal extent is 50S to 80N at 10pm local time. This dataset is compared to other satellite datasets, in particular to recently published data of SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) and the Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter (MSIS) model. SCIAMACHY atomic oxygen peak abundances are typically 3-6 1e11 mol/cm3 at the atomic oxygen maximum region, depending on latitude and season. These values are similar to previous values based on chemiluminescence measurements of the atomic oxygen three body recombination reaction, but at least 30% lower than atomic oxygen abundances obtained from SABER.

  8. DURABILITY OF VERY LOW CAPACITY PRESSURE ATOMIZED FUEL NOZZLES USED WITH LOW FIRING RATE RESIDENTIAL OIL BURNERS.

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD,R.J.

    2007-05-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), working for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has conducted a preliminary evaluation of the potential of very low fuel input capacity Simplex type pressure atomizing nozzles for use with oil burners designed for residential boilers, furnaces and water heaters. These nozzles under suitable conditions can be sufficiently reliable to enable new heating system designs. This would allow for the design of heating appliances that match the smaller load demands of energy efficient homes built with modern components and architectural systems designed to minimize energy use. When heating systems are installed with excessive capacity, oversized by three to four times the load, the result is a loss of up to ten percent as compared to the rated appliance efficiency. The use of low capacity nozzles in systems designed to closely match the load can thereby result in significant energy savings. BNL investigated the limitations of low flow rate nozzles and designed long-term experiments to see if ways could be determined that would be beneficial to long-term operation at low input capacities without failures. In order to maximize the potential for success the best possible industry practices available were employed. Low flow rate nozzles primarily fail by blockage or partial blockage of internal fuel flow passages inside the nozzle. To prevent any contaminants from entering the nozzle BNL investigated the geometry and critical dimensions and the current sate of the art of fuel filter design. Based on this investigation it was concluded that the best available filters should be more than capable of filtering contaminants from the fuel prior to entering the oil burner itself. This position was indeed validated based on the long-term trials conducted under this study no evidence resulted to change our position. It is highly recommended that these filters rated at 10 microns and with large filter capacity (surface area), should be used

  9. On a new method for chemical production of iodine atoms in a chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, Tamara L; Kuznetsova, S V; Maslov, A I; Sorokin, Vadim N

    2004-11-30

    A new method is proposed for generating iodine atoms in a chemical oxygen-iodine laser. The method is based on a branched chain reaction of dissociation of the alkyl iodide CH{sub 3}I in a medium of singlet oxygen and chlorine. (active media)

  10. Femtosecond, two-photon laser-induced-fluorescence imaging of atomic oxygen in an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jacob B.; Sands, Brian L.; Kulatilaka, Waruna D.; Roy, Sukesh; Scofield, James; Gord, James R.

    2015-06-01

    Femtosecond, two-photon-absorption laser-induced-fluorescence (fs-TALIF) spectroscopy is employed to measure space- and time-resolved atomic-oxygen distributions in a nanosecond, repetitively pulsed, externally grounded, atmospheric-pressure plasma jet flowing helium with a variable oxygen admixture. The high-peak-intensity, low-average-energy femtosecond pulses result in increased TALIF signal with reduced photolytic inferences. This allows 2D imaging of absolute atomic-oxygen number densities ranging from 5.8   ×   1015 to 2.0   ×   1012cm-3 using a cooled CCD with an external intensifier. Xenon is used for signal and imaging-system calibrations to quantify the atomic-oxygen fluorescence signal. Initial results highlight a transition in discharge morphology from annular to filamentary, corresponding with a change in plasma chemistry from ozone to atomic oxygen production, as the concentration of oxygen in the feed gas is changed at a fixed voltage-pulse-repetition rate. In this configuration, significant concentrations of reactive oxygen species may be remotely generated by sustaining an active discharge beyond the confines of the dielectric capillary, which may benefit applications that require large concentrations of reactive oxygen species such as material processing or biomedical devices.

  11. A Comparison of Atomic Oxygen Degradation in Low Earth Orbit and in a Plasma Etcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Park, Gloria

    1997-01-01

    In low Earth orbit (LEO) significant degradation of certain materials occurs from exposure to atomic oxygen (AO). Orbital opportunities to study this degradation for specific materials are limited and expensive. While plasma etchers are commonly used in ground-based studies because of their low cost and convenience, the environment produced in an etcher chamber differs greatly from the LEO environment. Because of the differences in environment, the validity of using etcher data has remained an open question. In this paper, degradation data for 22 materials from the orbital experiment Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) are compared with data from EOIM-3 control specimens exposed in a typical plasma etcher. This comparison indicates that, when carefully considered, plasma etcher results can produce order-of-magnitude estimates of orbital degradation. This allows the etcher to be used to screen unacceptable materials from further, more expensive tests.

  12. Atomic-scale modeling of particle size effects for the oxygen reduction reaction on Pt.

    SciTech Connect

    Tritsaris, G. A.; Greeley, J.; Rossmeisl, J.; Norskov, J. K.

    2011-07-01

    We estimate the activity of the oxygen reduction reaction on platinum nanoparticles of sizes of practical importance. The proposed model explicitly accounts for surface irregularities and their effect on the activity of neighboring sites. The model reproduces the experimentally observed trends in both the specific and mass activities for particle sizes in the range between 2 and 30 nm. The mass activity is calculated to be maximized for particles of a diameter between 2 and 4 nm. Our study demonstrates how an atomic-scale description of the surface microstructure is a key component in understanding particle size effects on the activity of catalytic nanoparticles.

  13. Effects on optical systems from interactions with oxygen atoms in low earth orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, P. N.; Swann, J. T.; Gregory, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications of material surface properties due to interactions with ambient atomic oxygen have been observed on surfaces facing the orbital direction in low earth orbits. Some effects are very damaging to surface optical properties while some are more subtle and even beneficial. Most combustible materials are heavily etched, and some coatings, such as silver and osmium, are seriously degraded or removed as volatile oxides. The growth of oxide films on metals and semiconductors considered stable in dry air was measured. Material removal, surface roughness, reflectance, and optical densities are reported. Effects of temperature, contamination, and overcoatings are noted.

  14. Use of an Atmospheric Atomic Oxygen Beam for Restoration of Defaced Paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Karla, Margaret; Norris, Mary Jo; Real, William A.; Haytas, Christy A.

    1999-01-01

    An atmospheric atomic oxygen beam has been found to be effective in removing organic materials through oxidation that are typical of graffiti or other contaminant defacements which may occur to the surfaces of paintings. The technique, developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, is portable and was successfully used at the Carnegie Museum of Art to remove a lipstick smudge from the surface of porous paint on the Andy Warhol painting "Bathtub." This process was also evaluated for suitability to remove felt tip and ball point ink graffiti from paper, gesso on canvas and cotton canvas.

  15. Material Selection Guidelines to Limit Atomic Oxygen Effects on Spacecraft Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dooling, D.; Finckenor, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides guidelines in selecting materials for satellites and space platforms, designed to operate within the Low-Earth orbit environment, which limit the effects of atomic oxygen interactions with spacecraft surfaces. This document should be treated as an introduction rather than a comprehensive guide since analytical and flight technologies continue to evolve, flight experiments are conducted as primary or piggyback opportunities arise, and our understanding of materials interactions and protection methods grows. The reader is urged to consult recent literature and current web sites containing information about research and flight results.

  16. Atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation mission total exposures for LDEF experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Rousslang, Ken W.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical treatment of the effect of thermal molecular velocity on spacecraft atomic oxygen (AO) flux is presented. The analysis leads to a closed form equation that incorporates the effect of atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, and incidence angle on AO flux. The effects of atmospheric rotation, solar activity, and geomagnetic index on AO flux are also included on the computer model. Data developed with the model are presented for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The results incorporate variations in the defining environmental and orbital parameters of the spacecraft over its six year orbital flight. Cumulative ultraviolet solar and albedo exposures were calculated .

  17. Cu(ii)-catalyzed enantioselective oxygen atom transfer from oxaziridine to oxindole derivatives with chiral phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Naganawa, Yuki; Aoyama, Tomotaka; Nishiyama, Hisao

    2015-12-21

    In the presence of a Cu(ii) complex of axially chiral, N,N,O-tridentate phenanthroline ligand (S)-2, asymmetric oxygen atom transfer of oxindole derivatives (3) using Davis' oxaziridine (4) occurred to give the corresponding 3-aryl-3-hydroxy-2-oxindole derivatives (1) with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 96% ee). The X-ray crystallographic analysis of the isolated Cu(ii) complex disclosed its N,N,O-tridentate coordination, which is critical to realize effective catalytic activity. PMID:26456035

  18. Atomic Oxygen Treatment as a Method of Recovering Smoke Damaged Paintings. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Forkapa, Mark; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward; Malinowski, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    A noncontact technique is described that uses atomic oxygen, generated under low pressure in the presence of nitrogen, to remove soot and charred varnish from the surface of a painting. The process, which involves surface oxidation, permits control of the amount of surface material removed. The effectiveness of the process was evaluated by reflectance measurements from selected areas made during the removal of soot from acrylic gesso, ink on paper, and varnished oil paint substrates. For the latter substrate, treatment also involved the removal of damaged varnish and paint binder from the surface.

  19. Technologies for protection of the Space Station power system surfaces in atomic oxygen environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1988-01-01

    Technologies for protecting Space Station surfaces from degradation caused by atomic oxygen are discussed, stressing protection of the power system surfaces. The Space Station power system is described and research concerning the solar array surfaces and radiator surfaces is examined. The possibility of coating the solar array sufaces with a sputter deposited thin film of silicon oxide containing small concentrations of polytetrafluoroethylene is presented. Hexamethyldisiloxane coating for these surfaces is also considered. For the radiator surfaces, possible coatings include silver teflon thermal coating and zinc orthotitanate.

  20. Energetic atomic and ionic oxygen textured optical surfaces for blood glucose monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and the resulting product thereof comprising a solid light-conducting fiber with a point of attachment and having a textured surface site consisting a textured distal end prepared by being placed in a vacuum and then subjected to directed hyperthermal beams comprising oxygen ions or atoms. The textured distal end comprises cones or pillars that are spaced upon from each other by less than 1 micron and are extremely suitable to prevent cellular components of blood from entering the valleys between the cones or pillars so as to effectively separate the cellular components in the blood from interfering with optical sensing of the glucose concentration for diabetic patients.

  1. The energy dependence and surface morphology of Kapton (trademark) degradation under atomic oxygen bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    Data from laboratory simulations and from samples returned from STS-8 are used to derive the energy dependence of the mass loss rate of Kapton under atomic oxygen bombardment and to discuss the development of surface structure and its effect on erosion rates. It is concluded that all the laboratory data from discharge and flow tubes and from accelerated beams, along with the orbital data from STS-3 through STS-8, can be accommodated by a rate of mass loss that varies with impact energy normal to the surface. It is hypothesized that increases of mass loss rate with exposure time may be due to trapping of the incoming atoms by the surface structure which develops.

  2. Reactions of atomic carbon with oxygenated compounds and the investigation of fullerene chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Tsongming.

    1993-01-01

    The reaction of atomic carbon with oxygenated organics produces CO and an energetic fragment. Reactions involving deoxygenation of carbonyl compounds to carbenes, epoxides to alkenes, and ethers to a pair of radicals have been investigated. Carbon atom deoxygenation of cyclopentanone and cylcopentene oxide give the cleavage products, ethylene and allene, along with cyclopentene. The use of 2,2,5,5-d[sub 4]-cyclopentanone as the substrate reveals the direct cleavage of cyclopentanylidene carbene is occurring. A calculation of the energetics of this reaction at the MP4/6-31G[sup *]//6-31G[sup *] level suggests a nonconcerted cleavage via a biradical intermediate. Carbon atoms deoxygenate cyclohexene. Inert gas deactivated energetic cyclohexene. The deoxygenation of other oxygenated compounds by atomic carbon, such as 7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane to cyclohexane-1,4-diyl biradical, 1,2-epoxy-5-hexane to energetic 1,S-hexadiene, allyl ether to allyl radicals, and [gamma]-butyrolactone to trimethylene-1,3-diyl biradical have also been carried out. Methylketene was deoxygenated to vinylidene carbene which rearranges to propyne via a 1,2-H shift. Dimethylketene was deoxygenated to dimethylethylidene carbene which gives 2-butyne via a 1,2-methyl shift and 1,3-butadiene via a vicinal C-H bond insertion. The addition of hydrogen donors to systems in which C[sub 60] is generated results in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons whose carbon skeleton might represent intermediates in fullerene formation. Based on this result, the author proposed a mechanism of fullerene formation. The use of various amounts of propene as a trap showed that the yield of fullerenes decreases as the amount of the trapped product increases. Attempts to trap intermediates in fullerene formation using halides and metals have been studied. The author has attempted metal encapsulation reactions and investigated some possible chemical reactions of fullerenes.

  3. TALIF measurements of oxygen atom density in the afterglow of a capillary nanosecond discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, A. V.; Lemainque, J.; Booth, J. P.; Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2015-04-01

    The atomic oxygen density has been measured in the afterglow of a capillary nanosecond discharge in 24-30 mbar synthetic air (N2 : O2 = 4 : 1) by the two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) technique, combined with absolute calibration by comparison with xenon TALIF. The discharge was initiated by a train of 30 ns FWHM pulses of alternating positive-negative-positive polarity, separated by 250 ns, with a train repetition frequency of 10 Hz. The amplitude of the first pulse was 10 kV in the cable. A flow of synthetic air through the tube provided complete gas renewal between pulse trains. The O-atom density measurements were made over the time interval 200 ns-2 µs after the initial pulse. The gas temperature was determined by analysis of the molecular nitrogen second positive system optical emission spectrum. The influence of the gas temperature on the atom density measurements, and the reactions producing O atoms, are discussed.

  4. Inelastic and reactive scattering of hyperthermal atomic oxygen from amorphous carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Timothy K.; Nelson, Christine M.; Brinza, David E.; Liang, Ranty H.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction of hyperthermal oxygen atoms with an amorphous carbon-13 surface was studied using a modified universal crossed molecular beams apparatus. Time-of-flight distributions of inelastically scattered O-atoms and reactively scattered CO-13 and CO2-13 were measured with a rotatable mass spectrometer detector. Two inelastic scattering channels were observed, corresponding to a direct inelastic process in which the scattered O-atoms retain 20 to 30 percent of their initial kinetic energy and to a trapping desorption process whereby O-atoms emerge from the surface at thermal velocities. Reactive scattering data imply the formation of two kinds of CO products, slow products whose translational energies are determined by the surface temperature and hyperthermal (Approx. 3 eV) products with translational energies comprising roughly 30 percent of the total available energy (E sub avl), where E sub avl is the sum of the collision energy and the reaction exothermicity. Angular data show that the hyperthermal CO is scattered preferentially in the specular direction. CO2 product was also observed, but at much lower intensities than CO and with only thermal velocities.

  5. Durability of Solar Selective Coatings in a Simulated Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Solar selective coatings are being considered for heat engine and thermal switching applications on minisatellites. Such coatings must have the combined properties of high solar absorptance and low infrared emittance. High solar absorptance is needed to collect solar energy as efficiently as possible while low infrared emittance is needed to minimize radiant energy loss at operating temperature. These properties are achieved in sputter deposited thin films through the use of molecular mixtures of metal and dielectric. Solar selective coatings having a solar absorptance to infrared emittance ratio of 9 have been successfully deposited using a mixture of nickel and aluminum oxide. The space environment, however, presents some challenges for the use of materials on the exterior of spacecraft, including durability to atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation. To address these concerns, several candidate solar selective coatings were exposed to atomic oxygen in a plasma asher and to ultraviolet radiation in a vacuum facility equipped with calibrated deuterium lamps. The optical properties of the coatings were monitored as a function of time to evaluate their performance over long term exposure to the simulated space environment. Several coatings were found to be durable to both the atomic oxygen and the vacuum ultraviolet environments.

  6. Electron ionization of metastable nitrogen and oxygen atoms in relation to the auroral emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Siddharth; Joshipura, K. N.

    Atomic and molecular excited metastable states (EMS) are exotic systems due to their special properties like long radiative life-time, large size (average radius) and large polarizability along with relatively smaller first ionization energy compared to their respective ground states (GS). The present work includes our theoretical calculations on electron impact ionization of metastable atomic states N( (2) P), N( (2) D) of nitrogen and O( (1) S), O( (1) D) of oxygen. The targets of our present interest, are found to be present in our Earth's ionosphere and they play an important role in auroral emissions observed in Earth’s auroral regions [1] as also in the emissions observed from cometary coma [2, 3] and airglow emissions. In particular, atomic oxygen in EMS can radiate, the visible O( (1) D -> (3) P) doublet 6300 - 6364 Å red doublet, the O( (1) S -> (1) D) 5577 Å green line, and the ultraviolet O( (1) S -> (3) P) 2972 Å line. For metastable atomic nitrogen one observes the similar emissions, in different wavelengths, from (2) D and (2) P states. At the Earth's auroral altitudes, from where these emissions take place in the ionosphere, energetic electrons are also present. In particular, if the metastable N as well as O atoms are ionized by the impact of electrons then these species are no longer available for emissions. This is a possible loss mechanism, and hence it is necessary to analyze the importance of electron ionization of the EMS of atomic O and N, by calculating the relevant cross sections. In the present paper we investigate electron ionization of the said metastable species by calculating relevant total cross sections. Our quantum mechanical calculations are based on projected approximate ionization contribution in the total inelastic cross sections [4]. Detailed results and discussion along with the significance of these calculations will be presented during the COSPAR-2014. References [1] A.Bhardwaj, and G. R. Gladstone, Rev. Geophys., 38

  7. Conductance and spin-filter effects of oxygen-incorporated Au, Cu, and Fe single-atom chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaolong; Xie, Yi-Qun; Ye, Xiang; Ke, San-Huang

    2015-01-01

    We studied the spin-polarized electron transport in oxygen-incorporated Au, Cu, and Fe single-atom chains (SACs) by first-principles calculations. We first investigated the mechanism responsible for the low conductance (<1G0) of the Au and Cu SACs in an oxygen environment reported in recent experiments. We found that for the Au SACs, the low conductance plateau around 0.6G0 can be attributed to a distorted chain doped with a single oxygen atom, while the 0.1G0 conductance comes from a linear chain incorporated with an oxygen molecule and is caused by an antibonding state formed by oxygen's occupied frontier orbital with dz orbitals of adjacent Au atoms. For the Cu SACs, the conductance about 0.3G0 is ascribed to a special configuration that contains Cu and O atoms in an alternating sequence. This exhibits an even-odd conductance oscillation with an amplitude of ˜0.1G0. In contrast, for the alternating Fe-O SACs, conductance overall decreases with an increase in O atoms and it approaches nearly zero for the chain with more than four O atoms. While the Cu-O SACs behave as perfect spin filters for one spin channel due to the half metallic nature, the Fe-O SACs can serve as perfect spin filters for two spin channels depending on the polarity of the applied gate voltage.

  8. Leveling coatings for reducing the atomic oxygen defect density in protected graphite fiber epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Podojil, G.; McCollum, T.; Anzic, J.

    1992-11-01

    Pinholes or other defect sites in a protective oxide coating provide pathways for atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit to reach underlying material. One concept of enhancing the lifetime of materials in low Earth orbit is to apply a leveling coating to the material prior to applying any reflective and protective coatings. Using a surface tension leveling coating concept, a low viscosity epoxy was applied to the surface of several composite coupons. A protective layer of 1000 A of SiO2 was deposited on top of the leveling coating, and the coupons were exposed to an atomic oxygen environment in a plasma asher. Pinhole populations per unit area were estimated by counting the number of undercut sites observed by scanning electron microscopy. Defect density values of 180,000 defects/sq cm were reduced to about 1000 defects/sq cm as a result of the applied leveling coating. These improvements occur at a mass penalty of about 2.5 mg/sq cm.

  9. Pinhole cameras as sensors for atomic oxygen in orbit; application to attitude determination of the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Gregory, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Images produced by pinhole cameras using film sensitive to atomic oxygen provide information on the ratio of spacecraft orbital velocity to the most probable thermal speed of oxygen atoms, provided the spacecraft orientation is maintained stable relative to the orbital direction. Alternatively, as it is described, information on the spacecraft attitude relative to the orbital velocity can be obtained, provided that corrections are properly made for thermal spreading and a co-rotating atmosphere. The LDEF orientation, uncorrected for a co-rotating atmosphere, was determined to be yawed 8.0 minus/plus 0.4 deg from its nominal attitude, with an estimated minus/plus 0.35 deg oscillation in yaw. The integrated effect of inclined orbit and co-rotating atmosphere produces an apparent oscillation in the observed yaw direction, suggesting that the LDEF attitude measurement will indicate even better stability when corrected for a co-rotating atmosphere. The measured thermal spreading is consistent with major exposure occurring during high solar activity, which occurred late during the LDEF mission.

  10. HIGH PRECISION K-SHELL PHOTOABSORPTION CROSS SECTIONS FOR ATOMIC OXYGEN: EXPERIMENT AND THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, B. M.; Ballance, C. P.; Bowen, K. P.; Gardenghi, D. J.; Stolte, W. C. E-mail: ballance@physics.auburn.edu E-mail: dgardenghi@gmail.com

    2013-07-01

    Photoabsorption of atomic oxygen in the energy region below the 1s {sup -1} threshold in X-ray spectroscopy from Chandra and XMM-Newton is observed in a variety of X-ray binary spectra. Photoabsorption cross sections determined from an R-matrix method with pseudo-states and new, high precision measurements from the Advanced Light Source (ALS) are presented. High-resolution spectroscopy with E/{Delta}E Almost-Equal-To 4250 {+-} 400 was obtained for photon energies from 520 eV to 555 eV at an energy resolution of 124 {+-} 12 meV FWHM. K-shell photoabsorption cross section measurements were made with a re-analysis of previous experimental data on atomic oxygen at the ALS. Natural line widths {Gamma} are extracted for the 1s {sup -1}2s {sup 2}2p {sup 4}({sup 4} P)np {sup 3} P Degree-Sign and 1s {sup -1}2s {sup 2}2p {sup 4}({sup 2} P)np {sup 3} P Degree-Sign Rydberg resonances series and compared with theoretical predictions. Accurate cross sections and line widths are obtained for applications in X-ray astronomy. Excellent agreement between theory and the ALS measurements is shown which will have profound implications for the modeling of X-ray spectra and spectral diagnostics.

  11. Leveling coatings for reducing the atomic oxygen defect density in protected graphite fiber epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Degroh, K. K.; Podojil, G.; Mccollum, T.; Anzic, J.

    1992-01-01

    Pinholes or other defect sites in a protective oxide coating provide pathways for atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit to reach underlying material. One concept for enhancing the lifetime of materials in low Earth orbits is to apply a leveling coating to the material prior to applying any reflective and protective coatings. Using a surface tension leveling coating concept, a low viscosity epoxy was applied to the surface of several composite coupons. A protective layer of 1000 A of SiO2 was deposited on top of the leveling coating, and the coupons were exposed to an atomic oxygen environment in a plasma asher. Pinhole populations per unit area were estimated by counting the number of undercut sites observed by scanning electron microscopy. Defect density values of 180,000 defects/sq cm were reduced to about 1000 defects/sq cm as a result of the applied leveling coating. These improvements occur at a mass penalty of about 2.5 mg/sq cm.

  12. Leveling coatings for reducing the atomic oxygen defect density in protected graphite fiber epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Podojil, G.; Mccollum, T.; Anzic, J.

    1992-01-01

    Pinholes or other defect sites in a protective oxide coating provide pathways for atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit to reach underlying material. One concept of enhancing the lifetime of materials in low Earth orbit is to apply a leveling coating to the material prior to applying any reflective and protective coatings. Using a surface tension leveling coating concept, a low viscosity epoxy was applied to the surface of several composite coupons. A protective layer of 1000 A of SiO2 was deposited on top of the leveling coating, and the coupons were exposed to an atomic oxygen environment in a plasma asher. Pinhole populations per unit area were estimated by counting the number of undercut sites observed by scanning electron microscopy. Defect density values of 180,000 defects/sq cm were reduced to about 1000 defects/sq cm as a result of the applied leveling coating. These improvements occur at a mass penalty of about 2.5 mg/sq cm.

  13. Lessons Learned From Atomic Oxygen Interaction With Spacecraft Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim, K.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2008-01-01

    There have been five Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) passive experiment carriers (PECs) (MISSE 1-5) to date that have been launched, exposed in space on the exterior of International Space Station (ISS) and then returned to Earth for analysis. An additional four MISSE PECs (MISSE 6A, 6B, 7A, and 7B) are in various stages of completion. The PECs are two-sided suitcase to size sample carriers that are intended to provide information on the effects of the low Earth orbital environment on a wide variety of materials and components. As a result of post retrieval analyses of the retrieved MISSE 2 experiments and numerous prior space experiments, there have been valuable lessons learned and needs identified that are worthy of being documented so that planning, design, and analysis of future space environment experiments can benefit from the experience in order to maximize the knowledge gained. Some of the lessons learned involve the techniques, concepts, and issues associated with measuring atomic oxygen erosion yields. These are presented along with several issues to be considered when designing experiments, such as the uncertainty in mission duration, scattering and contamination effects on results, and the accuracy of measuring atomic oxygen erosion.

  14. Mass loss of shuttle space suit orthofabric under simulated ionospheric atomic oxygen bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Many polymeric materials used for thermal protection and insulation on spacecraft degrade significantly under prolonged bombardment by ionospheric atomic oxygen. The covering fabric of the multilayered shuttle space suit is composed of a loose weave of GORE-TEX fibers, Nomex and Kevlar-29, which are all polymeric materials. The complete evaluation of suit fabric degradation from ionospheric atomic oxygen is of importance in reevaluating suit lifetime and inspection procedures. The mass loss and visible physical changes of each test sample was determined. Kapton control samples and data from previous asher and flight tests were used to scale the results to reflect ionospheric conditions at about 220 km altitude. It is predicted that the orthofabric loses mass in the ionosphere at a rate of about 66% of the original orthofabric mass/yr. The outer layer of the two-layer orthofabric test samples shows few easily visible signs of degradation, even when observed at 440X. It is concluded that the orthofabric could suffer significant loss of performance after much less than a year of total exposure time, while the degradation might be undetectable in post flight visual examinations of space suits.

  15. FUV quantum efficiency degradation of cesium iodide photocathodes caused by exposure to thermal atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhate, Jason; Anne, Joshi; Bacinski, John; Banks, Bruce; Cates, Carey; Christensen, Paul; Cruden, Brett; Dunham, Larry; Graham, Eric; Hughes, David; Kimble, Randy; Lupie, Olivia; Niedner, Malcolm; Osterman, Steven; Penton, Steven; Proffitt, Charles; Pugel, Diane; Siegmund, Oswald; Wheeler, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    The color dependence of the measured decline of the on-orbit sensitivity of the FUV channel of the HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST-COS) indicated the principal loss mechanism to be degradation of the cesium iodide (CsI) photocathode of the open-faced FUV detector. A possible cause of this degradation is contamination by atomic oxygen (AO), prompting an investigation of the interaction of AO with CsI. To address this question, opaque CsI photocathodes were deposited on stainless steel substrates employing the same deposition techniques and parameters used for the photocathodes of the HST-COS FUV detector. The as-deposited FUV quantum efficiency of these photocathodes was measured in the 117-174 nm range. Several of the photocathodes were exposed to varying levels of thermalized, atomic oxygen (AO) fluence (produced via an RF plasma). The post AO exposure QE's were measured and the degradation of sensitivity versus wavelength and AO fluence are presented.

  16. Collisional Removal of O2(b1Σ ^+g, v = 1) by Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogerakis, K. S.; Pejaković, D. A.; Copeland, R. A.; Slanger, T. G.

    2004-12-01

    In the thermosphere, energy transfer between excited O atoms and ground-state molecular oxygen produces O2 in the first two vibrational levels of the b1Σ ^+g state: O(1D) + O2 -> O(3P) + O2(b1Σ ^+g, v = 0, 1). Subsequent radiative decay of O2(b1Σ ^+g, v = 0, 1) to the ground state O2(X3Σ ^-g) results in the Atmospheric Band emissions. Atmospheric observations suggest that above ˜120 km O(3P) plays an important role in removing O2(b1Σ ^+g, v = 1). Therefore, knowledge of the rate coefficient for collisional removal of O2(b1Σ ^+g<, v = 1) by O(3P) is important for detailed understanding of the Atmospheric Band emissions. Measurements are reported of the room-temperature rate coefficient for removal of O2(b1Σ ^+g, v = 1) by O(3P). A commercial F2 laser with pulsed energy output of up to 50 mJ at 157 nm is used to photodissociate a large fraction of molecular oxygen in a O2/N2 mixture. Photodissociation of an O2 molecule produces a ground-state oxygen atom O(3P) and an excited oxygen atom O(1D), and O(1D) rapidly transfers energy to the remaining O2 to produce O2(b1Σ ^+g, v = 0, 1). The O2(b1Σ ^+g, v = 1) population is monitored by observing emission in the O2 (b-X) 1--1 band at 771 nm. To extract the O2(b1Σ ^+g, v = 1) + O(3P) rate coefficient, knowledge of the O(3P) partial pressure or, equivalently, the fraction of dissociated O2, is necessary. Based on the F2 laser fluence, the signal dependence on the fraction of dissociation, and computer modeling, the signals measured in our experiments correspond to about 50% dissociation. Our measurements yield a preliminary value of the rate coefficient for O2(b1Σ ^+g, v = 1) removal by O(3P) of 6 × 10-12 cm3s-1. The results will be compared to the rate coefficients for corresponding processes in the ground and a1Δ g states of O2, and implications of the results for modeling of the upper atmosphere will be discussed. This work is supported by the NSF Aeronomy Program under grant ATM-0209229. The F2 laser was

  17. Atomic oxygen retrievals in the MLT region from SCIAMACHY nightglow limb measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lednyts'kyy, O.; von Savigny, C.; Eichmann, K.-U.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2015-03-01

    Vertical distributions of atomic oxygen concentration ([O]) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region were retrieved from sun-synchronous SCIAMACHY/Envisat (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY on board the Environmental Satellite) limb measurements of the oxygen 557.7 nm green line emission in the terrestrial nightglow. A band pass filter was applied to eliminate contributions from other emissions, the impact of measurement noise and auroral activity. Vertical volume emission rate profiles were retrieved from integrated limb-emission rate profiles under the assumption that each atmospheric layer is horizontally homogeneous and absorption and scattering can be neglected. The radiative transfer problem was solved using regularized total least squares minimization in the inversion procedure. Atomic oxygen concentration profiles were retrieved from data collected for altitudes in the range 85-105 km with approximately 4 km vertical resolution during the time period from August 2002 to April 2012 at approximately 22:00 local time. The retrieval of [O] profiles was based on the generally accepted two-step Barth transfer scheme including consideration of quenching processes and the use of different available sources of temperature and atmospheric density profiles. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the retrieved [O] profiles to estimate maximum uncertainties assuming independent contributions of uncertainty components. Errors in photochemical model parameters depending on temperature uncertainties and random errors of model parameters contribute less than 50% to the overall [O] retrieval error. The retrieved [O] profiles were compared with reference [O] profiles provided by SABER/TIMED (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry instrument on board the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite) or by the NRLMSISE-00 (Naval Research Laboratory Mass Spectrometer and

  18. Influence of the oxygen plasma parameters on the atomic layer deposition of titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ratzsch, Stephan; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2015-01-16

    The influence of the oxygen plasma parameters on the morphology and optical properties of TiO2 thin films has been extensively analyzed in plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) processes. Crystalline aggregates with the anatase phase have been identified on the film surface at a low deposition temperature (down to 70 °C) under specific plasma conditions. Up to 70% surface coverage by anatase crystallites is obtained at low oxygen gas flow rates and high plasma power. The hillocks abundance is correlated with high ion flux and electron density and with the resulting enhanced ion bombardment of the surface. Altering the plasma conditions is an important parameter besides temperature to control the morphology of the titania film for specific applications such as photocatalysis or functional optical coatings. Specifically, photocatalytic titania coatings on polymer substrates could benefit of such low temperature PEALD processes with abundant anatase crystallites; whereas optical coatings require smooth, high refractive index titania as obtained with low plasma power and high oxygen flow rate. PMID:25525676

  19. Atomic-Scale Mechanisms of Oxygen Electrode Delamination in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

    2012-01-01

    Materials used for different components (electrodes, electrolyte, steel interconnects, etc.) of solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production have to function in aggressive, corrosive environments and in the presence of electric fields. This results in a number of degradation processes at interfaces between components. In this study, we used a combination of first-principles, density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations and thermodynamic modeling to elucidate the main processes that contribute into the oxygen delamination in typical SOEC device consisting of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) oxygen electrode. We found that high temperature inter-diffusion of different atoms across the LSM/YSZ interface significantly affects structural stability of the materials and their interface. In particular, we found that La and Sr substitutional defects positioned in ZrO2 oxide and near LSM/YSZ interface significantly change oxygen transport which may develop pressure buildup in the interfacial region and eventually develop delamination process. Simple models for estimating these effects are proposed, and different possibilities for inhibiting and/or mitigating undesirable delamination processes are discussed.

  20. Molecular mimicry of substrate oxygen atoms by water molecules in the beta-amylase active site.

    PubMed

    Pujadas, G; Palau, J

    2001-08-01

    Soybean beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2) has been crystallized both free and complexed with a variety of ligands. Four water molecules in the free-enzyme catalytic cleft form a multihydrogen-bond network with eight strategic residues involved in enzyme-ligand hydrogen bonds. We show here that the positions of these four water molecules are coincident with the positions of four potential oxygen atoms of the ligands within the complex. Some of these waters are displaced from the active site when the ligands bind to the enzyme. How many are displaced depends on the shape of the ligand. This means that when one of the four positions is not occupied by a ligand oxygen atom, the corresponding water remains. We studied the functional/structural role of these four waters and conclude that their presence means that the conformation of the eight side chains is fixed in all situations (free or complexed enzyme) and preserved from unwanted or forbidden conformational changes that could hamper the catalytic mechanism. The water structure at the active pocket of beta-amylase is therefore essential for providing the ligand recognition process with plasticity. It does not affect the protein active-site geometry and preserves the overall hydrogen-bonding network, irrespective of which ligand is bound to the enzyme. We also investigated whether other enzymes showed a similar role for water. Finally, we discuss the potential use of these results for predicting whether water molecules can mimic ligand atoms in the active center. PMID:11468361

  1. Atomic oxygen effects on boron nitride and silicon nitride: A comparison of ground based and space flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.; Lan, E. H.; Smith, C. A.; Whatley, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride (BN) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) were evaluated in a low Earth orbit (LEO) flight experiment and in a ground based simulation facility. In both the inflight and ground based experiments, these materials were coated on thin (approx. 250A) silver films, and the electrical resistance of the silver was measured in situ to detect any penetration of atomic oxygen through the BN and Si3N4 materials. In the presence of atomic oxygen, silver oxidizes to form silver oxide, which has a much higher electrical resistance than pure silver. Permeation of atomic oxygen through BN, as indicated by an increase in the electrical resistance of the silver underneath, was observed in both the inflight and ground based experiments. In contrast, no permeation of atomic oxygen through Si3N4 was observed in either the inflight or ground based experiments. The ground based results show good qualitative correlation with the LEO flight results, indicating that ground based facilities such as the one at Los Alamos National Lab can reproduce space flight data from LEO.

  2. A comparison of ground-based and space flight data: Atomic oxygen reactions with boron nitride and silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.; Lan, E. H.; Smith, C. A.; Whatley, W. J.; Koontz, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride (BN) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) have been studied in low Earth orbit (LEO) flight experiments and in a ground-based simulation facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both the in-flight and ground-based experiments employed the materials coated over thin (approx 250 Angstrom) silver films whose electrical resistance was measured in situ to detect penetration of atomic oxygen through the BN and Si3N4 materials. In the presence of atomic oxygen, silver oxidizes to form silver oxide, which has a much higher electrical resistance than pure silver. Permeation of atomic oxygen through BN, as indicated by an increase in the electrical resistance of the silver underneath, was observed in both the in-flight and ground-based experiments. In contrast, no permeation of atomic oxygen through Si3N4 was observed in either the in-flight or ground-based experiments. The ground-based results show good qualitative correlation with the LEO flight results, thus validating the simulation fidelity of the ground-based facility in terms of reproducing LEO flight results.

  3. Automated Reflectance Measurement System Designed and Fabricated to Determine the Limits of Atomic Oxygen Treatment of Art Through Contrast Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sechkar, Edward A.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    2000-01-01

    Atomic oxygen generated in ground-based research facilities has been used to not only test erosion of candidate spacecraft materials but as a noncontact technique for removing organic deposits from the surfaces of artwork. NASA has patented the use of atomic oxygen to remove carbon-based soot contamination from fire-damaged artwork. The process of cleaning soot-damaged paintings with atomic oxygen requires exposures for variable lengths of time, dependent on the condition of a painting. Care must be exercised while cleaning to prevent the removal of pigment. The cleaning process must be stopped as soon as visual inspection or surface reflectance measurements indicate that cleaning is complete. Both techniques rely on optical comparisons of known bright locations against known dark locations on the artwork being cleaned. Difficulties arise with these techniques when either a known bright or dark location cannot be determined readily. Furthermore, dark locations will lighten with excessive exposure to atomic oxygen. Therefore, an automated test instrument to quantitatively characterize cleaning progression was designed and developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to determine when atomic oxygen cleaning is complete.

  4. Source of the oxygen atom in the product of cytochrome P-450-catalyzed N-demethylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Kedderis, G L; Dwyer, L A; Rickert, D E; Hollenberg, P F

    1983-05-01

    The source of the oxygen atom in the product of the cytochrome P-450-catalyzed N-demethylation of N-methylcarbazole was determined by mass spectral analysis of the carbinolamine precursor of formaldehyde formed during incubation in oxygen 18-enriched medium. Initial experiments demonstrated that N-(hydroxymethyl)carbazole, the carbinolamine product of the metabolism of N-methylcarbazole, did not exchange oxygen with solvent water. When N-methylcarbazole was incubated in oxygen 18-enriched medium with purified cytochrome P-450 in the presence of either purified NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and NADPH, cumene hydroperoxide, t-butyl hydroperoxide, or peracetic acid, there was no incorporation of oxygen 18 from the medium into N-(hydroxymethyl)carbazole. These results clearly demonstrate that the oxygen atom inserted into N-methylcarbazole by cytochrome P-450 to yield N-(hydroxymethyl)carbazole does not come from the medium and show that the N-demethylation reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 proceed in a manner similar to hydroxylation reactions, with the oxygen atom in the product being derived from the oxidant. PMID:6408392

  5. Synergistic oxygen atom transfer by ruthenium complexes with non-redox metal ions.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhanao; Zheng, Wenrui; Chen, Zhuqi; Tang, Zhiming; Mo, Wanling; Yin, Guochuan

    2016-07-28

    Non-redox metal ions can affect the reactivity of active redox metal ions in versatile biological and heterogeneous oxidation processes; however, the intrinsic roles of these non-redox ions still remain elusive. This work demonstrates the first example of the use of non-redox metal ions as Lewis acids to sharply improve the catalytic oxygen atom transfer efficiency of a ruthenium complex bearing the classic 2,2'-bipyridine ligand. In the absence of Lewis acid, the oxidation of ruthenium(ii) complex by PhI(OAc)2 generates the Ru(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O species, which is very sluggish for olefin epoxidation. When Ru(bpy)2Cl2 was tested as a catalyst alone, only 21.2% of cyclooctene was converted, and the yield of 1,2-epoxycyclooctane was only 6.7%. As evidenced by electronic absorption spectra and EPR studies, both the oxidation of Ru(ii) by PhI(OAc)2 and the reduction of Ru(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O by olefin are kinetically slow. However, adding non-redox metal ions such as Al(iii) can sharply improve the oxygen transfer efficiency of the catalyst to 100% conversion with 89.9% yield of epoxide under identical conditions. Through various spectroscopic characterizations, an adduct of Ru(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O with Al(iii), Ru(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O/Al(iii), was proposed to serve as the active species for epoxidation, which in turn generated a Ru(iii)-O-Ru(iii) dimer as the reduced form. In particular, both the oxygen transfer from Ru(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O/Al(iii) to olefin and the oxidation of Ru(iii)-O-Ru(iii) back to the active Ru(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O/Al(iii) species in the catalytic cycle can be remarkably accelerated by adding a non-redox metal, such as Al(iii). These results have important implications for the role played by non-redox metal ions in catalytic oxidation at redox metal centers as well as for the understanding of the redox mechanism of ruthenium catalysts in the oxygen atom

  6. Interactions between oxygen atoms on Pt(100): implications for ordering during chemisorption and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, James W

    2010-07-12

    We present a DFT analysis of the interactions between chemisorbed oxygen on the unreconstructed (1x1)-Pt(100) surface. These interactions control ordering of O not just for single-species adsorption, but also within O domains during coadsorption and reaction with other species such as CO. The calculations indicate that O prefers bridge sites, as deduced previously. In addition, we find a large difference in the interactions between O at different types of bridge site pairs separated by one lattice constant. There is strong repulsion for pairs separated by a Pt atom, but only a weak interaction for pairs separated by a fourfold hollow site. This finding elucidates the tendency for striped (nx1)-O ordering often observed in chemisorption and reaction studies. PMID:20533492

  7. Atomic Oxygen Treatment Technique for Removal of Smoke Damage from Paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, S. K.; Banks, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    Soot deposits that can accumulate on surfaces of a painting during a fire can be difficult to clean from some types of paintings without damaging the underlying paint layers. A non-contact technique has been developed which can remove the soot by allowing a gas containing atomic oxygen to flow over the surface and chemically react with the soot to form carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The reaction is limited to the surface, so the underlying paint is not touched. The process can be controlled so that the cleaning can be stopped once the paint surface is reached. This paper describes the smoke exposure and cleaning of untreated canvas, acrylic gesso, and sections of an oil painting using this technique. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy and reflectance spectroscopy.

  8. Investigations of tribological characteristics of solid lubricants exposed to atomic oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Arita, Masasgi; Yasuda, Yoshiteru; Kishi, Katsuhiro; Ohmae, Nobuo Osaka University, Suita )

    1992-04-01

    Four kinds of solid lubricants, sputtered MoS2 film, inorganic binder-type spray-bonded MoS2 film, organic binder-type spray-bonded MoS2 film and ion-plated Pb film, were exposed to an atomic oxygen (AO) beam. The effects of exposure on their lubricating performance were examined in a pin-on-disk sliding test under vacuum conditions. Changes in the degree of oxidation of these films were analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. Exposure to the AO beam resulted in significant changes in lubricating performance and surface oxidation. Of the solid-lubricant films tested, sputtered MoS2 film showed the most resistance to oxidation. The results are of interest to the evaluation of lubricants for spacecraft in LEO orbit. 17 refs.

  9. Protective coating and hyperthermal atomic oxygen texturing of optical fibers used for blood glucose monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing cones and pillars on polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) optical fibers for glucose monitoring. The method, in one embodiment, consists of using electron beam evaporation to deposit a non-contiguous thin film of aluminum on the distal ends of the PMMA fibers. The partial coverage of aluminum on the fibers is randomly, but rather uniformly distributed across the end of the optical fibers. After the aluminum deposition, the ends of the fibers are then exposed to hyperthermal atomic oxygen, which oxidizes the areas that are not protected by aluminum. The resulting PMMA fibers have a greatly increased surface area and the cones or pillars are sufficiently close together that the cellular components in blood are excluded from passing into the valleys between the cones and pillars. The optical fibers are then coated with appropriated surface chemistry so that they can optically sense the glucose level in the blood sample than that with conventional glucose monitoring.

  10. Electron impact excitation of atomic oxygen - Revised cross sections. [in thermosphere and auroral substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipf, E. C.; Erdman, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Revised cross-section values for the excitation of three O I resonance transitions at 1304, 1027, and 989 A, by electron impact on atomic oxygen are presented from threshold to 300 eV. These results are smaller than the excitation cross sections used in some airglow models by a factor of about 2.8. The revised values are in good agreement with recent quantum-scattering calculations. The downward revision is required by new laboratory studies in which the direct and dissociative cross sections for 1304 A excitation were normalized with small probable error to the O and O2 ionization cross sections. The results also reflect new advances in VUV optical calibration techniques. A number of outstanding airglow problems are simplified by these revisions.

  11. Chemical reactivity of hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms at temperatures below 100 k

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, H. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The synthesis of unusual compounds by techniques employing cryogenic cooling to retard their very extreme reactivity was investigated. Examples of such species that were studied are diimide (N2H2), cyclobutadiene (C4H4), cyclopropanone (C3H4O), oxirene (C2H2O), and many others. Special purpose cryogenically cooled inlet arrangements were designed such that the analyses incurred no warm-up of the cold, and frequently explosively unstable, compounds. Controlled energy electron impact techniques were used to measure critical potentials and to develop the molecular energetics and thermodynamics of these molecules and to gain some insight into their kinetic characteristics as well. Three and four carbon strained ring molecules were studied. Several reactions of oxygen and hydrogen atoms with simple molecules of H, N, C, and O in hard quench configurations were studied. And the quench stabilization of BH3 was explored as a model system in cryochemistry.

  12. Exceedingly Fast Oxygen Atom Transfer to Olefins via a Catalytically Competent Nonheme Iron Species.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Plana, Joan; Aguinaco, Almudena; Belda, Raquel; García-España, Enrique; Basallote, Manuel G; Company, Anna; Costas, Miquel

    2016-05-17

    The reaction of [Fe(CF3 SO3 )2 (PyNMe3 )] with excess peracetic acid at -40 °C leads to the accumulation of a metastable compound that exists as a pair of electromeric species, [Fe(III) (OOAc)(PyNMe3 )](2+) and [Fe(V) (O)(OAc)(PyNMe3 )](2+) , in fast equilibrium. Stopped-flow UV/Vis analysis confirmed that oxygen atom transfer (OAT) from these electromeric species to olefinic substrates is exceedingly fast, forming epoxides with stereoretention. The impact of the electronic and steric properties of the substrate on the reaction rate could be elucidated, and the relative reactivities determined for the catalytic oxidations could be reproduced by kinetic studies. The observed fast reaction rates and high selectivities demonstrate that this metastable compound is a truly competent OAT intermediate of relevance for nonheme iron catalyzed epoxidations. PMID:27071372

  13. Long term variations and solar variability of atomic oxygen and hydrogen in the mesosphere / lower thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Kaufmann, Martin; Lehmann, Catrin; Riese, Martin; Smith, Anne; Marsh, Daniel

    Global measurements of the hydroxyl mesospheric airglow as observed by the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument are presented. SCIAMACHY is mounted on ESA's Envisat launched in March 2002 into a polar, sun-synchronous orbit with an inclination of 98.7deg and an ascending node at 22:00 local solar time. Limb observations on the night side cover about 70 degrees in terms of latitude during each orbit, covering 30S-70N, depending on season. Based on these measurements altitude profiles of atomic oxygen and hydrogen are retrieved by means of an OH non-LTE model. These data are analyzed with respect to solar illumination conditions and global wave activity. A windowed space-time Fourier analysis is carried out to investigate seasonal changes in mesopause wave activity. First comparisons with simulations of the NCAR ROSE model are shown.

  14. An Investigation of Stress Dependent Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Black Kapton Observed on MISSE 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.; Banks, Bruce A.; Sechkar, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Black Kapton XC polyimide was flown as part of the Polymer Film Tensile Experiment (PFTE) on Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6). The purpose of the experiment was to expose a variety of polymer films, typical of those used for thermal control blankets or supporting membranes on Earth orbiting spacecraft, to the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment under both relaxed and tension conditions. Black Kapton XC under tensile stress experienced a higher erosion rate during exposure in LEO than the same material that was flown in a relaxed condition. Testing conducted to determine the magnitude of the stress and erosion dependence using a ground-based thermal energy atomic oxygen plasma showed a slight dependence of erosion yield on stress for Kapton HN and Black Kapton XC, but not to the extent observed on MISSE 6. More testing is needed to isolate the factors present in LEO that cause stress dependent erosion.

  15. Atomic Structures of Oxygen-associated Defects in Sintered Aluminum Nitride Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Yan; Pennycook; Terauchi; Tanaka

    1999-09-01

    : Convergent-beam electron diffraction and Z-contrast imaging are used to study oxygen-associated defects, flat inversion domain boundaries, dislocations, and interfaces in sintered AlN ceramics. The structures of these defects are directly derived from atomic-resolution Z-contrast images. The flat inversion domain boundaries contain a single Al-O octahedral layer and have a stacking sequence of.bAaB-bAc-CaAc., where -cAb- indicates the single octahedral layer. The expansion at the flat inversion domain boundaries is measured to be 0.06 (+/-0.02) nm. The interfaces between 2H- and polytypoid-AlN are found to be also inversion domain boundaries but their stacking sequence differs from that of the flat inversion domain boundaries. PMID:10473680

  16. Distribution of atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere deduced from Ogo 6 airglow observations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Guenther, B.; Thomas, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The atomic oxygen distribution as a function of altitude between 80 and 120 km and as a function of latitude has been deduced from Ogo 6 557.7-nm airglow photometer data obtained between August 1969 and April 1970. The results indicate that the density ranges from 15 to 50 billion per cu cm at 120 km; that there is a semiannual variation by a factor of 3 in the global average density near 100 km in phase with the satellite drag semiannual effect; and that large latitudinal variations occur with maximums between 40 and 60 deg in the winter hemisphere and sometimes deep minimums in the tropics. The implication of these results for meridional and vertical transport patterns is discussed.

  17. Energetic Atomic and Ionic Oxygen Textured Optical Surfaces for Blood Glucose Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and the resulting product thereof comprising a solid light-conducting fiber with a point of attachment and having a textured surface site consisting of a textured distal end prepared by being placed in a vacuum and then subjected to directed hyperthermal beams comprising oxygen ions or atoms. The textured distal end comprises cones or pillars that are spaced upon from each other by less than 1 micron and are extremely suitable to prevent cellular components of blood from entering the valleys between the cones or pillars so as to effectively separate the cellular components in the blood from interfering with optical sensing of the glucose concentration for diabetic patients.

  18. ESCA study of Kapton exposed to atomic oxygen in low earth orbit or downstream from a radio-frequency oxygen plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Wydeven, Theodore; Cormia, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    The ESCA spectra of Kapton polyimide film exposed to atomic oxygen O(3P), either in low earth orbit (LEO) on the STS-8 Space Shuttle or downstream from a radio-frequency oxygen plasma, were compared. The major difference in surface chemistry induced by the two types of exposure to O(3P), both of which caused surface recession (etching), was a much larger uptake of oxygen by Kapton etched in the O2 plasma than in LEO. This difference is attributed to the presence of molecular oxygen in the plasma reactor and its absence in LEO: in the former case, O2 can react with radicals generated in the Kapton molecule as it etches, become incorporated in the etched polymer, and thereby yield a higher steady-state 'surface oxidation' level than in LEO.

  19. K-shell Photoioinization of the atomic nitrogen and oxygen isonuclear sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Brendan M.

    2016-05-01

    The advent of third and fourth generation light sources, such as the ALS at Berkeley, USA, SOLEIL in Orsay, France and PETRA III in Hamburg, Germany, this past decade or more and the unprecedented high brightness and spectral resolution have made it possible to perform detailed cross section measurements in the X-ray region of extremely important astrophysical elements such as Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen and their isonuclear sequences. In tandem with this world wide experimental endeavour theoretical work has provided interpretation in unravelling and identifying prominent resonance features in the spectra in the vicinity of the K-shell region. For the atomic oxygen sequence (Kα and Kβ resonance positions in the vicinity of the K-edge) we note that ground based measurements (ALS and SOLEIL) and R-matrix with pseudo-states (RMPS) theoretical results are in agreement but are ~ 0.5 eV in discrepancy with satellite observations from CHANDRA and XMM-NEWTON. A review of the current status of experiment, theory and observation will be presented for the various sequences. Supported by NSF, DOE, CNRS, DFG, NERSC and HLRS at Stuttgart University.

  20. Total photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen from threshold to 44.3A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, G. C.; Samson, James A. R.

    1987-01-01

    The relative cross section of atomic oxygen for the production of singly charged ions has been remeasured in more detail and extended to cover the wavelength range 44.3 to 910.5 A by the use of synchrotron radiation. In addition, the contribution of multiple ionization to the cross sections has been measured allowing total photoionization cross sections to be obtained below 250 A. The results have been made absolute by normalization to previously measured data. The use of synchrotron radiation has enabled measurements of the continuum cross section to be made between the numerous autoionizing resonances that occur near the ionization thresholds. This in turn has allowed a more critical comparison of the various theoretical estimates of the cross section to be made. The series of autoionizing resonances leading to the 4-P state of the oxygen ion have been observed for the first time in an ionization type experiment and their positions compared with both theory and previous photographic recordings.

  1. Effects of atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation on candidate elastomeric materials for long duration missions. Test series no.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, R. C.; Finckenor, M. M.; Kamenetzky, R. R.; Gray, P.

    1993-01-01

    Research was conducted at MSFC on the behavior of elastomeric materials after exposure to simulated space environment. Silicone S383 and Viton V747 samples were exposed to thermal vacuum, ultraviolet radiation, and atomic oxygen and then evaluated for changes in material properties. Characterization of the elastomeric materials included weight, hardness, optical inspection under normal and black light, spectrofluorescence, solar absorptance and emittance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and permeability. These results indicate a degree of sensitivity to exposure and provided some evidence of UV and atomic oxygen synergism.

  2. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits.

  3. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits. PMID:27403611

  4. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits. PMID:27403611

  5. Angular distributions of 5eV atomic oxygen scattered from solid surfaces on the LDEF satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.; Peters, Palmer N.

    1992-01-01

    The angular distribution of 5eV atomic oxygen scattered off several smooth solid surfaces was measured by experiment A0114 which flew on board the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Target surfaces were silver, vitreous carbon, and lithium fluoride crystal. The apparatus was entirely passive. It used the property of silver surfaces to absorb oxygen atoms with high efficiency; the silver is converted to optically transmissive silver oxide. A collimated beam of oxygen atoms is allowed to fall on the target surface at some pre-set angle. Reflected atoms are then intercepted by a silver film placed so that it subtends a considerable solid angle from the primary beam impact on the target surface. The silver films are evaporated onto flexible optically-clear polycarbonate sheets which are scanned later to determine oxygen uptake. While the silver detector cannot measure atom velocity or energy, its physical configuration allows easy coverage of large angular space both in the beam-plane (that which includes the incident beam and the surface normal), and in the azimuthal plane of the target surface.

  6. Kinetic modeling of α-hydrogen abstractions from unsaturated and saturated oxygenate compounds by hydrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Paschalis D; Sabbe, Maarten K; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Papayannakos, Nikos G; Marin, Guy B

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen-abstraction reactions play a significant role in thermal biomass conversion processes, as well as regular gasification, pyrolysis, or combustion. In this work, a group additivity model is constructed that allows prediction of reaction rates and Arrhenius parameters of hydrogen abstractions by hydrogen atoms from alcohols, ethers, esters, peroxides, ketones, aldehydes, acids, and diketones in a broad temperature range (300-2000 K). A training set of 60 reactions was developed with rate coefficients and Arrhenius parameters calculated by the CBS-QB3 method in the high-pressure limit with tunneling corrections using Eckart tunneling coefficients. From this set of reactions, 15 group additive values were derived for the forward and the reverse reaction, 4 referring to primary and 11 to secondary contributions. The accuracy of the model is validated upon an ab initio and an experimental validation set of 19 and 21 reaction rates, respectively, showing that reaction rates can be predicted with a mean factor of deviation of 2 for the ab initio and 3 for the experimental values. Hence, this work illustrates that the developed group additive model can be reliably applied for the accurate prediction of kinetics of α-hydrogen abstractions by hydrogen atoms from a broad range of oxygenates. PMID:25209711

  7. Three-dimensional evaluation of gettering ability for oxygen atoms at small-angle tilt boundaries in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Yutaka Inoue, Kaihei; Fujiwara, Kozo; Deura, Momoko; Kutsukake, Kentaro; Yonenaga, Ichiro; Shimizu, Yasuo; Inoue, Koji; Ebisawa, Naoki; Nagai, Yasuyoshi

    2015-06-22

    Three-dimensional distribution of oxygen atoms at small-angle tilt boundaries (SATBs) in Czochralski-grown p-type silicon ingots was investigated by atom probe tomography combined with transmission electron microscopy. Oxygen gettering along edge dislocations composing SATBs, post crystal growth, was observed. The gettering ability of SATBs would depend both on the dislocation strain and on the dislocation density. Oxygen atoms would agglomerate in the atomic sites under the tensile hydrostatic stress larger than about 2.0 GPa induced by the dislocations. It was suggested that the density of the atomic sites, depending on the tilt angle of SATBs, determined the gettering ability of SATBs.

  8. Conductance and spin-filter effects of oxygen-incorporated Au, Cu, and Fe single-atom chains

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xiaolong; Xie, Yi-Qun Ye, Xiang; Ke, San-Huang

    2015-01-28

    We studied the spin-polarized electron transport in oxygen-incorporated Au, Cu, and Fe single-atom chains (SACs) by first-principles calculations. We first investigated the mechanism responsible for the low conductance (<1G{sub 0}) of the Au and Cu SACs in an oxygen environment reported in recent experiments. We found that for the Au SACs, the low conductance plateau around 0.6G{sub 0} can be attributed to a distorted chain doped with a single oxygen atom, while the 0.1G{sub 0} conductance comes from a linear chain incorporated with an oxygen molecule and is caused by an antibonding state formed by oxygen's occupied frontier orbital with d{sub z} orbitals of adjacent Au atoms. For the Cu SACs, the conductance about 0.3G{sub 0} is ascribed to a special configuration that contains Cu and O atoms in an alternating sequence. This exhibits an even-odd conductance oscillation with an amplitude of ∼0.1G{sub 0}. In contrast, for the alternating Fe-O SACs, conductance overall decreases with an increase in O atoms and it approaches nearly zero for the chain with more than four O atoms. While the Cu-O SACs behave as perfect spin filters for one spin channel due to the half metallic nature, the Fe-O SACs can serve as perfect spin filters for two spin channels depending on the polarity of the applied gate voltage.

  9. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Atomic Oxygen Measurements in Short Pulse Discharges by Two Photon Laser Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempert, Walter; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Mintusov, Eugene; Jiang, Naibo; Adamovich, Igor

    2007-10-01

    Two Photon Laser Induced Fluorescence (TALIF) is used to measure time-dependent absolute oxygen atom concentrations in O2/He, O2/N2, and CH4/air plasmas produced with a 20 nanosecond duration, 20 kV pulsed discharge at 10 Hz repetition rate. Xenon calibrated spectra show that a single discharge pulse creates initial oxygen dissociation fraction of ˜0.0005 for air like mixtures at 40-60 torr total pressure. Peak O atom concentration is a factor of approximately two lower in fuel lean (φ=0.5) methane/air mixtures. In helium buffer, the initially formed atomic oxygen decays monotonically, with decay time consistent with formation of ozone. In all nitrogen containing mixtures, atomic oxygen concentrations are found to initially increase, for time scales on the order of 10-100 microseconds, due presumably to additional O2 dissociation caused by collisions with electronically excited nitrogen. Further evidence of the role of metastable N2 is demonstrated from time-dependent N2 2^nd Positive and NO Gamma band emission spectroscopy. Comparisons with modeling predictions show qualitative, but not quantitative, agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Orbital atomic oxygen effects on materials: An overview of MSFC experiments on the STS-46 EOIM-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Dehaye, Robert F.; Whitaker, Ann F.

    1995-02-01

    The third Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials experiment was flown on Space Shuttle Mission STS-46 (July 31 - August 8, 1992), representing a joint effort of several NASA centers, universities, and contractors. This array of active instrumentation and material exposure sub-assemblies was integrated as a Shuttle cargo bay pallet experiment for investigating the effects of orbital atomic oxygen on candidate space materials. Marshall Space Flight Center contributed several passive exposure trays of material specimens, uniform stress and static stress material exposure fixtures, the Atomic Oxygen Resistance Monitor (AORM), and specimens of thermal coatings for the EOIM-3 variable exposure mechanisms. As a result of 42 hours of spacecraft velocity vector-oriented exposure during the later phases of the STS-46 mission in LEO, EOIM-3 materials were exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 2.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. In this paper, an overview is presented of the technical approaches and results from analyses of the MSFC flight specimens, fixtures, and the AORM. More detailed results from earlier EOIM missions, the LDEF, and from laboratory testing are included in associated papers of this conference session.

  11. Orbital atomic oxygen effects on materials: An overview of MSFC experiments on the STS-46 EOIM-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Dehaye, Robert F.; Whitaker, Ann F.

    1995-01-01

    The third Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials experiment was flown on Space Shuttle Mission STS-46 (July 31 - August 8, 1992), representing a joint effort of several NASA centers, universities, and contractors. This array of active instrumentation and material exposure sub-assemblies was integrated as a Shuttle cargo bay pallet experiment for investigating the effects of orbital atomic oxygen on candidate space materials. Marshall Space Flight Center contributed several passive exposure trays of material specimens, uniform stress and static stress material exposure fixtures, the Atomic Oxygen Resistance Monitor (AORM), and specimens of thermal coatings for the EOIM-3 variable exposure mechanisms. As a result of 42 hours of spacecraft velocity vector-oriented exposure during the later phases of the STS-46 mission in LEO, EOIM-3 materials were exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 2.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. In this paper, an overview is presented of the technical approaches and results from analyses of the MSFC flight specimens, fixtures, and the AORM. More detailed results from earlier EOIM missions, the LDEF, and from laboratory testing are included in associated papers of this conference session.

  12. Practicality of Using Oxygen Atom Emissions to Evaluate the Habitability of Extra-Solar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slanger, T. G.

    2005-12-01

    It has previously been proposed [Akasofu, 1999] that observation of the O(1S - 1D) green line from the atmospheres of extra-solar planets might be a marker for habitability. Guidance on this question is available within our own solar system. The green line is a dominant feature in the visible terrestrial nightglow, and the ultimate origin of its mesospheric emission is the three-body recombination of oxygen atoms. Until recently, it was believed that the green line was not a feature of the nightglows of the CO2 planets, Venus and Mars. It is now known that Venus at times shows green line emission with an intensity equal to terrestrial values [Slanger et al., 2001]. Furthermore, the intensity is quite variable, as is true for the much stronger O2( a-X) 1.27 μ emission. Recent observations of the Mars nightglow [Bertaux et al., 2005] give ambiguous results in the region of the O(1S-3P) line at 297.2 nm, but the same line in the dayglow is very strong, as evidenced in earlier Mariner results [Barth et al., 1971], and from the recent Mars Express data [F. Leblanc, private communication]. The O(1D-3P) 630 nm red line is a feature associated with Io, where dissociation of SO2 is a presumed source [Scherb et al., 1998]. Thus, observation of the oxygen green/red lines in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets provides insufficient information to reach conclusions about a habitable environment. Such detection would only indicate that there are oxygen-containing molecules present. Determination of an O2 column depth, by Fraunhofer A-band absorption, would be much more conclusive. Akasofu, S.-I., EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 80, 397, 1999. Barth, C.A., C.W. Hord, J.B. Pearce, K.K. Kelly, G.P. Anderson, and A.I. Stewart, Mariner 6 and 7 Ultraviolet Spectrometer Experiment: Upper Atmosphere Data, Journal of Geophysical Research, 76, 2213-2227, 1971. Bertaux, J.-L., F. Leblanc, S. Perrier, E. Quemerais, O. Korablev, E. Dimarellis, A. Reberac, F. Forget, P

  13. ESCA study of several fluorocarbon polymers exposed to atomic oxygen in low earth orbit or within or downstream from a radio-frequency oxygen plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Wydeven, Theodore; Cormia, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    The ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) spectra of films of Tedlar, tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene copolymer (in the form of a Teflon FEP coating on Kapton H, i.e., Kapton F), and polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon or Teflon TFE), exposed to atomic oxygen O(3P) either in LEO on the STS-8 Space Shuttle or within or downstream from a radio-frequency oxygen plasma, were compared. The major difference in surface chemistry of Tedlar induced by the various exposures to O(3P) was a much larger uptake of oxygen when etched either in or out of the glow of an O2 plasma than when etched in LEO. In contrast, Kapton F exhibited very little surface oxidation during any of the three different exposures to O(3P), while Teflon was scarcely oxidized.

  14. Influence of atomic oxygen irradiation during deposition on crystallization of post-annealed barium zirconate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Fumitada; Shibata, Yoshikazu; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Sata, Noriko; Yugami, Hiroo

    2014-11-01

    The role of atomic oxygen irradiation in the epitaxial crystallization of yttrium-doped barium zirconate thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was investigated. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that, for films deposited without irradiation, random nucleation and growth occurred below the onset temperature for continuous crystallization at the film-interlayer interface. In contrast, for films deposited with oxygen irradiation, random nucleation and growth was not detected at the temperature of continuous crystallization, which facilitates epitaxial crystallization in these films. This study suggests the combined low temperature deposition with atomic oxygen irradiation and post-annealing could control microstructure of solid-state electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells and solid-state lithium secondary batteries.

  15. ESCA study of the effect of hydrocarbon contamination on poly(tetrafluoroethylene) exposed to atomic oxygen plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Wydeven, Theodore; Cormia, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    The ESCA spectra and data obtained by Morra et al. (1989) on poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) exposed to atomic oxygen plasma are closely reexamined. It is shown that the spikes observed in Morra et al. plots of O/C or F/C versus time of the exposure of PTFE to atomic oxygen plasma were not characteristic of PTFE per se but were instead a result of a contamination by hydrocarbon present in their PTFE samples. This was demonstrated experimentally by comparing data derived for a very clean PTFE sample exposed for 10, 20, and 30 min to oxygen plasma with data obtained on PTFE samples with very small amounts of hydrocarbon contamination.

  16. Effects of Contamination, UV Radiation, and Atomic Oxygen on ISS Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, Jim; Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, Jim; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal control surfaces on the International Space Station (ISS) have been tailored for optimum optical properties. The space environment, particularly contamination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO) may have a detrimental effect on these optical properties. These effects must be quantified for modeling and planning. Also of interest was the effect of porosity on the reaction to simulated space environment. Five materials were chosen for this study based on their use on ISS. The thermal control materials were Z-93 white coating, silverized Teflon, chromic acid anodized aluminum, sulfuric acid anodized aluminum, and 7075-T6 aluminum. Some of the samples were exposed to RTV 560 silicone; others were exposed to Tefzel offgassing products. Two samples of Z-93 were not exposed to contamination as clean "controls". VUV radiation was used to photo-fix the contaminant to the material surface, then the samples were exposed to AO. All samples were exposed to 1000 equivalent sun-hours (ESH) of vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) at the AZ Technology facility and a minimum of 1.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm of AO at Marshall Space Flight Center. Half of the samples were exposed to an additional 2000 ESH of VUV at Huntington Beach prior to sent to AZ Technology. Darkening of the Z-93 white coating was noted after VUV exposure. AO exposure did bleach the Z-93 but not back to its original brightness. Solar absorptance curves show the degradation due to contamination and VUV and the recovery with AO exposure. More bleaching was noted on the Tefzel-contaminated samples than with the RTV-contaminated samples.

  17. Protection of Diamond-like Carbon Films from Energetic Atomic Oxygen Degradation Through Si-doping Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, Kumiko; Tagawa, Masahito; Kitamura, Akira; Matsumoto, Koji; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden; Fontaine, Julien; Belin, Michel

    2009-01-05

    The effect of hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) exposure on the surface properties of Si-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) was investigated. Two types of DLC were tested that contain approximately 10 at% and 20 at% of Si atoms. Surface analytical results of high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy; SR-PES) as well as Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) have been used for characterization of the AO-exposed Si-doped DLC. It was identified by SR-PES that a SiO{sub 2} layer was formed by the hyperthermal AO exposure at the Si-doped DLC surface. RBS data indicates that AO exposure leads to severe thickness loss on the undopedd DLC. In contrast, a SiO{sub 2} layer formed by the hyperthermal atomic oxygen reaction of Si-doped DLC protects the DLC underneath the SiO{sub 2} layer.

  18. Atomic oxygen and temperature in the lower thermosphere from the O-STATES sounding rocket project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Jonas; Gumbel, Jörg; Megner, Linda; Stegman, Jacek; Seo, Mikael; Khaplanov, Mikhail; Slanger, Tom; Kalogerakis, Konstantinos; Friedrich, Martin; Torkar, Klaus; Eberhart, Martin; Löhle, Stefan; Fasoulas, Stefanos

    2016-04-01

    In October 2015 the O-STATES payload was launched twice from Esrange Space Center (67.9° N, 21.1° E) in northern Sweden, first into moderately disturbed and then into calm geomagnetic conditions. The basic idea of O-STATES ("Oxygen Species and Thermospheric Airglow in The Earth's Sky") is that comprehensive information on the composition, specifically atomic oxygen in the ground state O(3P) and first excited state O(1D), and temperature of the lower thermosphere can be obtained from a limited set of optical measurements. Starting point for the analysis are daytime measurements of the O2(b1 ∑ g+ ‑ X3 ∑ g‑) Atmospheric Band system in the spectral region 755-780 nm and the O(1D-3P) Red Line at 630 nm. In the daytime lower thermosphere, O(1D) is produced by O2 photolysis and the excited O2(b) state is mainly produced by energy transfer from O(1D) to the O2(X) ground state. In addition to O2 photolysis, both electron impact on O(3P) and dissociative recombination of O2+ are major sources of O(1D) in the thermosphere. Laboratory studies at SRI International have shown that O2(b) production in vibrational level v=1 dominates. While O2(b, v=0) is essentially unquenched, O2(b, v=1) is subject to collisional quenching that is dominated by O at altitudes above 160 km. Hence, the ratio of the Atmospheric Band emission from O2(b, v=1) and O2(b, v=0) is a measure of the O density at sufficiently high altitudes. In addition, the spectral shape of the O2 Atmospheric Band is temperature dependent and spectrally resolved measurements of the Atmospheric Bands thus provide a measure of atmospheric temperature. This O2 Atmospheric Band analysis has been suggested as a new technique for thermospheric remote sensing under the name Global Oxygen and Temperature (GOAT) Mapping. With O-STATES we want to characterize the GOAT technique by in-situ analysis of the O2 Atmospheric Band airglow and the underlying excitation mechanisms. By performing this dayglow analysis from a rocket

  19. A micro-thermoelectric gas sensor for detection of hydrogen and atomic oxygen.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Chul; Yoon, Seung-Il; Lee, Chung-il; Kim, Yong-Jun; Song, Soonho

    2009-02-01

    This paper demonstrates the fabrication and performance of a micro-thermoelectric gas sensor for an effective and inexpensive gas analysis system. The proposed micro-thermoelectric gas sensor was fabricated by using a surface micromachining technique. The sensing mechanism, consisting of thermoelectric material and a novel metal catalyst, was fabricated on the highly thermally resistive layer for reduced heat transfer to the substrate allowing for a simple fabrication process. The micro-thermoelectric gas sensor detects target gas species by measuring the reaction heat of the catalytic reaction between the target gas and a novel metal catalyst using Cu-Bi thermopiles. The catalytic reaction occurs only on the hot junction of the sensing thermopile where the metal catalyst is deposited. In order to reduce the external thermal noise, a difference between the output voltage of the sensing and the reference thermopiles was measured by using a differential amplifier. The response of the fabricated sensor was linear to temperature difference. The fabricated sensor can be used to detect various concentrations of hydrogen and atomic oxygen, where the output voltage linearly increased with the gas concentration. PMID:19173043

  20. Effects of Atomic Oxygen and Grease on Outgassing and Adhesion of Silicone Elastomers for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of silicone elastomers for seals used in docking and habitat systems for future space exploration vehicles is being conducted at NASA. For certain missions, NASA is considering androgynous docking systems where two vehicles each having a seal would be required to: dock for a period of time, seal effectively, and then separate with minimum push-off forces for undocking. Silicone materials are generally chosen for their wide operating temperatures and low leakage rates. However silicone materials are often sticky and usually exhibit considerable adhesion when mated against metals and silicone surfaces. This paper investigates the adhesion unit pressure for a space rated silicone material (S0383-70) for either seal-on-seal (SoS) or seal-on-aluminum (SoAl) operation modes in the following conditions: as-received, after ground-based atomic-oxygen (AO) pre-treatment, after application of a thin coating of a space-qualified grease (Braycote 601EF), and after a combination of AO pre-treatment and grease coating. In order of descending adhesion reduction, the AO treatment reduced seal adhesion the most, followed by the AO plus grease pre-treatment, followed by the grease treatment. The effects of various treatments on silicone (S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401) outgassing properties were also investigated. The leading adhesion AO pretreatment reduction led to a slight decrease in outgassing for the S0383-70 material and virtually no change in ELA-SA-401 outgassing.