Science.gov

Sample records for atomic physics experiments

  1. 3He: cosmological and atomic physics experiments.

    PubMed

    Bunkov, Yuriy M

    2008-08-28

    Because the superfluid 3He order parameter exhibits many similarities with that of our Universe, the superfluid condensate may be considered as a quantum vacuum that carries various types of quasiparticles and topological defects. The condensate thus provides a test system for the experimental investigation of many general physics problems in cosmology, atomic or nuclear physics that are otherwise difficult or even impossible to investigate experimentally. PMID:18539575

  2. Experiments in atomic and applied physics using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    A diverse program in atomic and applied physics using x rays produced at the X-26 beam line at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source is in progress. The atomic physics program studies the properties of multiply-ionized atoms using the x rays for photo-excitation and ionization of neutral atoms and ion beams. The applied physics program builds on the techniques and results of the atomic physics work to develop new analytical techniques for elemental and chemical characterization of materials. The results are then used for a general experimental program in biomedical sciences, geo- and cosmochemistry, and materials sciences. The present status of the program is illustrated by describing selected experiments. Prospects for development of new experimental capabilities are discussed in terms of a heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics experiments and the feasibility of photoelectron microscopy for high spatial resolution analytical work. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Atomic physics experiments at the high energy storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöhlker, Thomas; Litvinov, Yuri A.; for the SPARC Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), will offer unprecedented experimental opportunities. The Stored Particles Atomic Research Collaboration (SPARC) at FAIR aims at creating a worldwide unique research program with highly charged ions by utilizing storage ring and trapping facilities. The foreseen experiments will address physics at strong, ultra-short electromagnetic fields including the fundamental interactions between electrons and heavy nuclei as well as the experiments at the border between nuclear and atomic physics. In view of the staged construction of the FAIR facility, SPARC worked out an early realization scheme for experiments with highly-charged heavy-ions at relativistic energies to be conducted in the High-Energy Storage Ring.

  4. A Distributed GUI-based Computer Control System for Atomic Physics Experiments

    E-print Network

    Keshet, Aviv

    Atomic physics experiments often require a complex sequence of precisely timed computer controlled events. This paper describes a distributed graphical user interface-based control system designed with such experiments in ...

  5. A distributed, graphical user interface based, computer control system for atomic physics experiments

    E-print Network

    -based control system de- signed with such experiments in mind, which makes use of off-the-shelf output hardwareA distributed, graphical user interface based, computer control system for atomic physics OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 84, 015105 (2013) A distributed, graphical user interface based, computer control

  6. Using an Advanced Computational Laboratory Experiment to Extend and Deepen Physical Chemistry Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    A computational laboratory experiment is described, which involves the advanced study of an atomic system. The students use concepts and techniques typically covered in a physical chemistry course but extend those concepts and techniques to more complex situations. The students get a chance to explore the study of atomic states and perform…

  7. A Distributed GUI-based Computer Control System for Atomic Physics Experiments

    E-print Network

    Keshet, Aviv

    2012-01-01

    Atomic physics experiments often require a complex sequence of precisely timed computer controlled events. A distributed GUI-based control system designed with such experiments in mind, The Cicero Word Generator, is described. The system makes use of a client-server separation between a user interface for sequence design and a set of output hardware servers. Output hardware servers are designed to use standard National Instruments output cards, but the client-server nature allows this to be extended to other output hardware. Output sequences running on multiple servers and output cards can be synchronized using a shared clock. By using an FPGA-generated variable frequency clock, redundant buffers can be dramatically shortened, and a time resolution of 100ns achieved over effectively arbitrary sequence lengths.

  8. Advances in atomic physics

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbini, Tharwat M.

    2013-01-01

    In this review article, important developments in the field of atomic physics are highlighted and linked to research works the author was involved in himself as a leader of the Cairo University – Atomic Physics Group. Starting from the late 1960s – when the author first engaged in research – an overview is provided of the milestones in the fascinating landscape of atomic physics. PMID:26425356

  9. Experiments with $?^-$ atoms

    E-print Network

    C. J. Batty; E. Friedman; A. Gal

    1998-09-14

    Experiments with $\\Xi^-$ atoms are proposed in order to study the nuclear interaction of $\\Xi$ hyperons. The production of $\\Xi^-$ in the ($K^{-}$, $K^{+}$) reaction, the $\\Xi^-$ stopping in matter, and its atomic cascade are incorporated within a realistic evaluation of the results expected for $\\Xi^-$ X-ray spectra across the periodic table, using an assumed $\\Xi$-nucleus optical potential $V_{opt}$. Several optimal targets for measuring the strong-interaction shift and width of the X-ray transition to the `last' atomic level observed are singled out: F, Cl, I, Pb. The sensitivity of these observables to the parameters of $V_{opt}$ is considered. The relevance of such experiments is discussed in the context of strangeness -2 nuclear physics and multistrange nuclear matter. Finally, with particular reference to searches for the $H$ dibaryon, the properties of $\\Xi^-d$ atoms are also discussed. The role of Stark mixing, its effect on $S$ and $P$ state capture of $\\Xi^-$ by the deuteron, together with estimates of the resulting probability for producing the $H$ dibaryon are considered in detail.

  10. Storage-ring experiments on dielectronic recombination at the interface of atomic and nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandau, Carsten; Kozhuharov, Christophor; Lestinsky, Michael; Müller, Alfred; Schippers, Stefan; Stöhlker, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    A brief review about topical developments in the exploitation of the resonant electron–ion collision process of dielectronic recombination (DR) as a sensitive spectroscopic tool is given. The focus will be on DR storage-ring experiments of few-electron highly charged ions. Among others, the questions addressed in these studies cover diverse topics from the areas of strong-field quantum electrodynamics, of lifetime studies using DR resonances, and of nuclear physics. Examples from the storage rings CRYRING in Stockholm, TSR in Heidelberg, and ESR in Darmstadt are given. In addition, an overview is provided about the ongoing developments and future perspectives of DR collision spectroscopy at the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany.

  11. Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular and optical physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents a program of research initiatives in atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The current state of atomic, molecular, and optical physics in the US is examined with respect to demographics, education patterns, applications, and the US economy. Recommendations are made for each field, with discussions of their histories and the relevance of the research to government agencies. The section on atomic physics includes atomic theory, structure, and dynamics; accelerator-based atomic physics; and large facilities. The section on molecular physics includes spectroscopy, scattering theory and experiment, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The section on optical physics discusses lasers, laser spectroscopy, and quantum optics and coherence. A section elucidates interfaces between the three fields and astrophysics, condensed matter physics, surface science, plasma physics, atmospheric physics, and nuclear physics. Another section shows applications of the three fields in ultra-precise measurements, fusion, national security, materials, medicine, and other topics.

  12. First atomic physics experiments with cooled stored ion beams at the Heidelberg heavy-ion ring TSR

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.; Balykin, V.; Baumann, W.; Berger, J.; Bisoffi, G.; Blatt, P.; Blum, M.; Faulstich, A.; Friedrich, A.; Gerhard, M.; Geyer, C.; Grieser, M.; Grieser, R.; Habs, D.; Heyng, H.W.; Hochadel, B.; Holzer, B.; Huber, G.; Jaeschke, E.; Jung, M.; Karafillidis, A.; Kilgus, G.; Klein, R.; Kraemer, D.; Krause, P.; Krieg, M.; Kuehl, T.; Matl, K.; Mueller, A.; Music, M.; Neumann, R.; Neureither, G.; Ott, W.; Petrich, W.; Povh, B.; Repnow, R.; Schroeder, S.; Schuch, R.; Schwalm, D.; Sigray, P.; Steck, M.; Stokstad, R.; Szmola, E.; Wagner, M.; Wanner, B.; Welti, K.; Zwickler, S. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg Manne Siegbahn Institute , Stockholm Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Giessen, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung , Darmstadt (Fed

    1990-06-01

    An overview of atomic physics experiments at the heavy ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) is given. Highly charged ions up to fully stripped silicon have been stored at energies between 4 and 12 MeV/u. The enhancement of the beam intensity by stacking, the beam lifetime, and electron cooling of these ion beams are discussed. Radiative and state-selective dielectronic recombination rates of hydrogen-like oxygen ions with free electrons from the electron cooler were measured. Beam noise spectra are being investigated with regard to collective effects caused by the Coulomb interaction in the cold ion beams. Resonance fluorescence from stored single-charged ions was observed using tunable narrow-band lasers. First indications of laser cooling in a storage ring were seen.

  13. Contemporary Aspects of Atomic Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, R. G. A.

    1972-01-01

    The approach generally used in writing undergraduate textbooks on Atomic and Nuclear Physics presents this branch as historical in nature. Describes the concepts of astrophysics, plasma physics and spectroscopy as contemporary and intriguing for modern scientists. (PS)

  14. Theoretical atomic collision physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, N.F.

    1992-03-09

    The current focus of the research is low-energy (collision v<atom (including Rydberg atom) collisions with atoms, molecules and positive and negative ions: (1) We are interested in the dependence of various differential and total cross sections on the angular momentum of the initial excited state and on the alignment of the initial electron charge distribution (for non-spherical initially excited states). (2) We wish to understand how characteristics of the classical trajectories (in CTMC calculations), e.g. multiple encounters, quasi-periodicity, chaos, relate to characteristics of the probability (scattering) amplitudes obtained from semiclassical (quantum mechanical) treatments. (3) In particular, in order to investigate a range of interaction regimes,'' we have proposed to study low-Rydberg-atom collisions with: ions and polar molecules (long range interaction); non-polar molecules and atoms (short-range interaction); as well as electron-attaching atoms/molecules (transient electron capture possible). (4) We plan to look for observable signatures of possibly novel intracollisional interference effects and quasi-vibrational resonance effects that may occur in low-Rydberg collisions.

  15. A new data acquisition system for Schottky signals in atomic physics experiments at GSI's and FAIR's storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trageser, C.; Brandau, C.; Kozhuharov, C.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Müller, A.; Nolden, F.; Sanjari, S.; Stöhlker, T.

    2015-11-01

    A new continuous and broadband data acquisition system for measurements of Schottky-signals of ions revolving in a storage ring has been implemented. This set-up is capable of recording the radio frequency (RF) signal of the ions that circulate in the storage ring with a sustained acquisition rate of more than 3.5× {10}7 IQ-samples per second. This allows several harmonics of the full momentum acceptance of a storage ring to be measured at the same time. The RF signal analyzer modules are complemented by further electronic modules such as counters, precision clocks and synchronization modules that facilitate a seamless integration with main experimental data acquisitions for atomic and nuclear physics. In this contribution, the setup and first results from a test run at the experimental storage ring at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, are presented.

  16. Some Experiments in Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Kent R.

    1974-01-01

    The role of spectral color slides in laboratory situations is discussed, then experiments for secondary school students concerning color and wave length, evidence of quantization, and the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom are outlined. Teaching guidelines for creating a set of spectrograms and photographic specifications are provided. (DT)

  17. Bringing Atoms into First-Year Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabay, Ruth W.; Sherwood, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that thermal physics should not be treated as a separate topic in introductory physics. Provides an example of a course that emphasizes physical modeling of the phenomenon in terms of the atomic nature of matter. (Author/CCM)

  18. Project Physics Tests 5, Models of the Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Test items relating to Project Physics Unit 5 are presented in this booklet. Included are 70 multiple-choice and 23 problem-and-essay questions. Concepts of atomic model are examined on aspects of relativistic corrections, electron emission, photoelectric effects, Compton effect, quantum theories, electrolysis experiments, atomic number and mass,…

  19. Advances in atomic physics: Four decades of contribution of the Cairo University - Atomic Physics Group.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Tharwat M

    2015-09-01

    In this review article, important developments in the field of atomic physics are highlighted and linked to research works the author was involved in himself as a leader of the Cairo University - Atomic Physics Group. Starting from the late 1960s - when the author first engaged in research - an overview is provided of the milestones in the fascinating landscape of atomic physics. PMID:26425356

  20. Relativistic atomic physics at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses the following proposed work for relativistic atomic physics at the Superconducting Super Collider: Beam diagnostics; atomic physics research; staffing; education; budget information; statement concerning matching funds; description and justification of major items of equipment; statement of current and pending support; and assurance of compliance.

  1. Crucial Experiments in Quantum Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, George L.

    The six experiments included in this monography are titled Blackbody Radiation, Collision of Electrons with Atoms, The Photoelectric Effect, Magnetic Properties of Atoms, The Scattering of X-Rays, and Diffraction of Electrons by a Crystal Lattice. The discussion provides historical background by giving description of the original experiments and…

  2. Classical approach in atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solov'ev, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincaré section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormgroup symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well.

  3. B Physics (Experiment)

    E-print Network

    Michal Kreps

    2010-08-13

    In past few years the flavor physics made important transition from the work on confirmation the standard model of particle physics to the phase of search for effects of a new physics beyond standard model. In this paper we review current state of the physics of b-hadrons with emphasis on results with a sensitivity to new physics.

  4. Atomic Physics, Science (Experimental): 5318.42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petit, Ralph E.

    Presented is the study of modern and classical concepts of the atom; the structure of the atom as a mass-energy relationship; practical uses of radioactivity; isotopes; and the strange particles. Performance objectives (16) are included as well as a detailed course outline. Experiments, demonstrations, projects and reports to enhance student…

  5. Bringing atoms into first-year physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabay, Ruth W.; Sherwood, Bruce A.

    1999-12-01

    We argue that thermal physics should not be treated as a separate topic in introductory physics. The first-year calculus-based college physics should offer a modern, unified view of physics representative of the contemporary scientific enterprise. It should focus on the consequences of the central fact that matter is composed of atoms, and on the process of modeling physical systems. Such a focus is more interesting and relevant to students than a repetition of a purely classical treatment. We give an example of a course that emphasizes physical modeling of phenomena in terms of the atomic nature of matter. Thermal physics is woven into the entire course and is fully integrated with classical and semiclassical mechanics.

  6. Atomic and molecular physics of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Joachain, C.J.; Post, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    This book attempts to provide a comprehensive introduction to the atomic and molecular physics of controlled thermonuclear fusion, and also a self-contained source from which to start a systematic study of the field. Presents an overview of fusion energy research, general principles of magnetic confinement, and general principles of inertial confinement. Discusses the calculation and measurement of atomic and molecular processes relevant to fusion, and the atomic and molecular physics of controlled thermonuclear research devices. Topics include recent progress in theoretical methods for atomic collisions; current theoretical techniques for electron-atom and electronion scattering; experimental aspects of electron impact ionization and excitation of positive ions; the theory of charge exchange and ionization by heavy particles; experiments on electron capture and ionization by multiply charged ions; Rydberg states; atomic and molecular processes in high temperature, low-density magnetically confined plasmas; atomic processes in high-density plasmas; the plasma boundary region and the role of atomic and molecular processes; neutral particle beam production and injection; spectroscopic plasma diagnostics; and particle diagnostics for magnetic fusion experiments.

  7. Experiments on Quantum Transport of Ultra-Cold Atoms in Optical Potentials

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin. University of

    Chapter 8 Experiments on Quantum Transport of Ultra-Cold Atoms in Optical Potentials Martin C this chapter with a brief outlook into the future. 8.1.1 The Interaction of Atoms and Light The manipulation@physics.utexas.edu Fischer, M.C., Raizen, M.G.: Experiments on Quantum Transport of Ultra-Cold Atoms in Optical Potentials

  8. The Atomic hypothesis: Physical consequences

    E-print Network

    Martin Rivas

    2008-02-22

    The hypothesis that matter is made of some ultimate and indivisible objects, together the restricted relativity principle, establishes a constraint on the kind of variables we are allowed to use for the variational description of elementary particles. We consider that the atomic hypothesis not only states the indivisibility of elementary particles, but also that these ultimate objects, if not annihilated, cannot be modified by any interaction so that all allowed states of an elementary particle are only kinematical modifications of any one of them. Terefore, an elementary particle cannot have excited states. In this way, the kinematical group of spacetime symmetries not only defines the symmetries of the system, but also the variables in terms of which the mathematical description of the elementary particles can be expressed in either the classical or the quantum mechanical description. When considering the interaction of two Dirac particles, the atomic hypothesis restricts the interaction Lagrangian to a kind of minimal coupling interaction.

  9. ELECTRONIC SPUTTERING: FROM ATOMIC PHYSICS

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Physics at the University of Uppsala in Sweden. The surprising fact that even very complex molecules can of Saturn. (From J. T. Trauger, Science 226, 337, 1984.) Figure 1 moons of the giant planets by energetic

  10. Atomic physics of highly ionized atoms. Vol. B96

    SciTech Connect

    Marrus, R.

    1983-01-01

    Interest in the atomic physics of multicharged ions has grown. In the fusion program, the spectra of these ions is an important diagnostic tool. Moreover the presence of multicharged ions presents a serious energy loss mechanism in fusion devices. This fact has motivated a program to study the collision mechanisms involved. In another area, multicharged ions are present in the solar corona and the interstellar medium and knowledge of their collision properties and spectra is essential to understanding the astrophysics. Other possible applications are to x-ray lasers and heavy ion inertial fusion. On a more fundamental level, new possibilities for testing quantum electrodynamics with multicharged ions have emerged. As a result, there has been a large world-wide effort to study the atomic physics of these ions. The goal of the organizers of the school was to put together a set of courses which would survey some of the broad areas of study. Theoretical and experimental efforts both in spectroscopy and collision physics were included, and are summarized in the chapters contained herein. In addition, courses were given in related topics such as ion source development and higly-ionized atoms in Tokamak discharges.

  11. Using Physical Experiments as Oracles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggs, Edwin J.

    In my talk I will consider how a digital computer (a Turing machine for the sake of being definite) could communicate with the physical world. Turing himself gave a mythological name to an external source of information for a computer - an oracle. We shall consider how a physical experiment can be used to function as an oracle for a computer - a physical oracle. Thought experiments can be constructed using various physical theories, and we will examine their properties when used as oracles. The fundamental ideas we have to introduce into oracles for this are the time taken to perform the experiment, and the possibility of error in the answer.

  12. High School Physics Teaching Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-04-01

    We divided our high school physics teaching experience into three groups: first year teaching physics, second or third year teaching physics, and four or more years of experience teaching physics. We did this because everything is new for teachers teaching a course for the first time. The second and third time through the course, teachers learn from past experiences and hone their approaches. By the time a teacher is in the fourth year of teaching a course, he or she is more comfortable with the material and better able to understand the ways in which different approaches work with different topics.

  13. Electrostatic atomization--Experiment, theory and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, H.; Kelly, Arnold J.

    1996-05-01

    Experimental and theoretical research has been initiated at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory on the electrostatic atomization process in collaboration with Charged Injection Corporation. The goal of this collaboration is to set up a comprehensive research and development program on the electrostatic atomization at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory so that both institutions can benefit from the collaboration. Experimental, theoretical and numerical simulation approaches are used for this purpose. An experiment consisting of a capillary sprayer combined with a quadrupole mass filter and a charge detector was installed at the Electrostatic Atomization Laboratory to study fundamental properties of the charged droplets such as the distribution of charges with respect to the droplet radius. In addition, a numerical simulation model is used to study interaction of beam electrons with atmospheric pressure water vapor, supporting an effort to develop an electrostatic water mist fire-fighting nozzle.

  14. Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6) Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    An atomic oxygen fluence monitor was flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6). The monitor was designed to measure the accumulation of atomic oxygen fluence with time as it impinged upon the ram surface of the MISSE 6B Passive Experiment Container (PEC). This was an active experiment for which data was to be stored on a battery-powered data logger for post-flight retrieval and analysis. The atomic oxygen fluence measurement was accomplished by allowing atomic oxygen to erode two opposing wedges of pyrolytic graphite that partially covered a photodiode. As the wedges of pyrolytic graphite erode, the area of the photodiode that is illuminated by the Sun increases. The short circuit current, which is proportional to the area of illumination, was to be measured and recorded as a function of time. The short circuit current from a different photodiode, which was oriented in the same direction and had an unobstructed view of the Sun, was also to be recorded as a reference current. The ratio of the two separate recorded currents should bear a linear relationship with the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence and be independent of the intensity of solar illumination. Ground hyperthermal atomic oxygen exposure facilities were used to evaluate the linearity of the ratio of short circuit current to the atomic oxygen fluence. In flight, the current measurement circuitry failed to operate properly, thus the overall atomic oxygen mission fluence could only be estimated based on the physical erosion of the pyrolytic graphite wedges. The atomic oxygen fluence was calculated based on the knowledge of the space atomic oxygen erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite measured from samples on the MISSE 2. The atomic oxygen fluence monitor, the expected result and comparison of mission atomic oxygen fluence based on the erosion of the pyrolytic graphite and Kapton H atomic oxygen fluence witness samples are presented in this paper.

  15. Future directions in kaonic atom physics

    E-print Network

    E. Friedman

    2011-11-30

    Recent progress and open problems in kaonic atom physics are presented. A connection between phenomenological deep potentials and the underlying $K^-N$ interaction is established as well as the need for a theory for multinucleon absorption of kaons. $K^-$ absorption at rest to specific $\\Lambda $ hypernuclei states is briefly discussed.

  16. Experiments with Quantum Degenerate Atomic Strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Mi; Desalvo, Brian; Huang, Ying; Balasubramanian, Ramachand; Pu, Han; Killian, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We will describe experiments with quantum degenerate gases of atomic strontium. We are able to produce Bose-Einstein condensates of ^84Sr and quantum degenerate mixtures of ^87Sr (fermion) and ^88Sr (boson). With ^88Sr we have demonstrated control over condensate dynamics with an optical Feshbach resonance and have developed tools to model the dynamics after a rapid change in scattering length. We will describe photoassociative spectroscopy near the ^1S0-^3P1 atomic asymptote for various isotopes and the calculation of parameters for optical Feshbach resonances. We will also discuss our recent progress loading condensates into optical lattices.

  17. Atomic frequency standard relativistic Doppler shift experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, H. E.; Reinhardt, V. S.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment has been performed to measure possible space anisotropy as it would effect the frequency of a cesium atomic beam standard clock in a laboratory on earth due to motion relative to external coordinate frames. The cesium frequency was measured as a function of orientation with respect to an atomic hydrogen maser standard. Over a period of 34 days 101 measurements were made. The results are consistent with a conclusion that no general orientation dependance attributable to spacial anisotropy was observed. It is shown that both the airplane clock results, and the null results for the atomic beam clock, are consistent with Einstein general or special relativity, or with the Lorentz transformations alone.

  18. CAI Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Robert E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a novel instructional method for physics involving the use of a computer assisted instruction system equipped with cathode-ray-tube terminals, light pen, and keyboard input. Discusses exercises with regard to content, mediation, scoring and control. Several examples of exercises are given along with results from student evaluation. (LC)

  19. Planning a School Physics Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasiak, Wladyslaw

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for planning the measurement of physical quantities. Provides two examples of optimizing the conditions of indirect measurement for laboratory experiments which involve measurements of acceleration due to gravity and of viscosity by means of Stokes' formula. (ML)

  20. Rb atomic magnetometer toward EDM experiment with laser cooled francium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Ando, Shun; Aoki, Takahiro; Arikawa, Hiroshi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Hayamizu, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Taisuke; Itoh, Masatoshi; Kato, Ko; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Sakamoto, Kosuke; Uchiyama, Aiko; Asahi, Koichiro; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-01

    A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle or an atom is a suited observable to test the physics beyond the standard model. We plan to search for the electron EDM by using the laser cooled francium (Fr) atom, since the Fr atom has a large enhancement factor of the electron EDM and the laser cooling techniques can suppress both statistical and systematic errors. In the EDM experiment, a fluctuation of the magnetic field is a main source of the errors. In order to achieve the high precision magnetometry, a magnetometer based on the nonlinear magneto-optical rotation effect of the Rb atom is under development. A long coherence time of Rb atom is the key issue for the highly sensitive detection of the field fluctuations. The coherence time is limited due both to collisions with an inner surface of a cell contained the Rb atom and to residual field in a magnetic shield. We prepared the cell coated with an anti-relaxation material and measured the relaxation time. A degauss of the shield was performed to eliminate the residual field. We will report the present status of the magnetometer. A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle or an atom is a suited observable to test the physics beyond the standard model. We plan to search for the electron EDM by using the laser cooled francium (Fr) atom, since the Fr atom has a large enhancement factor of the electron EDM and the laser cooling techniques can suppress both statistical and systematic errors. In the EDM experiment, a fluctuation of the magnetic field is a main source of the errors. In order to achieve the high precision magnetometry, a magnetometer based on the nonlinear magneto-optical rotation effect of the Rb atom is under development. A long coherence time of Rb atom is the key issue for the highly sensitive detection of the field fluctuations. The coherence time is limited due both to collisions with an inner surface of a cell contained the Rb atom and to residual field in a magnetic shield. We prepared the cell coated with an anti-relaxation material and measured the relaxation time. A degauss of the shield was performed to eliminate the residual field. We will report the present status of the magnetometer. Supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientic Research (Nos. 21104005 and 26220705).

  1. More Homespun Experiments in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how some experiments in physics can be presented in class using cheap materials. How to produce an electrostatic charge using a polythene bottle and how to make a tissue paper electroscope using a tin can are among the experiments described. (HM)

  2. Efimov physics in {sup 6}Li atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Braaten, Eric; Hammer, H.-W.; Kang, Daekyoung; Platter, Lucas

    2010-01-15

    A new narrow three-atom loss resonance associated with an Efimov trimer crossing the three-atom threshold has recently been discovered in a many-body system of ultracold {sup 6}Li atoms in the three lowest hyperfine spin states at a magnetic field near 895 G. O'Hara and coworkers have used measurements of the three-body recombination rate in this region to determine the complex three-body parameter associated with Efimov physics. Using this parameter as the input, we calculate the universal predictions for the spectrum of Efimov states and for the three-body recombination rate in the universal region above 600 G where all three scattering lengths are large. We predict an atom-dimer loss resonance at 672+-2 G associated with an Efimov trimer disappearing through an atom-dimer threshold. We also predict an interference minimum in the three-body recombination rate at 759+-1 G where the three-spin mixture may be sufficiently stable to allow experimental study of the many-body system.

  3. 8.422 Atomic and Optical Physics II, Spring 2005

    E-print Network

    Chuang, Isaac

    This is the second of a two-semester subject sequence beginning with Atomic and Optical Physics I (8.421) that provides the foundations for contemporary research in selected areas of atomic and optical physics. Topics ...

  4. Handbook explaining the fundamentals of nuclear and atomic physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanlen, D. F.; Morse, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Indoctrination document presents nuclear, reactor, and atomic physics in an easy, straightforward manner. The entire subject of nuclear physics including atomic structure ionization, isotopes, radioactivity, and reactor dynamics is discussed.

  5. PhD STUDENT IN ATOMIC THEORY The Theory group in the Atomic Physics division, Department of Physics, Stockholm

    E-print Network

    Lindroth, Eva

    PhD STUDENT IN ATOMIC THEORY The Theory group in the Atomic Physics division, Department of Physics Negative Ions and Photodetachment Relativistic Many-Body theory of atomic structure Highly Charged Ions ­ Resonances- in Atoms and Ions Recombination processes in electron-ion collisions - Dielectronic Recombination

  6. The 12th International Conference on Atomic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Robert R.; Rich, Arthur

    1991-02-01

    The conference began with a session devoted to the Nobel Laureates in Physics for 1989, all of whom were from the Atomic Physics community; Norman Ramsey and Hans Dehmelt spoke but Wolfgang Paul was unable to attend. Some sessions were titled as follows: Fundamental Laws and Constants; Atom and Ion Manipulation; Nonlinear Physics and Chaos; Quantum Optics and Other Laser Techniques; Photoionization Processes; Plasma Physics; Atomic Spectroscopy and Structure - Theory; Atomic Spectroscopy and Structure - Experimental; Molecular Spectroscopy and Structure, Surfaces, and Clusters; Atomic, Ionic, and Molecular Collisions; Electron and Positron Collisions; and Exotic Atomic and Special Topics.

  7. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2001-01-01

    This paper illustrates experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes, their molecular structure transitions, and their agglomeration times were estimated. article sizes of 1.8 to 4.6 mm (0.07 to 0. 18 in.) were measured. The particle agglomeration times were 0.5 to 11 min, depending on the loading of particles in the dewar. These experiments are the first step toward visually characterizing these particles, and allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  8. Research in atomic and applied physics using a 6-GeV synchrotron source

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.

    1985-12-01

    The Division of Atomic and Applied Physics in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts a broad program of research using ion beams and synchrotron radiation for experiments in atomic physics and nuclear analytical techniques and applications. Many of the experiments would benefit greatly from the use of high energy, high intensity photon beams from a 6-GeV synchrotron source. A survey of some of the specific scientific possibilities is presented.

  9. Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E.B.

    1997-05-15

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment is proposed for experimental studies of spheromak confinement issues in a controlled way: in steady state relative to the confinement timescale and at low collisionality. Experiments in a flux - conserver will provide data on transport in the presence of resistive modes in shear-stabilized systems and establish operating regimes which pave the way for true steady-state experiments with the equilibrium field supplied by external coils. The proposal is based on analysis of past experiments, including the achievement of T{sub e} = 400 eV in a decaying spheromak in CTX. Electrostatic helicity injection from a coaxial ``gun`` into a shaped flux conserver will form and sustain the plasma for several milliseconds. The flux conserver minimizes fluxline intersection with the walls and provides MHD stability. Improvements from previous experiments include modem wall conditioning (especially boronization), a divertor for density and impurity control, and a bias magnetic flux for configurational flexibility. The bias flux will provide innovative experimental opportunities, including testing helicity drive on the large-radius plasma boundary. Diagnostics include Thomson scattering for T{sub e} measurements and ultra-short pulse reflectrometry to measure density and magnetic field profiles and turbulence. We expect to operate at T{sub e} of several hundred eV, allowing improved understanding of energy and current transport due to resistive MHD turbulence during sustained operation. This will provide an exciting advance in spheromak physics and a firm basis for future experiments in the fusion regime.

  10. MISSE Scattered Atomic Oxygen Characterization Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment designed to measure the atomic oxygen (AO) erosion profile of scattered AO was exposed to Low Earth Orbital (LEO) AO for almost four years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 1 and 2 (MISSE 1 and 2). The experiment was flown in MISSE Passive Experiment Carrier 2 (PEC 2), Tray 1, attached to the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) Quest Airlock. The experiment consisted of an aperture disk lid of Kapton H (DuPont) polyimide coated on the space exposed surface with a thin AO durable silicon dioxide film. The aperture lid had a small hole in its center to allow AO to enter into a chamber and impact a base disk of aluminum. The AO that scattered from the aluminum base could react with the under side of the aperture lid which was coated sporadically with microscopic sodium chloride particles. Scattered AO erosion can occur to materials within a spacecraft that are protected from direct AO attack but because of apertures in the spacecraft the AO can attack the interior materials after scattering. The erosion of the underside of the Kapton lid was sufficient to be able to use profilometry to measure the height of the buttes that remained after washing off the salt particles. The erosion pattern indicated that peak flux of scattered AO occurred at and angle of approximately 45 from the incoming normal incidence on the aluminum base unlike the erosion pattern predicted for scattering based on Monte Carlo computational predictions for AO scattering from Kapton H polyimide. The effective erosion yield for the scattered AO was found to be a factor of 0.214 of that for direct impingement on Kapton H polyimide.

  11. Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases: atomic physics meets condensed matter physics

    E-print Network

    of quantum fluids. They are produced by cooling a dilute atomic gas to nanokelvin temperatures using laser and immiscibility of quantum fluids, and finite-size effects. Keywords: Bose-Einstein condensation; collective. Ketterle Department of Physics and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute

  12. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 012509 (2013) Blackbody-radiation shift in the Sr optical atomic clock

    E-print Network

    Safronova, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 012509 (2013) Blackbody-radiation shift in the Sr optical atomic clock M. S of optical atomic clocks. The Sr clock transition has the largest BBR shift of all optical frequency optical lattice clock. We suggest future experiments that could further reduce the present uncertainties

  13. Atomic physics and non-equilibrium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Weisheit, J.C.

    1986-04-25

    Three lectures comprise the report. The lecture, Atomic Structure, is primarily theoretical and covers four topics: (1) Non-relativistic one-electron atom, (2) Relativistic one-electron atom, (3) Non-relativistic many-electron atom, and (4) Relativistic many-electron atom. The lecture, Radiative and Collisional Transitions, considers the problem of transitions between atomic states caused by interactions with radiation or other particles. The lecture, Ionization Balance: Spectral Line Shapes, discusses collisional and radiative transitions when ionization and recombination processes are included. 24 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Physics with the ALICE experiment

    E-print Network

    Yuri Kharlov; for the ALICE collaboration

    2012-03-09

    ALICE experiment at LHC collects data in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV and in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. Highlights of the detector performance and an overview of experimental results measured with ALICE in pp and AA collisions are presented in this paper. Physics with proton-proton collisions is focused on hadron spectroscopy at low and moderate $p_T$. Measurements with lead-lead collisions are shown in comparison with those in pp collisions, and the properties of hot quark matter are discussed.

  15. Physics with the ALICE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kharlov, Yu. V.

    2013-12-15

    ALICE experiment at LHC collects data in pp collisions at 1497-1 = 0.9, 2.76, and 7 TeV and in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. Highlights of the detector performance and an overview of experimental results measured with ALICE in pp and AA collisions are presented in this paper. Physics with protonproton collisions is focused on hadron spectroscopy at low and moderate p{sub t}. Measurements with lead-lead collisions are shown in comparison with those in pp collisions, and the properties of hot quark matter are discussed.

  16. Project Physics Text 5, Models of the Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Basic atomic theories are presented in this fifth unit of the Project Physics text for use by senior high students. Chemical basis of atomic models in the early years of the 18th Century is discussed n connection with Dalton's theory, atomic properties, and periodic tables. The discovery of electrons is described by using cathode rays, Millikan's…

  17. Atomic physics of strongly correlated systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses: the study of coulombic 3-body systems in hyperspherical coordinates; further studies of electron correlations in doubly excited states of atoms; and theoretical studies of ion-atom collisions.

  18. Atomic physics of strongly correlated systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.D.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses: the study of coulombic 3-body systems in hyperspherical coordinates; further studies of electron correlations in doubly excited states of atoms; and theoretical studies of ion-atom collisions.

  19. Experiment Design and Analysis Guide - Neutronics & Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Misti A Lillo

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a consistent, standardized approach to performing neutronics/physics analysis for experiments inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This document provides neutronics/physics analysis guidance to support experiment design and analysis needs for experiments irradiated in the ATR. This guide addresses neutronics/physics analysis in support of experiment design, experiment safety, and experiment program objectives and goals. The intent of this guide is to provide a standardized approach for performing typical neutronics/physics analyses. Deviation from this guide is allowed provided that neutronics/physics analysis details are properly documented in an analysis report.

  20. On the utility and ubiquity of atomic collision physics

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts. In the introduction, we discuss the history and makeup of ICPEAC. In the second part, we discuss the extent of applicability of atomic collision physics. In the third part, we chose one subject (dielectronic excitation) to show the interrelationship of various sub-branches of atomic collision physics. 28 refs., 14 figs.

  1. 1. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF ATOMIC PHYSICS OBSERVATORY WHICH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF ATOMIC PHYSICS OBSERVATORY WHICH CONTAINS THE WHITE DOME STRUCTURE. THE SHED-LIKE STRUCTURE TO THE LEFT IS THE SEARCH-LIGHT BUILDING. - Carnegie Institute of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Atomic Physics Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Atomic oxygen exposure of LDEF experiment trays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic oxygen exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The calculations are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation on atomic oxygen flux. Results incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the 6-year flight of the spacecraft. To facilitate use of the data, both detailed tabulations and summary charts for atomic oxygen fluences are presented.

  3. Atomic Force Microscope: Modeling, Simulations, and Experiments

    E-print Network

    El Rifai, Osamah M.

    The quality of atomic force microscope (AFM) data strongly depends on scan and controller parameters. Data artifacts can result from poor dynamic response of the instrument. In order to achieve reliable data, dynamic ...

  4. Origin of the Universal Three-body Parameter in Atomic Efimov Physic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidon, Pascal; Endo, Shimpei; Ueda, Masahito

    2013-05-01

    Several experiments with different kinds of ultra-cold atoms have revealed that the three-body parameter that fixes the Efimov spectrum of few-atom systems near broad Feshbach resonances is universally determined by the atoms' van der Waals length. Using model potential calculations we find that the three-body parameter originates from a deformation of the three-atom system due to universal two-body correlations at separations on the order of the van der Waals length scale. This simple physical picture is consistent with the universality of the three-body parameter observed in the experiments, as well as previous numerical calculations. It explains why the low-energy physics of three bosonic atoms near a broad resonance is solely determined by their two-body parameters.

  5. Precision physics of simple atoms: QED tests, nuclear structure and fundamental constants

    E-print Network

    Savely G. Karshenboim

    2005-09-01

    Quantum electrodynamics is the first successful and still the most successful quantum field theory. Simple atoms, being essentially QED systems, allow highly accurate theoretical predictions. Because of their simple spectra, such atoms have been also efficiently studied experimentally frequently offering the most precisely measured quantities. Our review is devoted to comparison of theory and experiment in the field of precision physics of light simple atoms. In particular, we consider the Lamb shift in the hydrogen atom, the hyperfine structure in hydrogen, deuterium, helium-3 ion, muonium and positronium, as well as a number of other transitions in positronium. Additionally to a spectrum of unperturbed atoms, we consider annihilation decay of positronium and the g factor of bound particles in various two-body atoms. Special attention is paid to the uncertainty of the QED calculations due to the uncalculated higher-order corrections and effects of the nuclear structure. We also discuss applications of simple atoms to determination of several fundamental constants.

  6. Theoretical Atomic Physics code development IV: LINES, A code for computing atomic line spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, J. Jr.; Clark, R.E.H.

    1988-12-01

    A new computer program, LINES, has been developed for simulating atomic line emission and absorption spectra using the accurate fine structure energy levels and transition strengths calculated by the (CATS) Cowan Atomic Structure code. Population distributions for the ion stages are obtained in LINES by using the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) model. LINES is also useful for displaying the pertinent atomic data generated by CATS. This report describes the use of LINES. Both CATS and LINES are part of the Theoretical Atomic PhysicS (TAPS) code development effort at Los Alamos. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Atomic Structure Calculations from the Los Alamos Atomic Physics Codes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cowan, R. D.

    The well known Hartree-Fock method of R.D. Cowan, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is used for the atomic structure calculations. Electron impact excitation cross sections are calculated using either the distorted wave approximation (DWA) or the first order many body theory (FOMBT). Electron impact ionization cross sections can be calculated using the scaled hydrogenic method developed by Sampson and co-workers, the binary encounter method or the distorted wave method. Photoionization cross sections and, where appropriate, autoionizations are also calculated. Original manuals for the atomic structure code, the collisional excitation code, and the ionization code, are available from this website. Using the specialized interface, you will be able to define the ionization stage of an element and pick the initial and final configurations. You will be led through a series of web pages ending with a display of results in the form of cross sections, collision strengths or rates coefficients. Results are available in tabular and graphic form.

  8. Bounds on New Physics from Parity Violation in Atomic Cesium

    E-print Network

    D. Dominici

    1999-09-08

    A recent experimental determination of the weak charge of atomic cesium is used to get implications for possible new physics. The new data imply positive upper and lower bounds on the new physics contribution to the weak charge, delta_N Q_W, requiring new physics of a type not severely constrained by the high energy precision data.

  9. Atomic physics: An almost lightless laser

    E-print Network

    Vuletic, Vladan

    Lasers are often described in terms of a light field circulating in an optical resonator system. Now a laser has been demonstrated in which the field resides primarily in the atomic medium that is used to generate the light.

  10. Atomic physics of strongly correlated systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    This abstract describes the programs just completed in the last year and projects currently underway in our study of strongly correlated atomic systems. The radiative and Auger decays of high doubly-excited states of multiply charged ions have been examined to extract simple systematics and propensity rules. The rotational and vibrational characters of doubly excited states of atoms were examined to understand the molecular characters of these states and their limitations. Double capture to doubly excited states in the collisions between multiply charged ions with helium atoms have been calculated and the angular distributions of the ejected electrons are being investigated. The Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method has been applied to calculate the coherence parameters of excited states formed in collisions of atomic hydrogen with electrons, positrons, protons and antiprotons to examine the range of validity of the classical theory for such parameters. 5 refs.

  11. Atomic physics and radiation processes in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, K.; Salzmann, D.; Takabe, H.; Kato, T.

    1993-08-01

    It is pointed out that atomic and molecular (A/M) processes play important roles in divertor plasmas but the problems related to these processes are not yet studied quantitatively. Recently new subjects related to A/M processes such as plasma-vapor interaction during plasma disruption are presented. This is a brief summary of our discussions. Our recent results of the calculations for the line emissions of carbon atoms in edge plasmas are also included.

  12. Quantum Hall Physics with Cold Atoms in Cylindrical Optical Lattices

    E-print Network

    Mateusz ??cki; Hannes Pichler; Antoine Sterdyniak; Andreas Lyras; Vassilis E. Lembessis; Omar Al-Dossary; Jan Carl Budich; Peter Zoller

    2015-10-15

    We propose and study various realizations of a Hofstadter-Hubbard model on a cylinder geometry with fermionic cold atoms in optical lattices. The cylindrical optical lattice is created by copropagating Laguerre-Gauss beams, i.e.~light beams carrying orbital angular momentum. By strong focusing of the light beams we create a real space optical lattice in the form of rings, which are offset in energy. A second set of Laguerre-Gauss beams then induces a Raman-hopping between these rings, imprinting phases corresponding to a synthetic magnetic field (artificial gauge field). In addition, by rotating the lattice potential, we achieve a slowly varying flux through the hole of the cylinder, which allows us to probe the Hall response of the system as a realization of Laughlin's thought experiment. We study how in the presence of interactions fractional quantum Hall physics could be observed in this setup.

  13. ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 2, SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

    THE AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THIS TEXT WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, OFFERING SELF-TUTORING MATERIAL FOR LEARNING ATOMIC PHYSICS. THE TOPICS COVERED ARE (1) ISOTOPES AND MASS NUMBERS, (2) MEASURING ATOMIC MASS, (3) DISCOVERY OF THE NUCLEUS, (4) STRUCTURE OF THE NUCLEUS, (5) DISCOVERY OF THE NEUTRON, (6) NUCLEAR REACTIONS,…

  14. Physics of Polarized Scattering at Multi-level Atomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    2015-03-01

    The symmetric peak observed in linear polarization in the core of the solar sodium D1 line at 5896 Å has remained enigmatic since its discovery nearly two decades ago. One reason is that the theory of polarized scattering has not been experimentally tested for multi-level atomic systems in the relevant parameter domains, although the theory is continually being used for the interpretation of astrophysical observations. A laboratory experiment that was set up a decade ago to find out whether the D1 enigma is a problem of solar physics or quantum physics revealed that the D1 system has a rich polarization structure in situations where standard scattering theory predicts zero polarization, even when optical pumping of the m state populations of the hyperfine-split ground state is accounted for. Here we show that the laboratory results can be modeled in great quantitative detail if the theory is extended to include the coherences in both the initial and final states of the scattering process. Radiative couplings between the allowed dipole transitions generate coherences in the initial state. Corresponding coherences in the final state are then demanded by a phase closure selection rule. The experimental results for the well understood D2 line are used to constrain the two free parameters of the experiment, collision rate and optical depth, to suppress the need for free parameters when fitting the D1 results.

  15. NASA GSFC Science Symposium on Atomic and Molecular Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Anand K. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of a conference on atomic and molecular physics in honor of the retirements of Dr. Aaron Temkin and Dr. Richard Drachman. The conference contained discussions on electron, positron, atomic, and positronium physics, as well as a discussion on muon catalyzed fusion. This proceedings document also contains photographs taken at the symposium, as well as speeches and a short biography made in tribute to the retirees.

  16. Atomic physics of strongly correlated systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chii-Dong.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the progress made in our continuing study of strongly correlated atomic systems within the last year. We have examined the shape of three-body systems in hyperspherical coordinates by studying the evolution of the density functions with the mass ratio of the particles in the system. We have calculated the ejected electron spectra from the autoionizing states formed in double capture processes in collisions of multiply charged ions with atoms. We have investigated the systematics and the propensity rules of radiative and Auger decay rates of high-lying doubly excited states. We have also studied ion-atom collisions for processes which pose great challenges to detailed theories, by looking into processes where the cross sections are small such as the excitation process in He{sup ++} + H collisions, or by looking into fine details such as the orientation parameters in excitation and charge transfer processes.

  17. Clock Technology Development for the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klipstein, W. M.; Thompson, R. J.; Seidel, D. J.; Kohel, J.; Maleki, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Time and Frequency Sciences and Technology Group at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed a laser cooling capability for flight and has been selected by NASA to support the Laser-Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program. Current work in the group includes design and development for tee two laser-cooled atomic clock experiments which have been selected for flight on the International Space Station.

  18. Atomic physics with highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

  19. The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Abdallah, J., Jr.; Clark, R. E. H.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Colgan, J.; Cunningham, R. T.; Hakel, P.; Magee, N. H.; Sherrill, M. E.

    2015-07-01

    The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes is a robust, mature platform that has been used to model highly charged ions in a variety of ways. The suite includes capabilities for calculating data related to fundamental atomic structure, as well as the processes of photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation and ionization, photoionization and autoionization within a consistent framework. These data can be of a basic nature, such as cross sections and collision strengths, which are useful in making predictions that can be compared with experiments to test fundamental theories of highly charged ions, such as quantum electrodynamics. The suite can also be used to generate detailed models of energy levels and rate coefficients, and to apply them in the collisional-radiative modeling of plasmas over a wide range of conditions. Such modeling is useful, for example, in the interpretation of spectra generated by a variety of plasmas. In this work, we provide a brief overview of the capabilities within the Los Alamos relativistic suite along with some examples of its application to the modeling of highly charged ions.

  20. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 043429 (2013) Coherent manipulation of cold Rydberg atoms near the surface of an atom chip

    E-print Network

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 043429 (2013) Coherent manipulation of cold Rydberg atoms near the surface of an atom chip J. D. Carter and J. D. D. Martin Department of Physics and Astronomy and Institute atoms were studied near the surface of an atom chip. The superpositions were created and manipulated

  1. Physical Science Experiments for Scientific Glassblowing Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillis, Samuel E.; Donaghay, Herbert C.

    The twenty experiments in this text have been designed to give the scientific glassblowing technician the opportunity to use scientific glass apparatus in the study of physical science. Primary emphasis of these experiments is on the practical application of the physical science program as a working tool for the scientific glassblowing technician.…

  2. Atomic oxygen effects on LDEF experiment AO171

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Norwood, Joseph K.

    1993-01-01

    The Solar Array Materials Passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment (SAMPLE), AO171, contained in total approximately 100 materials and materials processes with a 300 specimen complement. With the exception of experiment solar cell and solar cell modules, all test specimens were weighed before flight, thus allowing an accurate determination of mass loss as a result of space exposure. Since almost all of the test specimens were thermal vacuum baked before flight, the mass loss sustained can be attributed principally to atomic oxygen attack. The atomic oxygen effects observed and measured in five classes of materials is documented. The atomic oxygen reactivity values generated for these materials are compared to those values derived for the same materials from exposures on short term shuttle flights. An assessment of the utility of predicting long term atomic oxygen effects from short term exposures is given. This experiment was located on Row 8 position A which allowed all experiment materials to be exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 6.93 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(sup 2) as a result of being positioned 38 degrees off the RAM direction.

  3. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  4. Atoms in Flight and the Remarkable Connections between Atomic and Hadronic Physics

    E-print Network

    Stanley J. Brodsky

    2011-12-22

    Atomic physics and hadron physics are both based on Yang Mills gauge theory; in fact, quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics provide important insight into the theory of hadrons in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of light-front relativistic equations of motion which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The renormalization scale for the running coupling, which is unambiguously set in QED, leads to a method for setting the renormalization scale in QCD. The production of atoms in flight provides a method for computing the formation of hadrons at the amplitude level. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, and light-front quantization have equal utility for atomic physics, especially in the relativistic domain. I also present a new perspective for understanding the contributions to the cosmological constant from QED and QCD.

  5. Atoms in Flight: The Remarkable Connections between Atomic and Hadronic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-16

    Atomic physics and hadron physics are both based on Yang Mills gauge theory; in fact, quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics provide important insight into the theory of hadrons in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of light-front relativistic equations of motion which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The renormalization scale for the running coupling, which is unambiguously set in QED, leads to a method for setting the renormalization scale in QCD. The production of atoms in flight provides a method for computing the formation of hadrons at the amplitude level. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, and light-front quantization have equal utility for atomic physics, especially in the relativistic domain. I also present a new perspective for understanding the contributions to the cosmological constant from QED and QCD.

  6. The physics of coal liquid slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Chigier, N.; Mansour, A.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted on a two dimensional twin fluid atomizer in which a liquid sheet is sandwiched'' between two sheets of high speed air. High speed photography and imaging were used to study the air-liquid interface region. Average intact lengths of liquid sheets were measured. The intact lengths were studied over a liquid Reynolds number range of 4000 and a Weber number of 30. The intact lengths were found to be strongly dependent on the Reynolds and Weber numbers. An empirical equation was derived as a function of these parameters.

  7. The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics

    E-print Network

    Stanley J. Brodsky

    2015-02-18

    Atomic physics and hadronic physics are both governed by the Yang Mills gauge theory Lagrangian; in fact, Abelian quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics can provide important insight into hadronic eigenstates in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of frame-independent light-front relativistic equations of motion consistent with light-front holography which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The production of antihydrogen in flight can provide important insight into the dynamics of hadron production in QCD at the amplitude level. The renormalization scale for the running coupling is unambiguously set in QED; an analogous procedure sets the renormalization scales in QCD, leading to scheme-independent scale-fixed predictions. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, the quark-interchange process and light-front quantization have important applicants for atomic physics and photon science, especially in the relativistic domain.

  8. The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2015-02-26

    Atomic physics and hadronic physics are both governed by the Yang Mills gauge theory Lagrangian; in fact, Abelian quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics can provide important insight into hadronic eigenstates in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of frame-independent light-front relativistic equations of motion consistent with light-front holography which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The production of antihydrogen in flight can provide important insight into the dynamics of hadron production in QCD at the amplitude level. The renormalization scale for the running coupling is unambiguously set in QED; an analogous procedure sets the renormalization scales in QCD, leading to scheme-independent scale-fixed predictions. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, the quark-interchange process and light-front quantization have important applicants for atomic physics and photon science, especially in the relativistic domain.

  9. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Armstrong, F.E.; von Przewoski, B.

    1994-08-01

    This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  10. The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-03-01

    This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a function of time and its flapping rate, calculating the velocity of the bird's wings, and finally, inserting those results into Newton's second law of physics. The experiment has been designed for a high school physics class. This article is a follow-up on our recently published theoretical article on the origin of bird flight.

  11. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B.; Dodder, D.C.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Illarionova, N.S.; Lehar, F.; Oyanagi, Y.; Olin, A.; Frosch, R.

    1992-06-01

    This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  12. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. ); Oyanagi, Y. ); Dodder, D.C. ); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. . Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla

    1989-09-01

    This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  13. Experiments with atoms captured in a dark light trap

    SciTech Connect

    Joffe, M.A.; Davis, K.B.; Ketterle, W.

    1993-05-01

    Sodium atoms have been loaded from a slowed beam into a dark magneto-optical trap which confines atoms mostly in the non-absorbing F=1 ground state. This method has allowed us to achieve samples of more than 10{sup 10} atoms with optical densities in excess of 150. Temperatures around 1.2 mK and densities around 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} have been measured using weak probe absorption. At this density an elastic collisions rate is already approximately 100 Hz. Our goal is to reach the regime where the rate is high enough to allow evaporative cooling of the trapped sample enroute to Bose-Einstein Condensation, for which yet higher densities and lower temperatures are required. We report the current status of experiments underway to further increase the phase space density of the trapped atoms by cooling with polarization-gradient molasses and reloading them into a magnetic trap with a spherical quandrupole field.

  14. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  15. Majorana: From Atomic and Molecular, to Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, R.; Angilella, G. G. N.

    2006-10-01

    In the centennial of Ettore Majorana's birth (1906-1938?), we re-examine some aspects of his fundamental scientific production in atomic and molecular physics, including a not well known short communication. There, Majorana critically discusses Fermi's solution of the celebrated Thomas-Fermi equation for electron screening in atoms and positive ions. We argue that some of Majorana's seminal contributions in molecular physics already prelude to the idea of exchange interactions (or Heisenberg-Majorana forces) in his later workson theoretical nuclear physics. In all his papers, he tended to emphasize the symmetries at the basis of a physical problem, as well as the limitations, rather than the advantages, of the approximations of the method employed.

  16. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 063411 (2010) Spatially resolved excitation of Rydberg atoms and surface effects on an atom chip

    E-print Network

    Amsterdam, Universiteit van

    2010-01-01

    and provide access to fundamental aspects of many-body physics, atom-surface interactions, quantum metrologyPHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 063411 (2010) Spatially resolved excitation of Rydberg atoms and surface effects on an atom chip Atreju Tauschinsky,* Rutger M. T. Thijssen, S. Whitlock, H. B. van Linden van den

  17. Low-Cost Accelerometers for Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Straulino, Samuele

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of a modern game-console controller as a data acquisition interface for physics experiments is discussed. The investigated controller is equipped with three perpendicular accelerometers and a built-in infrared camera to evaluate its own relative position. A pendulum experiment is realized as a demonstration of the proposed…

  18. Photoelectroconversion by Semiconductors: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Qinbai; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment designed to give students some experience with photochemistry, electrochemistry, and basic theories about semiconductors. Uses a liquid-junction solar cell and illustrates some fundamental physical and chemical principles related to light and electricity interconversion as well as the properties of semiconductors. (JRH)

  19. Atomic Clocks, Fundamental Symmetries, and the Search for New Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, Marianna

    2014-05-01

    I will give an overview of theoretical developments related to searches for new physics with atomic systems, including the study of parity violation, search for EDM, and the search for variation of fundamental constants. The study of parity nonconservation in cesium led to a first measurement of the nuclear anapole moment and allowed to place constraints on weak meson-nucleon couplings. I will review the present status of atomic parity violation studies and the implications for searches for physics beyond the standard model and study of weak hadronic interactions. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss the theoretical research related to state-of-the art atomic clock development focusing on the issue of the blackbody radiation shifts as well as application of clocks to the searches for variation of the fine-structure constant.

  20. Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kettle, P.-R.; Olin, A.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.

  1. ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 4, SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

    THE AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THIS TEXT WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, OFFERING SELF-TUTORING MATERIAL FOR LEARNING ATOMIC PHYSICS. THE TOPICS COVERED ARE (1) RADIATION USES AND NUCLEAR FISSION, (2) NUCLEAR REACTORS, (3) ENERGY FROM NUCLEAR REACTORS, (4) NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND FUSION, (5) A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW, AND (6) A…

  2. ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 3, SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

    THE AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THIS TEXT WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, OFFERING SELF-TUTORING MATERIAL FOR LEARNING ATOMIC PHYSICS. THE TOPICS COVERED ARE (1) NUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY, (2) DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY, (3) RADIOACTIVE RADIATIONS, (4) ALPHA AND BETA DECAY, (5) BETA DECAY REACTIONS, (6) RADIOACTIVE DATING AND…

  3. Bringing atomic and nuclear physics laboratory data into the classroom

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Eric B.; Larimer, Ruth-Mary; Rech, Gregory; Lee, Jeffrey; Vue, Chue; Leubane, Tholoana; Zamvil, Kenneth; Guthrie, Laura

    2003-05-27

    To illustrate a number of basic concepts in atomic and nuclear physics, we have developed three websites where students can analyze data from modern laboratories. By working through the on-line procedures, students will become acquainted with characteristic x-ray spectra, the concept of half-life, x-ray fluorescence, and neutron activation analysis.

  4. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, P.

    1994-08-01

    The study of inelastic collision phenomena with highly charged projectile ions and the interpretation of spectral features resulting from these collisions remain as the major focal points in the atomic physics research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. The title of the research project, ``Atomic Physics with Highly Charged Ions,`` speaks to these points. The experimental work in the past few years has divided into collisions at high velocity using the primary beams from the tandem and LINAC accelerators and collisions at low velocity using the CRYEBIS facility. Theoretical calculations have been performed to accurately describe inelastic scattering processes of the one-electron and many-electron type, and to accurately predict atomic transition energies and intensities for x rays and Auger electrons. Brief research summaries are given for the following: (1) electron production in ion-atom collisions; (2) role of electron-electron interactions in two-electron processes; (3) multi-electron processes; (4) collisions with excited, aligned, Rydberg targets; (5) ion-ion collisions; (6) ion-molecule collisions; (7) ion-atom collision theory; and (8) ion-surface interactions.

  5. Manual for Experiments in Engineering Physics

    E-print Network

    Kulkarni, P

    2015-01-01

    Experiments performed in the Physics Laboratory play a significant role in understanding the concepts taught in the theory. A good accompanying laboratory manual serves as a concise guideline which students can use to complete the experiments without having to refer to several reference books on the subject. A thorough study of the manual prior to the experiment helps the student to immediately start with the performance in the laboratory. The general practice in several universities for the conduct of experimental laboratory class has been to enable students take observations and allow the submission in one week time. However, the observations do not complete the experiment and serve as only one part of learning in the measurement of the physical quantities in the laboratory. The calculations and the submission of the journal before the end of the experimental turn should be an integral part of the laboratory class. With this motivation a scheme is suggested for the conduct of the laboratory class.

  6. Theoretical atomic physics code development I: CATS: Cowan Atomic Structure Code

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, J. Jr.; Clark, R.E.H.; Cowan, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    An adaptation of R.D. Cowan's Atomic Structure program, CATS, has been developed as part of the Theoretical Atomic Physics (TAPS) code development effort at Los Alamos. CATS has been designed to be easy to run and to produce data files that can interface with other programs easily. The CATS produced data files currently include wave functions, energy levels, oscillator strengths, plane-wave-Born electron-ion collision strengths, photoionization cross sections, and a variety of other quantities. This paper describes the use of CATS. 10 refs.

  7. Short Course Mineral Physics: Modeling from the Atomic to the Global Scale

    E-print Network

    Stixrude, Lars

    Short Course Mineral Physics: Modeling from the Atomic to the Global Scale Dipartimento di Scienze- and composition-specific behavior. The central conceit of building a terrestrial planet atom by atom, a coherent challenges in relating atomic structure and bonding to physical properties. Practical exercises give students

  8. Using Quantum Coherence to Enhance Gain in Atomic Physics

    E-print Network

    Pankaj K. Jha

    2013-03-08

    Quantum coherence and interference effects in atomic and molecular physics has been extensively studied due to intriguing counterintuitive physics and potential important applications. Here we present one such application of using quantum coherence to generate and enhance gain in extreme ultra-violet(XUV)(@58.4nm in Helium) and infra-red(@794.76nm in Rubidium) regime of electromagnetic radiation. We show that using moderate external coherent drive, a substantial enhancement in the energy of the lasing pulse can be achieved under optimal conditions. We also discuss the role of coherence. The present paper is intended to be pedagogical on this subject of coherence-enhanced lasing.

  9. Atomic and Surface Physics in Tokamak Edge Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isler, Ralph

    2006-05-01

    Material surfaces in fusion machines are subject to intense heat and particle fluxes. As a result, eroded impurities from the walls and divertor targets constitute an intrinsic component of the plasmas; understanding their production and transport relies on broad applications of atomic physics. Various materials have been used for plasma facing components, e.g., stainless steel, inconel, beryllium, tungsten, gold and graphite, and a number of these may be employed in the ITER tokamak. Because graphite tiles are widely used in present day devices, a large fraction of impurity studies have been concerned with the atomic physics of carbon. Influx rates are measured using spectral line intensities together with collisional-radiative models that are built from detailed calculations of electron excitation and ionization rates. In the cold edge region, ion temperatures and flow rates are determined from Doppler broadenings and shifts of spectral multiplets from low ionization stages, which are fitted to complex theoretical profiles that require calculating nonlinear Zeeman effects. Differentiating the mechanisms of production, such as physical sputtering, chemical sputtering, sublimation, etc., involves comparison of molecular and atomic influxes as well as detailed comparison of measured C I line shapes with those modeled for theoretical velocity distributions produced by the different mechanisms.

  10. The Physics of the Imploding Can Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2010-01-01

    One of the popular demonstrations of atmospheric pressure in introductory physics courses is the "crushing can" or "imploding can" experiment. In this demonstration, which has also been extensively discussed on the Internet, a small amount of water is placed in a soda can and heated until it boils and water vapor almost entirely fills the can. The…

  11. Thermal Sensitive Foils in Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochnícek, Zdenek; Konecný, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a set of physics demonstration experiments where thermal sensitive foils are used for the detection of the two dimensional distribution of temperature. The method is used for the demonstration of thermal conductivity, temperature change in adiabatic processes, distribution of electromagnetic radiation in a microwave oven and…

  12. An open source digital servo for AMO physics experiments

    E-print Network

    Leibrandt, David R

    2015-01-01

    We describe a general purpose digital servo optimized for feedback control of lasers in atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics experiments. The servo is capable of feedback bandwidths up to roughly 1~MHz (limited by the 320~ns total latency); loop filter shapes up to fifth order; multiple-input, multiple-output control; and automatic lock acquisition. The configuration of the servo is controlled via a graphical user interface, which also provides a rudimentary software oscilloscope and tools for measurement of system transfer functions. We illustrate the functionality of the digital servo by describing its use in two example scenarios: frequency control of the laser used to probe the narrow clock transition of $^{27}$Al$^+$ in an optical atomic clock, and length control of a cavity used for resonant frequency doubling of a laser.

  13. TerascaleTerascale computational atomiccomputational atomic physics for the plasma edgephysics for the plasma edge

    E-print Network

    Fusion Atomic Data Center, ORNL www-cfadc.phy.ornl.gov Atomic Data and Analysis Structure InternationalTerascaleTerascale computational atomiccomputational atomic physics for the plasma edgephysics Hallam University #12;Direct Dissemination of Atomic DataDirect Dissemination of Atomic Data Controlled

  14. MISSE 6 Stressed Polymers Experiment Atomic Oxygen Erosion Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Yi, Grace T.; Guo, Aobo; Ashmeade, Claire C.; Roberts, Lily M.; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Polymers and other oxidizable materials used on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded away by reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). For spacecraft design, it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield, Ey (volume loss per incident oxygen atom), of materials susceptible to AO erosion. The Stressed Polymers Experiment was developed and flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6) to compare the AO erosion yields of stressed and non-stressed polymers to determine if erosion is dependent upon stress while in LEO. The experiment contained 36 thin film polymer samples that were exposed to ram AO for 1.45 years. This paper provides an overview of the Stressed Polymers Experiment with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the AO fluence, and the erosion yield results. The MISSE 6 data are compared to data for similar samples flown on previous MISSE missions to determine fluence or solar radiation effects on erosion yield.

  15. Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX): design and physics results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, E. B.; Bulmer, R. H.; Cohen, B. I.; Hill, D. N.; Holcomb, C. T.; Hudson, B.; McLean, H. S.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Romero-Talamás, C. A.; Sovinec, C. R.; Stallard, B. W.; Wood, R. D.; Woodruff, S.

    2012-11-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) was a high-temperature (Te up to 0.5 keV) spheromak formed by coaxial helicity injection (CHI) and with plasma duration of a few milliseconds following the high-current formation stage. Clean walls and low impurity operation were obtained by a combination of baking, discharge cleaning and titanium deposition on the walls, allowing the generation of high-quality plasmas. Resistive-magnetohydrodynamic simulations, benchmarked to the experiment, were used to elucidate the physics. The detailed characteristics of the n? = 1 toroidal mode associated with CHI were determined as was the physics of the nonlinear current drive and magnetic reconnection that formed and sustained the spheromak. If the helicity injection rate was reduced following formation the plasma became relatively quiescent and magnetic surfaces formed. The measured thermal diffusivity in the core was as low as ˜1 m2 s-1. However, reconnection events during buildup or sustainment of the plasma current by CHI were found to open magnetic surfaces throughout the plasma allowing rapid energy loss to the walls. As a result, experiments and simulations in SSPX found no path to simultaneous sustainment by CHI and good energy confinement. Additional physics results are also presented in this review.

  16. Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments Without Superconducting Electromagnets

    E-print Network

    Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments Without Superconducting Electromagnets Robert D. Woolley fusion physics experiments can be performed economically via resistive electromagnets designed for thermally steady-state operation. Possible fusion experiments using resistive electromagnets include long

  17. Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments Without Superconducting Electromagnets

    E-print Network

    Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments Without Superconducting Electromagnets Robert D. Woolley fusion physics experiments can be performed economically via resistive electromagnets designed for thermally steady­state operation. Possible fusion experiments using resistive electromagnets include long

  18. An Atomic Abacus: Trapped ion quantum computing experiments at NIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarco, Brian

    2003-03-01

    Trapped atomic ions are an ideal system for exploring quantum information science because deterministic state preparation and efficient state detection are possible and coherent manipulation of atomic systems is relatively advanced. In our experiment, a few singly charged Be ions are confined by static and radio-frequency electric fields in a micro-machined linear Paul trap. The internal and motional states of the ions are coherently manipulated using applied laser light. Our current work focuses on demonstrating the necessary ingredients to produce a scalable quantum computing scheme and on simplifying and improving quantum logic gates. I will speak about a new set of experiments that was made possible by recent improvements in trap technology. A novel trap with multiple trapping regions was used to demonstrate the first steps towards a fully scalable quantum computing scheme. Single ions were ``shuttled" between trapping regions without disturbing the ion's motional and internal state, and two ions were separated from a single to two different trapping zones. Improvements in the trap manufacturing process has led to a reduction of nearly two orders of magnitude in the ion's motional heating rate, making possible two new improved logic gates. The first gate utilizes the wave-packet nature of the ions to tune the laser-atom interaction and achieve a controlled-NOT gate between a single ion's spin and motional states. The second, a two-ion phase gate, uses phase-space dynamics to produce a state-sensitive geometric phase. I will end with a quick look at experiments using a Mg ion to sympathetically cool a simultaneously trapped Be ion and a glimpse of the next generation of ions traps currently under construction.

  19. Versatile cold atom source for multi-species experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Paris-Mandoki, A.; Jones, M. D.; Nute, J.; Warriar, S.; Hackermüller, L.; Wu, J.

    2014-11-15

    We present a dual-species oven and Zeeman slower setup capable of producing slow, high-flux atomic beams for loading magneto-optical traps. Our compact and versatile system is based on electronic switching between different magnetic field profiles and is applicable to a wide range of multi-species experiments. We give details of the vacuum setup, coils, and simple electronic circuitry. In addition, we demonstrate the performance of our system by optimized, sequential loading of magneto-optical traps of lithium-6 and cesium-133.

  20. Using the Wiimote in Introductory Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Romulo; Rooney, Frank G.; Somers, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The Wii is a very popular gaming console. An important component of its appeal is the ease of use of its remote controller, popularly known as a Wiimote. This simple-looking but powerful device has a three-axis accelerometer and communicates with the console via Bluetooth protocol. We present two experiments that demonstrate the feasibility of using the Wiimote in introductory physics experiments. The linear dependence of centripetal acceleration on the radial distance at constant angular velocity is verified and compared with data obtained using photogate timers. A second application to simple harmonic oscillators tests the capabilities of the Wiimote to measure variable accelerations.

  1. Introductory Physics Experiments Using the Wiimote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, William; Rooney, Frank; Ochoa, Romulo

    2009-03-01

    The Wii, a video game console, is a very popular device with millions of units sold worldwide over the past two years. Although computationally it is not a powerful machine, to a physics educator its most important components can be its controllers. The Wiimote (or remote) controller contains three accelerometers, an infrared detector, and Bluetooth connectivity at a relatively low price. Thanks to available open source code, any PC with Bluetooth capability can detect the information sent out by the Wiimote. We have designed several experiments for introductory physics courses that make use of the accelerometers and Bluetooth connectivity. We have adapted the Wiimote to measure the: variable acceleration in simple harmonic motion, centripetal and tangential accelerations in circular motion, and the accelerations generated when students lift weights. We present the results of our experiments and compare them with those obtained when using motion and/or force sensors.

  2. Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, Joseph J

    2009-08-07

    This Final Report summarizes work performed under DOE STTR Phase II Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER86258 during the project period from August 2006 to August 2009. The project, “Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments,” was led by Prism Computational Sciences (Madison, WI), and involved collaboration with subcontractors University of Nevada-Reno and Voss Scientific (Albuquerque, NM). In this project, we have: ? Developed and implemented a multi-dimensional, multi-frequency radiation transport model in the LSP hybrid fluid-PIC (particle-in-cell) code [1,2]. ? Updated the LSP code to support the use of accurate equation-of-state (EOS) tables generated by Prism’s PROPACEOS [3] code to compute more accurate temperatures in high energy density physics (HEDP) plasmas. ? Updated LSP to support the use of Prism’s multi-frequency opacity tables. ? Generated equation of state and opacity data for LSP simulations for several materials being used in plasma jet experimental studies. ? Developed and implemented parallel processing techniques for the radiation physics algorithms in LSP. ? Benchmarked the new radiation transport and radiation physics algorithms in LSP and compared simulation results with analytic solutions and results from numerical radiation-hydrodynamics calculations. ? Performed simulations using Prism radiation physics codes to address issues related to radiative cooling and ionization dynamics in plasma jet experiments. ? Performed simulations to study the effects of radiation transport and radiation losses due to electrode contaminants in plasma jet experiments. ? Updated the LSP code to generate output using NetCDF to provide a better, more flexible interface to SPECT3D [4] in order to post-process LSP output. ? Updated the SPECT3D code to better support the post-processing of large-scale 2-D and 3-D datasets generated by simulation codes such as LSP. ? Updated atomic physics modeling to provide for more comprehensive and accurate atomic databases that feed into the radiation physics modeling (spectral simulations and opacity tables). ? Developed polarization spectroscopy modeling techniques suitable for diagnosing energetic particle characteristics in HEDP experiments. A description of these items is provided in this report. The above efforts lay the groundwork for utilizing the LSP and SPECT3D codes in providing simulation support for DOE-sponsored HEDP experiments, such as plasma jet and fast ignition physics experiments. We believe that taken together, the LSP and SPECT3D codes have unique capabilities for advancing our understanding of the physics of these HEDP plasmas. Based on conversations early in this project with our DOE program manager, Dr. Francis Thio, our efforts emphasized developing radiation physics and atomic modeling capabilities that can be utilized in the LSP PIC code, and performing radiation physics studies for plasma jets. A relatively minor component focused on the development of methods to diagnose energetic particle characteristics in short-pulse laser experiments related to fast ignition physics. The period of performance for the grant was extended by one year to August 2009 with a one-year no-cost extension, at the request of subcontractor University of Nevada-Reno.

  3. Analysis of the physical atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions and halogen ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The physical forces between atoms and molecules are important in a number of processes of practical importance, including line broadening in radiative processes, gas and crystal properties, adhesion, and thin films. The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base for the dispersion forces is developed from the literature based on evaluations with the harmonic oscillator dispersion model for higher order coefficients. The Zener model of the repulsive core is used in the context of the recent asymptotic wave functions of Handler and Smith; and an effective ionization potential within the Handler and Smith wave functions is defined to analyze the two body potential data of Waldman and Gordon, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  4. Further investigations of experiment A0034 atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal control coatings within the recessed compartments of LDEF Experiment A0034 experienced the maximum leading edge fluence of atomic oxygen with considerably less solar UV radiation exposure than top-surface mounted materials of other LDEF experiments on either the leading or the trailing edge. This combination of exposure within A0034 resulted in generally lower levels of darkening attributable to solar UV radiation than for similar materials on other LDEF experiments exposed to greater cumulative solar UV radiation levels. Changes in solar absorptance and infrared thermal emittance of the exposed coatings are thus unique to this exposure. Analytical results for other applications have been found for environmentally induced changes in fluorescence, surface morphology, light scattering, and the effects of coating outgassing products on adjacent mirrors and windows of the A0034 experiment. Some atmospheric bleaching of the thermal control coatings, in addition to that presumably experience during reentry and recovery operations, has been found since initial post-flight observations and measurements.

  5. Atom Interferometers

    E-print Network

    Alexander D. Cronin; Joerg Schmiedmayer; David E. Pritchard

    2007-12-21

    Interference with atomic and molecular matter waves is a rich branch of atomic physics and quantum optics. It started with atom diffraction from crystal surfaces and the separated oscillatory fields technique used in atomic clocks. Atom interferometry is now reaching maturity as a powerful art with many applications in modern science. In this review we first describe the basic tools for coherent atom optics including diffraction by nanostructures and laser light, three-grating interferometers, and double wells on AtomChips. Then we review scientific advances in a broad range of fields that have resulted from the application of atom interferometers. These are grouped in three categories: (1) fundamental quantum science, (2) precision metrology and (3) atomic and molecular physics. Although some experiments with Bose Einstein condensates are included, the focus of the review is on linear matter wave optics, i.e. phenomena where each single atom interferes with itself.

  6. APIPIS: the Atomic Physics Ion-Photon Interaction System

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Meron, M.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    A proposed new facility for the study of highly charged heavy ions is described. The basic elements of APIPIS, the Atomic Physics Ion-Photon Interaction System, are: (1) a source of multiply-charged ions; (2) a linear accelerator; (3) a synchrotron storage ring; and (4) a source of high brightness x rays. The placement of a heavy ion storage ring at the x-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source will provide unique opportunities for the study of photo-excitation of heavy ions.

  7. Atom Interferometry for Fundamental Physics and Gravity Measurements in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohel, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser-cooled atoms are used as freefall test masses. The gravitational acceleration on atoms is measured by atom-wave interferometry. The fundamental concept behind atom interferometry is the quantum mechanical particle-wave duality. One can exploit the wave-like nature of atoms to construct an atom interferometer based on matter waves analogous to laser interferometers.

  8. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  9. Atom optics and space physics: A summary of an 'Enrico Fermi' summer school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimondo, Ennio; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2008-03-01

    We describe the scientific content of the International School of Physics 'Enrico Fermi' on atom optics and space physics, organized by the Italian Physical Society in Varenna at Lake Como, Italy, 2-13 July 2007.

  10. Containerless experiments in fluid physics in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    The physical phenomena associated with the behavior of liquid samples freely suspended in low gravity must be thoroughly understood prior to undertaking detailed scientific studies of the materials under scrutiny. The characteristics of molten specimens under the action of containerless positioning stresses must be identified and separated from the specific phenomena relating to the absence of an overwhelming gravitational field. The strategy designed to optimize the scientific return of reliable experimental data from infrequent microgravity investigations should include the gradual and logical phasing of more sophisticated studies building on the accumulated results from previous flight experiments. Lower temperature fluid physics experiments using model materials can provide a great deal of information that can be useful in analyzing the behavior of high temperature melts. The phasing of the experimental capabilities should, therefore, also include a gradual build-up of more intricate and specialized diagnostic instrumentation and environmental control and monitoring capabilities. Basic physical investigations should also be distinguished from specific materials technology issues. The latter investigations require very specific high temperature (and high vacuum) devices that must be thoroughly mastered on the ground prior to implementing them in space.

  11. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 013822 (2011) Collisionally induced atomic clock shifts and correlations

    E-print Network

    Band, Yehuda B.

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 013822 (2011) Collisionally induced atomic clock shifts and correlations Y. B frequency shifts for atomic clocks using a density-matrix formalism. The formalism is developed for both fermionic and bosonic atomic clocks. Numerical results for a finite-temperature 87 Sr 1 S0 (F = 9/2) atomic

  12. Tokamak physics experiment: Diagnostic windows study

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.; Wurden, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    We detail the study of diagnostic windows and window thermal stress remediation in the long-pulse, high-power Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) operation. The operating environment of the TPX diagnostic windows is reviewed, thermal loads on the windows estimated, and cooling requirements for the windows considered. Applicable window-cooling technology from other fields is reviewed and its application to the TPX windows considered. Methods for TPX window thermal conditioning are recommended, with some discussion of potential implementation problems provided. Recommendations for further research and development work to ensure performance of windows in the TPX system are presented.

  13. The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Warren; Lai, Anthony; Croonquist, Arvid; Chui, Talso; Eraker, J. H.; Abbott, Randy; Mills, Gary; Mohl, James; Craig, James; Balachandra, Balu; Gannon, Jade

    2000-01-01

    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) is being developed by NASA to provide long duration low temperature and microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS) for performing fundamental physics investigations. Currently, six experiments have been selected for flight definition studies. More will be selected in a two-year cycle, through NASA Research Announcement. This program is managed under the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The facility is being designed to launch and returned to earth on a variety of vehicles including the HII-A and the space shuttle. On orbit, the facility will be connected to the Exposed Facility on the Japanese Experiment Module, Kibo. Features of the facility include a cryostat capable of maintaining super-fluid helium at a temperature of 1.4 K for 5 months, resistance thermometer bridges, multi-stage thermal isolation system, thermometers capable of pico-Kelvin resolution, DC SQUID magnetometers, passive vibration isolation, and magnetic shields with a shielding factor of 80dB. The electronics and software architecture incorporates two VME buses run using the VxWorks operating system. Technically challenging areas in the design effort include the following: 1) A long cryogen life that survives several launch and test cycles without the need to replace support straps for the helium tank. 2) The minimization of heat generation in the sample stage caused by launch vibration 3) The design of compact and lightweight DC SQUID electronics. 4) The minimization of RF interference for the measurement of heat at pico-Watt level. 5) Light weighting of the magnetic shields. 6) Implementation of a modular and flexible electronics and software architecture. The first launch is scheduled for mid-2003, on an H-IIA Rocket Transfer Vehicle, out of the Tanegashima Space Center of Japan. Two identical facilities will be built. While one facility is onboard the ISS, the other is re-integrated on the ground with new experiments. When the cryogen of the facility in space are exhausted, it will be swapped with the other facility with the new experiment. A total of 20 science missions are envisioned over the next 20 years.

  14. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    E-print Network

    C1 - Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) Dale Meade Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory plasma issues: Burning Plasma Physics - The achievement and understanding of self-heated plasmas Toroidal Physics - The achievement and understanding of sustained self- heated plasmas with characteristics

  15. Efimov Physics in a 6Li-133Cs Atomic Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Jacob; Feng, Lei; Parker, Colin; Chin, Cheng; Wang, Yujun

    2015-05-01

    We investigate Efimov physics based on three-body recombination in an atomic mixture of 6Li and 133Cs in the vicinity of interspecies Feshbach resonances at 843 and 889 G. This allows us to compare the loss spectra near different resonances and test the universality of Efimov states. Theoretically the Efimov spectrum near 889 G is expected to be similar to that near 843 G, except that the first resonance is absent near the former Feshbach resonance. This is due to the difference in the Cs-Cs scattering length near the two resonances: At 843 G it is negative, whereas at 889 G it is positive. Although it is primarily the Li-Cs interactions that lead to Efimov resonances, the Cs-Cs scattering length is expected to influence the spectrum. This work is supported by NSF and Chicago MRSEC.

  16. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Image Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes, their agglomerates, and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. Particle sizes of 1.9 to 8 mm (0.075 to 0.315 in.) were measured. The particle agglomerate sizes and areas were measured, and the total mass of solid hydrogen was computed. A total mass of from 0.22 to 7.9 grams of hydrogen was frozen. Compaction and expansion of the agglomerate implied that the particles remain independent particles, and can be separated and controlled. These experiment image analyses are one of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles, and allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  17. Soft physics results from the PHENIX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esumi, ShinIchi

    2015-03-01

    High-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC-BNL and LHC-CERN provide a unique opportunity to study the properties of the high-temperature and high-density nuclear matter called the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), which is supposed to exist in the early universe or inside neutron stars. The PHENIX experiment is one of the major experiments at RHIC to study the properties of QGP, especially focusing on various particle identification capabilities including photons, leptons, and hadrons. This article summarizes the soft physics results from the PHENIX experiment, such as (1) global properties like transverse energy and multiplicity measurements as well as centrality determination, (2) transverse momentum distribution and the nuclear modification factor, which represents the modification of the spectra in A+A collisions relative to the binary-collision-scaled superposition of p+p data, (3) space-time properties with Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) interferometry correlation measurement and source imaging, (4) elliptic collective expansion and higher-order harmonic event anisotropy, and (5) di-hadron correlation, jet modification, and medium response known as jet-quenching from the partonic energy loss and redistribution of the lost energy. These results are reviewed and discussed.

  18. The laboratory experience in introductory physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Maria C.

    1997-03-01

    The last two decades or so have witnessed intense efforts to improve the teaching and learning of physics. Scholarly studies have provided the grounding for many projects which reform the structure of introductory courses. A number of these innovations, however, are resource intensive, or depend on the ability to introduce changes in areas which are beyond the control of the faculty (e.g., scheduling), thus inhibiting their implementation. An alternative strategy that overcomes these obstacles is to modify the nature of the laboratory experience (a component that practically nobody disputes is an essential part of the introductory course), to provide hands-on learning opportunities that differ from the traditional "follow-this-recipe-to-verify-this-law" approach. I have chosen to implement a variety of activities that support the overall objectives of the course: developing conceptual understanding and transferable skills, and providing practice in the ways scientists actually do science. Given the audience in this two-semester, algebra-based course, mostly biology majors and pre-professionals (health-related careers, such as medicine, physical therapy, and veterinary), these goals were identified as the most important and lasting contribution that a physics course can make to the students intellectual development. I offer here examples of the types of hands on activities that I have implemented, organized for the sake of this presentation in four rather loose categories, depending on which subset of the course objectives the activities mostly address: self-designed lab activities, discussion of demo-type activities, building concepts from simple to complex, and out-of-lab physical phenomena.

  19. Skylab experiments. Volume 1: Physical science, solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The basic subject of this volume is the solar astronomy program conducted on Skylab. In addition to descriptions of the individual experiments and the principles involved in their performance, a brief description is included of the sun and the energy characteristics associated with each zone. Wherever possible, related classroom activities have been identified and discussed in some detail. It will be apparent that the relationships rest not only in the field of solar astronomy, but also in the following subjects: (1) physics - optics, electromagnetic spectrum, atomic structure, etc.; (2) chemistry - emission spectra, kinetic theory, X-ray absorption, etc.; (3) biology - radiation and dependence on the sun; (4) electronics - cathode ray tubes, detectors, photomultipliers, etc.; (5) photography; (6) astronomy; and (7) industrial arts.

  20. ELASR - An electrostatic storage ring for atomic and molecular physics at KACST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghazaly, Mohamed O. A.

    A new ELectrostAtic Storage Ring (ELASR) has been designed and built at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It was developed to be the core of a new storage ring laboratory for atomic and molecular physics at KACST. ELASR follows the standard design of the pioneering storage ring ELISA and it thereby features a racetrack single-bend shaped ring. Complementary simulation code packages were used to work out the design under the requirements of the projected experiments. This paper reports a short description of the ELASR storage ring through an overview of its design and construction.

  1. Probing physical properties at the nanoscale using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditzler, Lindsay Rachel

    Techniques that measure physical properties at the nanoscale with high sensitivity are significantly limited considering the number of new nanomaterials being developed. The development of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has lead to significant advancements in the ability to characterize physical properties of materials in all areas of science: chemistry, physics, engineering, and biology have made great scientific strides do to the versatility of the AFM. AFM is used for quantification of many physical properties such as morphology, electrical, mechanical, magnetic, electrochemical, binding interactions, and protein folding. This work examines the electrical and mechanical properties of materials applicable to the field of nano-electronics. As electronic devices are miniaturized the demand for materials with unique electrical properties, which can be developed and exploited, has increased. For example, discussed in this work, a derivative of tetrathiafulvalene, which exhibits a unique loss of conductivity upon compression of the self-assembled monolayer could be developed into a molecular switch. This work also compares tunable organic (tetraphenylethylene tetracarboxylic acid and bis(pyridine)s assemblies) and metal-organic (Silver-stilbizole coordination compounds) crystals which show high electrical conductivity. The electrical properties of these materials vary depending on their composition allowing for the development of compositionally tunable functional materials. Additional work was done to investigate the effects of molecular environment on redox active 11-ferroceneyl-1 undecanethiol (Fc) molecules. The redox process of mixed monolayers of Fc and decanethiol was measured using conductive probe atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy. As the concentration of Fc increased large, variations in the force were observed. Using these variations the number of oxidized molecules in the monolayer was determined. AFM is additionally capable of investigating interactions at the nanoscale, such as ligand-receptor interactions. This work examines the interactions between the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a widely investigated enzyme targeted for cancer and antimicrobial pharmaceutical, and methotrexate (MTX), a strong competitive inhibitor of DHFR. The DHFR was immobilized on a gold substrate, bound through a single surface cysteine, and maintained catalytic activity. AFM probe was functionalized with MTX and the interaction strength was measured using AFM. This work highlights the versatility of AFM, specifically force spectroscopy for the quantification of electrical, mechanical, and ligand-receptor interactions at the nanoscale.

  2. Experiments at the Frontiers of Nuclear Physics: the Experimental Program of the Super-Frs Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidenberger, C.; Äystö, J.; Behr, K.-H.; Benlliure, J.; Bracco, A.; Egelhof, P.; Fomichev, A.; Galès, S.; Geissel, H.; Grahn, T.; Grigorenko, L.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hayano, R.; Heinz, S.; Itahashi, K.; Jokinen, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Lenske, H.; Muenzenberg, G.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pfützner, M.; Prochazka, A.; Pietri, S.; Plaß, W. R.; Purushothaman, S.; Saito, T.; Simon, H.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Toki, H.; Trache, L.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.; Winkler, M.; Zamfir, V.

    2015-06-01

    The superconducting fragment separator (Super-FRS) will be one of the main scientific instruments of the future FAIR facility. This versatile high-resolution spectrometer allows for a variety of exciting experiments in atomic, nuclear and hadron physics. Future directions are presented in this contribution.

  3. AGS experiments in nuclear/QCD physics at medium energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Presti, P.

    1998-07-01

    This report contains a diagram of the experimental setup for each experiment as well as giving a brief discussion of its purpose and list of collaborators for the experiment. Thirty-one experiments in the areas of nuclear physics and particle physics are covered. It concludes with a list of publications of the AGS experiments.

  4. Spin physics with laser-pumped helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Schearer, L.D.

    1993-05-01

    With the development of new, tunable lasers at 1083 nm, direct optical pumping of the triplet metastable atoms of helium yields an almost perfectly aligned ensemble. In {sup 3}He the hyperflne interaction and collisions transfer the orientation to the groundstate nuclear spins. The optical pumping process in {sup 3}He is extraordinarily efficient- nearly 2.5 nuclei are oriented per absorbed photon at turn-on. Applications to magnetometry, the production of spin-polarized electron and ion beams, and the development of polarized neutron beams and dense targets will be discussed. The progress of the UNI-Mainz experiment to measure the electric and magnetic form factors of the neutron will be described. In this experiment the polarized {sup 3}He target is mechanically compressed to several atmospheres with minimal loss of nuclear polarization. Extension of this dense nuclear target for use as a neutron spin filter is also in progress. We will also describe the status of our experiment to observe scattering asymmetries of polarized electrons by chiral molecules. Progress on the development of a compact, moderate current, polarized e-beam will be discussed.

  5. The Nuclear Physics of Hyperfine Structure in Hydrogenic Atoms

    E-print Network

    J. L. Friar; G. L. Payne

    2005-02-01

    The theory of QED corrections to hyperfine structure in light hydrogenic atoms and ions has recently advanced to the point that the uncertainty of these corrections is much smaller than 1 part per million (ppm), while the experiments are even more accurate. The difference of the experimental results and the corresponding QED theory is due to nuclear effects, which are primarily the result of the finite nuclear charge and magnetization distributions. This difference varies from tens to hundreds of ppm. We have calculated the dominant nuclear component of the 1s hyperfine interval for deuterium, tritium and singly ionized helium, using a unified approach with modern second-generation potentials. The calculated nuclear corrections are within 3% of the experimental values for deuterium and tritium, but are roughly 20% discrepant for helium. The nuclear corrections for the trinucleon systems can be qualitatively understood by invoking SU(4) symmetry.

  6. On-chip optical lattice for cold atom experiments.

    PubMed

    Straatsma, Cameron J E; Ivory, Megan K; Duggan, Janet; Ramirez-Serrano, Jaime; Anderson, Dana Z; Salim, Evan A

    2015-07-15

    An atom-chip-based integrated optical lattice system for cold and ultracold atom applications is presented. The retroreflection optics necessary for forming the lattice are bonded directly to the atom chip, enabling a compact and robust on-chip optical lattice system. After achieving Bose-Einstein condensation in a magnetic chip trap, we load atoms directly into a vertically oriented 1D optical lattice and demonstrate Landau-Zener tunneling. The atom chip technology presented here can be readily extended to higher dimensional optical lattices. PMID:26176471

  7. Physics Experiments That You Can Do at Home

    E-print Network

    Yavuz, Deniz

    Physics Experiments That You Can Do at Home Brought to you by The Wonders of Physics University of Wisconsin ­ Madison #12;2 The Wonders of Physics The Wonders of Physics is an outreach program sponsored by the Physics Department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Professor Clint Sprott has been amazing

  8. Yang-Baxter integrable models in experiments: from condensed matter to ultracold atoms

    E-print Network

    Murray T. Batchelor; Angela Foerster

    2015-11-07

    The Yang-Baxter equation has long been recognised as the masterkey to integrability, providing the basis for exactly solved models which capture the fundamental physics of a number of realistic classical and quantum systems. In this article we provide an introductory overview of the impact of Yang-Baxter integrable models on experiments in condensed matter physics and ultracold atoms. A number of prominent examples are mentioned, including the hard-hexagon model, the Heisenberg spin chain, the transverse quantum Ising chain, a spin ladder model, the Lieb-Liniger Bose gas, the Gaudin-Yang Fermi gas and the two-site Bose-Hubbard model. The review concludes by pointing to some other recent developments with promise for further progress.

  9. Controlled Space Physics Experiments using Laboratory Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauel, M. E.; Kesner, J.; Garnier, D.

    2013-12-01

    Modern society's reliance on space-based platforms for a variety of economic and geopolitical purposes makes understanding the physics of the magnetosphere and "space weather'' one of the most important applications of plasma science. During the past decade, results from the CTX and LDX laboratory magnetospheres and from the RT-1 device at University of Tokyo, we have developed techniques to explore space physics using controlled experiments in laboratory magnetospheres. This presentation briefly reviews observations from the laboratory magnetospheres at Columbia University and MIT, including adiabatic drift-resonant transport, low-frequency MHD turbulence, and the formation of high-beta plasmas with profiles similar to Earth's inner magnetosphere. First principle validation of ``whole plasma'' space weather models have been completed in relevant magnetic geometry, including the spectrum and dynamics of turbulence successfully modeled with nonlinear bounce-averaged gyrokinetic simulations. Plans to explore Alfvénic dynamics and whistler wave trapping are discussed through the achievement of higher-density plasmas using radio-frequency heating. Photographs of the laboratory magnetospheres located at MIT (top) and Columbia University (bottom).

  10. A data readout approach for physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xi-Ru; Cao, Ping; Gao, Li-Wei; Zheng, Jia-Jun

    2015-07-01

    With increasing physical event rates and the number of electronic channels, traditional readout schemes meet the challenge of improving readout speed caused by the limited bandwidth of the crate backplane. In this paper, a high-speed data readout method based on the Ethernet is presented to make each readout module capable of transmitting data to the DAQ. Features of explicitly parallel data transmitting and distributed network architecture give the readout system the advantage of adapting varying requirements of particle physics experiments. Furthermore, to guarantee the readout performance and flexibility, a standalone embedded CPU system is utilized for network protocol stack processing. To receive the customized data format and protocol from front-end electronics, a field programmable gate array (FPGA) is used for logic reconfiguration. To optimize the interface and to improve the data throughput between CPU and FPGA, a sophisticated method based on SRAM is presented in this paper. For the purpose of evaluating this high-speed readout method, a simplified readout module is designed and implemented. Test results show that this module can support up to 70 Mbps data throughput from the readout module to DAQ. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11005107) and Independent Projects of State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics (201301)

  11. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 023403 (2010) Coherent control of atomic transport in spinor optical lattices

    E-print Network

    Jessen, Poul S.

    2010-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 023403 (2010) Coherent control of atomic transport in spinor optical lattices transport of atoms trapped in an optical lattice can be controlled by microwave-induced spin flips I. INTRODUCTION Neutral atoms trapped in optical lattices have emerged as a rich platform

  12. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 042120 (2013) Cold-atom double-coherent population trapping clock

    E-print Network

    Scholten, Robert

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 042120 (2013) Cold-atom double- coherent population trapping clock F, Victoria 3010, Australia (Received 29 May 2013; published 31 October 2013) Miniature atomic clocks based applications, particularly where satellite frequency standards are not accessible. Cold-atom CPT clocks promise

  13. Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases.

    PubMed

    Ivory, M K; Ziltz, A R; Fancher, C T; Pyle, A J; Sensharma, A; Chase, B; Field, J P; Garcia, A; Jervis, D; Aubin, S

    2014-04-01

    We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold (87)Rb and (39)K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 10(4) (87)Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold (39)K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems. PMID:24784588

  14. Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ivory, M. K.; Ziltz, A. R.; Fancher, C. T.; Pyle, A. J.; Sensharma, A.; Chase, B.; Field, J. P.; Garcia, A.; Aubin, S.; Jervis, D.

    2014-04-15

    We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold {sup 87}Rb and {sup 39}K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 10{sup 4} {sup 87}Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold {sup 39}K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems.

  15. ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 1, SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

    AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SELF-TUTORING APPROACH IN EDUCATION. THE MATERIALS COVER SECTIONS ON (1) THE ATOM, (2) ATOMIC PARTICLES, (3) CATHODE RAYS, (4) MEASURING THE ELECTRON, (5) CHARGE AND MASS OF THE ELECTRON, AND (6) MASS OF ATOMS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 003 205 THROUGH ED 003 207, ED…

  16. The FrPNC Experiment at TRIUMF: Atomic Parity Non-Conservation in Francium

    E-print Network

    Orozco, Luis A.

    The FrPNC Experiment at TRIUMF: Atomic Parity Non-Conservation in Francium S. Aubin , E. Gomez , J anapole moment in a string of artificially produced francium isotopes. Atomic PNC experiments provide and probe the weak force within the nucleus. Francium is an excellent candidate for precision measurements

  17. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Dale Meade Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Abstract requirements for major next steps in MFE can be described as: Burning Plasma Physics ­ The achievement­field tokamaks to address alpha­dominated burning plasma physics, long­pulse advanced­toroidal physics and fusion

  18. Heavy ion physics with the ALICE experiment at LHC

    E-print Network

    Chiara Zampolli; for the ALICE Collaboration.

    2007-05-15

    ALICE is the experiment at the LHC collider at CERN dedicated to heavy ion physics. In this report, the ALICE detector will be presented, together with its expected performance as far as some selected physics topics are concerned.

  19. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; et al

    2015-04-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ? ni ~ 10¹? cm?³, Te ? Ti ? 1.4 eV, Vjet ? 30–100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}$ ? 1, sonic Mach number Ms ? Vjet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ? 20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on themore »study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.« less

  20. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2015-04-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ? ni ~ 10¹? cm?³, Te ? Ti ? 1.4 eV, Vjet ? 30–100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}$ ? 1, sonic Mach number Ms ? Vjet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ? 20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.

  1. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2015-04-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ~ ni ~ 1016 cm-3, Te ~ Ti ~ 1.4 eV, V jet ~ 30-100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}$ ~ 1, sonic Mach number Ms ? V jet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ~20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.

  2. Atomic detection in microwave cavity experiments: a dynamical model

    E-print Network

    R. Rossi Jr.; M. C. Nemes; J. G. Peixoto de Faria

    2006-11-13

    We construct a model for the detection of one atom maser in the context of cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) used to study coherence properties of superpositions of electromagnetic modes. Analytic expressions for the atomic ionization are obtained, considering the imperfections of the measurement process due to the probabilistic nature of the interactions between the ionization field and the atoms. Limited efficiency and false counting rates are considered in a dynamical context, and consequent results on the information about the state of the cavity modes are obtained.

  3. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

  4. Present and future directions of atomic physics research with multiply-charged ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.

    1985-03-01

    Atomic physics research with multiply-charged ions is now in progress using ion beams from the Brookhaven Double MP-Tandem van de Graaff facility. In the near future, experiments will start using ions produced by photons from the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Examples of typical experiments are discussed to illustrate the comprehensive nature of these facilities. Plans for future expansion by addition of a CRYEBIS type ion source coupled to a heavy-ion storage ring for use in crossed-beam experiments at the NSLS are discussed. 18 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Fisher-like atomic divergences: Mathematical grounds and physical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, A. L.; Angulo, J. C.; Antolín, J.

    2013-11-01

    Two different local divergence measures, the Fisher (FD) and the Jensen-Fisher (JFD) ones, are compared in this work by applying them to atomic one-particle densities in position and momentum spaces. They are defined in terms of the absolute and the relative Fisher information functionals. The analysis here afforded includes not only neutral atoms, but also singly-charged cations. The results are interpreted and justified according to (i) shell-filling patterns, (ii) short- and long-range behaviors of the atomic densities, and (iii) the value of the atomic ionization potential. The strengths of the FD measure, as compared to the JFD one, are emphasized.

  6. Pulsed power accelerator for material physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Stygar, W. A.; Austin, K. N.; Waisman, E. M.; Hickman, R. J.; Davis, J.-P.; Haill, T. A.; Knudson, M. D.; Seagle, C. T.; Brown, J. L.; Goerz, D. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Goldlust, J. A.; Cravey, W. R.

    2015-09-01

    We have developed the design of Thor: a pulsed power accelerator that delivers a precisely shaped current pulse with a peak value as high as 7 MA to a strip-line load. The peak magnetic pressure achieved within a 1-cm-wide load is as high as 100 GPa. Thor is powered by as many as 288 decoupled and transit-time isolated bricks. Each brick consists of a single switch and two capacitors connected electrically in series. The bricks can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of current pulse tailoring. Because the accelerator is impedance matched throughout, capacitor energy is delivered to the strip-line load with an efficiency as high as 50%. We used an iterative finite element method (FEM), circuit, and magnetohydrodynamic simulations to develop an optimized accelerator design. When powered by 96 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 4.1 MA to a load, and achieves peak magnetic pressures as high as 65 GPa. When powered by 288 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 6.9 MA to a load, and achieves magnetic pressures as high as 170 GPa. We have developed an algebraic calculational procedure that uses the single brick basis function to determine the brick-triggering sequence necessary to generate a highly tailored current pulse time history for shockless loading of samples. Thor will drive a wide variety of magnetically driven shockless ramp compression, shockless flyer plate, shock-ramp, equation of state, material strength, phase transition, and other advanced material physics experiments.

  7. Determination of Spin-Lattice Relaxation of Time Using (Super 13)C NMR: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasyna, Zbigniew L.; Jurkiewicz, Antoni

    2004-01-01

    An experiment designed for the physical chemistry laboratory where (super 13)C NMR is applied to determine the spin-lattice relaxation time for carbon atoms in n-hexanol is proposed. It is concluded that students learn the principles and concepts of NMR spectroscopy as well as dynamic NMR experiments.

  8. The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…

  9. Physics Experiments with Nintendo Wii Controllers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Martyn D.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description of the use of Nintendo Wii game controllers in physics demonstrations. The main features of the controller relevant to physics are outlined and the procedure for communicating with a PC is described. A piece of software written by the author is applied to gathering data from a controller suspended from…

  10. An Experiment on a Physical Pendulum and Steiner's Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russeva, G. B.; Tsutsumanova, G. G.; Russev, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratory curricula usually include experiments on the moment of inertia, the centre of gravity, the harmonic motion of a physical pendulum, and Steiner's theorem. We present a simple experiment using very low cost equipment for investigating these subjects in the general case of an asymmetrical test body. (Contains 3 figures…

  11. Impact Crater Experiments for Introductory Physics and Astronomy Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claycomb, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Activity-based collisional analysis is developed for introductory physics and astronomy laboratory experiments. Crushable floral foam is used to investigate the physics of projectiles undergoing completely inelastic collisions with a low-density solid forming impact craters. Simple drop experiments enable determination of the average acceleration,…

  12. NASA physics and chemistry experiments in-space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabris, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Physics and Chemistry Experiments Program (PACE) is part of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) research and technology effort in understanding the fundamental characteristics of physics and chemical phenomena. This program seeks to increase the basic knowledge in these areas by well-planned research efforts which include in-space experiments when the limitations of ground-based activities precludes or restricts the achievement of research goals. Overview study areas are concerned with molecular beam experiments for Space Shuttle, experiments on drops and bubbles in a manned earth-orbiting laboratory, the study of combustion experiments in space, combustion experiments in orbiting spacecraft, gravitation experiments in space, and fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat-transfer experiments. Procedures for the study program have four phases. An overview study was conducted in the area of materials science.

  13. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Ideas on Size, Visibility and Structure of the Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unlu, Pervin

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the atom gives the opportunity to both understand and conceptually unify the various domains of science, such as physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy and geology. Among these disciplines, physics teachers are expected to be particularly well educated in this topic. It is important that pre-service physics teachers know what sort of…

  14. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 1-85

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  15. Youth with Visual Impairments: Experiences in General Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Robinson, Barbara L.; Rollheiser, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of students with visual impairments currently being educated in inclusive general physical education makes it important that physical education instructors know how best to serve them. Assessment of the experiences of students with visual impairments during general physical education classes, knowledge of students'…

  16. Autoionization in atomic chlorine: Comparison of theories and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruscic, B.; Berkowitz, J. )

    1989-12-01

    High-resolution spectra (0.07 and 0.14 A, full width at half-maximum) are presented for the region between 860 and 918 A of the photoionization spectrum of atomic chlorine. Comparison is made with several many-body theories. Significant disagreement with theory is found, particularly with the widths and profiles of the sharp autoionizing resonances.

  17. Quantum simulation of many-body physics with neutral atoms, molecules, and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss-Feig, Michael

    Real materials are extremely complicated, and any attempt to understand their bulk properties must begin with the appropriate choice of an idealized model, or Hamiltonian. There are many situations where such models have furnished a decisive understanding of complex quantum phenomena, such as BCS superconductivity and quantum magnetism. There are also cases, for instance the unconventional superconductivity of doped cuprates or heavy-fermion metals, where even the simplest conceivable models are intractable to current theoretical techniques. A promising route toward understanding the physics of such models is to simulate them directly with a highly controlled quantum system. Ultracold neutral atoms, polar molecules, and ions are in many ways ideally suited to this task. In this thesis, we emphasize how the unique features of particular atomic and molecular systems can be leveraged to access interesting physics in experimentally feasible temperature regimes. In chapter 3, we consider prospects for simulation of the Kondo lattice model using alkaline-earth atoms. In particular, we show how groundstate properties—for instance anomalous mass enhancement—can be probed by looking at far-from equilibrium dynamics, which are a standard diagnostic tool in ultracold atom experiments. Chapter 4 describes a realistic implementation of a bosonic version of the Kondo lattice model, and we show how the Kondo interaction qualitatively changes the superfluid to Mott insulator phase transition. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 are unified through an attempt to understand the effects of dissipation in many-body quantum systems. In chapter 5, our goal is mainly to understand the detrimental effects of two-body reactive collisions on dipolar molecules in a 3D optical lattice. Chapter 6 takes a rather different perspective, and shows that this type of loss naturally induces quantum correlations in the steady state of reactive fermionic molecules or alkaline earth atoms. In chapter 7, we develop an exact analytic solution for the non-equilibrium dynamics of long-ranged Ising models with Markovian decoherence. We apply our solution to the benchmarking of dynamics in an existing trapped-ion quantum simulator, which due to its large size and long-ranged, frustrated, interactions is well beyond the reach of a brute force numerical description.

  18. Physics experiments with Nintendo Wii controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Martyn D.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description of the use of Nintendo Wii game controllers in physics demonstrations. The main features of the controller relevant to physics are outlined and the procedure for communicating with a PC is described. A piece of software written by the author is applied to gathering data from a controller suspended from a spring undergoing simple harmonic motion, a pair of controllers mounted on colliding gliders on a linear air track, and a person jumping from a balance board.

  19. Colour polymeric paints research under atomic oxygen in flight and ground-based experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernik, V. N.; Naumov, S. F.; Sokolova, S. P.; Gerasimova, T. I.; Kurilyonok, A. O.; Poruchikova, Ju. V.; Novikova, V. A.

    2003-09-01

    Three types of colour coatings were tested to atomic oxygen resistance on ground-based and in-flight experiments. The epoxy enamels colouring change and significant mass losses are observed. The effect of atomic oxygen on silicone enamels almost does not change their colouring and mass. Protection of the epoxy enamels by a layer of silicone varnish increases paints resistance.

  20. Time-of-Flight Experiments in Molecular Motion and Electron-Atom Collision Kinematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Denis P.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Describes a set of experiments for an undergraduate laboratory which demonstrates the relationship between velocity, mass, and temperature in a gas. The experimental method involves time-of-flight measurements on atoms excited to metastable states by electron impact. Effects resulting from recoil in the electron-atom collision can also be…

  1. A Technology Demonstration Experiment for Laser Cooled Atomic Clocks in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klipstein, W. M.; Kohel, J.; Seidel, D. J.; Thompson, R. J.; Maleki, L.; Gibble, K.

    2000-01-01

    We have been developing a laser-cooling apparatus for flight on the International Space Station (ISS), with the intention of demonstrating linewidths on the cesium clock transition narrower than can be realized on the ground. GLACE (the Glovebox Laser- cooled Atomic Clock Experiment) is scheduled for launch on Utilization Flight 3 (UF3) in 2002, and will be mounted in one of the ISS Glovebox platforms for an anticipated 2-3 week run. Separate flight definition projects funded at NIST and Yale by the Micro- gravity Research Division of NASA as a part of its Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program will follow GLACE. Core technologies for these and other LCAP missions are being developed at JPL, with the current emphasis on developing components such as the laser and optics subsystem, and non-magnetic vacuum-compatible mechanical shutters. Significant technical challenges in developing a space qualifiable laser cooling apparatus include reducing the volume, mass, and power requirements, while increasing the ruggedness and reliability in order to both withstand typical launch conditions and achieve several months of unattended operation. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g (Earth's gravity), and the emergence of face-centered-cubic (FCC) crystals late in the coarsening process (as small crystallites lost particles to the slow ripening of large crystallites). Significant quantitative findings from the microgravity experiments have been developed describing complex interactions among crystallites during the growth process, as concentration fields overlap in the surrounding disordered phase. Time-resolved Bragg scattering under microgravity captures one effect of these interactions quite conclusively for the sample at a volume fraction of 0.528. From the earliest time until the sample is almost fully crystalline, the size and overall crystallinity grow monotonically, but the number of crystallites per unit volume (number density) falls. Apparently nucleation is slower than the loss of crystallites because of the transfer of particles from small to large crystals. Thus, coarsening occurs simultaneously with growth, rather than following the completion of nucleation and growth as is generally assumed. In the same sample, an interesting signature appears in the apparent number density of crystallites and the volume fraction within the crystallites shortly before full crystallinity is reached. A brief upturn in both indicates the creation of more domains of the size of the average crystallite simultaneous with the compression of the crystallites. Only the emergence of dendritic arms offers a reasonable explanation. The arms would be "seen" by the light scattering as separate domains whose smaller radii of curvature would compress the interior phase. In fiscal year 1999, numerous papers, a doctoral dissertation, and the PHaSE final report were produced. Although this flight project has been completed, plans are in place for a follow-on colloid experiment by Chaikin and Russel that employs a light microscope within Glenn's Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. PHaSE is providing us with a deeper understanding of the nure of phase transitions. The knowledge derived has added to the understandin

  3. Computational physics Visualizing electronic density of atoms and molecules with AViz

    E-print Network

    Adler, Joan

    Computational physics Visualizing electronic density of atoms and molecules with AViz Joey Fox,1 the geometry of dif- ferent states. Dots with densities corresponding to the electronic probability density. For the hydrogen atom, the densities can be calculated from the analytic solution. For other cases numerical

  4. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 013413 (2013) Spin damping in an rf atomic magnetometer

    E-print Network

    Romalis, Mike

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 013413 (2013) Spin damping in an rf atomic magnetometer Orang Alem* and Karen factor Q of a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer can be decreased by more than two orders of magnitude the magnetometer for detection of the desired signal. We find that noise is also suppressed under such spin damping

  5. Request for Support for the Conference on Super Intense Laser Atom Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Ditmire

    2004-10-21

    The Conference on Super Intense Laser Atom Physics (SILAP) was held in November 2003 in Dallas, Texas. The venue for the meeting was South Fork Ranch in the outskirts of Dallas. The topics of the meeting included high harmonic generation and attosecond pulse generation, strong field interactions with molecules and clusters, particle acceleration, and relativistic laser atom interactions.

  6. Ground Control to Niels Bohr: Exploring Outer Space with Atomic Physics

    E-print Network

    Mason A. Porter; Predrag Cvitanovic

    2005-05-11

    We provided an introduction to transition state theory and the connections it provides between atomic and celestial physics. We include brief discussions of historical background, recent applications in space mission design, and current research efforts.

  7. Physics 6, 42 (2013) A Fragile Union Between Li and He Atoms

    E-print Network

    Friedrich, Bretislav

    2013-01-01

    Physics 6, 42 (2013) Viewpoint A Fragile Union Between Li and He Atoms Bretislav Friedrich Fritz-Haber and in physisorption [2]. First invoked in 1930 by Fritz London, dispersion forces are a necessary consequence

  8. Summary of informal workshop on state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Cocke, C.L.; Datz, S.; Kostroun, V.

    1984-11-13

    The present state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research in the United States is assessed by means of a questionnaire and informal workshop. Recommendations for future facilities are given. 3 refs.

  9. Microwave ionization of hydrogen atoms: Experiment vs classical dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    van Leeuwen, K.A.H.; Oppen, G.V.; Renwick, S.; Bowlin, J.B.; Koch, P.M.; Jensen, R.V.; Rath, O.; Richards, D.; Leopold, J.G.

    1985-11-18

    Ionization of hydrogen atoms with principal quantum number n = 32, 40, and 51--74 by a 9.92-GHz electric field F(t)zF0 cos t was studied with a superimposed static electric field F-bar/sub s/ = 0,2,5,8 V/cm. The measured field strengths F0(10%) at which 10% of the atoms were ionized are in excellent agreement with classical calculations in both one and two spatial dimensions. Covering finer detail as well as gross structure of the n dependence of F0(10%), the agreement supports the application of classical dynamics to the analysis of this strongly perturbed quantum system.

  10. Novel Atomic Coherence and Interference Effects in Quantum Optics and Atomic Physics 

    E-print Network

    Jha, Pankaj

    2012-10-19

    It is well known that the optical properties of multi-level atomic and molecular system can be controlled and manipulated efficiently using quantum coherence and interference, which has led to many new effects in quantum ...

  11. Searches for New Physics at the Belle II Experiment

    E-print Network

    Wang, Boqun

    2015-01-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider is an upgrade of the Belle / KEKB experiment. It will start physics data taking from 2018 and with $40$ times luminosity, its goal is to accumulate 50 $ab^{-1}$ of $e^+e^-$ collision data. The physics programs have a wide range of areas for new physics, such as more constraints on CKM Unitarity Triangle, searching for charged Higgs, direct CPV, Lepton Flavour Violation and dark matter.In this monograph, we will review the current status of Belle II and SuperKEKB construction and introduce the main physics opportunities at this facility.

  12. Searches for New Physics at the Belle II Experiment

    E-print Network

    Boqun Wang

    2015-11-02

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider is an upgrade of the Belle / KEKB experiment. It will start physics data taking from 2018 and with $40$ times luminosity, its goal is to accumulate 50 $ab^{-1}$ of $e^+e^-$ collision data. The physics programs have a wide range of areas for new physics, such as more constraints on CKM Unitarity Triangle, searching for charged Higgs, direct CPV, Lepton Flavour Violation and dark matter.In this monograph, we will review the current status of Belle II and SuperKEKB construction and introduce the main physics opportunities at this facility.

  13. Primer on Detectors and Electronics for Particle Physics Experiments

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    of some type of matter, be it molecule, atom or other particle. The experiment suggested by Ernest Rutherford in 1909 aimed alpha particles decaying from unstable radon towards a gold foil. His finding were of a fixed target type, just like Rutherford's. The projectile beam was aimed at a target, which

  14. An Apollo compatible cloud physics experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Hollinden, A. B.; Satterblom, P. R.

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of the utilization of a low-gravity environment to obtain experimental information, in the area of cloud microphysics, which cannot be obtained in ground laboratories. The experiment discussed is designed to obtain quantitative answers about evaporation and breakup of salt particles from ocean spray and other sources. In addition to salt nuclei distribution mechanisms, this breakup has ecological importance in relation to the spreading of salt mists from salted highways and spreading of brine cooling tower spray from electrical power generation plants. This experiment is being submitted for consideration on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program in 1975.

  15. Current experiments in elementary-particle physics - March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

    1983-03-01

    Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated. (WHK)

  16. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms.

  17. Model of delocalized atoms in the physics of the vitreous state

    SciTech Connect

    Sanditov, D. S.

    2012-07-15

    A development of the model of delocalized atoms of liquids and glasses is proposed. It is shown that the basic equation of the model for the probability of delocalization (excitation) of an atom can be obtained not only from the Clausius relation but also by other methods of statistical physics. Techniques for calculating the parameters of the model are developed. The critical displacement of an atom from the equilibrium position, which corresponds to the maximum interatomic attraction force, can be considered as a delocalization (local excitation) of this atom in an elastic continuum. The energy of the critical displacement of an atom calculated as the work of the limit elastic deformation of the interatomic bond in an elastic continuum is in agreement with the results of calculation by the model of delocalized atoms. This energy can also be calculated from the data on surface tension and atomic volume. In silicate glasses, the process of delocalization of an atom represents the critical displacement of a bridging oxygen atom in the structural fragment of a silicon-oxygen (Si-O-Si) network before the switching of the valence bond, whereas, in amorphous organic polymers, the delocalization of an atom corresponds to the limit displacement of a fragment of the main chain of a macromolecule (a group of atoms in the connecting link).

  18. Atomism and Quantization Research Group in Mathematical Physics 1

    E-print Network

    appear in two Laws of Nature: (i) Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation F(r) = - Gm 1 m 2 r 3 r , (1) where G is Newton's gravitational constant, and (ii) Planck's Law for the spectral energy density vindication of one basic paradigm and three revolutions. The paradigm is Atomism; it assumes that matter

  19. [Physical therapy of lymphedema: Montpellier's experience].

    PubMed

    Evrard-Bras, M; Coupé, M; Quéré, I; Janbon, C

    2002-06-01

    Authors have presented their experience for treatment of lymphedema during 5 consecutive days. After intensive phase of treatment at hospital, specific therapy is described to maintain results. Complex decongestive physiotherapy includes manual lymphatic drainage and bandage which are modified with original methods every day if necessary. PMID:12162205

  20. Solution Calorimetry Experiments for Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raizen, Deborah A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents two experiments: the first one measures the heat of an exothermic reaction by the reduction of permanganate by the ferris ion; the second one measures the heat of an endothermic process, the mixing of ethanol and cyclohexane. Lists tables to aid in the use of the solution calorimeter. (MVL)

  1. Using the Wiimote in Introductory Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Romulo; Rooney, Frank G.; Somers, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The Wii is a very popular gaming console. An important component of its appeal is the ease of use of its remote controller, popularly known as a Wiimote. This simple-looking but powerful device has a three-axis accelerometer and communicates with the console via Bluetooth protocol. We present two experiments that demonstrate the feasibility of…

  2. Physics Department Research Strategic Plan Physics Department Research Strategic Plan

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Physics Department Research Strategic Plan 1 Physics Department Research matter physics (soft matter physics, and electronic, optical, magnetic, and nano materials) theory and experiment. (ii) biophysics, and (iii) fundamental interaction physics (sub-atomic particles, gravity

  3. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  4. Simple Experiments on the Physics of Vision: The Retina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortel, Adolf

    2005-01-01

    Many simple experiments can be performed in the classroom to explore the physics of vision. Students can learn of the two types of receptive cells (rods and cones), their distribution on the retina and the existence of the blind spot.

  5. Learning Physics by Experiment: I. Falling Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2014-03-01

    As a rule, students enjoy conducting experiments in which the practical aspects are straightforward and well-defined. This also applies even when there is no anticipated result for students to ``prove.'' A laboratory exercise with such properties was created for students to undertake in a completely blind manner, and they happily proceeded without any knowledge at all of what they might expect to find. The philosophy developed for the research in this paper expands the pioneering approach formulated some half century ago and successfully employed more recently. In the present era of differentiated instruction (DI) being implemented in a diversity of educational settings, the design of the subject experiment is especially significant for its inclusive nature and for the positive outcomes it produces for less academically capable students. All students benefit from such an environment because it preempts the wasted effort of undue manipulation and it removes the need to contrive agreement with a textbook via irregular attempts at reverse engineering.

  6. Learning Pathways in High-School Level Quantum Atomic Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedderer, Hans; Petri, Juergen

    Investigations of changes in conceptions during physics instruction are the logical and necessary steps to follow successful international research on students' preinstructional conceptions. The theoretical perspective integrates currently available frameworks of cognition, cognitive states, and cognitive processes in physics. Particular emphasis…

  7. Cuban Techno-physical Experiments in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, José; Calzadilla Amaya, Ocatvio; Falcon, Federico; Fuentes, Juan E.; Lodos, Jorge; Vigil Santos, Elena

    When Cuba joined the Intercosmos Program of the socialist countries in the mid-1960s, the great educational and scientific reform taking place at that time in the country had hardly begun to bear fruit. But when, a decade later, the Soviet Union offered all the participant countries the chance to make use of its space vehicles and related installations so that their cosmonauts could carry out original scientific experiments in space, the situation had changed radically in Cuba. In a short time around 200 people already involved in scientific and technological activities succeeded in designing and setting up—in close collaboration with various Soviet, East German and Bulgarian institutions—some 20 scientific experiments that were to be carried out in orbit around the earth during the joint Soviet-Cuban space flight of September 18-26, 1980. Those experiments, and a further one that was also set up for the same space flight—but carried out during a later flight, as mentioned below—are historically important since they were the first in their class to be carried out by humans in space under microgravity conditions.

  8. Distributed System of Processing of Data of Physical Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, A. A.; Moiseev, A. N.

    2014-11-01

    Complication of physical experiments and increasing volumes of experimental data necessitate the application of supercomputer and distributed computing systems for data processing. Design and development of such systems, their mathematical modeling, and investigation of their characteristics and functional capabilities is an urgent scientific and practical problem. In the present work, the characteristics of operation of such distributed system of processing of data of physical experiments are investigated using the apparatus of theory of queuing networks.

  9. Physics of the missing atoms: technetium and promethium

    SciTech Connect

    Aspden, H.

    1987-05-01

    Technetium (Z = 43) and promethium (Z = 61) are by far the least abundant of all atoms below the radioactive elements (Z = 84 onwards). Their scarcity confirms theoretical predictions emerging from a theory of the photon derived from synchronous lattice electrodynamics. This theory has given precise theoretical values for the fine-structure constant and the constant of gravitation G and is now shown in this paper to indicate resonant interactions between the vacuum lattice oscillations and technetium and promethium. In the case of promethium there is strong reason for believing that this atom can assume supergravitational or antigravitational properties, accounting for its scarcity. This paper not only adds support to the earlier theoretical work on the photon and gravitation, but suggests a research route that might lead to new technology based on controlled interactions with gravity fields.

  10. Experiments with Ultracold Quantum-degenerate Fermionic Lithium Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Experimental methods of laser and evaporative cooling, used in the production of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates have recently been extended to realize quantum degeneracy in trapped Fermi gases. Fermi gases are a new rich system to explore the implications of Pauli exclusion on scattering properties of the system, and ultimately fermionic superfluidity. We have produced a new macroscopic quantum system, in which a degenerate Li-6 Fermi gas coexists with a large and stable Na-23 BEC. This was accomplished using inter-species sympathetic cooling of fermionic 6Li in a thermal bath of bosonic Na-23. We have achieved high numbers of both fermions (less than 10(exp 5) and bosons (less than 10(exp 6), and Li-6 quantum degeneracy corresponding to one half of the Fermi temperature. This is the first time that a Fermi sea was produced with a condensate as a "refrigerator".

  11. Improving the Physical Realism and Structural Accuracy of Protein Models by a Two-Step Atomic-Level Energy Minimization

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yang

    Improving the Physical Realism and Structural Accuracy of Protein Models by a Two-Step Atomic-step, atomic-level energy minimization. The main-chain structures are first constructed from initial Ca traces physics- and knowledge-based force field. We tested the method by performing an atomic structure

  12. Understanding atomic interactions in an optical lattice clock and using them to study many-body physics

    E-print Network

    Jin, Deborah

    Understanding atomic interactions in an optical lattice clock and using them to study many, Michael N. (Ph.D., Physics) Understanding atomic interactions in an optical lattice clock and using them-dependent frequency shifts represent an unavoidable perturbation for clocks based on many atoms. Our studies of atomic

  13. Atomic and molecular physics in the gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Toburen, L.H.

    1990-09-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of energy deposition by high-linear-energy-transfer radiation play an important role in the subsequent chemical and biological processes leading to radiation damage. Because the spatial structures of energy deposition events are of the same dimensions as molecular structures in the mammalian cell, direct measurements of energy deposition distributions appropriate to radiation biology are infeasible. This has led to the development of models of energy transport based on a knowledge of atomic and molecular interactions process that enable one to simulate energy transfer on an atomic scale. Such models require a detailed understanding of the interactions of ions and electrons with biologically relevant material. During the past 20 years there has been a great deal of progress in our understanding of these interactions; much of it coming from studies in the gas phase. These studies provide information on the systematics of interaction cross sections leading to a knowledge of the regions of energy deposition where molecular and phase effects are important and that guide developments in appropriate theory. In this report studies of the doubly differential cross sections, crucial to the development of stochastic energy deposition calculations and track structure simulation, will be reviewed. Areas of understanding are discussed and directions for future work addressed. Particular attention is given to experimental and theoretical findings that have changed the traditional view of secondary electron production for charged particle interactions with atomic and molecular targets.

  14. Peer Provocation in Physical Education: Experiences of Botswana Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehu, Jimoh

    2009-01-01

    Critical incidents of peer provocation in physical education were investigated among 675 junior secondary school students in Botswana. Data were generated through a brief, open-ended questionnaire requesting the students to narrate their experiences of bad, hurtful and offensive peer behaviours during physical education classes. Six overlapping…

  15. Synthesis and Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals: An Interdisciplinary Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Hanhan Li; Hendargo, Hansford C.; Cosand, Andrew J.; Fox, Marja M.

    2005-01-01

    A study involves multiple chemistry and physics concepts applied to a state of matter that has biological relevance. An experiment involving the synthesis and physical properties of liquid crystals illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of liquid crystal research and the practical devices derived from such research.

  16. Feasibility guidelines for kaonic-atom experiments with ultra-high-resolution X-ray spectrometry

    E-print Network

    E. Friedman; S. Okada

    2013-07-15

    Recent studies of strong interaction effects in kaonic atoms suggest that analysing so-called `lower' and `upper' levels in the same atom could separate one-nucleon absorption from multinucleon processes. The present work examines the feasibility of direct measurements of upper level widths in addition to lower level widths in future experiments, using superconducting microcalorimeter detectors. About ten elements are identified as possible candidates for such experiments, all of medium-weight and heavy nuclei. New experiments focused on achieving good accuracy for widths of such pairs of levels could contribute significantly to our knowledge of the $K^-$-nucleon interaction in the nuclear medium.

  17. PREFACE: 8th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jim F.; Buckman, Steve; Bieske, Evan J.

    2009-09-01

    These proceedings arose from the 8th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP) which was held at the University of Western Australia 24-28 November 2008. The history of AISAMP (Takayanagi and Matsuzawa 2002) recognizes its origin from the Japan-China meeting of 1985, and the first use of the name 'The First Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP)' in 1992. The initial attendees, Japan and China, were joined subsequently by scientists from Korea, Taiwan, India, Australia and recently by Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Turkey Iran, UK and USA. The main purpose of the biennial AISAMP series is to create a wide forum for exchanging ideas and information among atomic and molecular scientists and to promote international collaboration. The scope of the AISAMP8 meeting included pure, strategic and applied research involving atomic and molecular structure and processes in all forms of matter and antimatter. For 2008 the AISAMP conference incorporated the Australian Atomic and Molecular Physics and Quantum Chemistry meeting. The topics for AISAMP8 embraced themes from earlier AISAMP meetings and reflected new interests, in atomic and molecular structures, spectroscopy and collisions; atomic and molecular physics with laser or synchrotron radiation; quantum information processing using atoms and molecules; atoms and molecules in surface physics, nanotechnology, biophysics, atmospheric physics and other interdisciplinary studies. The implementation of the AISAMP themes, as well as the international representation of research interests, is indicated both in the contents list of these published manuscripts as well as in the program for the meeting. Altogether, 184 presentations were made at the 8th AISAMP, including Invited Talks and Contributed Poster Presentations, of which 60 appear in the present Proceedings after review by expert referees in accordance with the usual practice of Journal of Physics: Conference Series of the Institute of Physics. The support from the IOPCS staff made this publication possible. The 8th AISAMP was sponsored primarily by the University of Western Australia and Curtin University of Technology, both in Perth, Western Australia, and by Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Support was also received from the International Council of Science, ICSU. Guidance and active participation from colleagues, particularly from the University of Western Australia, and Curtin University, and from the Australian National University and Melbourne University were sources of strength for the actual organization of the conference. Dr Elena Semidelova receives special thanks for her organizing abilities. We hope that this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series will be referenced widely and that it will strengthen ties between all scientists and their countries. Evan Bieske, Stephen Buckman and Jim F Williams Guest Editors

  18. Atomic Parity Nonconservation: Status of Experiment/Theory

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Walter R.

    et al., Science 275, 1759 (1997). 3 S. C. Bennett and C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4153 (1999). 4 D. E. Groom et al., Euro. Phys. J. C 15, 1 (2000). ­ ND ­ 2 #12;Optical Rotation Experiments. Commins, Phys. Rev. A 32, 2196 (1985). 11 C. E. Tanner and E. D. Commins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 332, (1986

  19. Project Physics Handbook 5, Models of the Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Five experiments and 19 activities are presented in this Unit 5 handbook. The experiments are related to electrolysis, charge-to-mass ratio, elementary charge determination, photoelectric effects, and spectroscopic analyses. The activities are concerned with Dalton's theory, water electrolysis, periodic tables, single-electron plating, cloud…

  20. Single-molecule experiments in biological physics: methods and applications

    E-print Network

    F. Ritort

    2006-09-15

    I review single-molecule experiments (SME) in biological physics. Recent technological developments have provided the tools to design and build scientific instruments of high enough sensitivity and precision to manipulate and visualize individual molecules and measure microscopic forces. Using SME it is possible to: manipulate molecules one at a time and measure distributions describing molecular properties; characterize the kinetics of biomolecular reactions and; detect molecular intermediates. SME provide the additional information about thermodynamics and kinetics of biomolecular processes. This complements information obtained in traditional bulk assays. In SME it is also possible to measure small energies and detect large Brownian deviations in biomolecular reactions, thereby offering new methods and systems to scrutinize the basic foundations of statistical mechanics. This review is written at a very introductory level emphasizing the importance of SME to scientists interested in knowing the common playground of ideas and the interdisciplinary topics accessible by these techniques. The review discusses SME from an experimental perspective, first exposing the most common experimental methodologies and later presenting various molecular systems where such techniques have been applied. I briefly discuss experimental techniques such as atomic-force microscopy (AFM), laser optical tweezers (LOT), magnetic tweezers (MT), biomembrane force probe (BFP) and single-molecule fluorescence (SMF). I then present several applications of SME to the study of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA and DNA condensation), proteins (protein-protein interactions, protein folding and molecular motors). Finally, I discuss applications of SME to the study of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of small systems and the experimental verification of fluctuation theorems. I conclude with a discussion of open questions and future perspectives.

  1. Low Cost Alternatives to Commercial Lab Kits for Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodejška, C.; De Nunzio, G.; Kubinek, R.; Ríha, J.

    2015-01-01

    Conducting experiments in physics using modern measuring techniques, and particularly those utilizing computers, is often much more attractive to students than conducting experiments conventionally. However, the cost of professional kits in the Czech Republic is still very expensive for many schools. The basic equipment for one student workplace…

  2. Physics Lab Experiments and Correlated Computer Aids. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H.

    Forty-nine physics experiments are included in the teacher's edition of this laboratory manual. Suggestions are given in margins for preparing apparatus, organizing students, and anticipating difficulties likely to be encountered. Sample data, graphs, calculations, and sample answers to leading questions are also given for each experiment. It is…

  3. Perceptions of Overweight Students Concerning Their Experiences in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Josh; Graber, Kim C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine overweight students' perceptions of and experiences in physical education. Specifically, the applicability of learned helplessness as a framework to understand their experiences was explored. Participants were seven female and five male high school students whose body mass index was at or higher…

  4. Bicycle Freewheeling with Air Drag as a Physics Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Paul; Janssens, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    To familiarize first-year students with the important ingredients of a physics experiment, we offer them a project close to their daily life: measuring the effect of air resistance on a bicycle. Experiments are done with a bicycle freewheeling on a downhill slope. The data are compared with equations of motions corresponding to different models…

  5. Thought Experiments in Physics Education: A Simple and Practical Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattery, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a Galilean thought experiment to enhance learning in a college-level physical science course. Presents both modern and historical perspectives of Galileo's work. As a final project, students explored Galileo's thought experiment in the laboratory using modern detectors with satisfying results. (Contains 25 references.) (Author/ASK)

  6. Introducing New Experiments to the Contemporary Physics Lab: Emphasis on Quantum Mechanics Foundations and New Physics Frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, Khalid; Yarrison-Rice, Jan; Jaeger, Herbert

    2013-03-01

    We remodeled our sophomore curriculum extensively both in the laboratories and the lectures. Our Experimental Contemporary Physics laboratory (PHY293) was almost completely re-built both in curriculum and pedagogy. Among the new experiments that we introduced are Nanoparticle plasmon resonance, Saturated absorption and fluorescence in iodine molecules, Quantized conductance in atomic-scale constrictions, and Water droplets behavior and manipulation on metal surfaces. This presentation will focus on the last two experiments. Quantized conductance in a constriction in a gold wire being pulled slowly is a unique direct application of the one-dimensional potential wells. Unlike most experiments on quantum mechanics that use optics, this experiment is transport-based, conceptually simple, and robust in addition to being low-cost. The transport properties of the wire span multiple transport regimes while being pulled. It is quite valuable for students (a significant fraction of whom are biological physics and engineering physics majors) to understand the behavior of water droplets on different surfaces. Water is the medium in which biological activities occur and is important in many other applications like air conditioning and refrigeration. We design simple gradients in the hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of metal surfaces in order to move water droplets in a controlled way, even against gravity. Students explore the effects of surface tension and metal roughness on droplets.

  7. B Physics at the DO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz Burelo, Eduard de la

    2008-11-13

    At the beginning of RunII of the Tevatron and after more than 30 years of the discovery of the b quark at Fermilab, the lack of statistics had restricted our knowledge on b-baryons to the observation of the lightest b-baryon, the {lambda}{sub b}, and to its lifetime measured in decays which did not allow a fully reconstruction of this particle. I present results of the search for b-baryons in the DO experiment. As part of this program, a precise measurement of the {lambda}{sub b} lifetime was performed, and the discovery of the {xi}{sub b}{sup -} resulted from an analysis of 1.3 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector during 2002-2006.

  8. Theory and experiment in gravitational physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    New technological advances have made it feasible to conduct measurements with precision levels which are suitable for experimental tests of the theory of general relativity. This book has been designed to fill a new need for a complete treatment of techniques for analyzing gravitation theory and experience. The Einstein equivalence principle and the foundations of gravitation theory are considered, taking into account the Dicke framework, basic criteria for the viability of a gravitation theory, experimental tests of the Einstein equivalence principle, Schiff's conjecture, and a model theory devised by Lightman and Lee (1973). Gravitation as a geometric phenomenon is considered along with the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, the classical tests, tests of the strong equivalence principle, gravitational radiation as a tool for testing relativistic gravity, the binary pulsar, and cosmological tests.

  9. Baryonium, a common ground for atomic and high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wycech, S.; Dedonder, J.-P.; Loiseau, B.

    2015-08-01

    Indications of the existence of quasi-bound states in the system are presented. In their measurements, the BES collaboration has discoverd a broad enhancement close to the threshold in the S wave, isospin 0 state formed in radiative decays of J/ ?. Another enhancement located about 50 MeV below the threshold was found in mesonic decays of J/ ?. In terms of the Paris potential model it was shown that these are likely to represent the same state. Antiprotonic atomic data provide some support for this interpretation and indicate the existence of another fairly narrow quasi-bound state in a P wave.

  10. Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments without Superconducting Electromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, R.D.

    1998-08-19

    Long-pulse fusion physics experiments can be performed economically via resistive electromagnets designed for thermally steady-state operation. Possible fusion experiments using resistive electromagnets include long-pulse ignition with deuterium-tritium fuel. Long-pulse resistive electromagnets are alternatives to today's delicate and costly superconductors. At any rate, superconducting technology is now evolving independent of fusion, so near-term superconducting experience may not ultimately be useful.

  11. Compilation of current high-energy physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1981-05-01

    This is the fourth edition of the compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. Only approved experiments are included.

  12. Divertor design for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.N.; Braams, B.; Brooks, J.N.

    1994-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the present divertor design for the planned TPX tokamak, which will explore the physics and technology of steady-state (1000s pulses) heat and particle removal in high confinement (2--4{times} L-mode), high beta ({beta}{sub N} {ge} 3) divertor plasmas sustained by non-inductive current drive. The TPX device will operate in the double-null divertor configuration, with actively cooled graphite targets forming a deep (0.5 m) slot at the outer strike point. The peak heat flux on, the highly tilted (74{degrees} from normal) re-entrant (to recycle ions back toward the separatrix) will be in the range of 4--6 MW/m{sup 2} with 18 MW of neutral beams and RF heating power. The combination of active pumping and gas puffing (deuterium plus impurities), along with higher heating power (45 MW maximum) will allow testing of radiative divertor concepts at ITER-like power densities.

  13. Precision spectroscopy of light kaonic atom X-rays in the SIDDHARTA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiwatari, T.; Cargnelli, M.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Bazzi, M.; Corradi, G.; Curceanu, C.; d'Uffizi, A.; Guaraldo, C.; Sandri, P. Levi; Lucherini, V.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Rizzo, A.; Vidal, A. Romero; Scordo, A.; Doce, O. Vazquez; Beer, G.; Bombelli, L.

    2010-12-28

    The SIDDHARTA experiment successfully measured kaonic atom X-rays using four gas targets of hydrogen, deuterium, helium-3, and helium-4 at the DA{Phi}NH electron-positron collider. Excellent performance of the SDDs under beam conditions was found in terms of X-ray energy resolution and a good background suppression capability. The preliminary results of the strong-interaction shifts of the kaonic atoms with Z = 1 and 2 are given.

  14. Design, development, and fabrication of a prototype ice pack heat sink subsystem. Flight experiment physical phenomena experiment chest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Dean, W. C., II

    1975-01-01

    The concept of a flight experiment physical phenomena experiment chest, to be used eventually for investigating and demonstrating ice pack heat sink subsystem physical phenomena during a zero gravity flight experiment, is described.

  15. Otto Stern (1888-1969): The founding father of experimental atomic physics

    E-print Network

    Toennies, J Peter; Friedrich, Bretislav; Lower, Julian C A

    2011-01-01

    We review the work and life of Otto Stern who developed the molecular beam technique and with its aid laid the foundations of experimental atomic physics. Among the key results of his research are: the experimental determination of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular velocities (1920), experimental demonstration of space quantization of angular momentum (1922), diffraction of matter waves comprised of atoms and molecules by crystals (1931) and the determination of the magnetic dipole moments of the proton and deuteron (1933).

  16. Otto Stern (1888-1969): The founding father of experimental atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toennies, J. P.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Friedrich, B.; Lower, J. C. A.

    2011-12-01

    We review the work and life of Otto Stern who developed the molecular beam technique and with its aid laid the foundations of experimental atomic physics. Among the key results of his research are: the experimental determination of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular velocities (1920), experimental demonstration of space quantization of angular momentum (1922), diffraction of matter waves comprised of atoms and molecules by crystals (1931) and the determination of the magnetic dipole moments of the proton and deuteron (1933).

  17. Nuclear physics (of the cell, not the atom)

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Thoru; Marko, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus is physically distinct from the cytoplasm in ways that suggest new ideas and approaches for interrogating the operation of this organelle. Chemical bond formation and breakage underlie the lives of cells, but as this special issue of Molecular Biology of the Cell attests, the nonchemical aspects of cell nuclei present a new frontier to biologists and biophysicists. PMID:25368422

  18. Proceedings of the workshop on opportunities for atomic physics using slow, highly-charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The study of atomic physics with highly-charged ions is an area of intense activity at the present time because of a convergence of theoretical interest and advances in experimental techniques. The purpose of the Argonne ''Workshop on Opportunities for Atomic Physics Using Slow, Highly-Charged Ions'' was to bring together atomic, nuclear, and accelerator physicists in order to identify what new facilities would be most useful for the atomic physics community. The program included discussion of existing once-through machines, advanced ion sources, recoil ion techniques, ion traps, and cooler rings. One of the topics of the Workshop was to discuss possible improvement to the ANL Tandem-Linac facility (ATLAS) to enhance the capability for slowing down ions after they are stripped to a high-charge state (the Accel/Decel technique). Another topic was the opportunity for atomic physics provided by the ECR ion source which is being built for the Uranium Upgrade of ATLAS. 18 analytics were prepared for the individual papers in this volume.

  19. Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Kettle, P.R.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  20. Critical Missing Equation of Quantum Physics for Understanding Atomic Structures

    E-print Network

    Xiaofei Huang

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an optimization approach to explain why and how a quantum system evolves from an arbitrary initial state to a stationary state, satisfying the time-independent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. It also points out the inaccuracy of this equation, which is critial important in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, due to a fundamental flaw in it conflicting with the physical reality. The some directions are suggested on how to modify the equation to fix the problem

  1. Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

  2. HISTRAP (Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics) prototype hardware studies

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Atkins, W.H.; Dowling, D.T.; Johnson, J.W.; Lord, R.S.; McConnell, J.W.; Milner, W.T.; Mosko, S.W.; Tatum, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    HISTRAP, Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics, is a proposed 2.67-Tm synchrotron/cooler/storage ring optimized for advanced atomic physics research which will be injected with ions from either the HHIRF 25-MV tandem accelerator or a dedicated ECR source and RFQ linac. Over the last two years, hardware prototypes have been developed for difficult and long lead-time components. A vacuum test stand, the rf cavity, and a prototype dipole magnet have been designed, constructed, and tested. 7 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Atomic physics at the future facility for antiproton and ion research: status report 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumberidze, A.; Stöhlker, Th; Litvinov, Yu A.; on behalf of the SPARC collaboration

    2015-11-01

    In this contribution, a brief overview of the Stored Particle Atomic physics Research Collaboration scientific program at the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is given. The program comprises a very broad range of research topics addressing atomic structure and dynamics in hitherto unexplored regimes, light–matter interactions, lepton pair production phenomena, precision tests of quantum electrodynamics and standard model in the regime of extreme fields and many more. We also present the current strategy for the realization of the envisioned physics program within the modularized start version (MSV) of FAIR.

  4. Theory of neutrino-atom collisions: the history, present status and BSM physics

    E-print Network

    Konstantin A. Kouzakov; Alexander I. Studenikin

    2014-06-19

    An overview of the current theoretical studies on neutrino-atom scattering processes is presented. The ionization channel of these processes, which is studied in experiments searching for neutrino magnetic moments, is brought into focus. Recent developments in the theory of atomic ionization by impact of reactor antineutrinos are discussed. It is shown that the stepping approximation is well applicable for the data analysis practically down to the ionization threshold.

  5. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  6. The Basic Physics of Electron-Atom Collisions: How Much Do We Know and How Much Is Left to Learn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, T. J.

    2001-05-01

    Electron-atom scattering is perhaps the most investigated quantum mechanical process in physics, but not the best understood. Indeed, the simplest example of this process, electron-hydrogen scattering, has only just recently succumbed to comprehensive solution. Given that we believe in Quantum Mechanics, Special Relativity, and Coulomb's Law, what makes electron-atom scattering so difficult to understand? This talk will present a review of where we stand, both theoretically and experimentally, in our knowledge of these collisions ranging from total cross sections to the most esoteric spin and polarization parameters. Particular attention will be paid to areas where lack of basic knowledge limits our understanding of applied electron-driven processes. Recommendations for future experiments will be made.

  7. Physics Experiments Planned for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdon, Charles P.

    1998-11-01

    This talk will review the current status and plans for high energy density physics experiments to be conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF a multi-laboratory effort, presently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a 192 beam solid state glass laser system designed to deliver 1.8MJ (at 351nm) in temporal shaped pulses. This review will begin by introducing the NIF in the context of its role in the overall United States Stockpile Stewardship Program. The major focus of this talk will be to describe the physics experiments planned for the NIF. By way of introduction to the experiments a short review of the NIF facility design and projected capabilities will be presented. In addition the current plans and time line for the activation of the laser and experimental facilities will also be reviewed. The majority of this talk will focus on describing the national inertial confinement fusion integrated theory and experimental target ignition plan. This national plan details the theory and experimental program required for achieving ignition and modest thermonuclear gain on the NIF. This section of the presentation will include a status of the current physics basis, ignition target designs, and target fabrication issues associated with the indirect-drive and direct-drive approaches to ignition. The NIF design provides the capabilities to support experiments for both approaches to ignition. Other uses for the NIF, including non ignition physics relevant to the national security mission, studies relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy, and basic science applications, will also be described. The NIF offers the potential to generate new basic scientific understanding about matter under extreme conditions by making available a unique facility for research into: astrophysics and space physics, hydrodynamics, condensed matter physics, material properties, plasma physics and radiation sources, and radiative properties. Examples of experiments, already proposed for the NIF, in a number of these areas will be presented.

  8. PROBING THE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF ATOMIC GAS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Neeleman, Marcel; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2015-02-10

    A new method is used to measure the physical conditions of the gas in damped Ly? systems (DLAs). Using high-resolution absorption spectra of a sample of 80 DLAs, we are able to measure the ratio of the upper and lower fine-structure levels of the ground state of C{sup +} and Si{sup +}. These ratios are determined solely by the physical conditions of the gas. We explore the allowed physical parameter space using a Monte Carlo Markov chain method to constrain simultaneously the temperature, neutral hydrogen density, and electron density of each DLA. The results indicate that at least 5% of all DLAs have the bulk of their gas in a dense, cold phase with typical densities of ?100 cm{sup –3} and temperatures below 500 K. We further find that the typical pressure of DLAs in our sample is log (P/k{sub B} ) = 3.4 (K cm{sup –3}), which is comparable to the pressure of the local interstellar medium (ISM), and that the components containing the bulk of the neutral gas can be quite small with absorption sizes as small as a few parsecs. We show that the majority of the systems are consistent with having densities significantly higher than expected for a purely canonical warm neutral medium, indicating that significant quantities of dense gas (i.e., n {sub H} > 0.1 cm{sup –3}) are required to match observations. Finally, we identify eight systems with positive detections of Si II*. These systems have pressures (P/k{sub B} ) in excess of 20,000 K cm{sup –3}, which suggest that these systems tag a highly turbulent ISM in young, star-forming galaxies.

  9. The physics of musical scales: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Dallin S.; Colton, John S.

    2015-10-01

    The theory of musical scales involves mathematical ratios, harmonic resonators, beats, and human perception and provides an interesting application of the physics of waves and sound. We first review the history and physics of musical scales, with an emphasis on four historically important scales: twelve-tone equal temperament, Pythagorean, quarter-comma meantone, and Ptolemaic just intonation. We then present an easy way for students and teachers to directly experience the qualities of different scales using MIDI synthesis.

  10. What undergraduate physical education majors learn during a field experience.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, M; Tsangaridou, N

    1992-12-01

    Early field experiences and student teaching have a significant impact on the development of prospective teachers' perceptions of teaching and themselves as teachers (Dodds, 1989). The purpose of this study was to describe what happened to physical education majors during a secondary physical education methodology course that included two field experiences in which the undergraduates taught at least one lesson a day. The four research questions that guided the study were (a) What issues did the majors attend to as significant incidents from their teaching, and did these issues change during their field experiences? (b) What were the characteristics of field experience lessons they perceived as successful? (c) What were the characteristics of field experience lessons they perceived as unsuccessful? and (d) What were the physical education majors' conceptions of teaching? Participants in the study were 39 junior-year physical education teacher education majors. Data were collected using the critical incident technique (Flanagan, 1954) and an open-ended, written questionnaire that was designed to encourage the majors to reflect on various aspects of their teaching experience. The questionnaire and critical incidents were analyzed using an inductive analytical procedure and a series of categories developed from several readings of students' writings. The teacher preparation program affected how these trainees defined and evaluated their teaching experiences. In contrast to some of the earlier work in physical education, the results indicated pupil learning, quality lesson planning to ensure pupil learning, and efficient lesson management were major characteristics of successful lessons for these trainees. The trainees presented "theories of knowledge" that emphasized technical concepts of teaching with little attention to the social or ethical dimensions of their work or the content knowledge of their field. Additional research is needed to examine appropriate programmatic efforts to help preservice teachers reflect not only on teaching, learning, and schooling as a technical enterprise but also as a moral and ethical enterprise. PMID:1439163

  11. The FrPNC experiment at TRIUMF: Atomic parity non-conservation in francium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Sheng, D.; Zhang, J.; Collister, R.; Melconian, D.; Flambaum, V. V.; Sprouse, G. D.; Orozco, L. A.; Gwinner, G.

    2012-09-01

    The FrPNC collaboration has begun the construction of an on-line laser cooling and trapping apparatus at TRIUMF to measure atomic parity non-conservation (PNC) and the nuclear anapole moment in a string of artificially produced francium isotopes. Atomic PNC experiments provide unique high precision tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at very low energies. Furthermore, precision measurements of spin-dependent atomic PNC can determine nuclear anapole moments and probe the weak force within the nucleus. Francium is an excellent candidate for precision measurements of atomic PNC due to its simple electronic structure and enhanced parity violation: both the optical PNC and anapole moment signals are expected to be over an order of magnitude larger than in cesium.

  12. Science Goals of the Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, N.

    2003-01-01

    The PARCS (Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space) experiment will use a laser-cooled Cesium atomic clock operating in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide both advanced tests of gravitational theory and to demonstrate a new cold-atom clock technology for space. PARCS is a joint project of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and the University of Colorado (CU). This paper concentrates on the scientific goals of the PARCS mission. The microgravity space environment allows laser-cooled Cs atoms to have Ramsey times in excess of those feasible on Earth, resulting in improved clock performance. Clock stabilities of 5x10(exp -14) at one second, and accuracies better than 10(exp -16) are projected.

  13. Simulation of Physical Experiments in Immersive Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Wasfy, Tamer M.

    2001-01-01

    An object-oriented event-driven immersive Virtual environment is described for the creation of virtual labs (VLs) for simulating physical experiments. Discussion focuses on a number of aspects of the VLs, including interface devices, software objects, and various applications. The VLs interface with output devices, including immersive stereoscopic screed(s) and stereo speakers; and a variety of input devices, including body tracking (head and hands), haptic gloves, wand, joystick, mouse, microphone, and keyboard. The VL incorporates the following types of primitive software objects: interface objects, support objects, geometric entities, and finite elements. Each object encapsulates a set of properties, methods, and events that define its behavior, appearance, and functions. A container object allows grouping of several objects. Applications of the VLs include viewing the results of the physical experiment, viewing a computer simulation of the physical experiment, simulation of the experiments procedure, computational steering, and remote control of the physical experiment. In addition, the VL can be used as a risk-free (safe) environment for training. The implementation of virtual structures testing machines, virtual wind tunnels, and a virtual acoustic testing facility is described.

  14. Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, Daniel

    2014-03-24

    This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.

  15. Speculative Physics: the Ontology of Theory and Experiment in High Energy Particle Physics and Science Fiction

    E-print Network

    Lee, Clarissa Ai Ling

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the secon...

  16. Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

    The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

  17. Clock Technology Development in the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, Dave; Thompson, R. J.; Klipstein, W. M.; Kohel, J.; Maleki, L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program. It focuses on clock technology development. The topics include: 1) Overview of LCAP Flight Projects; 2) Space Clock 101; 3) Physics with Clocks in microgravity; 4) Space Clock Challenges; 5) LCAP Timeline; 6) International Space Station (ISS) Science Platforms; 7) ISS Express Rack; 8) Space Qualification of Components; 9) Laser Configuration; 10) Clock Rate Comparisons: GPS Carrier Phase Frequency Transfer; and 11) ISS Model Views. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  18. On the physics of the $so_q(4)$ hydrogen atom

    E-print Network

    P. G. Castro; R. Kullock

    2015-03-05

    In this work we investigate the $q$-deformation of the $so(4)$ dynamical symmetry of the hydrogen atom using the theory of the quantum group $su_q(2)$. We derive the energy spectrum in a physically consistent manner and find a degeneracy breaking as well as a smaller Hilbert space. We point out that using the deformed Casimir as was done before leads to inconsistencies in the physical interpretation of the theory.

  19. Limits on temporal variation of quark masses and strong interaction from atomic clock experiments

    E-print Network

    V. V. Flambaum

    2003-02-06

    We perform calculations of the dependence of nuclear magnetic moments on quark masses and obtain limits on the variation of m_q/Lambda_{QCD} from recent atomic clock experiments with hyperfine transitions in H, Rb, Cs, Hg+ and optical transtion in Hg+.

  20. Attitude towards Physics Lessons and Physical Experiments of the High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Hasan; Boyuk, Ugur

    2011-01-01

    In order that students can develop researching, questioning, critical thinking, problem solving and decision making skills, so that they become lifelong learning individuals, they should be improved regarding their knowledge, understanding and attitude towards natural sciences. Attitudes towards physics lessons and physical experiments of high…

  1. Resiliency in Physics: The Lived Experiences of African-American Women Who Completed Doctoral Physics Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnette, Samara Fleming

    2013-01-01

    Currently, little is known about African-American women with doctoral degrees in physics. This study examined the lived experiences of African-American women who completed doctoral programs in physics. Due to factors of race and gender, African-American women automatically enter a double-bind in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

  2. PREFACE: 7th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Chakraborty, Purushottam; Williams, Jim F.

    2007-09-01

    These proceedings arose from the 7th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP) which was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras from 4-7 December 2006. The history of the AISAMP has been reviewed by Takayanagi http://www.physics.iitm.ac.in/~aisamp7/history.html. This international seminar/conference series grew out of the Japan-China meetings which were launched in 1985, the fourth of which was held in 1992 and carried a second title: The First Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP), thus providing a formal medium for scientists in this part of the world to report periodically and exchange their scientific thoughts. The founding nations of Japan and China were joined subsequently by Korea, Taiwan, India and Australia. The aims of the symposia included bringing together leading experts and students of atomic and molecular physics, the discussion of important problems, learning and sharing modern techniques and expanding the horizons of modern atomic and molecular physics. The fields of interest ranged from atomic and molecular structure and dynamics to photon, electron and positron scattering, to quantum information processing, the effects of symmetry and many body interactions, laser cooling, cold traps, electric and magnetic fields and to atomic and molecular physics with synchrotron radiation. Particular interest was evident in new techniques and the changes of the physical properties from atomic to condensed matter. Details of the 7th AISAMP, including the topics for the special sessions and the full programme, are available online at the conference website http://www.physics.iitm.ac.in/~aisamp7/. In total, 95 presentations were made at the 7th AISAMP, these included the Invited Talks and Contributed Poster Presentations, of which 52 appear in the present Proceedings after review by expert referees, refereed to the usual standard of the Institute of Physics journal: Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics. We received extensive support from the Journal of Physics: Conference Series staff; Graham Douglas, in particular, has been of tremendous help. The 7th AISAMP was very well attended and was sponsored primarily by the host Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (Chennai), the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, (Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India), the Department of Science and Technology, (Government of India), and the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD) of the US Air Force. There was support from various quarters—each was invaluable and added to the success of the 7th AISAMP. We are very grateful to all the sponsors. It is superfluous to add that guidance and active participation from several colleagues within the host Institute was the primary source of strength for the actual organization of the conference and the multitude of arrangements for the organization came from the young graduate students at the IIT-Madras. We hope that this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series will be referenced widely and that it will strengthen ties between various countries in the region in and around Asia, and also of course to all scientists in this field the world over. Pranawa C Deshmukh, Purushottam Chakraborty and Jim F Williams Editors Conference photograph

  3. Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Urban, David

    2012-01-01

    From the very first days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center both Combustion, Fluid Physics, and Acceleration Measurement GRC has led the successful implementation of an Acceleration Measurement systems, the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion fire detection fire extinguishment soot phenomena flame liftoff and stability and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow magneto-rheological fluids colloidal systems extensional rheology pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years. We also provide a look to the future development. Experiments presented in combustion include areas such as droplet combustion, gaseous diffusion flames, solid fuels, premixed flame studies, fire safety, and super critical oxidation processes. In fluid physics, experiments are discussed in multiphase flows, capillary phenomena, and heat pipes. Finally in complex fluids, experiments in rheology and soft condensed materials will be presented.

  4. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 90, 013601 (2014) Vortex reconnections in atomic condensates at finite temperature

    E-print Network

    Zuccher, Simone

    2014-01-01

    , despite the established dependence of vortex motion on temperature in such systems, vortex reconnectionsPHYSICAL REVIEW A 90, 013601 (2014) Vortex reconnections in atomic condensates at finite) The study of vortex reconnections is an essential ingredient of understanding superfluid turbulence

  5. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 134116 (2012) Embedded-atom potential for hcp and fcc cobalt

    E-print Network

    Mishin, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 134116 (2012) Embedded-atom potential for hcp and fcc cobalt G. P. Purja Pun of cobalt with nearly equal accuracy. The potential also reproduces the structural phase transformation be used for large-scale atomistic simulations of cobalt microstructures over a wide range of temperatures

  6. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 023816 (2010) Single-atom cavity QED and optomicromechanics

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    , Pasadena, California 91125, USA C. Genes Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck) In a recent publication [K. Hammerer, M. Wallquist, C. Genes, M. Ludwig, F. Marquardt, P. Treutlein, P. Zoller- lator) systems. Given the already well-developed toolbox for the manipulation of atomic states

  7. IL NUOVO CIMENTO Vol. ?, N. ? ? Atomic theory in cesium, implications for searches for physics

    E-print Network

    Safronova, Marianna

    IL NUOVO CIMENTO Vol. ?, N. ? ? Atomic theory in cesium, implications for searches for physics on weak nucleon-nucleon coupling obtained from the cesium anapole moment and those obtained from other by the parity selection rule, such as the 6s - 7s transition in cesium. Several different effects contributing

  8. Physics 6, 118 (2013) Looking for Hofstadter's Butterfly in Cold Atoms

    E-print Network

    2013-01-01

    Physics 6, 118 (2013) Viewpoint Looking for Hofstadter's Butterfly in Cold Atoms Cheng Chin James, called the Hofstadter butterfly [1]. This effect has never been seen in a natural crystal, because of defects, they may ultimately provide the cleanest view of Hofstadter's butterfly. This system is also

  9. Do General Physics Textbooks Discuss Scientists' Ideas about Atomic Structure? A Case in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Kwon, Sangwoon; Kim, Nahyun; Lee, Gyoungho

    2013-01-01

    Research in science education has recognized the importance of teaching atomic structure within a history and philosophy of science perspective. The objective of this study is to evaluate general physics textbooks published in Korea based on the eight criteria developed in previous research. The result of this study shows that Korean general…

  10. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  11. Proposed Laser-Based HED physics experiments for Stockpile Stewardship

    SciTech Connect

    Benage, John F.; Albright, Brian J.; Fernandez, Juan C.

    2012-09-04

    An analysis of the scientific areas in High Energy Density (HED) physics that underpin the enduring LANL mission in Stockpile Stewardship (SS) has identified important research needs that are not being met. That analysis has included the work done as part of defining the mission need for the High Intensity Laser Laboratory (HILL) LANL proposal to NNSA, LDRD DR proposal evaluations, and consideration of the Predictive Capability Framework and LANL NNSA milestones. From that evaluation, we have identified several specific and scientifically-exciting experimental concepts to address those needs. These experiments are particularly responsive to physics issues in Campaigns 1 and 10. These experiments are best done initially at the LANL Trident facility, often relying on the unique capabilities available there, although there are typically meritorious extensions envisioned at future facilities such as HILL, or the NIF once the ARC short-pulse laser is available at sufficient laser intensity. As the focus of the LANL HEDP effort broadens from ICF ignition of the point design at the conclusion of the National Ignition Campaign, into a more SS-centric effort, it is useful to consider these experiments, which address well-defined issues, with specific scientific hypothesis to test or models to validate or disprove, via unit-physics experiments. These experiments are in turn representative of a possible broad experimental portfolio to elucidate the physics of interest to these campaigns. These experiments, described below, include: (1) First direct measurement of the evolution of particulates in isochorically heated dense plasma; (2) Temperature relaxation measurements in a strongly-coupled plasma; (3) Viscosity measurements in a dense plasma; and (4) Ionic structure factors in a dense plasma. All these experiments address scientific topics of importance to our sponsors, involve excellent science at the boundaries of traditional fields, utilize unique capabilities at LANL, and contribute to the Campaign milestone in 2018. Given their interdisciplinary nature, it is not surprising that these research needs are not being addressed by the other excellent high-energy density physics (HEDP) facilities coming on line, facilities aimed squarely at more established fields and missions. Although energy rich, these facilities deliver radiation (e.g., particle beams for isochoric heating) over a timescale that is too slow in these unit physics experiments to eliminate hydrodynamic evolution of the target plasma during the time it is being created. A theme shared by all of these experiments is the need to quickly create a quasi-homogeneous 'initial state' whose properties and evolution we wish to study. Otherwise, we cannot create unit experiments to isolate the physics of interest and validate the models in our codes, something that cannot be done with the integrated experiments often done in HED. Moreover, these experiments in some cases involve combinations of solid and plasmas, or matter in the warm-dense matter state, where neither the theoretical approximations of solid state or of fully-ionized weakly-coupled plasmas can be used. In all cases, the capability of 'isochoric heating' ('flash' heating at constant density) is important. In some cases, the ability to selectively heat to different degrees different species within a target, whether mixed or adjacent to each other, is critical for the experiment. This capability requires the delivery of very high power densities, which require the conversion of the laser into very short and intense pulses of secondary radiation (electrons, ions, neutrons, x-rays). Otherwise, there is no possibility of a clean experiment to constrain the models, in the cases there are any, or inform the creation of one. Another typical requirement of these experiments is the ability to probe these exotic extreme conditions of matter with flexible and diverse sources of secondary radiation. Without a high-intensity high-power laser with some unique attributes available on Trident today (e.g., ultra-high laser-puls

  12. Quantum simulation of many-body physics with neutral atoms, molecules, and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss-Feig, Michael

    2013-05-01

    The achievement of quantum degeneracy in alkali vapors has enabled the simulation of iconic condensed-matter models. However, ultracold alkali atoms are not yet cold enough to simulate the most interesting and poorly understood low-temperature properties of those models. In this talk, I will emphasize how the rich internal structure of alkaline earth atoms, ions, and molecules can be leveraged to simulate complex many-body physics in presently accessible experimental settings. I will begin by examining how alkaline earth atoms can be used to simulate the physics of so-called heavy fermion materials, and will show how the exotic groundstate properties of those materials manifests in non-equilibrium dynamics at relatively warm temperatures. Not surprisingly, the rich structure of alkaline earth atoms and molecules comes with a price, in many cases increasing the susceptibility of these systems to decoherence. A particularly troubling feature common to alkaline earth atoms and many molecules is the possibility of two-body loss. However, I will show that such loss can be harnessed to drive optically excited alkaline earth atoms and reactive molecules into highly-entangled non-equilibrium steady states, which could be used in the near future to improve the accuracy of high precision atomic clocks operated with alkaline earth atoms. The fate of interacting quantum systems in the presence of decoherence is of interest much more broadly, and I will conclude by describing how trapped ion systems provide a natural platform for addressing this issue. In particular, I will describe an exact solution of the dissipative Ising models that govern trapped ion systems, which affords both a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the effects of decoherence on these large-scale quantum simulators.

  13. What Do We Expect From Students' Physics Laboratory Experiments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    Explains that thinking like a physicist involves an understanding of the scientific methods of inquiry and the ability to use these methods in investigations. Describes two simple experiments in which high school and college students measure physical constants and make an easy analysis of their experimental data by applying the tools offered by…

  14. Skylab Experiments, Volume I, Physical Science, Solar Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Up-to-date knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling them to broaden their scope of material selection. The first volume is concerned with the solar astronomy program. The related fields are physics, electronics, biology, chemistry,…

  15. Enthalpy of Vaporization by Gas Chromatography: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Herbert R.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to measure the enthalpy of vaporization of volatile compounds like methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and others by using gas chromatography. This physical property was measured using a very tiny quantity of sample revealing that it is possible to measure the enthalpies of two or more compounds at the same time.

  16. The Hispanic Experience in Physical Education Programs and Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.; Cervantes, Carlos M.; Vigo-Valentin, Alexander N.; Canabal-Torres, Maria Y.; Ortiz-Castillo, Esther M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges and identify strategies to increase the representation of Hispanic faculty in the academy, particularly Physical Education (PE) programs and departments at doctorate-granting universities. Recommendations to increase the presence and improve the experiences of Hispanic faculty are provided.…

  17. Event-based simulation of quantum physics experiments K. Michielsen

    E-print Network

    Event-based simulation of quantum physics experiments ¤ K. Michielsen Institute for Advanced techniques; discrete event simulation; quantum theory. PACS Nos.: 02.70.�c, 03.65.�w, 03.65.Ud. 1 by constructing an event-based simulation model that reproduces the statistical distributions of quantum (and

  18. Multidisciplinary Field Training in Undergraduate Physical Geography: Russian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Chalov, Sergey R.; Panin, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Field training is seen as a central component of the discipline of Physical Geography and an essential part of the undergraduate curriculum. This paper explores the structure and relationships between fieldwork and theoretical courses and the abundant experiences of field training in the undergraduate curriculum of 37 Russian universities. It…

  19. Physical Activity Experiences of Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, William J.; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.; Staples, Kerri; Grizenko, Natalie; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity experiences of 12 age-matched boys with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were explored by converging information from Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessments and semistructured interviews. The knowledge-based approach and the inhibitory model of executive functions, a combined theoretical lens,…

  20. Chladni Patterns on Drumheads: A "Physics of Music" Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worland, Randy

    2011-01-01

    In our "Physics of Music" class for non-science majors, we have developed a laboratory exercise in which students experiment with Chladni sand patterns on drumheads. Chladni patterns provide a kinesthetic, visual, and entertaining way to illustrate standing waves on flat surfaces and are very helpful when making the transition from one-dimensional…

  1. A Physical Chemistry Experiment in Polymer Crystallization Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singfield, Kathy L.; Chisholm, Roderick A.; King, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment currently used in an undergraduate physical chemistry lab to investigate the rates of crystallization of a polymer is described. Specifically, the radial growth rates of typical disc-shaped crystals, called spherulites, growing between microscope glass slides are measured and the data are treated according to polymer…

  2. Radical Recombination Kinetics: An Experiment in Physical Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Miles

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student kinetic experiment involving second order kinetics as well as displaying photochromism using a wide variety of techniques from both physical and organic chemistry. Describes measurement of (1) the rate of the recombination reaction; (2) the extinction coefficient; and (3) the ESR spectrometer signal. (Author/JN)

  3. A pilot experience in physics laboratory for a professional school

    E-print Network

    Montalbano, Vera; Di Renzone, Simone; Frati, Serena

    2013-01-01

    The reform of the upper secondary school in Italy has recently introduced physics in the curricula of professional schools, in realities where it was previously absent. Many teachers, often with a temporary position, are obliged to teaching physics in schools where the absence of the laboratory is added to the lack of interest of students who feel this matter as very far from their personal interests and from the preparation for the work which could expect from a professional school. We report a leaning path for introducing students to the measurement of simple physical quantities, which continued with the study of some properties of matter (volume, mass, density) and ending with some elements of thermodynamics. Educational materials designed in order to involve students in an active learning, actions performed for improving the quality of laboratory experience and difficulties encountered are presented. Finally, we compare the active engagement of these students with a similar experience performed in a very ...

  4. B-physics prospects with the LHCb experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Harnew, N.

    2008-04-15

    This paper summarizes the B-physics prospects of the LHCb experiment. Firstly, a brief introduction to the CKM matrix and the mechanism of CP violation in the Standard Model is given. The advantages of the LHCb experiment for B-physics exploitation will then be described, together with a short description of the detector components. Finally, the LHCb physics aims and prospects will be summarized, focusing on the measurements of sin(2{beta}) in tree and gluonic penguin diagrams, sin(2{alpha}) in B{sub d}{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, neutral B-meson oscillations and the B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing phase, and the measurement of {gamma} using a variety of complementary methods.

  5. Fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, F. T.; Abramson, H. N.; Angrist, S. W.; Catton, I.; Churchill, S. W.; Mannheimer, R. J.; Otrach, S.; Schwartz, S. H.; Sengers, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    An overstudy committee was formed to study and recommend fundamental experiments in fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer for experimentation in orbit, using the space shuttle system and a space laboratory. The space environment, particularly the low-gravity condition, is an indispensable requirement for all the recommended experiments. The experiments fell broadly into five groups: critical-point thermophysical phenomena, fluid surface dynamics and capillarity, convection at reduced gravity, non-heated multiphase mixtures, and multiphase heat transfer. The Committee attempted to assess the effects of g-jitter and other perturbations of the gravitational field on the conduct of the experiments. A series of ground-based experiments are recommended to define some of the phenomena and to develop reliable instrumentation.

  6. Atomic Oxygen and Space Environment Effects on Aerospace Materials Flown with EOIM-3 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.; Clatterbuck, Carroll H.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Park, Gloria; Kolos, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Polymer materials samples mounted on a passive carrier tray were flown aboard the STS-46 Atlantis shuttle as complement to the EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials) experiment to evaluate the effects of atomic oxygen on the materials and to measure the gaseous shuttle bay environment. The morphological changes of the samples produced by the atomic oxygen fluence of 2.07 x 10(exp 20) atoms/cm(exp 2) are being reported. The changes have been verified using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), gravimetric measurement, microscopic observations and thermo-optical measurements. The samples, including Kapton, Delrin, epoxies, Beta Cloth, Chemglaze Z306, silver Teflon, silicone coatings, 3M tape and Uralane and Ultem, PEEK, Victrex (PES), Polyethersulfone and Polymethylpentene thermoplastic, have been characterized by their oxygen reaction efficiency on the basis of their erosion losses and the oxygen fluence. Those efficiencies have been compared to results from other experiments, when available. The efficiencies of the samples are all in the range of E-24 g/atom. The results indicate that the reaction efficiencies of the reported materials can be grouped in about three ranges of values. The least affected materials which have efficiencies varying from 1 to 10(exp 25) g/atom, include silicones, epoxies, Uralane and Teflon. A second group with efficiency from 10 to 45(exp 25) g/atom includes additional silicone coatings, the Chemglaze Z306 paint and Kapton. The third range from 50 to 75(exp 25) includes organic compound such as Pentene, Peek, Ultem, Sulfone and a 3M tape. A Delrin sample had the highest reaction efficiency of 179(exp 25) g/atom. Two samples, the aluminum Beta cloth X389-7 and the epoxy fiberglass G-11 nonflame retardant, showed a slight mass increase.

  7. Scintillation counters in modern high-energy physics experiments (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharzheev, Yu. N.

    2015-07-01

    Scintillation counters (SCs) based on organic plastic scintillators (OPSs) are widely used in modern high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. A comprehensive review is given to technologies for production of OPS strips and tiles (extrusion, injection molding, etc.), optical and physical characteristics of OPSs, and methods of light collection based on the use of wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers coupled to multipixel vacuum and silicon PMs. Examples are given of the use of SCs in modern experiments involved in the search for quarks and new particles, including the Higgs boson (D0, CDF, ATLAS, CMS), new states of matter (ALICE), CP violation (LHCb, KLOE), neutrino oscillations (MINOS, OPERA), and cosmic particles in a wide mass and energy interval (AMS-02). Scintillation counters hold great promise for future HEP experiments (at the ILC, NICA, FAIR) due to properties of a high segmentation, WLS fiber light collection, and multipixel silicon PMT readout.

  8. Industrial metrology as applied to large physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Veal, D.

    1993-05-01

    A physics experiment is a large complex 3-D object (typ. 1200 m{sup 3}, 35000 tonnes), with sub-millimetric alignment requirements. Two generic survey alignment tasks can be identified; first, an iterative positioning of the apparatus subsystems in space and, second, a quantification of as-built parameters. The most convenient measurement technique is industrial triangulation but the complexity of the measured object and measurement environment constraints frequently requires a more sophisticated approach. To enlarge the ``survey alignment toolbox`` measurement techniques commonly associated with other disciplines such as geodesy, applied geodesy for accelerator alignment, and mechanical engineering are also used. Disparate observables require a heavy reliance on least squares programs for campaign pre-analysis and calculation. This paper will offer an introduction to the alignment of physics experiments and will identify trends for the next generation of SSC experiments.

  9. Speculative Physics: the Ontology of Theory and Experiment in High Energy Particle Physics and Science Fiction

    E-print Network

    Clarissa Ai Ling Lee

    2014-06-21

    The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the second level of the conversation, theories are produced from a close study of the physics objects as speculative engine for new knowledge generation that are then reconceptualized and re-articulated for extrapolation into the speculative ontology of hard science fiction, particularly the hard science fiction written with the double intent of speaking to the science while producing imaginative and socially conscious science through the literary affordances of science fiction. The works of science fiction examined here demonstrate the tension between the internal values of physics in the practice of theory and experiment and questions on ethics, culture, and morality.

  10. Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Urban, David

    2012-01-01

    From the very early days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center for combustion, complex fluids, and fluid physics; GRC has led the successful implementation of the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion; fire detection; fire extinguishment; soot phenomena; flame liftoff and stability; and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow; magneto-rheological fluids; colloidal systems; extensional rheology; pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years.

  11. Interactive Lecture Experiments in Large Introductory Physics Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina M.; Kotlicki, A.; Rieger, G.; Bates, F.; Moll, R.; McPhee, K.; Nashon, S.

    2006-12-01

    We describe Interactive Lecture Experiments (ILE), which build on Interactive Lecture Demonstrations proposed by Sokoloff and Thornton (2004) and extends it by providing students with the opportunity to analyze experiments demonstrated in the lecture outside of the classroom. Real time experimental data is collected, using Logger Pro combined with the digital video technology. This data is uploaded to the Internet and made available to the students for further analysis. Student learning is assessed in the following lecture using conceptual questions (clickers). The goal of this project is to use ILE to make large lectures more interactive and promote student interest in science, critical thinking and data analysis skills. We report on the systematic study conducted using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey, Force Concept Inventory, open-ended physics problems and focus group interviews to determine the impact of ILE on student academic achievement, motivation and attitudes towards physics. Three sections of students (750 students) experienced four ILE experiments. The surveys were administered twice and academic results for students who experienced the ILE for a particular topic were compared to the students, from a different section, who did not complete the ILE for that topic. Additional qualitative data on students’ attitudes was collected using open ended survey questions and interviews. We will present preliminary conclusions about the role of ILEs as an effective pedagogy in large introductory physics courses. Sokoloff, D.R. and R.K. Thornton (2004). Interactive Lecture Demonstrations: Active Learning in Introductory Physics, J.Wiley & Sons, INC. Interactive Lecture Experiments: http://www.physics.ubc.ca/ year1lab/p100/LectureLabs/lectureLabs.html

  12. Low cost alternatives to commercial lab kits for physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodejška, ?.; De Nunzio, G.; Kubínek, R.; ?íha, J.

    2015-08-01

    Conducting experiments in physics using modern measuring techniques, and particularly those utilizing computers, is often much more attractive to students than conducting experiments conventionally. However, the cost of professional kits in the Czech Republic is still very expensive for many schools. The basic equipment for one student workplace in the case of professional kits such as Vernier, Pasco or Coach costs around 800?euros. In this paper some physics experiments in which a computer, or a tablet with Microsoft Windows, is used as the measuring device, along with available physical devices such as a laser pointer, a solar cell or an electret microphone, are presented as suitable and alternative ways to carry out lab work. We show that it is possible to perform very simple school experiments (both as a central demonstration and as individual experimentation), in which high accuracy and clear final conclusions can be achieved at a very low cost. Further information is published on the specialized webpage www.sclpx.eu/index.php?lang=en. The worksheets are in Czech, but the English version is in preparation.

  13. On the physical and chemical details of alumina atomic layer deposition: A combined experimental and numerical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Dongqing; Ma, Lulu; Xie, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Chris; Jen, Tien Chien

    2015-03-15

    Alumina thin film is typically studied as a model atomic layer deposition (ALD) process due to its high dielectric constant, high thermal stability, and good adhesion on various wafer surfaces. Despite extensive applications of alumina ALD in microelectronics industries, details on the physical and chemical processes are not yet well understood. ALD experiments are not able to shed adequate light on the detailed information regarding the transient ALD process. Most of current numerical approaches lack detailed surface reaction mechanisms, and their results are not well correlated with experimental observations. In this paper, the authors present a combined experimental and numerical study on the details of flow and surface reactions in alumina ALD using trimethylaluminum and water as precursors. Results obtained from experiments and simulations are compared and correlated. By experiments, growth rate on five samples under different deposition conditions is characterized. The deposition rate from numerical simulation agrees well with the experimental results. Details of precursor distributions in a full cycle of ALD are studied numerically to bridge between experimental observations and simulations. The 3D transient numerical model adopts surface reaction kinetics and mechanisms based on atomic-level studies to investigate the surface deposition process. Surface deposition is shown as a strictly self-limited process in our numerical studies. ALD is a complex strong-coupled fluid, thermal and chemical process, which is not only heavily dependent on the chemical kinetics and surface conditions but also on the flow and material distributions.

  14. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2014-07-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems.

  15. Physics Results from the Antiproton Experiment (APEX) at Fermilab

    DOE Data Explorer

    APEX Collaboration

    Is Antimatter stable? The APEX experiment searches for the decay of antiprotons at the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator. Observation of antiproton decay would indicate a violation of the CPT theorem, which is one of the most fundamental theorems of modern physics. The best laboratory limits on antiproton decay come from the APEX experiment which achieved a sensitivity to antiproton lifetimes up to of order 700,000 years for the most sensitive decay modes. Antiproton lifetimes in this range could arise from CPT violation at the Planck scale.[copied from http://www-apex.fnal.gov/] This website presents published results from the APEX Test Experiment (T861) and from the E868 Experiment. Limits were placed on six antiproton decay modes with a muon in the final state and on seven antiproton decay modes with an electron in the final state. See also the summary table and plot and the APEX picture gallery.

  16. Hadron physics with the PANDA experiment at the FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettoni, Diego

    2012-04-01

    The physics program of the future FAIR facility covers a wide range of topics that address central issues of strong interactions and QCD. The antiproton beam of unprecedented quality in the momentum range from 1 to 15 GeV/c will allow to make high precision, high statistics measurements, from charmonium spectroscopy to the search for exotic hadrons and the study of nucleon structure, from the study of in-medium modifications of hadron masses to the physics of hypernuclei. These topics form the scientific program of the PANDA experiment.

  17. Elementary Particle Physics Experiment at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, Benjamin; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Willocq, Stephane

    2013-07-30

    In this progress report we summarize the activities of the University of Massachusetts- Amherst group for the three years of this research project. We are fully engaged in research at the energy frontier with the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We have made leading contributions in software development and performance studies for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, as well as on physics analysis with an emphasis on Standard Model measurements and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In addition, we have increased our contributions to the Muon Spectrometer New Small Wheel upgrade project.

  18. Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

  19. PREFACE: Atomically controlled fabrication technology: new physics and functional device realization Atomically controlled fabrication technology: new physics and functional device realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Yuji; Kasai, Hideaki

    2011-10-01

    To realize next generation functional devices, atomic level controllability of the application and fabrication techniques is necessary. The conventional route to advance solid state devices, which involves improvement of 'instrumental accuracy', is now facing a major paradigm shift towards 'phenomenal accuracy'. Therefore, to keep up with this critical turn in the development of devices, pioneering research (both theoretical and experimental) on relevant materials, focusing on new physics at the atomic scale, is inevitable. This special section contains articles on the advancements in fabrication of functional devices with an emphasis on the exploration, clarification and understanding of atomistic phenomena. Research articles reporting theoretical and experimental findings on various materials such as semiconductors, metals, magnetic and organic systems, collectively present and 'capture' the appropriate processes and mechanisms of this rapidly developing field. The theoretical investigations employ first-principles quantum-mechanical simulations to clarify and bring about design principles and guidelines, or to develop more reliable computational methods. Experimental studies, on the other hand, introduce novel capabilities to build, view and manipulate materials at the atomic scale by employing pioneering techniques. Thus, the section pays significant attention to novel structures and properties and the accompanying fabrication techniques and design arising from the understanding of properties and structures at the atomic scale. We hope that researchers in the area of physics, materials science and engineering, interested in the development of functional devices via atomic level control, will find valuable information in this collaborative work. We are grateful to all of the authors for their contributions. Atomically controlled fabrication contents On the mechanism of carbon nanotube formation: the role of the catalyst G N Ayre, T Uchino, B Mazumder, A L Hector, J L Hutchison, D C Smith, P Ashburn and C H de Groot Mechanism of atomic-scale passivation and flattening of semiconductor surfaces by wet-chemical preparationsKenta Arima, Katsuyoshi Endo, Kazuto Yamauchi, Kikuji Hirose, Tomoya Ono and Yasuhisa Sano Real-space calculations for electron transport properties of nanostructuresTomoya Ono, Shigeru Tsukamoto, Yoshiyuki Egami and Yoshitaka Fujimoto Thermally activated magnetization reversal in monatomic magnetic chains on surfaces studied by classical atomistic spin-dynamics simulationsDavid S G Bauer, Phivos Mavropoulos, Samir Lounis and Stefan Blügel An atomically controlled Si film formation process at low temperatures using atmospheric-pressure VHF plasmaK Yasutake, H Kakiuchi, H Ohmi, K Inagaki, Y Oshikane and M Nakano Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrorsKazuto Yamauchi, Hidekazu Mimura, Takashi Kimura, Hirokatsu Yumoto, Soichiro Handa, Satoshi Matsuyama, Kenta Arima, Yasuhisa Sano, Kazuya Yamamura, Koji Inagaki, Hiroki Nakamori, Jangwoo Kim, Kenji Tamasaku, Yoshinori Nishino, Makina Yabashi and Tetsuya Ishikawa Surface magnetism in O2 dissociation—from basics to applicationY Kunisada, M C Escaño and H Kasai Real-space finite-difference approach for multi-body systems: path-integral renormalization group method and direct energy minimization methodAkira Sasaki, Masashi Kojo, Kikuji Hirose and Hidekazu Goto Electrical conduction of organic ultrathin films evaluated by an independently driven double-tip scanning tunneling microscopeK Takami, S Tsuruta, Y Miyake, M Akai-Kasaya, A Saito, M Aono and Y Kuwahara

  20. Proposed experiment with Rydberg atoms to test the wave function interpretation

    E-print Network

    M. Gondran; M. Bozic; D. Arsenovic; A. Gondran

    2007-01-15

    Experiment{Fabre_1983} shows that Rydberg atoms do not pass through 1 micronmeter width slits if their principal quantum number is rather large(n > 60). Thus, the particle density measured after the slits is null while the wave function calculated after the slits is not. This experiment is in contradiction with the Born interpretation (the square of the wave function is proportional to the probability density for the particle to be found at each point in space). The classical interpretation of this experiment, which removes the contradiction, is to suppose that if the particles do not pass, the wave function does not pass either (classical assumption). An alternative interpretation of this experiment is to suppose that the wave function passes through the slits, but that the Born interpretation is not valid any more in this case (alternative assumption). The aim of this paper is to present an experiment testing this alternative assumption compared to the classical assumption.

  1. Relativistic heavy ion collider: Physics and the STAR experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.W.; STAR Collaboration

    1992-09-01

    An overview of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and its experimental program is presented. The physics capabilities of STAR, one of two large experiments planned for RHIC, are described through simulations of the measurements anticipated in STAR. The STAR experiment will concentrate on hadronic observables in the search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). An emphasis will be placed on event-by-event observables in an attempt to extract thermodynamic variables of individual events and to be able to identify special events characteristic of QGP formation.

  2. Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

    1998-12-14

    Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

  3. Tevatron End-of-Run Beam Physics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Valishev, A.; Gu, X.; Miyamoto, R.; White, S.; Schmidt, F.; Qiang, J.; /LBNL

    2012-05-01

    Before the Tevatron Collider Run II ended in September of 2011, a number of specialized beam study periods were dedicated to the experiments on various accelerator physics concepts and effects during the last year of the machine operation. The study topics included collimation with bent crystals and hollow electron beams, diffusion measurements and various aspects of beam-beam interactions. In this report we concentrate on the subject of beam-beam interactions, summarizing the results of beam experiments. The covered topics include offset collisions, coherent beam stability, effect of the bunch-length-to-beta-function ratio, and operation of AC dipole with colliding beams.

  4. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  5. An Overview of the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, J. Blair; Gulliford, Jim

    2014-10-09

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties associated with advanced modeling and simulation accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. Two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) activities, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), initiated in 1992, and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP), initiated in 2003, have been identifying existing integral experiment data, evaluating those data, and providing integral benchmark specifications for methods and data validation for nearly two decades. Data provided by those two projects will be of use to the international reactor physics, criticality safety, and nuclear data communities for future decades. An overview of the IRPhEP and a brief update of the ICSBEP are provided in this paper.

  6. Unveiling the structural arrangements responsible for the atomic dynamics in metallic glasses during physical aging

    E-print Network

    V. M. Giordano; B. Ruta

    2015-11-23

    Understanding and controlling physical aging, i.e. the spontaneous temporal evolution of out-of-equilibrium systems, represents one of the greatest tasks in material science. Recent studies have revealed the existence of a complex atomic motion in metallic glasses, with different aging regimes in contrast with the typical continuous aging observed in macroscopic quantities. By combining dynamical and structural synchrotron techniques, for the first time we directly connect previously identified microscopic structural mechanisms with the peculiar atomic motion, providing a broader unique view of their complexity. We show that the atomic scale is dominated by the interplay between two processes: rearrangements releasing residual stresses related to a cascade mechanism of relaxation, and medium range ordering processes, which do not affect the local density, likely due to localized relaxations of liquid-like regions. As temperature increases, a surprising additional secondary relaxation process sets in, together with a faster medium range ordering, likely precursors of crystallization.

  7. Atomic Physics Effects on Convergent, Child-Langmuir Ion Flow between Nearly Transparent Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, John F.; Emmert, Gilbert A.

    2013-11-07

    Research during this project at the University of Wisconsin Fusion Technology Institute (UW FTI) on ion and neutral flow through an arbitrary, monotonic potential difference created by nearly transparent electrodes accomplished the following: (1) developed and implemented an integral equation approach for atomic physics effects in helium plasmas; (2) extended the analysis to coupled integral equations that treat atomic and molecular deuterium ions and neutrals; (3) implemented the key deuterium and helium atomic and molecular cross sections; (4) added negative ion production and related cross sections; and (5) benchmarked the code against experimental results. The analysis and codes treat the species D0, D20, D+, D2+, D3+, D and, separately at present, He0 and He+. Extensions enhanced the analysis and related computer codes to include He++ ions plus planar and cylindrical geometries.

  8. Can There BE Physics Without Experiments? Challenges and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Physicists investigating space, time and matter at the Planck scale will probably have to work with much less guidance from experimental input than has ever happened before in the history of Physics. This may imply that we should insist on much higher demands of logical and mathematical rigour than before. Working with long chains of arguments linking theories to experiment, we must be able to rely on logical precision when and where experimental checks cannot be provided.

  9. High charge state, ion-atom collision experiments using accel-decel

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, E.M.; Clark, M.W.; Tanis, J.A.; Graham, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies of /sub 16/S/sup 13 +/ + He collisions between 2.5 and 200 MeV, which were made using the accel-decel technique with the Brookhaven National Laboratory coupled MP tandem Van de Graaff accelerators, are discussed. Cross sections were measured for single electron-capture and -loss as well as K x rays correlated to electron-capture. Other planned ion-atom collision experiments requiring accel-decel are also presented. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Stochastic optimization of a cold atom experiment using a genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Rohringer, W.; Buecker, R.; Manz, S.; Betz, T.; Koller, Ch.; Goebel, M.; Perrin, A.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Schumm, T.

    2008-12-29

    We employ an evolutionary algorithm to automatically optimize different stages of a cold atom experiment without human intervention. This approach closes the loop between computer based experimental control systems and automatic real time analysis and can be applied to a wide range of experimental situations. The genetic algorithm quickly and reliably converges to the most performing parameter set independent of the starting population. Especially in many-dimensional or connected parameter spaces, the automatic optimization outperforms a manual search.

  11. Study to perform preliminary experiments to evaluate particle generation and characterization techniques for zero-gravity cloud physics experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, U.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of particle generation and characterization with regard to their applicability for experiments requiring cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) of specified properties were investigated. Since aerosol characterization is a prerequisite to assessing performance of particle generation equipment, techniques for characterizing aerosol were evaluated. Aerosol generation is discussed, and atomizer and photolytic generators including preparation of hydrosols (used with atomizers) and the evaluation of a flight version of an atomizer are studied.

  12. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PhaSE) or "Making Jello in Space"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Jerri S.; Doherty, Michael P.

    1998-01-01

    The Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE) is a highly successful experiment that flew aboard two shuttle missions to study the transitions involved in the formation of jellolike colloidal crystals in a microgravity environment. A colloidal suspension, or colloid, consists of fine particles, often having complex interactions, suspended in a liquid. Paint, ink, and milk are examples of colloids found in everyday life. In low Earth orbit, the effective force of gravity is thousands of times less than at the Earth's surface. This provides researchers a way to conduct experiments that cannot be adequately performed in an Earth-gravity environment. In microgravity, colloidal particles freely interact without the complications of settling that occur in normal gravity on Earth. If the particle interactions within these colloidal suspensions could be predicted and accurately modeled, they could provide the key to understanding fundamental problems in condensed matter physics and could help make possible the development of wonderful new "designer" materials. Industries that make semiconductors, electro-optics, ceramics, and composites are just a few that may benefit from this knowledge. Atomic interactions determine the physical properties (e.g., weight, color, and hardness) of ordinary matter. PHaSE uses colloidal suspensions of microscopic solid plastic spheres to model the behavior of atomic interactions. When uniformly sized hard spheres suspended in a fluid reach a certain concentration (volume fraction), the particle-fluid mixture changes from a disordered fluid state, in which the spheres are randomly organized, to an ordered "crystalline" state, in which they are structured periodically. The thermal energy of the spheres causes them to form ordered arrays, analogous to crystals. Seven of the eight PHaSE samples ranged in volume fraction from 0.483 to 0.624 to cover the range of interest, while one sample, having a concentration of 0.019, was included for instrument calibration.

  13. Experience, gender, and performance: Connecting high school physics experience and gender differences to introductory college physics performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Robert H.

    Current science educational practice is coming under heavy criticism based on the dismaying results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study of 1998, the latest in a series of large scale surveys; and from research showing the appallingly low representation of females in science-related fields. These critical evaluations serve to draw attention to science literacy in general and lack of persistence among females in particular, two issues that relate closely to the "preparation for future study" goal held by many high school science teachers. In other words, these teachers often seek to promote future success and to prevent future failure in their students' academic careers. This thesis studies the connection between the teaching practices recommended by reformers and researchers for high school teachers, and their students' subsequent college physics performance. The teaching practices studied were: laboratory experiences, class discussion experiences, content coverage, and reliance on textbooks. This study analyzed a survey of 1500 students from 16 different lecture-format college physics courses at 14 different universities. Using hierarchical linear modeling, this study accounted for course-level variables (Calculus-based/Non-calculus course type, professor's gender, and university selectivity). This study controlled for the student's parents education, high school science/mathematics achievement, high school calculus background, and racial background. In addition, the interactions between gender and both pedagogical/curricular and course-level variables were analyzed. The results indicated that teaching fewer topics in greater depth in high school physics appeared to be helpful to college physics students. An interaction between college course type and content coverage showed that students in Calculus-based physics reaped even greater benefits from a depth-oriented curriculum. Also students with fewer labs per month in high school physics appeared to perform better in college physics than did students with many more labs per month. The only significant interaction was between gender and Calculus-based/Non-calculus college course type. Females appeared to do better on average than their males counterparts in Non-calculus physics, but this trend is clearly reversed for Calculus-based physics. This is a disturbing result for educators who have worked to promote persistence among women in engineering and science research. Recommendations are included for high school physics teachers, students and their parents, and college physics instructors.

  14. Construction and characterization of external cavity diode lasers for atomic physics.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Kyle S; Bennetts, Shayne; Debs, John E; Kuhn, Carlos C N; McDonald, Gordon D; Robins, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Since their development in the late 1980s, cheap, reliable external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) have replaced complex and expensive traditional dye and Titanium Sapphire lasers as the workhorse laser of atomic physics labs. Their versatility and prolific use throughout atomic physics in applications such as absorption spectroscopy and laser cooling makes it imperative for incoming students to gain a firm practical understanding of these lasers. This publication builds upon the seminal work by Wieman, updating components, and providing a video tutorial. The setup, frequency locking and performance characterization of an ECDL will be described. Discussion of component selection and proper mounting of both diodes and gratings, the factors affecting mode selection within the cavity, proper alignment for optimal external feedback, optics setup for coarse and fine frequency sensitive measurements, a brief overview of laser locking techniques, and laser linewidth measurements are included. PMID:24796259

  15. Construction and Characterization of External Cavity Diode Lasers for Atomic Physics

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Kyle S.; Bennetts, Shayne; Debs, John E.; Kuhn, Carlos C. N.; McDonald, Gordon D.; Robins, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Since their development in the late 1980s, cheap, reliable external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) have replaced complex and expensive traditional dye and Titanium Sapphire lasers as the workhorse laser of atomic physics labs1,2. Their versatility and prolific use throughout atomic physics in applications such as absorption spectroscopy and laser cooling1,2 makes it imperative for incoming students to gain a firm practical understanding of these lasers. This publication builds upon the seminal work by Wieman3, updating components, and providing a video tutorial. The setup, frequency locking and performance characterization of an ECDL will be described. Discussion of component selection and proper mounting of both diodes and gratings, the factors affecting mode selection within the cavity, proper alignment for optimal external feedback, optics setup for coarse and fine frequency sensitive measurements, a brief overview of laser locking techniques, and laser linewidth measurements are included. PMID:24796259

  16. Demonstration of a Cold Atom Fountain Electron Electric Dipole Moment Experiment

    E-print Network

    Jason M. Amini; Charles T. Munger Jr.; Harvey Gould

    2006-03-14

    A Cs fountain electron electric dipole moment (EDM) experiment using electric-field quantization is demonstrated. With magnetic fields reduced to 200 pT or less, the electric field lifts the degeneracy between hyperfine levels of different|mF| and, along with the slow beam and fountain geometry, suppresses systematics from motional magnetic fields. Transitions are induced and the atoms polarized and analyzed in field-free regions. The feasibility of reaching a sensitivity to an electron EDM of 2 x 10 exp(-50) C-m [1.3 x 10 exp(-29) e-cm] in a cesium fountain experiment is discussed.

  17. Competing atomic processes in Ba and Sr injection critical velocity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, P. T.; Torbert, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The critical ionization velocity effect requires a superthermal electron population to ionize through collisional impact. Such superthermal electrons can however lose energy to competing atomic processes, as well as to ionization, thus limiting the efficiency of the effect. Considering Ba and Sr magnetospheric injection experiments designed to test the CIV theory, it is found that in both cases roughly 60 percent of the superthermal electron energy is lost on exciting line radiation. Moreover, energy loss to background neutral oxygen places a strict limit on the injected cloud densities for which critical velocity effects are possible; a finding which explains the consistently negative results in radial injection experiments.

  18. Enhanced synthesis of Sn nanowires with aid of Se atom via physical vapor transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Huacheng; Wang, Wendong; Liu, Peiwen; Wang, Guangming; Liu, Ankang; He, Zhe; Cheng, Zhaofang; Zhang, Shengli; Xia, Minggang

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate tin (Sn) nanowires growth enhanced by Selenium (Se) atoms via physical vapor transport (PVT) method. The Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show that Sn nanowires are synthesized with a large quantity, good quality and high purity of Sn. The growth of Sn nanowires is attributed to Solid-Vapor-Liquid mechanism. The effects of gold nanoparticles catalyst, Si substrate, and Se atoms on Sn nanowires growth are discussed in detail. We find that Se atom plays a key role in the growth of Sn nanowires. The gaseous Sn atoms are absorbed by the eutectic alloy droplets of Se-Au at first. Then Sn atoms precipitate at the liquid-solid phase interface due to a supersaturated solution and form a one-dimensional nanostructure. In all, this PVT method could provide a simple and quick way to synthesize monocrystalline Sn nanowires with an advantage in both quality and quantity. The optical transmittance of Sn nanowires thin film with 2 ?m2 density approaches 85-90% in visible wavelength. Therefore, the Sn nanowires thin film can be applied to transparent electrode along with their metallic property.

  19. Software for physics of tau lepton decay in LHC experiments

    E-print Network

    Tomasz Przedzinski

    2010-09-20

    Software development in high energy physics experiments offers unique experience with rapidly changing environment and variety of different standards and frameworks that software must be adapted to. As such, regular methods of software development are hard to use as they do not take into account how greatly some of these changes influence the whole structure. The following thesis summarizes development of TAUOLA C++ Interface introducing tau decays to new event record standard. Documentation of the program is already published. That is why it is not recalled here again. We focus on the development cycle and methodology used in the project, starting from the definition of the expectations through planning and designing the abstract model and concluding with the implementation. In the last part of the paper we present installation of the software within different experiments surrounding Large Hadron Collider and the problems that emerged during this process.

  20. Software for physics of tau lepton decay in LHC experiments

    E-print Network

    Przedzinski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    Software development in high energy physics experiments offers unique experience with rapidly changing environment and variety of different standards and frameworks that software must be adapted to. As such, regular methods of software development are hard to use as they do not take into account how greatly some of these changes influence the whole structure. The following thesis summarizes development of TAUOLA C++ Interface introducing tau decays to new event record standard. Documentation of the program is already published. That is why it is not recalled here again. We focus on the development cycle and methodology used in the project, starting from the definition of the expectations through planning and designing the abstract model and concluding with the implementation. In the last part of the paper we present installation of the software within different experiments surrounding Large Hadron Collider and the problems that emerged during this process.

  1. Introductory Physics Experiments Using the Wii Balance Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Julian; Sobczak, Robert; Iqbal, Zohaib; Ochoa, Romulo

    2010-02-01

    The Wii, a video game console by Nintendo, utilizes several different controllers, such as the Wii remote (Wiimote) and the balance board, for game-playing. The balance board was introduced in early 2008. It contains four strain gauges and has Bluetooth connectivity at a relatively low price. Thanks to available open source code, such as GlovePie, any PC with Bluetooth capability can detect the information sent out by the balance board. Based on the ease with which the forces measured by each strain gauge can be obtained, we have designed several experiments for introductory physics courses that make use of this device. We present experiments to measure the forces generated when students lift their arms with and without added weights, distribution of forces on an extended object when weights are repositioned, and other normal forces cases. The results of our experiments are compared with those predicted by Newtonian mechanics. )

  2. New physics and technology for spin-polarized alkali-metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Fei

    In this theses, we present two important new physics phenomena of spin-polarized alkali-metal atoms as well as one new technology for miniature atomic clocks based on spin-polarized alkali-metal atoms. We report that the hyperfine resonance frequencies of ground-state 87Rb and 133Cs depend on the pressure of buffer gases Ar and Kr in a nonlinear way within some pressure range[1]. We also show that for buffer gases He and N2, no nonlinear dependence was observed. The experimental results suggest that the formation of van der Waals molecules in Ar or Kr (e.g. RbAr or CsKr) contribute to the nonlinear pressure dependence of the hyperfine resonance frequencies of Rb or Cs. We demonstrate that a simple function can be used to fit the experimental data and the fitting results provide important information about the poorly-known interaction coefficients between the alkali-metal atoms and the buffer-gas atoms. Next we present a novel phenomenon which was reported for the first time[2]. For alkali-metal atoms that are optically pumped with D1 circularly-polarized laser light, the microwave resonance signals will be reversed when the laser frequency is close to the transition from the lower hyperfine multiplet of the ground state to the excited state and when the laser intensity is sufficiently low. This counterintuitive phenomenon can be understood qualitatively with the help of a picture of spin-temperature distribution. Detailed density matrix calculation gave us results consistent with the experimental observation. Finally we demonstrate a new method to fill some alkali-metal vapor into a miniature vapor cell (with the volume of several mm3)[3]. This method uses the electrolysis of a specially-made borate glass which contains the target alkali-metal atoms. The electrolysis can be done because the mobility of the alkali-metal atoms in the borate glass is increased greatly at higher temperatures (e.g. 500°C) and in electric fields. With this method, we are able to fill a well-controlled amount of alkali-metal atoms into miniature vapor cells which are made with silicon and Pyrex glass by anodic bonding. This method has the potential to be scaled to mass production of such miniature vapor cells for miniature atomic clocks.

  3. From the Dawn of Nuclear Physics to the First Atomic Bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolbright, Stephen; Schumacher, Jacob; Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina

    2014-03-01

    This work gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission within the historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. The work refers to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners. EM-A is grateful to Prof. Walter Grunden and to Prof. Emeritus Shadahiko Kano, Prof. Emeritus Monitori Hoshi for sharing their own notes, documents, and references, and to CCCU for sponsoring her participation in the 2013 Nuclear Weapons Seminar in Japan.

  4. Autonomy and the Student Experience in Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Nicholas Ron

    The role of autonomy in the student experience in a large-enrollment undergraduate introductory physics course was studied from a Self-Determination Theory perspective with two studies. Study I, a correlational study, investigated whether certain aspects of the student experience correlated with how autonomy supportive (vs. controlling) students perceived their instructors to be. An autonomy supportive instructor acknowledges students' perspectives, feelings, and perceptions and provides students with information and opportunities for choice, while minimizing external pressures. It was found that the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was positively correlated with student interest and enjoyment in learning physics (beta=0.31***) and negatively correlated with student anxiety about taking physics (beta=-0.23**). It was also positively correlated with how autonomous (vs. controlled) students' reasons for studying physics became over the duration of the course (i.e., studying physics more because they wanted to vs. had to; beta=0.24***). This change in autonomous reasons for studying physics was in turn positively correlated with student performance in the course (beta=0.17*). Additionally, the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was directly correlated with performance for those students entering the course with relatively autonomous reasons for studying physics (beta=0.25**). In summary, students who perceived their instructors as more autonomy supportive tended to have a more favorable experience in the course. If greater autonomy support was in fact the cause of a more favorable student experience, as suggested by Self-determination Theory and experimental studies in other contexts, these results would have implications for instruction and instructor professional development in similar contexts. I discuss these implications. Study II, an experimental study, investigated the effect, on the student experience, of the number of opportunities for choice built into the course format. This was done by comparing two sets of classes. In one set of classes, students spent each class period working through a required series of activities. In the other set of classes, with additional choice, students were free to choose what to work on during nearly half of each class. It was found that the effect of additional choice on student interest and enjoyment in learning physics was significantly different for men vs. women, with a Cohen's d of 0.62 (0.16-1.08; 95% CI). Men became somewhat more interested with additional choice and women became less interested. This gender difference in interest and enjoyment as a result of additional choice could not be accounted for by differences in performance. It was also found that only in classes with additional choice did performance in the course correlate with the degree to which students reasons for studying physics became more autonomous during the quarter (beta=0.30*). I discuss the implications that these effects of additional choice have for instruction and course design in similar contexts.

  5. Physical mechanism of the Schwarzschild effect in film dosimetry—theoretical model and comparison with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouguela, A.; Kollhoff, R.; Rühmann, A.; Willborn, K. C.; Harder, D.; Poppe, B.

    2006-09-01

    In consideration of the importance of film dosimetry for the dosimetric verification of IMRT treatment plans, the Schwarzschild effect or failure of the reciprocity law, i.e. the reduction of the net optical density under 'protraction' or 'fractionation' conditions at constant dose, has been experimentally studied for Kodak XOMAT-V (Martens et al 2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 2221-34) and EDR 2 dosimetry films (Djouguela et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 N317-N321). It is known that this effect results from the competition between two solid-state physics reactions involved in the latent-image formation of the AgBr crystals, the aggregation of two Ag atoms freshly formed from Ag+ ions near radiation-induced occupied electron traps and the spontaneous decomposition of the Ag atoms. In this paper, we are developing a mathematical model of this mechanism which shows that the interplay of the mean lifetime ? of the Ag atoms with the time pattern of the irradiation determines the magnitude of the observed effects of the temporal dose distribution on the net optical density. By comparing this theory with our previous protraction experiments and recent fractionation experiments in which the duration of the pause between fractions was varied, a value of the time constant ? of roughly 10 s at room temperature has been determined for EDR 2. The numerical magnitude of the Schwarzschild effect in dosimetry films under the conditions generally met in radiotherapy amounts to only a few per cent of the net optical density (net OD), so that it can frequently be neglected from the viewpoint of clinical applications. But knowledge of the solid-state physical mechanism and a description in terms of a mathematical model involving a typical time constant of about 10 s are now available to estimate the magnitude of the effect should the necessity arise, i.e. in cases of large fluctuations of the temporal pattern of film exposure.

  6. The experiment PANDA: physics with antiprotons at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, Gianluigi

    2015-05-01

    PANDA is an experiment that will run at the future facility FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany. A high intensity and cooled antiproton beam will collide on a fixed hydrogen or nuclear target covering center-of-mass energies between 2.2 and 5.5 GeV. PANDA addresses various physics aspects from the low energy non-perturbative region towards the perturbative regime of QCD. With the impressive theoretical developments in this field, e.g. lattice QCD, the predictions are becoming more accurate in the course of time. The data harvest with PANDA will, therefore, be an ideal test bench with the aim to provide a deeper understanding of hadronic phenomena such as confinement and the generation of hadron masses. A variety of physics topics will be covered with PANDA, for example: the formation or production of exotic non-qqbar charm meson states connected to the recently observed XYZ spectrum; the study of gluon-rich matter, such as glueballs and hybrids; the spectroscopy of the excited states of strange and charm baryons, their production cross section and their spin correlations; the behaviour of hadrons in nuclear matter; the hypernuclear physics; the electromagnetic proton form factors in the timelike region. The PANDA experiment is designed to achieve the above mentioned physics goals with a setup with the following characteristics: an almost full solid angle acceptance; excellent tracking capabilities with high resolution (1-2 % at 1 GeV/c in the central region); secondary vertex detection with resolution ? 100 microns or better; electromagnetic calorimetry for detections of gammas and electrons up to 10 GeV; good particle identification of charge tracks (electrons, muons, pions, kaons, protons); a dedicated interchangeable central apparatus for the hypernuclear physics; detector and data acquisition system capable of working at 20 MHz interaction rate with an intelligent software trigger that can provide maximum flexibility.

  7. On the Limitations of Thought Experiments in Physics and the Consequences for Physics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, Miriam; Burko, Lior M.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the role of Thought Experiments (TEs) in ongoing processes of conceptual refinement for physicists and physics learners. Analyze TEs related to stellar evolution and general relativity. Identifies the stages at which crucial errors are made in these TEs and the cognitive processes which lead to these errors. Discusses implications for…

  8. A Reconfigurable Instrument System for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Ziru; Li, Feng; Jiang, Xiao; Jin, Ge

    2014-04-01

    We developed a reconfigurable nuclear instrument system (RNIS) that could satisfy the requirements of diverse nuclear and particle physics experiments, and the inertial confinement fusion diagnostic. Benefiting from the reconfigurable hardware structure and digital pulse processing technology, RNIS shakes off the restrictions of cumbersome crates and miscellaneous modules. It retains all the advantages of conventional nuclear instruments and is more flexible and portable. RNIS is primarily composed of a field programmable hardware board and relevant PC software. Separate analog channels are designed to provide different functions, such as amplifiers, ADC, fast discriminators and Schmitt discriminators for diverse experimental purposes. The high-performance field programmable gate array could complete high-precision time interval measurement, histogram accumulation, counting, and coincidence anticoincidence measurement. To illustrate the prospects of RNIS, a series of applications to the experiments are described in this paper. The first, for which RNIS was originally developed, involves nuclear energy spectrum measurement with a scintillation detector and photomultiplier. The second experiment applies RNIS to a G-M tube counting experiment, and in the third, it is applied to a quantum communication experiment through reconfiguration.

  9. Interactive Plasma Physics Education Using Data from Fusion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Brisa; Davis, Bill; Zwicker, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    The Internet Plasma Physics Education Experience (IPPEX) website was created in 1996 to give users access to data from plasma and fusion experiments. Interactive material on electricity, magnetism, matter, and energy was presented to generate interest and prepare users to understand data from a fusion experiment. Initially, users were allowed to analyze real-time and archival data from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiment. IPPEX won numerous awards for its novel approach of allowing users to participate in ongoing research. However, the latest revisions of IPPEX were in 2001 and the interactive material is no longer functional on modern browsers. Also, access to real-time data was lost when TFTR was shut down. The interactive material on IPPEX is being rewritten in ActionScript3.0, and real-time and archival data from the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) will be made available to users. New tools like EFIT animations, fast cameras, and plots of important plasma parameters will be included along with an existing Java-based ``virtual tokamak.'' Screenshots from the upgraded website and future directions will be presented.

  10. A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

  11. Physics 212E Classical and Modern Physics Spring 2012 VPython Class 8: The Instability of Atoms

    E-print Network

    Vollmayr-Lee, Ben

    = gcurve(color=color.cyan) Run this. You'll see that it doesn't actually plot anything yet. Now we'll give The Graphing Display We're not going to be using VPython for animating a physical system today. Rather, we's make a test plot to see how it works. Let's define a gcurve object called oscillator: oscillator

  12. Negative Experiences in Physical Education and Sport: How Much Do They Affect Physical Activity Participation Later in Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2013-01-01

    People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…

  13. Unpacking Gender Differences in Students' Perceived Experiences in Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2009-11-01

    Prior research has shown, at our institution: 1) males outperform females on conceptual assessments (a gender gap), 2) the gender gap persists despite the use of research-based reforms, and 3) the gender gap is correlated with students' physics and mathematics background and prior attitudes and beliefs [Kost, et al. PRST-PER, 5, 010101]. Our follow-up work begins to explore how males and females experience the introductory course differently and how these differences relate to the gender gap. We gave a survey to students in the introductory course in which we investigated students' physics identity and self-efficacy. We find there are significant gender differences in each of these three areas, and further find that these measures are weakly correlated with student conceptual performance, and moderately correlated with course grade.

  14. Flavour physics and the Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Valerie

    2012-02-28

    An exciting new era in flavour physics has just begun with the start of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHCb (where b stands for beauty) experiment, designed specifically to search for new phenomena in quantum loop processes and to provide a deeper understanding of matter-antimatter asymmetries at the most fundamental level, is producing many new and exciting results. It gives me great pleasure to describe a selected few of the results here-in particular, the search for rare B(0)(s)-->?+ ?- decays and the measurement of the B(0)(s) charge-conjugation parity-violating phase, both of which offer high potential for the discovery of new physics at and beyond the LHC energy frontier in the very near future. PMID:22253243

  15. Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) power supply design and development

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C.; Bronner, G.; Lu, E.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1995-04-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is an advanced tokamak project aimed at the production of quasi-steady state plasmas with advanced shape, heating, and particle control. TPX is to be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) using many of the facilities from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). TPX will be the first tokamak to utilize superconducting (SC) magnets in both the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) systems. This new feature requires a departure from the traditional tokamak power supply schemes. This paper describes the plan for the adaptation of the PPPL/FTR power system facilities to supply TPX. Five major areas are addressed, namely the AC power system, the TF, PF and Fast Plasma Position Control (FPPC) power supplies, and quench protection for the TF and PF systems. Special emphasis is placed on the development of new power supply and protection schemes.

  16. The PANDA experiment: physics goals and experimental setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, Gianluigi

    2014-05-01

    PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt) is an experiment that will run at the GSI laboratory, Darmstadt, Germany, in 2019. A high intensity antiproton beam with momentum up to 15 GeV/c will collide on a fixed proton target (pellet target or jet target). A wide range of physics topics will be investigated: char- monium states and open charm states above the Doverline D threshold; exotic states like glueballs, oddballs, hybrids, multiquarks, molecules; the spectroscopy of the excited states of strange and charm baryons; non-perturbative QCD dynamics in the poverline p production cross section of charm and strange baryons and their spin correlations; the behaviour of hadrons in nuclear matter; hypernuclear physics; electromagnetic proton form factors in the timelike region; the CP violation in the charm sector, rare and forbidden decays of charm baryons and mesons.

  17. The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Enrico Sartori; Lori Scott

    2006-09-01

    Since the beginning of the Nuclear Power industry, numerous experiments concerned with nuclear energy and technology have been performed at different research laboratories, worldwide. These experiments required a large investment in terms of infrastructure, expertise, and cost; however, many were performed without a high degree of attention to archival of results for future use. The degree and quality of documentation varies greatly. There is an urgent need to preserve integral reactor physics experimental data, including measurement methods, techniques, and separate or special effects data for nuclear energy and technology applications and the knowledge and competence contained therein. If the data are compromised, it is unlikely that any of these experiments will be repeated again in the future. The International Reactor Physics Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated, as a pilot activity in 1999 by the by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Nuclear Science Committee (NSC). The project was endorsed as an official activity of the NSC in June of 2003. The purpose of the IRPhEP is to provide an extensively peer reviewed set of reactor physics related integral benchmark data that can be used by reactor designers and safety analysts to validate the analytical tools used to design next generation reactors and establish the safety basis for operation of these reactors. A short history of the IRPhEP is presented and its purposes are discussed in this paper. Accomplishments of the IRPhEP, including the first publication of the IRPhEP Handbook, are highlighted and the future of the project outlined.

  18. Ionization of a Model Atom: Exact Results and Connection with Experiment

    E-print Network

    Ovidiu Costin; Joel L. Lebowitz; Alexander Rokhlenko

    1999-05-18

    We prove that a model atom having one bound state will be fully ionized by a time periodic potential of arbitrary strength $r$ and frequency $\\omega$. The survival probability is for small $r$ given by $e^{-\\Gamma t}$ for times of order $\\Gamma^{-1} \\sim r^{-2n}$, where $n$ is the number of ``photons'' required for ionization, with enhanced stability at resonances. For late times the decay is like $t^{-3}$. Results are for a 1d system with a delta function potential of strength $-g(1 + \\eta (t))$ but comparison with experiments on the microwave ionization of excited hydrogen atoms and with recent analytical work indicate that many features are universal.

  19. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; /SUNY, Albany /Alberta U. /Ankara U. /Annecy, LAPP /Argonne /Arizona U. /Texas U., Arlington /Athens U. /Natl. Tech. U., Athens /Baku, Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /Belgrade U. /VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Humboldt U., Berlin /Bern U., LHEP /Birmingham U. /Bogazici U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U.

    2011-11-28

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN promises a major step forward in the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose detector for the LHC, whose design was guided by the need to accommodate the wide spectrum of possible physics signatures. The major remit of the ATLAS experiment is the exploration of the TeV mass scale where groundbreaking discoveries are expected. In the focus are the investigation of the electroweak symmetry breaking and linked to this the search for the Higgs boson as well as the search for Physics beyond the Standard Model. In this report a detailed examination of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector is provided, with a major aim being to investigate the experimental sensitivity to a wide range of measurements and potential observations of new physical processes. An earlier summary of the expected capabilities of ATLAS was compiled in 1999 [1]. A survey of physics capabilities of the CMS detector was published in [2]. The design of the ATLAS detector has now been finalised, and its construction and installation have been completed [3]. An extensive test-beam programme was undertaken. Furthermore, the simulation and reconstruction software code and frameworks have been completely rewritten. Revisions incorporated reflect improved detector modelling as well as major technical changes to the software technology. Greatly improved understanding of calibration and alignment techniques, and their practical impact on performance, is now in place. The studies reported here are based on full simulations of the ATLAS detector response. A variety of event generators were employed. The simulation and reconstruction of these large event samples thus provided an important operational test of the new ATLAS software system. In addition, the processing was distributed world-wide over the ATLAS Grid facilities and hence provided an important test of the ATLAS computing system - this is the origin of the expression 'CSC studies' ('computing system commissioning'), which is occasionally referred to in these volumes. The work reported does generally assume that the detector is fully operational, and in this sense represents an idealised detector: establishing the best performance of the ATLAS detector with LHC proton-proton collisions is a challenging task for the future. The results summarised here therefore represent the best estimate of ATLAS capabilities before real operational experience of the full detector with beam. Unless otherwise stated, simulations also do not include the effect of additional interactions in the same or other bunch-crossings, and the effect of neutron background is neglected. Thus simulations correspond to the low-luminosity performance of the ATLAS detector. This report is broadly divided into two parts: firstly the performance for identification of physics objects is examined in detail, followed by a detailed assessment of the performance of the trigger system. This part is subdivided into chapters surveying the capabilities for charged particle tracking, each of electron/photon, muon and tau identification, jet and missing transverse energy reconstruction, b-tagging algorithms and performance, and finally the trigger system performance. In each chapter of the report, there is a further subdivision into shorter notes describing different aspects studied. The second major subdivision of the report addresses physics measurement capabilities, and new physics search sensitivities. Individual chapters in this part discuss ATLAS physics capabilities in Standard Model QCD and electroweak processes, in the top quark sector, in b-physics, in searches for Higgs bosons, supersymmetry searches, and finally searches for other new particles predicted in more exotic models.

  20. Neutrino Oscillation Physics Potential of the T2K Experiment

    E-print Network

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Rodr'iguez, J Caravaca; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Dewhurst, D; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery-Schrenk, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Goeldi, D; Golan, T; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwai, E; Iwamoto, K; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Johnson, S; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; King, S; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Lamont, I; Larkin, E; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Martynenko, S; Maruyama, T; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Mefodiev, A; Metelko, C; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Missert, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Ovsyannikova, T; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Guerra, E S Pinzon; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala-Zezula, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Riccio, C; Rodrigues, P A; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; S'anchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shaker, F; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J

    2014-01-01

    The observation of the recent electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam and the high-precision measurement of the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ have led to a re-evaluation of the physics potential of the T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. Sensitivities are explored for CP violation in neutrinos, non-maximal $\\sin^22\\theta_{23}$, the octant of $\\theta_{23}$, and the mass hierarchy, in addition to the measurements of $\\delta_{CP}$, $\\sin^2\\theta_{23}$, and $\\Delta m^2_{32}$, for various combinations of $\

  1. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Motloch, C.G.; Bonney, R.F.; Levine, J.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Masson, L.S.; Commander, J.C.

    1995-04-01

    This Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), includes an indication of the magnitude of facility hazards, complexity of facility operations, and the stage of the facility life-cycle. It presents the results of safety analyses, safety assurance programs, identified vulnerabilities, compensatory measures, and, in general, the rationale describing why the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) can be safely operated. It discusses application of the graded approach to the TPX safety analysis, including the basis for using Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 and DOE-STD-3009-94 in the development of the PSAR.

  2. The BAIKAL neutrino experiment - physics results and perspectives

    E-print Network

    Wischnewski, R

    2008-01-01

    We review the status of the Lake Baikal Neutrino Experiment. The Neutrino Telescope NT200 has been operating since 1998 and has been upgraded to the 10 Mton detector NT200+ in 2005. We present selected astroparticle physics results from long-term operation of NT200. Also discussed are activities towards acoustic detection of UHE-energy neutrinos, and results of associated science activities. Preparation towards a km3-scale (Gigaton volume) detector in Lake Baikal is currently a central activity. As an important milestone, a km3-prototype string, based on completely new technology, has been installed and is operating together with NT200+ since April, 2008.

  3. The BAIKAL neutrino experiment - physics results and perspectives

    E-print Network

    R. Wischnewski; for the Baikal Collaboration

    2008-11-07

    We review the status of the Lake Baikal Neutrino Experiment. The Neutrino Telescope NT200 has been operating since 1998 and has been upgraded to the 10 Mton detector NT200+ in 2005. We present selected astroparticle physics results from long-term operation of NT200. Also discussed are activities towards acoustic detection of UHE-energy neutrinos, and results of associated science activities. Preparation towards a km3-scale (Gigaton volume) detector in Lake Baikal is currently a central activity. As an important milestone, a km3-prototype string, based on completely new technology, has been installed and is operating together with NT200+ since April, 2008.

  4. Report on Physics of Channelization: Theory, Experiment, and Observation

    SciTech Connect

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    2014-05-19

    The project involved a study of physical processes that create eroded channel and drainage networks. A particular focus was on how the shape of the channels and the network depended on the nature of the fluid flow. Our approach was to combine theoretical, experimental, and observational studies in close collaboration with Professor Daniel Rothman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Laboratory -scaled experiments were developed and quantitative data on the shape of the pattern and erosion dynamics are obtained with a laser-aided topography technique and fluorescent optical imaging techniques.

  5. Chladni Patterns on Drumheads: A ``Physics of Music'' Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worland, Randy

    2011-01-01

    In our "Physics of Music" class for non-science majors, we have developed a laboratory exercise in which students experiment with Chladni sand patterns on drumheads. Chladni patterns provide a kinesthetic, visual, and entertaining way to illustrate standing waves on flat surfaces and are very helpful when making the transition from one-dimensional systems, such as string and wind instruments, to the two-dimensional membranes and plates of the percussion family. Although the sand patterns attributed to Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (1756-1827) are often demonstrated for this purpose using metal plates,2-4 the use of drumheads offers several pedagogical and practical advantages in the lab.

  6. Neutrino Oscillation Physics Potential of the T2K Experiment

    E-print Network

    K. Abe; J. Adam; H. Aihara; T. Akiri; C. Andreopoulos; S. Aoki; A. Ariga; S. Assylbekov; D. Autiero; M. Barbi; G. J. Barker; G. Barr; P. Bartet-Friburg; M. Bass; M. Batkiewicz; F. Bay; V. Berardi; B. E. Berger; S. Berkman; S. Bhadra; F. d. M. Blaszczyk; A. Blondel; C. Bojechko; S. Bordoni; S. B. Boyd; D. Brailsford; A. Bravar; C. Bronner; N. Buchanan; R. G. Calland; J. Caravaca Rodr'iguez; S. L. Cartwright; R. Castillo; M. G. Catanesi; A. Cervera; D. Cherdack; G. Christodoulou; A. Clifton; J. Coleman; S. J. Coleman; G. Collazuol; K. Connolly; L. Cremonesi; A. Dabrowska; I. Danko; R. Das; S. Davis; P. de Perio; G. De Rosa; T. Dealtry; S. R. Dennis; C. Densham; D. Dewhurst; F. Di Lodovico; S. Di Luise; O. Drapier; T. Duboyski; K. Duffy; J. Dumarchez; S. Dytman; M. Dziewiecki; S. Emery-Schrenk; A. Ereditato; L. Escudero; T. Feusels; A. J. Finch; G. A. Fiorentini; M. Friend; Y. Fujii; Y. Fukuda; A. P. Furmanski; V. Galymov; A. Garcia; S. Giffin; C. Giganti; K. Gilje; D. Goeldi; T. Golan; M. Gonin; N. Grant; D. Gudin; D. R. Hadley; L. Haegel; A. Haesler; M. D. Haigh; P. Hamilton; D. Hansen; T. Hara; M. Hartz; T. Hasegawa; N. C. Hastings; T. Hayashino; Y. Hayato; C. Hearty; R. L. Helmer; M. Hierholzer; J. Hignight; A. Hillairet; A. Himmel; T. Hiraki; S. Hirota; J. Holeczek; S. Horikawa; K. Huang; A. K. Ichikawa; K. Ieki; M. Ieva; M. Ikeda; J. Imber; J. Insler; T. J. Irvine; T. Ishida; T. Ishii; E. Iwai; K. Iwamoto; K. Iyogi; A. Izmaylov; A. Jacob; B. Jamieson; R. A. Johnson; S. Johnson; J. H. Jo; P. Jonsson; C. K. Jung; M. Kabirnezhad; A. C. Kaboth; T. Kajita; H. Kakuno; J. Kameda; Y. Kanazawa; D. Karlen; I. Karpikov; T. Katori; E. Kearns; M. Khabibullin; A. Khotjantsev; D. Kielczewska; T. Kikawa; A. Kilinski; J. Kim; S. King; J. Kisiel; P. Kitching; T. Kobayashi; L. Koch; T. Koga; A. Kolaceke; A. Konaka; L. L. Kormos; A. Korzenev; Y. Koshio; W. Kropp; H. Kubo; Y. Kudenko; R. Kurjata; T. Kutter; J. Lagoda; K. Laihem; I. Lamont; E. Larkin; M. Laveder; M. Lawe; M. Lazos; T. Lindner; C. Lister; R. P. Litchfield; A. Longhin; J. P. Lopez; L. Ludovici; L. Magaletti; K. Mahn; M. Malek; S. Manly; A. D. Marino; J. Marteau; J. F. Martin; P. Martins; S. Martynenko; T. Maruyama; V. Matveev; K. Mavrokoridis; E. Mazzucato; M. McCarthy; N. McCauley; K. S. McFarland; C. McGrew; A. Mefodiev; C. Metelko; M. Mezzetto; P. Mijakowski; C. A. Miller; A. Minamino; O. Mineev; A. Missert; M. Miura; S. Moriyama; Th. A. Mueller; A. Murakami; M. Murdoch; S. Murphy; J. Myslik; T. Nakadaira; M. Nakahata; K. G. Nakamura; K. Nakamura; S. Nakayama; T. Nakaya; K. Nakayoshi; C. Nantais; C. Nielsen; M. Nirkko; K. Nishikawa; Y. Nishimura; J. Nowak; H. M. O'Keeffe; R. Ohta; K. Okumura; T. Okusawa; W. Oryszczak; S. M. Oser; T. Ovsyannikova; R. A. Owen; Y. Oyama; V. Palladino; J. L. Palomino; V. Paolone; D. Payne; O. Perevozchikov; J. D. Perkin; Y. Petrov; L. Pickard; E. S. Pinzon Guerra; C. Pistillo; P. Plonski; E. Poplawska; B. Popov; M. Posiadala-Zezula; J. -M. Poutissou; R. Poutissou; P. Przewlocki; B. Quilain; E. Radicioni; P. N. Ratoff; M. Ravonel; M. A. M. Rayner; A. Redij; M. Reeves; E. Reinherz-Aronis; C. Riccio; P. A. Rodrigues; P. Rojas; E. Rondio; S. Roth; A. Rubbia; D. Ruterbories; R. Sacco; K. Sakashita; F. S'anchez; F. Sato; E. Scantamburlo; K. Scholberg; S. Schoppmann; J. Schwehr; M. Scott; Y. Seiya; T. Sekiguchi; H. Sekiya; D. Sgalaberna; R. Shah; F. Shaker; M. Shiozawa; S. Short; Y. Shustrov; P. Sinclair; B. Smith; M. Smy; J. T. Sobczyk; H. Sobel; M. Sorel; L. Southwell; P. Stamoulis; J. Steinmann; B. Still; Y. Suda; A. Suzuki; K. Suzuki; S. Y. Suzuki; Y. Suzuki; R. Tacik; M. Tada; S. Takahashi; A. Takeda; Y. Takeuchi; H. K. Tanaka; H. A. Tanaka; M. M. Tanaka; D. Terhorst; R. Terri; L. F. Thompson; A. Thorley; S. Tobayama; W. Toki; T. Tomura; Y. Totsuka; C. Touramanis; T. Tsukamoto; M. Tzanov; Y. Uchida; A. Vacheret; M. Vagins; G. Vasseur; T. Wachala; A. V. Waldron; K. Wakamatsu; C. W. Walter; D. Wark; W. Warzycha; M. O. Wascko; A. Weber; R. Wendell; R. J. Wilkes; M. J. Wilking; C. Wilkinson; Z. Williamson; J. R. Wilson; R. J. Wilson; T. Wongjirad; Y. Yamada; K. Yamamoto; C. Yanagisawa; T. Yano; S. Yen; N. Yershov; M. Yokoyama; K. Yoshida; T. Yuan; M. Yu; A. Zalewska; J. Zalipska; L. Zambelli; K. Zaremba; M. Ziembicki; E. D. Zimmerman; M. Zito; J. Zmuda

    2015-02-10

    The observation of the recent electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam and the high-precision measurement of the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ have led to a re-evaluation of the physics potential of the T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. Sensitivities are explored for CP violation in neutrinos, non-maximal $\\sin^22\\theta_{23}$, the octant of $\\theta_{23}$, and the mass hierarchy, in addition to the measurements of $\\delta_{CP}$, $\\sin^2\\theta_{23}$, and $\\Delta m^2_{32}$, for various combinations of $\

  7. Bounds on New Physics from the New Data on Parity Violation in Atomic Cesium

    E-print Network

    R. Casalbuoni; S. De Curtis; D. Dominici; R. Gatto

    1999-06-28

    We assume the latest experimental determination of the weak charge of atomic cesium and analyze its implications for possible new physics. We notice that the data would imply positive upper and lower bounds on the new physics contribution to the weak charge, $\\delta_NQ_W$. The required new physics should be of a type not severely constrained by the high energy precision data. A simplest possibility would be new neutral vector bosons almost un-mixed to the $Z$ and with sizeable couplings to fermions. The lower positive bound would however forbid zero or negative $\\delta_NQ_W$ and exclude not only the standard model but also models with sequential $Z^\\prime$, in particular simple-minded towers of $Z$-like excitations from extra-dimensions. The bound would also imply an upper limit on the $Z^\\prime$ mass within the models allowed. Conclusions are also derived for models of four-fermion contact interactions.

  8. Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Basic Physical Interactions in Analogous Atomic and Solar Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.

    2013-01-01

    Comparing the atom to a "tiny solar system" is a common teaching analogy, and the extent to which learners saw the systems as analogous was investigated. English upper secondary students were asked parallel questions about the physical interactions between the components of a simple atomic system and a simple solar system to investigate…

  9. Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Basic Physical Interactions in Analogous Atomic and Solar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, Keith S.

    2013-08-01

    Comparing the atom to a `tiny solar system' is a common teaching analogy, and the extent to which learners saw the systems as analogous was investigated. English upper secondary students were asked parallel questions about the physical interactions between the components of a simple atomic system and a simple solar system to investigate how they understood the forces acting within the two systems. A sample of just over 100 across the 15-18 age range responded to a pencil-and-paper instrument that asked about four aspects of the two systems. It was found that for both systems, about four fifths of students expected forces to decrease with increasing distance; but that only a little over half expected there to be interactions between the minor constituents (electrons and planets). Most students failed to apply Newton's third law to either system. There was a considerable difference in the extent to which respondents were able to identify the type of force acting in the systems (nearly all for the solar system, but only a small proportion in the case of the atom). The findings are considered in terms of both the limitations of students' understanding of the basic physics and possible implications for the use of the teaching analogy.

  10. Universal van der Waals physics for three cold atoms near Feshbach resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujun; Julienne, Paul S.

    2014-10-01

    Experimental studies with cold atoms have advanced our understanding of three-body physics, historically a fundamental yet challenging problem. This is because atomic interactions can be precisely varied in strength using magnetically tunable scattering resonances known as Feshbach resonances. Collisions near the unitarity limit, where scattering is maximum, are known to have universal aspects that are independent of short-range chemical details. Away from this limit, many quantum states are expected to be active during a three-body collision, making the collisional observables practically unpredictable. Here we predict three-body ultracold scattering rates by properly building in the pairwise van der Waals interactions plus the multi-spin properties of a tunable Feshbach resonance state characterized by known dimensionless two-body parameters. Numerically solving the Schrödinger equation then quantitatively determines three-atom collisional properties at all interaction strengths without needing adjustable parameters to fit data. Consequently, we can define a new class of van der Waals universality for cold atom three-body phenomena.

  11. Resolving all-order method convergence problems for atomic physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gharibnejad, H.; Derevianko, A.; Eliav, E.; Safronova, M. S.

    2011-05-15

    The development of the relativistic all-order method where all single, double, and partial triple excitations of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock wave function are included to all orders of perturbation theory led to many important results for the study of fundamental symmetries, development of atomic clocks, ultracold atom physics, and others, as well as provided recommended values of many atomic properties critically evaluated for their accuracy for a large number of monovalent systems. This approach requires iterative solutions of the linearized coupled-cluster equations leading to convergence issues in some cases where correlation corrections are particularly large or lead to an oscillating pattern. Moreover, these issues also lead to similar problems in the configuration-interaction (CI)+all-order method for many-particle systems. In this work, we have resolved most of the known convergence problems by applying two different convergence stabilizer methods, namely, reduced linear equation and direct inversion of iterative subspace. Examples are presented for B, Al, Zn{sup +}, and Yb{sup +}. Solving these convergence problems greatly expands the number of atomic species that can be treated with the all-order methods and is anticipated to facilitate many interesting future applications.

  12. Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Laboratory Toshiyuki Azuma Division of Genomic Technologies (Center for Life Science Technologies) Piero Carninci

    E-print Network

    Fukai, Tomoki

    Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Laboratory Toshiyuki Azuma Division of Genomic Technologies (Center for Life Science Technologies) Piero Carninci Computational Astrophysics Laboratory Toshikazu Ebisuzaki Radiation Laboratory (Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science) Hideto Enyo Condensed Matter

  13. Virtual experiments, physical validation: dental morphology at the intersection of experiment and theory

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P. S. L.; Rayfield, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Computational models such as finite-element analysis offer biologists a means of exploring the structural mechanics of biological systems that cannot be directly observed. Validated against experimental data, a model can be manipulated to perform virtual experiments, testing variables that are hard to control in physical experiments. The relationship between tooth form and the ability to break down prey is key to understanding the evolution of dentition. Recent experimental work has quantified how tooth shape promotes fracture in biological materials. We present a validated finite-element model derived from physical compression experiments. The model shows close agreement with strain patterns observed in photoelastic test materials and reaction forces measured during these experiments. We use the model to measure strain energy within the test material when different tooth shapes are used. Results show that notched blades deform materials for less strain energy cost than straight blades, giving insights into the energetic relationship between tooth form and prey materials. We identify a hypothetical ‘optimal’ blade angle that minimizes strain energy costs and test alternative prey materials via virtual experiments. Using experimental data and computational models offers an integrative approach to understand the mechanics of tooth morphology. PMID:22399789

  14. The physics and (radio)chemistry of solar neutrino experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, R. L.

    The situation in solar neutrino science has changed drastically in the past several years, with results now available from four neutrino experiments that use different methods to look at different regions of the solar-neutrino energy-spectrum. While the goal of all of these experiments is physics, they all rely heavily on chemistry and radiochemistry. Three of these experiments are radiochemical; the 37Cl detector and the two different forms of 71Ga detectors used in GALLEX and SAGE are based on the chemical isolation and counting of the radioactive products of neutrino interactions. The fourth, Kamiokande, detects neutrinos in real time; however, it also depends on radiochemistry in that radioactive contaminants must be controlled at very low levels. It is noteworthy that all of these experiments report a deficit of observed neutrinos relative to the predictions of standard solar models, the so-called "solar neutrino problem". This paper reviews the basic principles of operation of these neutrino detectors (as well as some new detectors currently under construction), reports their recent results, and discusses some of the theoretical interpretations that are now in vogue.

  15. Mini-Column Ion-Exchange Separation and Atomic Absorption Quantitation of Nickel, Cobalt, and Iron: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate quantitative analysis experiment, describing an atomic absorption quantitation scheme that is fast, sensitive and comparatively simple relative to other titration experiments. (CS)

  16. MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers Experiment Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Catherine E.; Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim, K.

    2010-01-01

    Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers in low Earth orbit (LEO) poses a serious threat to spacecraft performance and durability. To address this, 40 different polymer samples and a sample of pyrolytic graphite, collectively called the PEACE (Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment) Polymers, were exposed to the LEO space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly 4 years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 1 & 2 (MISSE 1 & 2). The purpose of the PEACE Polymers experiment was to obtain accurate mass loss measurements in space to combine with ground measurements in order to accurately calculate the atomic oxygen erosion yields of a wide variety of polymeric materials exposed to the LEO space environment for a long period of time. Error calculations were performed in order to determine the accuracy of the mass measurements and therefore of the erosion yield values. The standard deviation, or error, of each factor was incorporated into the fractional uncertainty of the erosion yield for each of three different situations, depending on the post-flight weighing procedure. The resulting error calculations showed the erosion yield values to be very accurate, with an average error of 3.30 percent.

  17. A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotter, I.; Bird, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q???+???P???=???1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In addition to discussing experiments on mesoscopic quantum point contacts that provide evidence of the environmentally-mediated coupling of quantum states, we also review manifestations of DPTs in mesoscopic devices and other systems. These experiments include observations of resonance-trapping behavior in microwave cavities and open quantum dots, phase lapses in tunneling through single-electron transistors, and spin swapping in atomic ensembles. Other possible manifestations of this phenomenon are presented, including various superradiant phenomena in low-dimensional semiconductors. From these discussions a generic picture of OQSs emerges in which the environmentally-mediated coupling between different quantum states plays a critical role in governing the system behavior. The ability to control or manipulate this interaction may even lead to new applications in photonics and electronics.

  18. A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Rotter, I; Bird, J P

    2015-11-01

    This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q???+???P???=???1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In addition to discussing experiments on mesoscopic quantum point contacts that provide evidence of the environmentally-mediated coupling of quantum states, we also review manifestations of DPTs in mesoscopic devices and other systems. These experiments include observations of resonance-trapping behavior in microwave cavities and open quantum dots, phase lapses in tunneling through single-electron transistors, and spin swapping in atomic ensembles. Other possible manifestations of this phenomenon are presented, including various superradiant phenomena in low-dimensional semiconductors. From these discussions a generic picture of OQSs emerges in which the environmentally-mediated coupling between different quantum states plays a critical role in governing the system behavior. The ability to control or manipulate this interaction may even lead to new applications in photonics and electronics. PMID:26510115

  19. Simulating and exploring Weyl semimetal physics with cold atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Wang, Z. D.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a scheme to simulate and explore Weyl semimetal physics with ultracold fermionic atoms in a two-dimensional square optical lattice subjected to experimentally realizable spin-orbit coupling and an artificial dimension from an external parameter space, which may increase experimental feasibility compared with the cases in three-dimensional optical lattices. It is shown that this system with a tight-binding model is able to describe essentially three-dimensional Weyl semimetals with tunable Weyl points. The relevant topological properties are also addressed by means of the Chern number and the gapless edge states. Furthermore, we illustrate that the mimicked Weyl points can be experimentally detected by measuring the atomic transfer fractions in a Bloch-Zener oscillation, and the characteristic topological invariant can be measured with the particle pumping approach.

  20. Atom Chains at Surfaces: A Playground for Low-Dimensional Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himpsel, Franz

    2007-03-01

    One-dimensional physics is particularly elegant because of its mathematical transparency. However, it is not easy to realize a one-dimensional system experimentally. Using self-assembly techniques, it has become possible to produce atomic chain structures at silicon surfaces and to control their dimensionality, their band filling, and their magnetic moment [1]. The atoms are locked to the surface, but metallic electrons are de-coupled from the substrate due to the band gap of silicon. In a sense, these are the ultimate nanowires, each consisting of a single chain of orbitals. Angle-resolved photoemission reveals surprising features, such as a fractional band filling [2], a spin-splitting at a non-magnetic surface [3], and the one-dimensional analog of stripes (alternating metallic and semiconducting sections). [1] Crain and Himpsel, Appl. Phys. A 82, 431 (2006). [2] Crain et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 176805 (2003). [3] Barke et al. Phys. Rev. Lett., in press (2006).

  1. Spectroscopy and atomic physics of highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni for tokamak plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Cheng, C.-C.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the spectroscopy and atomic physics for some highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni ions produced in tokamak plasmas. Forbidden and intersystem wavelengths for Cr and Ni ions are extrapolated and interpolated using the known wavelengths for Fe lines identified in solar-flare plasmas. Tables of transition probabilities for the B I, C I, N I, O I, and F I isoelectronic sequences are presented, and collision strengths and transition probabilities for Cr, Fe, and Ni ions of the Be I sequence are given. Similarities of tokamak and solar spectra are discussed, and it is shown how the atomic data presented may be used to determine ion abundances and electron densities in low-density plasmas.

  2. Testing for a cosmological influence on local physics using atomic and gravitational clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, P. J.; Hellings, R. W.; Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.

    1983-01-01

    The existence of a possible influence of the large-scale structure of the universe on local physics is discussed. A particular realization of such an influence is discussed in terms of the behavior in time of atomic and gravitational clocks. Two natural categories of metric theories embodying a cosmic infuence exist. The first category has geodesic equations of motion in atomic units, while the second category has geodesic equations of motion in gravitational units. Equations of motion for test bodies are derived for both categories of theories in the appropriate parametrized post-Newtonian limit and are applied to the Solar System. Ranging data to the Viking lander on Mars are of sufficient precision to reveal (1) if such a cosmological influence exists at the level of Hubble's constant, and (2) which category of theories is appropriate for a descripton of the phenomenon.

  3. Squeezed light for bandwidth limited atom optics experiments at the Rubidium D1 line

    E-print Network

    G. Hétet; O. Glöckl; K. A. Pilypas; C. C. Harb; B. C. Buchler; H. -A. Bachor; P. K. Lam

    2006-11-20

    We report on the generation of more than 5 dB of vacuum squeezed light at the Rubidium D1 line (795 nm) using periodically poled KTiOPO$_{4}$ (PPKTP) in an optical parametric oscillator. We demonstrate squeezing at low sideband frequencies, making this source of non-classical light compatible with bandwidth limited atom optics experiments. When PPKTP is operated as a parametric amplifier, we show a noise reduction of 4 dB stably locked within the 150 kHz-500 kHz frequency range. This matches the bandwidth of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) in Rubidium hot vapour cells under the condition of large information delay.

  4. A Virtual Rock Physics Laboratory Through Visualized and Interactive Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, T.; Di Bonito, C.; Clark, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    As new scientific challenges demand more comprehensive and multidisciplinary investigations, laboratory experiments are not expected to become simpler and/or faster. Experimental investigation is an indispensable element of scientific inquiry and must play a central role in the way current and future generations of scientist make decisions. To turn the complexity of laboratory work (and that of rocks!) into dexterity, engagement, and expanded learning opportunities, we are building an interactive, virtual laboratory reproducing in form and function the Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory, at Stanford University. The objective is to combine lectures on laboratory techniques and an online repository of visualized experiments consisting of interactive, 3-D renderings of equipment used to measure properties central to the study of rock physics (e.g., how to saturate rocks, how to measure porosity, permeability, and elastic wave velocity). We use a game creation system together with 3-D computer graphics, and a narrative voice to guide the user through the different phases of the experimental protocol. The main advantage gained in employing computer graphics over video footage is that students can virtually open the instrument, single out its components, and assemble it. Most importantly, it helps describe the processes occurring within the rock. These latter cannot be tracked while simply recording the physical experiment, but computer animation can efficiently illustrate what happens inside rock samples (e.g., describing acoustic waves, and/or fluid flow through a porous rock under pressure within an opaque core-holder - Figure 1). The repository of visualized experiments will complement lectures on laboratory techniques and constitute an on-line course offered through the EdX platform at Stanford. This will provide a virtual laboratory for anyone, anywhere to facilitate teaching/learning of introductory laboratory classes in Geophysics and expand the number of courses that can be offered for curricula in Earth Sciences. The primary goal is to open up a research laboratory such as the one available at Stanford to promising students worldwide who are currently left out of such educational resources.

  5. PHYSICS DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR ESTIMATING PLASMA PERFORMANCE IN A BURNING PLASMA EXPERIMENT (FIRE)

    E-print Network

    PHYSICS DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR ESTIMATING PLASMA PERFORMANCE IN A BURNING PLASMA EXPERIMENT (FIRE The physics design guidelines for a next step, high- field tokamak, burning plasma experiment (FIRE, Fusion Ignition Research Experiment) have been developed as an update of the ITER Physics Basis (IPB). The plasma

  6. H I ZEEMAN EXPERIMENTS OF SHOCKED ATOMIC GAS IN TWO SUPERNOVA REMNANTS INTERACTING WITH MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Heiles, Carl; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Troland, Tom

    2010-07-15

    We have carried out observations of Zeeman splitting of the H I 21 cm emission line from shocked atomic gas in the supernova remnants (SNRs) IC 443 and W51C using the Arecibo telescope. The observed shocked atomic gas is expanding at {approx}100 km s{sup -1} and this is the first Zeeman experiment of such fast-moving, shocked atomic gas. The emission lines, however, are very broad and the systematic error due to baseline curvature hampers an accurate measurement of field strengths. We derive an upper limit of 100-150 {mu}G on the strength of the line-of-sight field component. These two SNRs are interacting with molecular clouds, but the derived upper limits are considerably smaller than the field strengths expected from a strongly shocked dense cloud. We discuss the implications and conclude that either the magnetic field within the telescope beam is mostly randomly oriented or the high-velocity H I emission is from a shocked interclump medium of relatively low density.

  7. Precision Physics of Simple Atoms and Constraints on a Light Boson with Ultraweak Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Karshenboim, S. G.

    2010-06-04

    Constraint on spin-dependent and spin-independent Yukawa potential at atomic scale is developed. That covers constraints on a coupling constant of an additional photon {gamma}* and a pseudovector boson. The mass range considered is from 1 eV/c{sup 2} to 1 MeV/c{sup 2}. The strongest constraint on a coupling constant {alpha}{sup '} is at the level of a few parts in 10{sup 13} (for {gamma}*) and below one part in 10{sup 16} (for a pseudovector) corresponding to mass below 1 keV/c{sup 2}. The constraints are derived from low-energy tests of quantum electrodynamics and are based on spectroscopic data on light hydrogenlike atoms and experiments with magnetic moments of leptons and light nuclei.

  8. Results From the Physics of Colloids Experiment on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, David; Bailey, Arthur; Manley, Suliana; Prasad, Vikram; Christianson, Rebecca; Sankaran, Subramanian; Doherty, Michael; Jankovsky, Amy; Lorik, Tibor; Shiley, William

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment was accommodated within International Space Station (ISS) EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack 2 and was remotely operated from early June 2001 until February 2002 from NASA Glenn Research Center's Telescience Support Center (TSC) in Cleveland, Ohio, and from the remote site at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. PCS was launched on 4/19/2001 on Space Shuttle STS-100. The experiment was activated on 5/31/2001. The entire experimental setup performed remarkably well, and accomplished 2400 hours of science operations on-orbit. The sophisticated instrumentation in PCS is capable of dynamic and static light scattering from 11 to 169 degrees, Bragg scattering over the range from 10 to 60 degrees, dynamic and static light scattering at low angles from 0.3 to 6.0 degrees, and color imaging. The long duration microgravity environment on the ISS facilitated extended studies on the growth and coarsening characteristics of binary crystals. The de-mixing of the colloid-polymer critical-point sample was also studied as it phase-separated into two phases. Further, aging studies on a col-pol gel, gelation rate studies in extremely low concentration fractal gels over several days, and studies on a glass sample, all provided valuable information. Several exciting and unique aspects of these results are discussed here.

  9. Laser Irradiated Enhancement of the Atomic Electron Capture Rate in search of New Physics

    E-print Network

    Takaaki Nomura; Joe Sato; Takashi Shimomura

    2007-06-16

    Electron capture processes are important in the search for new physics. In this context, a high capture rate is desired. We investigate the possibility of enhancing the electron capture rate by irradiating laser beam to ''atom''. The possibility of such enhancement can be understood as a consequence of an enhancement of the electron wave function at the origin, $\\Psi (0)$, through an increased effective mass of the electron. We find that an order of magnitude enhancement can be realized by using a laser with intensity on the order of $10^{10}$ W/mm$^2$ and a photon energy on the order of $10^{-3}$ eV.

  10. Spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms and its contribution to the fundamental physical constants

    PubMed Central

    Hayano, Ryugo S.

    2010-01-01

    Antiprotonic helium atom, a metastable neutral system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus, was serendipitously discovered, and has been studied at CERN’s antiproton decelerator facility. Its transition frequencies have recently been measured to nine digits of precision by laser spectroscopy. By comparing these experimental results with three-body QED calculations, the antiproton-to-electron massratio was determined as 1836.152674(5). This result contributed to the CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants. PMID:20075605

  11. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Particle Formation, Imaging, Observations, and Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    This report presents particle formation observations and detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Hydrogen was frozen into particles in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. These newly analyzed data are from the test series held on February 28, 2001. Particle sizes from previous testing in 1999 and the testing in 2001 were similar. Though the 2001 testing created similar particles sizes, many new particle formation phenomena were observed: microparticles and delayed particle formation. These experiment image analyses are some of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles, and they allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  12. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Particle Formation Energy and Imaging Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents particle formation energy balances and detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium during the Phase II testing in 2001. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. The particle formation efficiency is also estimated. Particle sizes from the Phase I testing in 1999 and the Phase II testing in 2001 were similar. Though the 2001 testing created similar particles sizes, many new particle formation phenomena were observed. These experiment image analyses are one of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles and it allows designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  13. Sixteenth International Conference on the physics of electronic and atomic collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Dalgarno, A.; Freund, R.S.; Lubell, M.S.; Lucatorto, T.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains abstracts of papers on the following topics: photons, electron-atom collisions; electron-molecule collisions; electron-ion collisions; collisions involving exotic species; ion- atom collisions, ion-molecule or atom-molecule collisions; atom-atom collisions; ion-ion collisions; collisions involving rydberg atoms; field assisted collisions; collisions involving clusters and collisions involving condensed matter.

  14. First experience with the ATOMS® implant, a new treatment option for male urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Cansino, Jose Ramón; Portilla, María Alejandra; Rodriguez, Simón Claudio; Hidalgo, Luis; De la Peña, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as any complaint of involuntary urine leakage. A description is provided of our experience with the ATOMS® (Adjustable Transobturator Male System. Agency for Medical Innovations. A.M.I.) adjustable implant in patients with mild to moderate UI. Material and methods A retrospective study was made of the data referring to 13 patients treated with this adjustable system. Demographic and personal data were collected along with information on the etiology, severity, characteristics, duration of UI, complementary tests, surgery times, complications and results obtained. Results The full continence (no use of pad) recovery rate at the close of the study was 12/13 (92.3%). Three cases required a single filling during the mean 16 months of follow–up (range 4–32; median 14 months). A complication in the form of perineal hematoma was resolved with conservative treatment and a case of urinary retention was resolved by placing a bladder catheter for the duration of one week. Three patients experienced perineal–scrotal dysesthesias that disappeared spontaneously in the first three months. Conclusions The described adjustable continence system has been found to be very effective in males with mild to moderate UI. In our experience, the ATOMS® implant offers excellent results over the middle term with a very low rate of complications that were easily resolved in all cases. PMID:25667760

  15. Atomic layer deposition of metal oxide patterns on nonwoven fiber mats using localized physical compression.

    PubMed

    Sweet, William J; Oldham, Christopher J; Parsons, Gregory N

    2014-06-25

    Patterning is an essential part of many industrial processes from printing to semiconductor manufacturing. In this work, we demonstrate a new method to pattern and selectively coat nonwoven textiles by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using compressive mask patterning. A physical mask combined with mechanical compression allows lateral definition and fidelity of the ALD coating to be controlled. We produce features of several sizes on different nonwoven fiber materials and demonstrate the ability to limit diffusion effects to within <200 ?m of the pattern edge. Lateral and vertical penetration of reactive growth species into nonwoven mats is investigated by plan-view and cross-sectional imaging. Vertical growth is also analyzed by imaging coating depth into fiber mat stacks. We develop a fully quantitative transport model that describes well the effect of fiber structure and mechanical compression on the extent of coating under the physical mask. This method could be implemented for high-volume patterning for applications including flexible electronics. PMID:24850237

  16. Quantum and semiclassical spin networks: from atomic and molecular physics to quantum computing and gravity

    E-print Network

    Aquilanti, V; Ferreira, C da S; Marzuoli, A; Ragni, M; 10.1088/0031-8949/78/05/058103

    2009-01-01

    The mathematical apparatus of quantum--mechanical angular momentum (re)coupling, developed originally to describe spectroscopic phenomena in atomic, molecular, optical and nuclear physics, is embedded in modern algebraic settings which emphasize the underlying combinational aspects. SU(2) recoupling theory, involving Wigner's 3nj symbols, as well as the related problems of their calculations, general properties, asymptotic limits for large entries, play nowadays a prominent role also in quantum gravity and quantum computing applications. We refer to the ingredients of this theory -and of its extension to other Lie and quantum group- by using the collective term of `spin networks'. Recent progress is recorded about the already established connections with the mathematical theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (the so-called Askey Scheme), providing powerful tools based on asymptotic expansions, which correspond on the physical side to various levels of semi-classical limits. These results are useful not on...

  17. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Elastic Collisions Between two Ground-State P and D Atoms at Low and Ultralow Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, De-Heng; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Sun, Jin-Feng; Ma, Heng; Liu, Yu-Fang; Zhu, Zun-Lue

    2010-02-01

    The PD(X3?-) interaction potential is constructed using the CCSD(T) theory and the basis set, aug-cc-pV5Z. Using this potential, the spectroscopic parameters are accurately determined. The present Do, De, Re, ?e, ?e?e, ?e, and Be are of 3.056 99 eV, 3.161 75 eV, 0.142 39 nm, 1701.558 cm-1, 23.6583 cm-1, 0.085 99 cm-1, and 4.3963 cm-1, respectively, which almost perfectly conform with the measurements. A total of 26 vibrational states is predicted when J = 0 by solving the radial Schrödinger equation of nuclear motion. The complete vibrational levels, classical turning points, initial rotation and centrifugal distortion constants when J = 0 are reported for the first time, which favorably agree with the experiments. The total and various partial-wave cross sections are calculated for the elastic impact between two ground-state P and D atoms at 1.0 × 10-12 - 1.0 × 10-4 a.u. when they approach each other along the PD(X3?-) potential. No shape resonances exist in the total elastic cross sections, though the peaks can be found for each partial wave until l = 6. The shape of the total elastic cross sections is dominated by the s partial wave at very low temperatures. Due to the weakness of the shape resonances of each partial wave, they are all passed into oblivion by the strong total elastic cross sections.

  18. Probing new physics scenarios in accelerator and reactor neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Iura, A.; Girardi, I.; Meloni, D.

    2015-06-01

    We perform a detailed combined fit to the {{\\bar{? }}e}\\to {{\\bar{? }}e} disappearence data of the Daya Bay experiment and the appearance {{? }? }\\to {{? }e} and disappearance {{? }? }\\to {{? }? } data of the Tokai to Kamioka (T2K) one in the presence of two models of new physics affecting neutrino oscillations, namely a model where sterile neutrinos can propagate in a large compactified extra dimension and a model where non-standard interactions (NSI) affect the neutrino production and detection. We find that the Daya Bay ? T2K data combination constrains the largest radius of the compactified extra dimensions to be R? 0.17 ?m at 2? C.L. (for the inverted ordering of the neutrino mass spectrum) and the relevant NSI parameters in the range O({{10}-3})-O({{10}-2}), for particular choices of the charge parity violating phases.

  19. The Entangled Cosmos: an experiment in physical theopoetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    As an experiment in constructive transdisciplinary relationality, a theology of nonseparable difference here engages a physics of quantum entanglement. The metaphoric potential of "spooky action at a distance" to intensify a cosmology resistant to the dominant individualism and conducive to ethical ecologies of interdependence has only begun to develop across multiple discourses. This essay contemplates the specific unfolding of a theory of nonlocal superpositions by physicists such as Stapp, Bohm and Barad. It does not literalize any God-trope, but rather entangles theology in the mysterious uncertainty of our widest interdependencies. This essay, first presented as a lecture at the American Academy of Religion "Science, Technology and Religion" Group, San Francisco, November 2011, forms the core of a chapter in a book I am currently completing, The Cloud of the Impossible: Theological Entanglements.

  20. Results on QCD Physics from the CDF-II Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.; /Cassino U. /INFN, Pisa

    2006-12-01

    In this paper the authors review a selection of recent results obtained, in the area of QCD physics, from the CDF-II experiment that studies p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV provided by the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. All results shown correspond to analysis performed using the Tevatron Run II data samples. In particular they will illustrate the progress achieved and the status of the studies on the following QCD processes: jet inclusive production, using different jet clustering algorithm, W({yields} e{nu}{sub e}) + jets and Z({yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}) + jets production, {gamma} + b-jet production, dijet production in double pomeron exchange and finally exclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} production. No deviations from the Standard Model have been observed so far.

  1. Coherent optical transients observed in rubidium atomic line filtered Doppler velocimetry experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, Mario E.; Molek, Christopher D.; Vesely, Annamaria L.

    2015-10-01

    We report the first successful results from our novel Rubidium Atomic Line Filtered (RALF) Doppler velocimetry apparatus, along with unanticipated oscillatory signals due to coherent optical transients generated within pure Rb vapor cells. RALF is a high-velocity and high-acceleration extension of the well-known Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) technique for constructing multi-dimensional flow velocity vector maps in aerodynamics experiments [H. Komine, U.S. Patent No. 4,919,536 (24 April 1990)]. RALF exploits the frequency dependence of pressure-broadened Rb atom optical absorptions in a heated Rb/N2 gas cell to encode the Doppler shift of reflected near-resonant (?0 ? 780.24 nm) laser light onto the intensity transmitted by the cell. The present RALF apparatus combines fiber optic and free-space components and was built to determine suitable operating conditions and performance parameters for the Rb/N2 gas cells. It yields single-spot velocities of thin laser-driven-flyer test surfaces and incorporates a simultaneous Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) channel [Strand et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083108 (2006)] for validation of the RALF results, which we demonstrate here over the v = 0 to 1 km/s range. Both RALF and DGV presume the vapor cells to be simple Beer's Law optical absorbers, so we were quite surprised to observe oscillatory signals in experiments employing low pressure pure Rb vapor cells. We interpret these oscillations as interference between the Doppler shifted reflected light and the Free Induction Decay (FID) coherent optical transient produced within the pure Rb cells at the original laser frequency; this is confirmed by direct comparison of the PDV and FID signals. We attribute the different behaviors of the Rb/N2 vs. Rb gas cells to efficient dephasing of the atomic/optical coherences by Rb-N2 collisions. The minimum necessary N2 buffer gas density ?0.3 amagat translates into a smallest useful velocity range of 0 to 2 km/s, which can readily be extended to cover the 0 to 10 km/s range, and beyond. The recognition that coherent optical transients can be produced within low pressure vapor cells during velocimetry experiments may offer new insights into some quantitative discrepancies reported in earlier DGV studies. Future plans include "line-RALF" experiments with streak camera detection, and two-dimensional surface velocity mapping using pulsed laser illumination and/or gated intensified CCD camera detection.

  2. Optimizing liner implosions for high energy density physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.; Humphries, S. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Cylindrical metal shells imploded by magnetic fields - liners - are used as kinetic energy drivers for high energy density physics experiments in hydrodynamics and dynamic material property measurements. There are at least three ways in which liners have been, or are expected to be, used to produce high energy density, i.e., high pressure, in target materials. A common approach uses the liner as a convergent flyer plate, which impacts a material target cylinder after having been shocklessly accelerated across an intervening gap. The resultant shock and piston hydrodynamic flow in the target are used in exploration of a wide variety of phenomena and material properties. Another common method is to slowly compress a liner containing a material sample in a such fashion that little heating occurs. This technique is most useful for investigated physical properties at low temperature and extreme density. Finally, one can use a hybrid approach to shock heat with an impacting liner followed by slower adiabatic, if not isentropic, compression to explore material properties in extrema. The magnetic fields for driving these liners may be produced by either high explosive pulsed power generators or by capacitor banks. Here we will consider only capacitor banks.

  3. Studies on implementation of pellet tracking in hadron physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyszniak, A.; Calén, H.; Fransson, K.; Hejny, V.; Johansson, T.; Löfgren, J.; Rudy, Z.; Wolke, M.; Wüstner, P.

    2014-11-01

    A system for optical tracking of frozen hydrogen microsphere targets (pellets) has been designed. It is intended for the upcoming hadron physics experiment PANDA at FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany. With such a tracking system one can reconstruct the positions of the individual pellets at the time of a hadronic interaction in the offline event analysis. This gives information on the position of the primary interaction vertex with an accuracy of a few 100 µm, which is very useful e.g. for reconstruction of charged particle tracks and secondary vertices and for background suppression. A study has been done at the WASA detector setup (Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany) to check the possibility of classification of hadronic events as originating in pellets or in background. The study has been done based on the instantaneous rate a Long Range TDC which was used to determine if a pellet was present in the accelerator beam region. It was clearly shown that it is possible to distinguish the two event classes. Also, an experience was gained with operation of two synchronized systems operating in different time scales, as it will also be the case with the optical pellet tracking.

  4. Creating a Before-School Physical Activity Program: Pre-Service Physical Educators' Experiences and Implications for PETE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Jaimie; van der Mars, Hans; Jahn, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) majors enrolled in an internship course that provided them with authentic experiences promoting and facilitating a before-school physical activity (PA) program and to examine the associated implications for PETE programs within the Comprehensive…

  5. Review study and evaluation of possible flight experiments relating to cloud physics experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. J.; Wu, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    The general objectives of the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory Program are to improve the level of knowledge in atmospheric cloud research by placing at the disposal of the terrestrial-bound atmospheric cloud physicist a laboratory that can be operated in the environment of zero-gravity or near zero-gravity. This laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamic, electrical, or other techniques to support the object under study. The inhouse analysis of the Skylab 3 and 4 experiments in dynamics of oscillations, rotations, collisions and coalescence of water droplets under low gravity-environment is presented.

  6. Neutrino oscillation physics potential of the T2K experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T2K Collaboration; Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bartet-Friburg, P.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; de Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Feusels, T.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Garcia, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashino, T.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Koga, T.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, J. P.; Ludovici, L.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martins, P.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K. G.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shah, R.; Shaker, F.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Wakamatsu, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Warzycha, W.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshida, K.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; ?muda, J.

    2015-04-01

    The observation of the recent electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam and the high-precision measurement of the mixing angle ? _{13} have led to a re-evaluation of the physics potential of the T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. Sensitivities are explored for CP violation in neutrinos, non-maximal sin ^22? _{23}, the octant of ? _{23}, and the mass hierarchy, in addition to the measurements of ? _{CP}, sin ^2? _{23}, and ? m^2_{32}, for various combinations of ?-mode and bar {? }-mode data-taking. With an exposure of 7.8× 10^{21} protons-on-target, T2K can achieve 1? resolution of 0.050 (0.054) on sin ^2? _{23} and 0.040 (0.045)× 10^{-3} {eV}^2 on ? m^2_{32} for 100% (50%) neutrino beam mode running assuming sin ^2? _{23}=0.5 and ? m^2_{32} = 2.4× 10^{-3} eV^2. T2K will have sensitivity to the CP-violating phase ? _{CP} at 90% C.L. or better over a significant range. For example, if sin ^22? _{23} is maximal (i.e. ? _{23}=45°) the range is -115° < ? _{CP}< -60° for normal hierarchy and +50° < ? _{CP}< +130° for inverted hierarchy. When T2K data is combined with data from the NO?A experiment, the region of oscillation parameter space where there is sensitivity to observe a non-zero ? _{CP} is substantially increased compared to if each experiment is analyzed alone.

  7. Between atomic and nuclear physics: radioactive decays of highly-charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanasov, Dinko; Blaum, Klaus; Bosch, Fritz; Brandau, Carsten; Bühler, Paul; Chen, Xiangcheng; Dillmann, Iris; Faestermann, Thomas; Gao, Bingshui; Geissel, Hans; Gernhäuser, Roman; Hagmann, Siegbert; Izumikawa, Takuji; Hillenbrand, Pierre-Michel; Kozhuharov, Christophor; Kurcewicz, Jan; Litvinov, Sergey A.; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Ma, Xinwen; Münzenberg, Gottfried; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Nolden, Fritz; Ohtsubo, Takashi; Ozawa, Akira; Cagla Ozturk, Fatma; Patyk, Zygmunt; Reed, Matthew; Reifarth, Rene; Shahab Sanjari, Mohammad; Schneider, Dieter; Steck, Markus; Stöhlker, Thomas; Sun, Baohua; Suzaki, Fumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Trageser, Christian; Tu, Xiaolin; Uesaka, Tomohiro; Walker, Philip; Wang, Meng; Weick, Helmut; Winckler, Nicolas; Woods, Philip; Xu, Hushan; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Yan, Xinliang; Zhang, Yuhu; FRS-ESR,the; ILIMA; SPARC; TBWD Collaborations

    2015-07-01

    Highly charged radioactive ions can be stored for extended periods of time in storage rings which allows for precision measurements of their decay modes. The straightforward motivation for performing such studies is that fully ionised nuclei or few-electron ions can be viewed as clean quantum-mechanical systems, in which the interactions of the many electrons can be either excluded or treated precisely. Thus, the influence of the electron shell on the decay probability can be investigated. Another important motivation is stellar nucleosynthesis, which proceeds at high temperatures and the involved atoms are therefore highly ionised. Presented here is a compact review of the relevant experiments conducted at heavy-ion storage rings. Furthermore, we outline the perspectives for future experiments at new-generation storage-ring facilities.

  8. Single-donor transport in silicon: Atomic physics in restricted momentum space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogge, Sven

    2011-03-01

    Technology reached a level of miniaturization where we can realize transport through a single dopant atom in a transistor. Such transport spectroscopy can probe the atomic orbitals and the interaction of the atom with the environment. This interaction with the environment in a nano-device leads alters the dopants properties, such as the level spectrum and the charging energy, from those of the bulk. The system discussed here is a gated arsenic donor in a silicon field effect transistor. Electronic control over the wavefunction of dopants is one of the key elements of quantum electronics. This talk focuses on the role of the restricted momentum space which has a severe impact on the charge and spin configuration of a donor atom in a nano-device. The combined experimental and theoretical study of the gated two-electron state of the donor led to the realization of the pseudo spin nature of the valleys. We observe a blocked electronic relaxation due to combined spin and valley selection rules. Time averaged transport measurements put a lower bound of 50 ns on the rate of the blocked transition, 1000 times slower than a bulk transition. For the low lying excited states Hund's rule is violated due to vanishing exchange in orthogonal valleys. Furthermore, we observe reduced charging energies and bound singlet and triplet excited states for this negatively charged donor that can be explained in the self consistent tight binding model. Finally, experiments demonstrating coherent coupling between two donors and between a donor and the leads will be discussed. In collaboration with G.P. Lansbergen, R. Rahman, J. Verduijn, G. C. Tettamanzi, N. Collaert, S. Biesemans, G. Klimeck, and L.C.L. Hollenberg.

  9. Electrochromic WO[subscript 3] Films: Nanotechnology Experiments in Instrumental Analysis and Physical Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepel, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This experiment teaches students the methodology of investigating novel properties of materials using new instrumental techniques: atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (EQCN), voltammetric techniques (linear potential scan and chronoamperometry), and light reflectance measurements. The unique capabilities of…

  10. Atomic and molecular science with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-07

    This paper discusses the following topics: electron correlation in atoms; atomic innershell excitation and decay mechanisms; timing experiments; x-ray scattering; properties of ionized species; electronic properties of actinide atoms; total photon-interaction cross sections; and molecular physics. 66 refs. (LSP)

  11. Fundamental underwater cutting method experiment as a dismantling tool for a commercial atomic reactor vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Hamasaki, M.; Murao, Y.; Tateiwa, F.

    1982-10-01

    A new underwater cutting technique applying underwater dismantling to commercial atomic reactor vessels has been developed. This technique involves gas cutting the mild steel underwater after removing the stainless steel cladding by arc gouging. The arc gouging is achieved by blowing out metal--which is melted by an arc between a mild steel electrode wire and the stainless steel--by jetting water from a rear water nozzle. The fuel gas employed for preheating for the gas cutting was a mixed gas of propane and 30% methylacetylene. The test piece used was made of 300-mm-thick mild steel with 8-mm-thick stainless steel cladding. The fundamental cutting experiment was carried out successfully under a cutting speed condition of 15 cm/min at a water depth of 20 cm. This apparatus is easy to handle, compact, and cheap.

  12. Oxygen atom reaction with Shuttle materials at orbital altitudes - Data and experiment status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.

    1983-01-01

    Significant surface characteristics changes have been noticed on materials that were exposed in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter on the first four flights. The most notable change was mass loss of Kapton film used as a component of thermal blankets. This film exhibited as much as 35 percent mass loss on STS-3 and loss of material was noticed on all flights. Other changes consist of rapid aging of paints and oxidation of Torlon surfaces. A mechanism has been proposed for the effects described, which involves the interaction of these organic materials with atomic oxygen available at low earth orbital altitudes. Evidence derived from measurements made on Shuttle materials that supports this mechanism will be presented. Experiments planned for near-term Shuttle flights are being developed to obtain quantitative data on reaction rates.

  13. On high explosive launching of projectiles for shock physics experiments.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damian C; Forest, Charles A; Clark, David A; Buttler, William T; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Rightley, Paul

    2007-06-01

    The hydrodynamic operation of the "Forest Flyer" type of explosive launching system for shock physics projectiles was investigated in detail using one and two dimensional continuum dynamics simulations. The simulations were numerically converged and insensitive to uncertainties in the material properties; they reproduced the speed of the projectile and the shape of its rear surface. The most commonly used variant, with an Al alloy case, was predicted to produce a slightly curved projectile, subjected to some shock heating and likely exhibiting some porosity from tensile damage. The curvature is caused by a shock reflected from the case; tensile damage is caused by the interaction of the Taylor wave pressure profile from the detonation wave with the free surface of the projectile. The simulations gave only an indication of tensile damage in the projectile, as damage is not understood well enough for predictions in this loading regime. The flatness can be improved by using a case of lower shock impedance, such as polymethyl methacrylate. High-impedance cases, including Al alloys but with denser materials improving the launching efficiency, can be used if designed according to the physics of oblique shock reflection, which indicates an appropriate case taper for any combination of explosive and case material. The tensile stress induced in the projectile depends on the relative thickness of the explosive, expansion gap, and projectile. The thinner the projectile with respect to the explosive, the smaller the tensile stress. Thus if the explosive is initiated with a plane wave lens, the tensile stress is lower than that for initiation with multiple detonators over a plane. The previous plane wave lens designs did, however, induce a tensile stress close to the spall strength of the projectile. The tensile stress can be reduced by changes in the component thicknesses. Experiments verifying the operation of explosively launched projectiles should attempt to measure porosity induced in the projectile: arrival time measurements are likely to be insensitive to porous regions caused by damaged or recollected material. PMID:17614623

  14. The Use of Cylindrical Lenses in Easy Experiments for Physics Education and the Magic Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarek, Stanislaw; Krysiak, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the properties of cylindrical lenses and provide some examples of their use in easy school physics experiments. Such experiments could be successfully conducted in the context of science education, in fun experiments that teach physics and in science fair projects, or used to entertain an audience by…

  15. A preliminary discussion of gravitational physics experiments for the Spacelab era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, R.; Winkler, C. G.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of past, present, and proposed future experiments in gravitational physics is given. These experiments are concerned with the measurement of relativistic gravity effects to test theories of gravitation. Certain experiments which could be performed on shuttle and Spacelab missions and the potential of Spacelab for gravitation physics research are discussed.

  16. Experimenting in a constructivist high school physics laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    Although laboratory activities have long been recognized for their potential to facilitate the learning of science concepts and skills, this potential has yet to be realized. To remediate this problem, researchers have called for constructivist learning environments in which students can pursue open inquiry and frame their own research problems. The present study was designed to describe and understand students' experimenting and problem solving in such an environment. An interpretive research methodology was adopted for the construction of meaning from the data. The data sources included videotapes, their transcripts, student laboratory reports and reflections, interviews with the students, and the teacher's course outline and reflective notes. Forty-six students from three sections of an introductory physics course taught at a private school for boys participated in the study. This article shows the students' remarkable ability and willingness to generate research questions and to design and develop apparatus for data collection. In their effort to frame research questions, students often used narrative explanations to explore and think about the phenomena to be studied. In some cases, blind alleys, students framed research questions and planned experiments that did not lead to the expected results. We observed a remarkable flexibility to deal with problems that arose during the implementation of their plans in the context of the inquiry. These problems, as well as their solutions and the necessary decision-making processes, were characterized by their situated nature. Finally, students pursued meaningful learning during the interpretation of data and graphs to arrive at reasonable answers of their research questions. We concluded that students should be provided with problem-rich learning environments in which they learn to investigate phenomena of their own interest and in which they can develop complex problem-solving skills.

  17. Atlas Pulsed Power Facility for High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Barr, G.W.; Bowman, D.W.; Chochrane, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Elizondo, J.M.; Gribble, R.F.; Griego, J.R.; Hicks, R.D.; Hinckley, W.B.; Hosack, K.W.; Nielsen, K.E.; Parker, J.V.; Parsons, M.O.; Rickets, R.L.; Salazar, H.R.; Sanchez, P.G.; Scudder, D.W.; Shapiro, C.; Thompson, M.C.; Trainor, R.J.; Valdez, G.A.; Vigil, B.N.; Watt, R.G.; Wysock, F.J.

    1999-06-07

    The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. It is intended to be an international user facility, providing opportunities for researchers from national laboratories and academic institutions around the world. Emphasizing institutions around the world. Emphasizing hydrodynamic experiments, Atlas will provide the capability for achieving steady shock pressures exceeding 10-Mbar in a volume of several cubic centimeters. In addition, the kinetic energy associated with solid liner implosion velocities exceeding 12 km/s is sufficient to drive dense, hydrodynamic targets into the ionized regime, permitting the study of complex issues associated with strongly-coupled plasmas. The primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently-removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-{micro}s risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line components has been completed. A complete maintenance module and its associated transmission line (the First Article) are now under construction and testing. The current Atlas schedule calls for construction of the machine to be complete by August, 2000. Acceptance testing is scheduled to begin in November, 2000, leading to initial operations in January, 2001.

  18. Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Atomic Oxygen Correlation for the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambler, Arielle H.; Inoshita, Karen E.; Roberts, Lily M.; Barbagallo, Claire E.; deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2) Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) polymers were exposed to the environment of low Earth orbit (LEO) for 3.95 years from 2001 to 2005. There were 41 different PEACE polymers, which were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) in order to determine their atomic oxygen erosion yields. In LEO, atomic oxygen is an environmental durability threat, particularly for long duration mission exposures. Although spaceflight experiments, such as the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment, are ideal for determining LEO environmental durability of spacecraft materials, ground-laboratory testing is often relied upon for durability evaluation and prediction. Unfortunately, significant differences exist between LEO atomic oxygen exposure and atomic oxygen exposure in ground-laboratory facilities. These differences include variations in species, energies, thermal exposures and radiation exposures, all of which may result in different reactions and erosion rates. In an effort to improve the accuracy of ground-based durability testing, ground-laboratory to in-space atomic oxygen correlation experiments have been conducted. In these tests, the atomic oxygen erosion yields of the PEACE polymers were determined relative to Kapton H using a radio-frequency (RF) plasma asher (operated on air). The asher erosion yields were compared to the MISSE 2 PEACE erosion yields to determine the correlation between erosion rates in the two environments. This paper provides a summary of the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment; it reviews the specific polymers tested as well as the techniques used to determine erosion yield in the asher, and it provides a correlation between the space and ground laboratory erosion yield values. Using the PEACE polymers asher to in-space erosion yield ratios will allow more accurate in-space materials performance predictions to be made based on plasma asher durability evaluation.

  19. The AMS Measurements and Its Applications in Nuclear Physics at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE)

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Shan; Shen Hongtao; He Ming; Dong Kejun; He Guozhu; Wang Xianggao; Yuan Jian; Wang Wei; Wu Shaoyong; Ruan Xiangdong; Wu Weimin

    2010-05-12

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), initiated in late 1970s at McMaster university based on the accelerator and detector technique, has long been applied in the studies on archaeology, geology, and cosmology, as a powerful tool for isotope dating. The advantages of AMS in the analysis of rare nuclides by direct counting of the atoms, small sample size and relatively free from the interferences of molecular ions have been well documented. This paper emphasizes that AMS can not only be used for archaeology, geology, environment, biology and so on, but also served as a unique tool for nuclear physics research. In this paper, the determination of the half-lives of {sup 79}Se, the measurements of the cross-sections of {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92g}Nb and {sup 238}U(n,3n){sup 236}U reactions, the detection and determination of ultratrace impurities in neutrino detector materials, and the measurement of the fission product nuclide {sup 126}Sn, are to be introduced, as some of examples of AMS applications in nuclear research conducted in AMS lab of China Institute of Atomic Energy. Searching for superheavy nuclides by using AMS is being planned.

  20. Experiences developing ALEGRA: A C++ coupled physics framework

    SciTech Connect

    Budge, K.G.; Peery, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    ALEGRA is a coupled physics framework originally written to simulate inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments being conducted at the PBFA-II facility at Sandia National Laboratories. It has since grown into a large software development project supporting a number of computational programs at Sandia. As the project has grown, so has the development team, from the original two authors to a group of over fifteen programmers crossing several departments. In addition, ALEGRA now runs on a wide variety of platforms, from large PCs to the ASCI Teraflops massively parallel supercomputer. The authors discuss the reasons for ALEGRA`s success, which include the intelligent use of object-oriented techniques and the choice of C++ as the programming language. They argue that the intelligent use of development tools, such as build tools (e.g. make), compiler, debugging environment (e.g. dbx), version control system (e.g. cvs), and bug management software (e.g. ClearDDTS), is nearly as important as the choice of language and paradigm.

  1. The cryogenic helium cooling system for the Tokamak physics experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, B.; Slack, D.S.; Wendland, C.R.

    1995-09-29

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will use supercritical helium to cool all the magnets and supply helium to the Vacuum cryopumping subsystem. The heat loads will come from the standard steady state conduction and thermal radiation sources and from the pulsed loads of the nuclear and eddy currents caused by the Central Solenoid Coils and the plasma positioning coils. The operations of the TPX will begin with pulses of up to 1000 seconds in duration every 75 minutes. The helium system utilizes a pulse load leveling scheme to buffer out the effects of the pulse load and maintain a constant cryogenic plant operation. The pulse load leveling scheme utilizes the thermal mass of liquid and gaseous helium stored in a remote dewar to absorb the pulses of the tokamak loads. The mass of the stored helium will buffer out the temperature pulses allowing 5 K helium to be delivered to the magnets throughout the length of the pulse. The temperature of the dewar will remain below 5 K with all the energy of the pulse absorbed. This paper will present the details of the heat load sources, of the pulse load leveling scheme operations, a partial helium schematic, dewar temperature as a function of time, the heat load sources as a function of time and the helium temperature as a function of length along the various components that will be cooled.

  2. Quench Detection and Instrumentation for the Tokamak Physics Experiment magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplin, M.R.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Schultz, J.H.

    1993-10-06

    The design of the Local Instrumentation & Control (I&C) System for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) superconducting PF & TF magnets is presented. The local I&C system monitors the status of the magnet systems and initiates the proper control sequences to protect the magnets from any foreseeable fault. Local I&C also stores magnet-system data for analysis and archiving. Quench Detection for the TPX magnets must use a minimum of two independent sensing methods and is allowed a detection time of one second. Proposed detection methods include the measurement of; (1) normal-zone resistive voltage, (2) cooling-path helium flow, (3) local temperature in the winding pack, (4) local pressure in the winding pack. Fiber-optic based isolation systems are used to remove high common-mode magnet voltages and eliminate ground loops. The data acquisition and fault-detection systems are computer based. The design of the local I&C system incorporates redundant, fault-tolerant, and/or fail-safe features at all component levels. As part of a quench detection R&D plan, a Quench Detection Model Coil has been proposed to test all detection methods. Initial cost estimates and schedule for the local I&C system are presented.

  3. A data transmission method for particle physics experiments based on Ethernet physical layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xi-Ru; Cao, Ping; Zheng, Jia-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Due to its advantages of universality, flexibility and high performance, fast Ethernet is widely used in readout system design for modern particle physics experiments. However, Ethernet is usually used together with the TCP/IP protocol stack, which makes it difficult to implement readout systems because designers have to use the operating system to process this protocol. Furthermore, TCP/IP degrades the transmission efficiency and real-time performance. To maximize the performance of Ethernet in physics experiment applications, a data readout method based on the physical layer (PHY) is proposed. In this method, TCP/IP is replaced with a customized and simple protocol, which makes it easier to implement. On each readout module, data from the front-end electronics is first fed into an FPGA for protocol processing and then sent out to a PHY chip controlled by this FPGA for transmission. This kind of data path is fully implemented by hardware. From the side of the data acquisition system (DAQ), however, the absence of a standard protocol causes problems for the network related applications. To solve this problem, in the operating system kernel space, data received by the network interface card is redirected from the traditional flow to a specified memory space by a customized program. This memory space can easily be accessed by applications in user space. For the purpose of verification, a prototype system has been designed and implemented. Preliminary test results show that this method can meet the requirements of data transmission from the readout module to the DAQ with an efficient and simple manner. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11005107) and Independent Projects of State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics (201301)

  4. A Data Transmission Method Based on Ethernet Physical Layer for Particle Physics Experiment

    E-print Network

    Huang Xi-Ru; Cao Ping; Zheng Jia-Jun

    2015-03-02

    Due to the advantages of universality, flexibility and high performance, fast Ethernet is widely used in readout system design of modern particle physics experiments. However, Ethernet is usually used together with TCP/IP protocol stack, which makes it difficult to be implemented because designers have to use operating system to process this protocol. Furthermore, TCP/IP protocol degrades the transmission efficiency and real-time performance. To maximize the performance of Ethernet in physics experiment applications, a data readout method based on physical layer (PHY) is proposed in this paper. In this method, TCP/IP protocol is forsaken and replaced with a customized and simple protocol, which make it easier to be implemented. On each readout module, data from front-end electronics is first fed into an FPGA for protocol processing and then sent out to a PHY chip controlled by this FPGA for transmission. This kind of data path is fully implemented by hardware. While from the side of data acquisition system (DAQ), absence of standard protocol makes the network related applications panic. To solve this problem, in the operating system kernel space, data received by network interface card is drawn away from the traditional flow and redirected to a specified memory space by a customized program. This memory space can be easily accessed by applications in user space. For the purpose of verification, a prototype system is designed and implemented. Preliminary test result shows that this method can meet the requirement of data transmission from readout module to DAQ with good efficiency and simplicity.

  5. Optics and interferometry with atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, Alexander D.; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-07-15

    Interference with atomic and molecular matter waves is a rich branch of atomic physics and quantum optics. It started with atom diffraction from crystal surfaces and the separated oscillatory fields technique used in atomic clocks. Atom interferometry is now reaching maturity as a powerful art with many applications in modern science. In this review the basic tools for coherent atom optics are described including diffraction by nanostructures and laser light, three-grating interferometers, and double wells on atom chips. Scientific advances in a broad range of fields that have resulted from the application of atom interferometers are reviewed. These are grouped in three categories: (i) fundamental quantum science, (ii) precision metrology, and (iii) atomic and molecular physics. Although some experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates are included, the focus of the review is on linear matter wave optics, i.e., phenomena where each single atom interferes with itself.

  6. ATOMIC PHYSICS PROCESSES IMPORTANT TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE SCRAPE-OFF LAYER OF TOKAMAKS

    SciTech Connect

    WEST, W.P.; GOLDSMITH,; B. EVANS,T.E.; OLSON, R.J.

    2002-05-01

    The region between the well-confined plasma and the vessel walls of a magnetic confinement fusion research device, the scrape-off layer (SOL), is typically rich in atomic and molecular physics processes. The most advanced magnetic confinement device, the magnetically diverted tokamak, uses a magnetic separatrix to isolate the confinement zone (closed flux surfaces) from the edge plasma (open field lines). Over most of their length the open field lines run parallel to the separatrix, forming a thin magnetic barrier with the nearby vessel walls. In a poloidally-localized region, the open field lines are directed away from the separatrix and into the divertor, a region spatially separated from the separatrix where intense plasma wall interaction can occur relatively safely. Recent data from several tokamaks indicate that particle transport across the field lines of the SOL can be somewhat faster than previously thought. In these cases, the rate at which particles reach the vessel wall is comparable to the rate to the divertor from parallel transport. The SOL can be thin enough that the recycling neutrals and sputtered impurities from the wall may refuel or contaminate the confinement zone more efficiently than divertor plasma wall interaction. Just inside the SOL is a confinement barrier that produces a sharp pedestal in plasma density and temperature. Understanding neutral transport through the SOL and into the pedestal is key to understanding particle balance and particle and impurity exhaust. The SOL plasma is sufficiently hot and dense to excite and ionize neutrals. Ion and neutral temperatures are high enough that charge exchange between the neutrals and fuel and impurity ions is fast. Excitation of neutrals can be fast enough to lead to nonlinear behavior in charge exchange and ionization processes. In this paper the detailed atomic physics important to the understanding of the neutral transport through the SOL will be discussed.

  7. RNA and its ionic cloud: solution scattering experiments and atomically detailed simulations.

    PubMed

    Kirmizialtin, Serdal; Pabit, Suzette A; Meisburger, Steve P; Pollack, Lois; Elber, Ron

    2012-02-22

    RNA molecules play critical roles in many cellular processes. Traditionally viewed as genetic messengers, RNA molecules were recently discovered to have diverse functions related to gene regulation and expression. RNA also has great potential as a therapeutic and a tool for further investigation of gene regulation. Metal ions are an integral part of RNA structure and should be considered in any experimental or theoretical study of RNA. Here, we report a multidisciplinary approach that combines anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations with explicit solvent and ions around RNA. From experiment and simulation results, we find excellent agreement in the number and distribution of excess monovalent and divalent ions around a short RNA duplex. Although similar agreement can be obtained from a continuum description of the solvent and mobile ions (by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and accounting for finite ion size), the use of MD is easily extended to flexible RNA systems with thermal fluctuations. Therefore, we also model a short RNA pseudoknot and find good agreement between the MD results and the experimentally derived solution structures. Surprisingly, both deviate from crystal structure predictions. These favorable comparisons of experiment and simulations encourage work on RNA in all-atom dynamic models. PMID:22385853

  8. Phase separation during the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.

  9. Movie of phase separation during physics of colloids in space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area in the video is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.

  10. Physical Education for Children: Movement Foundations and Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Charles A.; Thaxton, Nolan A.

    This textbook for elementary physical education teachers is divided into seven parts. The topics covered are: (1) instructional objectives and competencies definitions for elementary physical education; (2) physical and mental characteristics of elementary school children; (3) the science of movement and perceptual motor development of children;…

  11. Experiments with interacting Bose and Fermi gases

    E-print Network

    Stan, Claudiu Andrei

    2005-01-01

    In the past few years, the study of trapped fermionic atoms evolved from the first cooling experiments which produced quantum degenerate samples to becoming one of the most exciting branches of current atomic physics ...

  12. Plasma diagnostics for the sustained spheromak physics experiment

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, H. S.; Ahmed, A.; Buchenauer, D.; Den Hartog, D.; Domier, C. W.; Hill, D. N.; Holcomb, C.; Hooper, E. B.; Morse, E. C.; Nagata, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this article we present an overview of the plasma diagnostics operating or planned for the sustained spheromak physics experiment device now operating at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A set of 46 wall-mounted magnetic probes provide the essential data necessary for magnetic reconstruction of the Taylor relaxed state. Rogowski coils measure currents induced in the flux conserver. A CO{sub 2} laser interferometer is used to measure electron line density. Spectroscopic measurements include an absolutely-calibrated spectrometer recording extended domain spectrometer for obtaining time-integrated visible ultraviolet spectra and two time-resolved vacuum monochrometers for studying the time evolution of two separate emission lines. Another time-integrated spectrometer records spectra in the visible range. Filtered silicon photodiode bolometers provide total power measurements, and a 16 channel photodiode spatial array gives radial emission profiles. Two-dimensional imaging of the plasma and helicity injector is provided by gated television cameras and associated image-processing software. An array of fiber-coupled photodetectors with H alpha filters view across the midplane and in the injector region to measure neutral hydrogen concentrations. Several novel diagnostics are being fielded including a transient internal probe (TIP) and an ultrashort-pulse reflectometer (USPR) microwave reflectometer. The TIP probe fires a very high velocity optical bullet through the plasma and will provide fairly nonpertabative internal magnetic field and current measurements to compare with an equilibrium code model fitted to wall-mounted probes. The USPR is being designed to study edge density and turbulent fluctuations. A multipoint Thomson scattering system is currently being installed to give radial temperature and density profiles.

  13. Results from Effervescent Spray Atomization for MCB and a preliminary Proposal for Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukermans, A.; Cooper, G. F.; Foster, J. D.; Galbraith, L. K.; Jain, S.; Ormond, R.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the preliminary results of spraying saltwater using a variant of effervescent spray atomization (ESA), for the purpose of producing salt nuclei for Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB). ESA is a well known industrial method, where air and water are mixed, to produce a choked two phase flow in a nozzle. The choked flow leaves a pressure residue at the nozzle exit which produces very efficient atomization. The resulting measured salt aerosol appears to be smaller than what is expected from current ESA theories. As measured with standard and well calibrated standard aerosol instruments, the distribution of the salt nuclei has an approximately log normal distribution with mean diameter of 60-80 nm and a GSD close to 2. Measured by electrostatic precipitation of the aerosol on a Si wafer and SEM observation, the median diameter is almost 1.5-2x as large, and this discrepancy has to date not been fully resolved. While the observed median diameter is perhaps somewhat on the low side for efficient conversion in the clouds, this nuclei distribution should be useful for preliminary field experiments. Assuming this distribution, with very simple means, a single small nozzle 150 um in diameter produces 5.3 x1012 nuclei/sec. A few hundred nozzles would be sufficient to produce 1015 nuclei/sec, requiring a power of only 25 kW, although errors on the tail end of the distribution could easily double this figure. To lift the spray, we envision the nozzles easily integrated in standard snowmaking machines, which are estimated by their manufactures to lift the nuclei from 50-100 m in the air, requiring another 20 kW of power. In cooperation with and under the scientific guidance of the U. of Washington, we propose to develop a set of staggered MCB experimental tests in Central California, first on land, and subsequently over the ocean. While this method may not be the ultimate one desired for full deployment (If ever), its simplicity, low cost and ease of deployment would seem to make it a great candidate for initial field experiments.

  14. Experiences that influence a student's choice on majoring in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbin, Donya Rae

    Currently the production of college graduates with science and engineering degrees is insufficient to fill the increasing number of jobs requiring these skills. This study focuses on physics majors with an in-depth examination of student transitions from high school to college. Many different areas of influence could affect a student's decision to major in physics. The first phase of this study addresses all of the potential areas of influence identified from the literature. The goal was to identify common influences that might be used to increase students' interest in majoring in physics. Subjects (N=35) from the first phase were recruited from physics majors at diverse Michigan colleges and universities. The second phase of this study explored, in more depth, important areas of influence identified in the first phase of the study. Subjects (N=94) from the second phase were recruited from diverse colleges and universities in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. The interviews were also conducted via email. Approximately half of the students in the study decided to major in physics while still in high school. Their reasons relate to many of the areas of influence. For example, high school physics teachers were cited as a strong influence in many students' decisions to major in physics. Influential physics teachers were described as being helpful, encouraging and interesting. The teachers also need to be their students' number one cheerleader and not their number one critic. Some areas of influence were found to be different for males vs. females. A high percentage of all physics majors had influential adults with careers in physical or biological science fields. This percentage was even larger for female physics majors. Female students also showed a greater initial interest in astronomy than the male students. Thus, high school and college physics teachers should seek to expose students to science-related careers and adults with these careers. Astronomy is also an important and often over looked entry into physics.

  15. Limits on temporal variation of fine structure constant, quark masses and strong interaction from atomic clock experiments

    E-print Network

    V. V. Flambaum

    2003-09-26

    We perform calculations of the dependence of nuclear magnetic moments on quark masses and obtain limits on the variation of the ratio of quark mass and strong interaction scale (m_q/Lambda_{QCD}) from recent atomic clock experiments with hyperfine transitions in H, Rb, Cs, Yb+, Hg+ and optical transition in Hg+. Experiments with Cd+, deuterium/hydrogen, molecule SF_6, Zeeman transitions in He_3/Xe are also discussed.

  16. Physical adsorption: rare gas atoms on solid surfaces. Progress report, June 1, 1980-May 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, M.W.

    1981-02-01

    This project has entailed investigation of three areas during the current term: physical adsorption, photostimulated field emission (PSE), and phonon reflection at interfaces. The principal effort has been directed toward understanding interactions associated with physical adsorption and the associated properties of a film. The specific topics pursued include the detailed form of the long range interaction, the configuration space wave function, and the interaction between adatoms. Experimental confirmation of the last two come from neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements, respectively. The research in PSE has yielded results which improve upon previous calculations. There is, however, a remaining disagreement with experiment; suggestions for the origin are discussed. The phonon reflection work is directed toward understanding the role of surface roughness, an important factor in increasing the energy transmission across interfaces. A formalism has been developed which will be evaluated in the future.

  17. A Simple LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) Laboratory Experiment to Introduce Undergraduates to Calibration Functions and Atomic Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment introduces students to a different type of atomic spectroscopy: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS uses a laser-generated spark to excite the sample; once excited, the elemental emission is spectrally resolved and detected. The students use LIBS to analyze a series of standard synthetic silicate samples…

  18. Echoing with the Voices of Victims: Reflection on Vietnamese Lessons on the Japanese Experiences of Atomic Bombs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Hien, Do Thi; Hang, Khong Thi Diem

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the case of a Vietnamese teacher whose conception of teaching changed greatly following a short but intensive series of lessons based on the Japanese experiences with atomic bombs. The following three issues are considered: 1) what types of efforts teachers should make to increase the depth of their lessons, on the basis of…

  19. How Many Atomic Layers of Zinc Are in a Galvanized Iron Coating? An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shui-Ping

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an experiment using a novel gasometric assembly to determine the thickness and number of atomic layers of zinc coating on galvanized iron substrates. Students solved this problem through three stages. In the first stage, students were encouraged to find a suitable acidic concentration through the guided-inquiry approach. In…

  20. Dependence of nuclear magnetic moments on quark masses and limits on temporal variation of fundamental constants from atomic clock experiments

    E-print Network

    V. V. Flambaum; A. F. Tedesco

    2006-03-08

    We calculate the dependence of the nuclear magnetic moments on the quark masses including the spin-spin interaction effects and obtain limits on the variation of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ and $(m_q/\\Lambda_{QCD})$ using recent atomic clock experiments examining hyperfine transitions in H, Rb, Cs, Yb$^+$ and Hg$^+$ and the optical transition in H, Hg$^+$ and Yb$^+$ .

  1. Physics Demonstration Experiments at William Jewell College. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Wallace A.

    Presented are descriptions (with photographs) of demonstration equipment purchased, assembled, developed, and used at William Jewell College (Missouri) during the past 25 years. The descriptions are organized into the following topic areas: (1) mechanics; (2) heat; (3) waves, sound, and acoustics; (4) electricity; (5) optics; and (6) atomic and…

  2. Getting Physical with Your Chemistry: Mechanically Investigating Local Structure and Properties of Surfaces with the Atomic Force Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, William F.; Hoh, Jan H.

    2005-01-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) investigates mechanically the chemical properties of individual molecules, surfaces, and materials using suitably designed probes. The current state of the art of AFM in terms of imaging, force measurement, and sample manipulation and its application to physical chemistry is discussed.

  3. arXiv:physics/0302079v122Feb2003 Selective addressing of high-rank atomic polarization moments

    E-print Network

    Budker, Dmitry

    of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 2 Nuclear Science Division to 87 Rb atoms in a paraffin-coated cell [17, 18], we have verified the expected power and spectral amount of (0) 0 was added to ensure that all sublevel popula- tions are non-negative [20]. Probability

  4. Published in Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 67 (2006) 2136 Simulations of Dense Atomic Hydrogen in the

    E-print Network

    Militzer, Burkhard

    2006-01-01

    Published in Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 67 (2006) 2136 Simulations of Dense Atomic properties are studied using the Lindemann ratio, the structure factor, and free energy calculations the giga pascal pressures common in the molecular phase. In this article, we study the Wigner crystal

  5. Diode-laser-based atomic absorption monitor using frequency-modulation spectroscopy for physical vapor deposition process control

    E-print Network

    Fejer, Martin M.

    have limited utility in these applications be- cause they are spatially incoherent and have lowDiode-laser-based atomic absorption monitor using frequency-modulation spectroscopy for physical cavity diode laser. FM detection made it possible to measure absorption as low as 10 6 . For electron

  6. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 022317 (2014) Large-scale modular quantum-computer architecture with atomic memory

    E-print Network

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 022317 (2014) Large-scale modular quantum-computer architecture with atomic of quantum systems. We analyze a modular ion trap quantum-computer architecture with a hierarchy challenge in any quantum-computer architecture is to scale the system to very large sizes, where errors

  7. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 89, 155116 (2014) Orbit-and atom-resolved spin textures of intrinsic, extrinsic, and hybridized Dirac cone states

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    2014-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 89, 155116 (2014) Orbit- and atom-resolved spin textures of intrinsic, extrinsic the former two states. Further orbit- and atom-resolved analysis shows that s and pz orbits have a clockwise orbits have radial spin components. The Dirac cone states may reside on different atomic layers, but have

  8. Lab-in-a-box @ school: Exiting hands-on experiments in soft matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Karin; Brinkmann, Martin; Müller, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Soft materials like liquids and polymers are part of everyday life, yet at school, this topic is rarely touched. Within the priority program SPP 1064 'Nano- and Microfluidics' of the German Science Foundation, we designed an outreach project that allows pupils (age 14 to 18) to perform hands-on experiments (www.labinabox.de). The experiments allow them e.g. to feel viscosity and viscoelasticity, experience surface tension or see structure formation. We call the modus operandi 'subjective experiments' to contrast them with the scientifically objective experiments, which pupils often describe as being boring. Over a dozen different experiments under the topic 'physics of fluids' are collected in a big box that travels to the school. Three other topics of boxes are available, 'physics of light, 'physics of liquid crystals', and 'physics of adhesion and friction'. Each experiment can be performed by 1-3 pupils within 10 - 20 min. That way, each scholar can perform 6 to 8 different small experiments within one topic. 'Subjective experiments' especially catch the attention of girls without disadvantaging boys. Both are fascinated by the hands-on physics experience and are therefore eager to perform also 'boring' objective experiments. Morover, before/after polls reveal that their interest in physics has greatly advanced. The project can easily be taken over and/or adapted to other topics in the natural sciences. Financial support of the German Science Foundation DFG is acknowledged.

  9. Efficient continuous-duty Bitter-type electromagnets for cold atom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabulsky, Dylan O.; Parker, Colin V.; Gemelke, Nathan D.; Chin, Cheng

    2013-10-01

    We present the design, construction, and characterization of Bitter-type electromagnets which can generate high magnetic fields under continuous operation with efficient heat removal for cold atom experiments. The electromagnets are constructed from a stack of alternating layers consisting of copper arcs and insulating polyester spacers. Efficient cooling of the copper is achieved via parallel rectangular water cooling channels between copper layers with low resistance to flow; a high ratio of the water-cooled surface area to the volume of copper ensures a short length scale (˜1 mm) to extract dissipated heat. High copper fraction per layer ensures high magnetic field generated per unit energy dissipated. The ensemble is highly scalable and compressed to create a watertight seal without epoxy. From our measurements, a peak field of 770 G is generated 14 mm away from a single electromagnet with a current of 400 A and a total power dissipation of 1.6 kW. With cooling water flowing at 3.8 l/min, the coil temperature only increases by 7 °C under continuous operation.

  10. Physical activity policy and program development: the experience in Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Vuori, Ilkka; Lankenau, Becky; Pratt, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development of sports and physical activity policies and programs in Finland during the past 30 years. The past two decades have been marked by a shift in emphasis from competitive and elite sports to health-enhancing physical activity for all, as seen most clearly in two successive sports acts and a government resolution. The new, increasingly multisectoral policies have led to substantial changes in the public funding of sports organizations, services, and construction of sports sites. Furthermore, three successive five-year national physical activity promotion programs have been launched. As a result, increased and new types of opportunities to participate in physical activity have become available, and the infrastructure and networks for provision of services have been strengthened. Until the mid 1990s, leisure time physical activity increased in Finland, but during the last seven to eight years, both leisure time and commuting physical activity have been stable. This finding may be an indication of the difficulty to increase physical activity in an industrialized country with already relatively high levels of physical activity even when systematic, long-term policies and measures are applied. PMID:15158112

  11. Computer Simulations for Lab Experiences in Secondary Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Physical science instruction often involves modeling natural systems, such as electricity that possess particles which are invisible to the unaided eye. The effect of these particles' motion is observable, but the particles are not directly observable to humans. Simulations have been developed in physics, chemistry and biology that, under certain…

  12. Guided-Inquiry Experiments for Physical Chemistry: The POGIL-PCL Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, Sally S.; Grushow, Alexander; Whitnell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The POGIL-PCL project implements the principles of process-oriented, guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) in order to improve student learning in the physical chemistry laboratory (PCL) course. The inquiry-based physical chemistry experiments being developed emphasize modeling of chemical phenomena. In each experiment, students work through at least…

  13. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  14. Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

  15. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 063837 (2013) Microscopic characterization of Levy flights of light in atomic vapors

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Robin

    2013-01-01

    in atomic vapors N. Mercadier,1,* M. Chevrollier,2 W. Guerin,1 and R. Kaiser1, 1 Institut Non Lin´eaire de-broadened atomic vapor. We experimentally characterize the length distribution of the steps between successive has been used as early as 1922 by Compton to describe the transport of light in an atomic vapor [1

  16. Optimized U-MOT for experiments with ultracold atoms near surfaces

    E-print Network

    S. Wildermuth; P. Krüger; C. Becker; M. Brajdic; S. Haupt; A. Kasper; R. Folman; J. Schmiedmayer

    2003-11-20

    We present an integrated wire-based magnetooptical trap for the simplified trapping and cooling of large numbers of neutral atoms near material surfaces. With a modified U-shaped current-carrying Cu structure we collect $>3\\times 10^8$ $^{87}$Rb atoms in a mirror MOT without using quadrupole coils. These atoms are subsequently loaded to a Z-wire trap where they are evaporatively cooled to a Bose-Einstein condensate close to the surface.

  17. Young-Type Experiment Using a Single-Electron Source and an Independent Atomic-Size Two-Center Interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnel, J.-Y.; Hajaji, A.; Fremont, F.; Barrachina, R. O.

    2007-03-09

    Evidence is given for Young-type interferences caused by a single electron acting on a given double-center scatterer analogous to an atomic-size double-slit system. The electron is provided by autoionization of a doubly excited He atom following the capture of the electrons of H{sub 2} by a He{sup 2+} incoming ion. The autoionizing projectile is a single-electron source, independent of the interferometer provided by the two H{sup +} centers of the fully ionized H{sub 2} molecule. This experiment resembles the famous thought experiment imagined by Feynman in 1963, in which the quantum nature of the electron is illustrated from a Young-like double-slit experiment. Well-defined oscillations are visible in the angular distribution of the scattered electrons, showing that each electron interferes with itself.

  18. 20 CFR 220.127 - When the only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unskilled physical labor. 220.127 Section 220.127 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS... only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor. (a) Arduous work. Arduous work is primarily physical work requiring a high level of strength or endurance. The Board will consider the claimant...

  19. 20 CFR 220.127 - When the only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unskilled physical labor. 220.127 Section 220.127 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS... only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor. (a) Arduous work. Arduous work is primarily physical work requiring a high level of strength or endurance. The Board will consider the claimant...

  20. Physical Science Experiments in K-12 Schools Related to Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Ranga

    In this talk I shall show movies on the demonstration of surface science experiments at various education levels ranging from middle schools to the university. These experiments demonstrate the concepts of surface tension, surface flows, surface reactions and even miscible interfaces. Experiments that demonstrate capillary effects, pressure variations on account of diameter changes, emulsions and foams will be discussed. Applications involving household agents such as space processing, food and detergents will also be given. All of these experiments are part of a kit that we have assembled for free distribution to area schools.

  1. Event-based simulation of quantum physics experiments

    E-print Network

    Kristel Michielsen; Hans De Raedt

    2014-08-08

    We review an event-based simulation approach which reproduces the statistical distributions of wave theory not by requiring the knowledge of the solution of the wave equation of the whole system but by generating detection events one-by-one according to an unknown distribution. We illustrate its applicability to various single photon and single neutron interferometry experiments and to two Bell test experiments, a single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment employing post-selection for photon pair identification and a single-neutron Bell test interferometry experiment with nearly $100\\%$ detection efficiency.

  2. Event-Based Simulation of Quantum Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michielsen, Kristel; de Raedt, Hans

    2015-10-01

    We review an event-based simulation approach which reproduces the statistical distributions of wave theory not by requiring the knowledge of the solution of the wave equation of the whole system but by generating detection events oneby- one according to an unknown distribution. We illustrate its applicability to various single photon and single neutron interferometry experiments and to two Bell-test experiments, a single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment employing post-selection for photon pair identification and a single-neutron Bell test interferometry experiment with nearly 100% detection efficiency.

  3. Preliminary design of two Space Shuttle fluid physics experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, N.; Kropp, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The mid-deck lockers of the STS and the requirements for operating an experiment in this region are described. The design of the surface tension induced convection and the free surface phenomenon experiments use a two locker volume with an experiment unique structure as a housing. A manual mode is developed for the Surface Tension Induced Convection experiment. The fluid is maintained in an accumulator pre-flight. To begin the experiment, a pressurized gas drives the fluid into the experiment container. The fluid is an inert silicone oil and the container material is selected to be comparable. A wound wire heater, located axisymmetrically above the fluid can deliver three wattages to a spot on the fluid surface. These wattages vary from 1-15 watts. Fluid flow is observed through the motion of particles in the fluid. A 5 mw He/Ne laser illuminates the container. Scattered light is recorded by a 35mm camera. The free surface phenomena experiment consists of a trapezoidal cell which is filled from the bottom. The fluid is photographed at high speed using a 35mm camera which incorporated the entire cell length in the field of view. The assembly can incorporate four cells in one flight. For each experiment, an electronics block diagram is provided. A control panel concept is given for the surface induced convection. Both experiments are within the mid-deck locker weight and c-g limits.

  4. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics

    E-print Network

    The ATLAS Collaboration; G. Aad; E. Abat; B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A. A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; T. N. Addy; C. Adorisio; P. Adragna; T. Adye; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; M. Aharrouche; S. P. Ahlen; F. Ahles; A. Ahmad; H. Ahmed; G. Aielli; T. Akdogan; T. P. A. Akesson; G. Akimoto; M. S. Alam; M. A. Alam; J. Albert; S. Albrand; M. Aleksa; I. N. Aleksandrov; F. Alessandria; C. Alexa; G. Alexander; G. Alexandre; T. Alexopoulos; M. Alhroob; G. Alimonti; J. Alison; M. Aliyev; P. P. Allport; S. E. Allwood-Spiers; A. Aloisio; R. Alon; A. Alonso; J. Alonso; M. G. Alviggi; K. Amako; P. Amaral; C. Amelung; V. V. Ammosov; A. Amorim; G. Amoros; N. Amram; C. Anastopoulos; C. F. Anders; K. J. Anderson; A. Andreazza; V. Andrei; M-L. Andrieux; X. S. Anduaga; F. Anghinolfi; A. Antonaki; M. Antonelli; S. Antonelli; B. Antunovic; F. A. Anulli; G. Arabidze; I. Aracena; Y. Arai; A. T. H. Arce; J. P. Archambault; S. Arfaoui; J-F. Arguin; T. Argyropoulos; E. Arik; M. Arik; A. J. Armbruster; O. Arnaez; C. Arnault; A. Artamonov; D. Arutinov; M. Asai; S. Asai; S. Ask; B. Asman; D. Asner; L. Asquith; K. Assamagan; A. Astbury; A. Astvatsatourov; T. Atkinson; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; E. Auge; K. Augsten; M. A. Aurousseau; N. Austin; G. Avolio; R. Avramidou; A. Axen; C. Ay; G. Azuelos; Y. Azuma; M. A. Baak; G. Baccaglioni; C. Bacci; H. Bachacou; K. Bachas; M. Backes; E. Badescu; P. Bagnaia; Y. Bai; D. C. Bailey; J. T. Baines; O. K. Baker; F. Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa; E. Banas; S. Banerjee; D. Banfi; A. Bangert; V. Bansal; S. P. Baranov; S. Baranov; A. Barashkou; T. B. Barber; E. L. Barberio; D. Barberis; M. B. Barbero; D. Y. Bardin; T. Barillari; M. Barisonzi; T. Barklow; N. B. Barlow; B. M. Barnett; R. M. Barnett; S. Baron; A. Baroncelli; A. J. Barr; F. Barreiro; J. Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa; P. Barrillon; R. Bartoldus; D. Bartsch; J. Bastos; R. L. Bates; J. R. Batley; A. Battaglia; M. Battistin; F. Bauer; M. Bazalova; B. Beare; P. H. Beauchemin; R. B. Beccherle; N. Becerici; P. Bechtle; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; M. Beckingham; K. H. Becks; I. Bedajanek; A. J. Beddall; A. Beddall; P. Bednar; V. A. Bednyakov; C. Bee; S. Behar Harpaz; P. K. Behera; M. Beimforde; C. Belanger-Champagne; P. J. Bell; W. H. Bell; G. Bella; L. Bellagamba; F. Bellina; M. Bellomo; A. Belloni; K. Belotskiy; O. Beltramello; S. Ben Ami; O. Benary; D. Benchekroun; M. Bendel; B. H. Benedict; N. Benekos; Y. Benhammou; G. P. Benincasa; D. P. Benjamin; M. Benoit; J. R. Bensinger; K. Benslama; S. Bentvelsen; M. Beretta; D. Berge; E. Bergeaas Kuutmann; N. Berger; F. Berghaus; E. Berglund; J. Beringer; K. Bernardet; P. Bernat; R. Bernhard; C. Bernius; T. Berry; A. Bertin; N. Besson; S. Bethke; R. M. Bianchi; M. Bianco; O. Biebel; J. Biesiada; M. Biglietti; H. Bilokon; S. Binet; A. Bingul; C. Bini; C. Biscarat; M. Bischofberger; U. Bitenc; K. M. Black; R. E. Blair; G. Blanchot; C. Blocker; J. Blocki; A. Blondel; W. Blum; U. Blumenschein; C. Boaretto; G. J. Bobbink; A. Bocci; B. Bodine; J. Boek; N. Boelaert; S. Boeser; J. A. Bogaerts; A. Bogouch; C. Bohm; J. Bohm; V. Boisvert; T. Bold; V. Boldea; V. G. Bondarenko; M. Bondioli; M. Boonekamp; C. N. Booth; P. S. L. Booth; J. R. A. Booth; A. Borisov; G. Borissov; I. Borjanovic; S. Borroni; K. Bos; D. Boscherini; M. Bosman; M. Bosteels; H. Boterenbrood; J. Bouchami; J. Boudreau; E. V. Bouhova-Thacker; C. Boulahouache; C. Bourdarios; J. Boyd; I. R. Boyko; A. Braem; P. Branchini; G. W. Brandenburg; A. Brandt; O. Brandt; U. Bratzler; J. E. Brau; H. M. Braun; B. Brelier; J. Bremer; R. Brenner; S. Bressler; D. Breton; N. D. Brett; D. Britton; F. M. Brochu; I. Brock; R. Brock; E. Brodet; F. Broggi; G. Brooijmans; W. K. Brooks; E. Brubaker; P. A. Bruckman de Renstrom; D. Bruncko; R. Bruneliere; S. Brunet; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; M. Bruschi; T. Buanes; F. B. Bucci; P. Buchholz; A. G. Buckley; I. A. Budagov; V. Buescher; L. Bugge; F. Bujor; O. Bulekov; M. Bunse; T. Buran; H. Burckhart; S. Burdin; S. Burke; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; F. Butin; B. Butler; J. M. Butler; C. M. Buttar; J. M. Butterworth; T. Byatt; S. Cabrera Urban; D. Caforio; O. Cakir; P. Calafiura; G. Calderini; R. Calkins; L. P. Caloba; R. Caloi; D. Calvet; P. Camarri; M. Cambiaghi; D. Cameron; F. Campabadal Segura; S. Campana; M. Campanelli; V. Canale; J. Cantero; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; I. Caprini; M. Caprini; M. Capua; R. Caputo; C. Caramarcu; R. Cardarelli; T. Carli; G. Carlino; L. Carminati; B. Caron; S. Caron; S. Carron Montero; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; J. Carvalho; D. Casadei; M. P. Casado; M. Cascella; C. Caso; A. M. Castaneda Hernadez; E. Castaneda Miranda; V. Castillo Gimenez; N. F. Castro; G. Cataldi; A. Catinaccio; J. R. Catmore; A. Cattai; G. Cattani; S. Caughron; D. Cauz; P. Cavalleri; D. Cavalli; M. Cavalli-Sforza

    2009-08-14

    A detailed study is presented of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector. The reconstruction of tracks, leptons, photons, missing energy and jets is investigated, together with the performance of b-tagging and the trigger. The physics potential for a variety of interesting physics processes, within the Standard Model and beyond, is examined. The study comprises a series of notes based on simulations of the detector and physics processes, with particular emphasis given to the data expected from the first years of operation of the LHC at CERN.

  5. Expected performance of the ATLAS experiment detector, trigger and physics

    E-print Network

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abramowicz, H; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adorisio, C; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, H; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Alam, M A; Alam, S M; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, J; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral, P; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Anders, C F; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Andrieux, M L; Anduaga, X S; Anghinolfi, F; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonelli, S; Antunovic, B; Anulli, F A; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J F; Argyropoulos, T; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Arutinov, D; Asai, M; Asai, S; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asner, D; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Atkinson, T; Atoian, G; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M A; Austin, N; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, A; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, S; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Baranov, S P; Baranov, S; Barashkou, A; Barber, T B; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M B; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N B; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baron, S; Baroncelli, A; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimãres da Costa, J; Barrillon, P; Barros, N; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, D; Bastos, J; Bates, R L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bazalova, M; Beare, B; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R B; Becerici, N; Bechtle, P; Beck, G A; Beck, H P; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Bedajanek, I; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednár, P; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C; Begel, M; BeharHarpaz, S; Behera, P K; Beimforde, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellina, F; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendel, M; Benedict, B H; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benincasa, G P; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernardet, K; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertin, A; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bischofberger, M; Bitenc, U; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchot, G; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Boaretto, C; Bobbink, G J; Bocci, A; Bodine, B; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Böser, S; Bogaerts, J A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Bondarenko, V G; Bondioli, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, C N; Booth, P S L; Booth, J R A; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borroni, S; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bosteels, M; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boulahouache, C; Bourdarios, C; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bracinik, J; Braem, A; Branchini, P; Brandenburg, G W; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Breton, D; Brett, N D; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brodet, E; Broggi, F; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, W K; Brubaker, E; Bruckmande Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Buanes, T; Bucci, F B; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Büscher, V; Bugge, L; Bujor, F; Bulekov, O; Bunse, M; Buran, T; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Busato, E; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butin, F; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Byatt, T; Caballero-Bejar, J; CabreraUrbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R; Calvet, D; Camarri, P; Cambiaghi, M; Cameron, D; Campabadal Segura, F; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Cantero, J; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, B; Caron, S; Carron Montero, S; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cascella, M; Caso, C; Castaneda Hernadez, A M; Castaneda Miranda, E; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N; Castro Nunes Fiolhais, M; Cataldi, G; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Cattani, G C; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A

    2009-01-01

    A detailed study is presented of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector. The reconstruction of tracks, leptons, photons, missing energy and jets is investigated, together with the performance of b-tagging and the trigger. The physics potential for a variety of interesting physics processes, within the Standard Model and beyond, is examined. The study comprises a series of notes based on simulations of the detector and physics processes, with particular emphasis given to the data expected from the first years of operation of the LHC at CERN.

  6. Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments

    E-print Network

    Vincent Dugrain; Peter Rosenbusch; Jakob Reichel

    2014-07-31

    We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors.

  7. Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments

    E-print Network

    Dugrain, Vincent; Reichel, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors.

  8. Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dugrain, Vincent; Reichel, Jakob; Rosenbusch, Peter

    2014-08-15

    We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors.

  9. Applications of statistical and atomic physics to the spectral line broadening and stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodko, Dmitriy

    The purpose of this investigation is the application of time correlation function methodology on the theoretical research of the shift of hydrogen and hydrogen-like spectral lines due to electrons and ions interaction with the spectral line emitters-dipole ionic-electronic shift (DIES) and the describing a behavior of stock-market in terms of a simple physical model simulation which obeys Levy statistical distribution---the same as that of the real stock-market index. Using Generalized Theory of Stark broadening of electrons in plasma we discovered a new source of the shift of hydrogen and hydrogen-like spectral lines that we called a dipole ionic-electronic shift (DIES). This shift results from the indirect coupling of electron and ion microfields in plasmas which is facilitated by the radiating atom/ion. We have shown that the DIES, unlike all previously known shifts, is highly nonlinear and has a different sign for different ranges of plasma parameters. The most favorable conditions for observing the DIES correspond to plasmas of high densities, but of relatively low temperature. For the Balmer-alpha line of hydrogen with the most favorable observational conditions Ne > 1018 cm-3, T < 2 eV, the DIES has been already confirmed experimentally. Based on the study of the time correlations and of the probability distribution of fluctuations in the stock market, we developed a relatively simple physical model, which simulates the Dow Jones Industrials index and makes short-term (a couple of days) predictions of its trend.

  10. Moriond Workshop, 1994 In: Particle Astrophysics, Atomic Physics and Gravitation, ed. by J. Tran Thanh Van, G. Fontaine,

    E-print Network

    Budker, Dmitry

    for the study of parity non-conservation because the small energy separation enhances level mixing due to weak for measurements of parity non-conservation, and outline the principle of such an experiment now underway. #12-Parity Levels in Atomic Dysprosium: A Novel System for the Study of Parity Non-Conservation D. DeMille, D

  11. From physical to virtual : extending the gallery experience online

    E-print Network

    Ho, Moneta Kwok-Ching, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is an exploration of the ways in which interactive features in the virtual space can be developed to complement physical museum exhibitions, as well as create opportunities for museums to reach broader audiences. ...

  12. Simple Laser Scattering Experiment for Biology-Oriented Physics Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, L.; Schrank, G.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a physics exercise designed for biology and premed majors. The activity is a low intensity laser light scattering laboratory exercise to determine the diameter of micron-sized latex spheres (simulated microbes) in water suspension. (GA)

  13. Folding peptides and proteins with all-atom physics: methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shell, M. Scott

    2008-03-01

    Computational methods offer powerful tools for investigating proteins and peptides at the molecular-level; however, it has proven challenging to reproduce the long time scale folding processes of these molecules at a level that is both faithful to the atomic driving forces and attainable with modern commodity cluster computing. Alternatively, the past decade has seen significant progress in using bioinformatics-based approaches to infer the three dimensional native structures of proteins, drawing upon extensive knowledge databases of known protein structures [1]. These methods work remarkably well when a homologous protein can be found to provide a structural template for a candidate sequence. However, in cases where homology to database proteins is low, where the folding pathway is of interest, or where conformational flexibility is substantial---as in many emerging protein and peptide technologies---bioinformatics methods perform poorly. There is therefore great interest in seeing purely physics-based approaches succeed. We discuss a purely physics-based, database-free folding method, relying on proper thermal sampling (replica exchange molecular dynamics) and molecular potential energy functions. In order to surmount the tremendous computational demands of all-atom folding simulations, our approach implements a conformational search strategy based on a putative protein folding mechanism called zipping and assembly [2-4]. That is, we explicitly seek out potential folding pathways inferred from short simulations, and iteratively pursue all such routes by coaxing a polypeptide chain along them. The method is called the Zipping and Assembly Method (ZAM) and it works in two parts: (1) the full polypeptide chain is broken into small fragments that are first simulated independently and then successively re-assembled into larger segments with further sampling, and (2) consistently stable structure in fragments is detected and locked into place, in order to avoid re-sampling those degrees of freedom in subsequent steps. ZAM pursues all potential folding routes it finds, which may be mutually exclusive, and it ranks these by calculating free energies along the way. Importantly, it gives full conformational ensembles and folding pathways, features not captured by bioinformatics approaches. We also discuss ways in which the structural ensembles and folding pathways of ZAM can facilitate the rational design of peptide technologies. In particular, we examine the coupling of ZAM-produced structures with coarse-grained theories of transport and association, in order to model the interactions of peptides with membranes (for insertion processes), proteins (for binding processes), and other peptides (for aggregation processes). Importantly, this approach is able to capture highly sequence-specific effects due to the atomistic nature of the ZAM folding simulations, providing a predictive tool for targeted sequence mutations. 1. J. Moult, A decade of CASP: progress, bottlenecks and prognosis in protein structure prediction, Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 15, (2005). 2. K.M. Fiebig and K.A. Dill, Protein core assembly processes, J. Chem. Phys. 98, (1993). 3. S.B. Ozkan, G.H.A. Wu, J.D. Chodera, and K.A. Dill, Protein folding by zipping and assembly, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, (2007). 4. M.S. Shell, S.B. Ozkan, V.A. Voelz, G.H.A. Wu, and K. Dill, Can molecular physics predict the native structures of globular proteins?, under review, (2007).

  14. A Take-Home Physics Experiment Kit for On-Campus and Off-Campus Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joanna; Parisi, Alfio

    2008-01-01

    A take-home experiment kit has been developed to reinforce the concepts in a first year physics course that both on and off campus students from a variety of educational backgrounds can successfully use. The kit is inexpensive and is composed of easy to obtain items. The experiments conducted with the kit are directed experiments that require…

  15. Atomic effects of beta decay in astrophysics and in elementary particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zonghua

    The bound-state beta decay of Re-187 and its application in Astrophysics is studied. There existed an uncertainty in the ratio of rhop of bound-state to continuum beta decay of Re-187 in both theory and experiment. A more definite theoretical result of rhop of approximately 1 percent is obtained by using single-configuration and multi-configuration Hartree-Fock-Dirac approximations. The results obtained are close to those obtained by Williams, Fowler, and Koonin by a modified Thomas-Fermi model. The bound-state beta decay of Re-187 at high temperatures is also studied. A generalization of the Thomas-Fermi results of various energy contributions to the ground-state energy of a neutral atom is also presented. An analytical expression for the ratio of the electron-electron to electron-nuclear interaction is obtained by the corrected Thomas-Fermi result, the ratio obtained gives a better agreement with the Hartree-Fock numerical results.

  16. Analytical study of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL) experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    The design specifications of the research laboratory as a Spacelab facility are discussed along with the types of planned experiments. These include cloud formation, freezing and scavenging, and electrical phenomena. A summary of the program conferences is included.

  17. Orbital atomic oxygen effects on materials: An overview of MSFC experiments on the STS-46 EOIM-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Dehaye, Robert F.; Whitaker, Ann F.

    1995-01-01

    The third Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials experiment was flown on Space Shuttle Mission STS-46 (July 31 - August 8, 1992), representing a joint effort of several NASA centers, universities, and contractors. This array of active instrumentation and material exposure sub-assemblies was integrated as a Shuttle cargo bay pallet experiment for investigating the effects of orbital atomic oxygen on candidate space materials. Marshall Space Flight Center contributed several passive exposure trays of material specimens, uniform stress and static stress material exposure fixtures, the Atomic Oxygen Resistance Monitor (AORM), and specimens of thermal coatings for the EOIM-3 variable exposure mechanisms. As a result of 42 hours of spacecraft velocity vector-oriented exposure during the later phases of the STS-46 mission in LEO, EOIM-3 materials were exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 2.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. In this paper, an overview is presented of the technical approaches and results from analyses of the MSFC flight specimens, fixtures, and the AORM. More detailed results from earlier EOIM missions, the LDEF, and from laboratory testing are included in associated papers of this conference session.

  18. A Space Experiment to Measure the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers and Demonstrate a Technique to Identify Sources of Silicone Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Baney-Barton, Elyse; Sechkar, Edward A.; Hunt, Patricia K.; Willoughby, Alan; Bemer, Meagan; Hope, Stephanie; Koo, Julie; Kaminski, Carolyn; Youngstrom, Erica

    1999-01-01

    A low Earth orbital space experiment entitled, "Polymers Erosion And Contamination Experiment", (PEACE) has been designed as a Get-Away Special (GAS Can) experiment to be accommodated as a Shuttle in-bay environmental exposure experiment. The first objective is to measure the atomic oxygen erosion yields of approximately 40 different polymeric materials by mass loss and erosion measurements using atomic force microscopy. The second objective is to evaluate the capability of identifying sources of silicone contamination through the use of a pin-hole contamination camera which utilizes environmental atomic oxygen to produce a contaminant source image on an optical substrate.

  19. Cold-Atom Physics Using Ultrathin Optical Fibers: Light-Induced Dipole Forces and Surface Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sague, G.; Vetsch, E.; Alt, W.; Meschede, D.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2007-10-19

    The strong evanescent field around ultrathin unclad optical fibers bears a high potential for detecting, trapping, and manipulating cold atoms. Introducing such a fiber into a cold-atom cloud, we investigate the interaction of a small number of cold cesium atoms with the guided fiber mode and with the fiber surface. Using high resolution spectroscopy, we observe and analyze light-induced dipole forces, van der Waals interaction, and a significant enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate of the atoms. The latter can be assigned to the modification of the vacuum modes by the fiber.

  20. The Context of Thought Experiments in Physics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    This paper takes a cognitive perspective in an attempt to analyze mental mechanisms involved in contextual learning. In the following, it is suggested that contextualized environments evoke mental mechanisms that support reasoning about "what if", imaginary situations--utilizing a powerful mental mechanism known from the history of physics as…

  1. DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS Physics 32100

    E-print Network

    Brinkmann, Peter

    DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS Syllabus Physics 32100 Modern Physics for Engineers Designation to one- electron atoms, atomic shell structure and periodic table; nuclear physics, relativity. Prerequisites: Prereq.: Physics 20800 or equivalent, Math 20300 or 20900 (elective for Engineering students

  2. Light new physics in coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deNiverville, Patrick; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Experiments aiming to detect coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering present opportunities to probe new light weakly coupled states, such as sub-GeV mass dark matter, in several extensions of the Standard Model. These states can be produced along with neutrinos in the collisions of protons with the target, and their production rate can be enhanced if there exists a light mediator produced on shell. We analyze the sensitivity reach of several proposed experiments to light dark matter interacting with the Standard Model via a light vector mediator coupled to the electromagnetic current. We also determine the corresponding sensitivity to massless singlet neutrino-type states with interactions mediated by the baryon number current. In both cases we observe that proposed coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments, such as COHERENT at the spallation neutrino source (SNS) and CENNS at Fermilab, will have sensitivity well beyond the existing limits.

  3. Temperature induced mobility and recombination of atomic oxygen in crystalline Kr and Xe. I. Experiment

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, V. Ara

    thermoluminescence.The recombination follows first order kinetics, from which it is inferred that atomic mobilities in studies of photodissocia- tion2 and exciton induced dissociation of 0 precursors.3'4 Thermoluminescence

  4. OROCHI experiment: Laser spectroscopy of RI atoms in superfluid helium for measurements of nuclear spins and electromagnetic moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Takeshi

    2014-09-01

    We have been developing a new laser spectroscopy technique named as OROCHI (Optical RI-atom Observation in Condensed Helium as Ion-catcher) for measurements of nuclear spins and electromagnetic moments of low yield exotic radioisotopes (RIs). In this technique, we use superfluid helium (He II) liquid as a stopping material of RI beam in which in-situ laser spectroscopy of the RI atoms stopped in He II is carried out. The characteristic features of He II, i.e. high trapping efficiency of He II liquid for accelerated ion beams and the characteristics of atomic spectra in He II, enables us to measure the nuclear spins and moments of the extremely low yield RIs. So far, we have demonstrated the feasibility of our method to deduce the nuclear spins and moments with stable Rb, Cs, Ag and Au isotopes supplied into He II by laser sputtering technique. In addition, we have also succeeded in observing laser-radiowave/microwave double resonance signals of 84-87Rb atoms injected into He II as energetic ion beam. In these on-line experiment, the 84-87Rb isotope beams (intensity: up to 105 particles/s) were provided with RIPS beamline in RIKEN, and introduced into He II filled in a cryostat. Special care was taken in controlling the stopping position of injected Rb isotopes. Aluminum energy degraders of varied thickness from 0 to 0.8 mm were placed upstream of the beam injection window of the He II cryostat for optimizing the stopping position The 84-87Rb atoms stopped and then neutralized in He II were optically pumped and polarized with circularly polarized pumping laser light whose wavelength were tuned to 780 nm, D1 absorption line of Rb atoms in He II. The polarized atoms were subjected to irradiation of radiowave or microwave, and then we demonstrated the double resonance spectroscopy for observing the Zeeman transition of 84-87Rb atoms and the hyperfine transition of 87Rb, respectively In this presentation we will show the details of OROCHI technique and the present status of our development, in particular the result of the recent on-line experiment.

  5. Implementation of the GFS physical package in the GRAPES regional model: single column experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baode; Huang, Wei; Bao, Jian-wen

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern about coupling among physical components in NWP models. The Physics package of the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) has been considerably turned and connection among various components is well considered. Thus, the full GFS physical package was implemented into the GRAPES-MESO and its single column version as well. Using the data collected at ARM Southern Great Plain site during the summer 1997 Intensive Observing Period, several experiments of single-column model (SCM) were conducted to test performance of a set of original physical processes of GRAPES(CTL experiment) and the GFS physics package implemented(GFS experiment). Temperature, moisture, radiation, surface heat flux, surface air temperature and precipitation are evaluated. It is found that potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment is more accurate than that of CTL experiment. Errors of surface downward solar and long-wave radiation simulated by GFS experiment are less than that of CTL experiment and upward latent and sensible heat flux are also better agreeing with observation. The maximum and minimum 2-m air temperatures of the GFS experiment are close to observation compared with that of CTL experiment. Analysis of precipitation simulated shows that both sets of physical processes well reproduce heavy rainfall events. Failure and delay of moderate rainfall events and over predictions of drizzle events are commonly found for two sets of experiments. For the case of three rainfall events, the errors of potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment were smaller than that of CTL experiment. It is shown that the late occurrences of rainfall are resulted from a more stable temperature profile and lower moisture simulated in boundary layer than those from the observation prior to rainfall. When the simulated rainfall occurs, the simulated temperature and moisture become more favorable to the precipitation than observation.

  6. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 92, 053826 (2015) Subwavelength transportation of light with atomic resonances

    E-print Network

    Du, Shengwang

    2015-01-01

    the subwavelength transportation of light in integrated optical circuits with cold atoms. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.92 of integrated optical circuits localizing and interfacing cold atoms in which quan- tum networks, quantum many. In parallel, nanoscale waveguides that confine, guide, and manipulate the electromagnetic energy

  7. Physical Construction of the Chemical Atom: Is It Convenient to Go All the Way Back?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izquierdo-Aymerich, Merce; Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of chemistry texts (mainly textbooks) published during the first half of the 20th century. We show the evolution of the explanations therein in terms of atoms and of atomic structure, when scientists were interpreting phenomena as evidence of the discontinuous, corpuscular structure of matter. In this process…

  8. Atoms and Molecules. Physical Science in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    There are more than 20 million known substances in the universe, and they are all made of the same basic ingredients--atoms and molecules. In this fun and engaging program, kids will learn about the three main subatomic particles--protons, neutrons and electrons--as well as the forces that keep atoms and molecules together. They'll discover how…

  9. Laser-Induced Molecular Fluorescence: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    1981-01-01

    Describes a companion experiment to the experimental study of the di-iodide visible absorption spectrum. Experimental details, interpretation, and data analysis are provided for an analysis of the di-iodide fluorescence excited by a visible laser, using a Raman instrument. (CS)

  10. Skylab Experiments, Volume 5, Astronomy and Space Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Basic knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented in this book, one of a series, for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling the teachers to broaden their basis for material selection. This fifth volume is concerned with studies of our own and other galaxies and effects of solar…

  11. The Physical Environment: A Powerful Regulator of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth

    1994-01-01

    Discusses five environmental dimensions (hardness/softness, open/closed, simple/complex, intrusion/seclusion, and high mobility/low mobility) that affect the experiences of children in day-care centers, demonstrating how to consider these dimensions in solving typical problems in child care settings. (MDM)

  12. Cation Hydration Constants by Proton NMR: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studies the polarization effect on water by cations and anions. Describes an experiment to illustrate the polarization effect of sodium, lithium, calcium, and strontium ions on the water molecule in the hydration spheres of the ions. Analysis is performed by proton NMR. (MVL)

  13. A computerized rotational motion experiment for the introductory physics laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, F. C.; Williams, S. A.

    1983-10-01

    Designed for use in a calculus-based introductory physics laboratory, apparatus consisting of a metal disk rotating on a fixed axis has been instrumented with a commercial rotary encoder and a PET microcomputer. The angular velocity of the wheel is continuously monitored and logged by the computer, providing data for detailed study of applied torques, friction, and the collision of the rotating disk with objects dropped upon it.

  14. Emulating solid-state physics with a hybrid system of ultracold ions and atoms.

    PubMed

    Bissbort, U; Cocks, D; Negretti, A; Idziaszek, Z; Calarco, T; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Hofstetter, W; Gerritsma, R

    2013-08-23

    We propose and theoretically investigate a hybrid system composed of a crystal of trapped ions coupled to a cloud of ultracold fermions. The ions form a periodic lattice and induce a band structure in the atoms. This system combines the advantages of high fidelity operations and detection offered by trapped ion systems with ultracold atomic systems. It also features close analogies to natural solid-state systems, as the atomic degrees of freedom couple to phonons of the ion lattice, thereby emulating a solid-state system. Starting from the microscopic many-body Hamiltonian, we derive the low energy Hamiltonian, including the atomic band structure, and give an expression for the atom-phonon coupling. We discuss possible experimental implementations such as a Peierls-like transition into a period-doubled dimerized state. PMID:24010420

  15. The Heat of Protonation of Pyridine and Chloro Substituted Pyridines: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Pinnick, H. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the concepts of inductive and resonance effects by the calorimetric determination of the heats of protonation of pyridine, 2-chloropyridine, and 3-chloropyridine. (CS)

  16. Real time dynamics and proposal for feasible experiments of lattice gauge-Higgs model simulated by cold atoms

    E-print Network

    Yoshihito Kuno; Kenichi Kasamatsu; Yoshiro Takahashi; Ikuo Ichinose; Tetsuo Matsui

    2015-06-05

    Lattice gauge theory has provided a crucial non-perturbative method in studying canonical models in high-energy physics such as quantum chromodynamics. Among other models of lattice gauge theory, the lattice gauge-Higgs model is a quite important one because it describes wide variety of phenomena/models related to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism such as superconductivity, the standard model of particle physics, and inflation process of the early universe. In this paper, we first show that atomic description of the lattice gauge model allows us to explore real time dynamics of the gauge variables by using the Gross-Pitaevskii equations. Numerical simulations of the time development of an electric flux reveal some interesting characteristics of dynamical aspect of the model and determine its phase diagram. Next, to realize a quantum simulator of the U(1) lattice gauge-Higgs model on an optical lattice filled by cold atoms, we propose two feasible methods: (i) Wannier states in the excited bands and (ii) dipolar atoms in a multilayer optical lattice. We pay attentions to respect the constraint of Gauss's law and avoid nonlocal gauge interactions.

  17. High energy physics experiment triggers and the trustworthiness of software

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, T.

    1991-10-01

    For all the time and frustration that high energy physicists expend interacting with computers, it is surprising that more attention is not paid to the critical role computers play in the science. With large, expensive colliding beam experiments now dependent on complex programs working at startup, questions of reliability -- the trustworthiness of software -- need to be addressed. This issue is most acute in triggers, used to select data to record -- and data to discard -- in the real time environment of an experiment. High level triggers are built on codes that now exceed 2 million source lines -- and for the first time experiments are truly dependent on them. This dependency will increase at the accelerators planned for the new millennium (SSC and LHC), where cost and other pressures will reduce tolerance for first run problems, and the high luminosities will make this on-line data selection essential. A sense of this incipient crisis motivated the unusual juxtaposition to topics in these lectures. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Atomic-Scale Investigation of Latent Fission Tracks in Fluorapatite: Physical Characteristics and Annealing Behavior.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Tracy Anne

    1993-01-01

    A JEOL JEM-2000FX analytical transmission electron microscope, equipped with a cold stage and anticontamination device, has been used to study the physical characteristics and annealing behavior of artificially induced fission tracks in fluorapatite. Near the atomic level, unetched fission tracks are not continuous, but are comprised of segments of extended damage that are separated by gaps of undamaged microstructure. From dark-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, it appears that the crystalline damage around tracks, although intensive, is not extensive. As such, the defect density may be represented by a Gaussian-type distribution function. The disordered nature of the track core and defect distribution geometry supports the Ion-Explosion Theory that has been proposed for track formation. TEM analysis reveals that track width is crystallographically controlled. Parallel to the c-axis, tracks display widths of 5 to 13 nm and hexagonal faceting on the (0001) plane. Tracks perpendicular to the c-axis display widths of 3 to 9 nm and prismatic faceting on the (1000) plane. The track cross-section facets mimic etch-pit morphologies and provide a relative measure of the crystal's surface free energy. A consequence of differential bond strengths and elastic properties in the fluorapatite structure, track-width anisotropy resolves etching- and annealing-rate anisotropy that has been reported for fission tracks in fluorapatite. TEM observation of the behavior of fission tracks in response to electron beam exposure (i.e., radiolytic annealing), and temperature increase (i.e., thermal annealing), yields a physical and a kinetic description of the annealing process. Annealing commences with bulging at the track's tapered ends, followed by detachment of a single sphere. This process is replicated until a critical track radius is encountered at which the track geometry approaches an ideal right cylinder. A sinusoidal boundary develops at the track-matrix interface and increases in amplitude until the track spontaneously collapses into a row of spheres and small rods. The rods continue to evolve into spheres until the track remnant is comprised solely of a row of spheres. Although the spheres possess a stable surface energy geometry, ultimately they are restored to the original microstructure and the track disappears. Documentation of annealing suggests that the process is analogous to that of drop detachment, ovulation, and spheroidization. From these better known processes, it is possible to formulate a kinetic equation that describes fission-track annealing. Unlike the empirically-derived or physically-based kinetic equations that are presently employed in the reconstruction of thermo -tectonic histories from apatite fission-track data, the equation proposed in this study accurately predicts fission -track behavior over all of the scales of interest (i.e., microscopic to macroscopic dimensions, high to low temperatures, laboratory to geologic timescales). Furthermore, the equation reveals that surface interface diffusion is the primary mass transport mechanism that controls fission-track annealing.

  19. Physics of Colloids in Space: Microgravity Experiment Launched, Installed, and Activated on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment is a Microgravity Fluids Physics investigation that is presently located in an Expedite the Process of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack on the International Space Station. PCS was launched to the International Space Station on April 19, 2001, activated on May 31, 2001, and will continue to operate about 90 hr per week through May 2002.

  20. Feasibility study of a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiments laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollinden, A. B.; Eaton, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    A feasibility and concepts study for a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiment laboratory is discussed. The primary objective was to define a set of cloud physics experiments which will benefit from the near zero-gravity environment of an orbiting spacecraft, identify merits of this environment relative to those of groundbased laboratory facilities, and identify conceptual approaches for the accomplishment of the experiments in an orbiting spacecraft. Solicitation, classification and review of cloud physics experiments for which the advantages of a near zero-gravity environment are evident are described. Identification of experiments for potential early flight opportunities is provided. Several significant accomplishments achieved during the course of this study are presented.

  1. Computer simulations for lab experiences in secondary physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, David Shannon

    Physical science instruction often involves modeling natural systems, such as electricity that possess particles which are invisible to the unaided eye. The effect of these particles' motion is observable, but the particles are not directly observable to humans. Simulations have been developed in physics, chemistry and biology that, under certain circumstances, have been found to allow students to gain insight into the operation of the systems they model. This study compared the use of a DC circuit simulation, a modified simulation, static graphics, and traditional bulbs and wires to compare gains in DC circuit knowledge as measured by the DIRECT instrument, a multiple choice instrument previously developed to assess DC circuit knowledge. Gender, prior DC circuit knowledge and subsets of DC circuit knowledge of students were also compared. The population (n=166) was comprised of high school freshmen students from an eastern Kentucky public school with a population of 1100 students and followed a quantitative quasi experimental research design. Differences between treatment groups were not statistically significant. Keywords: Simulations, Static Images, Science Education, DC Circuit Instruction, Phet.

  2. SU-E-E-05: Initial Experience On Physics Rotation of Radiological Residents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J; Williams, D; DiSantis, D; Hardy, P; Oates, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The new ABR core exam integrates physics into clinical teaching, with an emphasis on understanding image quality, image artifacts, radiation dose and patient safety for each modality and/or sub-specialty. Accordingly, physics training of radiological residents faces a challenge. A traditional teaching of physics through didactic lectures may not fully fulfill this goal. It is also difficult to incorporate physics teaching in clinical practice due to time constraints. A dedicated physics rotation may be a solution. This study is to evaluate a full week physics workshop developed for the first year radiological residents. Methods: The physics rotation took a full week. It included three major parts, introduction lectures, hand-on experiences and observation of technologist operation. An introduction of basic concepts was given to each modality at the beginning. Hand-on experiments were emphasized and took most of time. During hand-on experiments, residents performed radiation measurements, studied the relationship between patient dose and practice (i.e., fluoroscopy), investigated influence of acquisition parameters (i.g., kV, mAs) on image quality, and evaluated image quality using phantoms A physics test before and after the workshop was also given but not for comparison purpose. Results: The evaluation shows that the physics rotation during the first week of residency in radiology is preferred by all residents. The length of a full week of physics workshop is appropriate. All residents think that the intensive workshop can significantly benefit their coming clinical rotations. Residents become more comfortable regarding the use of radiation and counseling relevant questions such as a pregnant patient risk from a CE PE examination. Conclusion: A dedicated physics rotation, assisting with didactic lectures, may fulfill the requirements of physics of the new ABR core exam. It helps radiologists deeply understand the physics concepts and more efficiently use the medical physics in practice.

  3. Atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation mission total exposures for LDEF experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Rousslang, Ken W.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic oxygen and solar radiation exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the LDEF. Calculated atomic oxygen exposures are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation. Results also incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the six year flight of the spacecraft. Solar radiation exposure calculations are based on the form factors reported in the Solar Illumination Data Package prepared by NASA Langley. The earth albedo value for these calculations was based on the Nimbus 7 earth radiation data set. Summary charts for both atomic oxygen and solar radiation exposure are presented to facilitate the use of the data generated by LDEF experimenters.

  4. The Acculturation Experiences of Foreign-Born Students of Color in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fries-Britt, Sharon; George Mwangi, Chrystal A.; Peralta, Alicia M.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on 15 foreign-born students majoring in physics who are also racial/ethnic minorities. We address the research question: What are the acculturation experiences of foreign-born Students of Color majoring in physics? Berry's (2003) theory of acculturation and Bandura's (1994) theory of self-efficacy were substantive…

  5. Concerns of Preservice Physical Education Teachers Participating in an Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of concerns by type (self, task, and impact) of preservice physical education teachers participating in an early field experience. Participants (n = 52) taught three physical education lessons in a junior high school. Following each teaching episode, participants wrote concerns in their…

  6. Fifth Grade Students' Experiences Participating in Active Gaming in Physical Education: The Persistence to Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Lisa; Sanders, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Although video games are often associated with sedentary behaviors, active gaming is a new genre that requires children to become physically active while playing the games. In this study six fifth grade students' experiences participating in active gaming in eight-week physical education classes were explored. Qualitative methods of interviews,…

  7. Digital Video: The Impact on Children's Learning Experiences in Primary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Loughlin, Joe; Chroinin, Deirdre Ni; O'Grady, David

    2013-01-01

    Technology can support teaching, learning and assessment in physical education. The purpose of this study was to examine children's perspectives and experiences of using digital video in primary physical education. The impact on motivation, feedback, self-assessment and learning was examined. Twenty-three children aged 9-10 years participated…

  8. Space Physics in Greece: Experience and Future Prospects Ioannis A. Daglis, Anastasios Anastasiadis and Georgia Tsiropoula

    E-print Network

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    Space Physics in Greece: Experience and Future Prospects Ioannis A. Daglis, Anastasios Anastasiadis and Georgia Tsiropoula National Observatory of Athens, Institute of Ionospheric and Space Research, Penteli Engineering, Xanthi, Greece Abstract. Space Physics was born with the launch of the first artifi­ cial

  9. The Nature and Role of Thought Experiments in Solving Conceptual Physics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kösem, Sule Dönertas; Özdemir, Ömer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the possible variations of thought experiments in terms of their nature, purpose, and reasoning resources adopted during the solution of conceptual physics problems. A phenomenographic research approach was adopted for this study. Three groups of participants with varying levels of physics knowledge--low, medium, and high…

  10. PPPL-3459 PPPL-3459 Physics Results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    E-print Network

    PPPL-3459 PPPL-3459 UC-70 Physics Results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment by M.G. Bell for the NSTX Research Team June 2000 #12;PPPL Reports Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work) 321-8547 Internet: http://www.ntis.gov/ordering.htm #12;Physics Results from the National Spherical

  11. Physical Restraint in Residential Childcare: The Experiences of Young People and Residential Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steckley, Laura; Kendrick, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    There have long been concerns about the use of physical restraint in residential care. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study that explores the experiences of children, young people and residential workers of physical restraint. The research identifies the dilemmas and ambiguities for both staff and young people, and…

  12. Review Committee report on the conceptual design of the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the conceptual design of the Tokamak Physics Experiment: Role and mission of TPX; overview of design; physics design assessment; engineering design assessment; evaluation of cost, schedule, and management plans; and, environment safety and health.

  13. Hypernuclear physics studies of the PANDA experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Lorente, Alicia

    2014-09-01

    Hypernuclear research will be one of the main topics addressed by the PANDA experiment at the planned Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR at Darmstadt (Germany). http://www. gsi.de, http://www.gsi.de/fair/. Thanks to the use of stored overline {p} beams, copious production of double ? hypernuclei is expected at the PANDA experiment, which will enable high precision ? spectroscopy of such nuclei for the first time, and consequently a unique chance to explore the hyperon-hyperon interaction. In particular, ambiguities of past experiments in determining the strength of the ?? interaction will be avoided thanks to the excellent energy precision of a few keV (FWHM) achieved by germanium detectors. Such a resolution capability is particularly needed to resolve the small energy spacing of the order of (10-100) keV, which is characteristic from the spin doublet in hypernuclei the so -called "hypernuclear fine structure". In comparison to previous experiments, PANDA will benefit from a novel technique to assign the various observable ?-transitions in a unique way to specific double hypernuclei by exploring various light targets. Nevertheless, the ability to carry out unique assignments requires a devoted hypernuclear detector setup. This consists of a primary nuclear target for the production of {? }-+overline {? } pairs, a secondary active target for the hypernuclei formation and the identification of associated decay products and a germanium array detector to perform ? spectroscopy. Moreover, one of the most challenging issues of this project is the fact that all detector systems need to operate in the presence of a high magnetic field and a large hadronic background. Accordingly, the need of an innovative detector concept will require dramatic improvements to fulfil these conditions and that will likely lead to a new generation of detectors. In the present talk details concerning the current status of the activities related to the detector developments for this challenging programme will be given. Among these improvements is the new concept for a cooling system for the germanium detector based on a electro-mechanical device. In the present work, the cooling efficiency of such devices has been successfully tested, showing their capability to reach liquid nitrogen temperatures and therefore the possibility to use them as a good alternative to the standard liquid nitrogen dewars. Furthermore, since the momentum resolution of low momentum particles is crucial for the unique identification of hypernuclei, an analysis procedure for improving the momentum resolution in few layer silicon based trackers is presented.

  14. Atomic, electronic and magnetic structure of graphene/iron and nickel interfaces: theory and experiment

    E-print Network

    Boukhvalov, D W; Uimin, M A; Korolev, A V; Yermakov, A Ye

    2014-01-01

    First-principles calculations of the effect of carbon coverage on the atomic, electronic and magnetic structure of nickel and iron substrates demonstrate insignificant changes in the interatomic distances and magnetic moments on the atoms of the metallic substrates. The coverage of the iron surface by mono- and few-layer graphene induces significant changes in the orbital occupancies and exchange interactions between the layers in contrast to the case of a nickel substrate for which changes in the orbital ordering and exchange interactions are much smaller. Experimental measurements demonstrate the presence of ferromagnetic fcc-iron in Fe@C nanoparticles and the superparamagnetic behavior of Ni@C nanoparticles.

  15. Observation of the Anderson Metal-Insulator Transition with Atomic Matter Waves: Theory and Experiment

    E-print Network

    Gabriel Lemarié; Julien Chabé; Pascal Szriftgiser; Jean-Claude Garreau; Benoît Grémaud; Dominique Delande

    2009-07-20

    Using a cold atomic gas exposed to laser pulses -- a realization of the chaotic quasiperiodic kicked rotor with three incommensurate frequencies -- we study experimentally and theoretically the Anderson metal-insulator transition in three dimensions. Sensitive measurements of the atomic wavefunction and the use of finite-size scaling techniques make it possible to unambiguously demonstrate the existence of a quantum phase transition and to measure its critical exponents. By taking proper account of systematic corrections to one-parameter scaling, we show the universality of the critical exponent $\

  16. Many-Body Physics: Collective fermionic excitations in quark-gluon plasmas and cold atom systems

    E-print Network

    Jean-Paul Blaizot

    2014-05-13

    In this talk I discuss collective excitations that carry fermion quantum numbers. Such excitations occur in the quark-gluon plasma and can also be produced in cold atom systems under special conditions.

  17. A Learning Pathway in High-School Level Quantum Atomic Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petri, Juergen; Niedderer, Hans

    1998-01-01

    Describes one student's learning pathway as a sequence of several metastable conceptions of the atom starting from a planetary model. Displays the final cognitive element as an association of three parallel conceptions. Contains 26 references. (DDR)

  18. VOLUME 6S, NUMBER 13 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Very Cold Trapped Atoms in a Vapor Cell

    E-print Network

    Monroe, Christopher

    1990 C. Monroe, %. Swann, H. Robinson, "'' and C. Wieman Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics and loaded it into a low-field magnetic trap in the same cell. The magnetically trapped atoms had an e

  19. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: L D Landau in the Soviet Atomic Project: a documentary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, G. V.

    2008-09-01

    The article presents information about the participation of Academician L D Landau in the Soviet Atomic Project and is based on a study of archive documents of the First Main Directorate. Their analysis points to L D Landau's important contribution to the development of the theory of heterogeneous nuclear reactors and to the computational justification of the first designs of atomic and hydrogen bombs. Many of the quoted documents have never been published before.

  20. Electron-Atom Collisions in Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Electron-atom collisions in gases are an aspect of atomic physics. Three experiments in this field employing a thyratron are described: (i) the Ramsauer-Townsend effect, (ii) the excitation and ionization potentials of xenon and (iii) the ion-electron recombination after interrupting the electric discharge.