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1

Atomic physics experiments with stored cooled heavy ion beams  

SciTech Connect

The wide ranging interest in the development of heavy ion synchrotrons with electron beam cooling is evident from the number of projects presently under way. Although much of the initial motivation for these rings stemmed from nuclear and particle physics, a considerable amount of atomic physics experimentation is planned. This paper surveys some of the new opportunities in atomic physics which may be made available with storage ring systems. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

Datz, S.

1986-01-01

2

Atomic Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection provides a basic introduction to Atomic Physics. It reviews the building blocks of atomic structure, explores atomic isotopes, explains Einstein's famous equation E = mc2, and introduces the various types of radiation.

Griffith, Christopher

3

Atomic physics experiments with photon and ion beams  

SciTech Connect

The experiments investigated the feasibility of: (1) producing multiply-charged argon ions (up to 7+) at very low energies in quantities sufficient for experimental purposes, (2) using ion trap techniques for further study of the ions and repetitive photoionization to achieve higher charge states, and (3) using a VUV spectrometer to study fluorescent radiation emitted from the ions.

Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.

1987-03-01

4

Extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard x-ray region  

SciTech Connect

The high-brightness, hard x-ray beams available from third-generation synchrotron sources are opening new opportunities to study the deepest inner shells of atoms, an area where little work has been done and phenomena not observed in less tightly bound inner-shells are manifested. In addition scattering processes which are weak at lower energies become important, providing another tool to investigate atomic structure as well as an opportunity to study photon/atom interactions beyond photoabsorption. In this contribution we discuss some of the issues related to extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard x-ray region from the physical and the experimental point of view. We close with a discussion of a technique, resonant Raman scattering, that may prove invaluable in determining the spectra of the very highly-excited states resulting from the excitation of deep inner shells. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

LeBrun, T. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States of America)

1997-01-01

5

Extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard X-ray region  

SciTech Connect

The high-brightness, hard x-ray beams available from third-generation synchrotron sources are opening new opportunities to study the deepest inner shells of atoms, an area where little work has been done and phenomena not observed in less tightly bound inner-shells are manifested. In addition scattering processes which are weak at lower energies become important, providing another tool to investigate atomic structure as well as an opportunity to study photon/atom interactions beyond photoabsorption. In this contribution the authors discuss some of the issues related to extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard x-ray region from the physical and the experimental point of view. They close with a discussion of a technique, resonant Raman scattering, that may prove invaluable in determining the spectra of the very highly-excited states resulting from the excitation of deep inner shells.

LeBrun, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.

1996-12-31

6

Atomic and Molecular Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A symposium on atomic and molecular physics was held on November 18, 2005 at Goddard Space Flight Center. There were a number of talks through the day on various topics such as threshold law of ionization, scattering of electrons from atoms and molecules, muonic physics, positron physics, Rydberg states etc. The conference was attended by a number of physicists from all over the world.

Bhatia, Anand K.

2005-01-01

7

Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular and optical physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The volume presents a program of research initiatives in atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The current state of atomic, molecular, and optical physics in the US is examined with respect to demographics, education patterns, applications, and the US economy. Recommendations are made for each field, with discussions of their histories and the relevance of the research to government agencies. The section on atomic physics includes atomic theory, structure, and dynamics; accelerator-based atomic physics; and large facilities. The section on molecular physics includes spectroscopy, scattering theory and experiment, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The section on optical physics discusses lasers, laser spectroscopy, and quantum optics and coherence. A section elucidates interfaces between the three fields and astrophysics, condensed matter physics, surface science, plasma physics, atmospheric physics, and nuclear physics. Another section shows applications of the three fields in ultra-precise measurements, fusion, national security, materials, medicine, and other topics.

1986-01-01

8

Theoretical atomic collision physics  

SciTech Connect

The current focus of the research is low-energy (collision v<atom (including Rydberg atom) collisions with atoms, molecules and positive and negative ions: (1) We are interested in the dependence of various differential and total cross sections on the angular momentum of the initial excited state and on the alignment of the initial electron charge distribution (for non-spherical initially excited states). (2) We wish to understand how characteristics of the classical trajectories (in CTMC calculations), e.g. multiple encounters, quasi-periodicity, chaos, relate to characteristics of the probability (scattering) amplitudes obtained from semiclassical (quantum mechanical) treatments. (3) In particular, in order to investigate a range of interaction regimes,'' we have proposed to study low-Rydberg-atom collisions with: ions and polar molecules (long range interaction); non-polar molecules and atoms (short-range interaction); as well as electron-attaching atoms/molecules (transient electron capture possible). (4) We plan to look for observable signatures of possibly novel intracollisional interference effects and quasi-vibrational resonance effects that may occur in low-Rydberg collisions.

Lane, N.F.

1992-03-09

9

Informational experiments with microparticles and atoms  

E-print Network

Accepting information as a physical category and ascribing to inanimate matter some spirit (consciousness, intelligence) allows to explain quantum-mechanical phenomena, including delayed-choice and EPR-Bohm-Bell experiments, as well as irreversibility of time, remaining on the basis of local realism, and suggest essentially new experiments with microparticles and atoms in which information plays the principal role.

Raoul Nakhmanson

2005-09-07

10

Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases: atomic physics meets condensed matter physics  

E-print Network

Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases: atomic physics meets condensed matter physics W of atomic and condensed matter physics. Topics of many-body physics can now be studied with the methods the gaseous BEC ultralow density condensed matter physics. Bose-Einstein conden- sation in atomic gases

11

Optical Spectroscopy of Hydrogenic Atoms MIT Department of Physics  

E-print Network

Optical Spectroscopy of Hydrogenic Atoms MIT Department of Physics (Dated: September 1, 2013) This experiment is an exercise in optical spectroscopy in a study of the spectra of "hydrogenic" atoms, i.e. atoms with one "optical" electron outside a closed shell of other electrons. Measurements include finding

Seager, Sara

12

Bringing Atoms into First-Year Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that thermal physics should not be treated as a separate topic in introductory physics. Provides an example of a course that emphasizes physical modeling of the phenomenon in terms of the atomic nature of matter. (Author/CCM)

Chabay, Ruth W.; Sherwood, Bruce A.

1999-01-01

13

Bose–Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases: atomic physics meets condensed matter physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bose–Einstein condensed atomic gases are a new class of quantum fluids. They are produced by cooling a dilute atomic gas to nanokelvin temperatures using laser and evaporative cooling techniques. The study of these quantum gases has become an interdisciplinary field of atomic and condensed matter physics. Topics of many-body physics can now be studied with the methods of atomic physics.

W. Ketterle

2000-01-01

14

Relativistic atomic physics at the SSC  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following proposed work for relativistic atomic physics at the Superconducting Super Collider: Beam diagnostics; atomic physics research; staffing; education; budget information; statement concerning matching funds; description and justification of major items of equipment; statement of current and pending support; and assurance of compliance.

NONE

1990-12-31

15

Atomic physics of relativistic high contrast laser-produced plasmas in experiments on Leopard laser facility at UNR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the recent experiments focused on study of x-ray radiation from multicharged plasmas irradiated by relativistic (I > 1019 W/cm2) sub-ps laser pulses on Leopard laser facility at NTF/UNR are presented. These shots were done under different experimental conditions related to laser pulse and contrast. In particular, the duration of the laser pulse was 350 fs or 0.8 ns and the contrast was varied from high (10-7) to moderate (10-5). The thin laser targets (from 4 to 750 ?m) made of a broad range of materials (from Teflon to iron and molybden to tungsten and gold) were utilized. Using the x-ray diagnostics including the high-precision spectrometer with resolution R ˜ 3000 and a survey spectrometer, we have observed unique spectral features that are illustrated in this paper. Specifically, the observed L-shell spectra for Fe targets subject to high intensity lasers (˜1019 W/cm2) indicate electron beams, while at lower intensities (˜1016 W/cm2) or for Cu targets there is much less evidence for an electron beam. In addition, K-shell Mg features with dielectronic satellites from high-Rydberg states, and the new K-shell F features with dielectronic satellites including exotic transitions from hollow ions are highlighted.

Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Faenov, A. Y.; Safronova, U. I.; Wiewior, P.; Renard-Le Galloudec, N.; Esaulov, A. A.; Weller, M. E.; Stafford, A.; Wilcox, P.; Shrestha, I.; Ouart, N. D.; Shlyaptseva, V.; Osborne, G. C.; Chalyy, O.; Paudel, Y.

2012-06-01

16

Atomic physics with vapor-cell clocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most widely used atomic frequency standards (or clocks) are based on the microwave resonant frequencies of optically pumped vapors of alkali-metal atoms in glass cells filled with buffer gas. These vapor-cell clocks are secondary, not primary frequency standards mainly because of the light and pressure shifts, which alter the resonant frequencies of the alkali-metal atoms. This dissertation presents studies of atomic physics important to vapor-cell clocks and, in particular, their accuracy. First, we report a simple method to suppress the light shift in optical pumping systems. This method uses only frequency modulation of a radio frequency or microwave source, which excites an atomic resonance, to simultaneously lock the source frequency to the atomic resonance and lock the pumping light frequency to suppress the light shift. This technique can be applied to many optical pumping systems that experience light shifts. It is especially useful for atomic clocks because it improves the long-term performance, reduces the influence of a pumping laser, and requires less equipment than previous methods. Next, we present three studies of the pressure shift, starting with an estimation of the hyperfine-shift potential that is responsible for most of the pressure shift. We then show that the microwave resonant frequencies of ground-state Rb and Cs atoms in Xe buffer gas have a relatively large nonlinear dependence on the Xe pressure, presumably because of short-lived RbXe and CsXe van der Waals molecules. The Xe data show striking discrepancies with the previous theory for nonlinear shifts, most of which is eliminated by accounting for the spin-rotation interaction in addition to the hyperfine-shift interaction in the molecules. To the limit of our experimental accuracy, the shifts of Rb and Cs in He, Ne, and N2 were linear with pressure. We then consider the prospects for suppressing the pressure shift with buffer-gas mixtures and feedback. Finally, we report an investigation of the potential for integrating spheres to enhance absorption in optically thin alkali-metal vapor cells. We demonstrate a roughly ten-fold increase of the optical absorption that seems to be limited by the glass cell required to contain the alkali-metal vapor.

McGuyer, Bart Hunter

17

Efimov physics in cold atoms  

SciTech Connect

Atoms with a large scattering length have universal low-energy properties that do not depend on the details of their structure or their interactions at short distances. In the 2-atom sector, the universal properties are familiar and depend only on the scattering length. In the 3-atom sector for identical bosons, the universal properties include the existence of a sequence of shallow triatomic molecules called Efimov trimers and log-periodic dependence of scattering observables on the energy and the scattering length. In this review, we summarize the universal results that are currently known. We also summarize the experimental information that is currently available with an emphasis on 3-atom loss processes.

Braaten, Eric [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)]. E-mail: braaten@mps.ohio-state.edu; Hammer, H.-W. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn, 53115 Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: hammer@itkp.uni-bonn.de

2007-01-15

18

New results in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source is the world's first low-energy third-generation synchrotron radiation source. It has been running reliably and exceeding design specifications since it began operation in October 1993. It is available to a wide community of researchers in many scientific fields, including atomic and molecular science and chemistry. Here, new results in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source demonstrate the opportunities available in atomic and molecular physics at this synchrotron light source. The unprecedented brightness allows experiments with high flux, high spectral resolution, and nearly 100% linear polarization.

Schlachter, A.S.

1995-01-01

19

The Atomic hypothesis: Physical consequences  

E-print Network

The hypothesis that matter is made of some ultimate and indivisible objects, together the restricted relativity principle, establishes a constraint on the kind of variables we are allowed to use for the variational description of elementary particles. We consider that the atomic hypothesis not only states the indivisibility of elementary particles, but also that these ultimate objects, if not annihilated, cannot be modified by any interaction so that all allowed states of an elementary particle are only kinematical modifications of any one of them. Terefore, an elementary particle cannot have excited states. In this way, the kinematical group of spacetime symmetries not only defines the symmetries of the system, but also the variables in terms of which the mathematical description of the elementary particles can be expressed in either the classical or the quantum mechanical description. When considering the interaction of two Dirac particles, the atomic hypothesis restricts the interaction Lagrangian to a kind of minimal coupling interaction.

Martin Rivas

2007-09-03

20

Bringing atoms into first-year physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We argue that thermal physics should not be treated as a separate topic in introductory physics. The first-year calculus-based college physics should offer a modern, unified view of physics representative of the contemporary scientific enterprise. It should focus on the consequences of the central fact that matter is composed of atoms, and on the process of modeling physical systems. Such a focus is more interesting and relevant to students than a repetition of a purely classical treatment. We give an example of a course that emphasizes physical modeling of phenomena in terms of the atomic nature of matter. Thermal physics is woven into the entire course and is fully integrated with classical and semiclassical mechanics.

Chabay, Ruth; Sherwood, Bruce

2005-10-11

21

Crucial Experiments in Quantum Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The six experiments included in this monography are titled Blackbody Radiation, Collision of Electrons with Atoms, The Photoelectric Effect, Magnetic Properties of Atoms, The Scattering of X-Rays, and Diffraction of Electrons by a Crystal Lattice. The discussion provides historical background by giving description of the original experiments and…

Trigg, George L.

22

Atomic Physics, Science (Experimental): 5318.42.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the study of modern and classical concepts of the atom; the structure of the atom as a mass-energy relationship; practical uses of radioactivity; isotopes; and the strange particles. Performance objectives (16) are included as well as a detailed course outline. Experiments, demonstrations, projects and reports to enhance student…

Petit, Ralph E.

23

B Physics (Experiment)  

E-print Network

In past few years the flavor physics made important transition from the work on confirmation the standard model of particle physics to the phase of search for effects of a new physics beyond standard model. In this paper we review current state of the physics of b-hadrons with emphasis on results with a sensitivity to new physics.

Michal Kreps

2010-08-02

24

Future directions in kaonic atom physics  

E-print Network

Recent progress and open problems in kaonic atom physics are presented. A connection between phenomenological deep potentials and the underlying $K^-N$ interaction is established as well as the need for a theory for multinucleon absorption of kaons. $K^-$ absorption at rest to specific $\\Lambda $ hypernuclei states is briefly discussed.

E. Friedman

2011-11-30

25

VOLUME 6S, NUMBER 13 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Very Cold Trapped Atoms in a Vapor Cell  

E-print Network

VOLUME 6S, NUMBER 13 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Very Cold Trapped Atoms in a Vapor Cell 24 SEPTEMBER sample of spin-polarized trapped atoms. The technique used dramati- cally simplifies the production of laser-cooled atoms. In this experiment, 1.8x10' neutral cesium atoms were optically captured directly

Monroe, Christopher

26

ATOMIC PHYSICS DMITRY BUDKER | DEREK F. KIMBALL | DAVID P. DEMILLE  

E-print Network

ATOMIC PHYSICS DMITRY BUDKER | DEREK F. KIMBALL | DAVID P. DEMILLE an exploration through problems are interested in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical (AMO) Physics. Written as a collection of problems, hints on atomic structure, behaviour of atoms and molecules in external electromagnetic fields, atomic collisions

Pines, Alexander

27

Handbook explaining the fundamentals of nuclear and atomic physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indoctrination document presents nuclear, reactor, and atomic physics in an easy, straightforward manner. The entire subject of nuclear physics including atomic structure ionization, isotopes, radioactivity, and reactor dynamics is discussed.

Hanlen, D. F.; Morse, W. J.

1969-01-01

28

Postdoc Positions in Theoretical Condensed Matter and Cold Atom Physics  

E-print Network

Postdoc Positions in Theoretical Condensed Matter and Cold Atom Physics and Cold Atom Physics. The candidate should have a strong background in many body at the University of Pittsburgh or made as a joint appointment between University

29

8.422 Atomic and Optical Physics II, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

This is the second of a two-semester subject sequence beginning with Atomic and Optical Physics I (8.421) that provides the foundations for contemporary research in selected areas of atomic and optical physics. Topics ...

Chuang, Isaac

30

Planning a School Physics Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model for planning the measurement of physical quantities. Provides two examples of optimizing the conditions of indirect measurement for laboratory experiments which involve measurements of acceleration due to gravity and of viscosity by means of Stokes' formula. (ML)

Blasiak, Wladyslaw

1986-01-01

31

PhD STUDENT IN ATOMIC THEORY The Theory group in the Atomic Physics division, Department of Physics, Stockholm  

E-print Network

PhD STUDENT IN ATOMIC THEORY The Theory group in the Atomic Physics division, Department of Physics Negative Ions and Photodetachment Relativistic Many-Body theory of atomic structure Highly Charged Ions ­ Resonances- in Atoms and Ions Recombination processes in electron-ion collisions - Dielectronic Recombination

Lindroth, Eva

32

Atomic Physics Aspects of a Relativistic Nuclear Collider  

SciTech Connect

Atomic collision cross sections involving bare uranium nuclei are large at relativistic energies and will affect the design and operation of a relativistic nuclear collider (RNC). The most significant may be production of electron-positron pairs and muon pairs ({approx} 10{sup 8} per sec. and 2000 per sec. respectively for a 100 GeV/nucleon collider with a luminosity of 10{sup 27} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}). Although the pair production is a direct measure of the luminosity it is also a large source of background and capture of an electron from the pair by one of the nuclei will result in the loss of the ion. Another important loss mechanism is Coulomb excitation of the giant nuclear dipole and giant nuclear quadrupole resonances. Storing and colliding bare and highly-stripped uranium opens up new possibilities for novel atomic physics experiments and an alternate approach for present experiments. As examples, the use of a collider for experiments to study spontaneous decay of the super-critical state (both positron production and x-ray production) of quasi-atoms of atomic number Z > 172, and a storage-ring measurement of the ground state hyperfine structure of hydrogen like thallium as a test of quantum electrodynamics (QED) are discussed.

Gould, R.

1984-11-01

33

Theory of atomic parity violating experiments. [Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of atomic calculations relevant to the Bi parity nonconservation experiments is presented. The following were included to date: relativistic Hartree-Fock, intermediate coupling, configuration mixing and RPA-type shielding. There is disagreement between two shielding calculations. Using mean values of these shielding corrections, one obtains for the mixing ratios R = -10.5 (876 nm) and -14(648 nm); based on uncertainty

Wilets

1978-01-01

34

Astronomy-inspired Atomic and Molecular Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aimed at senior undergraduate and first-year graduate students in departments of physics and astronomy, this textbook gives a systematic treatment of atomic and molecular structure and spectra, together with the effect of weak and strong external electromagnetic fields. Topics chosen are those of interest in astronomy and indeed many were inspired by specific astronomical contexts. Examples include the negative ion of hydrogen and the effects of strong magnetic fields such as those occurring on certain white dwarfs and neutron stars. Adiabatic and non-adiabatic handling of electron correlations and application to processes such as dielectronic recombination are included. Astronomical examples are provided throughout as well as end-of-the chapter problems and exercises. Over seventy illustrative diagrams complete this unique and comprehensive volume. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0467-2

Rau, A. R. P.

2002-02-01

35

Experiments on entanglement of light and atomic ensembles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entanglement of pulses of near-resonant light propagating through atomic ensembles has become a powerful tool for quantum state engineering. It holds potential for addressing a number of quantum information protocols. For example, in our earlier work spin squeezed state of a thermal atomic sample has been generated [1] and entanglement of two thermal gases positioned at a distance of a couple of cm has been created[2]. Recently we have demonstrated entanglement of two atomic ensembles at a distance of 0.5 m, and extension of this distance up to tens or hundreds of meter appears feasible. I will discuss the physical conditions and limitations on the degree of entanglement achieved in this experiment. Cold atoms are good candidates for light-atoms quantum interface because of their high optical density. On the other hand cold Cs atoms form the basis of the time standard. The state-of-the-art Cas clock sensitivity is at present limited with the quantum projection noise of atoms. The progress with an experiment on generation of a spin squeezed state on the clock transition with the goal to overcome the projection noise limit will be reported [3]. Another proposal, in which the quantum interface is achieved by multiple passes of light through an ultracold sample of atoms without any measurements will be also briefly discussed [4]. 1. J. Hald, J. L. Sorensen, C. Schori, and E. S. Polzik, (1999), Phys. Rev. Lett., 83, 1319. 2. B. Julsgaard, A. Kozhekin, and E. S. Polzik, Nature, 413, 400 (2001). 3. D. Oblak, J. Sorensen, J. Mikkelsen, P. Petrov, C. Alzar and E.S. Polzik, submitted. 4. K. Hemmerer, J.I. Cirac, K. Molmer, and E.S. Polzik, submitted.

Polzik, Eugene

2004-05-01

36

[The physics of coal liquid slurry atomization]. Annual report 1992  

SciTech Connect

In order to understand the physics of atomization and to predict and improve the performance of atomizers, a survey on the effects of turbulence on atomization has been made. The influence of gas turbulence intensity on the disintegration of a liquid jet, while a constant mean velocity in both gas and liquid streams has been maintained, has been studied. A study has been made of the influence of changing dynamic surface tension on liquid surface wave characteristics and atomization. The dynamic surface tension of water was changed by adding Triton X-100 non-ionic surfactant into the liquid supplied to a two dimensional slot atomizer. Wave frequencies were measured using laser beam attenuation. Dynamic surface tension changes were found to influence liquid sheet disintegration with little effect on wave frequencies. A series of experiments have been conducted to determine the fundamental processes of injection and atomization of liquid propellants for rocket combustion chambers because of their direct influence on combustion instability. For coaxial injectors, liquid and gas flow rates have been progressively changed. Microphotography was used to obtain details of wave disturbances on liquid surfaces. Direct measurements were made of wavelength and frequency of wave propagation on liquid surfaces. Frequency was found to remain constant along the length of the liquid surface. Pulsations in the liquid jet caused drops to form clusters with the same frequency as that of jet surface waves. Measured frequencies were in the range of those measured in combustion instability experiments. Detailed measurements have been made in the sprays using the phase Doppler particle analyzer. Measurements of drop size, velocity and number density are related to the disintegration process. Increasing turbulence intensity in the gas stream is a very effective means of reducing drop size, increasing spray width, and therefore, improving combustion.

Chigier, N.; Brown, W.J.

1994-06-01

37

Interactive Plasma Physics Education Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IPPEX (Internet Plasma Physics Education Experience) is a project developed to allow students and teachers to participate remotely in scientific research at the nation's largest fusion energy laboratory. It offers an introduction to the study of controlled fusion using the tokamak reactor, a fusion confinement device located at Princeton University. The web site includes simulations of plasma reactions and an interactive tutorial on the process of fusion, its potential as a sustainable energy source, and the challenges of harnessing its power. The data analysis exercises are appropriate for introductory physics learners.

Laboratory, Princeton P.

2003-10-10

38

Atomic physics and non-equilibrium plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Three lectures comprise the report. The lecture, Atomic Structure, is primarily theoretical and covers four topics: (1) Non-relativistic one-electron atom, (2) Relativistic one-electron atom, (3) Non-relativistic many-electron atom, and (4) Relativistic many-electron atom. The lecture, Radiative and Collisional Transitions, considers the problem of transitions between atomic states caused by interactions with radiation or other particles. The lecture, Ionization Balance: Spectral Line Shapes, discusses collisional and radiative transitions when ionization and recombination processes are included. 24 figs., 11 tabs.

Weisheit, J.C.

1986-04-25

39

ELISA, and electrostatic storage ring for atomic physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a new type of storage ring for heavy ions using electrostatic deflection and focusing devices is described. At low energy, where the velocity is low for heavy ions, electrostatic bends and quadrupoles are more efficient than magnetic ones. Furthermore, electrostatic devices are more compact and easier to construct than magnetic devices. These and other features, e.g. no magnetic fields, makes such storage rings attractive for many atomic-physics experiments, and also for basic research in neighboring fields such as chemistry and biology.

Møller, Søren Pape

1997-02-01

40

Tests of Lorentz Violation in Atomic and Optical Physics  

E-print Network

Atomic physics can probe the Lorentz and CPT symmetries at the Planck level. Bounds on coefficients for Lorentz violation have been found using atomic clocks, masers, electromagnetic cavities, and Penning traps, among others, and in future it may be possible to place bounds using spectroscopy of antihydrogen atoms. The CPT '04 Meeting on CPT and Lorentz Symmetry was held in August 2004 in Bloomington, Indiana, USA, and covered Lorentz violation in all branches of physics. This report gives an overview of the recent advances in Lorentz-symmetry studies in atomic and optical physics.

Neil Russell

2005-01-14

41

Physics with the ALICE experiment  

E-print Network

ALICE experiment at LHC collects data in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV and in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. Highlights of the detector performance and an overview of experimental results measured with ALICE in pp and AA collisions are presented in this paper. Physics with proton-proton collisions is focused on hadron spectroscopy at low and moderate $p_T$. Measurements with lead-lead collisions are shown in comparison with those in pp collisions, and the properties of hot quark matter are discussed.

Yuri Kharlov; for the ALICE collaboration

2012-03-09

42

MISSE Scattered Atomic Oxygen Characterization Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment designed to measure the atomic oxygen (AO) erosion profile of scattered AO was exposed to Low Earth Orbital (LEO) AO for almost four years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 1 and 2 (MISSE 1 and 2). The experiment was flown in MISSE Passive Experiment Carrier 2 (PEC 2), Tray 1, attached to the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) Quest Airlock. The experiment consisted of an aperture disk lid of Kapton H (DuPont) polyimide coated on the space exposed surface with a thin AO durable silicon dioxide film. The aperture lid had a small hole in its center to allow AO to enter into a chamber and impact a base disk of aluminum. The AO that scattered from the aluminum base could react with the under side of the aperture lid which was coated sporadically with microscopic sodium chloride particles. Scattered AO erosion can occur to materials within a spacecraft that are protected from direct AO attack but because of apertures in the spacecraft the AO can attack the interior materials after scattering. The erosion of the underside of the Kapton lid was sufficient to be able to use profilometry to measure the height of the buttes that remained after washing off the salt particles. The erosion pattern indicated that peak flux of scattered AO occurred at and angle of approximately 45 from the incoming normal incidence on the aluminum base unlike the erosion pattern predicted for scattering based on Monte Carlo computational predictions for AO scattering from Kapton H polyimide. The effective erosion yield for the scattered AO was found to be a factor of 0.214 of that for direct impingement on Kapton H polyimide.

Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

2006-01-01

43

New Physics Effects in Long Baseline Experiments  

E-print Network

We discuss the implications of new physics, which modifies the matter effect in neutrino oscillations, to long baseline experiments, particularly the MINOS experiment. An analytic formula in the presence of such a new physics interaction is derived for $P(\

Osamu Yasuda

2007-10-13

44

Atomic physics: An almost lightless laser  

E-print Network

Lasers are often described in terms of a light field circulating in an optical resonator system. Now a laser has been demonstrated in which the field resides primarily in the atomic medium that is used to generate the light.

Vuletic, Vladan

45

Electrostatic atomization--Experiment, theory and industrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical research has been initiated at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory on the electrostatic atomization process in collaboration with Charged Injection Corporation. The goal of this collaboration is to set up a comprehensive research and development program on the electrostatic atomization at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory so that both institutions can benefit from the collaboration. Experimental, theoretical

H. Okuda; Arnold J. Kelly

1996-01-01

46

Atomic physics with highly charged ions  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

Richard, P.

1991-08-01

47

NASA GSFC Science Symposium on Atomic and Molecular Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is the proceedings of a conference on atomic and molecular physics in honor of the retirements of Dr. Aaron Temkin and Dr. Richard Drachman. The conference contained discussions on electron, positron, atomic, and positronium physics, as well as a discussion on muon catalyzed fusion. This proceedings document also contains photographs taken at the symposium, as well as speeches and a short biography made in tribute to the retirees.

Bhatia, Anand K. (Editor)

2007-01-01

48

Precision physics of simple atoms: QED tests, nuclear structure and fundamental constants  

E-print Network

Quantum electrodynamics is the first successful and still the most successful quantum field theory. Simple atoms, being essentially QED systems, allow highly accurate theoretical predictions. Because of their simple spectra, such atoms have been also efficiently studied experimentally frequently offering the most precisely measured quantities. Our review is devoted to comparison of theory and experiment in the field of precision physics of light simple atoms. In particular, we consider the Lamb shift in the hydrogen atom, the hyperfine structure in hydrogen, deuterium, helium-3 ion, muonium and positronium, as well as a number of other transitions in positronium. Additionally to a spectrum of unperturbed atoms, we consider annihilation decay of positronium and the g factor of bound particles in various two-body atoms. Special attention is paid to the uncertainty of the QED calculations due to the uncalculated higher-order corrections and effects of the nuclear structure. We also discuss applications of simple atoms to determination of several fundamental constants.

Savely G. Karshenboim

2005-09-01

49

LASSP: The Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics (LASSP) at Cornell University is a center for research in condensed matter physics. Scientists can read about the work of the thirty faculty members in topics such as theoretical condensed matter physics, low temperature physics, experimental liquid physics, and experimental soft-condensed matter and biological physics. With a number of images and animations at the website, students can learn about diffraction patterns of an icosahedral quasicrystal, Coarsening, and Spiral Defect Turbulence. Physicists can find employment opportunities at LASSP as well as information on upcoming seminars, conferences, and meetings.

50

Experiences and perceptions of physical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research has studied how children and young people, who are deemed by their school to have social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD), experience the National Curriculum of Physical Education (PE) in England. Research has previously highlighted the physical, social, affective and cognitive benefits of participation in PE. Furthermore, practical, physical and expressive creative experiences in education have been cited

Richard Medcalf; Joe Marshall; Ken Hardman; John Visser

2011-01-01

51

Atomic oxygen exposure of LDEF experiment trays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atomic oxygen exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The calculations are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation on atomic oxygen flux. Results incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the 6-year flight of the spacecraft. To facilitate use of the data, both detailed tabulations and summary charts for atomic oxygen fluences are presented.

Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.

1992-01-01

52

Positron spectroscopy in atomic and solid state physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic research problems in Atomic Physics with positrons (total cross sections, Ramsauer minima, positronium formation, selective ionization) and some benchmark measurements in Solid State Physics using positron annihilation (He-created nano-voids in Si, Oxygen precipitates in Si, low ? materials) are discussed.

G. P. Karwasz; R. S. Brusa; A. Zecca

2003-01-01

53

The physics of coal liquid slurry atomization  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study has been conducted on a two dimensional twin fluid atomizer in which a liquid sheet is sandwiched'' between two sheets of high speed air. High speed photography and imaging were used to study the air-liquid interface region. Average intact lengths of liquid sheets were measured. The intact lengths were studied over a liquid Reynolds number range of 4000 and a Weber number of 30. The intact lengths were found to be strongly dependent on the Reynolds and Weber numbers. An empirical equation was derived as a function of these parameters.

Chigier, N.; Mansour, A.

1992-01-01

54

Casestudy experiments in the introductory physics curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carthage College added inquiry-based case study activities to the traditional introductory physics laboratory. Student teams designed, constructed, and executed their own experiments to study real-world phenomena, through which they gained understanding both of physic principles and methods of physics research. Assessment results and student feedback through teacher evaluations indicate that these activities improved student attitudes about physics as well as

D. N. Arion; K. M. Crosby; E. A. Murphy

2000-01-01

55

Atomic Force Microscope: Modeling, Simulations, and Experiments  

E-print Network

The quality of atomic force microscope (AFM) data strongly depends on scan and controller parameters. Data artifacts can result from poor dynamic response of the instrument. In order to achieve reliable data, dynamic ...

El Rifai, Osamah M.

56

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 043429 (2013) Coherent manipulation of cold Rydberg atoms near the surface of an atom chip  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 043429 (2013) Coherent manipulation of cold Rydberg atoms near the surface of an atom chip J. D. Carter and J. D. D. Martin Department of Physics and Astronomy and Institute atoms were studied near the surface of an atom chip. The superpositions were created and manipulated

Le Roy, Robert J.

57

TEACHING PHYSICS: Experiments in modern physics for the general public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments in modern physics interest and fascinate many people. In order to make such experiments available to them, the Stockholm Science Laboratory - normally dedicated to teachers and students - was opened to the general public on 15 occasions in Autumn 1999. AÂ total of nine different themes, mainly in modern physics and astronomy but also in the physics of sound, colour and light, were presented. Each laboratory session lasted for approximately three hours, and was almost always fully booked.

Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch

2000-07-01

58

Physical Science Experiments for Scientific Glassblowing Technicians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The twenty experiments in this text have been designed to give the scientific glassblowing technician the opportunity to use scientific glass apparatus in the study of physical science. Primary emphasis of these experiments is on the practical application of the physical science program as a working tool for the scientific glassblowing technician.…

Tillis, Samuel E.; Donaghay, Herbert C.

59

New Physics Discovery Potential in Future Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method to estimate the probability of new physics discovery in future high energy physics experiments. Physics simulation gives both the average numbers of background and of signal events. We find that the proper definition of the significance for , ≫ 1 is S12 = &surd; {< Ns> +< Nb >} - &surd; {< Nb>}

S. I. Bityukov; N. V. Krasnikov

1998-01-01

60

Current experiments in elementary particle physics  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.

1987-03-01

61

REVIEW ARTICLE: Interplay of nuclear and atomic physics in ion-atom collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interplay between atomic and nuclear interactions in collisions between light and heavy ions is studied. The general theoretical description is outlined and analysed in a number of different limits (non-relativistic and relativistic electrons, semiclassical approximation, DWBA, fully quantal description) that have been used in practical applications. The two most important physical mechanisms for generating atomic-nuclear interference, i.e. energy conservation

U. Heinz

1987-01-01

62

Highlights INFM 2000/2001 1.Atomic and Molecular Physics, Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics  

E-print Network

Highlights INFM 2000/2001 1.Atomic and Molecular Physics, Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics 1, processing, storing, or computing. The marriage of Quantum Physics and Information Technology -originally.2 EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TRANSFER MATRIX OF A QUANTUM DEVICE It is unquestionable that the current

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

63

Physics and experiments at RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, will be the site of a series of experiments seeking to discover the quark-gluon plasma and elucidate its properties. Several observables should exhibit characteristic behaviors if a quark-gluon plasma is indeed created in the laboratory. Four experiments are now under construction for RHIC to measure certain of these observables over kinematic ranges where effects due to quark-gluon plasma formation should be manifest.

Young, G.R.

1995-12-31

64

Summary of informal meeting on ''facilities for atomic physics research with highly ionized atoms''  

SciTech Connect

An informal meeting to discuss ''Facilities for Atomic Physics Research with Highly Ionized Atoms'' was held during the APS DEAP meeting at the University of Connecticut on May 30, 1984. The meeting was motivated by the realization that the status of facilities for studies of highly ionized atoms is unsettled and that it might be desirable to take action to ensure adequate resources for research over the whole range of charge states and energies of interest. It was assumed that the science to be done with these beams has been amply documented in the literature.

Cocke, C.L.; Jones, K.W.

1984-01-01

65

Bringing atomic and nuclear physics laboratory data into the classroom  

SciTech Connect

To illustrate a number of basic concepts in atomic and nuclear physics, we have developed three websites where students can analyze data from modern laboratories. By working through the on-line procedures, students will become acquainted with characteristic x-ray spectra, the concept of half-life, x-ray fluorescence, and neutron activation analysis.

Norman, Eric B.; Larimer, Ruth-Mary; Rech, Gregory; Lee, Jeffrey; Vue, Chue; Leubane, Tholoana; Zamvil, Kenneth; Guthrie, Laura

2003-05-27

66

Project Physics Reader 5, Models of the Atom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 5, a collection of articles is presented in this reader for student browsing. Nine excerpts are given under the following headings: failure and success, Einstein, Mr. Tompkins and simultaneity, parable of the surveyors, outside and inside the elevator, the teacher and the Bohr theory of atom, Dirac and Born,…

Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

67

ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 4, SUPPLEMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THIS TEXT WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, OFFERING SELF-TUTORING MATERIAL FOR LEARNING ATOMIC PHYSICS. THE TOPICS COVERED ARE (1) RADIATION USES AND NUCLEAR FISSION, (2) NUCLEAR REACTORS, (3) ENERGY FROM NUCLEAR REACTORS, (4) NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND FUSION, (5) A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW, AND (6) A…

DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

68

Universal van der Waals Physics for Three Ultracold Atoms  

E-print Network

Experimental studies with ultracold atoms have enabled major breakthroughs in understanding three-body physics, historically a fundamental yet challenging problem. This is because the interactions among ultracold atoms can be precisely varied using magnetically tunable scattering resonances known as Feshbach resonances. The collisions of ultracold atoms have been discovered to have many universal aspects near the unitarity limit. Away from this limit, many quantum states are expected to be active during a three-body collision, making the collisional observables practically unpredictable. Here we report a major development in predicting three-body ultracold scattering rates by properly building in the pairwise van der Waals interactions plus the multi-spin properties of a tunable Feshbach resonance state characterized by two known dimensionless two-body parameters. Numerical solution of the Schr{\\"o}dinger equation then predicts the three-atom collisional rates without adjustable fitting parameters needed to f...

Wang, Yujun

2014-01-01

69

Experiment and the foundations of quantum physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instead of having to rely on gedanken (thought) experiments, it is possible to base this discussion of the foundations of quantum physics on actually performed experiments because of the enormous experimental progress in recent years. For reasons of space, the author discusses mainly experiments related to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and Bell's theorem, that is, to quantum entanglement. Not only have

Anton Zeilinger

1999-01-01

70

Experiments in intermediate energy physics  

SciTech Connect

Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

Dehnhard, D.

2003-02-28

71

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 063411 (2010) Spatially resolved excitation of Rydberg atoms and surface effects on an atom chip  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 063411 (2010) Spatially resolved excitation of Rydberg atoms and surface effects on an atom chip Atreju Tauschinsky,* Rutger M. T. Thijssen, S. Whitlock, H. B. van Linden van den spatially resolved, coherent excitation of Rydberg atoms on an atom chip. Electromagnetically induced

Amsterdam, Universiteit van

72

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Galic, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Armstrong, F.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); von Przewoski, B. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (United States)] [and others

1994-08-01

73

Current experiments in elementary-particle physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (ENL); CERN; DESY; Fermilab. (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMP. Also, summries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated.

Wohl, C. G.; Armstrong, F. E.; Rittenberg, A.

1983-03-01

74

Practical Physics: Basic Experiments with Ripple Tanks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains a set of eight introductory experiments on wave reflections, appropriate for use in high school and middle school. Students are introduced to ripple tanks and gain confidence in using them by doing some simple experiments with pulses. SEE RELATED ITEMS on this page for a Teachers' Guide on using ripple tanks, and for ripple tank experiments for the more advanced classroom. This item is part of a much larger collection of physics/astronomy experiments, sponsored by the UK's Institute of Physics and funded by the Nuffield Curriculum Centre.

Centre, Nuffield C.

2009-03-20

75

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Dodder, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (Russian Federation); Illarionova, N.S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lehar, F. [CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oyanagi, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Sciences; Olin, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Frosch, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

1992-06-01

76

Current experiments in elementary particle physics  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Oyanagi, Y. (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)); Dodder, D.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov (USSR). Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla

1989-09-01

77

Introducing many-body physics using atomic spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atoms constitute relatively simple many-body systems, making them suitable objects for developing an understanding of basic aspects of many-body physics. Photoabsorption spectroscopy is a prominent method to study the electronic structure of atoms and the inherent many-body interactions. In this article, the impact of many-body effects on well-known spectroscopic features, such as Rydberg series, Fano resonances, Cooper minima, and giant resonances, is studied and related many-body phenomena in other fields are outlined. To calculate photoabsorption cross sections, the time-dependent configuration interaction singles (TDCIS) model is employed. The conceptual clearness of TDCIS in combination with the compactness of atomic systems allows for a pedagogical introduction to many-body phenomena.

Krebs, Dietrich; Pabst, Stefan; Santra, Robin

2014-02-01

78

Experiment Problems for Introductory Physics Labs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiment problems are an important part of Ohio State University's new laboratory program for the calculus-based introductory physics course. Students solve a problem involving laboratory apparatus, often using inexpensive toys. The problems may be poorly defined, require planned solutions before trying the experiments, and involve multiple parts and multiple concepts. Students decide what quantities to measure in order to satisfactorily

Alan van Heuvelen

1997-01-01

79

Resource Article: Experiments with Vortices in Superfluid Atomic Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of quantized vortices in dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates were first reported in 1999. Over the next 10 years,\\u000a more than 70 papers describing experiments involving vortices in superfluid atomic gases were published in scientific journals.\\u000a This resource article provides a guide to the published experimental studies related to quantized vortices in atomic Bose-Einstein\\u000a condensates and superfluid Fermi gases. A BibTex-formatted

Brian P. Anderson

2010-01-01

80

Resource Article: Experiments with Vortices in Superfluid Atomic Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of quantized vortices in dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates were first reported in 1999. Over the next 10 years, more than 70 papers describing experiments involving vortices in superfluid atomic gases were published in scientific journals. This resource article provides a guide to the published experimental studies related to quantized vortices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and superfluid Fermi gases. A BibTex-formatted

Brian P. Anderson

2010-01-01

81

Plasma Gate: Free Software for Atomic and Plasma Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Plasma Laboratory of Weizmann Institute of Science, the Free Software for Atomic and Plasma Physics Web site contains over thirty links to various programs. Examples of available software include Weizmann Institutes: 369j-symbol calculator and Russia's Institute of Spectroscopy's spectral bibliography database. Although several of the links currently seem to be dead, the site does give those working in this field access to several sites with useful software programs.

1994-01-01

82

Current Topics in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface -- Ultrafast dynamics of nano and mesoscopic systems driven by asymmetric electromagnetic pulses / A. Matos-Abiague, A. S. Moskalenko and J. Berakdar -- One-dimensional non-linear oscillators as models for atoms and molecules under intense laser fields / A. Wadehra and B. M. Deb -- Experimenting with topological states of Bose-Einstein condensates / C. Raman -- Laser cooling and trapping of Rb atoms / S. Chakraborty ... [et al.] -- Pair-correlation in Bose-Einstein condensate and fermi superfluid of atomic gases / B. Deb -- Properties of trapped Bose gas in the large-gas-parameter regime / A. Banerjee -- A Feynman-Kac path integral study of Rb gas / S. Datta -- Mean field theory for interacting spin-1 bosons on a lattice / R. V. Pai, K. Sheshadri and R. Pandit -- Mixed internal-external state approach for quantum computation with neutral atoms on atom chips / E. Charron ... [et al.] -- Ultrafast pulse shaping developments for quantum computation / S. K. Karthick Kumar and D. Goswami -- Quantum information transfer in atom-photon interactions in a cavity / A. S. Majumdar, N. Nayak and B. Ghosh -- Liouville density evolution in billiards and the quantum connection / D. Biswas -- MRCPA: theory and application to highly correlating system / K. Tanaka -- Calculation of negative ion shape resonances using coupled cluster theory / Y. Sajeev and S. Pal -- Optical frequency standard with Sr+: a theoretical many-body approach / C. Sur ... [et al.] -- Fast heavy ion collisions with H[symbol] molecules and young type interference / L. C. Tribedi and D. Misra -- Estimation of ion kinetic energies from time-of-flight and momentum spectra / B. Bapat -- Third-order optical susceptibility of metal nanocluster-glass 28 composites / B. Ghosh and P. Chakraborty -- Study of atom-surface interaction using magnetic atom mirror / A. K. Mohapatra.

Sinha, Chandana; Bhattacharyya, Shib Shankar

83

Microwave ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms: Experiment and theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article elaborates on a talk delivered by the first author at the First International Conference on the Physics of Phase Space (University of Maryland, 20–23 May 1986). It reviews briefly our still limited, but rapidly growing understanding of a dynamical process, the ionization of highly-excited hydrogen atoms by a microwave electric field. Classical dynamics explains surprisingly well many recent

P. Koch; K. van Leeuwen; O. Rath; D. Richards; R. V. Jensen

1987-01-01

84

Partial Atomic Charge Derivation of small molecule Partial atomic charge is very crucial for computing physical, chemical and biological  

E-print Network

Partial Atomic Charge Derivation of small molecule Partial atomic charge is very crucial of the atomic charge in a given species, it is possible to predict the stability, solvation energetics atomic charges from experiment. Also, there is no universally agreed upon best procedure for computing

Jayaram, Bhyravabotla

85

Slow-Atom Electron EDM Experiment with Electric Field Quantization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving the electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM) upper limit has been a 40-year battle against systematic effects. Two new weapons in this battle are slow atoms and ground-state electric field quantization, both of which suppress motional magnetic field effects. They have been used effectively in a recently completed e-EDM experiment that is a prototype for a high-sensitivity Cs fountain e-EDM experiment. Electric field quantization of Cs atoms required nulling residual magnetic fields to < 200 pT, transport of polarized atoms through field-free (nulled) regions, and inducing transitions between closely spaced |mF| levels using separated short pulses in place of oscillatory fields. The possibility of improving the e-EDM limit with a Cs fountain experiment will be discussed.

Gould, Harvey; Amini, Jason; Munger, Charles, Jr.

2007-06-01

86

Two Postdoc Positions in Theoretical Condensed Matter and Cold Atom Physics  

E-print Network

Two Postdoc Positions in Theoretical Condensed Matter and Cold Atom Physics of Condensed Matter and Cold Atom Physics. The candidate should have a strong is a joint appointment between University of Pittsburgh and George Mason University

87

Experiment Problems for Introductory Physics Labs*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiment problems are an important part of Ohio State University's new laboratory program for the calculus-based introductory physics course. Students solve a problem involving laboratory apparatus, often using inexpensive toys. The problems may be poorly defined, require planned solutions before trying the experiments, and involve multiple parts and multiple concepts. Students decide what quantities to measure in order to satisfactorily complete the experiment and must justify approximations. Several examples will be provided including a multipart Hot Wheels experiment that is analyzed by students during the last mechanics lab. The use of the problems in a lecture setting will also be demonstrated.

van Heuvelen, Alan

1997-04-01

88

LDEF experiment A0034: Atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment A0034, 'Atomic Oxygen Stimulated Outgassing', consisted of two identical one-sixth tray modules, exposing selected thermal control coatings to atomic oxygen and the combined space environment on the leading edge, and for reference, to the relative 'wake' environment of the trailing edge. Optical mirrors were included adjacent to the thermal coatings for deposition of the outgassing products. Ultraviolet grade windows and metal covers were provided for additional assessment of the effects of various environmental factors. Preliminary results indicate that orbital atomic oxygen is both a degrading and optically restorative factor in the thermo-optical properties of selected thermal coatings. There is evidence of more severe optical degradation on collector mirrors adjacent to coatings that were exposed to RAM-impinging atomic oxygen. This evidence of atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing is discussed in relation to alternative factors that could affect degradation. The general effects of the space environment on the experiment hardware as well as the specimens are discussed.

Linton, Roger C.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Reynolds, John M.; Burris, Charles L.

1992-01-01

89

Using the Wiimote in Introductory Physics Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wii is a very popular gaming console. An important component of its appeal is the ease of use of its remote controller, popularly known as a Wiimote. This simple-looking but powerful device has a three-axis accelerometer and communicates with the console via Bluetooth protocol. We present two experiments that demonstrate the feasibility of using the Wiimote in introductory physics

Romulo Ochoa; Frank G. Rooney; William J. Somers

2011-01-01

90

Introducing Fundamental Physical Experiments to Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideas concerning the experimental method of cognition can be inculcatedin the process of learning physics both by means of performing educationalexperiments in class and also by studying the main features of a scientificexperiment. Having their own distinct pedagogical functions, these activitiescomplement each other and are equally necessary. Indeed, if the students arerestricted to making educational experiments only, they might thereby

Genrikh Golin

2002-01-01

91

Thermal Sensitive Foils in Physics Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes a set of physics demonstration experiments where thermal sensitive foils are used for the detection of the two dimensional distribution of temperature. The method is used for the demonstration of thermal conductivity, temperature change in adiabatic processes, distribution of electromagnetic radiation in a microwave oven and…

Bochnícek, Zdenek; Konecný, Pavel

2014-01-01

92

Using the Wiimote in Introductory Physics Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wii is a very popular gaming console. An important component of its appeal is the ease of use of its remote controller, popularly known as a Wiimote. This simple-looking but powerful device has a three-axis accelerometer and communicates with the console via Bluetooth protocol. We present two experiments that demonstrate the feasibility of using the Wiimote in introductory physics experiments. The linear dependence of centripetal acceleration on the radial distance at constant angular velocity is verified and compared with data obtained using photogate timers. A second application to simple harmonic oscillators tests the capabilities of the Wiimote to measure variable accelerations.

Ochoa, Romulo; Rooney, Frank G.; Somers, William J.

2011-01-01

93

Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

2010-01-01

94

Adapting Transformative Experience Surveys to Undergraduate Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transformative experience (TE) is a theoretical construct intended to capture the extent to which science concepts learned in the classroom shape students' everyday meaning-making and engagement with science outside the classroom. One tool available to assess the depth and prevalence of TE is with surveys. We have been adapting existing surveys for use in various undergraduate physics courses at two different institutions, including algebra-based introductory physics courses and physical science courses for pre-service elementary teachers. We describe our efforts to modify existing surveys for use across different courses and content areas and describe our initial findings concerning the depth and prevalence of TE. From survey data, large differences can be detected in both the depth of students' overall engagement and the degree to which that engagement falls off when students are not in the classroom or working on required assignments.

Frank, Brian W.; Atkins, Leslie J.

2014-01-31

95

Physical mechanisms for atomization of a jet spray  

SciTech Connect

Because combustion in direct injection engines is strongly influenced by the details of the fuel spray in thes engines, the authors have begun a broad research effort of jet breakup experiments and modelling of these high pressure sprays. The main objective of this effort is to better understand fuel injection from the study of the spray-jet breakup process and the associated fuel-oxidant mixing. The focus of this paper is the development of specific models for atomization of the spray-jet. These models are then compared to each other and to preliminary data from the spray-jet breakup experiments. Initial results indicate that KIVA with this proposed spray model shows good agreement with low pressure data (69 MPa) but underestimates spray penetration for higher pressures (104 MPa).

Bower, G.; Chang, S.K.; Corradini, M.L.; El-Beshbeeshy, M.; Martin, J.K.; Krueger, J.

1988-01-01

96

Microprocessors in physics experiments at SLAC  

SciTech Connect

The increasing size and complexity of high energy physics experiments is changing the way data are collected. To implement a trigger or event filter requires complex logic which may have to be modified as the experiment proceeds. Simply to monitor a detector, large amounts of data must be processed on line. The use of microprocessors or other programmable devices can help to achieve these ends flexibly and economically. At SLAC, a number of microprocessor-based systems have been built and are in use in experimental setups, and others are now being developed. This talk is a review of existing systems and their use in experiments, and of developments in progress and future plans.

Rochester, L.S.

1981-04-01

97

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 86, 053401 (2012) Electric-field sensing near the surface microstructure of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms  

E-print Network

of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms J. D. Carter, O. Cherry, and J. D. D. Martin Department of Physics fields near the heterogeneous metal-dielectric surface of an atom chip were measured using cold atoms. The atomic sensitivity to electric fields was enhanced by exciting the atoms to Rydberg states that are 108

Le Roy, Robert J.

98

Atomic Physics in the Quest for Fusion Energy and ITER  

SciTech Connect

The urgent quest for new energy sources has led developed countries, representing over half of the world population, to collaborate on demonstrating the scientific and technological feasibility of magnetic fusion through the construction and operation of ITER. Data on high-Z ions will be important in this quest. Tungsten plasma facing components have the necessary low erosion rates and low tritium retention but the high radiative efficiency of tungsten ions leads to stringent restrictions on the concentration of tungsten ions in the burning plasma. The influx of tungsten to the burning plasma will need to be diagnosed, understood and stringently controlled. Expanded knowledge of the atomic physics of neutral and ionized tungsten will be important to monitor impurity influxes and derive tungsten concentrations. Also, inert gases such as argon and xenon will be used to dissipate the heat flux flowing to the divertor. This article will summarize the spectroscopic diagnostics planned for ITER and outline areas where additional data is needed.

Charles H. Skinner

2008-02-27

99

Probing physical properties at the nanoscale using atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques that measure physical properties at the nanoscale with high sensitivity are significantly limited considering the number of new nanomaterials being developed. The development of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has lead to significant advancements in the ability to characterize physical properties of materials in all areas of science: chemistry, physics, engineering, and biology have made great scientific strides do to the versatility of the AFM. AFM is used for quantification of many physical properties such as morphology, electrical, mechanical, magnetic, electrochemical, binding interactions, and protein folding. This work examines the electrical and mechanical properties of materials applicable to the field of nano-electronics. As electronic devices are miniaturized the demand for materials with unique electrical properties, which can be developed and exploited, has increased. For example, discussed in this work, a derivative of tetrathiafulvalene, which exhibits a unique loss of conductivity upon compression of the self-assembled monolayer could be developed into a molecular switch. This work also compares tunable organic (tetraphenylethylene tetracarboxylic acid and bis(pyridine)s assemblies) and metal-organic (Silver-stilbizole coordination compounds) crystals which show high electrical conductivity. The electrical properties of these materials vary depending on their composition allowing for the development of compositionally tunable functional materials. Additional work was done to investigate the effects of molecular environment on redox active 11-ferroceneyl-1 undecanethiol (Fc) molecules. The redox process of mixed monolayers of Fc and decanethiol was measured using conductive probe atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy. As the concentration of Fc increased large, variations in the force were observed. Using these variations the number of oxidized molecules in the monolayer was determined. AFM is additionally capable of investigating interactions at the nanoscale, such as ligand-receptor interactions. This work examines the interactions between the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a widely investigated enzyme targeted for cancer and antimicrobial pharmaceutical, and methotrexate (MTX), a strong competitive inhibitor of DHFR. The DHFR was immobilized on a gold substrate, bound through a single surface cysteine, and maintained catalytic activity. AFM probe was functionalized with MTX and the interaction strength was measured using AFM. This work highlights the versatility of AFM, specifically force spectroscopy for the quantification of electrical, mechanical, and ligand-receptor interactions at the nanoscale.

Ditzler, Lindsay Rachel

100

Containerless experiments in fluid physics in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical phenomena associated with the behavior of liquid samples freely suspended in low gravity must be thoroughly understood prior to undertaking detailed scientific studies of the materials under scrutiny. The characteristics of molten specimens under the action of containerless positioning stresses must be identified and separated from the specific phenomena relating to the absence of an overwhelming gravitational field. The strategy designed to optimize the scientific return of reliable experimental data from infrequent microgravity investigations should include the gradual and logical phasing of more sophisticated studies building on the accumulated results from previous flight experiments. Lower temperature fluid physics experiments using model materials can provide a great deal of information that can be useful in analyzing the behavior of high temperature melts. The phasing of the experimental capabilities should, therefore, also include a gradual build-up of more intricate and specialized diagnostic instrumentation and environmental control and monitoring capabilities. Basic physical investigations should also be distinguished from specific materials technology issues. The latter investigations require very specific high temperature (and high vacuum) devices that must be thoroughly mastered on the ground prior to implementing them in space.

Trinh, E. H.

1990-01-01

101

Pre-service physics teachers' ideas on size, visibility and structure of the atom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the atom gives the opportunity to both understand and conceptually unify the various domains of science, such as physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy and geology. Among these disciplines, physics teachers are expected to be particularly well educated in this topic. It is important that pre-service physics teachers know what sort of theories regarding the atom they will bring into their

Pervin Ünlü

2010-01-01

102

A Data Readout Approach for Physics Experiment  

E-print Network

With the increasing physical event rate and number of electronic channels, traditional readout scheme meets the challenge of improving readout speed caused by the limited bandwidth of crate backplane. In this paper, a high-speed data readout method based on Ethernet is designed for each module to have capability of transmitting data to DAQ. Features of explicitly parallel data transmitting and distributed network architecture make the readout system has advantage of adapting varying requirements of particle physics experiments. Furthermore, to guarantee the readout performance and flexibility, a standalone embedded CPU system is utilized for network protocol stack processing. To receive customized data format and protocol from front-end electronics, a field programmable gate array (FPGA) is used for logic reconfiguration. To optimize the interface and improve the data swap speed between CPU and FPGA, a sophisticated method based on SRAM is presented in this paper. For the purpose of evaluating this high-speed...

Xi-Ru, Huang; Li-Wei, Gao; Jia-Jun, Zheng

2014-01-01

103

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING and INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY NUCLEAR FUSION Nucl. Fusion 45 (2005) 176183 doi:10.1088/0029-5515/45/3/003  

E-print Network

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING and INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY NUCLEAR FUSION Nucl. Fusion the power required to maintain the configuration. In our experiments the RMF is applied to a weakly pre

Washington at Seattle, University of

104

Heavy flavor physics with the CMS experiment  

E-print Network

Thanks to the excellent tracking and muon identification performance, combined with a flexible trigger system, the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is conducting a rich and competitive program of measurements in the field of heavy flavor physics. We review the status of b-quark production cross section measurements in inclusive and exclusive final states, the measurement of B hadron angular correlations, the search for rare $B^0_s$ and $B^0$ decays to dimuons, and the observation of the X(3872) resonance.

Chiochia, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

105

Heavy flavor physics with the CMS experiment  

E-print Network

Thanks to the excellent tracking and muon identification performance, combined with a flexible trigger system, the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is conducting a rich and competitive program of measurements in the field of heavy flavor physics. We review the status of b-quark production cross section measurements in inclusive and exclusive final states, the measurement of B hadron angular correlations, the search for rare $B^0_s$ and $B^0$ decays to dimuons, and the observation of the X(3872) resonance.

Vincenzo Chiochia; for the CMS Collaboration

2012-01-31

106

The Physics of the Imploding Can Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the popular demonstrations of atmospheric pressure in introductory physics courses is the "crushing can" or "imploding can" experiment.1-4 In this demonstration, which has also been extensively discussed on the Internet, a small amount of water is placed in a soda can and heated until it boils and water vapor almost entirely fills the can. The can is then quickly inverted and its opening is allowed to touch the surface of cold water in a container. Upon touching the cold water surface, the can implodes in a fraction of a second as the water vapor in the can condenses.

Mohazzabi, Pirooz

2010-05-01

107

Tokamak physics experiment: Diagnostic windows study  

SciTech Connect

We detail the study of diagnostic windows and window thermal stress remediation in the long-pulse, high-power Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) operation. The operating environment of the TPX diagnostic windows is reviewed, thermal loads on the windows estimated, and cooling requirements for the windows considered. Applicable window-cooling technology from other fields is reviewed and its application to the TPX windows considered. Methods for TPX window thermal conditioning are recommended, with some discussion of potential implementation problems provided. Recommendations for further research and development work to ensure performance of windows in the TPX system are presented.

Merrigan, M.; Wurden, G.A.

1995-11-01

108

The Nuclear Physics of Hyperfine Structure in Hydrogenic Atoms  

E-print Network

The theory of QED corrections to hyperfine structure in light hydrogenic atoms and ions has recently advanced to the point that the uncertainty of these corrections is much smaller than 1 part per million (ppm), while the experiments are even more accurate. The difference of the experimental results and the corresponding QED theory is due to nuclear effects, which are primarily the result of the finite nuclear charge and magnetization distributions. This difference varies from tens to hundreds of ppm. We have calculated the dominant nuclear component of the 1s hyperfine interval for deuterium, tritium and singly ionized helium, using a unified approach with modern second-generation potentials. The calculated nuclear corrections are within 3% of the experimental values for deuterium and tritium, but are roughly 20% discrepant for helium. The nuclear corrections for the trinucleon systems can be qualitatively understood by invoking SU(4) symmetry.

J. L. Friar; G. L. Payne

2005-02-01

109

Friction at Atomic-Scale Surface Steps: Experiment and Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments performed by friction force microscopy at atomic-scale surface steps on graphite, MoS2, and NaCl in ambient conditions are presented. Both step-down and step-up scans exhibit higher frictional forces at the edge, but distinguish in their load dependence: While the additional frictional force due to the step edge increases linearly with load if the tip has to jump a step up, it remains constant for downward jumps. This phenomenon represents a universal effect that can be explained in terms of a modified Prandtl-Tomlinson model featuring a Schwoebel-Ehrlich barrier at steps.

Hölscher, Hendrik; Ebeling, Daniel; Schwarz, Udo D.

2008-12-01

110

Atom Interferometers  

E-print Network

Interference with atomic and molecular matter waves is a rich branch of atomic physics and quantum optics. It started with atom diffraction from crystal surfaces and the separated oscillatory fields technique used in atomic clocks. Atom interferometry is now reaching maturity as a powerful art with many applications in modern science. In this review we first describe the basic tools for coherent atom optics including diffraction by nanostructures and laser light, three-grating interferometers, and double wells on AtomChips. Then we review scientific advances in a broad range of fields that have resulted from the application of atom interferometers. These are grouped in three categories: (1) fundamental quantum science, (2) precision metrology and (3) atomic and molecular physics. Although some experiments with Bose Einstein condensates are included, the focus of the review is on linear matter wave optics, i.e. phenomena where each single atom interferes with itself.

Alexander D. Cronin; Joerg Schmiedmayer; David E. Pritchard

2007-12-21

111

The Atomic Era: A new interdisciplinary course combining physics, the humanities and the social sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Illinois University Edwardsville won funding from the federal interagency competition, Leadership Opportunity in Science and Humanities Education, which supported interdisciplinary courses combining the natural sciences and the humanities. The author analyses her experiences developing a very successful and popular interdisciplinary course, entitled The Atomic Era, which features a unique combination of physics, sociology and German studies taught jointly by a Physicist, a Sociologist and a Germanist. The objectives of the course, the laboratories and demonstrations, instructional goals, assignments, organization, testing, student and faculty assessment, expenses and the special challenges of coordinating three faculty members and a wide variety of topics and perspectives are addressed and analysed.

Carstens-Wickham, Belinda

2001-05-01

112

Further investigations of experiment A0034 atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal control coatings within the recessed compartments of LDEF Experiment A0034 experienced the maximum leading edge fluence of atomic oxygen with considerably less solar UV radiation exposure than top-surface mounted materials of other LDEF experiments on either the leading or the trailing edge. This combination of exposure within A0034 resulted in generally lower levels of darkening attributable to solar UV radiation than for similar materials on other LDEF experiments exposed to greater cumulative solar UV radiation levels. Changes in solar absorptance and infrared thermal emittance of the exposed coatings are thus unique to this exposure. Analytical results for other applications have been found for environmentally induced changes in fluorescence, surface morphology, light scattering, and the effects of coating outgassing products on adjacent mirrors and windows of the A0034 experiment. Some atmospheric bleaching of the thermal control coatings, in addition to that presumably experience during reentry and recovery operations, has been found since initial post-flight observations and measurements.

Linton, Roger C.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.

1995-01-01

113

STFC 2012 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW -EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL CONSOLIDATED GRANTS  

E-print Network

1 STFC 2012 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW - EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL CONSOLIDATED GRANTS Guidelines................................................................................................. 1 Particle Physics Grants Panel ............................................................................................................................. 3 Part A: 2012 Review of Experimental Particle Physics Consolidated Grants ­ Guidelines

114

Using physical experiments in mathematics lessons to introduce mathematical concepts  

E-print Network

611 Using physical experiments in mathematics lessons to introduce mathematical concepts Simon Zell physical experiments to introduce mathematical concepts means putting emphasis on the mathematical aspects University of Education Schwaebisch Gmuend simon.zell@ph-gmuend.de Abstract Physical experiments have a great

Spagnolo, Filippo

115

A Data Readout Approach for Physics Experiment  

E-print Network

With the increasing physical event rate and number of electronic channels, traditional readout scheme meets the challenge of improving readout speed caused by the limited bandwidth of crate backplane. In this paper, a high-speed data readout method based on Ethernet is designed for each module to have capability of transmitting data to DAQ. Features of explicitly parallel data transmitting and distributed network architecture make the readout system has advantage of adapting varying requirements of particle physics experiments. Furthermore, to guarantee the readout performance and flexibility, a standalone embedded CPU system is utilized for network protocol stack processing. To receive customized data format and protocol from front-end electronics, a field programmable gate array (FPGA) is used for logic reconfiguration. To optimize the interface and improve the data swap speed between CPU and FPGA, a sophisticated method based on SRAM is presented in this paper. For the purpose of evaluating this high-speed readout method, a simplified readout module is designed and implemented. Test results show that this module can support up to 70Mbps data throughput from the readout module to DAQ smoothly.

Huang Xi-Ru; Cao Ping; Gao Li-Wei; Zheng Jia-Jun

2014-10-21

116

Skylab experiments. Volume 1: Physical science, solar astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic subject of this volume is the solar astronomy program conducted on Skylab. In addition to descriptions of the individual experiments and the principles involved in their performance, a brief description is included of the sun and the energy characteristics associated with each zone. Wherever possible, related classroom activities have been identified and discussed in some detail. It will be apparent that the relationships rest not only in the field of solar astronomy, but also in the following subjects: (1) physics - optics, electromagnetic spectrum, atomic structure, etc.; (2) chemistry - emission spectra, kinetic theory, X-ray absorption, etc.; (3) biology - radiation and dependence on the sun; (4) electronics - cathode ray tubes, detectors, photomultipliers, etc.; (5) photography; (6) astronomy; and (7) industrial arts.

1973-01-01

117

Strangeness nuclear physics experiments at J-PARC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental plans for strangeness nuclear physics at the J-PARC hadron facility are summarized. High-intensity K- beams of ˜2 GeV/c available at the K1.8 beam line will open a new era in the studies of double strangeness nuclear systems. Spectroscopy of ? hypernuclei, the study of ?? hypernuclei, and measurement of ?-atomic X-rays are planned to reveal baryon-baryon interactions with S (strangeness) = -2 systems. In addition, ?-ray spectroscopy of ? hypernuclei, spectroscopy of neutron-rich ? hypernuclei, the study of weak decays of ? hypernuclei, and hyperon-nucleon scattering experiments, which are planned to be performed at the K1.8 and K1.1 beam lines, will clarify the details of S = -1 baryon-baryon interactions as well as the nuclear medium effects on baryon properties. A future plan to extend the hadron hall is also described.

Tamura, H.

2012-12-01

118

Physics Experiments That You Can Do at Home  

E-print Network

Physics Experiments That You Can Do at Home Brought to you by The Wonders of Physics University of Wisconsin ­ Madison #12;2 The Wonders of Physics The Wonders of Physics is an outreach program sponsored by the Physics Department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Professor Clint Sprott has been amazing

Saffman, Mark

119

A learning pathway in high-school level quantum atomic physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, one student's learning process in a course on quantum atomic physics in grade 13 of a German gymnasium (secondary school) is described. The course lasted 16 weeks for a total of approximately 80 lessons. The aim of the present study is to elaborate the student's cognitive system for atomic physics as a hypothetical pragmatic model to describe,

Juergen Petri; Hans Niedderer

1988-01-01

120

FACULTY POSITION IN EXPERIMENTAL ATOMIC, MOLECULAR, AND OPTICAL PHYSICS Purdue University  

E-print Network

: https://www.physics.purdue.edu/searches/app/. Questions regarding the position and search shouldFACULTY POSITION IN EXPERIMENTAL ATOMIC, MOLECULAR, AND OPTICAL PHYSICS Purdue University The Department of Physics at Purdue University (www.physics.purdue.edu) seeks applications for a faculty

Kihara, Daisuke

121

Coherent backscattering of light by cold atoms: Theory meets experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherent backscattering (CBS) of quasi-resonant light by cold atoms presents some specific features due to the internal structure of the atomic scatterers. We present the first quantitative comparison between the experimentally observed CBS cones and Monte Carlo calculations which take into account the shape of the atomic cloud as well as the internal atomic structure.

G. Labeyrie; D. Delande; C. A. Müller; C. Miniatura; R. Kaiser

2003-01-01

122

Physics evaluation of compact tokamak ignition experiments  

SciTech Connect

At present, several approaches for compact, high-field tokamak ignition experiments are being considered. A comprehensive method for analyzing the potential physics operating regimes and plasma performance characteristics of such ignition experiments with O-D (analytic) and 1-1/2-D (WHIST) transport models is presented. The results from both calculations are in agreement and show that there are regimes in parameter space in which a class of small (R/sub o/ approx. 1-2 m), high-field (B/sub o/ approx. 8-13 T) tokamaks with aB/sub o/S/q/sub */ approx. 25 +- 5 and kappa = b/a approx. 1.6-2.0 appears ignitable for a reasonable range of transport assumptions. Considering both the density and beta limits, an evaluation of the performance is presented for various forms of chi/sub e/ and chi/sub i/, including degradation at high power and sawtooth activity. The prospects of ohmic ignition are also examined. 16 refs., 13 figs.

Uckan, N.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Sheffield, J.

1985-01-01

123

COSY data acquisition system for physical experiments  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that for nuclear physics experiments at the internal and external beam of the Julich Cooler Synchrotron COSY, a three-level data processing and acquisition system is developed. Signals from various detector arrangements are digitized and preprocessed by CAMAC, FASTBUS and VME modules. A multiprocessor system based on VME bus is used for event-building, data recording and buffered data transfer to the host computer. All crates are connected by parallel VICbus. For this, an intelligent CAMAC crate controller with VICbus is under development. Microcomputer-based VME modules are equipped with CPU's of the 680XO family, working under OS-9 real-time operating system. The data acquisition system is mainly based on commercially available modules. For experiment control and data analysis, workstations as part of a local cluster are provided. Proprietary standards developed at CERN, together with OSF open standards will be implemented. TCP/IP protocols for VMEbus masters and host computer serve for initialization and command transfer.

Erven, W.; Holzer, J.; Kopp, H.; Loevenich, H.W.; Meiling, W.; Zwoll, K. (Forschungszentrum Juelich, Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik (DE)); Karnadi, M.; Nellen, R.; Watzlawik, K.H. (Forschungszentrum Juelich, Inst. fuer Kemphysik (DE))

1992-04-01

124

Proof-of-concept experiments for quantum physics in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum physics experiments in space using entangled photons and satellites are within reach of current technology. We propose a series of fundamental quantum physics experiments that make advantageous use of the space infrastructure with specific emphasis on the satellite-based distribution of entangled photon pairs. The experiments are feasible already today and will eventually lead to a Bell-experiment over thousands of

Rainer Kaltenbaek; Markus Aspelmeyer; Thomas Jennewein; Caslav Brukner; Anton Zeilinger; Martin Pfennigbauer; Walter R. Leeb

2004-01-01

125

AGS experiments in nuclear/QCD physics at medium energies  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a diagram of the experimental setup for each experiment as well as giving a brief discussion of its purpose and list of collaborators for the experiment. Thirty-one experiments in the areas of nuclear physics and particle physics are covered. It concludes with a list of publications of the AGS experiments.

Lo Presti, P.

1998-07-01

126

Pre-service physics teachers' ideas on size, visibility and structure of the atom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the atom gives the opportunity to both understand and conceptually unify the various domains of science, such as physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy and geology. Among these disciplines, physics teachers are expected to be particularly well educated in this topic. It is important that pre-service physics teachers know what sort of theories regarding the atom they will bring into their own classrooms. Six tasks were developed, comprising size, visibility and structure of the atom. These tasks carried out by pre-service physics teachers were examined by content analysis and six categories were determined. These are size, visibility, subatomic particles, atom models, electron orbit and electron features. Pre-service physics teachers' ideas about the atom were clarified under these categories.

Ünlü, Pervin

2010-07-01

127

A WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY POSTDOCTORAL POSITION FOR EXPERIMENTS WITH ULTRACOLD The Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA, invites  

E-print Network

A WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY POSTDOCTORAL POSITION FOR EXPERIMENTS WITH ULTRACOLD ATOMS The Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA, invites applications and the salary will be commensurate with experience and qualifications. ATOMIC PHYSICS GROUP AT WASHINGTON STATE

Collins, Gary S.

128

Fisher-like atomic divergences: Mathematical grounds and physical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two different local divergence measures, the Fisher (FD) and the Jensen-Fisher (JFD) ones, are compared in this work by applying them to atomic one-particle densities in position and momentum spaces. They are defined in terms of the absolute and the relative Fisher information functionals. The analysis here afforded includes not only neutral atoms, but also singly-charged cations. The results are interpreted and justified according to (i) shell-filling patterns, (ii) short- and long-range behaviors of the atomic densities, and (iii) the value of the atomic ionization potential. The strengths of the FD measure, as compared to the JFD one, are emphasized.

Martín, A. L.; Angulo, J. C.; Antolín, J.

2013-11-01

129

The physical interest in kaonic- and antiprotonic-deuterium atoms  

E-print Network

Exotic deuterium and helium are discussed. The S, P and D levels of antiprotonic and kaonic atoms are calculated. Absorptive, subthreshold antiproton-nucleon amplitudes are extracted from experimental data and compared to model calculations. The existence of a quasi-bound state in the antiproton-nucleon system is indicated. In the kaonic atoms some effects of the Sigma(1385) resonance are evaluated.

S. Wycech; B. Loiseau

2005-08-05

130

Learning of Atomic Physics and Quantum Mechanics : Which should Begin First  

E-print Network

What are the differences and similarities between atomic-physics studies at different peoples (Han, Kazak and Uygur perples in the same university) across Xinjiang (a far-west district in PR China which is a border for previous USSR and Kazak)? In this short report we focus on issues relating to the learning style of different-people students to pass the atomic physics course in physics department even the quantum mechanics course has not been taken before.

Chen Qin; Zotin K. -H. Chu

2009-11-27

131

arXiv:1001.0944v2[physics.atom-ph]7May2010 Single-Photon Atomic Sorting: Isotope Separation with Maxwell's Demon  

E-print Network

arXiv:1001.0944v2[physics.atom-ph]7May2010 Single-Photon Atomic Sorting: Isotope Separation-to-magnetic moment ratio of a particular isotope in an atomic beam, followed by a magnetic multipole whose gradients deflect and guide the atoms. The underlying mechanism is a reduction of the entropy of the beam

Texas at Austin. University of

132

Friendship, physicality, and physical education: an exploration of the social and embodied dynamics of girls’ physical education experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical education represents a dynamic social space where students experience and interpret physicality in a context that accentuates peer relationships and privileges particular forms of embodiment. This article focuses on girls’ understandings of physicality with respect to the organisation of physical education and more informal social networks. Research exploring the connections between the body, capital, physical activity, and femininity and

Laura Hills

2007-01-01

133

Thermal physics in the introductory physics course: Why and how to teach it from a unified atomic perspective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heat and thermodynamics are traditionally taught in the introductory physics course from a predominantly macroscopic point of view. However, it is advantageous to adopt a more modern approach that systematically builds on students' knowledge of the atomic structure of matter and of elementary mechanics. By focusing on the essential physics without requiring more than elementary classical mechanics, this approach can be made sufficiently simple to be readily teachable during five or six weeks of an ordinary calculus-based introductory physics course. This approach can be highly unified, using atomic considerations to infer the properties of macroscopic systems while also enabling thermodynamic analyses independent of specific atomic models. Furthermore, this integrated point of view provides a deeper physical understanding of basic concepts (such as internal energy, heat, entropy, and absolute temperature) and of important phenomena (such as equilibrium, fluctuations, and irreversibility).

Reif, Frederick

2005-11-23

134

Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets  

E-print Network

We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven rail guns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: $n_e\\approx n_i \\sim 10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$, $T_e \\approx T_i \\approx 1.4$ eV, $V_{\\rm jet}\\approx 30$-100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}\\approx 1$, sonic Mach number $M_s\\equiv V_{\\rm jet}/C_s>10$, jet diameter $=5$ cm, and jet length $\\approx 20$ cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.

Hsu, S C; Merritt, E C; Adams, C S; Dunn, J P; Brockington, S; Case, A; Gilmore, M; Lynn, A G; Messer, S J; Witherspoon, F D

2014-01-01

135

Case-study experiments in the introductory physics curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carthage College added inquiry-based case study activities to the traditional introductory physics laboratory. Student teams designed, constructed, and executed their own experiments to study real-world phenomena, through which they gained understanding both of physic principles and methods of physics research. Assessment results and student feedback through teacher evaluations indicate that these activities improved student attitudes about physics as well as their ability to solve physics problems relative to previous course offerings that did not include case study.

Arion, D. N.; Crosby, K. M.; Murphy, E. A.

2000-09-01

136

Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

2005-01-01

137

The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…

Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

2008-01-01

138

Ground Control to Niels Bohr: Exploring Outer Space with Atomic Physics  

E-print Network

We provided an introduction to transition state theory and the connections it provides between atomic and celestial physics. We include brief discussions of historical background, recent applications in space mission design, and current research efforts.

Mason A. Porter; Predrag Cvitanovic

2005-05-11

139

Ground Control to Niels Bohr: Exploring Outer Space with Atomic Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provided an introduction to transition state theory and the connections it provides between atomic and celestial physics. We include brief discussions of historical background, recent applications in space mission design, and current research efforts.

Mason A. Porter; Predrag Cvitanovic

2005-01-01

140

Summary of informal workshop on state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research  

SciTech Connect

The present state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research in the United States is assessed by means of a questionnaire and informal workshop. Recommendations for future facilities are given. 3 refs.

Jones, K.W.; Cocke, C.L.; Datz, S.; Kostroun, V.

1984-11-13

141

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 013413 (2013) Spin damping in an rf atomic magnetometer  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 013413 (2013) Spin damping in an rf atomic magnetometer Orang Alem* and Karen factor Q of a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer can be decreased by more than two orders of magnitude the magnetometer for detection of the desired signal. We find that noise is also suppressed under such spin damping

Romalis, Mike

142

Request for Support for the Conference on Super Intense Laser Atom Physics  

SciTech Connect

The Conference on Super Intense Laser Atom Physics (SILAP) was held in November 2003 in Dallas, Texas. The venue for the meeting was South Fork Ranch in the outskirts of Dallas. The topics of the meeting included high harmonic generation and attosecond pulse generation, strong field interactions with molecules and clusters, particle acceleration, and relativistic laser atom interactions.

Todd Ditmire

2004-10-21

143

Polarization spectroscopy of rubidium atoms: Theory and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a theoretical and experimental study of polarization spectroscopy of rubidium atoms. All of the populations of the magnetic sublevels were calculated from the rate equations and used in the calculation of the polarization spectroscopy spectra. Using this model, we could generate theoretical line shapes of the polarization spectra on the D2 transitions of rubidium atoms. The experimental results

Huy Diep Do; Geol Moon; Heung-Ryoul Noh

2008-01-01

144

Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases.  

PubMed

We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold (87)Rb and (39)K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 10(4) (87)Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold (39)K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems. PMID:24784588

Ivory, M K; Ziltz, A R; Fancher, C T; Pyle, A J; Sensharma, A; Chase, B; Field, J P; Garcia, A; Jervis, D; Aubin, S

2014-04-01

145

Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold 87Rb and 39K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 104 87Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold 39K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems.

Ivory, M. K.; Ziltz, A. R.; Fancher, C. T.; Pyle, A. J.; Sensharma, A.; Chase, B.; Field, J. P.; Garcia, A.; Jervis, D.; Aubin, S.

2014-04-01

146

Impact Crater Experiments for Introductory Physics and Astronomy Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activity-based collisional analysis is developed for introductory physics and astronomy laboratory experiments. Crushable floral foam is used to investigate the physics of projectiles undergoing completely inelastic collisions with a low-density solid forming impact craters. Simple drop experiments enable determination of the average acceleration,…

Claycomb, J. R.

2009-01-01

147

Capturing the Content of Physics: Systems, Observables, and Experiments  

E-print Network

research, education and applica- tion. Scientific Method The Testing/ Experiment Predictions Theory by an infrastructure for the princi- pal concepts of physics: observables, physical systems, and experiments currently investigated in the community will eventually change scientific practice and that they will have

Kohlhase, Michael

148

STFC 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW -EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL ROLLING GRANTS  

E-print Network

STFC 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW - EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL ROLLING GRANTS Guidelines for Applicants CONTENTS PAGE Introduction and Timetable 1 Particle Physics Grants Panel 1 Enquiries 2 Part A ­ 2009 Review of Experimental Particle Physics Rolling Grants 3 ­ Guidelines for Applicants 1 Procedures

149

Ensembles and experiments in classical and quantum physics  

E-print Network

Ensembles and experiments in classical and quantum physics Arnold Neumaier Institut f¨ur Mathematik classical physics and quantum physics should be as small as possible. We argue that the differences between://www.mat.univie.ac.at/neum/ Abstract. A philosophically consistent axiomatic approach to classical and quantum mechanics is given

Neumaier, Arnold

150

Nuclear Physics Experiments Below The Coulomb Barrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1932, Cockcroft and Walton showed that (p,?) reactions with lithium were possible at energies near 100 keV. We report an undergraduate laboratory experiment with 90 keV protons colliding with a thick lithium target. The experiment allows students to observe the products of two reactions, to determine the product masses, and to learn techniques for deconvolving experimental spectra profiles.

Sanders, J. M.; Cifuentes, J. R. Morales; Clark, R. K.

2011-06-01

151

Experience using grid tools for CDF physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss our experience configuring the grid fabric at various Institutions participating in the Collider Detector at Fermilab experiment, and its use for Monte Carlo production, data reconstruction and secondary data set analysis using Sequential Access via Metadata and Job Information Management with Condor grid tools.

M. Burgon-Lyon; A. Stan Thompson; Igor Terekhov; Richard St. Denis; Gabriele Garzoglio; Stefan Stonjek; Parag Mhashilkar; Vijay Murthi

2004-01-01

152

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 1-85  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.

1985-01-01

153

Novel Atomic Coherence and Interference Effects in Quantum Optics and Atomic Physics  

E-print Network

It is well known that the optical properties of multi-level atomic and molecular system can be controlled and manipulated efficiently using quantum coherence and interference, which has led to many new effects in quantum optics for e.g. lasing...

Jha, Pankaj

2012-10-19

154

Output from an atom laser: theory vs. experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Atom lasers based on rf-outcoupling can be described by a set of coupled generalized Gross–Pitaevskii equations (GPE). We\\u000a compare the theoretical predictions obtained by numerically integrating the time-dependent GPE of an effective one-dimensional\\u000a model with recently measured experimental data for the F=2 and F=1 states of Rb-87. We conclude that the output of a rf atom-laser can be described

Jens Schneider; Axel Schenzle

1999-01-01

155

Attosecond streaking experiments on atoms: quantum theory versus simple model  

E-print Network

A new theoretical approach to the description of the attosecond streaking measurements of atomic photoionization is presented. It is a fully quantum mechanical description based on numerical solving of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation which includes the atomic field as well as the fields of the XUV and IR pulses. Also a simple semiempirical description based on sudden approximation is suggested which agrees very well with the exact solution.

Kazansky, A K

2006-01-01

156

TITAN'S EXPERIENCE IN PHYSICAL SEPARATION DEVICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a naphtha cracker, Titan is used to several types of separators especially in the quench and hot fractionation section. This paper will zoom into the separation process involving immiscible fluid phase with different densities for separation to occur. Three principles used to achieve physical separation of gas, liquids or solids are momentum, gravity settling, and coalescing. Seperators may employ

Lee Siang Hua; Titan Petrochemicals

157

Introductory Physics Experiments Using the Wiimote  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wii, a video game console, is a very popular device with millions of units sold worldwide over the past two years. Although computationally it is not a powerful machine, to a physics educator its most important components can be its controllers. The Wiimote (or remote) controller contains three accelerometers, an infrared detector, and Bluetooth connectivity at a relatively low

William Somers; Frank Rooney; Romulo Ochoa

2009-01-01

158

Top Quark Physics at the DZero Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I present the latest results on top quark physics from the DZero collaboration since the discovery of the top quark in March 1995. I summarize the discovery results, discuss progress since the discovery, and show how we can measure the top quark mass using three separate techniques. The measurements were made at the Fermilab Tevatron, a ppbar

A. P. Heinson

1996-01-01

159

Lattice QCD meets experiment in hadron physics  

E-print Network

We review recent results in lattice QCD from numerical simulations that allow for a much more realistic QCD vacuum than has been possible before. Comparison with experiment for a variety of hadronic quantities gives agreement to within statistical and systematic errors of 3%. We discuss the implications of this for future calculations in lattice QCD, particularly those which will provide input for B factory experiments.

Christine Davies; Peter Lepage

2003-11-04

160

Nuclear Physics Experiments with Ion Storage Rings  

E-print Network

In the last two decades a number of nuclear structure and astrophysics experiments were performed at heavy-ion storage rings employing unique experimental conditions offered by such machines. Furthermore, building on the experience gained at the two facilities presently in operation, several new storage ring projects were launched worldwide. This contribution is intended to provide a brief review of the fast growing field of nuclear structure and astrophysics research at storage rings.

Yu. A. Litvinov; S. Bishop; K. Blaum; F. Bosch; C. Brandau; L. X. Chen; I. Dillmann; P. Egelhof; H. Geissel; R. E. Grisenti; S. Hagmann; M. Heil; A. Heinz; N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki; R. Knöbel; C. Kozhuharov; M. Lestinsky; X. W. Ma; T. Nilsson; F. Nolden; A. Ozawa; R. Raabe; M. W. Reed; R. Reifarth; M. S. Sanjari; D. Schneider; H. Simon; M. Steck; T. Stöhlker; B. H. Sun; X. L. Tu; T. Uesaka; P. M. Walker; M. Wakasugi; H. Weick; N. Winckler; P. J. Woods; H. S. Xu; T. Yamaguchi; Y. Yamaguchi; Y. H. Zhang

2013-12-28

161

Nuclear Physics Experiments Below The Coulomb Barrier  

SciTech Connect

In 1932, Cockcroft and Walton showed that (p,{alpha}) reactions with lithium were possible at energies near 100 keV. We report an undergraduate laboratory experiment with 90 keV protons colliding with a thick lithium target. The experiment allows students to observe the products of two reactions, to determine the product masses, and to learn techniques for deconvolving experimental spectra profiles.

Sanders, J. M.; Clark, R. K. [Department of Physics, ILB 115, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, 36608 (United States); Cifuentes, J. R. Morales [Department of Physics, ILB 115, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, 36608 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742 (United States)

2011-06-01

162

Modeling Bohr's theory of hydrogen atom for physics and chemistry education, and computer science graduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is basically targeted for the advanced university and college undergraduate and graduate students of physics and chemistry education, computational physics and chemistry, and computer science. Here, we employed Microsoft Excel software system to perform computer simulations for modeling Bohr's theory of hydrogen atom in college and university classroom setting. We developed necessary computer algorithm to compute discrete values

Gurmukh Singh; Amitabha Mukhopadyay

2010-01-01

163

Condensed Matter Physics With Light And Atoms: Strongly Correlated Cold Fermions in Optical Lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various topics at the interface between condensed matter physics and the physics of ultra-cold fermionic atoms in optical lattices are discussed. The lectures start with basic considerations on energy scales, and on the regimes in which a description by an effective Hubbard model is valid. Qualitative ideas about the Mott transition are then presented, both for bosons and fermions, as

Antoine Georges

2007-01-01

164

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 85, 012507 (2012) Atomic properties of Pb III  

E-print Network

gases [9], quantum information [10], astrophysics [11], actinide chemistry [12], and many othersPHYSICAL REVIEW A 85, 012507 (2012) Atomic properties of Pb III M. S. Safronova,1 M. G. Kozlov,2 and U. I. Safronova3 1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, 217 Sharp Lab, University of Delaware

Kozlov, Mikhail G

165

Low-Energy Universality in Atomic and Nuclear Physics  

E-print Network

An effective field theory developed for systems interacting through short-range interactions can be applied to systems of cold atoms with a large scattering length and to nucleons at low energies. It is therefore the ideal tool to analyze the universal properties associated with the Efimov effect in three- and four-body systems. In this "progress report", we will discuss recent results obtained within this framework and report on progress regarding the inclusion of higher order corrections associated with the finite range of the underlying interaction.

L. Platter

2009-04-15

166

Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources  

SciTech Connect

A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms.

Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

1996-08-01

167

Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g (Earth's gravity), and the emergence of face-centered-cubic (FCC) crystals late in the coarsening process (as small crystallites lost particles to the slow ripening of large crystallites). Significant quantitative findings from the microgravity experiments have been developed describing complex interactions among crystallites during the growth process, as concentration fields overlap in the surrounding disordered phase. Time-resolved Bragg scattering under microgravity captures one effect of these interactions quite conclusively for the sample at a volume fraction of 0.528. From the earliest time until the sample is almost fully crystalline, the size and overall crystallinity grow monotonically, but the number of crystallites per unit volume (number density) falls. Apparently nucleation is slower than the loss of crystallites because of the transfer of particles from small to large crystals. Thus, coarsening occurs simultaneously with growth, rather than following the completion of nucleation and growth as is generally assumed. In the same sample, an interesting signature appears in the apparent number density of crystallites and the volume fraction within the crystallites shortly before full crystallinity is reached. A brief upturn in both indicates the creation of more domains of the size of the average crystallite simultaneous with the compression of the crystallites. Only the emergence of dendritic arms offers a reasonable explanation. The arms would be "seen" by the light scattering as separate domains whose smaller radii of curvature would compress the interior phase. In fiscal year 1999, numerous papers, a doctoral dissertation, and the PHaSE final report were produced. Although this flight project has been completed, plans are in place for a follow-on colloid experiment by Chaikin and Russel that employs a light microscope within Glenn's Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. PHaSE is providing us with a deeper understanding of the nure of phase transitions. The knowledge derived has added to the understandin

Doherty, Michael P.

2000-01-01

168

Nuclear physics (of the cell, not the atom).  

PubMed

The nucleus is physically distinct from the cytoplasm in ways that suggest new ideas and approaches for interrogating the operation of this organelle. Chemical bond formation and breakage underlie the lives of cells, but as this special issue of Molecular Biology of the Cell attests, the nonchemical aspects of cell nuclei present a new frontier to biologists and biophysicists. PMID:25368422

Pederson, Thoru; Marko, John F

2014-11-01

169

PREFACE: 8th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These proceedings arose from the 8th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP) which was held at the University of Western Australia 24-28 November 2008. The history of AISAMP (Takayanagi and Matsuzawa 2002) recognizes its origin from the Japan-China meeting of 1985, and the first use of the name 'The First Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP)' in 1992. The initial attendees, Japan and China, were joined subsequently by scientists from Korea, Taiwan, India, Australia and recently by Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Turkey Iran, UK and USA. The main purpose of the biennial AISAMP series is to create a wide forum for exchanging ideas and information among atomic and molecular scientists and to promote international collaboration. The scope of the AISAMP8 meeting included pure, strategic and applied research involving atomic and molecular structure and processes in all forms of matter and antimatter. For 2008 the AISAMP conference incorporated the Australian Atomic and Molecular Physics and Quantum Chemistry meeting. The topics for AISAMP8 embraced themes from earlier AISAMP meetings and reflected new interests, in atomic and molecular structures, spectroscopy and collisions; atomic and molecular physics with laser or synchrotron radiation; quantum information processing using atoms and molecules; atoms and molecules in surface physics, nanotechnology, biophysics, atmospheric physics and other interdisciplinary studies. The implementation of the AISAMP themes, as well as the international representation of research interests, is indicated both in the contents list of these published manuscripts as well as in the program for the meeting. Altogether, 184 presentations were made at the 8th AISAMP, including Invited Talks and Contributed Poster Presentations, of which 60 appear in the present Proceedings after review by expert referees in accordance with the usual practice of Journal of Physics: Conference Series of the Institute of Physics. The support from the IOPCS staff made this publication possible. The 8th AISAMP was sponsored primarily by the University of Western Australia and Curtin University of Technology, both in Perth, Western Australia, and by Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Support was also received from the International Council of Science, ICSU. Guidance and active participation from colleagues, particularly from the University of Western Australia, and Curtin University, and from the Australian National University and Melbourne University were sources of strength for the actual organization of the conference. Dr Elena Semidelova receives special thanks for her organizing abilities. We hope that this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series will be referenced widely and that it will strengthen ties between all scientists and their countries. Evan Bieske, Stephen Buckman and Jim F Williams Guest Editors

Williams, Jim F.; Buckman, Steve; Bieske, Evan J.

2009-09-01

170

The psychometric validation of the physical body experiences questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embodiment is defined as a state in which one experiences one's body as an essential and loved aspect of one's lived experiences, a potential protective factor against body image and eating disturbance. While qualitative studies have been conducted to examine the nature of embodiment, a quantitative measure has not yet been created. The Physical Body Experiences Questionnaire was rationally derived

Jessie E Menzel

2010-01-01

171

An Apollo compatible cloud physics experiment.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration of the utilization of a low-gravity environment to obtain experimental information, in the area of cloud microphysics, which cannot be obtained in ground laboratories. The experiment discussed is designed to obtain quantitative answers about evaporation and breakup of salt particles from ocean spray and other sources. In addition to salt nuclei distribution mechanisms, this breakup has ecological importance in relation to the spreading of salt mists from salted highways and spreading of brine cooling tower spray from electrical power generation plants. This experiment is being submitted for consideration on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program in 1975.

Eaton, L. R.; Hollinden, A. B.; Satterblom, P. R.

1973-01-01

172

Characterizing Student Experiences in Physics Competitions: The Power of Emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low enrolment and motivation are key issues in physics education and recently the affective dimension of learning is being studied for evidence of its influence on student attitudes towards physics. Physics Olympics competitions are a novel context for stimulating intense emotional experiences. In this study, one team of students and their teacher were interviewed and observed prior to and during the event to characterize their emotions and determine the connections between their experiences and learning and attitudes/motivation towards physics. Results showed that certain types of events stimulated strong emotions of frustration and ownership, and that students’ attitudes were that physics is fun, diverse and relevant. Analysis of these themes indicated that the nature of emotions generated was connected to their attitudes towards physics. This finding points to the potential and value of informal and novel contexts in creating strong positive emotions, which have a strong influence on student attitudes towards physics.

Moll, Rachel F.; Nashon, S.; Anderson, D.

2006-12-01

173

Solution Calorimetry Experiments for Physical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two experiments: the first one measures the heat of an exothermic reaction by the reduction of permanganate by the ferris ion; the second one measures the heat of an endothermic process, the mixing of ethanol and cyclohexane. Lists tables to aid in the use of the solution calorimeter. (MVL)

Raizen, Deborah A.; And Others

1988-01-01

174

Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)  

E-print Network

description Measures energy and direction of electrons, photons, andBrief description Uses the 4 G e V tagged photon beam and aphotons and liquid hydrogen Related experiments a b Particles studied 77, 77', AT(1535 S n ) , iV(1710 P ) Brief description

Armstrong, F.E.

2010-01-01

175

Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)  

E-print Network

description Measures energy and direction of electrons, photons, andBrief description Uses the 4 G e V tagged photon beam and aphotons and liquid hydrogen Related experiments a b Particles studied 77, 77', AT(1535 S n ) , iV(1710 P ) Brief description

Galic, H.

2011-01-01

176

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 063408 (2013) Nondestructive light-shift measurements of single atoms in optical dipole traps  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 063408 (2013) Nondestructive light-shift measurements of single atoms atoms using a nondestructive detection technique that allows us to measure the fluorescent signal of one and the same atom for over 60 s. These measurements allow the efficient and rapid characterization of single-atom

Chapman, Michael

177

Cuban Techno-physical Experiments in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Cuba joined the Intercosmos Program of the socialist countries in the mid-1960s, the great educational and scientific reform taking place at that time in the country had hardly begun to bear fruit. But when, a decade later, the Soviet Union offered all the participant countries the chance to make use of its space vehicles and related installations so that their cosmonauts could carry out original scientific experiments in space, the situation had changed radically in Cuba. In a short time around 200 people already involved in scientific and technological activities succeeded in designing and setting up—in close collaboration with various Soviet, East German and Bulgarian institutions—some 20 scientific experiments that were to be carried out in orbit around the earth during the joint Soviet-Cuban space flight of September 18-26, 1980. Those experiments, and a further one that was also set up for the same space flight—but carried out during a later flight, as mentioned below—are historically important since they were the first in their class to be carried out by humans in space under microgravity conditions.

Altshuler, José; Calzadilla Amaya, Ocatvio; Falcon, Federico; Fuentes, Juan E.; Lodos, Jorge; Vigil Santos, Elena

178

Current experiments in elementary-particle physics - March 1983  

SciTech Connect

Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated. (WHK)

Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

1983-03-01

179

Lasers as a Bridge between Atomic and Nuclear Physics  

E-print Network

This paper reviews the application of optical and UV laser radiation to several topics in low-energy nuclear physics. We consider the laser-induced nuclear anti-Stokes transitions, the laser-assisted and the laser-induced internal conversion, and the Electron Bridge and Inverse Electron Bridge mechanisms as tools for deexciting and exciting of low-lying nuclear isomeric states. A study of the anomalous, by low-lying, nuclear isomeric states (on an example of the $^{229}$Th nucleus) is presented in detail.

Sergei G. Matinyan

1997-06-02

180

A "Medical Physics" Course Based Upon Hospital Field Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a noncalculus, medical physics'' course with a basic element of direct hospital field experience. The course is intended primarily for premedical students but may be taken by nonscience majors. (Author/PR)

Onn, David G.

1972-01-01

181

Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

1986-01-01

182

A Cooperative University-High School Modern Physics Laboratory Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an extracurricular program for high school students in which they visited a college physics laboratory facility and participated in laboratory activities. Discussed are the planning, student experiences, and results. (CW)

Austen, David; And Others

1991-01-01

183

Generative Role of Experiments in Physics and in Teaching Physics: A Suggestion for Epistemological Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In physics teaching experimentality is an integral component in giving the starting point of knowledge formation and conceptualization.\\u000a However, epistemology of experiments is not often addressed directly in the educational and pedagogical literature. This warrants\\u000a an attempt to produce an acceptable reconstruction of the epistemological role of experiments in physics by drawing insight\\u000a from history and philosophy of physics. Towards

Ismo T. Koponen; Terhi Mäntylä

2006-01-01

184

Synthesis and Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals: An Interdisciplinary Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involves multiple chemistry and physics concepts applied to a state of matter that has biological relevance. An experiment involving the synthesis and physical properties of liquid crystals illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of liquid crystal research and the practical devices derived from such research.

Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Hanhan Li; Hendargo, Hansford C.; Cosand, Andrew J.; Fox, Marja M.

2005-01-01

185

Polymer physics experiments with single DNA molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteriophage DNA molecules were taken as a model flexible polymer chain for the experimental study of polymer dynamics at the single molecule level. Video fluorescence microscopy was used to directly observe the conformational dynamics of fluorescently labeled molecules, optical tweezers were used to manipulate individual molecules, and micro-fabricated flow cells were used to apply controlled hydrodynamic strain to molecules. These techniques constitute a powerful new experimental approach in the study of basic polymer physics questions. I have used these techniques to study the diffusion and relaxation of isolated and entangled polymer molecules and the hydrodynamic deformation of polymers in elongational and shear flows. These studies revealed a rich, and previously unobserved, ``molecular individualism'' in the dynamical behavior of single molecules. Individual measurements on ensembles of identical molecules allowed the average conformation to be determined as well as the underlying probability distributions for molecular conformation. Scaling laws, that predict the dependence of properties on chain length and concentration, were also tested. The basic assumptions of the reptation model were directly confirmed by visualizing the dynamics of entangled chains.

Smith, Douglas E.

1999-11-01

186

Stars and statistical physics: A teaching experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The physics of stars is a goldmine of problems in statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. We discuss many examples that illustrate the possibility of deepening studentâs knowledge of statistical mechanics by an introductory study of stars. The matter constituting the various stellar objects provides examples of equations of state for classical or quantum and relativistic or non-relativistic gases. Maximum entropy can be used to characterize thermodynamic and gravitational equilibrium which determines the structure of stars and predicts their instability above a certain mass. Contraction accompanying radiation induces either heating or cooling, which explains the formation of stars above a minimum mass. The characteristics of the emitted light are understood from blackbody radiation and from the BoltzmannâLorentz kinetic equation for photons. The luminosity is governed by the transport of heat by photons from the center to the surface. Heat production by thermonuclear fusion is determined by microscopic balance equations. The stability of the steady state of stars is controlled by the interplay of thermodynamics and gravitation.

Balian, Roger; Blaizot, Jean-Paul

2011-08-30

187

HISTRAP (Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics) prototype hardware studies  

SciTech Connect

HISTRAP, Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics, is a proposed 2.67-Tm synchrotron/cooler/storage ring optimized for advanced atomic physics research which will be injected with ions from either the HHIRF 25-MV tandem accelerator or a dedicated ECR source and RFQ linac. Over the last two years, hardware prototypes have been developed for difficult and long lead-time components. A vacuum test stand, the rf cavity, and a prototype dipole magnet have been designed, constructed, and tested. 7 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Olsen, D.K.; Atkins, W.H.; Dowling, D.T.; Johnson, J.W.; Lord, R.S.; McConnell, J.W.; Milner, W.T.; Mosko, S.W.; Tatum, B.A.

1989-01-01

188

Atom-resolved electronic spectra for Alq3 from theory and experiment A. Curionia)  

E-print Network

Atom-resolved electronic spectra for Alq3 from theory and experiment A. Curionia) and W. Andreoni is investigated using density functional theory-based calculations, photoemission and near-edge x-ray absorption from the different atoms and molecular orbitals. Fingerprints of the molecular bonding

Himpsel, Franz J.

189

Physics Lab Experiments and Correlated Computer Aids. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-nine physics experiments are included in the teacher's edition of this laboratory manual. Suggestions are given in margins for preparing apparatus, organizing students, and anticipating difficulties likely to be encountered. Sample data, graphs, calculations, and sample answers to leading questions are also given for each experiment. It is…

Gottlieb, Herbert H.

190

Thought Experiments in Physics Education: A Simple and Practical Example.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a Galilean thought experiment to enhance learning in a college-level physical science course. Presents both modern and historical perspectives of Galileo's work. As a final project, students explored Galileo's thought experiment in the laboratory using modern detectors with satisfying results. (Contains 25 references.) (Author/ASK)

Lattery, Mark J.

2001-01-01

191

Introducing New Experiments to the Contemporary Physics Lab: Emphasis on Quantum Mechanics Foundations and New Physics Frontiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We remodeled our sophomore curriculum extensively both in the laboratories and the lectures. Our Experimental Contemporary Physics laboratory (PHY293) was almost completely re-built both in curriculum and pedagogy. Among the new experiments that we introduced are Nanoparticle plasmon resonance, Saturated absorption and fluorescence in iodine molecules, Quantized conductance in atomic-scale constrictions, and Water droplets behavior and manipulation on metal surfaces. This presentation will focus on the last two experiments. Quantized conductance in a constriction in a gold wire being pulled slowly is a unique direct application of the one-dimensional potential wells. Unlike most experiments on quantum mechanics that use optics, this experiment is transport-based, conceptually simple, and robust in addition to being low-cost. The transport properties of the wire span multiple transport regimes while being pulled. It is quite valuable for students (a significant fraction of whom are biological physics and engineering physics majors) to understand the behavior of water droplets on different surfaces. Water is the medium in which biological activities occur and is important in many other applications like air conditioning and refrigeration. We design simple gradients in the hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of metal surfaces in order to move water droplets in a controlled way, even against gravity. Students explore the effects of surface tension and metal roughness on droplets.

Eid, Khalid; Yarrison-Rice, Jan; Jaeger, Herbert

2013-03-01

192

Compilation of current high-energy physics experiments  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth edition of the compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. Only approved experiments are included.

Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

1981-05-01

193

Simulations of Ground and Space-Based Oxygen Atom Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-earth orbit (LEO) materials erosion scenario and the ground-based experiment designed to simulate it are compared using the direct-simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The DSMC model provides a detailed description of the interactions between the hyperthermal gas flow and a normally oriented flat plate for each case. We find that while the general characteristics of the LEO exposure are represented in the ground-based experiment, multi-collision effects can potentially alter the impact energy and directionality of the impinging molecules in the ground-based experiment. Multi-collision phenomena also affect downstream flux measurements.

Finchum, A. (Technical Monitor); Cline, J. A.; Minton, T. K.; Braunstein, M.

2003-01-01

194

INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

1992-01-01

195

Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments without Superconducting Electromagnets  

SciTech Connect

Long-pulse fusion physics experiments can be performed economically via resistive electromagnets designed for thermally steady-state operation. Possible fusion experiments using resistive electromagnets include long-pulse ignition with deuterium-tritium fuel. Long-pulse resistive electromagnets are alternatives to today's delicate and costly superconductors. At any rate, superconducting technology is now evolving independent of fusion, so near-term superconducting experience may not ultimately be useful.

Woolley, R.D.

1998-08-19

196

High-energy shadowing effect and its application to atomic and solid state physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion-beam shadowing effects for projectiles in the MeV\\/u energy range have been studied with high-energy (keV) secondary electrons emitted from the surface of a target crystal. This article reviews and discusses applications of the high-energy shadowing effect to atomic and solid state physics, as well as physical and technical aspects of the electron spectroscopy under channeling incidence conditions.

Kudo Hiroshi; Shima Kunihiro; Ishihara Toyoyuki; Takeshita Hidefumi; Aoki Yasushi; Yamamoto Shunya; Naramoto Hiroshi

1994-01-01

197

Clock Technology Development in the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program. It focuses on clock technology development. The topics include: 1) Overview of LCAP Flight Projects; 2) Space Clock 101; 3) Physics with Clocks in microgravity; 4) Space Clock Challenges; 5) LCAP Timeline; 6) International Space Station (ISS) Science Platforms; 7) ISS Express Rack; 8) Space Qualification of Components; 9) Laser Configuration; 10) Clock Rate Comparisons: GPS Carrier Phase Frequency Transfer; and 11) ISS Model Views. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

Seidel, Dave; Thompson, R. J.; Klipstein, W. M.; Kohel, J.; Maleki, L.

2000-01-01

198

Theory of neutrino-atom collisions: the history, present status and BSM physics  

E-print Network

An overview of the current theoretical studies on neutrino-atom scattering processes is presented. The ionization channel of these processes, which is studied in experiments searching for neutrino magnetic moments, is brought into focus. Recent developments in the theory of atomic ionization by impact of reactor antineutrinos are discussed. It is shown that the stepping approximation is well applicable for the data analysis practically down to the ionization threshold.

Konstantin A. Kouzakov; Alexander I. Studenikin

2014-06-19

199

Theory of neutrino-atom collisions: the history, present status and BSM physics  

E-print Network

An overview of the current theoretical studies on neutrino-atom scattering processes is presented. The ionization channel of these processes, which is studied in experiments searching for neutrino magnetic moments, is brought into focus. Recent developments in the theory of atomic ionization by impact of reactor antineutrinos are discussed. It is shown that the stepping approximation is well applicable for the data analysis practically down to the ionization threshold.

Kouzakov, Konstantin A

2014-01-01

200

Experiments with Ultracold Quantum-degenerate Fermionic Lithium Atoms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental methods of laser and evaporative cooling, used in the production of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates have recently been extended to realize quantum degeneracy in trapped Fermi gases. Fermi gases are a new rich system to explore the implications of Pauli exclusion on scattering properties of the system, and ultimately fermionic superfluidity. We have produced a new macroscopic quantum system, in which a degenerate Li-6 Fermi gas coexists with a large and stable Na-23 BEC. This was accomplished using inter-species sympathetic cooling of fermionic 6Li in a thermal bath of bosonic Na-23. We have achieved high numbers of both fermions (less than 10(exp 5) and bosons (less than 10(exp 6), and Li-6 quantum degeneracy corresponding to one half of the Fermi temperature. This is the first time that a Fermi sea was produced with a condensate as a "refrigerator".

Ketterle, Wolfgang

2003-01-01

201

Do General Physics Textbooks Discuss Scientists' Ideas about Atomic Structure? A Case in Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in science education has recognized the importance of teaching atomic structure within a history and philosophy of science perspective. The objective of this study is to evaluate general physics textbooks published in Korea based on the eight criteria developed in previous research. The result of this study shows that Korean general…

Niaz, Mansoor; Kwon, Sangwoon; Kim, Nahyun; Lee, Gyoungho

2013-01-01

202

Ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices: mimicking condensed matter physics and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent developments in the physics of ultracold atomic and molecular gases in optical lattices. Such systems are nearly perfect realisations of various kinds of Hubbard models, and as such may very well serve to mimic condensed matter phenomena. We show how these systems may be employed as quantum simulators to answer some challenging open questions of condensed matter,

Maciej Lewenstein; Anna Sanpera; Veronica Ahufinger; Bogdan Damski; Aditi Sen; Ujjwal Sen

2007-01-01

203

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 89, 045406 (2014) Classical and semiclassical theories of atom scattering from corrugated surfaces  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 89, 045406 (2014) Classical and semiclassical theories of atom scattering from or disordered. This theory is extended from the quantum mechanical regime to the classical regime of complete to further expressions for multiple-phonon transfers. In the classical limit, the theory produces

Manson, Joseph R.

204

Design considerations for a combined synchrotron-light source and heavy-ion storage ring Atomic Physics Facility  

SciTech Connect

An Atomic Physics Facility (APF) based on the combination of photons produced by a synchrotron light source with heavy ions in a storage ring will open the way to the study of ionic states of almost all elements. The design considerations for such a facility are discussed in terms of the use of synchrotron radiation for photoexcitation and ionization experiments. Design considerations for an APF are given in terms of the accelerator facilities presently available at BNL which include the National Synchrotron Light Source and Tandem Van de Graaff Laboratory. The results show that the concept is valid and therefore that implementation would result in entirely new capabilities for the study of multiply-ionized atoms.

Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.; Lee, Y.Y.; Thieberger, P.; Thomlinson, W.C.

1986-11-10

205

Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Laboratory Toshiyuki Azuma Division of Genomic Technologies (Center for Life Science Technologies) Piero Carninci  

E-print Network

Radioactive Isotope Physics Laboratory (Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science) Hiroyoshi SakuraiAtomic Molecular and Optical Physics Laboratory Toshiyuki Azuma Division of Genomic Technologies (Center for Life Science Technologies) Piero Carninci Computational Astrophysics Laboratory Toshikazu

Fukai, Tomoki

206

Precision spectroscopy of light kaonic atom X-rays in the SIDDHARTA experiment  

SciTech Connect

The KN system at rest makes a sensitive testing ground for low energy QCD. At the DA{Phi}NE electron-positron collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati we study kaonic atoms, taking advantage of the low-energy kaons from {Phi}-mesons decaying nearly at rest. The DEAR (DA{Phi}NE Exotic Atom Research) experiment at LNF delivered the most precise data on kaonic hydrogen up to now. DEAR and its follow-up experiment SIDDHARTA (Silicon Drift Detector for Hadronic Atom Research by Timing Application) are using X-ray spectroscopy of kaonic atoms to measure the strong interaction induced shift and width of the ground state. SIDDHARTA is the first experiment on kaonic helium-3 and deuterium ever, and kaonic hydrogen was remeasured with improved precision.

Cargnelli, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J. [Stefan Meyer Institut of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, 1090, Boltzmanngasse 3 (Austria); Bazzi, M.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Curceanu, C.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Sandri, P. Levi; Lucherini, V.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Vidal, A. Romero; Scordo, A.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F; Doce, O. Vazquez [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40,I-00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Beer, G. [Dep. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O.Box 3055, Victoria B.C. V8W3P6 (Canada)

2011-10-24

207

Speculative Physics: the Ontology of Theory and Experiment in High Energy Particle Physics and Science Fiction  

E-print Network

The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the secon...

Lee, Clarissa Ai Ling

2014-01-01

208

Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Lehar, F. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kettle, P.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

1996-09-01

209

Design, development, and fabrication of a prototype ice pack heat sink subsystem. Flight experiment physical phenomena experiment chest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a flight experiment physical phenomena experiment chest, to be used eventually for investigating and demonstrating ice pack heat sink subsystem physical phenomena during a zero gravity flight experiment, is described.

Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Dean, W. C., II

1975-01-01

210

Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.  

PubMed

Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

2013-01-01

211

Probing new top physics at the LHCb experiment.  

PubMed

We suggest that top quark physics can be studied at the LHCb experiment and that top quark production could be observed. Since LHCb covers a large pseudorapidity region in the forward direction, it has unique abilities to probe new physics in the top quark sector. Furthermore, we demonstrate that LHCb may be able to measure a t ?t production rate asymmetry and, thus, indirectly probe an anomalous forward-backward t ?t asymmetry in the forward region, a possibility suggested by the enhanced forward-backward asymmetry reported by the CDF experiment. PMID:21929163

Kagan, Alexander L; Kamenik, Jernej F; Perez, Gilad; Stone, Sheldon

2011-08-19

212

Compilation of current high-energy-physics experiments  

SciTech Connect

This is the third edition of a compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and ten participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about January 1980, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1976.

Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

1980-04-01

213

Automated Reconstruction of Particle Cascades in High Energy Physics Experiments  

E-print Network

We present a procedure for reconstructing particle cascades from event data measured in a high energy physics experiment. For evaluating the hypothesis of a specific physics process causing the observed data, all possible reconstruction versions of the scattering process are constructed from the final state objects. We describe the procedure as well as examples of physics processes of different complexity studied at hadron-hadron colliders. We estimate the performance by 20 microseconds per reconstructed decay vertex, and 0.6 kByte per reconstructed particle in the decay trees.

O. Actis; M. Erdmann; A. Henrichs; A. Hinzmann; M. Kirsch; G. Müller; J. Steggemann

2008-01-08

214

Non_Maxwellian effects on atomic physics rates, electron distribution function and electron parallel heat transport in Divertor plasmas .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In divertor plasmas, when the parallel electron temperature gradient is very steep, the electron distribution function becomes non-Maxwellian. With our electron kinetic code FPI, we study the resulting non-Maxwellian electron distribution functions and their effects on the atomic physics rates, on the non-local electron heat transport and their interplay. In our atomic model we consider atomic hydrogen excited states up to n=30 and use the ALADDIN atomic data basis for the cross sections.This is the basis of the atomic physics module used in the well known edge plasma simulation code UEDGE. We have upgraded our electron kinetic code FPI to include this atomic physics model. Results are presented for the atomic effective ionization and recombination rates, and for the electron distribution function. The influence of inelastic collisions on nonlocal electron heat transport will be discussed.

Allais, Fabrice; Alouani Bibi, Fathallah; Matte, Jean Pierre; Stotler, Daren

2003-10-01

215

Modern Laser-Atomic Physics and Stable Oscillators for Real World Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will consider how, when and where modern laser/atomic physics might play a significant role in real world applications. Advances in laser technology, control systems and precision laser spectroscopy are enabling many new capabilities for measurements and instrumentation, and can improve the performance of atomic clocks, magnetometers and inertial sensors by several orders of magnitude. Initial ideas of using lasers to enhance the performance of atom-based instruments dates back to the 1960s, and those early predictions were mostly well founded and have now been demonstrated, to varying degrees, in research laboratories and environments around the world. However, 40 years later, these promises have yet to be realized in industrial, governmental or commercial applications. As an example, the technology and performance (in terms of accuracy and stability) of commercially available atomic clocks has been rather stagnate since the 1970s, whereas those in research laboratories have continued to improve so that their performance is roughly 1000x better than the commercial frequency standards. We can, and should, ask why there is such a large gap between what is possible and what is commercially available? Reasons for the large disconnect in performance are multifold, and will be discussed. Atom-Optic Inertial sensors (gyros, accelerometers) are a more recent development and application that uses the same methods of laser atomic physics. Efforts are now underway to bring these atom interferometer inertial sensors to real world applications and commercial availability. Extremely stable microwave sources are another spinoff of precision laser technology and spectroscopy. It now appears that lasers may soon find their way into high performance commercial clocks and magnetometers and other instruments. However, our community has been making such promises and predictions for decades now...

Hollberg, Leo

2010-03-01

216

MIT Physics 8.02: Experiment - Electrostatic Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an instructor's guide for an experiment to measure electrostatic force, using parallel plates made from two washers, insulating perf-board, and aluminum foil. Photos and detailed instructions are provided for experimental setup. SEE RELATED MATERIALS for a Java simulation by the same authors on the topic of capacitance. For an Excel spreadsheet developed specifically to accompany this experiment, see link below: MIT Physics 8.02 Open Courseware: Labs

2010-04-14

217

Controlling ultracold atoms in multi-band optical lattices for simulation of Kondo physics  

E-print Network

We show that ultracold atoms can be controlled in multi-band optical lattices through spatially periodic Raman pulses for investigation of a class of strongly correlated physics related to the Kondo problem. The underlying dynamics of this system is described by a spin-dependent fermionic or bosonic Kondo-Hubbard lattice model even if we have only spin-independent atomic collision interaction. We solve the bosonic Kondo-Hubbard lattice model through a mean-field approximation, and the result shows a clear phase transition from the ferromagnetic superfluid to the Kondo-signet insulator at the integer filling.

L. -M. Duan

2003-10-16

218

When Physical Activity Participation Promotes Inactivity: Negative Experiences of Spanish Adolescents in Physical Education and Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses negative experiences in physical education and sport reported during qualitative interviews of a group of inactive adolescent Spanish boys and girls. The purpose of this analysis is twofold. First and most important, it seeks to give voice to these young people reporting negative experiences and connect them to contexts of…

Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Brown, David H. K.

2012-01-01

219

Speculative Physics: the Ontology of Theory and Experiment in High Energy Particle Physics and Science Fiction  

E-print Network

The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the second level of the conversation, theories are produced from a close study of the physics objects as speculative engine for new knowledge generation that are then reconceptualized and re-articulated for extrapolation into the speculative ontology of hard science fiction, particularly the hard science fiction written with the double intent of speaking to the science while producing imaginative and socially conscious science through the literary affordances of science fiction. The works of science fiction examined here demonstrate the tension between the internal values of physics in the practice of theory and experiment and questions on ethics, culture, and morality.

Clarissa Ai Ling Lee

2014-06-21

220

PIENU experiment at TRIUMF: A sensitive probe of new physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A TRIUMF experiment, PIENU, which aims to measure the branching ratio of pion decays, R = ?(??e?+e??)/?(????+???) to a precision of 0.1% or better is described. Such a measurement provides the best test of electron-muon universality in weak interactions and is sensitive to an effective mass scale of up to 1000 TeV in new physics.

Sher, A.; Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; Britton, D. I.; Bryman, D. A.; von Bruch, D.; Chen, S.; Comfort, J.; Ding, M.; Doria, L.; Gumplinger, P.; Hussein, A.; Igarashi, Y.; Ito, N.; Ito, S.; Kettell, S.; Kuno, Y.; Kurchaninov, L.; Littenberg, L.; Malbrunot, C.; Mischke, R.; Numao, T.; Sandorfi, A.; Sullivan, T.; Vavilov, D.; Yamada, K.; Yoshida, Y.

2013-10-01

221

Chladni Patterns on Drumheads: A "Physics of Music" Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In our "Physics of Music" class for non-science majors, we have developed a laboratory exercise in which students experiment with Chladni sand patterns on drumheads. Chladni patterns provide a kinesthetic, visual, and entertaining way to illustrate standing waves on flat surfaces and are very helpful when making the transition from one-dimensional…

Worland, Randy

2011-01-01

222

Enthalpy of Vaporization by Gas Chromatography: A Physical Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is conducted to measure the enthalpy of vaporization of volatile compounds like methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and others by using gas chromatography. This physical property was measured using a very tiny quantity of sample revealing that it is possible to measure the enthalpies of two or more compounds at the same time.

Ellison, Herbert R.

2005-01-01

223

First physics results from the HARP experiment at CERN  

E-print Network

The first physics results of the HARP experiment are presented. We emphasize the high performance of the forward part of the apparatus. The differential raw pion yield and its efficiency correction up to polar angles of 250 mrad are shown. The analysed setting is 12.9 GeV/c incident protons in a 5% interacion legth aluminium target.

A. Cervera Villanueva

2004-06-19

224

The ALICE experiment at the LHC First Physics Results  

SciTech Connect

ALICE is one of the experiments at the LHC. The excellent performance of the detector has been demonstrated with the measurement and analysis of the first proton-proton collisions provided by the LHC on November 2009. We review the first physics results and the general status of the project. We also review the activities of the Mexican group participating in ALICE project.

Herrera Corral, Gerardo [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2010-08-04

225

Experimenting in a Constructivist High School Physics Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presents a study involving students (n=46) enrolled in an introductory physics course designed to describe and understand students' experimenting and problem-solving strategies in a constructivist learning environment. Concludes that students should be provided with problem-rich learning environments in which they learn to investigate phenomena of their own interest and can develop complex problem-solving skills.

Roth, Wolff-Michael

2006-10-09

226

Multidisciplinary Field Training in Undergraduate Physical Geography: Russian Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field training is seen as a central component of the discipline of Physical Geography and an essential part of the undergraduate curriculum. This paper explores the structure and relationships between fieldwork and theoretical courses and the abundant experiences of field training in the undergraduate curriculum of 37 Russian universities. It…

Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Chalov, Sergey R.; Panin, Andrey V.

2013-01-01

227

Quantum-nondemolition measurements using cold trapped atoms: Comparison between theory and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis of a recent quantum-nondemolition experiment in optics using cold atoms in a magneto-optical trap as a nonlinear medium. A signal beam and a meter beam from two independent lasers are coupled within a Lambda-type three-level scheme in the D1 line of 87Rb atoms. The experimental results for the relevant quantum correlations

A. Sinatra; J. F. Roch; K. Vigneron; Ph. Grelu; J.-Ph. Poizat; Kaige Wang; P. Grangier

1998-01-01

228

Atomic impact experiments with free helium-3 and helium-4 clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free helium clusters with of the order of 103 to 107 atoms have been predicted to reach final temperatures of about 0.4 K in the case of4He, and of 0.15 K in the case of3He. In the first case, the clusters have to be expected to be superfluid, in the latter case to be normalfluid. Impact experiments with cesium atoms,

Jürgen Gspann

1995-01-01

229

Precision spectroscopy of light kaonic atom X-rays in the SIDDHARTA experiment  

SciTech Connect

The SIDDHARTA experiment successfully measured kaonic atom X-rays using four gas targets of hydrogen, deuterium, helium-3, and helium-4 at the DA{Phi}NH electron-positron collider. Excellent performance of the SDDs under beam conditions was found in terms of X-ray energy resolution and a good background suppression capability. The preliminary results of the strong-interaction shifts of the kaonic atoms with Z = 1 and 2 are given.

Ishiwatari, T.; Cargnelli, M.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J. [Stefan-Meyer-Institut fuer subatomare Physik, Vienna (Austria); Bazzi, M.; Corradi, G.; Curceanu, C.; d'Uffizi, A.; Guaraldo, C.; Sandri, P. Levi; Lucherini, V.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Rizzo, A.; Vidal, A. Romero; Scordo, A.; Doce, O. Vazquez [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Beer, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria B.C. (Canada); Bombelli, L. [Politechno di Milano, Sez. di Elettronica, Milano (Italy)

2010-12-28

230

Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

231

Fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer experiments in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overstudy committee was formed to study and recommend fundamental experiments in fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer for experimentation in orbit, using the space shuttle system and a space laboratory. The space environment, particularly the low-gravity condition, is an indispensable requirement for all the recommended experiments. The experiments fell broadly into five groups: critical-point thermophysical phenomena, fluid surface dynamics and capillarity, convection at reduced gravity, non-heated multiphase mixtures, and multiphase heat transfer. The Committee attempted to assess the effects of g-jitter and other perturbations of the gravitational field on the conduct of the experiments. A series of ground-based experiments are recommended to define some of the phenomena and to develop reliable instrumentation.

Dodge, F. T.; Abramson, H. N.; Angrist, S. W.; Catton, I.; Churchill, S. W.; Mannheimer, R. J.; Otrach, S.; Schwartz, S. H.; Sengers, J. V.

1975-01-01

232

Atomic physics research with second and third generation synchrotron light sources  

SciTech Connect

This contribution to these proceedings is intended to provide an introduction and overview for other contributions on atomic (and related) physics research at existing and planned synchrotron light sources. The emphasis will be on research accomplishments and future opportunities, but a comparison will be given of operating characteristics for first, second, and third generation machines. First generation light sources were built to do research with the primary electron and positron beams, rather than with the synchrotron radiation itself. Second generation machines were specifically designed to be dedicated synchrotron-radiation facilities, with an emphasis on the use of bending-magnet radiation. The new third generation light sources are being designed to optimize radiation from insertion devices, such as undulators and wigglers. Each generation of synchrotron light source offers useful capabilities for forefront research in atomic physics and many other disciplines. 27 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Johnson, B.M.

1990-10-01

233

Construction and Characterization of External Cavity Diode Lasers for Atomic Physics  

PubMed Central

Since their development in the late 1980s, cheap, reliable external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) have replaced complex and expensive traditional dye and Titanium Sapphire lasers as the workhorse laser of atomic physics labs1,2. Their versatility and prolific use throughout atomic physics in applications such as absorption spectroscopy and laser cooling1,2 makes it imperative for incoming students to gain a firm practical understanding of these lasers. This publication builds upon the seminal work by Wieman3, updating components, and providing a video tutorial. The setup, frequency locking and performance characterization of an ECDL will be described. Discussion of component selection and proper mounting of both diodes and gratings, the factors affecting mode selection within the cavity, proper alignment for optimal external feedback, optics setup for coarse and fine frequency sensitive measurements, a brief overview of laser locking techniques, and laser linewidth measurements are included. PMID:24796259

Hardman, Kyle S.; Bennetts, Shayne; Debs, John E.; Kuhn, Carlos C. N.; McDonald, Gordon D.; Robins, Nick

2014-01-01

234

Physics 212E Classical and Modern Physics Spring 2012 VPython Class 8: The Instability of Atoms  

E-print Network

The Graphing Display We're not going to be using VPython for animating a physical system today. Rather, we will be using it to make plots. To import the graphing features, we begin with from visual.graph import * Let's make a test plot to see how it works. Let's define a gcurve object called oscillator: oscillator

Vollmayr-Lee, Ben

235

Quantum and semiclassical spin networks: from atomic and molecular physics to quantum computing and gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mathematical apparatus of quantum-mechanical angular momentum (re)coupling, developed originally to describe spectroscopic phenomena in atomic, molecular, optical and nuclear physics, is embedded in modern algebraic settings which emphasize the underlying combinatorial aspects. SU(2) recoupling theory, involving Wigner's 3nj symbols, as well as the related problems of their calculations, general properties, asymptotic limits for large entries, nowadays plays a prominent

Vincenzo Aquilanti; Ana Carla P. Bitencourt; Cristiane da S. Ferreira; Annalisa Marzuoli; Mirco Ragni

2008-01-01

236

Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

2005-01-01

237

Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems.

Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

2014-07-01

238

Interaction of Hyperthermal Atoms on Surfaces in Orbit: the University of Alabama Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The University of Alabama experiment which flew on the STS-8 mission had several objectives which were mostly of a speculative nature since so little was known of the processes of interest. The experiment provided original data on: (1) oxidation of metal surfaces; (2) reaction rates of atomic oxygen with carbon and other surfaces and the dependence of these rates on temperature; and (3) the angular distribution of 5 eV atoms scattered off a solid surface. A review of the results is provided.

Gregory, J. C.

1987-01-01

239

Elementary Particle Physics Experiment at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst  

SciTech Connect

In this progress report we summarize the activities of the University of Massachusetts- Amherst group for the three years of this research project. We are fully engaged in research at the energy frontier with the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We have made leading contributions in software development and performance studies for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, as well as on physics analysis with an emphasis on Standard Model measurements and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In addition, we have increased our contributions to the Muon Spectrometer New Small Wheel upgrade project.

Brau, Benjamin; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Willocq, Stephane

2013-07-30

240

Science Goals of the Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The PARCS (Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space) experiment will use a laser-cooled Cesium atomic clock operating in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide both advanced tests of gravitational theory and to demonstrate a new cold-atom clock technology for space. PARCS is a joint project of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and the University of Colorado (CU). This paper concentrates on the scientific goals of the PARCS mission. The microgravity space environment allows laser-cooled Cs atoms to have Ramsey times in excess of those feasible on Earth, resulting in improved clock performance. Clock stabilities of 5x10(exp -14) at one second, and accuracies better than 10(exp -16) are projected.

Ashby, N.

2003-01-01

241

Hydrogen atom recombination on tungsten at high temperature: Experiment and Molecular Dynamics Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atom recombination at wall is a phenomenon involved in many plasma experiments and also in present tokamaks and future fusion plasma reactors like ITER. This exothermic surface reaction is catalyzed by the material and depends on its composition and temperature. In the MESOX experimental set-up, several methods were developed for the measurement of the recombination parameters. In this paper, a method developed for the experimental evaluation of the recombination coefficient of atomic hydrogen ?H on tungsten at high temperature is presented using two series of atomic lines (H? and He or H? and H2) and the results obtained for surface temperature up to 1350 K are given. A Molecular Dynamics Simulation has been done for the recombination of hydrogen atoms on tungsten in conditions close to the experimental ones using a semi-classical collisional method. Modeling results are compared to the experimental data for two surface temperature values and a fairly good agreement was obtained.

Rutigliano, M.; Santoro, D.; Balat-Pichelin, M.

2014-10-01

242

Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

2004-01-01

243

Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

1998-12-14

244

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 022317 (2014) Large-scale modular quantum-computer architecture with atomic memory  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 022317 (2014) Large-scale modular quantum-computer architecture with atomic.-M. Duan,5 and J. Kim4 1 Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland Department of Physics and National Institute of Standards and Technology, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA 2 Department of Physics

Monroe, Christopher

245

Symmetry and aesthetics in introductory physics: An experiment in interdisciplinary physics and fine arts education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent editorial in Physics Today (July, 2006, p. 10) the ability of physicists to "imagine new realities" was correlated with what have been traditionally considered non-scientific qualities of imagination and creativity, which are usually associated with fine arts. In view of the current developments in physics of the 21st Century, including the searches for cosmic dark energy and evidence from the Large Hadron Collider which, it is hoped, will verify or refute the proposals of String Theory, the importance of developing creativity and imagination through education is gaining recognition. Two questions are addressed by this study: First, How can we bring the sense of aesthetics and creativity, which are important in the practice of physics, into the teaching and learning of physics at the introductory college level, without sacrificing the mathematical rigor which is necessary for proper understanding of physics? Second, How can we provide access to physics for a diverse population of students which includes physics majors, arts majors, and future teachers? An interdisciplinary curriculum which begins with teaching math as a language of nature, and utilizes arts to help visualize the connections between mathematics and the physical universe, may provide answers to these questions. In this dissertation I describe in detail the case study of the eleven students - seven physics majors and four arts majors - who participated in an experimental course, Symmetry and Aesthetics in Introductory Physics, in Winter Quarter, 2007, at UCSB's College of Creative Studies. The very positive results of this experiment suggest that this model deserves further testing, and could provide an entry into the study of physics for physics majors, liberal arts majors, future teachers, and as a foundation for media arts and technology programs.

van der Veen, Janet Krause

246

Understanding the learning assistant experience with physics identity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning Assistants (LAs) have been shown to have better conceptual understanding and more favorable beliefs about science than non-LAs, and are more likely to choose a career in K-12 science teaching [1]. We propose that connections between elements of identity, persistence, and participation in an LA program can be explained using the concept of the community of practice and its intimate relationship to identity [2]. In separate work, Hazari et al. found that physics identity was highly correlated to expressed career plans in physics [3]. We hypothesize that a thriving LA program has many features of a well-functioning community of practice and contributes to all four elements of physics identity: personal interest, student performance, competence, and recognition by others. We explore how this analysis of the LA experience might shape decisions and influence outcomes of adoption and adaptations of the LA model.

Close, Eleanor W.; Close, Hunter G.; Donnelly, David

2013-01-01

247

Main physics results of the ARGO-YBJ experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking for more than 5 years at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Observatory (Tibet, P. R. China, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm2). With a duty-cycle greater than 86%, the detector collected about 5 × 1011 events in a wide energy range, from few hundred GeV up to about 10 PeV. High altitude location and detector features make ARGO-YBJ capable of investigating a wide range of important issues in Cosmic Ray and Astroparticle Physics by imaging the front of atmospheric showers with unprecedented resolution and detail. In this paper, the main physics results in gamma-ray astronomy and in cosmic ray physics are summarized.

di Sciascio, Giuseppe

2014-08-01

248

Understanding the learning assistant experience with physics identity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning Assistants (LAs) have been shown to have better conceptual understanding and more favorable beliefs about science than non-LAs, and are more likely to choose a career in K-12 science teaching [1]. We propose that connections between elements of identity, persistence, and participation in an LA program can be explained using the concept of the community of practice and its intimate relationship to identity [2]. In separate work, Hazari et al. found that physics identity was highly correlated to expressed career plans in physics [3]. We hypothesize that a thriving LA program has many features of a well-functioning community of practice and contributes to all four elements of physics identity: personal interest, student performance, competence, and recognition by others. We explore how this analysis of the LA experience might shape decisions and influence outcomes of adoption and adaptations of the LA model.

Close, Eleanor W.; Close, Hunter G.; Donnelly, David

2014-02-19

249

Use of titanium in the tokamak physics experiment (TPX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The titanium alloy Ti?6Al?4V is currently the reference alloy for the vacuum vessel of the tokamak physics experiment (TPX), which will use D?D as fuel. Titanium was selected because it satisfies the requirement of reduced radioactivation of the TPX vacuum vessel. Reduced activation allows the hands-on maintenance of components inside the vacuum vessel during the first two years of operation,

J. W. Davis; G. W. Wille; P. Heitzenroeder

1996-01-01

250

Can There BE Physics Without Experiments? Challenges and Pitfalls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicists investigating space, time and matter at the Planck scale will probably have to work with much less guidance from experimental input than has ever happened before in the history of Physics. This may imply that we should insist on much higher demands of logical and mathematical rigour than before. Working with long chains of arguments linking theories to experiment, we must be able to rely on logical precision when and where experimental checks cannot be provided.

't Hooft, Gerard

2014-03-01

251

Latest Higgs Physics Results from the ATLAS Experiment  

E-print Network

Selected latest Higgs physics results from the ATLAS experiment at the LHC are presented. This includes the improved Higgs boson mass measurement, the determination of the off-shell Higgs signal strength and constraints on the total width, the Higgs spin and updated couplings measurements, preliminary evidence for the Higgs Yukawa interaction with fermions in the tau tau final state, searches for Higgs in assocition with top quarks, and lastest fiducial and differential cross-sections measurements.

Shaw, K; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

252

Stalking the Anti-Racist Atom: Engaging Educational Equity and Diversity in Physics Teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the first articles I ever read on diversity in physics education stated, “There’s no such thing as an anti-racist atom.” This perspective, that the science of physics is itself inherently unbiased, illustrates the difficulty of engaging our intellectual community on this topic. We genuinely believe that our science is devoid of the complications of the human condition, and therefore we need not worry about these things. It is clear however, as people competing for scarce resources in a non-equitable society, we engage in all of the same behaviors everyone else does, include those that work against equity and diversity. Over the last several years, my colleagues and I have held workshops aimed at addressing educational equity and diversity in physics teaching. In this discussion, I will present some of the questions we have posed, along with lessons learned and ideas about what we can do next.

Hodari, Apriel K.

2006-12-01

253

Stony Brook Mineral Physics Institute Research Experience for Undergraduates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each summer, the Mineral Physics Institute (MPI) at Stony Brook University offers a group of upper-level undergraduate students a paid opportunity to participate in mineral physics research during a ten-week Summer Scholars experience, funded by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates program. Since 1992, when the program was established under by the Center for High Pressure Research, over 100 students have participated. Students are matched with existing research groups led by Institute faculty representing the physical sciences and mathematics. Research is conducted in MPI's High Pressure Laboratory and at the National Synchrotron Light Source at nearby Brookhaven National Laboratory. Students may also register to earn up to 6 credits of Stony Brook University undergraduate research course work for their participation in the program. 1 Effect of Al Substitution on the Talc to 10Å Phase Transition 2 X-ray Characterization of Clay Minerals and their Thermal Decomposition Products 3 Synthesis of Hydrous Olivine under High Pressure and Temperature 4 Strain Behavior of MgO at High Pressure 5 Temperature Variations in DIA Pressure Assembly using MgO 6 Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3) Fusion Curve Reexamined: New Experiments at 5 GPa During the summer of 2008, six students participated in the program. Their research projects were: The results of the six projects will be presented by the student participants in this session.

Vaughan, M. T.; Arthur, E. J.; Cintrón, I. A.; Labold, J. A.; Mounier, M. T.; Plotnick, D. S.; Pottish, S. D.; Richard, G. A.

2008-12-01

254

Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

2009-01-01

255

Universal van der Waals physics for three cold atoms near Feshbach resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental studies with cold atoms have advanced our understanding of three-body physics, historically a fundamental yet challenging problem. This is because atomic interactions can be precisely varied in strength using magnetically tunable scattering resonances known as Feshbach resonances. Collisions near the unitarity limit, where scattering is maximum, are known to have universal aspects that are independent of short-range chemical details. Away from this limit, many quantum states are expected to be active during a three-body collision, making the collisional observables practically unpredictable. Here we predict three-body ultracold scattering rates by properly building in the pairwise van der Waals interactions plus the multi-spin properties of a tunable Feshbach resonance state characterized by known dimensionless two-body parameters. Numerically solving the Schrödinger equation then quantitatively determines three-atom collisional properties at all interaction strengths without needing adjustable parameters to fit data. Consequently, we can define a new class of van der Waals universality for cold atom three-body phenomena.

Wang, Yujun; Julienne, Paul S.

2014-10-01

256

Resolving all-order method convergence problems for atomic physics applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the relativistic all-order method where all single, double, and partial triple excitations of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock wave function are included to all orders of perturbation theory led to many important results for the study of fundamental symmetries, development of atomic clocks, ultracold atom physics, and others, as well as provided recommended values of many atomic properties critically evaluated for their accuracy for a large number of monovalent systems. This approach requires iterative solutions of the linearized coupled-cluster equations leading to convergence issues in some cases where correlation corrections are particularly large or lead to an oscillating pattern. Moreover, these issues also lead to similar problems in the configuration-interaction (CI)+all-order method for many-particle systems. In this work, we have resolved most of the known convergence problems by applying two different convergence stabilizer methods, namely, reduced linear equation and direct inversion of iterative subspace. Examples are presented for B, Al, Zn+, and Yb+. Solving these convergence problems greatly expands the number of atomic species that can be treated with the all-order methods and is anticipated to facilitate many interesting future applications.

Gharibnejad, H.; Eliav, E.; Safronova, M. S.; Derevianko, A.

2011-05-01

257

Physics Basis and Simulation of Burning Plasma Physics for the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE)  

SciTech Connect

The FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] design for a burning plasma experiment is described in terms of its physics basis and engineering features. Systems analysis indicates that the device has a wide operating space to accomplish its mission, both for the ELMing H-mode reference and the high bootstrap current/high beta advanced tokamak regimes. Simulations with 1.5D transport codes reported here both confirm and constrain the systems projections. Experimental and theoretical results are used to establish the basis for successful burning plasma experiments in FIRE.

C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; S.C. Jardin

2002-01-18

258

Autonomy and the Student Experience in Introductory Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of autonomy in the student experience in a large-enrollment undergraduate introductory physics course was studied from a Self-Determination Theory perspective with two studies. Study I, a correlational study, investigated whether certain aspects of the student experience correlated with how autonomy supportive (vs. controlling) students perceived their instructors to be. An autonomy supportive instructor acknowledges students' perspectives, feelings, and perceptions and provides students with information and opportunities for choice, while minimizing external pressures. It was found that the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was positively correlated with student interest and enjoyment in learning physics (beta=0.31***) and negatively correlated with student anxiety about taking physics (beta=-0.23**). It was also positively correlated with how autonomous (vs. controlled) students' reasons for studying physics became over the duration of the course (i.e., studying physics more because they wanted to vs. had to; beta=0.24***). This change in autonomous reasons for studying physics was in turn positively correlated with student performance in the course (beta=0.17*). Additionally, the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was directly correlated with performance for those students entering the course with relatively autonomous reasons for studying physics (beta=0.25**). In summary, students who perceived their instructors as more autonomy supportive tended to have a more favorable experience in the course. If greater autonomy support was in fact the cause of a more favorable student experience, as suggested by Self-determination Theory and experimental studies in other contexts, these results would have implications for instruction and instructor professional development in similar contexts. I discuss these implications. Study II, an experimental study, investigated the effect, on the student experience, of the number of opportunities for choice built into the course format. This was done by comparing two sets of classes. In one set of classes, students spent each class period working through a required series of activities. In the other set of classes, with additional choice, students were free to choose what to work on during nearly half of each class. It was found that the effect of additional choice on student interest and enjoyment in learning physics was significantly different for men vs. women, with a Cohen's d of 0.62 (0.16-1.08; 95% CI). Men became somewhat more interested with additional choice and women became less interested. This gender difference in interest and enjoyment as a result of additional choice could not be accounted for by differences in performance. It was also found that only in classes with additional choice did performance in the course correlate with the degree to which students reasons for studying physics became more autonomous during the quarter (beta=0.30*). I discuss the implications that these effects of additional choice have for instruction and course design in similar contexts.

Hall, Nicholas Ron

259

Software for physics of tau lepton decay in LHC experiments  

E-print Network

Software development in high energy physics experiments offers unique experience with rapidly changing environment and variety of different standards and frameworks that software must be adapted to. As such, regular methods of software development are hard to use as they do not take into account how greatly some of these changes influence the whole structure. The following thesis summarizes development of TAUOLA C++ Interface introducing tau decays to new event record standard. Documentation of the program is already published. That is why it is not recalled here again. We focus on the development cycle and methodology used in the project, starting from the definition of the expectations through planning and designing the abstract model and concluding with the implementation. In the last part of the paper we present installation of the software within different experiments surrounding Large Hadron Collider and the problems that emerged during this process.

Tomasz Przedzinski

2010-09-20

260

Atomic Oxygen and Space Environment Effects on Aerospace Materials Flown with EOIM-3 Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polymer materials samples mounted on a passive carrier tray were flown aboard the STS-46 Atlantis shuttle as complement to the EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials) experiment to evaluate the effects of atomic oxygen on the materials and to measure the gaseous shuttle bay environment. The morphological changes of the samples produced by the atomic oxygen fluence of 2.07 x 10(exp 20) atoms/cm(exp 2) are being reported. The changes have been verified using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), gravimetric measurement, microscopic observations and thermo-optical measurements. The samples, including Kapton, Delrin, epoxies, Beta Cloth, Chemglaze Z306, silver Teflon, silicone coatings, 3M tape and Uralane and Ultem, PEEK, Victrex (PES), Polyethersulfone and Polymethylpentene thermoplastic, have been characterized by their oxygen reaction efficiency on the basis of their erosion losses and the oxygen fluence. Those efficiencies have been compared to results from other experiments, when available. The efficiencies of the samples are all in the range of E-24 g/atom. The results indicate that the reaction efficiencies of the reported materials can be grouped in about three ranges of values. The least affected materials which have efficiencies varying from 1 to 10(exp 25) g/atom, include silicones, epoxies, Uralane and Teflon. A second group with efficiency from 10 to 45(exp 25) g/atom includes additional silicone coatings, the Chemglaze Z306 paint and Kapton. The third range from 50 to 75(exp 25) includes organic compound such as Pentene, Peek, Ultem, Sulfone and a 3M tape. A Delrin sample had the highest reaction efficiency of 179(exp 25) g/atom. Two samples, the aluminum Beta cloth X389-7 and the epoxy fiberglass G-11 nonflame retardant, showed a slight mass increase.

Scialdone, John J.; Clatterbuck, Carroll H.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Park, Gloria; Kolos, Diane

1996-01-01

261

[Physically handicapped pupils at a regular school - experiences of the school experiment "Lichtenau" (author's transl)].  

PubMed

As an experiment in integration, the joint placement of physically handicapped and non-disabled pupils into the regular class settings of a school belonging to the Hessisch-Lichtenau experiment makes special social and educational measures necessary both at school and in the residential home. The main activities have to be directed towards scientific studies of existing problems and their practical solutions. The following article describes the problems arising from the integrational efforts and suggests possible solutions. PMID:153569

Jung, M; Steinke, T

1978-11-01

262

Testing for a cosmological influence on local physics using atomic and gravitational clocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existence of a possible influence of the large-scale structure of the universe on local physics is discussed. A particular realization of such an influence is discussed in terms of the behavior in time of atomic and gravitational clocks. Two natural categories of metric theories embodying a cosmic infuence exist. The first category has geodesic equations of motion in atomic units, while the second category has geodesic equations of motion in gravitational units. Equations of motion for test bodies are derived for both categories of theories in the appropriate parametrized post-Newtonian limit and are applied to the Solar System. Ranging data to the Viking lander on Mars are of sufficient precision to reveal (1) if such a cosmological influence exists at the level of Hubble's constant, and (2) which category of theories is appropriate for a descripton of the phenomenon.

Adams, P. J.; Hellings, R. W.; Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.

1983-01-01

263

Spectroscopy and atomic physics of highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni for tokamak plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper considers the spectroscopy and atomic physics for some highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni ions produced in tokamak plasmas. Forbidden and intersystem wavelengths for Cr and Ni ions are extrapolated and interpolated using the known wavelengths for Fe lines identified in solar-flare plasmas. Tables of transition probabilities for the B I, C I, N I, O I, and F I isoelectronic sequences are presented, and collision strengths and transition probabilities for Cr, Fe, and Ni ions of the Be I sequence are given. Similarities of tokamak and solar spectra are discussed, and it is shown how the atomic data presented may be used to determine ion abundances and electron densities in low-density plasmas.

Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Cheng, C.-C.; Bhatia, A. K.

1980-01-01

264

Source physics experiments at the Nevada Test Site.  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. capability to monitor foreign underground nuclear test activities relies heavily on measurement of explosion phenomena, including characteristic seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and acoustic signals. Despite recent advances in each of these fields, empirical, rather than physics-based, approaches are used to predict and explain observations. Seismologists rely on prior knowledge of the variations of teleseismic and regional seismic parameters such as p- and s-wave arrivals from simple one-dimensional models for the teleseismic case to somewhat more complicated enhanced two-dimensional models for the regional case. Likewise, radionuclide experts rely on empirical results from a handful of limited experiments to determine the radiological source terms present at the surface after an underground test. To make the next step in the advancement of the science of monitoring we need to transform these fields to enable predictive, physics-based modeling and analysis. The Nevada Test Site Source Physics Experiments (N-SPE) provide a unique opportunity to gather precise data from well-designed experiments to improve physics-based modeling capability. In the seismic experiments, data collection will include time domain reflectometry to measure explosive performance and yield, free-field accelerometers, extensive seismic arrays, and infrasound and acoustic measurements. The improved modeling capability that we will develop using this data should enable important advances in our ability to monitor worldwide for nuclear testing. The first of a series of source physics experiments will be conducted in the granite of Climax Stock at the NTS, near the locations of the HARD HAT and PILE DRIVER nuclear tests. This site not only provides a fairly homogeneous and well-documented geology, but also an opportunity to improve our understanding of how fractures, joints, and faults affect seismic wave generation and propagation. The Climax Stock experiments will consist of a 220 lb (TNT equivalent) calibration shot and a 2200 lb (TNT equivalent) over-buried shot conducted in the same emplacement hole. An identical 2200 lb shot at the same location will follow to investigate the effects of pre-conditioning. These experiments also provide an opportunity to advance capabilities for near-field monitoring, and on-site inspections (OSIs) of suspected testing sites. In particular, geologic, physical, and cultural signatures of underground testing can be evaluated using the N-SPE activities as case studies. Furthermore, experiments to measure the migration of radioactive noble gases to the surface from underground explosions will enable development of higher fidelity radiological source term models that can predict migration through a variety of geologic conditions. Because the detection of short-lived radionuclides is essential to determining if an explosion was nuclear or conventional, a better understanding of the gaseous and particulate radionuclide source terms that reach the surface from underground testing is critical to development of OSI capability.

Lee, Ping (Nuclear Security Technologies, Inc.); Snelson, Catherine (Nuclear Security Technologies, Inc.); Abbott, Robert; Coblentz, David D. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Corbell, Robert; Bowyer, Theodore W. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Sussman, Aviva J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Carrigan, Charles R. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Bradley, Christopher R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Patton, Howard J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Seifert, Carolyn E. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Sweeney, Jerry J. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Brunish, Wendee M. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Hawkins, Ward L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Antoun,Tarabay H. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Wohletz, Kenneth H. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Zucca, John Jay (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)

2010-10-01

265

Quantum and semiclassical spin networks: from atomic and molecular physics to quantum computing and gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mathematical apparatus of quantum-mechanical angular momentum (re)coupling, developed originally to describe spectroscopic phenomena in atomic, molecular, optical and nuclear physics, is embedded in modern algebraic settings which emphasize the underlying combinatorial aspects. SU(2) recoupling theory, involving Wigner's 3nj symbols, as well as the related problems of their calculations, general properties, asymptotic limits for large entries, nowadays plays a prominent role also in quantum gravity and quantum computing applications. We refer to the ingredients of this theory—and of its extension to other Lie and quantum groups—by using the collective term of 'spin networks'. Recent progress is recorded about the already established connections with the mathematical theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (the so-called Askey scheme), providing powerful tools based on asymptotic expansions, which correspond on the physical side to various levels of semi-classical limits. These results are useful not only in theoretical molecular physics but also in motivating algorithms for the computationally demanding problems of molecular dynamics and chemical reaction theory, where large angular momenta are typically involved. As for quantum chemistry, applications of these techniques include selection and classification of complete orthogonal basis sets in atomic and molecular problems, either in configuration space (Sturmian orbitals) or in momentum space. In this paper, we list and discuss some aspects of these developments—such as for instance the hyperquantization algorithm—as well as a few applications to quantum gravity and topology, thus providing evidence of a unifying background structure.

Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Bitencourt, Ana Carla P.; Ferreira, Cristiane da S.; Marzuoli, Annalisa; Ragni, Mirco

2008-11-01

266

Quantum and semiclassical spin networks: from atomic and molecular physics to quantum computing and gravity  

E-print Network

The mathematical apparatus of quantum--mechanical angular momentum (re)coupling, developed originally to describe spectroscopic phenomena in atomic, molecular, optical and nuclear physics, is embedded in modern algebraic settings which emphasize the underlying combinational aspects. SU(2) recoupling theory, involving Wigner's 3nj symbols, as well as the related problems of their calculations, general properties, asymptotic limits for large entries, play nowadays a prominent role also in quantum gravity and quantum computing applications. We refer to the ingredients of this theory -and of its extension to other Lie and quantum group- by using the collective term of `spin networks'. Recent progress is recorded about the already established connections with the mathematical theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (the so-called Askey Scheme), providing powerful tools based on asymptotic expansions, which correspond on the physical side to various levels of semi-classical limits. These results are useful not only in theoretical molecular physics but also in motivating algorithms for the computationally demanding problems of molecular dynamics and chemical reaction theory, where large angular momenta are typically involved. As for quantum chemistry, applications of these techniques include selection and classification of complete orthogonal basis sets in atomic and molecular problems, either in configuration space (Sturmian orbitals) or in momentum space. In this paper we list and discuss some aspects of these developments -such as for instance the hyperquantization algorithm- as well as a few applications to quantum gravity and topology, thus providing evidence of a unifying background structure.

V. Aquilanti; A. C. P. Bitencourt; C. da S. Ferreira; A. Marzuoli; M. Ragni

2009-01-08

267

Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Basic Physical Interactions in Analogous Atomic and Solar Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparing the atom to a "tiny solar system" is a common teaching analogy, and the extent to which learners saw the systems as analogous was investigated. English upper secondary students were asked parallel questions about the physical interactions between the components of a simple atomic system and a simple solar system to investigate…

Taber, Keith S.

2013-01-01

268

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 053420 (2010) Nonlinear Faraday rotation and detection of superposition states in cold atoms  

E-print Network

states in cold atoms Adam Wojciechowski,1,2 Eric Corsini,3,2 Jerzy Zachorowski,1,2 and Wojciech Gawlik1,2 1 Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krak�ow, Poland 2 Joint of nonlinear Faraday rotation with cold atoms at a temperature of 100 �K. The observed nonlinear rotation

269

Temperature Dependence in Atom-Surface Scattering Chemical Physics Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovoth, Israel  

E-print Network

Temperature Dependence in Atom-Surface Scattering Eli Pollak Chemical Physics Department, Weizmann measure of the temperature dependence of energy resolved atom-surface scattering spectra measured under conditions of higher translational energies, larger surface temperatures and partic- ularly for heavier mass

Manson, Joseph R.

270

Comparison between experiments and predictions based on maximum entropy for sprays from a pressure atomizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements were made of the droplet size and velocity distributions in a hollow cone spray from a pressure atomizer using a phase/Doppler particle analyzer. The maximum entropy principle is used to predict these distributions. The constraints imposed in this model involve conversation of mass, momentum, and energy. Estimates of the source terms associated with these constraints are made based on physical reasoning. Agreement between the measurements and the predictions is very good.

Li, X.; Chin, L. P.; Tankin, R. S.; Jackson, T.; Stutrud, J.; Switzer, G.

1991-07-01

271

Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PhaSE) or "Making Jello in Space"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE) is a highly successful experiment that flew aboard two shuttle missions to study the transitions involved in the formation of jellolike colloidal crystals in a microgravity environment. A colloidal suspension, or colloid, consists of fine particles, often having complex interactions, suspended in a liquid. Paint, ink, and milk are examples of colloids found in everyday life. In low Earth orbit, the effective force of gravity is thousands of times less than at the Earth's surface. This provides researchers a way to conduct experiments that cannot be adequately performed in an Earth-gravity environment. In microgravity, colloidal particles freely interact without the complications of settling that occur in normal gravity on Earth. If the particle interactions within these colloidal suspensions could be predicted and accurately modeled, they could provide the key to understanding fundamental problems in condensed matter physics and could help make possible the development of wonderful new "designer" materials. Industries that make semiconductors, electro-optics, ceramics, and composites are just a few that may benefit from this knowledge. Atomic interactions determine the physical properties (e.g., weight, color, and hardness) of ordinary matter. PHaSE uses colloidal suspensions of microscopic solid plastic spheres to model the behavior of atomic interactions. When uniformly sized hard spheres suspended in a fluid reach a certain concentration (volume fraction), the particle-fluid mixture changes from a disordered fluid state, in which the spheres are randomly organized, to an ordered "crystalline" state, in which they are structured periodically. The thermal energy of the spheres causes them to form ordered arrays, analogous to crystals. Seven of the eight PHaSE samples ranged in volume fraction from 0.483 to 0.624 to cover the range of interest, while one sample, having a concentration of 0.019, was included for instrument calibration.

Ling, Jerri S.; Doherty, Michael P.

1998-01-01

272

Comparison of Numerical Simulations to Experiments for Atomization in a Jet Nebulizer  

PubMed Central

The development of jet nebulizers for medical purposes is an important challenge of aerosol therapy. The performance of a nebulizer is characterized by its output rate of droplets with a diameter under 5 µm. However the optimization of this parameter through experiments has reached a plateau. The purpose of this study is to design a numerical model simulating the nebulization process and to compare it with experimental data. Such a model could provide a better understanding of the atomization process and the parameters influencing the nebulizer output. A model based on the Updraft nebulizer (Hudson) was designed with ANSYS Workbench. Boundary conditions were set with experimental data then transient 3D calculations were run on a 4 µm mesh with ANSYS Fluent. Two air flow rate (2 L/min and 8 L/min, limits of the operating range) were considered to account for different turbulence regimes. Numerical and experimental results were compared according to phenomenology and droplet size. The behavior of the liquid was compared to images acquired through shadowgraphy with a CCD Camera. Three experimental methods, laser diffractometry, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and shadowgraphy were used to characterize the droplet size distributions. Camera images showed similar patterns as numerical results. Droplet sizes obtained numerically are overestimated in relation to PDA and diffractometry, which only consider spherical droplets. However, at both flow rates, size distributions extracted from numerical image processing were similar to distributions obtained from shadowgraphy image processing. The simulation then provides a good understanding and prediction of the phenomena involved in the fragmentation of droplets over 10 µm. The laws of dynamics apply to droplets down to 1 µm, so we can assume the continuity of the distribution and extrapolate the results for droplets between 1 and 10 µm. So, this model could help predicting nebulizer output with defined geometrical and physical parameters. PMID:24244334

Lelong, Nicolas; Vecellio, Laurent; Sommer de Gelicourt, Yann; Tanguy, Christian; Diot, Patrice; Junqua-Moullet, Alexandra

2013-01-01

273

Chapter Three - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics in the Early Universe: From Recombination to Reionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our knowledge of the evolution of the early Universe hinges, in part, on our understanding of the underlying atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) processes occurring during that epoch. Here we review the relevant AMO physics from when it first became important at a redshift of z ~ 6000, some 18,000 years after the Big Bang when electrons and ions began to recombine. The review continues through the formation of the first stars and galaxies and concludes after the radiation from these first objects has reionized the Universe at a z ~ 10, about a billion years after the Big Bang.

Glover, Simon C. O.; Chluba, Jens; Furlanetto, Steve R.; Pritchard, Jonathan R.; Savin, Daniel Wolf

2014-08-01

274

Spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms and its contribution to the fundamental physical constants  

PubMed Central

Antiprotonic helium atom, a metastable neutral system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus, was serendipitously discovered, and has been studied at CERN’s antiproton decelerator facility. Its transition frequencies have recently been measured to nine digits of precision by laser spectroscopy. By comparing these experimental results with three-body QED calculations, the antiproton-to-electron massratio was determined as 1836.152674(5). This result contributed to the CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants. PMID:20075605

Hayano, Ryugo S.

2010-01-01

275

Laser Irradiated Enhancement of the Atomic Electron Capture Rate in search of New Physics  

E-print Network

Electron capture processes are important in the search for new physics. In this context, a high capture rate is desired. We investigate the possibility of enhancing the electron capture rate by irradiating laser beam to ''atom''. The possibility of such enhancement can be understood as a consequence of an enhancement of the electron wave function at the origin, $\\Psi (0)$, through an increased effective mass of the electron. We find that an order of magnitude enhancement can be realized by using a laser with intensity on the order of $10^{10}$ W/mm$^2$ and a photon energy on the order of $10^{-3}$ eV.

Takaaki Nomura; Joe Sato; Takashi Shimomura

2006-05-03

276

Experiences of physical activity during pregnancy in Danish nulliparous women with a physically active life before pregnancy. A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: National guidelines recommend that healthy pregnant women take 30 minutes or more of moderate exercise a day. Most women reduce the level of physical activity during pregnancy but only a few studies of women's experiences of physical activity during pregnancy exist. The aim of the present study was to elucidate experiences and views of leisure time physical activity during

Hanne K Hegaard; Hanne Kjaergaard; Peter P Damm; Kerstin Petersson; Anna-Karin Dykes

2010-01-01

277

Negative Experiences in Physical Education and Sport: How Much Do They Affect Physical Activity Participation Later in Life?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…

Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.

2013-01-01

278

A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

2002-01-01

279

A Reconfigurable Instrument System for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a reconfigurable nuclear instrument system (RNIS) that could satisfy the requirements of diverse nuclear and particle physics experiments, and the inertial confinement fusion diagnostic. Benefiting from the reconfigurable hardware structure and digital pulse processing technology, RNIS shakes off the restrictions of cumbersome crates and miscellaneous modules. It retains all the advantages of conventional nuclear instruments and is more flexible and portable. RNIS is primarily composed of a field programmable hardware board and relevant PC software. Separate analog channels are designed to provide different functions, such as amplifiers, ADC, fast discriminators and Schmitt discriminators for diverse experimental purposes. The high-performance field programmable gate array could complete high-precision time interval measurement, histogram accumulation, counting, and coincidence anticoincidence measurement. To illustrate the prospects of RNIS, a series of applications to the experiments are described in this paper. The first, for which RNIS was originally developed, involves nuclear energy spectrum measurement with a scintillation detector and photomultiplier. The second experiment applies RNIS to a G-M tube counting experiment, and in the third, it is applied to a quantum communication experiment through reconfiguration.

Sang, Ziru; Li, Feng; Jiang, Xiao; Jin, Ge

2014-04-01

280

Physical mechanism of the Schwarzschild effect in film dosimetry--theoretical model and comparison with experiments.  

PubMed

In consideration of the importance of film dosimetry for the dosimetric verification of IMRT treatment plans, the Schwarzschild effect or failure of the reciprocity law, i.e. the reduction of the net optical density under 'protraction' or 'fractionation' conditions at constant dose, has been experimentally studied for Kodak XOMAT-V (Martens et al 2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 2221-34) and EDR 2 dosimetry films (Djouguela et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 N317-N321). It is known that this effect results from the competition between two solid-state physics reactions involved in the latent-image formation of the AgBr crystals, the aggregation of two Ag atoms freshly formed from Ag(+) ions near radiation-induced occupied electron traps and the spontaneous decomposition of the Ag atoms. In this paper, we are developing a mathematical model of this mechanism which shows that the interplay of the mean lifetime tau of the Ag atoms with the time pattern of the irradiation determines the magnitude of the observed effects of the temporal dose distribution on the net optical density. By comparing this theory with our previous protraction experiments and recent fractionation experiments in which the duration of the pause between fractions was varied, a value of the time constant tau of roughly 10 s at room temperature has been determined for EDR 2. The numerical magnitude of the Schwarzschild effect in dosimetry films under the conditions generally met in radiotherapy amounts to only a few per cent of the net optical density (net OD), so that it can frequently be neglected from the viewpoint of clinical applications. But knowledge of the solid-state physical mechanism and a description in terms of a mathematical model involving a typical time constant of about 10 s are now available to estimate the magnitude of the effect should the necessity arise, i.e. in cases of large fluctuations of the temporal pattern of film exposure. PMID:16912385

Djouguela, A; Kollhoff, R; Rühmann, A; Willborn, K C; Harder, D; Poppe, B

2006-09-01

281

The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP)  

SciTech Connect

Since the beginning of the Nuclear Power industry, numerous experiments concerned with nuclear energy and technology have been performed at different research laboratories, worldwide. These experiments required a large investment in terms of infrastructure, expertise, and cost; however, many were performed without a high degree of attention to archival of results for future use. The degree and quality of documentation varies greatly. There is an urgent need to preserve integral reactor physics experimental data, including measurement methods, techniques, and separate or special effects data for nuclear energy and technology applications and the knowledge and competence contained therein. If the data are compromised, it is unlikely that any of these experiments will be repeated again in the future. The International Reactor Physics Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated, as a pilot activity in 1999 by the by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Nuclear Science Committee (NSC). The project was endorsed as an official activity of the NSC in June of 2003. The purpose of the IRPhEP is to provide an extensively peer reviewed set of reactor physics related integral benchmark data that can be used by reactor designers and safety analysts to validate the analytical tools used to design next generation reactors and establish the safety basis for operation of these reactors. A short history of the IRPhEP is presented and its purposes are discussed in this paper. Accomplishments of the IRPhEP, including the first publication of the IRPhEP Handbook, are highlighted and the future of the project outlined.

J. Blair Briggs; Enrico Sartori; Lori Scott

2006-09-01

282

Report of the Joint Seminar on Solid State Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Materials Science in the Energy Region of Tandem Accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Seminar on Solid State Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Materials Science in the Energy Region of Tandem Acceleration was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI for two days from January 22 to 23, 1991. About 60 physicists and material scientists participated and 18 papers were presented in this seminar. The topics presented in this seminar included

Yukio Kazumata

1993-01-01

283

The design of the RF cavity for the heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics  

SciTech Connect

An rf cavity and drive system have been designed for the proposed Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics,'' HISTRAP, at Oak Ridge. A peak accelerating voltage of 2.5 kV per turn is required with a continuous tuning range from 200 kHz through 2.7 MHz. A single-gap, half-wave resonant configuration is used with biased ferrite tuning. The cavity structure is completely outside of the beam line/vacuum enclosure except for a single rf window that serves as an accelerating gap. Physical separation of the cavity and beam line permits in situ vacuum baking of the beam line components at 300{degree}C. A prototype cavity was designed, built, and tested. Development of frequency synthesizer and tuner control circuitry is under way.

Mosko, S.W.

1990-01-01

284

The mission of the Lifetime Physical Activity Program (LPAP) is to provide a mul-tifaceted learning experience via a program of physical activity to foster physical,  

E-print Network

191 The mission of the Lifetime Physical Activity Program (LPAP) is to provide a mul- tifaceted learning experience via a program of physical activity to foster physical, social, and emotional wellness of physical activity · Cognitive and behavioral skills · An understanding of physical activity as a mode

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

285

The mission of the Lifetime Physical Activity Program (LPAP) is to provide a mul-tifaceted learning experience via a program of physical activity to foster physical,  

E-print Network

187 The mission of the Lifetime Physical Activity Program (LPAP) is to provide a mul- tifaceted learning experience via a program of physical activity to foster physical, social, and emotional wellness of physical activity · Cognitive and behavioral skills · An understanding of physical activity as a mode

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

286

EDITORIAL: The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue consists of papers that are associated with invited lectures, workshop papers and hot topic papers presented at the 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XX). This conference was organized in Novi Sad (Serbia) from 13 to 17 July 2010 by the Institute of Physics of the University of Belgrade. It

Zoran Lj Petrovic; Dragana Maric; Gordana Malovic

2011-01-01

287

Neutrino Oscillation Physics Potential of the T2K Experiment  

E-print Network

The observation of the recent electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam and the high-precision measurement of the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ have led to a re-evaluation of the physics potential of the T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. Sensitivities are explored for CP violation in neutrinos, non-maximal $\\sin^22\\theta_{23}$, the octant of $\\theta_{23}$, and the mass hierarchy, in addition to the measurements of $\\delta_{CP}$, $\\sin^2\\theta_{23}$, and $\\Delta m^2_{32}$, for various combinations of $\

K. Abe; J. Adam; H. Aihara; T. Akiri; C. Andreopoulos; S. Aoki; A. Ariga; S. Assylbekov; D. Autiero; M. Barbi; G. J. Barker; G. Barr; M. Bass; M. Batkiewicz; F. Bay; V. Berardi; B. E. Berger; S. Berkman; S. Bhadra; F. d. M. Blaszczyk; A. Blondel; C. Bojechko; S. Bordoni; S. B. Boyd; D. Brailsford; A. Bravar; C. Bronner; N. Buchanan; R. G. Calland; J. Caravaca Rodr'iguez; S. L. Cartwright; R. Castillo; M. G. Catanesi; A. Cervera; D. Cherdack; G. Christodoulou; A. Clifton; J. Coleman; S. J. Coleman; G. Collazuol; K. Connolly; L. Cremonesi; A. Dabrowska; I. Danko; R. Das; S. Davis; P. de Perio; G. De Rosa; T. Dealtry; S. R. Dennis; C. Densham; D. Dewhurst; F. Di Lodovico; S. Di Luise; O. Drapier; T. Duboyski; K. Duffy; J. Dumarchez; S. Dytman; M. Dziewiecki; S. Emery-Schrenk; A. Ereditato; L. Escudero; A. J. Finch; M. Friend; Y. Fujii; Y. Fukuda; A. P. Furmanski; V. Galymov; S. Giffin; C. Giganti; K. Gilje; D. Goeldi; T. Golan; M. Gonin; N. Grant; D. Gudin; D. R. Hadley; A. Haesler; M. D. Haigh; P. Hamilton; D. Hansen; T. Hara; M. Hartz; T. Hasegawa; N. C. Hastings; Y. Hayato; C. Hearty; R. L. Helmer; M. Hierholzer; J. Hignight; A. Hillairet; A. Himmel; T. Hiraki; S. Hirota; J. Holeczek; S. Horikawa; K. Huang; A. K. Ichikawa; K. Ieki; M. Ieva; M. Ikeda; J. Imber; J. Insler; T. J. Irvine; T. Ishida; T. Ishii; E. Iwai; K. Iwamoto; K. Iyogi; A. Izmaylov; A. Jacob; B. Jamieson; R. A. Johnson; S. Johnson; J. H. Jo; P. Jonsson; C. K. Jung; M. Kabirnezhad; A. C. Kaboth; T. Kajita; H. Kakuno; J. Kameda; Y. Kanazawa; D. Karlen; I. Karpikov; T. Katori; E. Kearns; M. Khabibullin; A. Khotjantsev; D. Kielczewska; T. Kikawa; A. Kilinski; J. Kim; S. King; J. Kisiel; P. Kitching; T. Kobayashi; L. Koch; A. Kolaceke; A. Konaka; L. L. Kormos; A. Korzenev; K. Koseki; Y. Koshio; W. Kropp; H. Kubo; Y. Kudenko; R. Kurjata; T. Kutter; J. Lagoda; K. Laihem; I. Lamont; E. Larkin; M. Laveder; M. Lawe; M. Lazos; T. Lindner; C. Lister; R. P. Litchfield; A. Longhin; L. Ludovici; L. Magaletti; K. Mahn; M. Malek; S. Manly; A. D. Marino; J. Marteau; J. F. Martin; S. Martynenko; T. Maruyama; V. Matveev; K. Mavrokoridis; E. Mazzucato; M. McCarthy; N. McCauley; K. S. McFarland; C. McGrew; A. Mefodiev; C. Metelko; M. Mezzetto; P. Mijakowski; C. A. Miller; A. Minamino; O. Mineev; A. Missert; M. Miura; S. Moriyama; Th. A. Mueller; A. Murakami; M. Murdoch; S. Murphy; J. Myslik; T. Nakadaira; M. Nakahata; K. Nakamura; S. Nakayama; T. Nakaya; K. Nakayoshi; C. Nielsen; M. Nirkko; K. Nishikawa; Y. Nishimura; H. M. O'Keeffe; R. Ohta; K. Okumura; T. Okusawa; W. Oryszczak; S. M. Oser; T. Ovsyannikova; R. A. Owen; Y. Oyama; V. Palladino; J. L. Palomino; V. Paolone; D. Payne; O. Perevozchikov; J. D. Perkin; Y. Petrov; L. Pickard; E. S. Pinzon Guerra; C. Pistillo; P. Plonski; E. Poplawska; B. Popov; M. Posiadala-Zezula; J. -M. Poutissou; R. Poutissou; P. Przewlocki; B. Quilain; E. Radicioni; P. N. Ratoff; M. Ravonel; M. A. M. Rayner; A. Redij; M. Reeves; E. Reinherz-Aronis; C. Riccio; P. A. Rodrigues; P. Rojas; E. Rondio; S. Roth; A. Rubbia; D. Ruterbories; R. Sacco; K. Sakashita; F. S'anchez; F. Sato; E. Scantamburlo; K. Scholberg; S. Schoppmann; J. Schwehr; M. Scott; Y. Seiya; T. Sekiguchi; H. Sekiya; D. Sgalaberna; F. Shaker; M. Shiozawa; S. Short; Y. Shustrov; P. Sinclair; B. Smith; M. Smy; J. T. Sobczyk; H. Sobel; M. Sorel; L. Southwell; P. Stamoulis; J. Steinmann; B. Still; Y. Suda; A. Suzuki; K. Suzuki; S. Y. Suzuki; Y. Suzuki; R. Tacik; M. Tada; S. Takahashi; A. Takeda; Y. Takeuchi; H. K. Tanaka; H. A. Tanaka; M. M. Tanaka; D. Terhorst; R. Terri; L. F. Thompson; A. Thorley; S. Tobayama; W. Toki; T. Tomura; Y. Totsuka; C. Touramanis; T. Tsukamoto; M. Tzanov; Y. Uchida; A. Vacheret; M. Vagins; G. Vasseur; T. Wachala; A. V. Waldron; C. W. Walter; D. Wark; M. O. Wascko; A. Weber; R. Wendell; R. J. Wilkes; M. J. Wilking; C. Wilkinson; Z. Williamson; J. R. Wilson; R. J. Wilson; T. Wongjirad; Y. Yamada; K. Yamamoto; C. Yanagisawa; T. Yano; S. Yen; N. Yershov; M. Yokoyama; T. Yuan; M. Yu; A. Zalewska; J. Zalipska; L. Zambelli; K. Zaremba; M. Ziembicki; E. D. Zimmerman; M. Zito; J. Zmuda

2014-09-26

288

Chladni Patterns on Drumheads: A ``Physics of Music'' Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our "Physics of Music" class for non-science majors, we have developed a laboratory exercise in which students experiment with Chladni sand patterns on drumheads. Chladni patterns provide a kinesthetic, visual, and entertaining way to illustrate standing waves on flat surfaces and are very helpful when making the transition from one-dimensional systems, such as string and wind instruments, to the two-dimensional membranes and plates of the percussion family. Although the sand patterns attributed to Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (1756-1827) are often demonstrated for this purpose using metal plates,2-4 the use of drumheads offers several pedagogical and practical advantages in the lab.

Worland, Randy

2011-01-01

289

The BAIKAL neutrino experiment - physics results and perspectives  

E-print Network

We review the status of the Lake Baikal Neutrino Experiment. The Neutrino Telescope NT200 has been operating since 1998 and has been upgraded to the 10 Mton detector NT200+ in 2005. We present selected astroparticle physics results from long-term operation of NT200. Also discussed are activities towards acoustic detection of UHE-energy neutrinos, and results of associated science activities. Preparation towards a km3-scale (Gigaton volume) detector in Lake Baikal is currently a central activity. As an important milestone, a km3-prototype string, based on completely new technology, has been installed and is operating together with NT200+ since April, 2008.

R. Wischnewski; for the Baikal Collaboration

2008-11-07

290

Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Tokamak Physics Experiment  

SciTech Connect

This Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), includes an indication of the magnitude of facility hazards, complexity of facility operations, and the stage of the facility life-cycle. It presents the results of safety analyses, safety assurance programs, identified vulnerabilities, compensatory measures, and, in general, the rationale describing why the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) can be safely operated. It discusses application of the graded approach to the TPX safety analysis, including the basis for using Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 and DOE-STD-3009-94 in the development of the PSAR.

Motloch, C.G.; Bonney, R.F. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Levine, J.D. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Masson, L.S. [SCIENTECH, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Commander, J.C.

1995-04-01

291

Sixteenth International Conference on the physics of electronic and atomic collisions  

SciTech Connect

This report contains abstracts of papers on the following topics: photons, electron-atom collisions; electron-molecule collisions; electron-ion collisions; collisions involving exotic species; ion- atom collisions, ion-molecule or atom-molecule collisions; atom-atom collisions; ion-ion collisions; collisions involving rydberg atoms; field assisted collisions; collisions involving clusters and collisions involving condensed matter.

Dalgarno, A.; Freund, R.S.; Lubell, M.S.; Lucatorto, T.B. (eds.)

1989-01-01

292

Study to perform preliminary experiments to evaluate particle generation and characterization techniques for zero-gravity cloud physics experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods of particle generation and characterization with regard to their applicability for experiments requiring cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) of specified properties were investigated. Since aerosol characterization is a prerequisite to assessing performance of particle generation equipment, techniques for characterizing aerosol were evaluated. Aerosol generation is discussed, and atomizer and photolytic generators including preparation of hydrosols (used with atomizers) and the evaluation of a flight version of an atomizer are studied.

Katz, U.

1982-01-01

293

Can quantum fractal fluctuations be observed in an atom-optics kicked rotor experiment?  

E-print Network

We investigate the parametric fluctuations in the quantum survival probability of an open version of the delta-kicked rotor model in the deep quantum regime. Spectral arguments [Guarneri I and Terraneo M 2001 Phys. Rev. E vol. 65 015203(R)] predict the existence of parametric fractal fluctuations owing to the strong dynamical localisation of the eigenstates of the kicked rotor. We discuss the possibility of observing such dynamically-induced fractality in the quantum survival probability as a function of the kicking period for the atom-optics realisation of the kicked rotor. The influence of the atoms' initial momentum distribution is studied as well as the dependence of the expected fractal dimension on finite-size effects of the experiment, such as finite detection windows and short measurement times. Our results show that clear signatures of fractality could be observed in experiments with cold atoms subjected to periodically flashed optical lattices, which offer an excellent control on interaction times and the initial atomic ensemble.

Andrea Tomadin; Riccardo Mannella; Sandro Wimberger

2005-12-01

294

Oxygen control of atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 surfaces.  

PubMed

Complex oxide thin films and heterostructures have become one of the foci for condensed matter physics research due to a broad variety of properties they exhibit. Similar to the bulk, properties of oxide surfaces can be expected to be strongly affected by oxygen stoichiometry. Here we explore the coupling between atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 (SRO), one of the most well-studied oxide materials. We perform a detailed in situ and ex situ experimental investigation of the surfaces of SRO thin films using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and magnetotransport measurements, as well as ab initio modeling. A number of remarkable linear surface reconstructions were observed by STM and interpreted as oxygen adatoms, favorably adsorbed in a regular rectangular or zigzag patterns. The degree of oxygen coverage and different surface patterns change the work function of the thin films, and modify local electronic and magnetic properties of the topmost atomic layer. The ab initio modeling reveals that oxygen adatoms possess frustrated local spin moments with possible spin-glass behavior of the surface covered by adsorbed oxygen. Additionally, the modeling indicates presence of a pseudo gap on the topmost SrO layer on pristine SrO-terminated surface, suggesting possibility for realization of a surface half-metallic film. PMID:23570268

Tselev, Alexander; Ganesh, P; Qiao, Liang; Siemons, Wolter; Gai, Zheng; Biegalski, Michael D; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

2013-05-28

295

Electron electric-dipole-moment experiment using electric-field quantized slow cesium atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proof-of-principle electron electric-dipole-moment (e-EDM) experiment using slow cesium atoms, nulled magnetic fields, and electric-field quantization has been performed. With the ambient magnetic fields seen by the atoms reduced to less than 200pT , an electric field of 6MV/m lifts the degeneracy between states of unequal ?mF? and, along with the low (?3m/s) velocity, suppresses the systematic effect from the motional magnetic field. The low velocity and small residual magnetic field have made it possible to induce transitions between states and to perform state preparation, analysis, and detection in regions free of applied static magnetic and electric fields. This experiment demonstrates techniques that may be used to improve the e-EDM limit by two orders of magnitude, but it is not in itself a sensitive e-EDM search, mostly due to limitations of the laser system.

Amini, Jason M.; Munger, Charles T., Jr.; Gould, Harvey

2007-06-01

296

Dalton's disputed nitric oxide experiments and the origins of his atomic theory.  

PubMed

In 1808 John Dalton published his first general account of chemical atomic theory, a cornerstone of modern chemistry. The theory originated in his earlier studies of the properties of atmospheric gases. In 1803 Dalton discovered that oxygen combined with either one or two volumes of nitric oxide in closed vessels over water and this pioneering observation of integral multiple proportions provided important experimental evidence for his incipient atomic ideas. Previous attempts to reproduce Dalton's experiments have been unsuccessful and some commentators have concluded the results were fraudulent. We report a successful reconstruction of Dalton's experiments and provide an analysis exonerating him of any scientific misconduct. But we conclude that Dalton, already thinking atomistically, adjusted experimental conditions to obtain the integral combining proportions. PMID:18175369

Usselman, Melvyn C; Leaist, Derek G; Watson, Katherine D

2008-01-11

297

Large dynamic range silicon photomultipliers for high energy physics experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) are very promising devices for high energy physics (HEP) experiments due to their high photon detection effciency, miniaturized device size and insensitivity to high magnetic fields. Most often detectors are exposed to a high radiation dose for which reason the performance should degrade only minor under the applied radiation load. Decreasing the active depth of a SiPM microcell should help to strengthen the radiation hardness. Additionally for high energy particle physics experiments a large dynamic range is mandatory. This was a further driving reason at KETEK to scale down the microcell pitch and thereby losing only small amount in geometrical efficiency. With these large dynamic range SiPMs a photon detection efficiency in blue spectral range of 32% for 2500 microcells=mm2 and 22% for 4400 microcells=mm2 was achieved. With an improved fabrication technology the dark noise level was decreased to about 250 kHz=mm2 at 20% overvoltage, while the gain variation was still less than 1%=K. Further optimization of the depleted region increased the sensitivity in the output wavelength range of common scintillators (515 nm) by 20% compared to the standard devices. The performance of the KETEK SiPMs will be discussed in detail.

Ganka, Th.; Dietzinger, Ch.; Iskra, P.; Wiest, F.; Fojt, R.; Hansch, W.

2014-03-01

298

Phase-locked laser system for use in atomic coherence experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a phase-coherent laser system designed for use in experiments involving coherently prepared atomic media. We implement a simple technique based on a sample-and-hold circuit together with a reset of the integrating electronics that makes it possible to scan continuously the relative frequency between the lasers of over tens of gigahertz while keeping them phase locked. The system consists

Alberto M. Marino; C. R. Stroud

2008-01-01

299

High charge state, ion-atom collision experiments using accel-decel  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of /sub 16/S/sup 13 +/ + He collisions between 2.5 and 200 MeV, which were made using the accel-decel technique with the Brookhaven National Laboratory coupled MP tandem Van de Graaff accelerators, are discussed. Cross sections were measured for single electron-capture and -loss as well as K x rays correlated to electron-capture. Other planned ion-atom collision experiments requiring accel-decel are also presented. 18 refs., 3 figs.

Bernstein, E.M.; Clark, M.W.; Tanis, J.A.; Graham, W.G.

1987-01-01

300

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 (2006) 48714882 doi:10.1088/0953-4075/39/23/006  

E-print Network

atomic hydrogen and deuterium from H2 and D2 photodissociation J D Bozek1 , J E Furst2 , T J Gay3,7 , HINSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys Gould1 , A L D Kilcoyne1 , J R Machacek3 , F Mart´in4 , K W McLaughlin5 and J L Sanz-Vicario4,6 1

Gay, Timothy J.

301

Competing atomic processes in Ba and Sr injection critical velocity experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The critical ionization velocity effect requires a superthermal electron population to ionize through collisional impact. Such superthermal electrons can however lose energy to competing atomic processes, as well as to ionization, thus limiting the efficiency of the effect. Considering Ba and Sr magnetospheric injection experiments designed to test the CIV theory, it is found that in both cases roughly 60 percent of the superthermal electron energy is lost on exciting line radiation. Moreover, energy loss to background neutral oxygen places a strict limit on the injected cloud densities for which critical velocity effects are possible; a finding which explains the consistently negative results in radial injection experiments.

Newell, P. T.; Torbert, R. B.

1985-01-01

302

The Influence of Physical and Physiological Cues on Atomic Force Microscopy-Based Cell Stiffness Assessment  

PubMed Central

Atomic force microscopy provides a novel technique for differentiating the mechanical properties of various cell types. Cell elasticity is abundantly used to represent the structural strength of cells in different conditions. In this study, we are interested in whether physical or physiological cues affect cell elasticity in Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based assessments. The physical cues include the geometry of the AFM tips, the indenting force and the operating temperature of the AFM. All of these cues show a significant influence on the cell elasticity assessment. Sharp AFM tips create a two-fold increase in the value of the effective Young’s modulus (Eeff) relative to that of the blunt tips. Higher indenting force at the same loading rate generates higher estimated cell elasticity. Increasing the operation temperature of the AFM leads to decreases in the cell stiffness because the structure of actin filaments becomes disorganized. The physiological cues include the presence of fetal bovine serum or extracellular matrix-coated surfaces, the culture passage number, and the culture density. Both fetal bovine serum and the extracellular matrix are critical for cells to maintain the integrity of actin filaments and consequently exhibit higher elasticity. Unlike primary cells, mouse kidney progenitor cells can be passaged and maintain their morphology and elasticity for a very long period without a senescence phenotype. Finally, cell elasticity increases with increasing culture density only in MDCK epithelial cells. In summary, for researchers who use AFM to assess cell elasticity, our results provide basic and significant information about the suitable selection of physical and physiological cues. PMID:24194882

Chiou, Yu-Wei; Lin, Hsiu-Kuan; Tang, Ming-Jer; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Yeh, Ming-Long

2013-01-01

303

Looking at cell mechanics with atomic force microscopy: Experiment and theory.  

PubMed

This review reports on the use of the atomic force microscopy in the investigation of the mechanical properties of cells. It is shown that the technique is able to deliver information about the cell surface properties (e.g., topography), the Young modulus, the viscosity, and the cell the relaxation times. Another aspect that this short review points out is the utilization of the atomic force microscope to investigate basic questions related to materials physics, biology, and medicine. The review is written in a chronological way to offer an overview of phenomenological facts and quantitative results to the reader. The final section discusses in detail the advantages and disadvantages of the Hertz and JKR models. A new implementation of the JKR model derived by Dufresne is presented. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:947-958, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25092263

Benitez, Rafael; Toca-Herrera, José L

2014-11-01

304

Physics results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a {approx} 1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), and Co-Axial Helicity Injection (CHI) for non-inductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high-{beta}{sub t} and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for non-inductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA, stored energies up to 55 kJ, {beta}{sub t} {approx} 10%, and a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 msec was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and {beta}{sub t}=21% were produced.

Kaye, S.; Bell, M. [and others

2000-11-01

305

Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear, plasma, elementary particle, and atomic and molecular physics are surveyed along with the physics of condensed matter and relativistic astrophysics. Attention is given to the discovery of quarks, psi particles, bosons and nuclear quantum states, the role of group theory and the search for a unified field theory. Also considered are magnetic and inertial confinement regarding fusion power, and

D. A. Bromley

1980-01-01

306

PHYSICS DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR ESTIMATING PLASMA PERFORMANCE IN A BURNING PLASMA EXPERIMENT (FIRE)  

E-print Network

PHYSICS DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR ESTIMATING PLASMA PERFORMANCE IN A BURNING PLASMA EXPERIMENT (FIRE The physics design guidelines for a next step, high- field tokamak, burning plasma experiment (FIRE, Fusion Ignition Research Experiment) have been developed as an update of the ITER Physics Basis (IPB). The plasma

307

Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits: from the Dynamical Casimir effect to Majorana fermions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will present an overview of some of our recent results on atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits. Particular emphasis will be given to photons interacting with qubits, interferometry, the Dynamical Casimir effect, and also studying Majorana fermions using superconducting circuits.[4pt] References available online at our web site:[0pt] J.Q. You, Z.D. Wang, W. Zhang, F. Nori, Manipulating and probing Majorana fermions using superconducting circuits, (2011). Arxiv. J.R. Johansson, G. Johansson, C.M. Wilson, F. Nori, Dynamical Casimir effect in a superconducting coplanar waveguide, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147003 (2009). [0pt] J.R. Johansson, G. Johansson, C.M. Wilson, F. Nori, Dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting microwave circuits, Phys. Rev. A 82, 052509 (2010). [0pt] C.M. Wilson, G. Johansson, A. Pourkabirian, J.R. Johansson, T. Duty, F. Nori, P. Delsing, Observation of the Dynamical Casimir Effect in a superconducting circuit. Nature, in press (Nov. 2011). P.D. Nation, J.R. Johansson, M.P. Blencowe, F. Nori, Stimulating uncertainty: Amplifying the quantum vacuum with superconducting circuits, Rev. Mod. Phys., in press (2011). [0pt] J.Q. You, F. Nori, Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits, Nature 474, 589 (2011). [0pt] S.N. Shevchenko, S. Ashhab, F. Nori, Landau-Zener-Stuckelberg interferometry, Phys. Reports 492, 1 (2010). [0pt] I. Buluta, S. Ashhab, F. Nori. Natural and artificial atoms for quantum computation, Reports on Progress in Physics 74, 104401 (2011). [0pt] I.Buluta, F. Nori, Quantum Simulators, Science 326, 108 (2009). [0pt] L.F. Wei, K. Maruyama, X.B. Wang, J.Q. You, F. Nori, Testing quantum contextuality with macroscopic superconducting circuits, Phys. Rev. B 81, 174513 (2010). [0pt] J.Q. You, X.-F. Shi, X. Hu, F. Nori, Quantum emulation of a spin system with topologically protected ground states using superconducting quantum circuit, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063823 (2010).

Nori, Franco

2012-02-01

308

Abstract: Research in solidstate "artificial atoms" seeks to merge atomic physics and condensed matter nanotechnology to tackle outstanding problems in the life, physical, and information sciences. An ideal  

E-print Network

and nanoscale MRI with widefield optical readout. Biography: Acosta is a research scientist at Google [x. An ideal artificial atom has the coherent spin and optical properties of dilute atomic vapor state, and spinselective optical transitions even at room temperature. For quantum information

New Mexico, University of

309

Use of titanium in the tokamak physics experiment (TPX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The titanium alloy Ti?6Al?4V is currently the reference alloy for the vacuum vessel of the tokamak physics experiment (TPX), which will use D?D as fuel. Titanium was selected because it satisfies the requirement of reduced radioactivation of the TPX vacuum vessel. Reduced activation allows the hands-on maintenance of components inside the vacuum vessel during the first two years of operation, with a gradual transition to fully remote maintenance required during the latter phases of TPX's experimental program when the neutron yields are expected to be much higher. It also reduces the eventual waste storage requirements. As part off the R&D program on TPX, two issues on titanium were studied: the impact of the plasma hydrogen absorption on titanium and the welding of thick sections. Based on preliminary analysis, no critical issues were encountered.

Davis, J. W.; Wille, G. W.; Heitzenroeder, P.

1996-10-01

310

Atomic resolution mapping of phonon excitations in STEM-EELS experiments.  

PubMed

Atomically resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy experiments are commonplace in modern aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopes. Energy resolution has also been increasing steadily with the continuous improvement of electron monochromators. Electronic excitations however are known to be delocalized due to the long range interaction of the charged accelerated electrons with the electrons in a sample. This has made several scientists question the value of combined high spatial and energy resolution for mapping interband transitions and possibly phonon excitation in crystals. In this paper we demonstrate experimentally that atomic resolution information is indeed available at very low energy losses around 100meV expressed as a modulation of the broadening of the zero loss peak. Careful data analysis allows us to get a glimpse of what are likely phonon excitations with both an energy loss and gain part. These experiments confirm recent theoretical predictions on the strong localization of phonon excitations as opposed to electronic excitations and show that a combination of atomic resolution and recent developments in increased energy resolution will offer great benefit for mapping phonon modes in real space. PMID:24949597

Egoavil, R; Gauquelin, N; Martinez, G T; Van Aert, S; Van Tendeloo, G; Verbeeck, J

2014-12-01

311

Physical properties of native bacterial biofilm cells measured by atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic force microscopy offers a way to probe physical properties of bacteria that are adhered to a surface. We study early stage biofilms that natively adhere to a glass surface, without artificial fixation methods. We present images and force curves from five different bacteria, consisting of two gram positive and three gram negative strains, as well as both smooth and rough gram negative strains. The linear portion of the approach curve reveals the gram positive strains are stiffer than the gram negative strains. The non-linear portion of the approach curve, determined by the initial interaction between the tip and cell, differentiates the smooth and rough strains. Fixation of free-swimming planktonic cells by NHS and EDC dramatically changed the measured properties. These results can be understood from the structure of the cells.

Aidala, Katherine; Volle, Catherine; Ferguson, Megan; Spain, Eileen; Nunez, Megan

2010-03-01

312

The AMS Measurements and Its Applications in Nuclear Physics at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE)  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), initiated in late 1970s at McMaster university based on the accelerator and detector technique, has long been applied in the studies on archaeology, geology, and cosmology, as a powerful tool for isotope dating. The advantages of AMS in the analysis of rare nuclides by direct counting of the atoms, small sample size and relatively free from the interferences of molecular ions have been well documented. This paper emphasizes that AMS can not only be used for archaeology, geology, environment, biology and so on, but also served as a unique tool for nuclear physics research. In this paper, the determination of the half-lives of {sup 79}Se, the measurements of the cross-sections of {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92g}Nb and {sup 238}U(n,3n){sup 236}U reactions, the detection and determination of ultratrace impurities in neutrino detector materials, and the measurement of the fission product nuclide {sup 126}Sn, are to be introduced, as some of examples of AMS applications in nuclear research conducted in AMS lab of China Institute of Atomic Energy. Searching for superheavy nuclides by using AMS is being planned.

Jiang Shan; Shen Hongtao; He Ming; Dong Kejun; He Guozhu; Wang Xianggao; Yuan Jian; Wang Wei; Wu Shaoyong [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O.Box 275-80, Beijing 102413 (China); Ruan Xiangdong; Wu Weimin [College of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China)

2010-05-12

313

The AMS Measurements and Its Applications in Nuclear Physics at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), initiated in late 1970s at McMaster university based on the accelerator and detector technique, has long been applied in the studies on archaeology, geology, and cosmology, as a powerful tool for isotope dating. The advantages of AMS in the analysis of rare nuclides by direct counting of the atoms, small sample size and relatively free from the interferences of molecular ions have been well documented. This paper emphasizes that AMS can not only be used for archaeology, geology, environment, biology and so on, but also served as a unique tool for nuclear physics research. In this paper, the determination of the half-lives of 79Se, the measurements of the cross-sections of 93Nb(n,2n)92gNb and 238U(n,3n)236U reactions, the detection and determination of ultratrace impurities in neutrino detector materials, and the measurement of the fission product nuclide 126Sn, are to be introduced, as some of examples of AMS applications in nuclear research conducted in AMS lab of China Institute of Atomic Energy. Searching for superheavy nuclides by using AMS is being planned.

Jiang, Shan; Shen, Hongtao; He, Ming; Ruan, Xiangdong; Wu, Weimin; Dong, Kejun; He, Guozhu; Wang, Xianggao; Yuan, Jian; Wang, Wei; Wu, Shaoyong

2010-05-01

314

Removal of Heavy Metals from Water: An Environmentally Significant Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory experiment that combines the environmentally significant topic of wastewater treatment with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is described. In the first portion of the laboratory project, students perform treatment studies on simulated wastewater samples that contain heavy metal contaminants common to the effluent of the metal finishing industry. Following pretreatment reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), sparingly soluble metal hydroxides are produced by pH adjustment and removed by filtration with the aid of a polyacrylamide flocculant. In the second portion of the experiment, AAS is used to determine metal concentrations in treated and untreated water samples, thus enabling the students to determine the effectiveness of the treatment process. Details of how this experiment integrates topics such as the pH-dependent solubility of metal hydroxides, complex equilibria, matrix interference, and polymers in the context of an environmentally important analysis are presented.

Buffin, Brian P.

1999-12-01

315

The physics of non-Newtonian liquid slurry atomization. Part 2: Twin-fluid atomization of non-Newtonian liquids -- First quarterly technical report, 1 January--31 March 1994  

SciTech Connect

The changes in the physical processes of atomization as a result of adding a high molecular weight polymer in low concentrations to liquid have been studied. Both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids were investigated with particular emphasis on the non-Newtonian rheological characteristics. It was found that viscoelastic liquids are much more difficult to atomize than viscoinelastic liquids. Viscoinelastic liquids showed a breakup behavior similar to that of water sprays. Viscoelastic materials showed remarkably different breakup patterns. The ligaments were seen to undergo a very large stretching motion before they breakup, resulting in long threads of liquid attached to droplets. The normal stresses developed in viscoelastic materials are much higher than their associated shear stresses. Consequently, the development of the large normal stresses appears to be the most important rheological mechanism that inhibits breakup. The non-Newtonian liquids selected for the experiment were aqueous solutions of Xanthan gum and Polyacrylamide E10.

Mansour, A.; Chigier, N.

1994-06-01

316

On the physical role of exchange in the formation of an intramolecular bond path between two electronegative atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a detailed energetic decomposition of intramolecular O...X interactions (X being O, S, or a halogen atom) based on the interacting quantum atoms approach of Pendás and co-workers. The nature of these interactions (repulsive or attractive, more or less electrostatic) is discussed in the framework of Bader's atoms in molecules theory, a particular emphasis being put on delocalization (measured by delocalization indexes and in terms of the source function) and on the exchange contributions. Notably, the concept of exchange channels introduced by Pendás and collaborators provides means of rationalizing and predicting the presence of bond critical points, enhancing the physical meaning of bond paths.

Tognetti, Vincent; Joubert, Laurent

2013-01-01

317

Geant4 applications and developments for medical physics experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Geant4 Monte Carlo radiation transport toolkit provides the basic services and infrastructure required for the development of flexible simulation frameworks and applications, which have found generalized use in high energy physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and medical physics research. Object-oriented design provides the possibility to implement or modify any physics process in Geant4 without changing other parts of the code.

Pedro Rodrigues; Rui Moura; Catarina Ortigão; Luís Peralta; Maria Grazia Pia; Andreia Trindade; João Varela

2004-01-01

318

The physical properties of cubic plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition TaN films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) is a promising technique to produce high quality metal and nitride thin films at low growth temperature. In this study, very thin (<10 nm) low resistivity (350 ?? cm) cubic TaN Cu diffusion barrier were deposited by PE-ALD from TaCl5 and a plasma of both hydrogen and nitrogen. The physical properties of TaN thin films including microstructure, conformality, roughness, and thermal stability were investigated by various analytical techniques including x-ray diffraction, medium energy ion scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The Cu diffusion barrier properties of PE-ALD TaN thin films were studied using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, optical scattering, and sheet resistance measurements during thermal annealing of the test structures. The barrier failure temperatures were obtained as a function of film thickness and compared with those of PE-ALD Ta, physical vapor deposition (PVD) Ta, and PVD TaN. A diffusion kinetics analysis showed that the microstructure of the barrier materials is one of the most critical factors for Cu diffusion barrier performance.

Kim, H.; Lavoie, C.; Copel, M.; Narayanan, V.; Park, D.-G.; Rossnagel, S. M.

2004-05-01

319

The MOeLLER experiment at Jefferson Lab: search for physics beyond the Standard Model  

SciTech Connect

The MOeLLER experiment at Jefferson Lab will measure the parity-violating analyzing power A{sub z} in the scattering of 11 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons from the atomic electrons in a liquid hydrogen target (Moeller scattering). In the Standard Model a non-zero A{sub z} is due to the interference of the electromagnetic amplitude and the weak neutral current amplitude, the latter mediated by the Z{sup 0} boson. A{sub z} is predicted to be 35.6 parts per billion (ppb) at the kinematics of the experiment. It is the objective of the experiment to measure A{sub z} to a precision of 0.73 ppb. This result would yield a measurement of the weak charge of the electron Q{sub W}{sup e} to a fractional error of 2.3% at an average value Q{sup 2} of 0.0056 (GeV/c){sup 2}. This in turn will yield a determination of the weak mixing angle sin{sup 2{theta}}w with an uncertainty of {+-}0.00026(stat) {+-}0.00013(syst), comparable to the accuracy of the two best determinations at high energy colliders (at the Z{sup 0} pole). Consequently, the result could potentially influence the central value of this fundamental electroweak parameter, which is of critical importance in deciphering any signal of new physics that might be observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The measurement is sensitive to the interference of the electromagnetic amplitude with new neutral current amplitudes as weak as 10{sup -3} GF from as yet unknown high energy dynamics, a level of sensitivity unlikely to be matched in any experiment measuring a flavor and CP conserving process in the next decade. This provides indirect access to new physics at multi-TeV scales in a manner complementary to direct searches at the LHC.

Oers, Willem T. H. van [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada)

2010-07-27

320

Review study and evaluation of possible flight experiments relating to cloud physics experiments in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general objectives of the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory Program are to improve the level of knowledge in atmospheric cloud research by placing at the disposal of the terrestrial-bound atmospheric cloud physicist a laboratory that can be operated in the environment of zero-gravity or near zero-gravity. This laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamic, electrical, or other techniques to support the object under study. The inhouse analysis of the Skylab 3 and 4 experiments in dynamics of oscillations, rotations, collisions and coalescence of water droplets under low gravity-environment is presented.

Hunt, R. J.; Wu, S. T.

1976-01-01

321

Berry phases for quadratic spin Hamiltonians taken from atomic and solid state physics: examples of Abelian gauge fields not connected to physical particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains an evaluation of the Berry phases associated with the following class of nonlinear spin Hamiltonians : H (B, n ) = 03B3S S · B + 03B3Q((S · n)2 - S2\\/3), with B · n = 0. Examples of these Hamiltonians are given in Atomic and Solid State Physics. We compute exactly the Berry phases for S

C. Bouchiat

1989-01-01

322

Atlas Pulsed Power Facility for High Energy Density Physics Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. It is intended to be an international user facility, providing opportunities for researchers from national laboratories and academic institutions around the world. Emphasizing institutions around the world. Emphasizing hydrodynamic experiments, Atlas will provide the capability for achieving steady shock pressures exceeding 10-Mbar in a volume of several cubic centimeters. In addition, the kinetic energy associated with solid liner implosion velocities exceeding 12 km/s is sufficient to drive dense, hydrodynamic targets into the ionized regime, permitting the study of complex issues associated with strongly-coupled plasmas. The primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently-removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-{micro}s risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line components has been completed. A complete maintenance module and its associated transmission line (the First Article) are now under construction and testing. The current Atlas schedule calls for construction of the machine to be complete by August, 2000. Acceptance testing is scheduled to begin in November, 2000, leading to initial operations in January, 2001.

Miller, R.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Barr, G.W.; Bowman, D.W.; Chochrane, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Elizondo, J.M.; Gribble, R.F.; Griego, J.R.; Hicks, R.D.; Hinckley, W.B.; Hosack, K.W.; Nielsen, K.E.; Parker, J.V.; Parsons, M.O.; Rickets, R.L.; Salazar, H.R.; Sanchez, P.G.; Scudder, D.W.; Shapiro, C.; Thompson, M.C.; Trainor, R.J.; Valdez, G.A.; Vigil, B.N.; Watt, R.G.; Wysock, F.J.

1999-06-07

323

ATCA-BASED COMPUTATION PLATFORM FOR DATA ACQUISITION AND TRIGGERING IN PARTICLE PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS  

E-print Network

ATCA-BASED COMPUTATION PLATFORM FOR DATA ACQUISITION AND TRIGGERING IN PARTICLE PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS for data acquisi- tion and trigger applications in nuclear and particle physics experiments has been and scalable solution for multiple applica- tions. 1. INTRODUCTION In nuclear and particle physics, an "event

Jantsch, Axel

324

Experiences developing ALEGRA: A C++ coupled physics framework  

SciTech Connect

ALEGRA is a coupled physics framework originally written to simulate inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments being conducted at the PBFA-II facility at Sandia National Laboratories. It has since grown into a large software development project supporting a number of computational programs at Sandia. As the project has grown, so has the development team, from the original two authors to a group of over fifteen programmers crossing several departments. In addition, ALEGRA now runs on a wide variety of platforms, from large PCs to the ASCI Teraflops massively parallel supercomputer. The authors discuss the reasons for ALEGRA`s success, which include the intelligent use of object-oriented techniques and the choice of C++ as the programming language. They argue that the intelligent use of development tools, such as build tools (e.g. make), compiler, debugging environment (e.g. dbx), version control system (e.g. cvs), and bug management software (e.g. ClearDDTS), is nearly as important as the choice of language and paradigm.

Budge, K.G.; Peery, J.S.

1998-11-01

325

The cryogenic helium cooling system for the Tokamak physics experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will use supercritical helium to cool all the magnets and supply helium to the Vacuum cryopumping subsystem. The heat loads will come from the standard steady state conduction and thermal radiation sources and from the pulsed loads of the nuclear and eddy currents caused by the Central Solenoid Coils and the plasma positioning coils. The operations of the TPX will begin with pulses of up to 1000 seconds in duration every 75 minutes. The helium system utilizes a pulse load leveling scheme to buffer out the effects of the pulse load and maintain a constant cryogenic plant operation. The pulse load leveling scheme utilizes the thermal mass of liquid and gaseous helium stored in a remote dewar to absorb the pulses of the tokamak loads. The mass of the stored helium will buffer out the temperature pulses allowing 5 K helium to be delivered to the magnets throughout the length of the pulse. The temperature of the dewar will remain below 5 K with all the energy of the pulse absorbed. This paper will present the details of the heat load sources, of the pulse load leveling scheme operations, a partial helium schematic, dewar temperature as a function of time, the heat load sources as a function of time and the helium temperature as a function of length along the various components that will be cooled.

Felker, B.; Slack, D.S.; Wendland, C.R.

1995-09-29

326

Mini-Column Ion-Exchange Separation and Atomic Absorption Quantitation of Nickel, Cobalt, and Iron: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an undergraduate quantitative analysis experiment, describing an atomic absorption quantitation scheme that is fast, sensitive and comparatively simple relative to other titration experiments. (CS)

Anderson, James L.; And Others

1980-01-01

327

Development of Rb atomic magnetometer for EDM experiment with ^129Xe spin maser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been investigating the frequency stability of the low-frequency nuclear spin maser with ^129Xe aiming at EDM (permanent Electric Dipole Moment) experiment. One of the main sources for this frequency instability comes from the field fluctuation of the applied static magnetic field in a relatively long time scale. The present stability 30 nG of the applied field B0=30 mG in a time scale of 10^4 s should be suppressed in order to perform EDM experiment. We have been preparing for introduction of magnetometer to stabilize the magnet current to produce the B0 field. This magnetometer utilizes NMOE (Nonlinear Magneto Optical Effect) in Rb atom. The expected sensitivity of this type of magnetometer achieves the order of pG. We will report on systematic measurement of NMOE in Rb atom with different type of Rb cells using a tunable external-cavity diode laser, and on present status for the development of this type of magnetometer.

Yoshimi, Akihiro; Asahi, Koichiro; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Makoto; Uchida, Makoto; Furukawa, Takeshi

2009-10-01

328

Two cultures? Experiences at the physics-biology interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

‘I didn’t really think of this as moving into biology, but rather as exploring another venue in which to do physics.’ John Hopfield provides a personal perspective on working on the border between physical and biological sciences.

Hopfield, John J.

2014-10-01

329

A simple medical physics experiment based on a laser pointer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in medical physics have led to a proliferation of medical diagnostic instrumentation, particularly in the area of medical imaging. The pervasiveness of this new technology in turn has promoted a growing interest among physics faculty and students in courses covering this material (Ref. 1). However, few physics departments have responded to this interest with the creation of undergraduate

Colin Delaney; Juan Rodriguez

2002-01-01

330

FPGA-based Cherenkov Ring Recognition in Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments  

E-print Network

FPGA-based Cherenkov Ring Recognition in Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments Ming Liu adopted to identify particles flying through the detector systems in nuclear and particle physics for particle recognition. 1 Introduction Nuclear and particle physics is a branch of physics that studies

Jantsch, Axel

331

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 87, 014417 (2013) Giant atomic displacement at a magnetic phase transition in metastable Mn3O4  

E-print Network

, the Mn2+ spins, which are geometrically frustrated, do not order until a much lower temperature. AlthoughPHYSICAL REVIEW B 87, 014417 (2013) Giant atomic displacement at a magnetic phase transition, Stanford University, California 94305, USA 2 Stanford Institute of Materials and Energy Science, SLAC

Fisher, Ian

332

Electrochromic WO[subscript 3] Films: Nanotechnology Experiments in Instrumental Analysis and Physical Chemistry Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment teaches students the methodology of investigating novel properties of materials using new instrumental techniques: atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (EQCN), voltammetric techniques (linear potential scan and chronoamperometry), and light reflectance measurements. The unique capabilities of…

Hepel, Maria

2008-01-01

333

A preliminary discussion of gravitational physics experiments for the Spacelab era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of past, present, and proposed future experiments in gravitational physics is given. These experiments are concerned with the measurement of relativistic gravity effects to test theories of gravitation. Certain experiments which could be performed on shuttle and Spacelab missions and the potential of Spacelab for gravitation physics research are discussed.

Decher, R.; Winkler, C. G.

1976-01-01

334

Nuclear thermal-hydraulics education: the Yankee Atomic/University of Lowell experience  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the long and meaningful relationship between the University of Lowell (UL) and Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in the area of nuclear thermal hydraulics. The UL has actively interacted with YAEC for many years. Many UL graduates from the nuclear program as well as health physics and other disciplines are employed by YAEC. Furthermore, many students have worked for YAEC on a part-time basis through summer employment or the coop program. Several graduate students have completed their thesis work under the joint direction of UL and YAEC personnel, and some faculty members have had consulting and research contracts with the company. At the same time, YAEC employees have taken advantage of the graduate program offered by UL and have earned advanced degrees. Some YAEC personnel have taught courses at UL and have served on the industrial advisory committees.

Husain, A.; Brown, G.J.; Yeung, W.S.

1986-01-01

335

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS General Syllabus  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS General Syllabus Physics 47100 Advanced Physics Laboratory II Designation: Required Undergraduate Catalog description: Experiments in optics, quantum physics and atomic physics. 3 LAB., 1 CONF. HR./WK.; 2 CR. Prerequisites: Prereq.: Phys 35400; pre or coreq.: Physics 55100

Lombardi, John R.

336

A Comment On The Results Of Thermal Neutrons And Atomic Interferometers Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a phenomenon with the real discrepancy between the used theory (Newtonian Gravity) and the measurements of the COW-experiment. This experiment measures the phase difference between two beams of thermal neutrons due to the effect of the Earth's gravitational field, provided that one of them is more closer to the Earth's surface than the other. In the third version of this experiment, the measurements of the phase shift; due to the Earth's gravitational field; show that the experimental results are lower than the theoretical calculations; based on Newtonian mechanics; by about 8 (10-3). This discrepancy has no interpretation so far. There are two possibilities to find a feasable interpretation for such discrepancy; either 1. it is due to the experimental artifact, or 2. it is related to the basis of the used theory (Newtonian gravity). The first possibility was and is still explored by several authors during 1991 and 1994. The outcome of these investigations shows that the experimental results may be higher than the theoretical calculations by about 3.7 (10-3). However, this study provides another discrepancy and it is not a conclusive one yet. Recently, during 1997 the same experiment with an anti-symmetric interferometer, was performed and the same discrepancy was found. Therefore, there is still a room to explore the second possibility. Such type of discrepancy is not present in the atomic interferometers. This discrepancy in thermal neurons interferometers may be used as an evidence for a possible existence of spin- gravity interactions.

Melek, M.

337

Comments on the interaction between theory and experiment in high energy physics  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses work being conducted in High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics where theory and experiment go hand in hand. Pion capture, proton-antiproton interactions, kaon-pion interactions and hypernuclei decay are discussed as examples. (LSP)

Derrick, M.

1990-09-14

338

Ion acoustic wave experiments in a high school plasma physics laboratory Walter Gekelman  

E-print Network

Ion acoustic wave experiments in a high school plasma physics laboratory Walter Gekelman Department and faculty from UCLA constructed a plasma physics device and began research on ion acoustic waves. Plasma

California at Los Angles, University of

339

Experiences that influence a student's choice on majoring in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently the production of college graduates with science and engineering degrees is insufficient to fill the increasing number of jobs requiring these skills. This study focuses on physics majors with an in-depth examination of student transitions from high school to college. Many different areas of influence could affect a student's decision to major in physics. The first phase of this study addresses all of the potential areas of influence identified from the literature. The goal was to identify common influences that might be used to increase students' interest in majoring in physics. Subjects (N=35) from the first phase were recruited from physics majors at diverse Michigan colleges and universities. The second phase of this study explored, in more depth, important areas of influence identified in the first phase of the study. Subjects (N=94) from the second phase were recruited from diverse colleges and universities in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. The interviews were also conducted via email. Approximately half of the students in the study decided to major in physics while still in high school. Their reasons relate to many of the areas of influence. For example, high school physics teachers were cited as a strong influence in many students' decisions to major in physics. Influential physics teachers were described as being helpful, encouraging and interesting. The teachers also need to be their students' number one cheerleader and not their number one critic. Some areas of influence were found to be different for males vs. females. A high percentage of all physics majors had influential adults with careers in physical or biological science fields. This percentage was even larger for female physics majors. Female students also showed a greater initial interest in astronomy than the male students. Thus, high school and college physics teachers should seek to expose students to science-related careers and adults with these careers. Astronomy is also an important and often over looked entry into physics.

Dobbin, Donya Rae

340

Fingerprints of classical chaos in manipulation of cold atoms in the dynamical tunneling experiments  

SciTech Connect

The recent pioneering experiments of the [Nature 412, 52 (2001)] and [Science, 293, 274 (2001)] groups have demonstrated the dynamical tunneling of cold atoms interacting with standing electromagnetic waves. It has been shown [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 253201 (2002)], that the tunneling oscillations observed in these experiments correspondingly stems from two- and three-Floquet quantum state mechanism and can be controlled by varying the experimental parameters. The question where are the fingerprints of the classical chaotic dynamics in a quantum dynamical process which is controlled by 2 or 3 quantum states remains open. Our calculations show that although the effective ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) associated with the two experiments is large, and the quantum system is far from its semiclassical limit, the quantum Floquet-Bloch quasienergy states still can be classified as regular and chaotic states. In both experiments the quantum and the classical phase-space entropies are quite similar, although the classical phase space is a mixed regular-chaotic space. It is also shown that as the wave packet which is initially localized at one of the two inner regular islands oscillates between them through the chaotic sea, it accumulates a random phase which causes the decay of the amplitude of the oscillating mean momentum, , as measured in both experiments. The extremely high sensitivity of the rate of decay of the oscillations of to the very small changes in the population of different Floquet-Bloch states, is another type of fingerprint of chaos in quantum dynamics that presumably was measured in the NIST and AUSTIN experiments for the first time.

Osovski, Shmuel; Moiseyev, Nimrod [Department of Chemistry and Minerva Center of Nonlinear Physics in Complex Systems Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2005-09-15

341

The superconducting magnet system for the Tokamak Physics Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The superconducting magnet system for the Tokamak Physics experiment (TPX) will be the first all superconducting magnet system for a Tokamak, where the poloidal field coils, in addition to the toroidal field coils are superconducting. The magnet system is designed to operate in a steady state mode, and to initiate the plasma discharge ohmically. The toroidal field system provides a peak field of 4.0 Tesla on the plasma axis at a plasma major radius of 2.25 m. The peak field on the niobium 3-tin, cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor is 8.4 Tesla for the 16 toroidal field coils. The toroidal field coils must absorb approximately 5 kW due to nuclear heating, eddy currents, and other sources. The poloidal field system provides a total of 18 volt seconds to initiate the plasma and drive a plasma current up to 2 MA. The poloidal field system consists of 14 individual coils which are arranged symmetrically above and below the horizontal mid plane. Four pairs of coils make up the central solenoid, and three paris of poloidal ring coils complete the system. The poloidal field coils all use a cable-in-conduit conductor, using either niobium 3-tin (NB{sub 3}Sn) or niobium titanium (NbTi) superconducting strands depending on the operating conditions for that coil. All of the coils are cooled by flowing supercritical helium, with inlet and outlet connections made on each double pancake. The superconducting magnet system has gone through a conceptual design review, and is in preliminary design started by the LLNL/MIT/PPPL collaboration. A number of changes have been made in the design since the conceptual design review, and are described in this paper.

Lang, D.D.; Bulmer, R.J.; Chaplin, M.R. [and others

1994-06-18

342

ICF Ablator Physics Experiments on Saturn and Nova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In indirect drive ICF, the driver energy is absorbed in a high-Z enclosure (or "hohlraum") that surrounds a spherical shell (or "capsule") containing DT fuel. The hohlraum walls are heated by the driver and emit x-rays, which are absorbed by the capsule material (the "ablator") and drive the implosion. We have used the Saturn z-pinch at SNL and the Nova laser at LLNL to explore the behavior of ablator material in x-ray radiation environments comparable in magnitude, spectrum and duration to those that will be experienced in National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraums. The large x-ray outputs available from pulsed-power driven z-pinches have enabled us to drive hohlraums of full NIF ignition scale size at radiation temperatures and timescales comparable to those required for the low power "foot" pulse of an ignition capsule. The high intensity of the Nova laser has allowed us to study capsule ablator physics in smaller scale hohlraums at radiation temperatures and timescales relevant to the peak power pulse for an ignition capsule. Taken together, these experiments have allowed us test our radiation-hydrodynamics computer code predictions of ablator opacity, radiation flow, and equation of state over almost the complete range of radiation environments to be encountered in a NIF hohlraum. * in collaboration with J. Porter, G. Chandler, D. Fehl, D. Jobe, R. Leeper, K. Matzen, J. McGurn, D. Noack, L. Ruggles, P. Sawyer, J. Torres, M. Vargas, D. Zagar (SNL), and H. Kornblum, T. Orzechowski, L. Suter, R. Thiessen, R. Wallace (LLNL), and the Saturn and Nova operations and diagnostic crews at SNL and LLNL. +This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Olson, Rick

1996-11-01

343

Early Atomic Models From Mechanical to Quantum (1904-1913) The European Physical Journal H (2012) DOI: 10.1140/epjh/e2012-30009-7  

E-print Network

Early Atomic Models ­ From Mechanical to Quantum (1904-1913) The European Physical Journal H (2012 A complete history of early atomic models would fill volumes, but a reasonably coherent tale of the path from mechanical atoms to the quantum can

Colorado at Boulder, University of

344

Probing Pre- and In-service Physics Teachers' Knowledge Using the Double-Slit Thought Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the use of the double-slit thought experiment as a diagnostic tool for probing physics teachers' understanding. A total of 9 pre-service teachers and 18 in-service teachers with a variety of different experience in modern physics teaching at the upper secondary level responded in a paper-and-pencil test and three of these teachers were interviewed. The results showed that the physics teachers' thought experiments with classical particles, light, and electrons were often partial. Many teachers also suffered a lack of the basic ideas and principles of physics, which probably hindered thought experimenting. In particular, understanding the ontological nature of classical particles, light and electrons seemed to be essential in performing the double-slit experiment in an appropriate way. However, the in-service physics teachers who had teaching experience in modern physics were more prepared for the double-slit thought experiment than the pre-service teachers. The results suggest that both thought experiments and the double-slit experiment should be given more weight in physics teacher education, even if experience in modern physics teaching at upper secondary school seems to some extent to develop teachers' abilities.

Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

2014-09-01

345

Physics Demonstration Experiments at William Jewell College. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are descriptions (with photographs) of demonstration equipment purchased, assembled, developed, and used at William Jewell College (Missouri) during the past 25 years. The descriptions are organized into the following topic areas: (1) mechanics; (2) heat; (3) waves, sound, and acoustics; (4) electricity; (5) optics; and (6) atomic and…

Hilton, Wallace A.

346

Peer Influence on Children's Physical Activity: An Experience Sampling Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

on their activity intensity and whether the activity was solitary or with others for seven consecutive days. Results Children were more likely to report more intense physical activity when in the company of peers or close friends. Overweight children reported greater physical activity when in the presence of peers than did lean children; however, overweight children also reported more time

Sarah-Jeanne Salvy; Julie Wojslawowicz Bowker; James N. Roemmich; Natalie Romero; Elizabeth Kieffer; Rocco Paluch; Leonard H. Epstein

2008-01-01

347

Fundamental underwater cutting method experiment as a dismantling tool for a commercial atomic reactor vessel  

SciTech Connect

A new underwater cutting technique applying underwater dismantling to commercial atomic reactor vessels has been developed. This technique involves gas cutting the mild steel underwater after removing the stainless steel cladding by arc gouging. The arc gouging is achieved by blowing out metal--which is melted by an arc between a mild steel electrode wire and the stainless steel--by jetting water from a rear water nozzle. The fuel gas employed for preheating for the gas cutting was a mixed gas of propane and 30% methylacetylene. The test piece used was made of 300-mm-thick mild steel with 8-mm-thick stainless steel cladding. The fundamental cutting experiment was carried out successfully under a cutting speed condition of 15 cm/min at a water depth of 20 cm. This apparatus is easy to handle, compact, and cheap.

Hamasaki, M.; Murao, Y.; Tateiwa, F.

1982-10-01

348

Progress in stored ion beam experiments on atomic and molecular processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stored fast ion beams in atomic and molecular collision experiments are discussed with an emphasis on electron ion interactions at low relative energies. Recent progress was obtained in electron collision spectroscopy using an electron-cooled stored ion beam and a separate electron target in the same storage ring; from a cryogenic photocathode, electron beams with internal temperatures of 5 to 10 K were produced. Results are presented for dielectronic recombination resonances, resolving the hyperfine structure of stored lithiumlike scandium ions and obtaining precise results for the fine structure splitting of these ions, and for ro-vibrational resonances in the recombination of electrons with hydrogen molecular ions, revealing sharp structures down to 2 meV. An overview of the cryogenic storage ring (CSR) project in Heidelberg is given.

Wolf, Andreas; Buhr, Henrik; Grieser, Manfred; von Hahn, Robert; Lestinsky, Michael; Lindroth, Eva; Orlov, Dmitry A.; Schippers, Stefan; Schneider, Ioan F.

2006-09-01

349

Progress in stored ion beam experiments on atomic and molecular processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stored fast ion beams in atomic and molecular collision experiments are discussed with an emphasis on electron-ion interactions at low relative energies. Recent progress was obtained in electron collision spectroscopy using an electron-cooled stored ion beam and a separate electron target in the same storage ring; from a cryogenic photocathode, electron beams with internal temperatures of 5 to 10 K were produced. Results are presented for dielectronic recombination resonances, resolving the hyperfine structure of stored lithiumlike scandium ions and obtaining precise results for the fine structure splitting of these ions, and for ro-vibrational resonances in the recombination of electrons with hydrogen molecular ions, revealing sharp structures down to 2 meV. An overview of the cryogenic storage ring (CSR) project in Heidelberg is given.

Wolf, Andreas; Buhr, Henrik; Grieser, Manfred; von Hahn, Robert; Lestinsky, Michael; Orlov, Dmitry A.; Lindroth, Eva; Schneider, Ioan F.; Schippers, Stefan

350

Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear, plasma, elementary particle, and atomic and molecular physics are surveyed along with the physics of condensed matter and relativistic astrophysics. Attention is given to the discovery of quarks, psi particles, bosons and nuclear quantum states, the role of group theory and the search for a unified field theory. Also considered are magnetic and inertial confinement regarding fusion power, and the use of tunable lasers and microwave spectroscopy to study Rydberg states. In addition, surface physics, amorphous solids, superfluidity and gravitational collapse are discussed.

Bromley, D. A.

1980-07-01

351

Accelerator Preparations for Muon Physics Experiments at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The use of existing Fermilab facilities to provide beams for two muon experiments - the Muon to Electron Conversion Experiment (Mu2e) and the New g-2 Experiment - is under consideration. Plans are being pursued to perform these experiments following the completion of the Tevatron Collider Run II, utilizing the beam lines and storage rings used today for antiproton accumulation without considerable reconfiguration. Operating scenarios being investigated and anticipated accelerator improvements or reconfigurations will be presented.

Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

2009-10-01

352

ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: First-Principles Study on Native Defect Complexes in InN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present first-principles calculations of the formation energy of different native defects and their complexes in wurtzite InN using density-functional theory and the pseudopotential plane-wave method. Our calculations are aimed in the three cases: N/In = 1, N/In > 1 (N-rich), and N/In < 1 (In-rich). Our results indicate that the antisite defect has the lowest formation energy under N/In = 1. The formation energy of nitrogen interstitial (nitrogen vacancy) defect is significantly low under the N-rich (In-rich) condition. Thus the antisite defect is an important defect if N/In = 1, and the nitrogen interstitial (nitrogen vacancy) defect is a vital defect under the N-rich (In-rich) condition. The atomic site relaxation around the nitrogen interstitial and vacancy is investigated. Our calculations show that the nitrogen vacancy cannot be observed although it is one of the most important defects in InN. Our results are confirmed by experiments.

Zhao, Feng-Qi; Shi, Jun-Jie; Yang, Mao

2010-01-01

353

Simple Laser Scattering Experiment for Biology-Oriented Physics Labs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physics exercise designed for biology and premed majors. The activity is a low intensity laser light scattering laboratory exercise to determine the diameter of micron-sized latex spheres (simulated microbes) in water suspension. (GA)

Orwig, L.; Schrank, G.

1979-01-01

354

From physical to virtual : extending the gallery experience online  

E-print Network

This thesis is an exploration of the ways in which interactive features in the virtual space can be developed to complement physical museum exhibitions, as well as create opportunities for museums to reach broader audiences. ...

Ho, Moneta Kwok-Ching, 1976-

2004-01-01

355

Energetic Neutral Atoms from the Moon: Populations, physics, applications, and the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coexistence of plasma particles and neutral materials in space creates energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). For example, when solar wind plasma interacts with the lunar surface, ENA production is expected. We review recent investigations of the Moon-associated ENAs observed by a lunar orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, and discuss lessons learnt from the experiment. Intensive observations were conducted by the Chandrayaan-1 Energetic Neutrals Analyzer (CENA) sensor, the first and the only ever ENA sensor in a lunar orbit. CENA started its operation in the beginning of 2009. CENA can measure low energy ENAs, i.e. the energy below 3 keV. Using the dataset obtained from its 6-month operation, we discovered several populations of ENAs emitted from the Moon: begin{itemize} Backscattered ENAs of solar wind proton origin Backscattered ENAs of plasmasheet proton origin Sputtered hydrogen from the surface Indeed, backscattered ENAs had never expected as a major ENA population because the porosity (roughness) of the lunar surface is extremely high, and thus impinging plasma particles must have experienced several scattering to be absorbed. However, the observations clearly showed extremely high flux of backscattered ENAs. The discovery gave us a new insight in the field of low energy plasma interaction with porous surface in space. From the measured ENA flux and flying direction at the orbiter, we can derive the place of the ENA production and its flux at the lunar surface. They include information about solar wind plasma at the surface. One of the most attractive regions for investigation is a locally magnetized region (magnetic anomaly). Magnetic anomalies form mini-magnetospheres, which prevent the solar wind to precipitate. The efficiency of the protection influences directly the effectiveness of the space weathering by solar wind plasmas. Using the obtained CENA data, we could successfully image a reduction of the ENA flux inside known magnetic anomalies. The image clearly indicates the effective protection of the surface from the solar wind proton. Recently, we also developed a new method to obtain the electrostatic surface potential inside the anomaly from ENA observations. Improved ENA sensor will fly to Mercury by a Europe-Japan joint Mercury exploration, BepiColombo, as a part of Mercury Plasma Particle Experiment on board Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter. The ENA experiment will image precipitating plasma at the surface of Mercury. Field-aligned potential in the precipitating regions is also to be derived. European Jupiter mission, JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE), will also equip an ENA sensor. ENA environment of the icy moons will be addressed as well.

Futaana, Yoshifumi; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin; Bhardwaj, Anil; Wurz, Peter

356

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS Physics 32100  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS Syllabus Physics 32100 Modern Physics for Engineers Designation to one- electron atoms, atomic shell structure and periodic table; nuclear physics, relativity. Prerequisites: Prereq.: Physics 20800 or equivalent, Math 20300 or 20900 (elective for Engineering students

Lombardi, John R.

357

ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR DATA NEEDS David R. Schultz  

E-print Network

ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR DATA NEEDS FOR FUSION David R. Schultz Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center and Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN 37831­6373 ABSTRACT Atomic and molecular of accurate atomic and molecular data. For example, even the earliest experiments showed that the interaction

358

Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

1988-01-01

359

Event-based simulation of quantum physics experiments  

E-print Network

We review an event-based simulation approach which reproduces the statistical distributions of wave theory not by requiring the knowledge of the solution of the wave equation of the whole system but by generating detection events one-by-one according to an unknown distribution. We illustrate its applicability to various single photon and single neutron interferometry experiments and to two Bell test experiments, a single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment employing post-selection for photon pair identification and a single-neutron Bell test interferometry experiment with nearly $100\\%$ detection efficiency.

Kristel Michielsen; Hans De Raedt

2013-12-25

360

Physical Science Experiments in K-12 Schools Related to Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk I shall show movies on the demonstration of surface science experiments at various education levels ranging from middle schools to the university. These experiments demonstrate the concepts of surface tension, surface flows, surface reactions and even miscible interfaces. Experiments that demonstrate capillary effects, pressure variations on account of diameter changes, emulsions and foams will be discussed. Applications involving household agents such as space processing, food and detergents will also be given. All of these experiments are part of a kit that we have assembled for free distribution to area schools.

Narayanan, Ranga

361

Preliminary design of two Space Shuttle fluid physics experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mid-deck lockers of the STS and the requirements for operating an experiment in this region are described. The design of the surface tension induced convection and the free surface phenomenon experiments use a two locker volume with an experiment unique structure as a housing. A manual mode is developed for the Surface Tension Induced Convection experiment. The fluid is maintained in an accumulator pre-flight. To begin the experiment, a pressurized gas drives the fluid into the experiment container. The fluid is an inert silicone oil and the container material is selected to be comparable. A wound wire heater, located axisymmetrically above the fluid can deliver three wattages to a spot on the fluid surface. These wattages vary from 1-15 watts. Fluid flow is observed through the motion of particles in the fluid. A 5 mw He/Ne laser illuminates the container. Scattered light is recorded by a 35mm camera. The free surface phenomena experiment consists of a trapezoidal cell which is filled from the bottom. The fluid is photographed at high speed using a 35mm camera which incorporated the entire cell length in the field of view. The assembly can incorporate four cells in one flight. For each experiment, an electronics block diagram is provided. A control panel concept is given for the surface induced convection. Both experiments are within the mid-deck locker weight and c-g limits.

Gat, N.; Kropp, J. L.

1984-01-01

362

Optics and interferometry with atoms and molecules  

SciTech Connect

Interference with atomic and molecular matter waves is a rich branch of atomic physics and quantum optics. It started with atom diffraction from crystal surfaces and the separated oscillatory fields technique used in atomic clocks. Atom interferometry is now reaching maturity as a powerful art with many applications in modern science. In this review the basic tools for coherent atom optics are described including diffraction by nanostructures and laser light, three-grating interferometers, and double wells on atom chips. Scientific advances in a broad range of fields that have resulted from the application of atom interferometers are reviewed. These are grouped in three categories: (i) fundamental quantum science, (ii) precision metrology, and (iii) atomic and molecular physics. Although some experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates are included, the focus of the review is on linear matter wave optics, i.e., phenomena where each single atom interferes with itself.

Cronin, Alexander D.; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Pritchard, David E. [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Atominstitut Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, TU-Wien (Austria); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2009-07-15

363

Atoms and Molecules. Physical Science in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are more than 20 million known substances in the universe, and they are all made of the same basic ingredients--atoms and molecules. In this fun and engaging program, kids will learn about the three main subatomic particles--protons, neutrons and electrons--as well as the forces that keep atoms and molecules together. They'll discover how…

2000

364

Physical Construction of the Chemical Atom: Is It Convenient to Go All the Way Back?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present an analysis of chemistry texts (mainly textbooks) published during the first half of the 20th century. We show the evolution of the explanations therein in terms of atoms and of atomic structure, when scientists were interpreting phenomena as evidence of the discontinuous, corpuscular structure of matter. In this process…

Izquierdo-Aymerich, Merce; Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin

2009-01-01

365

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 499 (2003) 437468 The BRAHMS experiment at RHIC  

E-print Network

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 499 (2003) 437­468 The BRAHMS experiment, USA f H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krak!ow, Poland g Cyclotron Institute, Texas A. Wadag , J. Westergaardb , A. Wielocha , I.S. Zgurad a M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian

366

atomic spectra 1 Atomic Spectra  

E-print Network

. Eisberg and Resnick: Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei and Particles, pp. 95-119, p286 Physics, pp. 88-93 (Rutherford nuclear model), 93-106 (atomic structure and electron spectra) 2. D. W. Preston and E. R. Dietz: The Art of Experimental Physics, pp. 397- 399, resolution of optical instruments

Glashausser, Charles

367

Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Atomic Oxygen Correlation for the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2) Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) polymers were exposed to the environment of low Earth orbit (LEO) for 3.95 years from 2001 to 2005. There were 41 different PEACE polymers, which were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) in order to determine their atomic oxygen erosion yields. In LEO, atomic oxygen is an environmental durability threat, particularly for long duration mission exposures. Although spaceflight experiments, such as the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment, are ideal for determining LEO environmental durability of spacecraft materials, ground-laboratory testing is often relied upon for durability evaluation and prediction. Unfortunately, significant differences exist between LEO atomic oxygen exposure and atomic oxygen exposure in ground-laboratory facilities. These differences include variations in species, energies, thermal exposures and radiation exposures, all of which may result in different reactions and erosion rates. In an effort to improve the accuracy of ground-based durability testing, ground-laboratory to in-space atomic oxygen correlation experiments have been conducted. In these tests, the atomic oxygen erosion yields of the PEACE polymers were determined relative to Kapton H using a radio-frequency (RF) plasma asher (operated on air). The asher erosion yields were compared to the MISSE 2 PEACE erosion yields to determine the correlation between erosion rates in the two environments. This paper provides a summary of the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment; it reviews the specific polymers tested as well as the techniques used to determine erosion yield in the asher, and it provides a correlation between the space and ground laboratory erosion yield values. Using the PEACE polymers asher to in-space erosion yield ratios will allow more accurate in-space materials performance predictions to be made based on plasma asher durability evaluation.

Stambler, Arielle H.; Inoshita, Karen E.; Roberts, Lily M.; Barbagallo, Claire E.; deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

2011-01-01

368

Emulating Solid-State Physics with a Hybrid System of Ultracold Ions and Atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose and theoretically investigate a hybrid system composed of a crystal of trapped ions coupled to a cloud of ultracold fermions. The ions form a periodic lattice and induce a band structure in the atoms. This system combines the advantages of high fidelity operations and detection offered by trapped ion systems with ultracold atomic systems. It also features close analogies to natural solid-state systems, as the atomic degrees of freedom couple to phonons of the ion lattice, thereby emulating a solid-state system. Starting from the microscopic many-body Hamiltonian, we derive the low energy Hamiltonian, including the atomic band structure, and give an expression for the atom-phonon coupling. We discuss possible experimental implementations such as a Peierls-like transition into a period-doubled dimerized state.

Bissbort, U.; Cocks, D.; Negretti, A.; Idziaszek, Z.; Calarco, T.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Hofstetter, W.; Gerritsma, R.

2013-08-01

369

The Social Experience of Physically Disabled Australian University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the university experience of disabled students has focused on barriers in learning and teaching, while the social world of university has as yet gained little attention as a distinctive object of study. Here we examine social experience and socially imposed restrictions through the lenses of social capital and self-concept. A…

Papasotiriou, Maria; Windle, Joel

2012-01-01

370

Atomic-Scale Investigation of Latent Fission Tracks in Fluorapatite: Physical Characteristics and Annealing Behavior.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A JEOL JEM-2000FX analytical transmission electron microscope, equipped with a cold stage and anticontamination device, has been used to study the physical characteristics and annealing behavior of artificially induced fission tracks in fluorapatite. Near the atomic level, unetched fission tracks are not continuous, but are comprised of segments of extended damage that are separated by gaps of undamaged microstructure. From dark-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, it appears that the crystalline damage around tracks, although intensive, is not extensive. As such, the defect density may be represented by a Gaussian-type distribution function. The disordered nature of the track core and defect distribution geometry supports the Ion-Explosion Theory that has been proposed for track formation. TEM analysis reveals that track width is crystallographically controlled. Parallel to the c-axis, tracks display widths of 5 to 13 nm and hexagonal faceting on the (0001) plane. Tracks perpendicular to the c-axis display widths of 3 to 9 nm and prismatic faceting on the (1000) plane. The track cross-section facets mimic etch-pit morphologies and provide a relative measure of the crystal's surface free energy. A consequence of differential bond strengths and elastic properties in the fluorapatite structure, track-width anisotropy resolves etching- and annealing-rate anisotropy that has been reported for fission tracks in fluorapatite. TEM observation of the behavior of fission tracks in response to electron beam exposure (i.e., radiolytic annealing), and temperature increase (i.e., thermal annealing), yields a physical and a kinetic description of the annealing process. Annealing commences with bulging at the track's tapered ends, followed by detachment of a single sphere. This process is replicated until a critical track radius is encountered at which the track geometry approaches an ideal right cylinder. A sinusoidal boundary develops at the track-matrix interface and increases in amplitude until the track spontaneously collapses into a row of spheres and small rods. The rods continue to evolve into spheres until the track remnant is comprised solely of a row of spheres. Although the spheres possess a stable surface energy geometry, ultimately they are restored to the original microstructure and the track disappears. Documentation of annealing suggests that the process is analogous to that of drop detachment, ovulation, and spheroidization. From these better known processes, it is possible to formulate a kinetic equation that describes fission-track annealing. Unlike the empirically-derived or physically-based kinetic equations that are presently employed in the reconstruction of thermo -tectonic histories from apatite fission-track data, the equation proposed in this study accurately predicts fission -track behavior over all of the scales of interest (i.e., microscopic to macroscopic dimensions, high to low temperatures, laboratory to geologic timescales). Furthermore, the equation reveals that surface interface diffusion is the primary mass transport mechanism that controls fission-track annealing.

Paul, Tracy Anne

1993-01-01

371

Preparing K-12 teachers in physics: Insights from history, experience, and research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To be able to teach by inquiry, K-12 teachers need intensive preparation in both the content and process of physics. Research and teaching experience have shown that an effective means for achieving this goal is to give teachers the opportunity to study physics in a manner consistent with how they are expected to teach. We need to encourage physics faculty to work with teachers in this way. They are likely to enjoy and to learn from the experience.

Mcdermott, Lillian C.

2007-03-06

372

PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS in preparation 11/1995 Collapse of the Zeeman structure of the hydrogen atom  

E-print Network

/G n=10, G=0.06 Energy E in units 2n 2 E+1 D C A B FIG. 1. Collapse of the Zeeman structurePHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS in preparation 11/1995 Collapse of the Zeeman structure of the hydrogen atom in external electric field D. A. Sadovski'i 1 , B. I. Zhilinski'i 1 , and L. Michel 2 1 Universit'e

Sadovskií, Dmitrií

373

ANL-E Health Physics experience with D and D  

SciTech Connect

The Argonne National Laboratory--East (ANL-E) Health Physics Section provides direct and/or oversight support to various D&D projects at ANL-E. The health physics problems encountered have been challenging, primarily because they involved the potential for high internal exposures as well as actual high external exposures. The lessons learned are applicable to other radiological facilities. A number of D&D projects being conducted concurrently at ANL-E are described. The problems encountered are then categorized, and lessons learned and recommendations are provided. The main focus will be limited to the support and technical assistance provided by personnel from the ANL Health Physics Section during the course of the work activities.

Baker, S.I.; Mosho, G.D.; Munyon, W.J.; Murdoch, B.T.; Sholeen, C.M.; Shuman, J.P.

1996-04-01

374

A physical model experiment for turning ray study  

SciTech Connect

Several preliminary tests have been conducted to establish the feasibility of a physical model study to record turning ray signals in the laboratory. Clear resin and aluminum powder are used as the model materials. By mixing aluminum powder to clear resin in different proportions, controlled velocities of the materials have been achieved. Without adding any aluminum, the resin has a velocity of 2,525 m/s. By adding aluminum powder, the maximum velocity that can be achieved is 3,320 m/s. For a model of thickness 0.127 meter, the velocity gradient will be 0.5/s, which is adequate to achieve turning rays. Attenuation has also been tested and compared among different materials selected to construct the physical model. It is found that adding aluminum powder into clear resin does not increase attenuation of the mixture. The results from preliminary tests give confidence that a physical model study to detect turning rays is feasible.

Zhang, M.; Sekharan, K.K.; McDonald, J.A. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Tatham, R.H. [Texaco Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

375

LDEF atomic oxygen fluence update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The definition of LDEF atomic oxygen exposure involves theoretical prediction of fluxes, modeling of shielding and scattering effects, and comparison of predicted with observed atomic oxygen effects on LDEF experiments. Work is proceeding as follows: atomic oxygen fluxes and fluences have been recalculated using a more detailed orbit prediction program; a micro-environments program is being developed to account for the effects of experiment geometry on atomic oxygen flux; and chemical and physical measurements are being made on copper grounding straps to verify correspondence between predicted exposures and observed surface property variations. These three areas of work are reported briefly.

Bourassa, Roger J.; Gillis, J. R.

1992-01-01

376

Microgravity experiments in the field of physical chemistry in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has been operating 'KIBO' (`hope' in Japanese) as Japanese experimental module on ISS (International Space Station) to perform researches on physical, life, medical, space sciences in space. Several research racks and facilities have already been accommodated in the pressurized module of 'KIBO' and some researches have already been carried out. Japan currently has 17 ISS flight projects (including 4

M Natsuisaka; K Tsujii; M Shimomura; H Yabu; Y Hirai; T Mashiko; S Deguchi; S Mukai; Y Inoue; Y Nishiyama; M Sawada; K Okumura; K Sakamoto

2011-01-01

377

Physical Education for Children: Movement Foundations and Experiences. Instructor's Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to the textbook of the same title is divided into four areas: structure of the text; suggested course outlines for both semester and quarter courses; suggested approaches for using the text when teaching elementary school physical education courses; and short-answer examination questions for each chapter in the text. Material is…

Bucher, Charles A.; Thaxton, Nolan A.

378

Service Learning: Practical Learning Experiences in Sport and Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiential education is a teaching methodology employed to facilitate learning. All forms of experiential education require students to "learn by doing" as they participate in activities outside the classroom. Common forms of experiential education utilized by sport and physical educators include field and laboratory activities, service learning…

Lee, Jason W.; Bush, Gayle; Smith, Edith W.

2005-01-01

379

FPGAS in high energy physics experiments at CERN  

Microsoft Academic Search

CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is the worldpsilas largest particle physics centre. It provides state-of-the-art scientific facilities to use in exploring what matter is made of, and what forces hold it together. Observing phenomena at the subatomic level requires extraordinary instruments, particle accelerators and particle detectors. In a particle accelerator, beams of subatomic particles are boosted to nearly

L. Musa

2008-01-01

380

Peer Influence on Children's Physical Activity: An Experience Sampling Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The primary objective was to examine the associations between social context (the presence of peers, friends, and family members) and physical activity intensity for overweight and lean girls and boys. Methods Participants for this study included 10 boys (M = 13.4 years; SD = .8) and 10 girls (M = 13.8 years; SD = .8). Twelve participants were between the 15th and the 85th BMI percentile (eight girls, four boys) and eight youth were at or above the 85th BMI percentile (six boys, two girls). Participants reported on their activity intensity and whether the activity was solitary or with others for seven consecutive days. Results Children were more likely to report more intense physical activity when in the company of peers or close friends. Overweight children reported greater physical activity when in the presence of peers than did lean children; however, overweight children also reported more time spent alone. Conclusions Taken together, findings highlight the importance of considering peer relationships in studies of physical activity and childhood “obesity.” PMID:17525088

Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Bowker, Julie Wojslawowicz; Roemmich, James N.; Romero, Natalie; Kieffer, Elizabeth; Paluch, Rocco; Epstein, Leonard H.

2009-01-01

381

Spina Bifida Experience: The Importance of Physical Activity  

MedlinePLUS

... Activity Your browser does not support iFrames. Related Videos Spina Bifida Experience Developing Independence Managing Your Own Medical Care More Videos Video Archive Find more NCBDDD videos to watch ...

382

Stern-Gerlach Experiments and Complex Numbers in Quantum Physics  

E-print Network

It is often stated that complex numbers are essential in quantum theory. In this article, the need for complex numbers in quantum theory is motivated using the results of tandem Stern-Gerlach experiments

S. Sivakumar

2012-07-09

383

Relating the physical properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides to virulence by atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are an important class of macromolecules that are components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa contains two different sugar chains, the homopolymer common antigen (A band) and the heteropolymer O antigen (B band), which impart serospecificity. The characteristics of LPS are generally assessed after isolation rather than in the context of whole bacteria. Here we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to probe the physical properties of the LPS of P. aeruginosa strain PA103 (serogroup O11) in situ. This strain contains a mixture of long and very long polymers of O antigen, regulated by two different genes. For this analysis, we studied the wild-type strain and four mutants, ?Wzz1 (producing only very long LPS), ?Wzz2 (producing only long LPS), D?M (with both the wzz1 and wzz2 genes deleted), and Wzy::GM (producing an LPS core oligosaccharide plus one unit of O antigen). Forces of adhesion between the LPS on these strains and the silicon nitride AFM tip were measured, and the Alexander and de Gennes model of steric repulsion between a flat surface and a polymer brush was used to calculate the LPS layer thickness (which we refer to as length), compressibility, and spacing between the individual molecules. LPS chains were longest for the wild-type strain and ?Wzz1, at 170.6 and 212.4 nm, respectively, and these values were not statistically significantly different from one another. Wzy::GM and D?M have reduced LPS lengths, at 34.6 and 37.7 nm, respectively. Adhesion forces were not correlated with LPS length, but a relationship between adhesion force and bacterial pathogenicity was found in a mouse acute pneumonia model of infection. The adhesion forces with the AFM probe were lower for strains with LPS mutations, suggesting that the wild-type strain is optimized for maximal adhesion. Our research contributes to further understanding of the role of LPS in the adhesion and virulence of P. aeruginosa. PMID:21148734

Ivanov, Ivan E; Kintz, Erica N; Porter, Laura A; Goldberg, Joanna B; Burnham, Nancy A; Camesano, Terri A

2011-03-01

384

Relating the Physical Properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lipopolysaccharides to Virulence by Atomic Force Microscopy? †  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are an important class of macromolecules that are components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa contains two different sugar chains, the homopolymer common antigen (A band) and the heteropolymer O antigen (B band), which impart serospecificity. The characteristics of LPS are generally assessed after isolation rather than in the context of whole bacteria. Here we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to probe the physical properties of the LPS of P. aeruginosa strain PA103 (serogroup O11) in situ. This strain contains a mixture of long and very long polymers of O antigen, regulated by two different genes. For this analysis, we studied the wild-type strain and four mutants, ?Wzz1 (producing only very long LPS), ?Wzz2 (producing only long LPS), D?M (with both the wzz1 and wzz2 genes deleted), and Wzy::GM (producing an LPS core oligosaccharide plus one unit of O antigen). Forces of adhesion between the LPS on these strains and the silicon nitride AFM tip were measured, and the Alexander and de Gennes model of steric repulsion between a flat surface and a polymer brush was used to calculate the LPS layer thickness (which we refer to as length), compressibility, and spacing between the individual molecules. LPS chains were longest for the wild-type strain and ?Wzz1, at 170.6 and 212.4 nm, respectively, and these values were not statistically significantly different from one another. Wzy::GM and D?M have reduced LPS lengths, at 34.6 and 37.7 nm, respectively. Adhesion forces were not correlated with LPS length, but a relationship between adhesion force and bacterial pathogenicity was found in a mouse acute pneumonia model of infection. The adhesion forces with the AFM probe were lower for strains with LPS mutations, suggesting that the wild-type strain is optimized for maximal adhesion. Our research contributes to further understanding of the role of LPS in the adhesion and virulence of P. aeruginosa. PMID:21148734

Ivanov, Ivan E.; Kintz, Erica N.; Porter, Laura A.; Goldberg, Joanna B.; Burnham, Nancy A.; Camesano, Terri A.

2011-01-01

385

A learning pathway in high-school level quantum atomic physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes one student's learning pathway as a sequence of several metastable conceptions of the atom starting from a planetary model. Displays the final cognitive element as an association of three parallel conceptions. Contains 26 references.

Petri, Juergen; Niedderer, Hans

2006-06-08

386

Atomic physics of strongly correlated systems. Progress report, 1 August 1980-31 July 1981  

SciTech Connect

Studies of electron correlations of doubly-excited electrons in hyperspherical coordinates, and differential and total cross sections for charge transfer and ionization in fast ion-atom collisions are reported. (GHT)

Lin, C.D.

1981-03-01

387

FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: L D Landau in the Soviet Atomic Project: a documentary study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents information about the participation of Academician L D Landau in the Soviet Atomic Project and is based on a study of archive documents of the First Main Directorate. Their analysis points to L D Landau's important contribution to the development of the theory of heterogeneous nuclear reactors and to the computational justification of the first designs of atomic and hydrogen bombs. Many of the quoted documents have never been published before.

Kiselev, G. V.

2008-09-01

388

Theoretical atomic collision physics. Progress report, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The current focus of the research is low-energy (collision v<atom (including Rydberg atom) collisions with atoms, molecules and positive and negative ions: (1) We are interested in the dependence of various differential and total cross sections on the angular momentum of the initial excited state and on the alignment of the initial electron charge distribution (for non-spherical initially excited states). (2) We wish to understand how characteristics of the classical trajectories (in CTMC calculations), e.g. multiple encounters, quasi-periodicity, chaos, relate to characteristics of the probability (scattering) amplitudes obtained from semiclassical (quantum mechanical) treatments. (3) In particular, in order to investigate a range of ``interaction regimes,`` we have proposed to study low-Rydberg-atom collisions with: ions and polar molecules (long range interaction); non-polar molecules and atoms (short-range interaction); as well as electron-attaching atoms/molecules (transient electron capture possible). (4) We plan to look for observable signatures of possibly novel intracollisional interference effects and quasi-vibrational resonance effects that may occur in low-Rydberg collisions.

Lane, N.F.

1992-03-09

389

Pulse power for high energy density physics experiments  

SciTech Connect

Pulse power technology has been supported and developed in the US over the last 4 decades by the Department of Energy in support of the nuclear weapons and energy research programs, and by the Department of Defense for advanced weapons technology and nuclear weapons effects research. Recent, changes in the priorities and orientation of these programs have made the planning and conduct of basic science experiments possible using facilities heretofore completely dedicated to a more narrow range of experimental activities. The purpose of the `Spring Workshop on Basic Science Using Pulsed Power` is to introduce high performance pulse power technology to a broader cross-section of the community and to discuss, with the community, experiments which can be planned now using currently operating systems and to begin to consider experiments which can be planned for the systems of the future.

Reinovsky, R.E.

1995-05-01

390

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING and INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY NUCLEAR FUSION Nucl. Fusion 46 (2006) 477486 doi:10.1088/0029-5515/46/4/008  

E-print Network

the problem by introducing a (physical) wavelength cutoff and may lead to a stabilization or destabilizationINSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING and INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY NUCLEAR FUSION Nucl. Fusion ballooning modes B.F. McMillan1 and R.L. Dewar2 1 School of Physics, Sydney University, NSW 2006, Sydney

Dewar, Robert L.

391

Transmission spectroscopy and atomic kinetics of neon photoionized plasma experiments at Z  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a series of experiments performed at the Z facility in which photoionized plasmas were produced by driving a neon-filled gas cell with the intense x-ray flux emitted at the collapse of a z-pinch. The broad-band radiation flux from the z-pinch is used to both create the neon photoionised plasma and provide a source of backlighting photons to study the atomic kinetics through K-shell transmission spectroscopy. The plasma is contained in cm-scale gas cell and the filling pressure is carefully monitored in situ all the way to shot time since it is the particle number density diagnostic of the plasma. Time-integrated and gated transmission spectra are recorded with a TREX spectrometer equipped with two KAP elliptically-bent crystals and a set of slits to record up to six spatially-resolved spectra per crystal in the same shot. The transmission data shows line absorption transitions in several ionization stages of neon. Detailed modeling calculations are used to interpret the data.

Mancini, R.; Hall, I.; Durmaz, T.; Bailey, J.; Rochau, G.; Cohen, D.; Foord, M.; Heeter, R.

2010-11-01

392

HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS  

SciTech Connect

The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

2010-03-16

393

HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS  

SciTech Connect

The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

2008-08-01

394

Echoing with the Voices of Victims: Reflection on Vietnamese Lessons on the Japanese Experiences of Atomic Bombs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the case of a Vietnamese teacher whose conception of teaching changed greatly following a short but intensive series of lessons based on the Japanese experiences with atomic bombs. The following three issues are considered: 1) what types of efforts teachers should make to increase the depth of their lessons, on the basis of…

Saito, Eisuke; Hien, Do Thi; Hang, Khong Thi Diem

2010-01-01

395

How Many Atomic Layers of Zinc Are in a Galvanized Iron Coating? An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an experiment using a novel gasometric assembly to determine the thickness and number of atomic layers of zinc coating on galvanized iron substrates. Students solved this problem through three stages. In the first stage, students were encouraged to find a suitable acidic concentration through the guided-inquiry approach. In…

Yang, Shui-Ping

2007-01-01

396

Cation Hydration Constants by Proton NMR: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the polarization effect on water by cations and anions. Describes an experiment to illustrate the polarization effect of sodium, lithium, calcium, and strontium ions on the water molecule in the hydration spheres of the ions. Analysis is performed by proton NMR. (MVL)

Smith, Robert L.; And Others

1988-01-01

397

The Design of Learning Experiences: A Connection to Physical Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school environment must create a rich, beautiful, dynamic, meaningful experience for students to learn; however, architects, school boards, and the state focus almost exclusively only on the building when making design decisions. This document lists specific aspects to developing a visionary campus: one that provides a three-dimensional…

Stueck, Lawrence E.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

398

Simulating Educational Physical Experiments in Augmented Reality Hannes Kaufmann  

E-print Network

in everyday life. The three fundamental laws of motion which were formulated by Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727 are based on Newton's laws of motion. Therefore the authors developed an educational augmented reality (AR of Technology Figure 1: Left: An experiment simulating the motion of a car crankshaft. Right: A centrifugal

399

The Physical Environment: A Powerful Regulator of Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses five environmental dimensions (hardness/softness, open/closed, simple/complex, intrusion/seclusion, and high mobility/low mobility) that affect the experiences of children in day-care centers, demonstrating how to consider these dimensions in solving typical problems in child care settings. (MDM)

Prescott, Elizabeth

1994-01-01

400

Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments Without Superconducting Electromagnets  

E-print Network

is most effective if the conductor material is OFHC copper, whose resistivity at liquid nitrogen a costly electric power system capability. But since resistive power is proportional to conductor of fusion, so near­term superconducting experience may not ultimately be useful. High magnetic field copper

401

A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a

Y. C. Francis Thio; Charles E. Knapp; Ronald C. Kirkpatrick; Richard E. Siemon; Peter J. Turchi

2001-01-01

402

Skylab Experiments, Volume 5, Astronomy and Space Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented in this book, one of a series, for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling the teachers to broaden their basis for material selection. This fifth volume is concerned with studies of our own and other galaxies and effects of solar…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

403

Walter Fendt Physics Applets: Newton's Second Law Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet simulates an air track glider, a low-friction device commonly used to study Newton's Second Law of Motion and collisions. A mass sliding on the horizontal track surface is connected by a string to a hanging mass. The value of the two masses and the coefficient of friction can be set by the user. A timer is provided to gather data for the motion of the sliding mass as a function of time. This applet is a part of a large collection of physics applets, available in a wide range of languages.

Fendt, Walter

2007-02-05

404

Viscosity experiments: physical controls and implications for volcanic hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching students about viscosity is easy, effective and fun. It is a topic that is conducive to a range of teaching and learning styles, and allows for the integration of theory, experiments, and calculations. During the course of this exercise, students are required to make predictions about the outcomes of experiments, quantitatively document the results of their experiments, calculate viscosities using the Jeffreys equation (Jeffreys 1925; Nichols 1939; Cas and Wright 1987), and extrapolate the concepts learned from their laboratory results to natural conditions appropriate for silicate magmas and lavas. Students are also introduced to Ken Wohletz's freeware program MAGMA (no longer available), which allows them to determine viscosities for magma and lava compositions, and are required to do some simple graphical analysis of the effects of composition, dissolved H2O, and % solids on magma and lava viscosity using the MAGMA calculations. Viscosity is important for students at all levels of earth science to understand because it is a critical control on morphologies of volcanoes, velocities of lava flows, eruptive styles (effusive versus explosive), and ascent velocities of magmas within the earth. The objectives of the lab are for students to: learn about the rheological property called viscosity and some of the factors that affect it; think about and discuss ways in which viscosity controls styles of eruptions and relates to volcanic hazards; and practice quantitative skills. I have used the viscosity experiments as a classroom demonstration in introductory geology courses, as one part of a more extensive lab on volcanoes in introductory geology courses, and as a more intensive viscosity lab for introductory petrology courses. Generally the students do this exercise after they have had at least one introductory lecture on volcanoes, so that they are familiar with several basic terms, including viscosity, lava, magma, as well as some basic igneous rock terms (basalt, andesite, rhyolite). Over the fives years that I have been using the experiments, students at all levels have commented that the experiments are some of the most memorable, interesting and fun parts of my courses. I would welcome any direct student or instructor feedback for improvements or additions to the exercises (edwardsb AT dickinson.edu).

Edwards, Ben

405

Experimenting with the virtual environment Moodle in Physics Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The master's program in Physics Education of the Catholic University in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, includes the discipline ``Digital technologies in Physics education.'' The main goal of this discipline is to discuss the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the process of learning-teaching science. We introduce our students to several virtual platforms, both free and commercial, discussing their functionality and features. We encourage our students to get in touch with computer tools and resources by planning their own computer based course using the Moodle platform. We discuss different patterns of virtual environment courses, whose proposals are centered mainly in the students, or teacher-centered or even system-centered. The student is free to choose between only one topic and a year course to work with, since their interests vary from learning something more about a specific subject to a complete e-learning course covering the entire school year. (The courses are available online in the address sitesinf01.pucmg.br/moodle. Participation only requires filling out an application form.) After three editions of this discipline, we have several courses available. We realize that students tend to focus on traditional methods, always preserving their role as knowledge-givers. In conclusion, we can say that, in spite of exhaustive discussion about autonomy involved with ICTs abilities, most of the students used the new virtual medium to organize traditional teacher-centered courses.

Martins, Maria Ines; Dickman, Adriana

2008-03-01

406

Computer simulations for lab experiences in secondary physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical science instruction often involves modeling natural systems, such as electricity that possess particles which are invisible to the unaided eye. The effect of these particles' motion is observable, but the particles are not directly observable to humans. Simulations have been developed in physics, chemistry and biology that, under certain circumstances, have been found to allow students to gain insight into the operation of the systems they model. This study compared the use of a DC circuit simulation, a modified simulation, static graphics, and traditional bulbs and wires to compare gains in DC circuit knowledge as measured by the DIRECT instrument, a multiple choice instrument previously developed to assess DC circuit knowledge. Gender, prior DC circuit knowledge and subsets of DC circuit knowledge of students were also compared. The population (n=166) was comprised of high school freshmen students from an eastern Kentucky public school with a population of 1100 students and followed a quantitative quasi experimental research design. Differences between treatment groups were not statistically significant. Keywords: Simulations, Static Images, Science Education, DC Circuit Instruction, Phet.

Murphy, David Shannon

407

DIAGNOSTICS FOR ION BEAM DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K{sup +} beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.

2010-01-04

408

Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experiments.  

PubMed

Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K(+) beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II. PMID:21033977

Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Lidia, S; Ni, P A

2010-10-01

409

Constraints on a long-range spin-independent interaction from precision atomic physics  

SciTech Connect

Constraints on a spin-independent interaction by the exchange of a neutral light boson are derived from precision data on the electron anomalous magnetic moment and from atomic spectroscopy of hydrogen and deuterium atoms. The mass range from 1 eV/c{sup 2} to 1 MeV/c{sup 2} is studied, and the effective coupling constant {alpha}{sup '} is allowed below the level of 10{sup -11}-10{sup -13} depending on the value of the boson mass. The mass range corresponds to the Yukawa radius from 0.0002 nm to 20 nm, which covers the distances far above and far below the Bohr radius of the hydrogen atom.

Karshenboim, S. G. [D. I. Mendeleev Institute for Metrology, St. Petersburg, 190005 (Russian Federation) and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching, 85748 (Germany)

2010-10-01

410

The EEE experiment project: status and first physics results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Extreme Energy Events Project is an experiment for the detection of Extensive Air Showers which exploits the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber technology. At the moment 40 EEE muon telescopes, distributed all over the Italian territory, are taking data, allowing the relative analysis to produce the first interesting results, which are reported here. Moreover, this Project has a strong added value thanks to its effectiveness in terms of scientific communication, which derives from the peculiar way it was planned and carried on.

Abbrescia, M.; Agocs, A.; Aiola, S.; Antolini, R.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicaló, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Frolov, V.; Garbini, M.; Gemme, G.; Gnesi, I.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; La Rocca, P.; Li, S.; Librizzi, F.; Maggiora, A.; Massai, M.; Miozzi, S.; Panareo, M.; Paoletti, R.; Perasso, L.; Pilo, F.; Piragino, G.; Regano, A.; Riggi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Romano, F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Scribano, A.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Spandre, G.; Squarcia, S.; Taiuti, M.; Toselli, F.; Votano, L.; Williams, M. C. S.; Yánez, G.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

2013-06-01

411

Fluorescence of a highly collimated atomic cesium beam: theory and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe our system for producing a dense well collimated atomic cesium beam. Our motivation for constructing this system is to perform high resolution laser induced spectroscopy. The two stage oven system consists of a nozzle and reservoir. An array of stainless steel capillary tubes forms the exit port of the nozzle. Additional collimation of the atomic beam is achieved

Vladislav Gerginov; Carol E. Tanner

2003-01-01

412

Toward the Standard Model: The Transformation of Particle Physics Experiments, 1964-1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1970s, particle physics experienced a major transformation in the way experiments were performed. At the outset fixed-target experiments employing bubble chambers as detectors dominated, and a plethora of new mesons and baryons were discovered using this approach. By the late 1970s, bubble-chamber experiments were in deep decline. The dominant form of experimentation became the collider experiment, using a

Michael Riordan

2007-01-01

413

Experiment to measure the electric dipole moment (edm) of the electron using laser-cooled Cs atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron edm de is known to be smaller in magnitude than 1.6x10-27e.cm [1]. We will describe progress on an ongoing experiment designed to be sensitive to an electron EDM de as small as 10-29e.cm. The experiment will search for the resulting edm of the Cs atom, proportional to de, using laser-cooled Cs atoms held in an optical dipole force trap. Important features of the experiment include resonant optical cavities to accurately define the trapping laser field, in-vacuum high voltage electrodes, and methods to reduce magnetic noise to low levels, including the use of a novel titanium vacuum chamber [4pt] [1] B. C. Regan et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 071805 (2002)

Ihn, Yong-Sup; Heinzen, Daniel

2010-03-01

414

Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments.  

PubMed

We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors. PMID:25173251

Dugrain, Vincent; Rosenbusch, Peter; Reichel, Jakob

2014-08-01

415

Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments  

E-print Network

We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors.

Dugrain, Vincent; Reichel, Jakob

2014-01-01

416

Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments  

E-print Network

We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors.

Vincent Dugrain; Peter Rosenbusch; Jakob Reichel

2014-06-19

417

Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors.

Dugrain, Vincent; Rosenbusch, Peter; Reichel, Jakob

2014-08-01

418

Experiments with interacting Bose and Fermi gases  

E-print Network

In the past few years, the study of trapped fermionic atoms evolved from the first cooling experiments which produced quantum degenerate samples to becoming one of the most exciting branches of current atomic physics ...

Stan, Claudiu Andrei

2005-01-01

419

Practical Experiences of Links between a Hospital Physics Department and Local Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are links between hospitals and local schools. Some aspects of the links, such as a medical physics convention, collaboration with teachers, work experience for students, and experimental projects are described. (YP)

Clayton, C. B.

1989-01-01

420

Clouds in a Glass of Beer: Simple Experiments in Atmospheric Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book has examples of many different experiments and demonstrations showing principles of atmospheric physics. Covering many subjects; such as light, color, pressure, and heat, this reference provides fun and interesting ways to keep students interested and motivated.

Bohren, Craig

2006-07-22

421

Hypernuclear physics studies of the PANDA experiment at FAIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypernuclear research will be one of the main topics addressed by the PANDA experiment at the planned Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR at Darmstadt (Germany). http://www. gsi.de, http://www.gsi.de/fair/. Thanks to the use of stored overline {p} beams, copious production of double ? hypernuclei is expected at the PANDA experiment, which will enable high precision ? spectroscopy of such nuclei for the first time, and consequently a unique chance to explore the hyperon-hyperon interaction. In particular, ambiguities of past experiments in determining the strength of the ?? interaction will be avoided thanks to the excellent energy precision of a few keV (FWHM) achieved by germanium detectors. Such a resolution capability is particularly needed to resolve the small energy spacing of the order of (10-100) keV, which is characteristic from the spin doublet in hypernuclei the so -called "hypernuclear fine structure". In comparison to previous experiments, PANDA will benefit from a novel technique to assign the various observable ?-transitions in a unique way to specific double hypernuclei by exploring various light targets. Nevertheless, the ability to carry out unique assignments requires a devoted hypernuclear detector setup. This consists of a primary nuclear target for the production of {? }-+overline {? } pairs, a secondary active target for the hypernuclei formation and the identification of associated decay products and a germanium array detector to perform ? spectroscopy. Moreover, one of the most challenging issues of this project is the fact that all detector systems need to operate in the presence of a high magnetic field and a large hadronic background. Accordingly, the need of an innovative detector concept will require dramatic improvements to fulfil these conditions and that will likely lead to a new generation of detectors. In the present talk details concerning the current status of the activities related to the detector developments for this challenging programme will be given. Among these improvements is the new concept for a cooling system for the germanium detector based on a electro-mechanical device. In the present work, the cooling efficiency of such devices has been successfully tested, showing their capability to reach liquid nitrogen temperatures and therefore the possibility to use them as a good alternative to the standard liquid nitrogen dewars. Furthermore, since the momentum resolution of low momentum particles is crucial for the unique identification of hypernuclei, an analysis procedure for improving the momentum resolution in few layer silicon based trackers is presented.

Sanchez Lorente, Alicia

2014-09-01

422

Physics of a two-dimensional electron gas with cold atoms in non-Abelian gauge potentials Indubala I. Satija,1,2  

E-print Network

Physics of a two-dimensional electron gas with cold atoms in non-Abelian gauge potentials Indubala, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030, USA 2 Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute by the possibility of creating non-Abelian fields using cold atoms in optical lattices, we explore the richness

Satija, Indu

423

arXiv:physics/0604079v321Jan2007 Magnetic trapping of buffer-gas cooled chromium atoms and prospects for the  

E-print Network

arXiv:physics/0604079v321Jan2007 Magnetic trapping of buffer-gas cooled chromium atoms (Dated: January 23, 2007) We report the successful buffer-gas cooling and magnetic trapping of chromium chromium and eu- ropium [6, 7] as well as several other atoms [8]. Apart from the above mentioned

Peters, Achim

424

Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report, FY 1989--91  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

Richard, P.

1991-08-01

425

ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Static dipole polarizabilities of Scn (n <= 15) clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The static dipole polarizabilities of scandium clusters with up to 15 atoms are determined by using the numerically finite field method in the framework of density functional theory. The electronic effects on the polarizabilities are investigated for the scandium clusters. We examine a large highest occupied molecular orbital --- the lowest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) gap of a scandium cluster

Xi-Bo Li; Hong-Yan Wang; Jiang-Shan Luo; Yun-Dong Guo; Wei-Dong Wu; Yong-Jian Tang

2009-01-01

426

The physics of coal liquid slurry atomization. Technical progress report, 1993 year  

SciTech Connect

The stability of turbulent columns of liquid injected into a quiescent environment has been studied. Turbulence decay along Newtonian jets was investigated along with the effects of turbulence on the resulting droplet size distributions after breakup. Disintegration of liquid jets injected into a high-velocity gas stream has also been studied. Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids were studied with particular emphasis on the non-Newtonian rheological characteristics. Determination was made of the extent that the addition of high molecular weight polymer to liquids changes the breakup process. Shear thinning, extension thinning and extension thickening fluids were investigated. The non-Newtonian viscosities were measured over rive decades of shear rates {gamma} for 12 solutions of polymeric materials. By using the die-swell technique, the first normal stress difference N{sub 1} was determined for all solutions. By using the contraction flow technique, the extensional viscosity levels were determined for the most viscous solutions. The near field produced by a co-axial airblast atomizer was investigated using the phase Doppler particle analyzer. The classical wave mechanism and empirical models reported for air-blast atomization of low viscosity liquid were shown to be applicable to air-blast atomization of viscous non-Newtonian liquids. The theoretical basis of several models which give the best fit to the experimental data for air-blast atomization of non-Newtonian liquids was addressed.

Not Available

1994-06-01

427

A Generalized Approach to Determination of Magnetic Shielding Factor for Physics Package of Rb Atomic Clock  

E-print Network

In this paper we report generalized approach to calculate magnetic shielding factor (MSF) of multi-layer mu metal concentric cylindrical shields for arbitrary length to radius ratios and different values of magnetic permeability. We report in this paper the generalized results on the magnetic shielding factor of multi-layered magnetic shields used in Rb atomic clocks

S. S. Raghuwanshi; G. M. Saxena

2009-10-21

428

Gender Differences in the High School and Affective Experiences of Introductory College Physics Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disparity in persistence between males and females studying physics has been a topic of concern to physics educators for decades. Overall, while female students perform as well as or better than male students, they continue to lag considerably in terms of persistence. The most significant drop in females studying physics occurs between high school and college.2 Since most female physicists report that they became attracted to physics and decided to study it further while in high school, according to the International Study of Women in Physics,3 it is problematic that high school is also the stage at which females begin to opt out at much higher rates than males. Although half of the students taking one year of physics in high school are female, females are less likely than males to take a second or Advanced Placement (AP) physics course.4 In addition, the percentage of females taking the first physics course in college usually falls between 30% and 40%. In other words, although you may see gender parity in a first high school physics course, this parity does not usually persist to the next level of physics course. In addition, even if there is parity in a high school physics course, it does not mean that males and females experience the course in the same way. It is this difference in experience that may help to explain the drop in persistence of females.

Hazari, Zahra; Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.

2008-10-01

429

Space and places: when interacting with and in physical space becomes a meaningful experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human experience of physical space and places is a complex phenomenon that includes geographical and sensorial, as well as\\u000a more social and interpersonal dimensions. We investigate theoretical insights from computing research and environmental psychology\\u000a on space and place to determine the different dimensions of the experience of physical space. Empirical results from a case\\u000a study on creative activities for environment

Laura Lentini; Françoise Decortis

2010-01-01

430

The physics of coal liquid slurry atomization. Final report to Department of Energy - PETC  

SciTech Connect

The stability of turbulent columns of liquid injected into a quiescent environment was studied. Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements of the flow patterns and turbulence characteristics in free liquid jets were made. Turbulence decay along Newtonian jets was investigated along with the effects of turbulence on the resulting droplet size distributions after breakup. The rate of decay of turbulence properties along the jet were investigated. Disintegration of liquid jets injected into a high-velocity gas stream has also been studied. Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids were studied with particular emphasis on the non-Newtonian rheological characteristics. Determination was made of the extent that the addition of high molecular weight polymer to liquids change the breakup process. Shear thinning, extension thinning and extension thickening fluids were investigated. Shear viscosities were measured over five decades of shear rates. The contraction flow technique was also used for measurement of the extensional viscosity of non-Newtonian liquids. The die-swell technique was also used to determine the first normal stress difference. The near field produced by a co-axial airblast atomizer was investigated using the phase Doppler particle analyzer. Whether or not the classical wave mechanism and empirical models reported for airblast atomization of low viscosity liquid are applicable to airblast atomization of viscous non-Newtonian liquids was determined. The theoretical basis of several models which give the best fit to the experimental data for airblast atomization of non-Newtonian liquids was also discussed. The accuracy of the wave mechanism-based models in predicting droplets sizes after breakup of viscous non-Newtonian liquids using an airblast atomizer has also been demonstrated.

Chigier, N.; Mansour, A.

1995-10-01

431

Digital Video: The Impact on Children's Learning Experiences in Primary Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology can support teaching, learning and assessment in physical education. The purpose of this study was to examine children's perspectives and experiences of using digital video in primary physical education. The impact on motivation, feedback, self-assessment and learning was examined. Twenty-three children aged 9-10 years participated…

O'Loughlin, Joe; Chroinin, Deirdre Ni; O'Grady, David

2013-01-01

432

Gender, Spatiality and Fear: Young women's experiences of outdoor physical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to explore gender, spatiality and fear relations, previously established in geography, leisure and tourism research, through young women's experiences of outdoor physical activity. The aim of this paper is threefold. Firstly it will explore what is meant by ‘safe and unsafe’, with particular focus on the environment(s) where outdoor physical activity does or could occur. Secondly, it

Lindsey Kilgour

2007-01-01

433

The Nature and Role of Thought Experiments in Solving Conceptual Physics Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the possible variations of thought experiments in terms of their nature, purpose, and reasoning resources adopted during the solution of conceptual physics problems. A phenomenographic research approach was adopted for this study. Three groups of participants with varying levels of physics knowledge--low, medium, and high…

Kösem, Sule Dönertas; Özdemir, Ömer Faruk

2014-01-01

434

Physical Restraint in Residential Childcare: The Experiences of Young People and Residential Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have long been concerns about the use of physical restraint in residential care. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study that explores the experiences of children, young people and residential workers of physical restraint. The research identifies the dilemmas and ambiguities for both staff and young people, and…

Steckley, Laura; Kendrick, Andrew

2008-01-01

435

Perceptions of Physical PunishmentThe Relation to Childhood and Adolescent Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the impact of diverse childhood and adolescent experiences on adults' perceptions of physical punishment. Subjects judged the appropriateness of scenarios in which the degree to which a child was physically punished and the degree of provocation by the child were systematically varied. The results indicated that appropriateness ratings decreased as the severity of punishment increased, and

LESLIE RISIN KELDER; J. REGIS McNAMARA; BRUCE CARLSON; STEVEN JAY LYNN

1991-01-01

436

Fifth Grade Students' Experiences Participating in Active Gaming in Physical Education: The Persistence to Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although video games are often associated with sedentary behaviors, active gaming is a new genre that requires children to become physically active while playing the games. In this study six fifth grade students' experiences participating in active gaming in eight-week physical education classes were explored. Qualitative methods of interviews,…

Hansen, Lisa; Sanders, Steve

2010-01-01

437

‘Drawing’ on disabled students’ experiences of physical education and stakeholder responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within education generally and more specifically physical education inclusion has become a central concern of legislation, policy and programming. Set within an environment where there is much talk of inclusion this paper seeks to interrogate adult stakeholders’ understandings of inclusion by exploring their responses to the drawings and commentary of young disabled students’ experiences of mainstream physical education. By engaging

Hayley Fitzgerald

2012-01-01

438

‘Drawing’ on disabled students' experiences of physical education and stakeholder responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within education generally and more specifically physical education inclusion has become a central concern of legislation, policy and programming. Set within an environment where there is much talk of inclusion this paper seeks to interrogate adult stakeholders’ understandings of inclusion by exploring their responses to the drawings and commentary of young disabled students’ experiences of mainstream physical education. By engaging

Hayley Fitzgerald

2011-01-01

439

Review Committee report on the conceptual design of the Tokamak Physics Experiment  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics on the conceptual design of the Tokamak Physics Experiment: Role and mission of TPX; overview of design; physics design assessment; engineering design assessment; evaluation of cost, schedule, and management plans; and, environment safety and health.

Not Available

1993-04-01

440

Space Physics in Greece: Experience and Future Prospects Ioannis A. Daglis, Anastasios Anastasiadis and Georgia Tsiropoula  

E-print Network

Space Physics in Greece: Experience and Future Prospects Ioannis A. Daglis, Anastasios Anastasiadis and Georgia Tsiropoula National Observatory of Athens, Institute of Ionospheric and Space Research, Penteli Engineering, Xanthi, Greece Abstract. Space Physics was born with the launch of the first artifi­ cial

Anastasiadis, Anastasios

441

EDITORIAL: The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue consists of papers that are associated with invited lectures, workshop papers and hot topic papers presented at the 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XX). This conference was organized in Novi Sad (Serbia) from 13 to 17 July 2010 by the Institute of Physics of the University of Belgrade. It is important to note that this is not a conference 'proceedings'. Following the initial selection process by the International Scientific Committee, all papers were submitted to the journal by the authors and have been fully peer reviewed to the standard required for publication in Plasma Sources Science and Technology (PSST). The papers are based on presentations given at the conference but are intended to be specialized technical papers covering all or part of the topic presented by the author during the meeting. The ESCAMPIG conference is a regular biennial Europhysics Conference of the European Physical Society focusing on collisional and radiative aspects of atomic and molecular physics in partially ionized gases as well as on plasma-surface interaction. The conference focuses on low-temperature plasma sciences in general and includes the following topics: Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function Physical basis of plasma chemistry Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) Plasma diagnostics Plasma and discharges theory and simulation Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas Low-pressure plasma sources High-pressure plasma sources Plasmas and gas flows Laser-produced plasmas During ESCAMPIG XX special sessions were dedicated to workshops on: Atomic and molecular collision data for plasma modeling, organized by Professors Z Lj Petrovic and N Mason Plasmas in medicine, organized by Dr N Puac and Professor G Fridman. The conference topics were represented in the program by 16 invited lectures, 7 selected hot topics, and 191 poster presentations. The largest number of contributed papers was submitted in Topic 5: Plasma diagnostics (37). The workshop topics were addressed by 10 invited lectures, 5 oral presentations and 7 posters. A post-conference workshop with 5 invited lectures was organized, dealing with the data needs for modeling of plasma sources of light. ESCAMPIG XX was attended by 185 scientists from 31 countries. Of the participants, 30% were PhD students (55). The list includes scientists from the USA, Japan, Australia, Mexico and other non-European countries, which indicates the truly international status of the conference. We would like to thank the authors for their efforts in preparing stimulating lectures and interesting articles for the readers of PSST, and the scientific community dealing with ionized gases, plasma sources and atomic, molecular and chemical physics of low-temperature plasmas for continued interest in the field of ESCAMPIG. We would like to thank the organizers of all previous ESCAMPIG conferences for setting the standards for organization and, in particular, the organizers of ESCAMPIG XVIII and XIX for their direct help and insight. Finally the International Scientific Committee and its chairman in particular have worked hard to select the best possible program and to keep us in line with almost 40 years of tradition and standards of the conference. Most importantly this has been the 20th conference. The quality of new papers shows maturity and new vistas in the field that has produced so much fundamental understanding of complex, non-equilibrium, even nonlinear plasmas. At the same time the field has led to some of the key technologies of modern civilization and has shown that responsible science that pays attention to its societal benefits should have no fear for its future. All critical issues studied today were presented at the meeting and only a small part is represented here. For example, discharges in liquids or above liquids were covered by several lectures represented by two pa

Petrovi?, Zoran Lj; Mari?, Dragana; Malovi?, Gordana

2011-03-01

442

Experiences with high dose radiopeptide therapy: The health physics perspective  

SciTech Connect

One of the new, promising areas of nuclear medicine involves radiolabeled low-molecular-weight peptides for the diagnosis and management of cancer. Somatostatin analogous peptides bind to membrane receptors on tumors with high specificity. These analogues, when radiolabeled with I-123, I-131, Tc-99 m, or In-111, allow for external scintigraphic imaging or radioguided surgical resection of tumors. Somatostatin analogues with high tumor binding affinity have also been used for high-dose radiotherapy at the Medical Center of Louisiana since 1994. Although we had extensive prior experience with relatively high-dose I-131 administration for thyroid ablation, our personnel protection, contamination control, and other safety techniques required significant modification to ensure effective contamination and radiation exposure control. As therapy with radiolabeled peptides becomes more widely utilized, the controls developed at our institution may be implemented by others to maintain exposures ALARA.

Espenan, G D.; Nelson, J A.; Fisher, Darrell R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Diaco, D S.; Mccarthy, K E. (Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orl); Anthony, L B.; Maloney, T J. (Iso-Tex Diagnostics, Friendswood, TX); Woltering, E A.

1998-12-01

443

Review of Nuclear Physics Experiments for Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human space flight requires protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation. The availability of measured nuclear cross section data needed for these studies is reviewed in the present paper. The energy range of interest for radiation protection is approximately 100 MeV/n to 10 GeV/n. The majority of data are for projectile fragmentation partial and total cross sections, including both charge changing and isotopic cross sections. The cross section data are organized into categories which include charge changing, elemental, isotopic for total, single and double differential with respect to momentum, energy and angle. Gaps in the data relevant to space radiation protection are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made.

Norbury, John W.; Miller, Jack; Adamczyk, Anne M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

2011-01-01

444

Options for integrated beam experiments for inertial fusion energy and high-energy density physics research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL), a collaboration among LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL, is presently focused on separate smaller-scale scientific experiments addressing key issues of future Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and High-Energy-Density-Physics (HEDP) drivers: the injection, transport, and focusing of intense heavy ion beams at currents from 25 to 600 mA. As a next major step in the HIF-VNL program, we aim for a fully integrated beam physics experiment, which allows integrated source-to-target physics research with a high-current heavy ion beam of IFE-relevant brightness with the goal of optimizing target focusing. This paper describes two rather different options for such an integrated experiment, the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). Both proposals put emphasis on the unique capability for integrated injection, acceleration, compression, and focusing of a high-current, space-charge-dominated heavy ion beam.

Leitner, M. A.; Celata, C. M.; Lee, E. P.; Logan, B. G.; Waldron, W. L.; Yu, S. S.; Barnard, J. J.

2005-05-01

445

Feasibility study of a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiments laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A feasibility and concepts study for a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiment laboratory is discussed. The primary objective was to define a set of cloud physics experiments which will benefit from the near zero-gravity environment of an orbiting spacecraft, identify merits of this environment relative to those of groundbased laboratory facilities, and identify conceptual approaches for the accomplishment of the experiments in an orbiting spacecraft. Solicitation, classification and review of cloud physics experiments for which the advantages of a near zero-gravity environment are evident are described. Identification of experiments for potential early flight opportunities is provided. Several significant accomplishments achieved during the course of this study are presented.

Hollinden, A. B.; Eaton, L. R.

1972-01-01

446

The Los Angeles Physics Teachers Alliance Group (LAPTAG) Plasma Physics Experiments 2002  

E-print Network

in this is a fiber optic based spectrometer so the plasma experiments can be expanded to study line radiation source and a turbo pump with controller) were purchased inexpensively from a financially unsuccessful

Carter, Troy

447

Modification of atomic physics rates due to nonlocal electron parallel heat transport in divertor plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of steep temperature gradients on the rate of ionization of atomic hydrogen is studied numerically with the electron kinetic code 'FPI' [Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 (1994) 1208]. A set of cross sections ['Atomic and Plasma-Material Interaction data for fusion'. Supplement to the journal Nucl. Fusion 4 (1993)] has been used which gives the same rates of radiation, ionization and recombination as in the well known edge modeling codes 'UEDGE' and 'DEGAS' for Maxwellian electron energy distribution functions. For this purpose, 30 energy levels are included in the computation, as stepwise ionization is dominant. The enhancement of the ionization rate by non-Maxwellian effects in the colder part of the plasma is significant.

Allais, F.; Matte, J. P.; Alouani-Bibi, F.; Kim, C. G.; Stotler, D. P.; Rognlien, T. D.

2005-03-01

448

Using neural networks as an event trigger in elementary particle physics experiments  

SciTech Connect

Elementary particle physics experiments often have to deal with high data rates. In order to avoid having to write out all data that is occurring online processors, triggers, are used to cull out the uninteresting data. These triggers are based on some particular aspect of the physics being examined. At times these aspects are often equivalent to simple pattern recognition problems. The reliability of artificial neural networks(ANNs) in pattern recognition problems in many fields has been well demonstrated. We present here the results of a study on the feasibility of using ANNs as an online trigger for high energy physics experiments.

Neis, E.; Starr, F.W.; Handler, T. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gabriel, T.; Glover, C.; Saini, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-02-01

449

Results from LDEF experiment A0114: The interaction of atomic oxygen with materials surfaces at orbital altitudes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1975 the University of Alabama in Huntsville proposed an experiment for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) designed to investigate the effects of the collision of the ambient orbital atmosphere, mainly consisting of atomic oxygen, with satellite surfaces travelling at about 8 km per second. In 1989, the potential for recovery of significant data from A0114 on a wide variety of materials was recognized and funding for three years of data analysis was appropriated. Some significant or unique findings from the experiment A0114 include: numerous measurements of oxidation rates of surfaces under fast O atom bombardment, including Si, Ge, GaAs, SiC, and optical quality metal films; measurement of the stable attitude of the LDEF spacecraft in orbit using the gas dynamics pinhole camera; description of the formation of thick oxide films on copper at 20 C with fast oxygen; measurement of erosion rates of Kapton and other polymers at space station lifetime atomic oxygen fluences (10(exp 22) atoms/sq cm); and measurement of the cosmogenic isotopes Be-7 on spacecraft surfaces.

Gregory, John C.

1994-01-01

450

Orbital atomic oxygen effects on materials: An overview of MSFC experiments on the STS-46 EOIM-3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The third Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials experiment was flown on Space Shuttle Mission STS-46 (July 31 - August 8, 1992), representing a joint effort of several NASA centers, universities, and contractors. This array of active instrumentation and material exposure sub-assemblies was integrated as a Shuttle cargo bay pallet experiment for investigating the effects of orbital atomic oxygen on candidate space materials. Marshall Space Flight Center contributed several passive exposure trays of material specimens, uniform stress and static stress material exposure fixtures, the Atomic Oxygen Resistance Monitor (AORM), and specimens of thermal coatings for the EOIM-3 variable exposure mechanisms. As a result of 42 hours of spacecraft velocity vector-oriented exposure during the later phases of the STS-46 mission in LEO, EOIM-3 materials were exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 2.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. In this paper, an overview is presented of the technical approaches and results from analyses of the MSFC flight specimens, fixtures, and the AORM. More detailed results from earlier EOIM missions, the LDEF, and from laboratory testing are included in associated papers of this conference session.

Linton, Roger C.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Dehaye, Robert F.; Whitaker, Ann F.

1995-01-01

451

Using Student Peer Review of Experiment Reports in an Undergraduate Physics Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A class centered on student design of experiments and peer review of the resulting reports is described. Thirteen students in an honors seminar section of an introductory physics class designed experiments to test various types of paranormal phenomena. Each experimental report was evaluated and ranked by several other students. To give them…

Moran, Timothy; Van Hook, Stephen J.

2006-01-01

452

Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Beta-Carotene and Lycopene: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the theory of resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy as it applies to beta-carotene and lycopene pigments (found in tomatoes and carrots, respectively). Also discusses an experiment which demonstrates the theoretical principles involved. The experiment has been tested over a three-year period and has received excellent acceptance by physical

Hoskins, L. C.

1984-01-01

453

Lysozyme Thermal Denaturation and Self-Interaction: Four Integrated Thermodynamic Experiments for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an effort to infuse our physical chemistry laboratory with biologically relevant, investigative experiments, we detail four integrated thermodynamic experiments that characterize the denaturation (or unfolding) and self-interaction of hen egg white lysozyme as a function of pH and ionic strength. Students first use Protein Explorer to…

Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Schaefle, Nathaniel J.; Muth, Gregory W.; Miessler, Gary L.; Clark, Christopher A.

2008-01-01

454

Practical Ways Psychotherapy Can Support Physical Healthcare Experiences for Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many survivors of child sexual abuse who engage in psychotherapy also experience physical health problems. This article summarizes the findings of a multiphased qualitative study about survivors' experiences in healthcare settings. The study informed the development of the "Handbook on Sensitive Practice for Health Care Practitioners: Lessons from…

Hovey, Angela; Stalker, Carol A.; Schachter, Candice L.; Teram, Eli; Lasiuk, Gerri

2011-01-01

455

Terascale Physics Opportunities at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG  

E-print Network

This article presents the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering on Glass). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain over an order of magnitude higher statistics than presently available for the purely weak processes $\

T. Adams; P. Batra; L. Bugel; L. Camilleri; J. M. Conrad; A. de Gouvea; P. H. Fisher; J. A. Formaggio; J. Jenkins; G. Karagiorgi; T. R. Kobilarcik; S. Kopp; G. Kyle; W. A. Loinaz; D. A. Mason; R. Milner; R. Moore; J. G. Morfin; M. Nakamura; D. Naples; P. Nienaber; F. I Olness; J. F. Owens; S. F. Pate; A. Pronin; W. G. Seligman; M. H. Shaevitz; H. Schellman; I. Schienbein; M. J. Syphers; T. M. P. Tait; T. Takeuchi; C. Y. Tan; R. G. Van de Water; R. K. Yamamoto; J. Y. Yu

2008-03-04

456

Rich Experiences, Physical Activity Create Healthy Brains: An Interview with Developmental Psychologist William Greenough. Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this interview, Council member William Greenough discusses the need for rich, complex experiences combined with physical activity in early childhood to help build a strong foundation for learning. He explains how rich, complex experiences are necessary for the development of sound brain architecture, particularly during early childhood, but…

Ray, Marcy, Ed.

2006-01-01

457

Nuclear engineering laboratory self regulated power oscillation experiments at the Health Physics Research Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self regulated power oscillation experiments with a variety of initial conditions have been performed with the ORNL Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) by undergraduate nuclear engineering students from The University of Tennessee for several years. These experiments demonstrate the coupling between reactor kinetics and heat transfer and show how the temperature coefficient of reactivity affects reactor behavior. A model that

L. F. Miller; J. T. Mihalczo; E. G. Bailiff; N. D. Woody; G. D. Gardner

1983-01-01

458

Effects of Experimenting with Physical and Virtual Manipulatives on Students' Conceptual Understanding in Heat and Temperature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate the comparative value of experimenting with physical manipulatives (PM) in a sequential combination with virtual manipulatives (VM), with the use of PM preceding the use of VM, and of experimenting with PM alone, with respect to changes in students' conceptual understanding in the domain of heat and temperature. A…

Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Olympiou, Georgios; Papaevripidou, Marios

2008-01-01

459

Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

Gorelenkov, Nikolai N [PPPL

2013-06-01

460

Experiment and theory in particle physics: Reflections on the discovery of the tau lepton  

SciTech Connect

This article is thoughts from the author on particle physics work from his perspective. It is not a summary of his work on the tau lepton, but rather a look at what makes good science, experimental and theoretical, from his experiences in the field. The section titles give a good summary on the topics the author chooses to touch upon. They are: the state of elementary particle physics; getting good ideas in experimental science; a difficult field; experiments and experimenting; 10% of the money and 30% of the time; the dictatorship of theory; technological dreams; last words.

Perl, M.L.

1996-08-01

461

Active experiments using rocket-borne shaped charge barium releases. [solar-terrestrial magnetospheric physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reliable payload system and scaled down shaped charges were developed for carrying out experiments in solar-terrestrial magnetospheric physics. Four Nike-Tomahawk flights with apogees near 450 km were conducted to investigate magnetospheric electric fields, and two Taurus-Tomahawk rockets were flown in experiments on the auroral acceleration process in discrete auroras. In addition, a radial shaped charge was designed for plasma perturbation experiments.

Wescott, E. M.; Davis, T. N.

1980-01-01

462

Implementing Open-ended Project-Based Instruction in Experiment of University Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the increasing social demands for senior application-oriented talents, the corresponding training and education seems to be lagging far behind. Drawing on the experience of German project instruction, and our experiences in the mode of open-ended project-based instruction, we propose to implement the open-ended project-based instruction mode into experiment of university physics. Its content, characteristics, significance, as well as practical

Gang Cen; Bijun Xu; JunYan Luo

2010-01-01

463

Professional tools and a personal touch – experiences of physical therapy of persons with migraine  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim was to explore the lived experience of physical therapy of persons with migraine. Method: Data were collected by conducting narrative interviews with 11 persons with migraine. Inspired by van Manen, a hermeneutic phenomenological method was used to analyse the experiences of physical therapy which these persons had. Results: Physical therapy for persons with migraine meant making an effort in terms of time and energy to improve their health by meeting a person who was utilising his or her knowledge and skill to help. Being respected and treated as an individual and having confidence in the physical therapist were highlighted aspects. The analysis revealed a main theme, “meeting a physical therapist with professional tools and a personal touch”. The main theme included four sub-themes, “investing time and energy to feel better”, “relying on the competence of the physical therapist”, “wanting to be treated and to become involved as an individual” and “being respected in a trustful relationship”. Conclusions: The therapeutic relationship with the physical therapist is important and the findings of this study can increase awareness about relational aspects of physical therapy and encourage thoughtfulness among physical therapists and other healthcare professionals interacting with persons with migraine. PMID:23311671

Kostenius, Catrine; Ohrling, Kerstin

2013-01-01

464

Childhood parenting experiences, intimate partner conflict resolution, and adult risk for child physical abuse.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between conflict resolution tactics experienced during childhood, intimate partner conflict resolution tactics, alcohol problems and adult child physical abuse risk. Participants were 1,544 Navy recruit trainees who volunteered to complete measures of parenting practices and spousal physical violence experienced during their childhood, the conflict resolution techniques used in their intimate relationships, their personal history of alcohol problems, and child physical abuse potential. Regression analyses indicated that the receipt of intimate partner physical violence accounted for the most variance in predicting who would inflict physical violence against an intimate partner; and the infliction of intimate physical violence accounted for the most variance in predicting who would receive physical violence from an intimate partner. Other analyses indicated that among the parent and intimate partner physically violent events, parent-child violence during childhood accounted for the most variance in explaining child abuse risk in females and males, with the infliction of intimate partner violence adding only to the prediction of child abuse risk in females. Analyses also revealed that after the effects of violent experiences were removed, alcohol problems contributed significantly, albeit very modestly, to the prediction of who expressed intimate partner physical violence for males and females, who was physically injured by an intimate partner (in the case of male injury), and who was at risk of child physical abuse for males and females. PMID:8958455

Merrill, L L; Hervig, L K; Milner, J S

1996-11-01

465

A Space Experiment to Measure the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers and Demonstrate a Technique to Identify Sources of Silicone Contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low Earth orbital space experiment entitled, "Polymers Erosion And Contamination Experiment", (PEACE) has been designed as a Get-Away Special (GAS Can) experiment to be accommodated as a Shuttle in-bay environmental exposure experiment. The first objective is to measure the atomic oxygen erosion yields of approximately 40 different polymeric materials by mass loss and erosion measurements using atomic force microscopy. The second objective is to evaluate the capability of identifying sources of silicone contamination through the use of a pin-hole contamination camera which utilizes environmental atomic oxygen to produce a contaminant source image on an optical substrate.

Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Baney-Barton, Elyse; Sechkar, Edward A.; Hunt, Patricia K.; Willoughby, Alan; Bemer, Meagan; Hope, Stephanie; Koo, Julie; Kaminski, Carolyn; Youngstrom, Erica

1999-01-01

466

Toward the Standard Model: The Transformation of Particle Physics Experiments, 1964-1979  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1970s, particle physics experienced a major transformation in the way experiments were performed. At the outset fixed-target experiments employing bubble chambers as detectors dominated, and a plethora of new mesons and baryons were discovered using this approach. By the late 1970s, bubble-chamber experiments were in deep decline. The dominant form of experimentation became the collider experiment, using a large electronic detector encompassing most of the solid angle surrounding the point of collision between two particle beams. Collider experiments soon began to involve hundreds of physicists and were especially well suited to examining phenomena at the level of leptons, quarks and gauge bosons --- the fundamental elements of the emerging Standard Model of particle physics. I will discuss how this subtle but important transformation in particle physics occurred, focusing on three pivotal experiments involved in the discovery of quarks: the MIT-SLAC deep-inelastic electron-scattering experiment on the SLAC linac; the CERN-Columbia-Rochester proton-proton scattering experiment on the CERN ISR; and the SLAC-LBL electron-positron scattering experiment on the SPEAR collider.

Riordan, Michael

2007-04-01

467

The application of atomic physics within impurity diagnostics for fusion plasmas  

SciTech Connect

With the focus of ITER on the transport and emission properties of tungsten, generating atomic data for complex species has received much interest. Focusing on impurity influx diagnostics, we discuss recent work on heavy species. Perturbative approaches do not work well for near neutral systems so non-perturbative data are required, presenting a particular challenge for these influx diagnostics. Recent results on Mo{sup +} are given as an illustration of how the diagnostic applications can guide the theoretical calculations for such systems.

Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.; Pindzola, M. S. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Griffin, D. C. [Rollins College, Winter Park, FL 32789 (United States)

2013-04-19

468

Atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation mission total exposures for LDEF experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atomic oxygen and solar radiation exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the LDEF. Calculated atomic oxygen exposures are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation. Results also incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the six year flight of the spacecraft. Solar radiation exposure calculations are based on the form factors reported in the Solar Illumination Data Package prepared by NASA Langley. The earth albedo value for these calculations was based on the Nimbus 7 earth radiation data set. Summary charts for both atomic oxygen and solar radiation exposure are presented to facilitate the use of the data generated by LDEF experimenters.

Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Rousslang, Ken W.

1992-01-01

469

Observation of the Anderson metal-insulator transition with atomic matter waves: Theory and experiment  

SciTech Connect

Using a cold atomic gas exposed to laser pulses - a realization of the chaotic quasiperiodic kicked rotor with three incommensurate frequencies - we study experimentally and theoretically the Anderson metal-insulator transition in three dimensions. Sensitive measurements of the atomic wave function and the use of finite-size scaling techniques make it possible to unambiguously demonstrate the existence of a quantum phase transition and to measure its critical exponents. By taking proper account of systematic corrections to one-parameter scaling, we show the universality of the critical exponent {nu}=1.59{+-}0.01, which is found to be equal to the one previously computed for the Anderson model.

Lemarie, Gabriel; Delande, Dominique [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Paris 6, ENS, CNRS, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Chabe, Julien; Szriftgiser, Pascal; Garreau, Jean Claude [Laboratoire PhLAM, , Universite de Lille 1, CNRS, CERLA, F-59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France); Gremaud, Benoit [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Paris 6, ENS, CNRS, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

2009-10-15

470

Observation of the Anderson Metal-Insulator Transition with Atomic Matter Waves: Theory and Experiment  

E-print Network

Using a cold atomic gas exposed to laser pulses -- a realization of the chaotic quasiperiodic kicked rotor with three incommensurate frequencies -- we study experimentally and theoretically the Anderson metal-insulator transition in three dimensions. Sensitive measurements of the atomic wavefunction and the use of finite-size scaling techniques make it possible to unambiguously demonstrate the existence of a quantum phase transition and to measure its critical exponents. By taking proper account of systematic corrections to one-parameter scaling, we show the universality of the critical exponent $\

Gabriel Lemarié; Julien Chabé; Pascal Szriftgiser; Jean-Claude Garreau; Benoît Grémaud; Dominique Delande

2009-07-20

</