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1

Atomic physics experiments with trapped and cooled highly charged ions  

E-print Network

Trapping and cooling techniques have become very important for many fundamental experiments in atomic physics. When applied to highly charged ions confined in Penning traps, these procedures are very effective for testing quantum electrodynamics in extreme electromagnetic fields produced by heavy highly charged ions such as uranium U$^{91+}$. In addition, fundamental constants or nuclear ground state properties can be determined with high accuracy in these simple systems. Finally, by studying a single trapped radioactive ion, its nuclear decay can be studied in detail by observing the disappearance of the signal of the mother and the appearance of that of the daughter isotope. Such experiments on highly charged ions at extremely low energy will become possible by the HITRAP facility which is currently being built up at GSI. Also the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will be briefly described which is expected to be operational by 2014.

H. -J. Kluge; W. Quint; D. F. A. Winters

2007-04-26

2

Atomic Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection provides a basic introduction to Atomic Physics. It reviews the building blocks of atomic structure, explores atomic isotopes, explains Einstein's famous equation E = mc2, and introduces the various types of radiation.

Christopher Griffith

3

Versatile single-chip event sequencer for atomic physics experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very inexpensive dsPIC microcontroller with internal 32-bit counters is used to produce a flexible timing signal generator with up to 16 TTL-compatible digital outputs, with a time resolution and accuracy of 50 ns. This time resolution is easily sufficient for event sequencing in typical experiments involving cold atoms or laser spectroscopy. This single-chip device is capable of triggered operation and can also function as a sweeping delay generator. With one additional chip it can also concurrently produce accurately timed analog ramps, and another one-chip addition allows real-time control from an external computer. Compared to an FPGA-based digital pattern generator, this design is slower but simpler and more flexible, and it can be reprogrammed using ordinary `C' code without special knowledge. I will also describe the use of the same microcontroller with additional hardware to implement a digital lock-in amplifier and PID controller for laser locking, including a simple graphics-based control unit. This work is supported in part by the NSF.

Eyler, Edward

2010-03-01

4

A distributed, graphical user interface based, computer control system for atomic physics experiments.  

PubMed

Atomic physics experiments often require a complex sequence of precisely timed computer controlled events. This paper describes a distributed graphical user interface-based control system designed with such experiments in mind, which makes use of off-the-shelf output hardware from National Instruments. The software makes use of a client-server separation between a user interface for sequence design and a set of output hardware servers. Output hardware servers are designed to use standard National Instruments output cards, but the client-server nature should allow this to be extended to other output hardware. Output sequences running on multiple servers and output cards can be synchronized using a shared clock. By using a field programmable gate array-generated variable frequency clock, redundant buffers can be dramatically shortened, and a time resolution of 100 ns achieved over effectively arbitrary sequence lengths. PMID:23387693

Keshet, Aviv; Ketterle, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

5

Atomic and Relativistic Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Course Description: This course is a basic study of modern physics in the areas of 7. relativity and quantum mechanics as applied to a wide range of phenomena. The fundamental ideas of atomic structure and quantization will be explored within the context of isolated systems; these ideas include Dalton's Law, Boyle's Law, Newton's Laws, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, de Broglie Waves,

Keith Andrew; R. P. Feynman

6

Theoretical atomic collision physics  

SciTech Connect

The theoretical atomic physics at Rice University focuses on obtaining a better understanding of the mechanisms that control inelastic collisions between excited atoms and atoms, molecules and ions. Particular attention is given to systems and processes that are of potential importance to advanced energy technologies. In the current year, significant progress has been made in quantitative studies of: quenching of low-Rydberg Na atoms in thermal energy collisions with He, Ne and Ar atoms; selective excitation resulting from charge transfer in collisions of highly stripped ions of He, Li, C, and with Li, Na and He atoms and H{sub 2} molecules at keV energies; differential elastic and single, and double electron transfer in He{sup ++} collisions with He at keV energies; inelastic electron-transfer in ultra-low-energy-energy (T=8 to 80K) collisions between {sup 3}He{sup +} and {sup 4}He and {sup 4}He{sup +} and {sup 3}He; a formalism for ionization by electron impact of ions in dense, high temperature plasmas.

Lane, N.F. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA) Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Quantum Inst.)

1990-01-01

7

Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular and optical physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The volume presents a program of research initiatives in atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The current state of atomic, molecular, and optical physics in the US is examined with respect to demographics, education patterns, applications, and the US economy. Recommendations are made for each field, with discussions of their histories and the relevance of the research to government agencies. The section on atomic physics includes atomic theory, structure, and dynamics; accelerator-based atomic physics; and large facilities. The section on molecular physics includes spectroscopy, scattering theory and experiment, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The section on optical physics discusses lasers, laser spectroscopy, and quantum optics and coherence. A section elucidates interfaces between the three fields and astrophysics, condensed matter physics, surface science, plasma physics, atmospheric physics, and nuclear physics. Another section shows applications of the three fields in ultra-precise measurements, fusion, national security, materials, medicine, and other topics.

1986-01-01

8

A distributed, graphical user interface based, computer control system for atomic physics experiments  

E-print Network

-based control system de- signed with such experiments in mind, which makes use of off-the-shelf output hardware and degenerate gasses are destructive, so data are acquired by re- peated "shots" in which a sample is prepared and then probed. A single shot in such experiments takes 10­60 s to acquire, and requires several hundred

9

Contemporary Aspects of Atomic Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The approach generally used in writing undergraduate textbooks on Atomic and Nuclear Physics presents this branch as historical in nature. Describes the concepts of astrophysics, plasma physics and spectroscopy as contemporary and intriguing for modern scientists. (PS)

Knott, R. G. A.

1972-01-01

10

Informational experiments with microparticles and atoms  

E-print Network

Accepting information as a physical category and ascribing to inanimate matter some spirit (consciousness, intelligence) allows to explain quantum-mechanical phenomena, including delayed-choice and EPR-Bohm-Bell experiments, as well as irreversibility of time, remaining on the basis of local realism, and suggest essentially new experiments with microparticles and atoms in which information plays the principal role.

Raoul Nakhmanson

2005-09-07

11

Theoretical atomic collision physics  

SciTech Connect

The current focus of the research is low-energy (collision v<atom (including Rydberg atom) collisions with atoms, molecules and positive and negative ions: (1) We are interested in the dependence of various differential and total cross sections on the angular momentum of the initial excited state and on the alignment of the initial electron charge distribution (for non-spherical initially excited states). (2) We wish to understand how characteristics of the classical trajectories (in CTMC calculations), e.g. multiple encounters, quasi-periodicity, chaos, relate to characteristics of the probability (scattering) amplitudes obtained from semiclassical (quantum mechanical) treatments. (3) In particular, in order to investigate a range of interaction regimes,'' we have proposed to study low-Rydberg-atom collisions with: ions and polar molecules (long range interaction); non-polar molecules and atoms (short-range interaction); as well as electron-attaching atoms/molecules (transient electron capture possible). (4) We plan to look for observable signatures of possibly novel intracollisional interference effects and quasi-vibrational resonance effects that may occur in low-Rydberg collisions.

Lane, N.F.

1992-03-09

12

INFORMATIONAL EXPERIMENTS WITH MICROPARTICLES AND ATOMS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accepting information as a physical category and ascribing to inanimate matter some spirit (consciousness, intelligence) allows to explain quantum- mechanical phenomena, including delayed-choice and EPR-Bohm-Bell experiments, as well as irreversibility of time, remaining on the basis of local realism, and suggest essentially new experiments with microparticles and atoms in which information plays the principal role. Historically formed physics is only

Raoul Nakhmanson

13

EDITORIAL: High precision atomic physics High precision atomic physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate atomic collision and structure data are an essential ingredient for a wide range of research fields as well as for major technological applications. Areas from laboratory physics to quantum processing, from plasma research applications in nuclear fusion to lighting research, as well as astrophysics and cosmology, depend critically on such data. But many data still exhibit inconsistencies and inaccuracies, so that significant efforts are continuing to improve the data quality. Additionally, a substantial body of much-needed data is absent from the published literature and from databases. Appreciable progress is being made, aided by greatly improved, or even entirely new, laboratory equipment and by vastly expanded computer power, which has made possible the development of greatly refined atomic structure codes. Thus in recent years, atomic data have not only become more accurate, but the body of data has also greatly increased, highly ionized species and complex heavy atoms have been addressed, fully relativistic treatments have been developed, and new energy and frequency ranges have been explored. This special issue focuses on many of these new sophisticated theoretical and experimental approaches that have made high precision atomic physics a reality. On the experimental side, several contributions cover the area of highly charged ions, where accurate measurements have become possible mainly due to the availability of electron beam ion traps (EBITs) and the utilization of storage rings. Studies of QED effects in Li-like ions, determinations of atomic lifetimes and precision wavelength measurements of highly charged ions are discussed. Furthermore, two contributions illustrate the extremely high precision of spectroscopic measurements for heavy ions and atoms, and two fundamental investigations address a new search for the electric dipole moment of the electron and measurements of the anapole moment in Fr and Rb. On the theoretical side, the contributions demonstrate that new, expanded and refined atomic structure and electron-impact collision codes are successfully applied to complex atomic systems, such as highly charged ions and heavy atoms, using increasingly full relativistic treatments.

Hibbert, Alan; Johnson, Walter; Wiese, Wolfgang

2010-04-01

14

Some Experiments in Atomic Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of spectral color slides in laboratory situations is discussed, then experiments for secondary school students concerning color and wave length, evidence of quantization, and the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom are outlined. Teaching guidelines for creating a set of spectrograms and photographic specifications are provided. (DT)

Logan, Kent R.

1974-01-01

15

The ATHENA Experiment - Production of Antihydrogen Atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antihydrogen is of fundamental interest as a test bed for fundamental symmetries such as CPT invariance. As hydrogen is arguably the most well understood quantum mechanical system in physics, it is natural to consider precision comparisons of the properties of hydrogen and antihydrogen. Any discrepancy, for example, in the spectra of the two systems would be an indication of physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of fundamental particles. In order to perform precision spectroscopy on antihydrogen atoms, it is desirable to produce them at very low energy - ideally at sub-kelvin temperatures - so that they can be magnetically trapped. In 2002 two groups working at CERN, the ATHENA collaboration [1] and the ATRAP collaboration [2], succeeded in merging cryogenic positron and antiproton plasmas to produce ``cold'' antihydrogen atoms. This marked the first time that stable, neutral, low-energy antimatter had been created in the laboratory. In the ATHENA experiment, neutral anti-atoms are detected by allowing them to annihilate and observing the annihilation products of the positron and antiproton in spatial and temporal coincidence. Since the initial success, millions of anti-atoms have been produced at peak rates of several hundred Hz. The formation processes have been studied and optimized. In this talk, the ATHENA experiment and the prospects for future physics with neutral, atomic antimatter will be described. In particular, the plasma aspects of the experiment, such as the creation and merging of cold positron and antiproton plasmas, will be discussed and outstanding problems for future work highlighted. The outlook for laser interactions with the anti-atoms and precision laser spectroscopy will also be discussed. [1] M. Amoretti et al., Nature 419, 456 (2002). [2] G. Gabrielse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213401 (2002).

Hangst, Jeffrey S.

2004-11-01

16

Physics Teaching Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we saw in the January 2011 column, less than half of the teachers who teach high school physics have a degree in physics or physics education. However, this does not necessarily imply that the teachers are not qualified to teach physics. It is likely that some of the non-degreed physics teachers began teaching physics at the request of a principal or science department leader and liked it enough to seek additional training that did not lead to a formal degree. For example, some teachers have told us about NSF-funded summer programs that they attended that dramatically affected the way they teach physics. Furthermore, the teachers learn from experience. About two-thirds of physics teachers have taught physics for as many or more years than they have taught any other subject. The figure shows the relationship between a teacher's physics teaching experience and the type of physics degree they hold. In the April issue of The Physics Teacher, we will highlight demographics of high school physics teachers. If you have any questions or comments, please contact Susan White at swhite@aip.org. Susan is Research Manager in the Statistical Research Center at the American Institute of Physics and directs the high school survey.

2011-03-01

17

TOPICS IN ATOMIC PHYSICS C. E. Burkhardt  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 The Bohr model of the atomTOPICS IN ATOMIC PHYSICS C. E. Burkhardt Department of Physics St. Louis Community College St.................................................................................................. 2 1.3 Numerical values and the fine structure constant

Leventhal, Jacob J.

18

Optical Spectroscopy of Hydrogenic Atoms MIT Department of Physics  

E-print Network

Optical Spectroscopy of Hydrogenic Atoms MIT Department of Physics (Dated: September 1, 2013) This experiment is an exercise in optical spectroscopy in a study of the spectra of "hydrogenic" atoms, i.e. atoms with one "optical" electron outside a closed shell of other electrons. Measurements include finding

Seager, Sara

19

Online Physics Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Colorado State University's Hands-On Science Outreach Program, Little Shop of Physics, contains several dozen online experiments that can be done at home, in the classroom, or directly on a computer. The Amazing Physics section offers directions on completing the classic imploding pop can experiment and other experiments using common household items. The other two sections, Computer Stuff and Shockwave Stuff, allows users to try interactive activities like the headshrinker experiment. After staring at the animation of moving circles for a minute and then looking at a friend's head, it strangely appears to be shrinking. Each detailed experiment provides clear and straightforward directions as well as an explanation of what is actually happening, making this site an excellent resource for teachers and parents in helping kids understand physics.

1998-01-01

20

Experiments in Ice Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)

Martin, P. F.; And Others

1978-01-01

21

Project Physics Tests 5, Models of the Atom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test items relating to Project Physics Unit 5 are presented in this booklet. Included are 70 multiple-choice and 23 problem-and-essay questions. Concepts of atomic model are examined on aspects of relativistic corrections, electron emission, photoelectric effects, Compton effect, quantum theories, electrolysis experiments, atomic number and mass,…

Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

22

Atomic physics of relativistic high contrast laser-produced plasmas in experiments on Leopard laser facility at UNR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the recent experiments focused on study of x-ray radiation from multicharged plasmas irradiated by relativistic (I > 1019 W/cm2) sub-ps laser pulses on Leopard laser facility at NTF/UNR are presented. These shots were done under different experimental conditions related to laser pulse and contrast. In particular, the duration of the laser pulse was 350 fs or 0.8 ns and the contrast was varied from high (10-7) to moderate (10-5). The thin laser targets (from 4 to 750 ?m) made of a broad range of materials (from Teflon to iron and molybden to tungsten and gold) were utilized. Using the x-ray diagnostics including the high-precision spectrometer with resolution R ˜ 3000 and a survey spectrometer, we have observed unique spectral features that are illustrated in this paper. Specifically, the observed L-shell spectra for Fe targets subject to high intensity lasers (˜1019 W/cm2) indicate electron beams, while at lower intensities (˜1016 W/cm2) or for Cu targets there is much less evidence for an electron beam. In addition, K-shell Mg features with dielectronic satellites from high-Rydberg states, and the new K-shell F features with dielectronic satellites including exotic transitions from hollow ions are highlighted.

Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Faenov, A. Y.; Safronova, U. I.; Wiewior, P.; Renard-Le Galloudec, N.; Esaulov, A. A.; Weller, M. E.; Stafford, A.; Wilcox, P.; Shrestha, I.; Ouart, N. D.; Shlyaptseva, V.; Osborne, G. C.; Chalyy, O.; Paudel, Y.

2012-06-01

23

Relativistic atomic physics at the SSC  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following proposed work for relativistic atomic physics at the Superconducting Super Collider: Beam diagnostics; atomic physics research; staffing; education; budget information; statement concerning matching funds; description and justification of major items of equipment; statement of current and pending support; and assurance of compliance.

NONE

1990-12-31

24

Experiments in Physics Physics 1291  

E-print Network

and Conservation of Energy 97 1-9 Standing Waves 105 1-10 Specific Heat and Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 115 #12 wave and particle properties (physical optics), will be treated in lecture during the second semester

Columbia University

25

Experiments in Physics Physics 1291  

E-print Network

-8 Projectile Motion and Conservation of Energy 97 1-9 Standing Waves 105 1-10 Specific Heat and Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 115 #12;#12;Introduction 1-0 General Instructions 1 Purpose of the Laboratory nature of light, with its dual wave and particle properties (physical optics), will be treated in lecture

Columbia University

26

Crucial Experiments in Quantum Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The six experiments included in this monography are titled Blackbody Radiation, Collision of Electrons with Atoms, The Photoelectric Effect, Magnetic Properties of Atoms, The Scattering of X-Rays, and Diffraction of Electrons by a Crystal Lattice. The discussion provides historical background by giving description of the original experiments and…

Trigg, George L.

27

Superconducting microwave resonators for physics experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconducting resonators at K-band frequencies have been developed for different applications in general physics. Niobium pillbox cavities have been built for the one-atom maser experiment by which the interaction of Rydberg atoms with single microwave photons has been investigated. At 21.5 GHz and 1.3 K, quality factors of up to 10 to the 11th were obtained. Coating of the cavity

N. Klein; G. Mueller; H. Piel; J. Schurr

1989-01-01

28

Experiments in Physics Physics 1291  

E-print Network

of Momentum 53 1-6 Torque and Rotational Inertia 63 1-7 Centripetal Force and Angular Momentum Conservation 73. Most of the experiments are designed to illustrate important concepts described in the lectures of the laboratory material in medical and other applications. The Lab Preparation Examples are designed to help you

Columbia University

29

High School Physics Teaching Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We divided our high school physics teaching experience into three groups: first year teaching physics, second or third year teaching physics, and four or more years of experience teaching physics. We did this because everything is new for teachers teaching a course for the first time. The second and third time through the course, teachers learn…

Physics Teacher, 2012

2012-01-01

30

B Physics (Experiment)  

E-print Network

In past few years the flavor physics made important transition from the work on confirmation the standard model of particle physics to the phase of search for effects of a new physics beyond standard model. In this paper we review current state of the physics of b-hadrons with emphasis on results with a sensitivity to new physics.

Michal Kreps

2010-08-13

31

ELECTRONIC SPUTTERING: FROM ATOMIC PHYSICS  

E-print Network

of Europa. This figure is a composite of a photo of Jupiter and a false-color image of a piece of the torus molecules from surfaces probes the response of condensed matter to electronic excitations and has. Conventional sputtering is the ejection of atoms from a solid surface as a result of direct momentum transfer

Johnson, Robert E.

32

Effective operators in atomic physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation effect of inter-electronic interactions between atomic configurations can be reproduced by effective orthogonal operators acting within a single configuration of interest. These operators which act on N electrons at a time can be resolved through the use of continuous Lie groups. This thesis details the development of these effective operators for a number of configurations. Complete sets of

1989-01-01

33

Effective Operators in Atomic Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation effects of inter-electronic interactions between atomic configurations can be reproduced by effective orthogonal operators acting within a single configuration of interest. These operators which act on N electrons at a time can be resolved through the use of continuous Lie groups. This thesis details the development of these effective operators for a number of configurations. Complete sets of

Richard Carlson Leavitt

1989-01-01

34

Atomic Physics, Science (Experimental): 5318.42.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the study of modern and classical concepts of the atom; the structure of the atom as a mass-energy relationship; practical uses of radioactivity; isotopes; and the strange particles. Performance objectives (16) are included as well as a detailed course outline. Experiments, demonstrations, projects and reports to enhance student…

Petit, Ralph E.

35

Department of Nuclear and Atomic PhysicsDepartment of Nuclear and Atomic Physics Welcome to the Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics! Our department  

E-print Network

Department of Nuclear and Atomic PhysicsDepartment of Nuclear and Atomic Physics Welcome to the Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics! Our department boasts of a vast and diverse canvas of experimental collisions, molecular dynamics, intense lightmatter interactions, physics, y , g , p y biology interfaces

Shyamasundar, R.K.

36

VOLUME 6S, NUMBER 13 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Very Cold Trapped Atoms in a Vapor Cell  

E-print Network

VOLUME 6S, NUMBER 13 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Very Cold Trapped Atoms in a Vapor Cell 24 SEPTEMBER sample of spin-polarized trapped atoms. The technique used dramati- cally simplifies the production of laser-cooled atoms. In this experiment, 1.8x10' neutral cesium atoms were optically captured directly

Monroe, Christopher

37

Future directions in kaonic atom physics  

E-print Network

Recent progress and open problems in kaonic atom physics are presented. A connection between phenomenological deep potentials and the underlying $K^-N$ interaction is established as well as the need for a theory for multinucleon absorption of kaons. $K^-$ absorption at rest to specific $\\Lambda $ hypernuclei states is briefly discussed.

E. Friedman

2011-11-30

38

Planning a School Physics Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model for planning the measurement of physical quantities. Provides two examples of optimizing the conditions of indirect measurement for laboratory experiments which involve measurements of acceleration due to gravity and of viscosity by means of Stokes' formula. (ML)

Blasiak, Wladyslaw

1986-01-01

39

Computational Atomic Structure and Search for New Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overarching goal of this dissertation is to examine constraints on extensions to the Standard Model (SM) through atomic-structure computations. More specifically, atomic parity-nonconserving (PNC) amplitudes and intrinsic electric dipole moments (EDM) are examined for sources of physics beyond the SM. Precision calculations of these properties in the trivalent thallium atom, will help set new constraints on searches beyond the SM. To this end, the first half of the dissertation is devoted to improving atomic structure calculations. In particular, we numerically investigate the effectiveness of two convergence methods for coupled-cluster (CC) method. Further we explore the feasibility of transferring high-precision CC methods, developed for monovalent atoms, to trivalent systems. Here we showcase calculations of various properties of the trivalent atomic boron as a prototype for future precision computations for thallium. In the second half of the dissertation, we consider "dark force" extensions to the SM. We introduce "dark forces" by considering the parity-odd as well as simultaneous parity-and time-reversal-violating interactions between atomic electrons and nucleons. Here we hypothesize the exchange of a "dark sector" light gauge-boson particle between atomic electrons and nucleons, as the source of the "dark force". Furthermore, using the latest experimental upper limits on mercury EDM and error bars on the cesium PNC experiments, we place constraints on the coupling strengths of such "dark forces" with ordinary matter.

Gharibnejad, Heman

40

More Homespun Experiments in Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how some experiments in physics can be presented in class using cheap materials. How to produce an electrostatic charge using a polythene bottle and how to make a tissue paper electroscope using a tin can are among the experiments described. (HM)

Siddons, J. C.

1979-01-01

41

Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment.  

PubMed

Two-particle interference is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics, and is even less intuitive than wave-particle duality for a single particle. In this duality, classical concepts--wave or particle--are still referred to, and interference happens in ordinary space-time. On the other hand, two-particle interference takes place in a mathematical space that has no classical counterpart. Entanglement lies at the heart of this interference, as it does in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics involving the violation of Bell's inequalities. The Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment is a conceptually simpler situation, in which the interference between two-photon amplitudes also leads to behaviour impossible to describe using a simple classical model. Here we report the realization of the Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment using atoms instead of photons. We create a source that emits pairs of atoms, and cause one atom of each pair to enter one of the two input channels of a beam-splitter, and the other atom to enter the other input channel. When the atoms are spatially overlapped so that the two inputs are indistinguishable, the atoms always emerge together in one of the output channels. This result opens the way to testing Bell's inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics, and to testing theories of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our work also demonstrates a new way to benchmark non-classical atom sources that may be of interest for quantum information processing and quantum simulation. PMID:25832404

Lopes, R; Imanaliev, A; Aspect, A; Cheneau, M; Boiron, D; Westbrook, C I

2015-04-01

42

Solar Neutrino Experiments: New Physics?  

E-print Network

Physics beyond the simplest version of the standard electroweak model is required to reconcile the results of the chlorine and the Kamiokande solar neutrino experiments. None of the 1000 solar models in a full Monte Carlo simulation is consistent with the results of the chlorine or the Kamiokande experiments. Even if the solar models are forced articficially to have a ${}^8 B$ neutrino flux in agreement with the Kamiokande experiment, none of the fudged models agrees with the chlorine observations. This comparison shows that consistency of the chlorine and Kamiokande experiments requires some physical process that changes the shape of the ${}^8 B$ neutrino energy spectrum. The GALLEX and SAGE experiments, which currently have large statistical uncertainties, differ from the predictions of the standard solar model by $2 \\sigma$ and $3 \\sigma$, respectively. The possibility that the neutrino experiments are incorrect is briefly discussed.

John N. Bahcall

1993-07-07

43

Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6) Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An atomic oxygen fluence monitor was flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6). The monitor was designed to measure the accumulation of atomic oxygen fluence with time as it impinged upon the ram surface of the MISSE 6B Passive Experiment Container (PEC). This was an active experiment for which data was to be stored on a battery-powered data logger for post-flight retrieval and analysis. The atomic oxygen fluence measurement was accomplished by allowing atomic oxygen to erode two opposing wedges of pyrolytic graphite that partially covered a photodiode. As the wedges of pyrolytic graphite erode, the area of the photodiode that is illuminated by the Sun increases. The short circuit current, which is proportional to the area of illumination, was to be measured and recorded as a function of time. The short circuit current from a different photodiode, which was oriented in the same direction and had an unobstructed view of the Sun, was also to be recorded as a reference current. The ratio of the two separate recorded currents should bear a linear relationship with the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence and be independent of the intensity of solar illumination. Ground hyperthermal atomic oxygen exposure facilities were used to evaluate the linearity of the ratio of short circuit current to the atomic oxygen fluence. In flight, the current measurement circuitry failed to operate properly, thus the overall atomic oxygen mission fluence could only be estimated based on the physical erosion of the pyrolytic graphite wedges. The atomic oxygen fluence was calculated based on the knowledge of the space atomic oxygen erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite measured from samples on the MISSE 2. The atomic oxygen fluence monitor, the expected result and comparison of mission atomic oxygen fluence based on the erosion of the pyrolytic graphite and Kapton H atomic oxygen fluence witness samples are presented in this paper.

Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

2010-01-01

44

Handbook explaining the fundamentals of nuclear and atomic physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indoctrination document presents nuclear, reactor, and atomic physics in an easy, straightforward manner. The entire subject of nuclear physics including atomic structure ionization, isotopes, radioactivity, and reactor dynamics is discussed.

Hanlen, D. F.; Morse, W. J.

1969-01-01

45

8.422 Atomic and Optical Physics II, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

This is the second of a two-semester subject sequence beginning with Atomic and Optical Physics I (8.421) that provides the foundations for contemporary research in selected areas of atomic and optical physics. Topics ...

Chuang, Isaac

46

Atomic frequency standard relativistic Doppler shift experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment has been performed to measure possible space anisotropy as it would effect the frequency of a cesium atomic beam standard clock in a laboratory on earth due to motion relative to external coordinate frames. The cesium frequency was measured as a function of orientation with respect to an atomic hydrogen maser standard. Over a period of 34 days 101 measurements were made. The results are consistent with a conclusion that no general orientation dependance attributable to spacial anisotropy was observed. It is shown that both the airplane clock results, and the null results for the atomic beam clock, are consistent with Einstein general or special relativity, or with the Lorentz transformations alone.

Peters, H. E.; Reinhardt, V. S.

1974-01-01

47

The 12th International Conference on Atomic Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conference began with a session devoted to the Nobel Laureates in Physics for 1989, all of whom were from the Atomic Physics community; Norman Ramsey and Hans Dehmelt spoke but Wolfgang Paul was unable to attend. Some sessions were titled as follows: Fundamental Laws and Constants; Atom and Ion Manipulation; Nonlinear Physics and Chaos; Quantum Optics and Other Laser Techniques; Photoionization Processes; Plasma Physics; Atomic Spectroscopy and Structure - Theory; Atomic Spectroscopy and Structure - Experimental; Molecular Spectroscopy and Structure, Surfaces, and Clusters; Atomic, Ionic, and Molecular Collisions; Electron and Positron Collisions; and Exotic Atomic and Special Topics.

Lewis, Robert R.; Rich, Arthur

1991-02-01

48

I.I. Rabi Prize in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics Talk: Novel Quantum Physics in Few- and Many-body Atomic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent cold atom researches are reaching out far beyond the realm that was conventionally viewed as atomic physics. Many long standing issues in other physics disciplines or in Gedanken-experiments are nowadays common targets of cold atom physicists. Two prominent examples will be discussed in this talk: BEC-BCS crossover and Efimov physics. Here, cold atoms are employed to emulate electrons in superconductors, and nucleons in nuclear reactions, respectively. The ability to emulate exotic or thought systems using cold atoms stems from the precisely determined, simple, and tunable interaction properties of cold atoms. New experimental tools have also been devised toward an ultimate goal: a complete control and a complete characterization of a few- or many-body quantum system. We are tantalizingly close to this major milestone, and will soon open new venues to explore new quantum phenomena that may (or may not!) exist in scientists' dreams.

Chin, Cheng

2011-06-01

49

Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX  

SciTech Connect

The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment is proposed for experimental studies of spheromak confinement issues in a controlled way: in steady state relative to the confinement timescale and at low collisionality. Experiments in a flux - conserver will provide data on transport in the presence of resistive modes in shear-stabilized systems and establish operating regimes which pave the way for true steady-state experiments with the equilibrium field supplied by external coils. The proposal is based on analysis of past experiments, including the achievement of T{sub e} = 400 eV in a decaying spheromak in CTX. Electrostatic helicity injection from a coaxial ``gun`` into a shaped flux conserver will form and sustain the plasma for several milliseconds. The flux conserver minimizes fluxline intersection with the walls and provides MHD stability. Improvements from previous experiments include modem wall conditioning (especially boronization), a divertor for density and impurity control, and a bias magnetic flux for configurational flexibility. The bias flux will provide innovative experimental opportunities, including testing helicity drive on the large-radius plasma boundary. Diagnostics include Thomson scattering for T{sub e} measurements and ultra-short pulse reflectrometry to measure density and magnetic field profiles and turbulence. We expect to operate at T{sub e} of several hundred eV, allowing improved understanding of energy and current transport due to resistive MHD turbulence during sustained operation. This will provide an exciting advance in spheromak physics and a firm basis for future experiments in the fusion regime.

Hooper, E.B.

1997-05-15

50

Physically representative atomistic modeling of atomic-scale friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotribology is a research field to study friction, adhesion, wear and lubrication occurred between two sliding interfaces at nano scale. This study is motivated by the demanding need of miniaturization mechanical components in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), improvement of durability in magnetic storage system, and other industrial applications. Overcoming tribological failure and finding ways to control friction at small scale have become keys to commercialize MEMS with sliding components as well as to stimulate the technological innovation associated with the development of MEMS. In addition to the industrial applications, such research is also scientifically fascinating because it opens a door to understand macroscopic friction from the most bottom atomic level, and therefore serves as a bridge between science and engineering. This thesis focuses on solid/solid atomic friction and its associated energy dissipation through theoretical analysis, atomistic simulation, transition state theory, and close collaboration with experimentalists. Reduced-order models have many advantages for its simplification and capacity to simulating long-time event. We will apply Prandtl-Tomlinson models and their extensions to interpret dry atomic-scale friction. We begin with the fundamental equations and build on them step-by-step from the simple quasistatic one-spring, one-mass model for predicting transitions between friction regimes to the two-dimensional and multi-atom models for describing the effect of contact area. Theoretical analysis, numerical implementation, and predicted physical phenomena are all discussed. In the process, we demonstrate the significant potential for this approach to yield new fundamental understanding of atomic-scale friction. Atomistic modeling can never be overemphasized in the investigation of atomic friction, in which each single atom could play a significant role, but is hard to be captured experimentally. In atomic friction, the interesting physical process is buried between the two contact interfaces, thus makes a direct measurement more difficult. Atomistic simulation is able to simulate the process with the dynamic information of each single atom, and therefore provides valuable interpretations for experiments. In this, we will systematically to apply Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation to optimally model the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurement of atomic friction. Furthermore, we also employed molecular dynamics simulation to correlate the atomic dynamics with the friction behavior observed in experiments. For instance, ParRep dynamics (an accelerated molecular dynamic technique) is introduced to investigate velocity dependence of atomic friction; we also employ MD simulation to "see" how the reconstruction of gold surface modulates the friction, and the friction enhancement mechanism at a graphite step edge. Atomic stick-slip friction can be treated as a rate process. Instead of running a direction simulation of the process, we can apply transition state theory to predict its property. We will have a rigorous derivation of velocity and temperature dependence of friction based on the Prandtl-Tomlinson model as well as transition theory. A more accurate relation to prediction velocity and temperature dependence is obtained. Furthermore, we have included instrumental noise inherent in AFM measurement to interpret two discoveries in experiments, suppression of friction at low temperature and the attempt frequency discrepancy between AFM measurement and theoretical prediction. We also discuss the possibility to treat wear as a rate process.

Dong, Yalin

51

Research in atomic and applied physics using a 6-GeV synchrotron source  

SciTech Connect

The Division of Atomic and Applied Physics in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts a broad program of research using ion beams and synchrotron radiation for experiments in atomic physics and nuclear analytical techniques and applications. Many of the experiments would benefit greatly from the use of high energy, high intensity photon beams from a 6-GeV synchrotron source. A survey of some of the specific scientific possibilities is presented.

Jones, K.W.

1985-12-01

52

Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper illustrates experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes, their molecular structure transitions, and their agglomeration times were estimated. article sizes of 1.8 to 4.6 mm (0.07 to 0. 18 in.) were measured. The particle agglomeration times were 0.5 to 11 min, depending on the loading of particles in the dewar. These experiments are the first step toward visually characterizing these particles, and allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

Palaszewski, Bryan

2001-01-01

53

Conclusions from recent pionic--atom experiments  

SciTech Connect

The most recent pionic--hydrogen experiment marks the completion of a whole series of measurements, the main goal of which was to provide conclusive data on pion--nucleon interaction at threshold for comparison with calculations from Chiral perturbation theory. The precision achieved for hadronic shift and broadening of 0.2% and 2%, respectively, became possible by comprehensive studies of cascade effects in hydrogen and other light exotic atoms including results from the last years of LEAR operation. In order to obtain optimum conditions for the Bragg crystal spectrometer, the cyclotron trap II has been used to provide a suitable X--ray source. To characterize the bent crystal spectrometer, the cyclotron trap has been modified to operate as an electron--cyclotron resonance source, which produces with high intensity narrow X-ray transitions in the few keV range originating from highly charged ions.

Gotta, D.; Hennebach, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Strauch, Th. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D--52425 Juelich (Germany); Amaro, F.; Covita, D. S.; Santos, J. M. F. dos; Veloso, J. F. C. A. [Dept. of Physics, Coimbra University, P--3000 Coimbra (Portugal); Anagnostopoulos, D. F. [Dept. of Material Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, GR--45110 (Greece); Biri, S. [Institut of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H--4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Gorke, H. [Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Gruber, A.; Hirtl, A.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J.; Schmid, Ph.; Zmeskal, J. [Stefan Meyer Institut, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A--1090 Vienna (Austria); Indelicato, P.; Jensen, Th.; Le Bigot, E.-O. [Lab. Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Paris 6, ENS, CNRS, 4 place Jussieu, F--75005 Paris (France)] (and others)

2008-08-08

54

Physics with the ALICE experiment  

SciTech Connect

ALICE experiment at LHC collects data in pp collisions at 1497-1 = 0.9, 2.76, and 7 TeV and in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. Highlights of the detector performance and an overview of experimental results measured with ALICE in pp and AA collisions are presented in this paper. Physics with protonproton collisions is focused on hadron spectroscopy at low and moderate p{sub t}. Measurements with lead-lead collisions are shown in comparison with those in pp collisions, and the properties of hot quark matter are discussed.

Kharlov, Yu. V. [Institute for High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)

2013-12-15

55

Physics with the ALICE experiment  

E-print Network

ALICE experiment at LHC collects data in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV and in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. Highlights of the detector performance and an overview of experimental results measured with ALICE in pp and AA collisions are presented in this paper. Physics with proton-proton collisions is focused on hadron spectroscopy at low and moderate $p_T$. Measurements with lead-lead collisions are shown in comparison with those in pp collisions, and the properties of hot quark matter are discussed.

Yuri Kharlov; for the ALICE collaboration

2012-03-09

56

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 012509 (2013) Blackbody-radiation shift in the Sr optical atomic clock  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 012509 (2013) Blackbody-radiation shift in the Sr optical atomic clock M. S of optical atomic clocks. The Sr clock transition has the largest BBR shift of all optical frequency optical lattice clock. We suggest future experiments that could further reduce the present uncertainties

Safronova, Marianna

57

Atomic physics and non-equilibrium plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Three lectures comprise the report. The lecture, Atomic Structure, is primarily theoretical and covers four topics: (1) Non-relativistic one-electron atom, (2) Relativistic one-electron atom, (3) Non-relativistic many-electron atom, and (4) Relativistic many-electron atom. The lecture, Radiative and Collisional Transitions, considers the problem of transitions between atomic states caused by interactions with radiation or other particles. The lecture, Ionization Balance: Spectral Line Shapes, discusses collisional and radiative transitions when ionization and recombination processes are included. 24 figs., 11 tabs.

Weisheit, J.C.

1986-04-25

58

Experiment Design and Analysis Guide - Neutronics & Physics  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this guide is to provide a consistent, standardized approach to performing neutronics/physics analysis for experiments inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This document provides neutronics/physics analysis guidance to support experiment design and analysis needs for experiments irradiated in the ATR. This guide addresses neutronics/physics analysis in support of experiment design, experiment safety, and experiment program objectives and goals. The intent of this guide is to provide a standardized approach for performing typical neutronics/physics analyses. Deviation from this guide is allowed provided that neutronics/physics analysis details are properly documented in an analysis report.

Misti A Lillo

2014-06-01

59

Superconducting microwave resonators for physics experiments  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting resonators at K-Band frequencies have been developed for different applications in general physics. The authors have built niobium pillbox cavities for the One-Atom Maser experiment by which the interaction of Rydberg atoms with single microwave photons has been investigated. At 21.5 GHz and T=1.3K quality factors of up to 10/sup 11/ were obtained. Coating of the cavity with Nb/sub 3/Sn resulted in quality factors of 6x10/sup 8/ at T=4.2K and 6x10/sup 9/ at T=2K. The authors have also investigated a superconducting Fabry-Perot resonator consisting of two spherically curved niobium mirrors. The quality factor of 1.8x10/sup 7/ measured at 25 GHz and 4.2K was found to be two orders of magnitude higher than for a corresponding copper resonator. Fabry-Perot resonators can be applied for detecting small position changes of one mirror with respect to the other e.g. caused by gravitational forces. First experiments with copper Fabry-Perot mirrors suspended in a vacuum chamber provide a maximum sensitivity for a gravitational acceleration of one mirror of 4x10/sup -11/ m/s/sup 2/. These results are promising for a possible fifth force detector based on a superconducting Fabry-Perot resonator.

Klein, N.; Muller, G.; Piel, H.; Schurr, J.

1989-03-01

60

Project Physics Text 5, Models of the Atom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic atomic theories are presented in this fifth unit of the Project Physics text for use by senior high students. Chemical basis of atomic models in the early years of the 18th Century is discussed n connection with Dalton's theory, atomic properties, and periodic tables. The discovery of electrons is described by using cathode rays, Millikan's…

Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

61

1. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF ATOMIC PHYSICS OBSERVATORY WHICH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF ATOMIC PHYSICS OBSERVATORY WHICH CONTAINS THE WHITE DOME STRUCTURE. THE SHED-LIKE STRUCTURE TO THE LEFT IS THE SEARCH-LIGHT BUILDING. - Carnegie Institute of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Atomic Physics Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

62

On the utility and ubiquity of atomic collision physics  

SciTech Connect

This paper is divided into three parts. In the introduction, we discuss the history and makeup of ICPEAC. In the second part, we discuss the extent of applicability of atomic collision physics. In the third part, we chose one subject (dielectronic excitation) to show the interrelationship of various sub-branches of atomic collision physics. 28 refs., 14 figs.

Datz, S.

1989-01-01

63

Atom Smasher: An Educational Game for Teaching About Accelerators, Detectors and Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative multimedia game called Atom Smasher is being developed to introduce precollege students to the world of particle accelerators, particle detectors, and elementary particle physics. The game includes an animated accelerator facility introduction that places the player in the role of a scientist conducting experiments. Live animated tutorials, movies, a particle physics game show, slide show tutorials and a fast- action game will all be demonstrated as elements of Atom Smasher.

Brown, Nathan; Lancaster, George; Gillespie, George; Hill, Barrey

1998-04-01

64

Tokamak Physics Experiment divertor design  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) tokamak requires a symmetric up/down double-null divertor capable of operation with steady-state heat flux as high as 7.5 MW/m{sup 2}. The divertor is designed to operate in the radiative mode and employs a deep slot configuration with gas puffing lines to enhance radiative divertor operation. Pumping is provided by cryopumps that pump through eight vertical ports in the floor and ceiling of the vessel. The plasma facing surface is made of carbon-carbon composite blocks (macroblocks) bonded to multiple parallel copper tubes oriented vertically. Water flowing at 6 m/s is used, with the critical heat flux (CHF) margin improved by the use of enhanced heat transfer surfaces. In order to extend the operating period where hands on maintenance is allowed and to also reduce dismantling and disposal costs, the TPX design emphasizes the use of low activation materials. The primary materials used in the divertor are titanium, copper, and carbon-carbon composite. The low activation material selection and the planned physics operation will allow personnel access into the vacuum vessel for the first 2 years of operation. The remote handling system requires that all plasma facing components (PFCs) are configured as modular components of restricted dimensions with special provisions for lifting, alignment, mounting, attachment, and connection of cooling lines, and instrumentation and diagnostics services.

Anderson, P.M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

65

Atoms, Molecules and Photons: An Introduction to Atomic Molecular and Quantum Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This introduction to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our present model of atoms and molecules has been developed during the last two centuries by many experimental discoveries and from the theoretical side by the introduction of quantum physics to the adequate description of micro-particles. It illustrates the wave model of particles by many examples and shows the limits of

Wolfgang Demtröder

2006-01-01

66

Atom Smasher: An Educational Game for Teaching About Accelerators, Detectors and Particle Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative multimedia game called Atom Smasher is being developed to introduce precollege students to the world of particle accelerators, particle detectors, and elementary particle physics. The game includes an animated accelerator facility introduction that places the player in the role of a scientist conducting experiments. Live animated tutorials, movies, a particle physics game show, slide show tutorials and a

Nathan Brown; George Lancaster; George Gillespie; Barrey Hill

1998-01-01

67

The Interactive Plasma Physics Education Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of Princeton University's Plasma Physics Laboratory, the Interactive Plasma Physics Education Experience Web site contains interactive plasma physics topics, ranging from electricity and magnetism to energy and fusion. Although some of the activities have difficulty running on old browsers and Macintosh computers, the interactive lessons give students a fun and engaging way to explore physics topics.

2001-01-01

68

Atomic oxygen exposure of LDEF experiment trays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atomic oxygen exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The calculations are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation on atomic oxygen flux. Results incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the 6-year flight of the spacecraft. To facilitate use of the data, both detailed tabulations and summary charts for atomic oxygen fluences are presented.

Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.

1992-01-01

69

Atomic Structure Calculations from the Los Alamos Atomic Physics Codes  

DOE Data Explorer

The well known Hartree-Fock method of R.D. Cowan, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is used for the atomic structure calculations. Electron impact excitation cross sections are calculated using either the distorted wave approximation (DWA) or the first order many body theory (FOMBT). Electron impact ionization cross sections can be calculated using the scaled hydrogenic method developed by Sampson and co-workers, the binary encounter method or the distorted wave method. Photoionization cross sections and, where appropriate, autoionizations are also calculated. Original manuals for the atomic structure code, the collisional excitation code, and the ionization code, are available from this website. Using the specialized interface, you will be able to define the ionization stage of an element and pick the initial and final configurations. You will be led through a series of web pages ending with a display of results in the form of cross sections, collision strengths or rates coefficients. Results are available in tabular and graphic form.

Cowan, R. D.

70

Atomic physics: An almost lightless laser  

E-print Network

Lasers are often described in terms of a light field circulating in an optical resonator system. Now a laser has been demonstrated in which the field resides primarily in the atomic medium that is used to generate the light.

Vuletic, Vladan

71

Theoretical Atomic Physics code development IV: LINES, A code for computing atomic line spectra  

SciTech Connect

A new computer program, LINES, has been developed for simulating atomic line emission and absorption spectra using the accurate fine structure energy levels and transition strengths calculated by the (CATS) Cowan Atomic Structure code. Population distributions for the ion stages are obtained in LINES by using the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) model. LINES is also useful for displaying the pertinent atomic data generated by CATS. This report describes the use of LINES. Both CATS and LINES are part of the Theoretical Atomic PhysicS (TAPS) code development effort at Los Alamos. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Abdallah, J. Jr.; Clark, R.E.H.

1988-12-01

72

Precision physics of simple atoms: QED tests, nuclear structure and fundamental constants  

E-print Network

Quantum electrodynamics is the first successful and still the most successful quantum field theory. Simple atoms, being essentially QED systems, allow highly accurate theoretical predictions. Because of their simple spectra, such atoms have been also efficiently studied experimentally frequently offering the most precisely measured quantities. Our review is devoted to comparison of theory and experiment in the field of precision physics of light simple atoms. In particular, we consider the Lamb shift in the hydrogen atom, the hyperfine structure in hydrogen, deuterium, helium-3 ion, muonium and positronium, as well as a number of other transitions in positronium. Additionally to a spectrum of unperturbed atoms, we consider annihilation decay of positronium and the g factor of bound particles in various two-body atoms. Special attention is paid to the uncertainty of the QED calculations due to the uncalculated higher-order corrections and effects of the nuclear structure. We also discuss applications of simple atoms to determination of several fundamental constants.

Savely G. Karshenboim

2005-09-01

73

Experimental Atomic Physics Research in the Budker Group  

E-print Network

.0 Magnetic Field (nT) -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 RotationAngle(mrad) Paraffin-coated cells look likeExperimental Atomic Physics Research in the Budker Group · Tests of fundamental symmetries using and electrometry (NMR, magnetic anomalies, space,...) · Nonlinear optics with atoms · Optical properties

Pines, Alexander

74

ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 2, SUPPLEMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THIS TEXT WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, OFFERING SELF-TUTORING MATERIAL FOR LEARNING ATOMIC PHYSICS. THE TOPICS COVERED ARE (1) ISOTOPES AND MASS NUMBERS, (2) MEASURING ATOMIC MASS, (3) DISCOVERY OF THE NUCLEUS, (4) STRUCTURE OF THE NUCLEUS, (5) DISCOVERY OF THE NEUTRON, (6) NUCLEAR REACTIONS,…

DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

75

NASA GSFC Science Symposium on Atomic and Molecular Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is the proceedings of a conference on atomic and molecular physics in honor of the retirements of Dr. Aaron Temkin and Dr. Richard Drachman. The conference contained discussions on electron, positron, atomic, and positronium physics, as well as a discussion on muon catalyzed fusion. This proceedings document also contains photographs taken at the symposium, as well as speeches and a short biography made in tribute to the retirees.

Bhatia, Anand K. (Editor)

2007-01-01

76

Physics of Polarized Scattering at Multi-level Atomic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The symmetric peak observed in linear polarization in the core of the solar sodium D1 line at 5896 Å has remained enigmatic since its discovery nearly two decades ago. One reason is that the theory of polarized scattering has not been experimentally tested for multi-level atomic systems in the relevant parameter domains, although the theory is continually being used for the interpretation of astrophysical observations. A laboratory experiment that was set up a decade ago to find out whether the D1 enigma is a problem of solar physics or quantum physics revealed that the D1 system has a rich polarization structure in situations where standard scattering theory predicts zero polarization, even when optical pumping of the m state populations of the hyperfine-split ground state is accounted for. Here we show that the laboratory results can be modeled in great quantitative detail if the theory is extended to include the coherences in both the initial and final states of the scattering process. Radiative couplings between the allowed dipole transitions generate coherences in the initial state. Corresponding coherences in the final state are then demanded by a phase closure selection rule. The experimental results for the well understood D2 line are used to constrain the two free parameters of the experiment, collision rate and optical depth, to suppress the need for free parameters when fitting the D1 results.

Stenflo, J. O.

2015-03-01

77

Atomic physics with highly charged ions  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

Richard, P.

1991-08-01

78

Physical Science Experiments for Scientific Glassblowing Technicians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The twenty experiments in this text have been designed to give the scientific glassblowing technician the opportunity to use scientific glass apparatus in the study of physical science. Primary emphasis of these experiments is on the practical application of the physical science program as a working tool for the scientific glassblowing technician.…

Tillis, Samuel E.; Donaghay, Herbert C.

79

Simulating educational physical experiments in augmented reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an augmented reality application for mechanics education. It utilizes a recent physics engine developed for the PC gaming market to simulate physical experiments in the domain of mechanics in real time. Students are enabled to actively build own experiments and study them in a three-dimensional virtual world. A variety of tools are provided to analyze forces, mass, paths

Hannes Kaufmann; Bernd Meyery

2008-01-01

80

Experiences of Ninth Grade Physical Education Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies exist that report the behaviors of elite athletes, but little research exists which describes the experiences of students within public school physical education classes. The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences articulated by ninth graders participating (n=67) in their last semester of required physical

Portman, Penelope A.

81

Novel Positron-beam Systems for Atomic Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trapped positron plasmas are now routinely used to generate high resolution positron beams for a range of atomic physics experiments. Described here are the designs of two new positron beam systems intended for study of the nature and mechanisms of positron attachment to ordinary matter. Positrons attach to molecules in two-body collisions via the excitation of vibrational modes, resulting in huge enhancements in the annihilation rate. While this technique provides a way to measure binding energies,\\footnotetextGribakin, Young, and Surko, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2557 (2010). improved energy resolution is critical to further progress. The design of a new system using a cryogenically cooled buffer gas is described that is intended to meet this need (i.e., resolution <=10 meV, FWHM, a factor of 4 improvement). The analogous process of positron attachment to atoms has not yet been studied experimentally. Also described here is the design of a tailored beam system, combined with a pulsed laser, intended to do this via photo-induced recombination.\\footnotetextSurko, Danielson, Gribakin, and Continetti, NJP 14, 065004 (2012). The example of positron binding to zinc (predicted binding energy ˜ 0.1 eV) is discussed.

Natisin, M. R.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M.

2012-10-01

82

Current experiments in elementary particle physics  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.

1987-03-01

83

Los Alamos free atomic tritium beta decay experiment  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is under construction at Los Alamos to measure the beta spectrum of free tritium atoms and molecules. The tritium atoms decay in a gaseous windowless source and are analyzed by a Tret'yakov type toroidal field beta spectrometer. The ultimate sensitivity of the experiment to electron antineutrino mass is expected to be <10 eV.

Knapp, D.A.; Bowles, T.J.; Browne, J.C.; Burritt, T.H.; Cohen, J.S.; Helffrich, J.A.; Maley, M.P.; Martin, R.L.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Wilkerson, J.F.

1984-01-01

84

Clock Technology Development for the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Time and Frequency Sciences and Technology Group at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed a laser cooling capability for flight and has been selected by NASA to support the Laser-Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program. Current work in the group includes design and development for tee two laser-cooled atomic clock experiments which have been selected for flight on the International Space Station.

Klipstein, W. M.; Thompson, R. J.; Seidel, D. J.; Kohel, J.; Maleki, L.

1998-01-01

85

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 043429 (2013) Coherent manipulation of cold Rydberg atoms near the surface of an atom chip  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 043429 (2013) Coherent manipulation of cold Rydberg atoms near the surface of an atom chip J. D. Carter and J. D. D. Martin Department of Physics and Astronomy and Institute atoms were studied near the surface of an atom chip. The superpositions were created and manipulated

Le Roy, Robert J.

86

The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics  

E-print Network

Atomic physics and hadronic physics are both governed by the Yang Mills gauge theory Lagrangian; in fact, Abelian quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics can provide important insight into hadronic eigenstates in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of frame-independent light-front relativistic equations of motion consistent with light-front holography which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The production of antihydrogen in flight can provide important insight into the dynamics of hadron production in QCD at the amplitude level. The renormalization scale for the running coupling is unambiguously set in QED; an analogous procedure sets the renormalization scales in QCD, leading to scheme-independent scale-fixed...

Brodsky, Stanley J

2015-01-01

87

Customized Laboratory Experience in Physical Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new physical chemistry laboratory experience has been designed for upper-level undergraduate chemistry majors. Students customize the first 10 weeks of their laboratory experience by choosing their own set of experiments (from a manual of choices) and setting their own laboratory schedule. There are several topics presented in the accompanying…

Castle, Karen J.; Rink, Stephanie M.

2010-01-01

88

Experiment and the foundations of quantum physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instead of having to rely on gedanken (thought) experiments, it is possible to base this discussion of the foundations of quantum physics on actually performed experiments because of the enormous experimental progress in recent years. For reasons of space, the author discusses mainly experiments related to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and Bell's theorem, that is, to quantum entanglement. Not only have

Anton Zeilinger

1999-01-01

89

Physics of polarized scattering at multi-level atomic systems  

E-print Network

The symmetric peak observed in linear polarization in the core of the solar sodium D$_1$ line at 5896 \\AA\\ has remained enigmatic since its discovery nearly two decades ago. One reason is that the theory of polarized scattering has not been experimentally tested for multi-level atomic systems in the relevant parameter domains, although the theory is continually being used for the interpretation of astrophysical observations. A laboratory experiment that was set up a decade ago to find out whether the D$_1$ enigma is a problem of solar physics or quantum physics revealed that the D$_1$ system has a rich polarization structure in situations where standard scattering theory predicts zero polarization, even when optical pumping of the $m$ state populations of the hyperfine-split ground state is accounted for. Here we show that the laboratory results can be modeled in great quantitative detail if the theory is extended to include the coherences in both the initial and final states of the scattering process. Radiat...

Stenflo, Jan

2015-01-01

90

University of Oregon Physics Applets: Atomic Emission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet presents the user with an energy level diagram of an atom. The values of the levels (in eV) can be set by parameter tags. Relative transition probabilities can also be set by parameter tags. An active electron can be moved to any level by using the pointing device and then the electron will cascade down to the ground level according to the relative transition probabilities that have been set up. Each time the electron moves from a higher to lower energy level a photon will be emitted. The wavelength of the photon is indicated and some attempt is to color code the outgoing photon by the emitted wavelength.

Bothun, Greg

91

SOHO: Atomic physics and the solar atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Many aspects of the Sun's corona and wind are studied using data from the ultraviolet spectrum. Accurate atomic parameters are needed to interpret these data correctly, and a good understanding of the behaviors of atoms and ions in plasmas is essential to modeling the Sun's atmosphere. Here I present two examples of studies being carried out using the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) extreme ultraviolet spectrographs. The first of these is the study of flows in the Sun's chromosphere and corona. SOHO has provided new information concerning previous observations of the predominant down-flows in the Sun's lower atmosphere. Accurate measurements of Doppler line shifts have been extended to the corona. It has also been found that the Doppler shifts vary over different parts of the Sun. The second study discussed involves the use of SOHO data to measure elemental abundances in coronal structures know as streamers, giving more information on the 'FIP' effect--the observation that there is a relative deficit of elements with high first ionization potentials (FIPs) in the corona and solar wind.

Kucera, T. A. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 682.3, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Space Applications Corp., 901 Follin Ln., Suite 400, Vienna, Virginia 22180 (United States)

1998-09-28

92

Atoms in Flight: The Remarkable Connections between Atomic and Hadronic Physics  

SciTech Connect

Atomic physics and hadron physics are both based on Yang Mills gauge theory; in fact, quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics provide important insight into the theory of hadrons in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of light-front relativistic equations of motion which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The renormalization scale for the running coupling, which is unambiguously set in QED, leads to a method for setting the renormalization scale in QCD. The production of atoms in flight provides a method for computing the formation of hadrons at the amplitude level. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, and light-front quantization have equal utility for atomic physics, especially in the relativistic domain. I also present a new perspective for understanding the contributions to the cosmological constant from QED and QCD.

Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

2012-02-16

93

Atoms in Flight and the Remarkable Connections between Atomic and Hadronic Physics  

E-print Network

Atomic physics and hadron physics are both based on Yang Mills gauge theory; in fact, quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics provide important insight into the theory of hadrons in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of light-front relativistic equations of motion which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The renormalization scale for the running coupling, which is unambiguously set in QED, leads to a method for setting the renormalization scale in QCD. The production of atoms in flight provides a method for computing the formation of hadrons at the amplitude level. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, and light-front quantization have equal utility for atomic physics, especially in the relativistic domain. I also present a new perspective for understanding the contributions to the cosmological constant from QED and QCD.

Stanley J. Brodsky

2011-12-22

94

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 86, 022713 (2012) Heteronuclear collisions between laser-cooled metastable neon atoms  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 86, 022713 (2012) Heteronuclear collisions between laser-cooled metastable neon-cooled metastable (3 P2) neon. Experiments are performed with spin-polarized atoms in a magnetic trap for all two-isotope combinations of the stable neon isotopes 20 Ne, 21 Ne, and 22 Ne. We determine the rate coefficients

Birkl, Gerhard

95

Current experiments in elementary-particle physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (ENL); CERN; DESY; Fermilab. (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMP. Also, summries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated.

Wohl, C. G.; Armstrong, F. E.; Rittenberg, A.

1983-03-01

96

The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics  

E-print Network

Atomic physics and hadronic physics are both governed by the Yang Mills gauge theory Lagrangian; in fact, Abelian quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics can provide important insight into hadronic eigenstates in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of frame-independent light-front relativistic equations of motion consistent with light-front holography which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The production of antihydrogen in flight can provide important insight into the dynamics of hadron production in QCD at the amplitude level. The renormalization scale for the running coupling is unambiguously set in QED; an analogous procedure sets the renormalization scales in QCD, leading to scheme-independent scale-fixed predictions. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, the quark-interchange process and light-front quantization have important applicants for atomic physics and photon science, especially in the relativistic domain.

Stanley J. Brodsky

2015-02-18

97

The common elements of atomic and hadronic physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic physics and hadronic physics are both governed by the Yang Mills gauge theory Lagrangian; in fact, Abelian quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics can provide important insight into hadronic eigenstates in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of frame-independent light-front relativistic equations of motion consistent with light-front holography which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The production of antihydrogen in flight can provide important insight into the dynamics of hadron production in QCD at the amplitude level. The renormalization scale for the running coupling is unambiguously set in QED; an analogous procedure sets the renormalization scales in QCD, leading to scheme-independent scale-fixed predictions. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, the quark-interchange process and light-front quantization have important applicants for atomic physics and photon science, especially in the relativistic domain.

Brodsky, Stanley J.

2015-03-01

98

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Dodder, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (Russian Federation); Illarionova, N.S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lehar, F. [CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oyanagi, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Sciences; Olin, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Frosch, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

1992-06-01

99

Experiments in intermediate energy physics  

SciTech Connect

Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

Dehnhard, D.

2003-02-28

100

Highlights INFM 2000/2001 1.Atomic and Molecular Physics, Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics  

E-print Network

Highlights INFM 2000/2001 1.Atomic and Molecular Physics, Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics 1, processing, storing, or computing. The marriage of Quantum Physics and Information Technology -originally.2 EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TRANSFER MATRIX OF A QUANTUM DEVICE It is unquestionable that the current

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

101

Low-Cost Accelerometers for Physics Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The implementation of a modern game-console controller as a data acquisition interface for physics experiments is discussed. The investigated controller is equipped with three perpendicular accelerometers and a built-in infrared camera to evaluate its own relative position. A pendulum experiment is realized as a demonstration of the proposed…

Vannoni, Maurizio; Straulino, Samuele

2007-01-01

102

Low-cost accelerometers for physics experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implementation of a modern game-console controller as a data acquisition interface for physics experiments is discussed. The investigated controller is equipped with three perpendicular accelerometers and a built-in infrared camera to evaluate its own relative position. A pendulum experiment is realized as a demonstration of the proposed approach.

Vannoni, Maurizio; Straulino, Samuele

2007-09-01

103

$??$ physics with the KLOE experiment  

E-print Network

The processes $e^+e^-\\to e^+e^-X$, with $X$ being either the $\\eta$ meson or $\\pi^0\\pi^0$, are studied at DA$\\Phi$NE, with $e^+e^-$ beams colliding at $\\sqrt{s}\\simeq1$ GeV, below the $\\phi$ resonance peak. The data sample is from an integrated luminosity of 240 pb$^{-1}$, collected by the KLOE experiment without tagging of the outgoing $e^+e^-$. Preliminary results are presented on the observation of the $\\gamma\\gamma\\to\\eta$ process, with both $\\eta\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ and $\\eta\\to\\pi^0\\pi^0\\pi^0$ channels, and the evidence for $\\gamma\\gamma\\to\\pi^0\\pi^0$ production at low $\\pi^0\\pi^0$ invariant mass.

The KLOE-2 Collaboration; F. Archilli; D. Babusci; D. Badoni; I. Balwierz; G. Bencivenni; C. Bini; C. Bloise; V. Bocci; F. Bossi; P. Branchini; A. Budano; S. A. Bulychjev; P. Campana; G. Capon; F. Ceradini; P. Ciambrone; E. Czerwinski; E. Dane; E. De Lucia; G. De Robertis; A. De Santis; G. De Zorzi; A. Di Domenico; C. Di Donato; D. Domenici; O. Erriquez; G. Fanizzi; G. Felici; S. Fiore; P. Franzini; P. Gauzzi; S. Giovannella; F. Gonnella; E. Graziani; F. Happacher; B. Hoistad; E. Iarocci; M. Jacewicz; T. Johansson; V. Kulikov; A. Kupsc; J. Lee-Franzini; F. Loddo; M. Martemianov; M. Martini; M. Matsyuk; R. Messi; S. Miscetti; G. Morello; D. Moricciani; P. Moskal; F. Nguyen; A. Passeri; V. Patera; I. Prado Longhi; A. Ranieri; P. Santangelo; I. Sarra; M. Schioppa; B. Sciascia; A. Sciubba; M. Silarski; C. Taccini; L. Tortora; G. Venanzoni; R. Versaci; W. Wislicki; M. Wolke; J. Zdebik

2011-07-19

104

Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.

Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kettle, P.-R.; Olin, A.; Armstrong, F.E.

1996-09-01

105

COMPILATION OF CURRENT HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth edition of our compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. We emphasize that only approved experiments are included.

Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.; Horne, C.P.; Hutchinson, M.S.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Addis, L.; Ward, C.E.W.; Baggett, N.; Goldschmidt-Clermong, Y.; Joos, P.; Gelfand, N.; Oyanagi, Y.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.

1981-05-01

106

Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goals and preliminary design of SSPX are described. Goals include demonstrating T_e, Ti =few*100 eV in a steady-state spheromak sustained by helicity injection, evaluating dependence of energy confinement on magnetic turbulence, measurements of magnetic field profiles and turbulence, evaluating beta limits, and explorating the initial phases of transition from an equilibrium supported by a flux conserver to one supported by external coils. The experimental facility will use existing equipment at LLNL upgraded to improve the vacuum (hard-seals, bakeout, boronization) and for multi-ms sustainment (pulse-forming network). Data acquisition will use a network-based system using the DIII-D data file format to utilize existing software and make data available to collaborators. Analysis and preliminary designs are presented of the coaxial gun and of the flux conserver (using the CORSICA code). Extensive diagnostics are planned; magnetic field diagnostics will be a major feature of the experiment, including the "transient internal probe" of Jarboe, et al., magnetic (wall) loops, and ultra-short pulse reflectrometry using O- and X-modes.

Hooper, E. B.

1996-11-01

107

HISTRAP proposal: heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics  

SciTech Connect

HISTRAP, Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics, is a proposed 46.8-m-circumference synchrotron-cooling-storage ring optimized to accelerate, decelerate, and store beams of highly charged very-heavy ions at energies appropriate for advanced atomic physics research. The ring is designed to allow studies of electron-ion, photon-ion, ion-atom, and ion-ion interactions. An electron cooling system will provide ion beams with small angular divergence and energy spread for precision spectroscopic studies and also is necessary to allow the deceleration of heavy ions to low energies. HISTRAP will have a maximum bending power of 2.0 Tm and will be injected with ions from either the existing Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility 25-MV tandem accelerator or from a dedicated ECR source and 250 keV/nucleon RFQ linac.

Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Hudson, E.D.; Johnson, J.W.; Lee, I.Y.; Lord, R.S.

1986-11-01

108

ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 4, SUPPLEMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THIS TEXT WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, OFFERING SELF-TUTORING MATERIAL FOR LEARNING ATOMIC PHYSICS. THE TOPICS COVERED ARE (1) RADIATION USES AND NUCLEAR FISSION, (2) NUCLEAR REACTORS, (3) ENERGY FROM NUCLEAR REACTORS, (4) NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND FUSION, (5) A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW, AND (6) A…

DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

109

Bringing atomic and nuclear physics laboratory data into the classroom  

SciTech Connect

To illustrate a number of basic concepts in atomic and nuclear physics, we have developed three websites where students can analyze data from modern laboratories. By working through the on-line procedures, students will become acquainted with characteristic x-ray spectra, the concept of half-life, x-ray fluorescence, and neutron activation analysis.

Norman, Eric B.; Larimer, Ruth-Mary; Rech, Gregory; Lee, Jeffrey; Vue, Chue; Leubane, Tholoana; Zamvil, Kenneth; Guthrie, Laura

2003-05-27

110

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics  

E-print Network

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics Volume 2012 the Chirikov-Taylor standard map as an example in order to elucidate the basic mechanism that makes the value is high for the case of chaos and attains zero value for the case of stochastic noise. We further study

Nerukh, Dmitry

111

Project Physics Reader 5, Models of the Atom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 5, a collection of articles is presented in this reader for student browsing. Nine excerpts are given under the following headings: failure and success, Einstein, Mr. Tompkins and simultaneity, parable of the surveyors, outside and inside the elevator, the teacher and the Bohr theory of atom, Dirac and Born,…

Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

112

ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 3, SUPPLEMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THIS TEXT WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, OFFERING SELF-TUTORING MATERIAL FOR LEARNING ATOMIC PHYSICS. THE TOPICS COVERED ARE (1) NUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY, (2) DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY, (3) RADIOACTIVE RADIATIONS, (4) ALPHA AND BETA DECAY, (5) BETA DECAY REACTIONS, (6) RADIOACTIVE DATING AND…

DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

113

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 063411 (2010) Spatially resolved excitation of Rydberg atoms and surface effects on an atom chip  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 063411 (2010) Spatially resolved excitation of Rydberg atoms and surface effects on an atom chip Atreju Tauschinsky,* Rutger M. T. Thijssen, S. Whitlock, H. B. van Linden van den spatially resolved, coherent excitation of Rydberg atoms on an atom chip. Electromagnetically induced

Amsterdam, Universiteit van

114

Practical Physics: Basic Experiments with Ripple Tanks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains a set of eight introductory experiments on wave reflections, appropriate for use in high school and middle school. Use of the ripple tank can be a powerful tool to help students visualize wave behavior in general. In these basic experiments, students are introduced to ripple tanks and gain confidence in using them by doing some simple experiments with pulses. SEE RELATED ITEMS for a Teachers' Guide on using ripple tanks, and for ripple tank experiments for the more advanced classroom. This item is part of a much larger collection of physics/astronomy experiments, sponsored by the UK's Institute of Physics and funded by the Nuffield Curriculum Centre.

Nuffield Curriculum Centre

115

Intelsat solar array coupon atomic oxygen flight experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Hughes communications satellite (INTELSAT series) belonging to the INTELSAT Organization was marooned in low-Earth orbit (LEO) on March 14, 1990, following failure of the Titan launch vehicle third stage to separate properly. The satellite, INTELSAT 6, was designed for service in geosynchronous orbit and contains several materials that are potentially susceptible to attack by atomic oxygen. Analysis showed that direct exposure of the silver interconnects in the satellite photovoltaic array to atomic oxygen in LEO was the key materials issue. Available data on atomic oxygen degradation of silver are limited and show high variance, so solar array configurations of the INTELSAT 6 type and individual interconnects were tested in ground-based facilities and during STS-41 (Space Shuttle Discovery, October 1990) as part of the ISAC flight experiment. Several materials for which little or no flight data exist were also tested for atomic oxygen reactivity. Dry lubricants, elastomers, and polymeric and inorganic materials were exposed to an oxygen atom fluence of 1.1 x 10(exp 20) atoms cm(exp 2). Many of the samples were selected to support Space Station Freedom design and decision making. This paper provides an overview of the ISAC flight experiment and a brief summary of results. In addition to new data on materials not before flown, ISAC provided data supporting the decision to rescue INTELSAT 6, which was successfully undertaken in May 1992.

Koontz, S.; King, G.; Dunnet, A.; Kirkendahl, T.; Linton, R.; Vaughn, J.

1994-01-01

116

New Physics Discovery Potential in Future Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method to estimate the probability of new physics discovery in future high energy physics experiments. Physics simulation gives both the average numbers of background and of signal events. We find that the proper definition of the significance for , ? 1 is S12 = ? {< Ns> +< Nb >} - ? {< Nb>} in comparison with often used significances: S1 = (< Ns>)/(? {< Nb>)} and S2 = (< Ns>)/(? {< Ns> +< Nb>)}. We propose a method of taking into account the systematical errors related to nonexact knowledge of background and signal cross-sections. An account of such systematics is essential in the search for supersymmetry at LHC. We also propose a method for estimating exclusion limits on new physics in future experiments.

Bityukov, S. I.; Krasnikov, N. V.

117

Demonstration Cold Atom Fountain Electron Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A demonstration cold-atom-fountain electron EDM experiment has been operated at LBNL. The apparatus is free of static magnetic fields (B < 1 nT) which reduces sensitivity to motional magnetic field effects. Electric-field quantization, state preparation and detection in field-free regions, fractional-cycle pulses, active motional magnetic field nulling, multiple-quantum transitions, and web based, unattended operation of the experiment will be discussed.

Harvey Gould; Jason M. Amini; Charles T. Munger

2006-01-01

118

Experiments on a semiconductor laser pumped rubidium atomic clock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments designed to improve the performance of a commercial Rb-87 atomic clock by using a semiconductor laser are described. Two resonance gas cells were compared: gas cell A (natural Rb and buffer gases) and gas cell B (Rb-87 and buffer gases). Although the values of the highest microwave frequency stability obtained by using these cells were very similar, the magnitudes

Minoru Hashimoto; Motoichi Ohtsu

1987-01-01

119

Axiomatizing physical experiments as oracles to algorithms.  

PubMed

We developed earlier a theory of combining algorithms with physical systems, on the basis of using physical experiments as oracles to algorithms. Although our concepts and methods are general, each physical oracle requires its own analysis, on the basis of some fragment of physical theory that specifies the equipment and its behaviour. For specific examples of physical systems (mechanical, optical, electrical), the computational power has been characterized using non-uniform complexity classes. The powers of the known examples vary according to assumptions on precision and timing but seem to lead to the same complexity classes, namely P/log* and BPP//log*. In this study, we develop sets of axioms for the interface between physical equipment and algorithms that allow us to prove general characterizations, in terms of P/log* and BPP//log*, for large classes of physical oracles, in a uniform way. Sufficient conditions on physical equipment are given that ensure a physical system satisfies the axioms. PMID:22711864

Beggs, Edwin J; Costa, José Félix; Tucker, John V

2012-07-28

120

LDEF experiment A0034: Atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment A0034, 'Atomic Oxygen Stimulated Outgassing', consisted of two identical one-sixth tray modules, exposing selected thermal control coatings to atomic oxygen and the combined space environment on the leading edge, and for reference, to the relative 'wake' environment of the trailing edge. Optical mirrors were included adjacent to the thermal coatings for deposition of the outgassing products. Ultraviolet grade windows and metal covers were provided for additional assessment of the effects of various environmental factors. Preliminary results indicate that orbital atomic oxygen is both a degrading and optically restorative factor in the thermo-optical properties of selected thermal coatings. There is evidence of more severe optical degradation on collector mirrors adjacent to coatings that were exposed to RAM-impinging atomic oxygen. This evidence of atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing is discussed in relation to alternative factors that could affect degradation. The general effects of the space environment on the experiment hardware as well as the specimens are discussed.

Linton, Roger C.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Reynolds, John M.; Burris, Charles L.

1992-01-01

121

The Physics of the Imploding Can Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the popular demonstrations of atmospheric pressure in introductory physics courses is the "crushing can" or "imploding can" experiment. In this demonstration, which has also been extensively discussed on the Internet, a small amount of water is placed in a soda can and heated until it boils and water vapor almost entirely fills the can. The…

Mohazzabi, Pirooz

2010-01-01

122

Multimedia Representation of Experiments in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In most physics courses using multimedia, real experiments are represented as digital video demonstrations. These time-based media have the disadvantage that students are often in the state of passive learners. Also, traditional multimedia learning environments only allow for the selection of different digitized media, but the learning process is…

Kirstein, Juergen; Nordmeier, Volkhard

2007-01-01

123

Thermal Sensitive Foils in Physics Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes a set of physics demonstration experiments where thermal sensitive foils are used for the detection of the two dimensional distribution of temperature. The method is used for the demonstration of thermal conductivity, temperature change in adiabatic processes, distribution of electromagnetic radiation in a microwave oven and…

Bochnícek, Zdenek; Konecný, Pavel

2014-01-01

124

Theoretical atomic physics code development I: CATS: Cowan Atomic Structure Code  

SciTech Connect

An adaptation of R.D. Cowan's Atomic Structure program, CATS, has been developed as part of the Theoretical Atomic Physics (TAPS) code development effort at Los Alamos. CATS has been designed to be easy to run and to produce data files that can interface with other programs easily. The CATS produced data files currently include wave functions, energy levels, oscillator strengths, plane-wave-Born electron-ion collision strengths, photoionization cross sections, and a variety of other quantities. This paper describes the use of CATS. 10 refs.

Abdallah, J. Jr.; Clark, R.E.H.; Cowan, R.D.

1988-12-01

125

Current Topics in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface -- Ultrafast dynamics of nano and mesoscopic systems driven by asymmetric electromagnetic pulses / A. Matos-Abiague, A. S. Moskalenko and J. Berakdar -- One-dimensional non-linear oscillators as models for atoms and molecules under intense laser fields / A. Wadehra and B. M. Deb -- Experimenting with topological states of Bose-Einstein condensates / C. Raman -- Laser cooling and trapping of Rb atoms / S. Chakraborty ... [et al.] -- Pair-correlation in Bose-Einstein condensate and fermi superfluid of atomic gases / B. Deb -- Properties of trapped Bose gas in the large-gas-parameter regime / A. Banerjee -- A Feynman-Kac path integral study of Rb gas / S. Datta -- Mean field theory for interacting spin-1 bosons on a lattice / R. V. Pai, K. Sheshadri and R. Pandit -- Mixed internal-external state approach for quantum computation with neutral atoms on atom chips / E. Charron ... [et al.] -- Ultrafast pulse shaping developments for quantum computation / S. K. Karthick Kumar and D. Goswami -- Quantum information transfer in atom-photon interactions in a cavity / A. S. Majumdar, N. Nayak and B. Ghosh -- Liouville density evolution in billiards and the quantum connection / D. Biswas -- MRCPA: theory and application to highly correlating system / K. Tanaka -- Calculation of negative ion shape resonances using coupled cluster theory / Y. Sajeev and S. Pal -- Optical frequency standard with Sr+: a theoretical many-body approach / C. Sur ... [et al.] -- Fast heavy ion collisions with H[symbol] molecules and young type interference / L. C. Tribedi and D. Misra -- Estimation of ion kinetic energies from time-of-flight and momentum spectra / B. Bapat -- Third-order optical susceptibility of metal nanocluster-glass 28 composites / B. Ghosh and P. Chakraborty -- Study of atom-surface interaction using magnetic atom mirror / A. K. Mohapatra.

Sinha, Chandana; Bhattacharyya, Shib Shankar

126

Plasma Gate: Free Software for Atomic and Plasma Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Plasma Laboratory of Weizmann Institute of Science, the Free Software for Atomic and Plasma Physics Web site contains over thirty links to various programs. Examples of available software include Weizmann Institutes: 369j-symbol calculator and Russia's Institute of Spectroscopy's spectral bibliography database. Although several of the links currently seem to be dead, the site does give those working in this field access to several sites with useful software programs.

127

Slow-Atom Electron EDM Experiment with Electric Field Quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving the electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM) upper limit has been a 40-year battle against systematic effects. Two new weapons in this battle are slow atoms and ground-state electric field quantization, both of which suppress motional magnetic field effects. They have been used effectively in a recently completed e-EDM experiment that is a prototype for a high-sensitivity Cs fountain e-EDM

Harvey Gould; Jason Amini; Charles Munger Jr.

2007-01-01

128

Using the Wiimote in Introductory Physics Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wii is a very popular gaming console. An important component of its appeal is the ease of use of its remote controller, popularly known as a Wiimote. This simple-looking but powerful device has a three-axis accelerometer and communicates with the console via Bluetooth protocol. We present two experiments that demonstrate the feasibility of using the Wiimote in introductory physics experiments. The linear dependence of centripetal acceleration on the radial distance at constant angular velocity is verified and compared with data obtained using photogate timers. A second application to simple harmonic oscillators tests the capabilities of the Wiimote to measure variable accelerations.

Ochoa, Romulo; Rooney, Frank G.; Somers, William J.

2011-01-01

129

Introductory Physics Experiments Using the Wiimote  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wii, a video game console, is a very popular device with millions of units sold worldwide over the past two years. Although computationally it is not a powerful machine, to a physics educator its most important components can be its controllers. The Wiimote (or remote) controller contains three accelerometers, an infrared detector, and Bluetooth connectivity at a relatively low price. Thanks to available open source code, any PC with Bluetooth capability can detect the information sent out by the Wiimote. We have designed several experiments for introductory physics courses that make use of the accelerometers and Bluetooth connectivity. We have adapted the Wiimote to measure the: variable acceleration in simple harmonic motion, centripetal and tangential accelerations in circular motion, and the accelerations generated when students lift weights. We present the results of our experiments and compare them with those obtained when using motion and/or force sensors.

Somers, William; Rooney, Frank; Ochoa, Romulo

2009-03-01

130

Atomic physics at the Advanced Photon Source: Workshop report  

SciTech Connect

The first Workshop on Atomic Physics at the Advanced Photon Source was held at Argonne National Laboratory on March 29--30, 1990. The unprecedented brightness of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the hard X-ray region is expected to make possible a vast array of new research opportunities for the atomic-physics community. Starting with discussions of the history and current status of the field, presentations were made on various future directions for research with hard X-rays interacting with atoms, ions, clusters, and solids. Also important were the discussions on the design and status of the four next-generation rings coming on line during the 1990's: the ALS 1.6 GeV ring at Berkeley; the ESRF 6.0-GeV ring at Grenoble (1993); the APS 7.0-GeV ring at Argonne (1995); and the SPring-8 8.0-GeV ring in Japan (1998). The participation of more than one hundred scientists from domestic as well as foreign institutions demonstrated a strong interest in this field. We plan to organize follow-up workshops in the future emphasizing specific research topics.

Not Available

1990-10-01

131

HISTRAP proposal: heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics  

SciTech Connect

HISTRAP is a proposed synchrotron-cooling-storage ring optimized to accelerate, decelerate, and store beams of highly charged very-heavy ions at energies appropriate for advanced atomic physics research. The ring is designed to allow studies of electron-ion, photon-ion, ion-atom, and ion-ion interactions. An electron cooling system will provide ion beams with small angular divergence and energy spread for precision spectroscopic studies and also is necessary to allow the deceleration of heavy ions to low energies. HISTRAP will be injected with ions from either the existing Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility 25-MV tandem accelerator or from a dedicated ECR source and 250 keV/nucleon RFQ linac. The ring will have a maximum bending power of 2.0 T.m and have a circumference of 46.8 m.

Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Hudson, E.D.; Johnson, J.W.; Lee, I.Y.; Lord, R.S.

1986-01-01

132

Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

2010-01-01

133

Microprocessors in physics experiments at SLAC  

SciTech Connect

The increasing size and complexity of high energy physics experiments is changing the way data are collected. To implement a trigger or event filter requires complex logic which may have to be modified as the experiment proceeds. Simply to monitor a detector, large amounts of data must be processed on line. The use of microprocessors or other programmable devices can help to achieve these ends flexibly and economically. At SLAC, a number of microprocessor-based systems have been built and are in use in experimental setups, and others are now being developed. This talk is a review of existing systems and their use in experiments, and of developments in progress and future plans.

Rochester, L.S.

1981-04-01

134

MISSE 6 Stressed Polymers Experiment Atomic Oxygen Erosion Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polymers and other oxidizable materials used on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded away by reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). For spacecraft design, it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield, Ey (volume loss per incident oxygen atom), of materials susceptible to AO erosion. The Stressed Polymers Experiment was developed and flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6) to compare the AO erosion yields of stressed and non-stressed polymers to determine if erosion is dependent upon stress while in LEO. The experiment contained 36 thin film polymer samples that were exposed to ram AO for 1.45 years. This paper provides an overview of the Stressed Polymers Experiment with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the AO fluence, and the erosion yield results. The MISSE 6 data are compared to data for similar samples flown on previous MISSE missions to determine fluence or solar radiation effects on erosion yield.

deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Yi, Grace T.; Guo, Aobo; Ashmeade, Claire C.; Roberts, Lily M.; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Sechkar, Edward A.

2013-01-01

135

Integrated physics package of a chip-scale atomic clock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physics package of a chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC) has been successfully realized by integrating vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), neutral density (ND) filter, ?/4 wave plate, 87Rb vapor cell, photodiode (PD), and magnetic coil into a cuboid metal package with a volume of about 2.8 cm3. In this physics package, the critical component, 87Rb vapor cell, is batch-fabricated based on MEMS technology and in-situ chemical reaction method. Pt heater and thermistors are integrated in the physics package. A PTFE pillar is used to support the optical elements in the physics package, in order to reduce the power dissipation. The optical absorption spectrum of 87Rb D1 line and the microwave frequency correction signal are successfully observed while connecting the package with the servo circuit system. Using the above mentioned packaging solution, a CSAC with short-term frequency stability of about 7 × 10-10 ?-1/2 has been successfully achieved, which demonstrates that this physics package would become one promising solution for the CSAC.

Li, Shao-Liang; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Lu-Bing; Long, Liang; Wu, Ya-Ming

2014-07-01

136

Atom Interferometry for Fundamental Physics and Gravity Measurements in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser-cooled atoms are used as freefall test masses. The gravitational acceleration on atoms is measured by atom-wave interferometry. The fundamental concept behind atom interferometry is the quantum mechanical particle-wave duality. One can exploit the wave-like nature of atoms to construct an atom interferometer based on matter waves analogous to laser interferometers.

Kohel, James M.

2012-01-01

137

Atomic Physics with Accelerators: Projectile Electron Spectroscopy (APAPES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new research initiative APAPES (http://apapes.physics.uoc.gr/) has already established a new experimental station with a beam line dedicated for atomic collisions physics research, at the 5 MV TANDEM accelerator of the National Research Centre "Demokritos" in Athens, Greece. A complete zero-degree Auger projectile spectroscopy (ZAPS) apparatus has been put together to perform high resolution studies of electrons emitted in ion-atom collisions. A single stage hemispherical spectrometer with a 2-dimensional Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) combined with a doubly-differentially pumped gas target will be used to perform a systematic isoelectronic investigation of K-Auger spectra emitted from collisions of preexcited and ground state He-like ions with gas targets using novel techniques. Our intention is to provide a more thorough understanding of cascade feeding of the 1s2s2p 4P metastable states produced by electron capture in collisions of He-like ions with gas targets and further elucidate their role in the non-statistical production of excited three-electron 1s2s2p states by electron capture, recently a field of conflicting interpretations awaiting further resolution. At the moment, the apparatus is being completed and the spectrometer will soon be fully operational. Here we present the project progress and the recent high resolution spectrum obtained in collisions of 12 MeV C4+ on a Neon gas target.

Madesis, I.; Dimitriou, A.; Laoutaris, A.; Lagoyannis, A.; Axiotis, M.; Mertzimekis, T.; Andrianis, M.; Harissopulos, S.; Benis, E. P.; Sulik, B.; Valastyán, I.; Zouros, T. J. M.

2015-01-01

138

Tokamak physics experiment: Diagnostic windows study  

SciTech Connect

We detail the study of diagnostic windows and window thermal stress remediation in the long-pulse, high-power Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) operation. The operating environment of the TPX diagnostic windows is reviewed, thermal loads on the windows estimated, and cooling requirements for the windows considered. Applicable window-cooling technology from other fields is reviewed and its application to the TPX windows considered. Methods for TPX window thermal conditioning are recommended, with some discussion of potential implementation problems provided. Recommendations for further research and development work to ensure performance of windows in the TPX system are presented.

Merrigan, M.; Wurden, G.A.

1995-11-01

139

Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments  

SciTech Connect

This Final Report summarizes work performed under DOE STTR Phase II Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER86258 during the project period from August 2006 to August 2009. The project, “Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments,” was led by Prism Computational Sciences (Madison, WI), and involved collaboration with subcontractors University of Nevada-Reno and Voss Scientific (Albuquerque, NM). In this project, we have: ? Developed and implemented a multi-dimensional, multi-frequency radiation transport model in the LSP hybrid fluid-PIC (particle-in-cell) code [1,2]. ? Updated the LSP code to support the use of accurate equation-of-state (EOS) tables generated by Prism’s PROPACEOS [3] code to compute more accurate temperatures in high energy density physics (HEDP) plasmas. ? Updated LSP to support the use of Prism’s multi-frequency opacity tables. ? Generated equation of state and opacity data for LSP simulations for several materials being used in plasma jet experimental studies. ? Developed and implemented parallel processing techniques for the radiation physics algorithms in LSP. ? Benchmarked the new radiation transport and radiation physics algorithms in LSP and compared simulation results with analytic solutions and results from numerical radiation-hydrodynamics calculations. ? Performed simulations using Prism radiation physics codes to address issues related to radiative cooling and ionization dynamics in plasma jet experiments. ? Performed simulations to study the effects of radiation transport and radiation losses due to electrode contaminants in plasma jet experiments. ? Updated the LSP code to generate output using NetCDF to provide a better, more flexible interface to SPECT3D [4] in order to post-process LSP output. ? Updated the SPECT3D code to better support the post-processing of large-scale 2-D and 3-D datasets generated by simulation codes such as LSP. ? Updated atomic physics modeling to provide for more comprehensive and accurate atomic databases that feed into the radiation physics modeling (spectral simulations and opacity tables). ? Developed polarization spectroscopy modeling techniques suitable for diagnosing energetic particle characteristics in HEDP experiments. A description of these items is provided in this report. The above efforts lay the groundwork for utilizing the LSP and SPECT3D codes in providing simulation support for DOE-sponsored HEDP experiments, such as plasma jet and fast ignition physics experiments. We believe that taken together, the LSP and SPECT3D codes have unique capabilities for advancing our understanding of the physics of these HEDP plasmas. Based on conversations early in this project with our DOE program manager, Dr. Francis Thio, our efforts emphasized developing radiation physics and atomic modeling capabilities that can be utilized in the LSP PIC code, and performing radiation physics studies for plasma jets. A relatively minor component focused on the development of methods to diagnose energetic particle characteristics in short-pulse laser experiments related to fast ignition physics. The period of performance for the grant was extended by one year to August 2009 with a one-year no-cost extension, at the request of subcontractor University of Nevada-Reno.

MacFarlane, Joseph J [Prism Computational Sciences] [Prism Computational Sciences

2009-08-07

140

The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) is being developed by NASA to provide long duration low temperature and microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS) for performing fundamental physics investigations. Currently, six experiments have been selected for flight definition studies. More will be selected in a two-year cycle, through NASA Research Announcement. This program is managed under the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The facility is being designed to launch and returned to earth on a variety of vehicles including the HII-A and the space shuttle. On orbit, the facility will be connected to the Exposed Facility on the Japanese Experiment Module, Kibo. Features of the facility include a cryostat capable of maintaining super-fluid helium at a temperature of 1.4 K for 5 months, resistance thermometer bridges, multi-stage thermal isolation system, thermometers capable of pico-Kelvin resolution, DC SQUID magnetometers, passive vibration isolation, and magnetic shields with a shielding factor of 80dB. The electronics and software architecture incorporates two VME buses run using the VxWorks operating system. Technically challenging areas in the design effort include the following: 1) A long cryogen life that survives several launch and test cycles without the need to replace support straps for the helium tank. 2) The minimization of heat generation in the sample stage caused by launch vibration 3) The design of compact and lightweight DC SQUID electronics. 4) The minimization of RF interference for the measurement of heat at pico-Watt level. 5) Light weighting of the magnetic shields. 6) Implementation of a modular and flexible electronics and software architecture. The first launch is scheduled for mid-2003, on an H-IIA Rocket Transfer Vehicle, out of the Tanegashima Space Center of Japan. Two identical facilities will be built. While one facility is onboard the ISS, the other is re-integrated on the ground with new experiments. When the cryogen of the facility in space are exhausted, it will be swapped with the other facility with the new experiment. A total of 20 science missions are envisioned over the next 20 years.

Holmes, Warren; Lai, Anthony; Croonquist, Arvid; Chui, Talso; Eraker, J. H.; Abbott, Randy; Mills, Gary; Mohl, James; Craig, James; Balachandra, Balu; Gannon, Jade

2000-01-01

141

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 86, 053401 (2012) Electric-field sensing near the surface microstructure of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms  

E-print Network

of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms J. D. Carter, O. Cherry, and J. D. D. Martin Department of Physics fields near the heterogeneous metal-dielectric surface of an atom chip were measured using cold atoms. The atomic sensitivity to electric fields was enhanced by exciting the atoms to Rydberg states that are 108

Le Roy, Robert J.

142

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 013822 (2011) Collisionally induced atomic clock shifts and correlations  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 013822 (2011) Collisionally induced atomic clock shifts and correlations Y. B frequency shifts for atomic clocks using a density-matrix formalism. The formalism is developed for both fermionic and bosonic atomic clocks. Numerical results for a finite-temperature 87 Sr 1 S0 (F = 9/2) atomic

Band, Yehuda B.

143

Davisson-Germer Prize in Atomic or Surface Physics Lecture: Exploring Flatland with Cold Atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional Bose fluid is a remarkably rich many-body system, which allows one to revisit several features of quantum statistical physics. Firstly, the role of thermal fluctuations is enhanced compared to the 3D case, which destroys the ordered state associated with Bose-Einstein condensation. However interactions between particles can still cause a superfluid transition, thanks to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism. Secondly, a weakly interacting Bose fluid in 2D must be scale-invariant, a remarkable feature that manifests itself in the very simple form taken by the equation of state of the fluid. In this talk I will present recent experimental progress in the investigation of 2D atomic gases, which provide a nice illustration of the main features of low dimensional many-body physics.

Dalibard, Jean

2012-06-01

144

Further investigations of experiment A0034 atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal control coatings within the recessed compartments of LDEF Experiment A0034 experienced the maximum leading edge fluence of atomic oxygen with considerably less solar UV radiation exposure than top-surface mounted materials of other LDEF experiments on either the leading or the trailing edge. This combination of exposure within A0034 resulted in generally lower levels of darkening attributable to solar UV radiation than for similar materials on other LDEF experiments exposed to greater cumulative solar UV radiation levels. Changes in solar absorptance and infrared thermal emittance of the exposed coatings are thus unique to this exposure. Analytical results for other applications have been found for environmentally induced changes in fluorescence, surface morphology, light scattering, and the effects of coating outgassing products on adjacent mirrors and windows of the A0034 experiment. Some atmospheric bleaching of the thermal control coatings, in addition to that presumably experience during reentry and recovery operations, has been found since initial post-flight observations and measurements.

Linton, Roger C.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.

1995-01-01

145

Atom Interferometers  

E-print Network

Interference with atomic and molecular matter waves is a rich branch of atomic physics and quantum optics. It started with atom diffraction from crystal surfaces and the separated oscillatory fields technique used in atomic clocks. Atom interferometry is now reaching maturity as a powerful art with many applications in modern science. In this review we first describe the basic tools for coherent atom optics including diffraction by nanostructures and laser light, three-grating interferometers, and double wells on AtomChips. Then we review scientific advances in a broad range of fields that have resulted from the application of atom interferometers. These are grouped in three categories: (1) fundamental quantum science, (2) precision metrology and (3) atomic and molecular physics. Although some experiments with Bose Einstein condensates are included, the focus of the review is on linear matter wave optics, i.e. phenomena where each single atom interferes with itself.

Alexander D. Cronin; Joerg Schmiedmayer; David E. Pritchard

2007-12-21

146

Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designed to improve long-range treaty monitoring capabilities, the Source Physics Experiments, conducted at the Nevada National Security Site, also provide an opportunity to advance near-field monitoring and field-based investigations of suspected underground test locations. In particular, features associated with underground testing can be evaluated using Source Physics Experiment activities as analogs, linking on-site inspections with remote sensing technologies. Following a calibration shot (SPE 1), SPE 2 (10/2011) and SPE 3 (07/2012) were performed in the same emplacement hole with 1.0 ton of explosives at 150 ft depth. Because one of the goals of the Source Physics Experiments is to determine damage effects on seismic wave propagation and improve modeling capabilities, a key component in the predictive component and ultimate validation of the models is a full understanding of the intervening geology between the source and instrumented bore holes. Ground-based LIDAR and fracture mapping, mechanical properties determined via laboratory testing of rock core, discontinuity analysis and optical microscopy of the core rocks were performed prior to and following each experiment. In addition, gravity and magnetic data were collected between SPE 2 and 3. The source region of the explosions was also characterized using cross-borehole seismic tomography and vertical seismic profiling utilizing two sets of two boreholes within 40 meters of ground zero. The two sets of boreholes are co-linear with the explosives hole in two directions. Results of the LIDAR collects from both SPE 2 and 3 indicate a permanent ground displacement of up to several centimeters aligning along the projected surface traces of two faults observed in the core and fractures mapped at the surface. Laboratory testing and optical work show a difference in the characteristics of the rocks below and above 40 feet and within the fault zones.The estimated near-surface densities from the gravity survey show substantial changes in apparent near-surface density and may help explain independently-observed near-surface velocity changes. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security AdministrationAward No. DE-AC52-06NA25946/NST10-NCNS-PD00. Work by National Security Technologies, LLC, was performed under Contract No. DE AC52 06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Sandia National Laboratories, is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Broome, S. T.; Townsend, M.; Abbott, R. E.; Snelson, C. M.; Cogbill, A. H.; Conklin, G.; Mitra, G.; Sabbeth, L.

2012-12-01

147

The laboratory experience in introductory physics courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last two decades or so have witnessed intense efforts to improve the teaching and learning of physics. Scholarly studies have provided the grounding for many projects which reform the structure of introductory courses. A number of these innovations, however, are resource intensive, or depend on the ability to introduce changes in areas which are beyond the control of the faculty (e.g., scheduling), thus inhibiting their implementation. An alternative strategy that overcomes these obstacles is to modify the nature of the laboratory experience (a component that practically nobody disputes is an essential part of the introductory course), to provide hands-on learning opportunities that differ from the traditional "follow-this-recipe-to-verify-this-law" approach. I have chosen to implement a variety of activities that support the overall objectives of the course: developing conceptual understanding and transferable skills, and providing practice in the ways scientists actually do science. Given the audience in this two-semester, algebra-based course, mostly biology majors and pre-professionals (health-related careers, such as medicine, physical therapy, and veterinary), these goals were identified as the most important and lasting contribution that a physics course can make to the students intellectual development. I offer here examples of the types of hands on activities that I have implemented, organized for the sake of this presentation in four rather loose categories, depending on which subset of the course objectives the activities mostly address: self-designed lab activities, discussion of demo-type activities, building concepts from simple to complex, and out-of-lab physical phenomena.

Di Stefano, Maria C.

1997-03-01

148

Soft physics results from the PHENIX experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC-BNL and LHC-CERN provide a unique opportunity to study the properties of the high-temperature and high-density nuclear matter called the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), which is supposed to exist in the early universe or inside neutron stars. The PHENIX experiment is one of the major experiments at RHIC to study the properties of QGP, especially focusing on various particle identification capabilities including photons, leptons, and hadrons. This article summarizes the soft physics results from the PHENIX experiment, such as (1) global properties like transverse energy and multiplicity measurements as well as centrality determination, (2) transverse momentum distribution and the nuclear modification factor, which represents the modification of the spectra in A+A collisions relative to the binary-collision-scaled superposition of p+p data, (3) space-time properties with Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) interferometry correlation measurement and source imaging, (4) elliptic collective expansion and higher-order harmonic event anisotropy, and (5) di-hadron correlation, jet modification, and medium response known as jet-quenching from the partonic energy loss and redistribution of the lost energy. These results are reviewed and discussed.

Esumi, ShinIchi

2015-03-01

149

Atomic Physics in the Quest for Fusion Energy and ITER  

SciTech Connect

The urgent quest for new energy sources has led developed countries, representing over half of the world population, to collaborate on demonstrating the scientific and technological feasibility of magnetic fusion through the construction and operation of ITER. Data on high-Z ions will be important in this quest. Tungsten plasma facing components have the necessary low erosion rates and low tritium retention but the high radiative efficiency of tungsten ions leads to stringent restrictions on the concentration of tungsten ions in the burning plasma. The influx of tungsten to the burning plasma will need to be diagnosed, understood and stringently controlled. Expanded knowledge of the atomic physics of neutral and ionized tungsten will be important to monitor impurity influxes and derive tungsten concentrations. Also, inert gases such as argon and xenon will be used to dissipate the heat flux flowing to the divertor. This article will summarize the spectroscopic diagnostics planned for ITER and outline areas where additional data is needed.

Charles H. Skinner

2008-02-27

150

Skylab experiments. Volume 1: Physical science, solar astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic subject of this volume is the solar astronomy program conducted on Skylab. In addition to descriptions of the individual experiments and the principles involved in their performance, a brief description is included of the sun and the energy characteristics associated with each zone. Wherever possible, related classroom activities have been identified and discussed in some detail. It will be apparent that the relationships rest not only in the field of solar astronomy, but also in the following subjects: (1) physics - optics, electromagnetic spectrum, atomic structure, etc.; (2) chemistry - emission spectra, kinetic theory, X-ray absorption, etc.; (3) biology - radiation and dependence on the sun; (4) electronics - cathode ray tubes, detectors, photomultipliers, etc.; (5) photography; (6) astronomy; and (7) industrial arts.

1973-01-01

151

Probing physical properties at the nanoscale using atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques that measure physical properties at the nanoscale with high sensitivity are significantly limited considering the number of new nanomaterials being developed. The development of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has lead to significant advancements in the ability to characterize physical properties of materials in all areas of science: chemistry, physics, engineering, and biology have made great scientific strides do to the versatility of the AFM. AFM is used for quantification of many physical properties such as morphology, electrical, mechanical, magnetic, electrochemical, binding interactions, and protein folding. This work examines the electrical and mechanical properties of materials applicable to the field of nano-electronics. As electronic devices are miniaturized the demand for materials with unique electrical properties, which can be developed and exploited, has increased. For example, discussed in this work, a derivative of tetrathiafulvalene, which exhibits a unique loss of conductivity upon compression of the self-assembled monolayer could be developed into a molecular switch. This work also compares tunable organic (tetraphenylethylene tetracarboxylic acid and bis(pyridine)s assemblies) and metal-organic (Silver-stilbizole coordination compounds) crystals which show high electrical conductivity. The electrical properties of these materials vary depending on their composition allowing for the development of compositionally tunable functional materials. Additional work was done to investigate the effects of molecular environment on redox active 11-ferroceneyl-1 undecanethiol (Fc) molecules. The redox process of mixed monolayers of Fc and decanethiol was measured using conductive probe atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy. As the concentration of Fc increased large, variations in the force were observed. Using these variations the number of oxidized molecules in the monolayer was determined. AFM is additionally capable of investigating interactions at the nanoscale, such as ligand-receptor interactions. This work examines the interactions between the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a widely investigated enzyme targeted for cancer and antimicrobial pharmaceutical, and methotrexate (MTX), a strong competitive inhibitor of DHFR. The DHFR was immobilized on a gold substrate, bound through a single surface cysteine, and maintained catalytic activity. AFM probe was functionalized with MTX and the interaction strength was measured using AFM. This work highlights the versatility of AFM, specifically force spectroscopy for the quantification of electrical, mechanical, and ligand-receptor interactions at the nanoscale.

Ditzler, Lindsay Rachel

152

Proof-of-concept experiments for quantum physics in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum physics experiments in space using entangled photons and satellites are within reach of current technology. We propose a series of fundamental quantum physics experiments that make advantageous use of the space infrastructure with specific emphasis on the satellite-based distribution of entangled photon pairs. The experiments are feasible already today and will eventually lead to a Bell-experiment over thousands of

Rainer Kaltenbaek; Markus Aspelmeyer; Thomas Jennewein; Caslav Brukner; Anton Zeilinger; Martin Pfennigbauer; Walter R. Leeb

2004-01-01

153

AGS experiments in nuclear/QCD physics at medium energies  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a diagram of the experimental setup for each experiment as well as giving a brief discussion of its purpose and list of collaborators for the experiment. Thirty-one experiments in the areas of nuclear physics and particle physics are covered. It concludes with a list of publications of the AGS experiments.

Lo Presti, P.

1998-07-01

154

Physics Experiments That You Can Do at Home  

E-print Network

Physics Experiments That You Can Do at Home Brought to you by The Wonders of Physics University of Wisconsin ­ Madison #12;2 The Wonders of Physics The Wonders of Physics is an outreach program sponsored by the Physics Department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Professor Clint Sprott has been amazing

Saffman, Mark

155

A capstone research experience for physics majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dickinson College is a small liberal arts college with a thriving physics program. For years, one of the key features of our program has been a year-long senior research project that was required for each student. Unfortunately, as our number of majors increased, it became more and more difficult to supervise such a large number of senior research projects. To deal with this growing challenge, we developed a capstone research experience that involves a larger number of students working together on an independent group project. In this talk I will give a broad overview of our new senior research model and provide a few examples of projects that have been carried out over the past few years. I will also briefly describe the positive and negative aspects of this model from the perspective of faculty and students.

Jackson, David

2013-03-01

156

ELASR - An electrostatic storage ring for atomic and molecular physics at KACST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new ELectrostAtic Storage Ring (ELASR) has been designed and built at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It was developed to be the core of a new storage ring laboratory for atomic and molecular physics at KACST. ELASR follows the standard design of the pioneering storage ring ELISA and it thereby features a racetrack single-bend shaped ring. Complementary simulation code packages were used to work out the design under the requirements of the projected experiments. This paper reports a short description of the ELASR storage ring through an overview of its design and construction.

El Ghazaly, Mohamed O. A.

157

A Data Readout Approach for Physics Experiment  

E-print Network

With the increasing physical event rate and number of electronic channels, traditional readout scheme meets the challenge of improving readout speed caused by the limited bandwidth of crate backplane. In this paper, a high-speed data readout method based on Ethernet is designed for each module to have capability of transmitting data to DAQ. Features of explicitly parallel data transmitting and distributed network architecture make the readout system has advantage of adapting varying requirements of particle physics experiments. Furthermore, to guarantee the readout performance and flexibility, a standalone embedded CPU system is utilized for network protocol stack processing. To receive customized data format and protocol from front-end electronics, a field programmable gate array (FPGA) is used for logic reconfiguration. To optimize the interface and improve the data swap speed between CPU and FPGA, a sophisticated method based on SRAM is presented in this paper. For the purpose of evaluating this high-speed readout method, a simplified readout module is designed and implemented. Test results show that this module can support up to 70Mbps data throughput from the readout module to DAQ smoothly.

Huang Xi-Ru; Cao Ping; Gao Li-Wei; Zheng Jia-Jun

2014-10-21

158

Controlled Space Physics Experiments using Laboratory Magnetospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern society's reliance on space-based platforms for a variety of economic and geopolitical purposes makes understanding the physics of the magnetosphere and "space weather'' one of the most important applications of plasma science. During the past decade, results from the CTX and LDX laboratory magnetospheres and from the RT-1 device at University of Tokyo, we have developed techniques to explore space physics using controlled experiments in laboratory magnetospheres. This presentation briefly reviews observations from the laboratory magnetospheres at Columbia University and MIT, including adiabatic drift-resonant transport, low-frequency MHD turbulence, and the formation of high-beta plasmas with profiles similar to Earth's inner magnetosphere. First principle validation of ``whole plasma'' space weather models have been completed in relevant magnetic geometry, including the spectrum and dynamics of turbulence successfully modeled with nonlinear bounce-averaged gyrokinetic simulations. Plans to explore Alfvénic dynamics and whistler wave trapping are discussed through the achievement of higher-density plasmas using radio-frequency heating. Photographs of the laboratory magnetospheres located at MIT (top) and Columbia University (bottom).

Mauel, M. E.; Kesner, J.; Garnier, D.

2013-12-01

159

Parity Nonconservation in Atomic Thallium: the Magnetic Field Experiment.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment underway to measure the parity nonconserving electric dipole amplitude in the 6('2)P(,1/2) (--->) 7('2)P(,1/2) transition in atomic thallium is described. Previous measurements('31) have yielded a value of. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). The current experiment employs a magnetic field, an electric field, and linearly polarized light from a high intensity dye laser oscillator-amplifier system('54) in an effort to refine the above result. In a large (4 KGauss) magnetic field, an interference between a parity nonconserving E1 and a Stark E1 amplitude can be observed by pumping the 6('2)P(,1/2) (--->) 7('2)P(,1/2) transition with linearly polarized 293 nm photons and detecting the 7('2)S(,1/2) (--->) 6('2)P(,3/2) decay fluorescence at 535 nm. A description of the experiment is presented as well as a detailed analysis of the possible systematic effects that could masquerade as parity nonconservation. Measured limits on the systematics are also presented.

Drell, Persis Sydney

160

Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Image Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes, their agglomerates, and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. Particle sizes of 1.9 to 8 mm (0.075 to 0.315 in.) were measured. The particle agglomerate sizes and areas were measured, and the total mass of solid hydrogen was computed. A total mass of from 0.22 to 7.9 grams of hydrogen was frozen. Compaction and expansion of the agglomerate implied that the particles remain independent particles, and can be separated and controlled. These experiment image analyses are one of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles, and allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

Palaszewski, Bryan

2002-01-01

161

Initial physics achievements of large helical device experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments [O. Motojima, et al., Proceedings, 16th Conference on Fusion Energy, Montreal, 1996 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1997), Vol. 3, p. 437] have started this year after a successful eight-year construction and test period of the fully superconducting facility. LHD investigates a variety of physics issues on large scale heliotron plasmas (R=3.9 m, a=0.6 m), which stimulates efforts to explore currentless and disruption-free steady plasmas under an optimized configuration. A magnetic field mapping has demonstrated the nested and healthy structure of magnetic surfaces, which indicates the successful completion of the physical design and the effectiveness of engineering quality control during the fabrication. Heating by 3 MW of neutral beam injection (NBI) has produced plasmas with a fusion triple product of 8×1018keV m-3 s at a magnetic field of 1.5 T. An electron temperature of 1.5 keV and an ion temperature of 1.4 keV have been achieved. The maximum stored energy has reached 0.22 MJ, which corresponds to =0.7%, with neither unexpected confinement deterioration nor visible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities. Energy confinement times, reaching 0.17 s at the maximum, have shown a trend similar to the present scaling law derived from the existing medium sized helical devices, but enhanced by 50%. The knowledge on transport, MHD, divertor, and long pulse operation, etc., are now rapidly increasing, which implies the successful progress of physics experiments on helical currentless-toroidal plasmas.

Motojima, O.; Yamada, H.; Komori, A.; Ohyabu, N.; Kawahata, K.; Kaneko, O.; Masuzaki, S.; Ejiri, A.; Emoto, M.; Funaba, H.; Goto, M.; Ida, K.; Idei, H.; Inagaki, S.; Inoue, N.; Kado, S.; Kubo, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Minami, T.; Miyazawa, J.; Morisaki, T.; Morita, S.; Murakami, S.; Muto, S.; Mutoh, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Nakanishi, H.; Narihara, K.; Nishimura, K.; Noda, N.; Kobuchi, T.; Ohdachi, S.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Ozaki, T.; Peterson, B. J.; Sagara, A.; Sakakibara, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Sasao, H.; Sasao, M.; Sato, K.; Sato, M.; Seki, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Shoji, M.; Suzuki, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Toi, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsumori, K.; Tsuzuki, K.; Yamada, I.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yokoyama, M.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Watari, T.; Hamada, Y.; Matsuoka, K.; Murai, K.; Ohkubo, K.; Ohtake, I.; Okamoto, M.; Satoh, S.; Satow, T.; Sudo, S.; Tanahashi, S.; Yamazaki, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Iiyoshi, A.

1999-05-01

162

Hadron Physics at the COMPASS Experiment  

E-print Network

Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interactions, in principle describes the interaction of quark and gluon fields. However, due to the self-coupling of the gluons, quarks and gluons are confined into hadrons and cannot exist as free particles. The quantitative understanding of this confinement phenomenon, which is responsible for about 98\\% of the mass of the visible universe, is one of the major open questions in particle physics. The measurement of the excitation spectrum of hadrons and of their properties gives valuable input to theory and phenomenology. In the Constituent Quark Model (CQM) two types of hadrons exist: mesons, made out of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons, which consist of three quarks. But more advanced QCD-inspired models and Lattice QCD calculations predict the existence of hadrons with exotic properties interpreted as excited glue (hybrids) or even pure gluonic bound states (glueballs). The COMPASS experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron has acquired large data sets, which allow to study light-quark meson and baryon spectra in unprecedented detail. The presented overview of the first results from this data set focuses in particular on the light meson sector and presents a detailed analysis of three-pion final states. A new $J^{PC} = 1^{++}$ state, the $a_1(1420)$, is observed with a mass and width in the ranges $m = 1412-1422\\,\\mathrm{MeV}/c^2$ and $\\Gamma = 130-150\\,\\mathrm{MeV}/c^2$.

Fabian Krinner; for the COMPASS collaboration

2014-12-08

163

ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 1, SUPPLEMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SELF-TUTORING APPROACH IN EDUCATION. THE MATERIALS COVER SECTIONS ON (1) THE ATOM, (2) ATOMIC PARTICLES, (3) CATHODE RAYS, (4) MEASURING THE ELECTRON, (5) CHARGE AND MASS OF THE ELECTRON, AND (6) MASS OF ATOMS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 003 205 THROUGH ED 003 207, ED…

DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

164

FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The Schrödinger atom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of an electrodynamical interpretation of the wave function suggested by Schrödinger are described. According to this conception, electron charge is continuously distributed throughout the interior of the atomic system. A proof is given that classical electrodynamics holds within an atom. The Schrödinger atom is shown to be the only model in which electrons do not lose their energy through

A. D. Vlasov

1993-01-01

165

The interplay of nuclear and atomic physics in the synthesis of the elements  

SciTech Connect

In many astronomical environments, physical conditions are so extreme that matter is almost completely ionized. The absence of bound atomic electrons can dramatically alter the decay rates of a number of radioactive nuclei. Several examples of this interplay of nuclear and atomic physics relevant to the synthesis of the chemical elements are described. 16 refs., 4 figs.

Norman, E.B.

1989-03-01

166

A learning pathway in high-school level quantum atomic physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, one student's learning process in a course on quantum atomic physics in grade 13 of a German gymnasium (secondary school) is described. The course lasted 16 weeks for a total of approximately 80 lessons. The aim of the present study is to elaborate the student's cognitive system for atomic physics as a hypothetical pragmatic model to describe,

Juergen Petri; Hans Niedderer

1988-01-01

167

Heavy ion physics with the ALICE experiment at LHC  

E-print Network

ALICE is the experiment at the LHC collider at CERN dedicated to heavy ion physics. In this report, the ALICE detector will be presented, together with its expected performance as far as some selected physics topics are concerned.

Chiara Zampolli; for the ALICE Collaboration.

2007-05-15

168

Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ~ ni ~ 1016 cm-3, Te ~ Ti ~ 1.4 eV, V jet ~ 30-100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}$ ~ 1, sonic Mach number Ms ? V jet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ~20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.

Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Witherspoon

2015-04-01

169

Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets  

E-print Network

We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven rail guns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: $n_e\\approx n_i \\sim 10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$, $T_e \\approx T_i \\approx 1.4$ eV, $V_{\\rm jet}\\approx 30$-100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}\\approx 1$, sonic Mach number $M_s\\equiv V_{\\rm jet}/C_s>10$, jet diameter $=5$ cm, and jet length $\\approx 20$ cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.

Hsu, S C; Merritt, E C; Adams, C S; Dunn, J P; Brockington, S; Case, A; Gilmore, M; Lynn, A G; Messer, S J; Witherspoon, F D

2014-01-01

170

Use of Video in the Harvard Project Physics Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advantages are related of a video recorder over a Polaroid camera for doing experiments dealing with the "conservation of mass and momentum." Use of video records is advocated for recording measurements in physics experiments. (JP)

Quan, Joyce

1974-01-01

171

Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

2005-01-01

172

Atom-resolved electronic spectra for Alq3 from theory and experiment A. Curionia)  

E-print Network

Atom-resolved electronic spectra for Alq3 from theory and experiment A. Curionia) and W. Andreoni from the different atoms and molecular orbitals. Fingerprints of the molecular bonding and of the individual atoms are identified. These results are meant to be a reference for the monitoring of chemical

Himpsel, Franz J.

173

Learning of Atomic Physics and Quantum Mechanics : Which should Begin First  

E-print Network

What are the differences and similarities between atomic-physics studies at different peoples (Han, Kazak and Uygur perples in the same university) across Xinjiang (a far-west district in PR China which is a border for previous USSR and Kazak)? In this short report we focus on issues relating to the learning style of different-people students to pass the atomic physics course in physics department even the quantum mechanics course has not been taken before.

Chen Qin; Zotin K. -H. Chu

2009-11-27

174

An ultra-low-power physics package for a chip-scale atomic clock  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the design and measured thermal and mechanical performance of an ultra-low-power physics package for a chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC). This physics package enables communications and navigation systems that require a compact, low-power atomic frequency standard. The physics package includes a unique combination of thermal isolation, mechanical stability and robustness, and small package volume. We have demonstrated temperature control

Mark J. Mescher; R. Lutwak; Mathew Varghese

2005-01-01

175

Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases  

SciTech Connect

We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold {sup 87}Rb and {sup 39}K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 10{sup 4} {sup 87}Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold {sup 39}K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems.

Ivory, M. K.; Ziltz, A. R.; Fancher, C. T.; Pyle, A. J.; Sensharma, A.; Chase, B.; Field, J. P.; Garcia, A.; Aubin, S., E-mail: saaubi@wm.edu [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States); Jervis, D. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada)

2014-04-15

176

Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases.  

PubMed

We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold (87)Rb and (39)K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 10(4) (87)Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold (39)K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems. PMID:24784588

Ivory, M K; Ziltz, A R; Fancher, C T; Pyle, A J; Sensharma, A; Chase, B; Field, J P; Garcia, A; Jervis, D; Aubin, S

2014-04-01

177

Hyperthermal atomic oxygen source for near-space simulation experiments  

SciTech Connect

A hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) beam facility has been developed to investigate the collisions of high-velocity AO atoms with vapor-phase counterflow. Application of 4.5 kW, 2.4 GHz microwave power in the source chamber creates a continuous discharge in flowing O{sub 2} gas. The O{sub 2} feedstock is introduced into the source chamber in a vortex flow to constrain the plasma to the center region, with the chamber geometry promoting resonant excitation of the TM{sub 011} mode to localize the energy deposition in the vicinity of the aluminum nitride (AlN) expansion nozzle. The approximately 3500 K environment serves to dissociate the O{sub 2}, resulting in an effluent consisting of 40% AO by number density. Downstream of the nozzle, a silicon carbide (SiC) skimmer selects the center portion of the discharge effluent, prior to the expansion reaching the first shock front and rethermalizing, creating a beam with a derived 2.5 km s{sup -1} velocity. Differential pumping of the skimmer chamber, an optional intermediate chamber and reaction chamber maintains a reaction chamber pressure in the mid-10{sup -6} to mid-10{sup -5} Torr range. The beam has been characterized with regard to total AO beam flux, O{sub 2} dissociation fraction, and AO spatial profile using time-of-flight mass spectrometric and Kapton-H erosion measurements. A series of reactions AO+C{sub n}H{sub 2n} (n=2-4) has been studied under single-collision conditions using mass spectrometric product detection, and at higher background pressure detecting dispersed IR emissions from primary and secondary products using a step-scan Michelson interferometer. In a more recent AO crossed-beam experiment, number densities and predicted IR emission intensities have been modeled using the direct simulation Monte Carlo technique. The results have been used to guide the experimental conditions. IR emission intensity predictions are compared to detected signal levels to estimate absolute reaction cross sections.

Dodd, James A.; Baker, Paul M.; Hwang, Eunsook S.; Sporleder, David; Stearns, Jaime A. [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts 01731 (United States); Chambreau, Steven D. [Propulsion Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States); Braunstein, Matthew; Conforti, Patrick F. [Spectral Sciences, Inc., 4 Fourth Ave., Burlington, Massachusetts 01803 (United States)

2009-09-15

178

Hyperthermal atomic oxygen source for near-space simulation experiments.  

PubMed

A hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) beam facility has been developed to investigate the collisions of high-velocity AO atoms with vapor-phase counterflow. Application of 4.5 kW, 2.4 GHz microwave power in the source chamber creates a continuous discharge in flowing O(2) gas. The O(2) feedstock is introduced into the source chamber in a vortex flow to constrain the plasma to the center region, with the chamber geometry promoting resonant excitation of the TM(011) mode to localize the energy deposition in the vicinity of the aluminum nitride (AlN) expansion nozzle. The approximately 3500 K environment serves to dissociate the O(2), resulting in an effluent consisting of 40% AO by number density. Downstream of the nozzle, a silicon carbide (SiC) skimmer selects the center portion of the discharge effluent, prior to the expansion reaching the first shock front and rethermalizing, creating a beam with a derived 2.5 km s(-1) velocity. Differential pumping of the skimmer chamber, an optional intermediate chamber and reaction chamber maintains a reaction chamber pressure in the mid-10(-6) to mid-10(-5) Torr range. The beam has been characterized with regard to total AO beam flux, O(2) dissociation fraction, and AO spatial profile using time-of-flight mass spectrometric and Kapton-H erosion measurements. A series of reactions AO+C(n)H(2n) (n=2-4) has been studied under single-collision conditions using mass spectrometric product detection, and at higher background pressure detecting dispersed IR emissions from primary and secondary products using a step-scan Michelson interferometer. In a more recent AO crossed-beam experiment, number densities and predicted IR emission intensities have been modeled using the direct simulation Monte Carlo technique. The results have been used to guide the experimental conditions. IR emission intensity predictions are compared to detected signal levels to estimate absolute reaction cross sections. PMID:19791929

Dodd, James A; Baker, Paul M; Hwang, Eunsook S; Sporleder, David; Stearns, Jaime A; Chambreau, Steven D; Braunstein, Matthew; Conforti, Patrick F

2009-09-01

179

The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…

Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

2008-01-01

180

Physics Experiments with Nintendo Wii Controllers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a detailed description of the use of Nintendo Wii game controllers in physics demonstrations. The main features of the controller relevant to physics are outlined and the procedure for communicating with a PC is described. A piece of software written by the author is applied to gathering data from a controller suspended from…

Wheeler, Martyn D.

2011-01-01

181

arXiv:1001.0944v2[physics.atom-ph]7May2010 Single-Photon Atomic Sorting: Isotope Separation with Maxwell's Demon  

E-print Network

arXiv:1001.0944v2[physics.atom-ph]7May2010 Single-Photon Atomic Sorting: Isotope Separation-to-magnetic moment ratio of a particular isotope in an atomic beam, followed by a magnetic multipole whose gradients deflect and guide the atoms. The underlying mechanism is a reduction of the entropy of the beam

Texas at Austin. University of

182

The physical interest in kaonic- and antiprotonic-deuterium atoms  

E-print Network

Exotic deuterium and helium are discussed. The S, P and D levels of antiprotonic and kaonic atoms are calculated. Absorptive, subthreshold antiproton-nucleon amplitudes are extracted from experimental data and compared to model calculations. The existence of a quasi-bound state in the antiproton-nucleon system is indicated. In the kaonic atoms some effects of the Sigma(1385) resonance are evaluated.

S. Wycech; B. Loiseau

2005-08-05

183

Impact Crater Experiments for Introductory Physics and Astronomy Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activity-based collisional analysis is developed for introductory physics and astronomy laboratory experiments. Crushable floral foam is used to investigate the physics of projectiles undergoing completely inelastic collisions with a low-density solid forming impact craters. Simple drop experiments enable determination of the average acceleration,…

Claycomb, J. R.

2009-01-01

184

Gross Anatomy and Physical Diagnosis: The First 'Hands On' Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A patient interaction course designed to provide an introductory experience to the gross anatomy laboratory and to the interview and physical examination settings is described. The patient interaction course is composed of a series of four experiences: anatomy laboratory sessions, interviews, physical examinations, and small group discussions.…

Theut, Susan K.; Smith, C. Wayne

1981-01-01

185

An Experiment on a Physical Pendulum and Steiner's Theorem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introductory physics laboratory curricula usually include experiments on the moment of inertia, the centre of gravity, the harmonic motion of a physical pendulum, and Steiner's theorem. We present a simple experiment using very low cost equipment for investigating these subjects in the general case of an asymmetrical test body. (Contains 3 figures…

Russeva, G. B.; Tsutsumanova, G. G.; Russev, S. C.

2010-01-01

186

Determination of Spin-Lattice Relaxation of Time Using (Super 13)C NMR: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment designed for the physical chemistry laboratory where (super 13)C NMR is applied to determine the spin-lattice relaxation time for carbon atoms in n-hexanol is proposed. It is concluded that students learn the principles and concepts of NMR spectroscopy as well as dynamic NMR experiments.

Gasyna, Zbigniew L.; Jurkiewicz, Antoni

2004-01-01

187

Youth with Visual Impairments: Experiences in General Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid increase in the number of students with visual impairments currently being educated in inclusive general physical education makes it important that physical education instructors know how best to serve them. Assessment of the experiences of students with visual impairments during general physical education classes, knowledge of students'…

Lieberman, Lauren J.; Robinson, Barbara L.; Rollheiser, Heidi

2006-01-01

188

Ensembles and experiments in classical and quantum physics  

E-print Network

Ensembles and experiments in classical and quantum physics Arnold Neumaier Institut f¨ur Mathematik classical physics and quantum physics should be as small as possible. We argue that the differences between://www.mat.univie.ac.at/neum/ Abstract. A philosophically consistent axiomatic approach to classical and quantum mechanics is given

Neumaier, Arnold

189

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 1-85  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.

1985-01-01

190

Petimo: Sharing Experiences through Physically Extended Social Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents an experience-sharing platform, Petimo, which consists of two modules, Petimo-World and Petimo-Robot.\\u000a This system extends the traditional social networking concept into the physical world by incorporating a child friendly soft\\u000a robotic toy for easy and safe social experience. It adds a new physical dimension to social computing and provides extra safety\\u000a in making friends by physically touching

Nimesha Ranasinghe; Owen Fernando; Adrian Cheok

191

Physics experiments with Nintendo Wii controllers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides a detailed description of the use of Nintendo Wii game controllers in physics demonstrations. The main features of the controller relevant to physics are outlined and the procedure for communicating with a PC is described. A piece of software written by the author is applied to gathering data from a controller suspended from a spring undergoing simple harmonic motion, a pair of controllers mounted on colliding gliders on a linear air track, and a person jumping from a balance board.

Wheeler, Martyn D.

2011-01-01

192

Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Ideas on Size, Visibility and Structure of the Atom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the atom gives the opportunity to both understand and conceptually unify the various domains of science, such as physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy and geology. Among these disciplines, physics teachers are expected to be particularly well educated in this topic. It is important that pre-service physics teachers know what sort of…

Unlu, Pervin

2010-01-01

193

Nuclear Physics Experiments Below The Coulomb Barrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1932, Cockcroft and Walton showed that (p,?) reactions with lithium were possible at energies near 100 keV. We report an undergraduate laboratory experiment with 90 keV protons colliding with a thick lithium target. The experiment allows students to observe the products of two reactions, to determine the product masses, and to learn techniques for deconvolving experimental spectra profiles.

Sanders, J. M.; Cifuentes, J. R. Morales; Clark, R. K.

2011-06-01

194

Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g (Earth's gravity), and the emergence of face-centered-cubic (FCC) crystals late in the coarsening process (as small crystallites lost particles to the slow ripening of large crystallites). Significant quantitative findings from the microgravity experiments have been developed describing complex interactions among crystallites during the growth process, as concentration fields overlap in the surrounding disordered phase. Time-resolved Bragg scattering under microgravity captures one effect of these interactions quite conclusively for the sample at a volume fraction of 0.528. From the earliest time until the sample is almost fully crystalline, the size and overall crystallinity grow monotonically, but the number of crystallites per unit volume (number density) falls. Apparently nucleation is slower than the loss of crystallites because of the transfer of particles from small to large crystals. Thus, coarsening occurs simultaneously with growth, rather than following the completion of nucleation and growth as is generally assumed. In the same sample, an interesting signature appears in the apparent number density of crystallites and the volume fraction within the crystallites shortly before full crystallinity is reached. A brief upturn in both indicates the creation of more domains of the size of the average crystallite simultaneous with the compression of the crystallites. Only the emergence of dendritic arms offers a reasonable explanation. The arms would be "seen" by the light scattering as separate domains whose smaller radii of curvature would compress the interior phase. In fiscal year 1999, numerous papers, a doctoral dissertation, and the PHaSE final report were produced. Although this flight project has been completed, plans are in place for a follow-on colloid experiment by Chaikin and Russel that employs a light microscope within Glenn's Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. PHaSE is providing us with a deeper understanding of the nure of phase transitions. The knowledge derived has added to the understandin

Doherty, Michael P.

2000-01-01

195

Nuclear physics experiments with ion storage rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last two decades a number of nuclear structure and astrophysics experiments were performed at heavy-ion storage rings employing unique experimental conditions offered by such machines. Furthermore, building on the experience gained at the two facilities presently in operation, several new storage ring projects were launched worldwide. This contribution is intended to provide a brief review of the fast growing field of nuclear structure and astrophysics research at storage rings.

Litvinov, Yu. A.; Bishop, S.; Blaum, K.; Bosch, F.; Brandau, C.; Chen, L. X.; Dillmann, I.; Egelhof, P.; Geissel, H.; Grisenti, R. E.; Hagmann, S.; Heil, M.; Heinz, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Ma, X. W.; Nilsson, T.; Nolden, F.; Ozawa, A.; Raabe, R.; Reed, M. W.; Reifarth, R.; Sanjari, M. S.; Schneider, D.; Simon, H.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Sun, B. H.; Tu, X. L.; Uesaka, T.; Walker, P. M.; Wakasugi, M.; Weick, H.; Winckler, N.; Woods, P. J.; Xu, H. S.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.

2013-12-01

196

TITAN'S EXPERIENCE IN PHYSICAL SEPARATION DEVICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a naphtha cracker, Titan is used to several types of separators especially in the quench and hot fractionation section. This paper will zoom into the separation process involving immiscible fluid phase with different densities for separation to occur. Three principles used to achieve physical separation of gas, liquids or solids are momentum, gravity settling, and coalescing. Seperators may employ

Lee Siang Hua; Titan Petrochemicals

197

Friendship, Physicality, and Physical Education: An Exploration of the Social and Embodied Dynamics of Girls' Physical Education Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical education represents a dynamic social space where students experience and interpret physicality in a context that accentuates peer relationships and privileges particular forms of embodiment. This article focuses on girls' understandings of physicality with respect to the organisation of physical education and more informal social…

Hills, Laura

2007-01-01

198

Dynamical overstability of radiative blast waves: the atomic physics of shock stability.  

PubMed

Atomic-physics calculations of radiative cooling are used to develop criteria for the overstability of radiating shocks. Our calculations explain the measurement of shock overstability by Grun et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2738 (1991)

Laming, J Martin; Grun, Jacob

2002-09-16

199

Summary of informal workshop on state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research  

SciTech Connect

The present state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research in the United States is assessed by means of a questionnaire and informal workshop. Recommendations for future facilities are given. 3 refs.

Jones, K.W.; Cocke, C.L.; Datz, S.; Kostroun, V.

1984-11-13

200

Ground Control to Niels Bohr: Exploring Outer Space with Atomic Physics  

E-print Network

We provided an introduction to transition state theory and the connections it provides between atomic and celestial physics. We include brief discussions of historical background, recent applications in space mission design, and current research efforts.

Mason A. Porter; Predrag Cvitanovic

2005-05-11

201

Request for Support for the Conference on Super Intense Laser Atom Physics  

SciTech Connect

The Conference on Super Intense Laser Atom Physics (SILAP) was held in November 2003 in Dallas, Texas. The venue for the meeting was South Fork Ranch in the outskirts of Dallas. The topics of the meeting included high harmonic generation and attosecond pulse generation, strong field interactions with molecules and clusters, particle acceleration, and relativistic laser atom interactions.

Todd Ditmire

2004-10-21

202

New Journal of Physics An ellipsoidal mirror for focusing of neutral atomic and  

E-print Network

1 New Journal of Physics An ellipsoidal mirror for focusing of neutral atomic and molecular beams K such as helium, hexapole magnets have been successful in weakly-focusing atomic beams of 3 He [7] and metastable IMDEA, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain 7 Institute of Electronic Materials Technology ITME, Wolczynska

Boyer, Edmond

203

Characterizing Student Experiences in Physics Competitions: The Power of Emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low enrolment and motivation are key issues in physics education and recently the affective dimension of learning is being studied for evidence of its influence on student attitudes towards physics. Physics Olympics competitions are a novel context for stimulating intense emotional experiences. In this study, one team of students and their teacher were interviewed and observed prior to and during the event to characterize their emotions and determine the connections between their experiences and learning and attitudes/motivation towards physics. Results showed that certain types of events stimulated strong emotions of frustration and ownership, and that students’ attitudes were that physics is fun, diverse and relevant. Analysis of these themes indicated that the nature of emotions generated was connected to their attitudes towards physics. This finding points to the potential and value of informal and novel contexts in creating strong positive emotions, which have a strong influence on student attitudes towards physics.

Moll, Rachel F.; Nashon, S.; Anderson, D.

2006-12-01

204

Weekly variability in outcome expectations: examining associations with related physical activity experiences during physical activity initiation.  

PubMed

Little is known about how outcome expectations change after physical activity initiation and whether changes are associated with physical activity experiences. In a diary study, physically inactive adults (N = 102) initiated an exercise regimen and reported their experiences daily (e.g. progress toward goals) and corresponding outcome expectations weekly (e.g. how much progress they expect this week). Average levels (between-person effects) for eight experiences (ps < .01) and deviations from the average levels (within-person effects) for three experiences (ps < .05) were associated with changes in outcome expectations. The findings demonstrate that outcome expectations for exercise vary over time and are associated with people's subjective experiences. PMID:23740264

Loehr, Valerie G; Baldwin, Austin S; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper Aj

2014-10-01

205

Diffusional phase transformations on the atomic scale: Experiment and modeling  

SciTech Connect

In the early stages of phase transformations, microstructures are generated with the dimensions of only a few atomic spacings. Investigation of structures on such a fine scale poses severe difficulties, not only for experimental studies, but also for conventional theories based on continuum models. In this paper the authors report on a combination of atomic-scale microanalysis using the position-sensitive atom probe and atomistic simulations using the dynamic Ising model. Three phase transformations have been studied: spinodal decomposition in Fe-Cr alloys, nucleation and growth in dilute Cu-Co alloys and finally a conditional spinodal reaction in Ti-Al. The model provided a good quantitative match to the kinetics of spinodal decomposition observed in Fe-45%Cr, and nucleation and growth in Cu-1%Co. It also predicts the development of coupled ordering and phase separation in Ti-15%Al.

Hyde, J.M. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Cerezo, A.; Setna, R.P.; Smith, G.D.W. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1995-12-31

206

Using the Wiimote in Introductory Physics Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wii is a very popular gaming console. An important component of its appeal is the ease of use of its remote controller, popularly known as a Wiimote. This simple-looking but powerful device has a three-axis accelerometer and communicates with the console via Bluetooth protocol. We present two experiments that demonstrate the feasibility of…

Ochoa, Romulo; Rooney, Frank G.; Somers, William J.

2011-01-01

207

Current experiments in elementary-particle physics - March 1983  

SciTech Connect

Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated. (WHK)

Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

1983-03-01

208

Learning Pathways in High-School Level Quantum Atomic Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigations of changes in conceptions during physics instruction are the logical and necessary steps to follow successful international research on students' preinstructional conceptions. The theoretical perspective integrates currently available frameworks of cognition, cognitive states, and cognitive processes in physics. Particular emphasis…

Niedderer, Hans; Petri, Juergen

209

Distributed System of Processing of Data of Physical Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complication of physical experiments and increasing volumes of experimental data necessitate the application of supercomputer and distributed computing systems for data processing. Design and development of such systems, their mathematical modeling, and investigation of their characteristics and functional capabilities is an urgent scientific and practical problem. In the present work, the characteristics of operation of such distributed system of processing of data of physical experiments are investigated using the apparatus of theory of queuing networks.

Nazarov, A. A.; Moiseev, A. N.

2014-11-01

210

Model of delocalized atoms in the physics of the vitreous state  

SciTech Connect

A development of the model of delocalized atoms of liquids and glasses is proposed. It is shown that the basic equation of the model for the probability of delocalization (excitation) of an atom can be obtained not only from the Clausius relation but also by other methods of statistical physics. Techniques for calculating the parameters of the model are developed. The critical displacement of an atom from the equilibrium position, which corresponds to the maximum interatomic attraction force, can be considered as a delocalization (local excitation) of this atom in an elastic continuum. The energy of the critical displacement of an atom calculated as the work of the limit elastic deformation of the interatomic bond in an elastic continuum is in agreement with the results of calculation by the model of delocalized atoms. This energy can also be calculated from the data on surface tension and atomic volume. In silicate glasses, the process of delocalization of an atom represents the critical displacement of a bridging oxygen atom in the structural fragment of a silicon-oxygen (Si-O-Si) network before the switching of the valence bond, whereas, in amorphous organic polymers, the delocalization of an atom corresponds to the limit displacement of a fragment of the main chain of a macromolecule (a group of atoms in the connecting link).

Sanditov, D. S., E-mail: Sanditov@bsu.ru [Buryat State University (Russian Federation)

2012-07-15

211

A Technology Demonstration Experiment for Laser Cooled Atomic Clocks in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have been developing a laser-cooling apparatus for flight on the International Space Station (ISS), with the intention of demonstrating linewidths on the cesium clock transition narrower than can be realized on the ground. GLACE (the Glovebox Laser- cooled Atomic Clock Experiment) is scheduled for launch on Utilization Flight 3 (UF3) in 2002, and will be mounted in one of the ISS Glovebox platforms for an anticipated 2-3 week run. Separate flight definition projects funded at NIST and Yale by the Micro- gravity Research Division of NASA as a part of its Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program will follow GLACE. Core technologies for these and other LCAP missions are being developed at JPL, with the current emphasis on developing components such as the laser and optics subsystem, and non-magnetic vacuum-compatible mechanical shutters. Significant technical challenges in developing a space qualifiable laser cooling apparatus include reducing the volume, mass, and power requirements, while increasing the ruggedness and reliability in order to both withstand typical launch conditions and achieve several months of unattended operation. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Klipstein, W. M.; Kohel, J.; Seidel, D. J.; Thompson, R. J.; Maleki, L.; Gibble, K.

2000-01-01

212

Synthesis and Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals: An Interdisciplinary Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involves multiple chemistry and physics concepts applied to a state of matter that has biological relevance. An experiment involving the synthesis and physical properties of liquid crystals illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of liquid crystal research and the practical devices derived from such research.

Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Hanhan Li; Hendargo, Hansford C.; Cosand, Andrew J.; Fox, Marja M.

2005-01-01

213

STFC 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW -EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL ROLLING GRANTS  

E-print Network

STFC 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW - EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL ROLLING GRANTS Guidelines A ­ 2009 Review of Experimental Particle Physics Rolling Grants 3 ­ Guidelines for Applicants 1 Procedures.3 Responsive-Mode Posts 7 3.4 Ring-Fenced Posts 7 1 #12;2 4 Requesting Resources 9 4.1 Full Economic Costs 9 4

214

Experiment to study the. beta. -decay of free atomic and molecular tritium  

SciTech Connect

Recent tritium ..beta.. decay experiments indicate on antineutrino mass of between 14 and 46 eV. However, the solid, tritiated source used in the experiment introduces a number of possibilities for error. Recent advances in the production of dense gases make it likely that a free-atom tritium source can be constructed. A possible experiment using such a source is described.

Bowles, T.J.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Maley, M.; Browne, J.C.; Burritt, T.; Toevs, J.; Stelts, M.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Helfrick, J.; Knapp, D.

1983-01-01

215

Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources  

SciTech Connect

A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms.

Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

1996-08-01

216

Time-of-Flight Experiments in Molecular Motion and Electron-Atom Collision Kinematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a set of experiments for an undergraduate laboratory which demonstrates the relationship between velocity, mass, and temperature in a gas. The experimental method involves time-of-flight measurements on atoms excited to metastable states by electron impact. Effects resulting from recoil in the electron-atom collision can also be…

Donnelly, Denis P.; And Others

1971-01-01

217

Experiments with Single Atoms in a Cavity: Entanglement, Schrodinger's Cats and Decoherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform experiments with Rydberg atoms crossing one at a time a superconducting cavity containing a few microwave photons. The coupling between the atoms and the cavity field is either resonant or dispersive. In the resonant case, quantum Rabi oscillations induced by the vacuum or by a small coherent field are observed. These signals reveals in a striking way the

S. Haroche; M. Brune; J. M. Raimond

1997-01-01

218

Physics Analysis of the FIRE Experiment  

SciTech Connect

An integrated model of a complete discharge in the FIRE experiment has been developed based on the TSC simulation code. The complete simulation model includes a choice of several models for core transport, combined with an edge pedestal model and the Porcelli sawtooth model. Burn control is provided by feedback on the auxiliary heating power. We find that with the GLF23 and MMM95 transport models, Q >10 operation should be possible for H-mode pedestal temperatures in the range of 4-5 keV.

S.C. Jardin; C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; J. Breslau; G. Fu; N. Gorelenkov; J. Manickam; W. Park; H. Strauss

2002-06-19

219

Acoustics of pianos: physical modeling, simulations and experiments Antoine Chaigne  

E-print Network

Acoustics of pianos: physical modeling, simulations and experiments Antoine Chaigne UME, Ensta with experi- mental data derived from measurements on a Steinway D grand piano. This comparison yields is necessary to account for the observed richness of piano spectra. The model is able to reproduce important

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

220

Bicycle Freewheeling with Air Drag as a Physics Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To familiarize first-year students with the important ingredients of a physics experiment, we offer them a project close to their daily life: measuring the effect of air resistance on a bicycle. Experiments are done with a bicycle freewheeling on a downhill slope. The data are compared with equations of motions corresponding to different models…

Janssen, Paul; Janssens, Ewald

2015-01-01

221

Physics Lab Experiments and Correlated Computer Aids. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-nine physics experiments are included in the teacher's edition of this laboratory manual. Suggestions are given in margins for preparing apparatus, organizing students, and anticipating difficulties likely to be encountered. Sample data, graphs, calculations, and sample answers to leading questions are also given for each experiment. It is…

Gottlieb, Herbert H.

222

Perceptions of Overweight Students Concerning Their Experiences in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to examine overweight students' perceptions of and experiences in physical education. Specifically, the applicability of learned helplessness as a framework to understand their experiences was explored. Participants were seven female and five male high school students whose body mass index was at or higher…

Trout, Josh; Graber, Kim C.

2009-01-01

223

Thought Experiments in Physics Education: A Simple and Practical Example.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a Galilean thought experiment to enhance learning in a college-level physical science course. Presents both modern and historical perspectives of Galileo's work. As a final project, students explored Galileo's thought experiment in the laboratory using modern detectors with satisfying results. (Contains 25 references.) (Author/ASK)

Lattery, Mark J.

2001-01-01

224

Theory and experiment in gravitational physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New technological advances have made it feasible to conduct measurements with precision levels which are suitable for experimental tests of the theory of general relativity. This book has been designed to fill a new need for a complete treatment of techniques for analyzing gravitation theory and experience. The Einstein equivalence principle and the foundations of gravitation theory are considered, taking into account the Dicke framework, basic criteria for the viability of a gravitation theory, experimental tests of the Einstein equivalence principle, Schiff's conjecture, and a model theory devised by Lightman and Lee (1973). Gravitation as a geometric phenomenon is considered along with the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, the classical tests, tests of the strong equivalence principle, gravitational radiation as a tool for testing relativistic gravity, the binary pulsar, and cosmological tests.

Will, C. M.

1981-01-01

225

Improving the Physical Realism and Structural Accuracy of Protein Models by a Two-Step Atomic-Level Energy Minimization  

E-print Network

Improving the Physical Realism and Structural Accuracy of Protein Models by a Two-Step Atomic-step, atomic-level energy minimization. The main-chain structures are first constructed from initial Ca traces physics- and knowledge-based force field. We tested the method by performing an atomic structure

Zhang, Yang

226

Project Physics Handbook 5, Models of the Atom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments and 19 activities are presented in this Unit 5 handbook. The experiments are related to electrolysis, charge-to-mass ratio, elementary charge determination, photoelectric effects, and spectroscopic analyses. The activities are concerned with Dalton's theory, water electrolysis, periodic tables, single-electron plating, cloud…

Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

227

Compilation of current high-energy physics experiments  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth edition of the compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. Only approved experiments are included.

Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

1981-05-01

228

Nuclear beta-decay, Atomic Parity Violation, and New Physics  

E-print Network

Determinations of vuds with super-allowed Fermi beta-decay in nuclei and of the weak charge of the cesium in atomic parity-violation deviate from the Standard Model predicitions by 2 sigma or more. In both cases, the Standard Model over-predicts the magnitudes of the relevant observables. I discuss the implications of these results for R-parity violating (RPV) extensions of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. I also explore the possible consequences for RPV supersymmetry of prospective future low-energy electroweak measurements.

M. J. Ramsey-Musolf

2000-04-07

229

Design, development, and fabrication of a prototype ice pack heat sink subsystem. Flight experiment physical phenomena experiment chest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a flight experiment physical phenomena experiment chest, to be used eventually for investigating and demonstrating ice pack heat sink subsystem physical phenomena during a zero gravity flight experiment, is described.

Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Dean, W. C., II

1975-01-01

230

Project Physics Teacher Guide 5, Models of the Atom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching procedures of Project Physics Unit 5 are presented to help teachers make effective use of learning materials. Unit contents are discussed in connection with teaching aid lists, multi-media schedules, schedule blocks, and resource charts. Brief summaries are made for transparencies, 16mm films, and reader articles. Included is information…

Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

231

Nuclear physics (of the cell, not the atom)  

PubMed Central

The nucleus is physically distinct from the cytoplasm in ways that suggest new ideas and approaches for interrogating the operation of this organelle. Chemical bond formation and breakage underlie the lives of cells, but as this special issue of Molecular Biology of the Cell attests, the nonchemical aspects of cell nuclei present a new frontier to biologists and biophysicists. PMID:25368422

Pederson, Thoru; Marko, John F.

2014-01-01

232

Precision spectroscopy of light kaonic atom X-rays in the SIDDHARTA experiment  

SciTech Connect

The KN system at rest makes a sensitive testing ground for low energy QCD. At the DA{Phi}NE electron-positron collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati we study kaonic atoms, taking advantage of the low-energy kaons from {Phi}-mesons decaying nearly at rest. The DEAR (DA{Phi}NE Exotic Atom Research) experiment at LNF delivered the most precise data on kaonic hydrogen up to now. DEAR and its follow-up experiment SIDDHARTA (Silicon Drift Detector for Hadronic Atom Research by Timing Application) are using X-ray spectroscopy of kaonic atoms to measure the strong interaction induced shift and width of the ground state. SIDDHARTA is the first experiment on kaonic helium-3 and deuterium ever, and kaonic hydrogen was remeasured with improved precision.

Cargnelli, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J. [Stefan Meyer Institut of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, 1090, Boltzmanngasse 3 (Austria); Bazzi, M.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Curceanu, C.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Sandri, P. Levi; Lucherini, V.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Vidal, A. Romero; Scordo, A.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F; Doce, O. Vazquez [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40,I-00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Beer, G. [Dep. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O.Box 3055, Victoria B.C. V8W3P6 (Canada)

2011-10-24

233

Colloqium: Experiments with atomic quantum bits - essential numerical tools  

E-print Network

Trapped, laser-cooled atoms and ions exemplify quantum systems which can be prepared and controlled with an unmatched degree of precision. Due to the control of the motion of the particles and of the internal degrees of freedom these system present a clean quantum system which can be adequately described by a Hamiltonian. Analytic expressions are commonly derived under assumption of several proximations. To fully describe the system we present powerful numerical tools. After starting with the design of a segmented ion trap and describing the methods for the calculation of the electrical fields used for trapping the ions, we provide the reader with integrators for the trajectories of a classical particle in dynamic potentials thus visualizing the mode of operation of an ion trap. The description is complemented by a quantum mechanical treatment of the wave packet dynamics of an ion inside the trapping potential. We then delve into solving the important class of ill-conditioned inverse problems, exemplified wit...

Singer, Kilian; Murphy, Michael; Ivanov, Peter; Ziesel, Frank; Calarco, Tommaso; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand

2009-01-01

234

Precisely detecting atomic position of atomic intensity images.  

PubMed

We proposed a quantitative method to detect atomic position in atomic intensity images from experiments such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and simulation such as phase field crystal modeling. The evaluation of detection accuracy proves the excellent performance of the method. This method provides a chance to precisely determine atomic interactions based on the detected atomic positions from the atomic intensity image, and hence to investigate the related physical, chemical and electrical properties. PMID:25544105

Wang, Zhijun; Guo, Yaolin; Tang, Sai; Li, Junjie; Wang, Jincheng; Zhou, Yaohe

2015-03-01

235

Critical Missing Equation of Quantum Physics for Understanding Atomic Structures  

E-print Network

This paper presents an optimization approach to explain why and how a quantum system evolves from an arbitrary initial state to a stationary state, satisfying the time-independent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. It also points out the inaccuracy of this equation, which is critial important in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, due to a fundamental flaw in it conflicting with the physical reality. The some directions are suggested on how to modify the equation to fix the problem

Xiaofei Huang

2013-11-01

236

Critical Missing Equation of Quantum Physics for Understanding Atomic Structures  

E-print Network

This paper presents an optimization approach to explain why and how a quantum system evolves from an arbitrary initial state to a stationary state, satisfying the time-independent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. It also points out the inaccuracy of this equation, which is critial important in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, due to a fundamental flaw in it conflicting with the physical reality. The some directions are suggested on how to modify the equation to fix the problem

Huang, Xiaofei

2015-01-01

237

Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Lehar, F. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kettle, P.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

1996-09-01

238

Thought Experiments in Physics Education: A Simple and Practical Example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thought experiments play a vital role in scientific argumentation. However, implications for pedagogy are generally neglected. In this article, a Galilean thought experiment is used to enhance learning in a college-level physical science course. Both modern and historical perspectives of Galileo's work are presented. As a final project, students explore Galileo's thought experiment in the laboratory using modern detectors with satisfying results. The project experience lends insight into both the content and processes of science. Extensions to other educational contexts are discussed.

Lattery, Mark J.

239

Theoretical atomic collision physics. Final report, July 1, 1987-- June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of research activities supported by the most recent grant to the theoretical atomic collision physics program at Rice University. For this most recent 3-year grant, the focus has been the study of excitation and charge-transfer in atom-atom and ion-atom collisions. Emphasis has been placed on low-velocity collision processes involving initially excited atoms, including ``low Rydberg`` atoms. Two particular objectives of this research were to examine the dependence of state-changing collision cross sections and other observables on the orientation and alignment of the initial excited orbitals and to look for ``intracollisional interference`` effects, speculated to arise from spatially separated interactions during a collision involving a highly excited atom. A number of radiative and non-radiative charge transfer studies involving ground-state atoms and ions were continued from the previous grant period. Several unanticipated personnel changes prevented execution of some of the proposed research, including the studies of collisions involving negative ions and electron-attaching atoms and the development of new theoretical techniques for handling the ``strong coupling`` regime. These remain challenging and fundamentally important research topics. Research highlights briefly described in the report deal with: spherical and non-spherical low-Rydberg atom collisions; alignment effects in collisions of Na(3p) with He{sup +} ions; near-resonant electron capture at very low energies; ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions, including electron capture; and low- energy processes involving collisions of H{sup +} with He, Na, and K atoms. The report also lists publications since 1991 reporting on the grant work.

Walters, G.K.

1995-12-01

240

Proceedings of the workshop on opportunities for atomic physics using slow, highly-charged ions  

SciTech Connect

The study of atomic physics with highly-charged ions is an area of intense activity at the present time because of a convergence of theoretical interest and advances in experimental techniques. The purpose of the Argonne ''Workshop on Opportunities for Atomic Physics Using Slow, Highly-Charged Ions'' was to bring together atomic, nuclear, and accelerator physicists in order to identify what new facilities would be most useful for the atomic physics community. The program included discussion of existing once-through machines, advanced ion sources, recoil ion techniques, ion traps, and cooler rings. One of the topics of the Workshop was to discuss possible improvement to the ANL Tandem-Linac facility (ATLAS) to enhance the capability for slowing down ions after they are stripped to a high-charge state (the Accel/Decel technique). Another topic was the opportunity for atomic physics provided by the ECR ion source which is being built for the Uranium Upgrade of ATLAS. 18 analytics were prepared for the individual papers in this volume.

Not Available

1987-01-01

241

Compilation of current high-energy-physics experiments  

SciTech Connect

This is the third edition of a compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and ten participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about January 1980, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1976.

Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

1980-04-01

242

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC: Status and Physics Prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Hardon Collider (LHC) at CERN is now scheduled to begin operation late in 2009 at proton energies of 3.5 TeV. The LHC will open up a new energy regime in high-energy particle physics and it is likely that discoveries made at the experiments that analyse the LHC data will change the way we understand our universe. I will review the readiness of the ATLAS experiment for proton-proton collision data at the LHC, and the prospects for the much anticipated physics that will result from these collisions.

Kruse, Mark

2009-11-01

243

Probing the Physical Conditions of Atomic Gas at High Redshift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method is used to measure the physical conditions of the gas in damped Ly? systems (DLAs). Using high-resolution absorption spectra of a sample of 80 DLAs, we are able to measure the ratio of the upper and lower fine-structure levels of the ground state of C+ and Si+. These ratios are determined solely by the physical conditions of the gas. We explore the allowed physical parameter space using a Monte Carlo Markov chain method to constrain simultaneously the temperature, neutral hydrogen density, and electron density of each DLA. The results indicate that at least 5% of all DLAs have the bulk of their gas in a dense, cold phase with typical densities of ~100 cm–3 and temperatures below 500 K. We further find that the typical pressure of DLAs in our sample is log (P/kB ) = 3.4 (K cm–3), which is comparable to the pressure of the local interstellar medium (ISM), and that the components containing the bulk of the neutral gas can be quite small with absorption sizes as small as a few parsecs. We show that the majority of the systems are consistent with having densities significantly higher than expected for a purely canonical warm neutral medium, indicating that significant quantities of dense gas (i.e., n H > 0.1 cm–3) are required to match observations. Finally, we identify eight systems with positive detections of Si II*. These systems have pressures (P/kB ) in excess of 20,000 K cm–3, which suggest that these systems tag a highly turbulent ISM in young, star-forming galaxies.

Neeleman, Marcel; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Wolfe, Arthur M.

2015-02-01

244

What undergraduate physical education majors learn during a field experience.  

PubMed

Early field experiences and student teaching have a significant impact on the development of prospective teachers' perceptions of teaching and themselves as teachers (Dodds, 1989). The purpose of this study was to describe what happened to physical education majors during a secondary physical education methodology course that included two field experiences in which the undergraduates taught at least one lesson a day. The four research questions that guided the study were (a) What issues did the majors attend to as significant incidents from their teaching, and did these issues change during their field experiences? (b) What were the characteristics of field experience lessons they perceived as successful? (c) What were the characteristics of field experience lessons they perceived as unsuccessful? and (d) What were the physical education majors' conceptions of teaching? Participants in the study were 39 junior-year physical education teacher education majors. Data were collected using the critical incident technique (Flanagan, 1954) and an open-ended, written questionnaire that was designed to encourage the majors to reflect on various aspects of their teaching experience. The questionnaire and critical incidents were analyzed using an inductive analytical procedure and a series of categories developed from several readings of students' writings. The teacher preparation program affected how these trainees defined and evaluated their teaching experiences. In contrast to some of the earlier work in physical education, the results indicated pupil learning, quality lesson planning to ensure pupil learning, and efficient lesson management were major characteristics of successful lessons for these trainees. The trainees presented "theories of knowledge" that emphasized technical concepts of teaching with little attention to the social or ethical dimensions of their work or the content knowledge of their field. Additional research is needed to examine appropriate programmatic efforts to help preservice teachers reflect not only on teaching, learning, and schooling as a technical enterprise but also as a moral and ethical enterprise. PMID:1439163

O'Sullivan, M; Tsangaridou, N

1992-12-01

245

Speculative Physics: the Ontology of Theory and Experiment in High Energy Particle Physics and Science Fiction  

E-print Network

The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the secon...

Lee, Clarissa Ai Ling

2014-01-01

246

Simulation of Physical Experiments in Immersive Virtual Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An object-oriented event-driven immersive Virtual environment is described for the creation of virtual labs (VLs) for simulating physical experiments. Discussion focuses on a number of aspects of the VLs, including interface devices, software objects, and various applications. The VLs interface with output devices, including immersive stereoscopic screed(s) and stereo speakers; and a variety of input devices, including body tracking (head and hands), haptic gloves, wand, joystick, mouse, microphone, and keyboard. The VL incorporates the following types of primitive software objects: interface objects, support objects, geometric entities, and finite elements. Each object encapsulates a set of properties, methods, and events that define its behavior, appearance, and functions. A container object allows grouping of several objects. Applications of the VLs include viewing the results of the physical experiment, viewing a computer simulation of the physical experiment, simulation of the experiments procedure, computational steering, and remote control of the physical experiment. In addition, the VL can be used as a risk-free (safe) environment for training. The implementation of virtual structures testing machines, virtual wind tunnels, and a virtual acoustic testing facility is described.

Noor, Ahmed K.; Wasfy, Tamer M.

2001-01-01

247

Five Quantitative Physics Experiments (Almost) Without Special Apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are situations in which physics students would profit from the performance of real quantitative experiments but the equipment is lacking, expensive, or too bulky. One such situatuation is in distance education courses, where the desire to have students perform real experiments is outweighed by cost and/or logistics. The result often is a resort to simulated experiments, or incurring the expense of bringing students to a central location for a marathon session of lab exercises, many of which are done out of sequence. I describe here five quantitative experiments designed for an introductory DE course in physics, that require almost nothing in the way of equipment except a computer and items commonly found in the home.

Hunt, James L.

2005-10-01

248

Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.

Tsui, Daniel

2014-03-24

249

Automated Reconstruction of Particle Cascades in High Energy Physics Experiments  

E-print Network

We present a procedure for reconstructing particle cascades from event data measured in a high energy physics experiment. For evaluating the hypothesis of a specific physics process causing the observed data, all possible reconstruction versions of the scattering process are constructed from the final state objects. We describe the procedure as well as examples of physics processes of different complexity studied at hadron-hadron colliders. We estimate the performance by 20 microseconds per reconstructed decay vertex, and 0.6 kByte per reconstructed particle in the decay trees.

O. Actis; M. Erdmann; A. Henrichs; A. Hinzmann; M. Kirsch; G. Müller; J. Steggemann

2008-09-08

250

Computation of Free-Free Transitions in Atomic Physics: Foundations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amplitude T for "free-free" processes, such as bremsstrahlung or photo- absorption by an electron in the continuum in the presence of an external field, is usually written as the matrix element of the radiation operator taken between two continuum states. However, unlike the case when at least one of the states is bound, as in radiative transitions, electron capture, or the photo-effect, this expression contains an unphysical term, proportional to a delta-function and is not really the physical amplitude Tphys. This continues to be true for both the velocity and length form of the dipole approximation to the amplitude T. We first give an a priori definition of Tphys in terms of the scattering parts of the continuum functions, which has an obvious interpretation in terms of time-ordered diagrams. We then show that when the formal amplitude is modified by a long- distance cutoff, the modified form approaches Tphys as the cutoff is removed. The modified form then serves as a basis for the definition of a physical velocity dipole amplitude and this in turn leads to an equivalent length form of the dipole amplitude. This exercise provides a clear theoretical basis for many extant calculations in which cutoff factors are introduces somewhat ad hoc, as needed.

Bhatia, A. K.; Sucher, J.

2003-01-01

251

Toolbar to Highlight Important Expressions in Scientific Articles on Atomic and Molecular Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce software that recognizes, extracts, and displays expressions concerning atomic and molecular data from academic papers in the electronic form. This software includes a toolbar application that can be installed in Internet Explorer (IE). This toolbar can be used by scientific readers and researchers to highlight, color-code, and collect important expressions more easily. Those expressions include atomic and molecular symbols (e.g., Xe+ and H2O) and electron configurations(e.g., 4d95s25p) from the atomic and molecular data of a large number of academic papers. We confirmed by experiments that the software could find important expressions with high precision (0.8-1.0). This software is also useful for compiling databases of atomic and molecular data, which is important for plasma simulations, because the simulations critically depend on atomic and molecular data, including the energy levels and collisional and radiative rate coefficients.

Murata, Masaki; Sasaki, Akira; Kanamaru, Toshiyuki; Shirado, Tamotsu; Isahara, Hitoshi

252

Experiences in Sport, Physical Activity, and Physical Education Among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian Adolescent Girls  

PubMed Central

Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.

2013-01-01

253

Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.  

PubMed

Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

2013-01-01

254

Theory of neutrino-atom collisions: the history, present status and BSM physics  

E-print Network

An overview of the current theoretical studies on neutrino-atom scattering processes is presented. The ionization channel of these processes, which is studied in experiments searching for neutrino magnetic moments, is brought into focus. Recent developments in the theory of atomic ionization by impact of reactor antineutrinos are discussed. It is shown that the stepping approximation is well applicable for the data analysis practically down to the ionization threshold.

Kouzakov, Konstantin A

2014-01-01

255

Theory of neutrino-atom collisions: the history, present status and BSM physics  

E-print Network

An overview of the current theoretical studies on neutrino-atom scattering processes is presented. The ionization channel of these processes, which is studied in experiments searching for neutrino magnetic moments, is brought into focus. Recent developments in the theory of atomic ionization by impact of reactor antineutrinos are discussed. It is shown that the stepping approximation is well applicable for the data analysis practically down to the ionization threshold.

Konstantin A. Kouzakov; Alexander I. Studenikin

2014-06-19

256

Atomic impact experiments with free helium-3 and helium-4 clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free helium clusters with of the order of 103 to 107 atoms have been predicted to reach final temperatures of about 0.4 K in the case of4He, and of 0.15 K in the case of3He. In the first case, the clusters have to be expected to be superfluid, in the latter case to be normalfluid. Impact experiments with cesium atoms,

Jürgen Gspann

1995-01-01

257

Precision spectroscopy of light kaonic atom X-rays in the SIDDHARTA experiment  

SciTech Connect

The SIDDHARTA experiment successfully measured kaonic atom X-rays using four gas targets of hydrogen, deuterium, helium-3, and helium-4 at the DA{Phi}NH electron-positron collider. Excellent performance of the SDDs under beam conditions was found in terms of X-ray energy resolution and a good background suppression capability. The preliminary results of the strong-interaction shifts of the kaonic atoms with Z = 1 and 2 are given.

Ishiwatari, T.; Cargnelli, M.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J. [Stefan-Meyer-Institut fuer subatomare Physik, Vienna (Austria); Bazzi, M.; Corradi, G.; Curceanu, C.; d'Uffizi, A.; Guaraldo, C.; Sandri, P. Levi; Lucherini, V.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Rizzo, A.; Vidal, A. Romero; Scordo, A.; Doce, O. Vazquez [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Beer, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria B.C. (Canada); Bombelli, L. [Politechno di Milano, Sez. di Elettronica, Milano (Italy)

2010-12-28

258

Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the very first days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center both Combustion, Fluid Physics, and Acceleration Measurement GRC has led the successful implementation of an Acceleration Measurement systems, the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion fire detection fire extinguishment soot phenomena flame liftoff and stability and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow magneto-rheological fluids colloidal systems extensional rheology pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years. We also provide a look to the future development. Experiments presented in combustion include areas such as droplet combustion, gaseous diffusion flames, solid fuels, premixed flame studies, fire safety, and super critical oxidation processes. In fluid physics, experiments are discussed in multiphase flows, capillary phenomena, and heat pipes. Finally in complex fluids, experiments in rheology and soft condensed materials will be presented.

Motil, Brian; Urban, David

2012-01-01

259

When Physical Activity Participation Promotes Inactivity: Negative Experiences of Spanish Adolescents in Physical Education and Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses negative experiences in physical education and sport reported during qualitative interviews of a group of inactive adolescent Spanish boys and girls. The purpose of this analysis is twofold. First and most important, it seeks to give voice to these young people reporting negative experiences and connect them to contexts of…

Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Brown, David H. K.

2012-01-01

260

Clock Technology Development in the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program. It focuses on clock technology development. The topics include: 1) Overview of LCAP Flight Projects; 2) Space Clock 101; 3) Physics with Clocks in microgravity; 4) Space Clock Challenges; 5) LCAP Timeline; 6) International Space Station (ISS) Science Platforms; 7) ISS Express Rack; 8) Space Qualification of Components; 9) Laser Configuration; 10) Clock Rate Comparisons: GPS Carrier Phase Frequency Transfer; and 11) ISS Model Views. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

Seidel, Dave; Thompson, R. J.; Klipstein, W. M.; Kohel, J.; Maleki, L.

2000-01-01

261

On the physics of the $so_q(4)$ hydrogen atom  

E-print Network

In this work we investigate the $q$-deformation of the $so(4)$ dynamical symmetry of the hydrogen atom using the theory of the quantum group $su_q(2)$. We derive the energy spectrum in a physically consistent manner and find a degeneracy breaking as well as a smaller Hilbert space. We point out that using the deformed Casimir as was done before leads to inconsistencies in the physical interpretation of the theory.

P. G. Castro; R. Kullock

2015-03-05

262

Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

263

Proposed Laser-Based HED physics experiments for Stockpile Stewardship  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the scientific areas in High Energy Density (HED) physics that underpin the enduring LANL mission in Stockpile Stewardship (SS) has identified important research needs that are not being met. That analysis has included the work done as part of defining the mission need for the High Intensity Laser Laboratory (HILL) LANL proposal to NNSA, LDRD DR proposal evaluations, and consideration of the Predictive Capability Framework and LANL NNSA milestones. From that evaluation, we have identified several specific and scientifically-exciting experimental concepts to address those needs. These experiments are particularly responsive to physics issues in Campaigns 1 and 10. These experiments are best done initially at the LANL Trident facility, often relying on the unique capabilities available there, although there are typically meritorious extensions envisioned at future facilities such as HILL, or the NIF once the ARC short-pulse laser is available at sufficient laser intensity. As the focus of the LANL HEDP effort broadens from ICF ignition of the point design at the conclusion of the National Ignition Campaign, into a more SS-centric effort, it is useful to consider these experiments, which address well-defined issues, with specific scientific hypothesis to test or models to validate or disprove, via unit-physics experiments. These experiments are in turn representative of a possible broad experimental portfolio to elucidate the physics of interest to these campaigns. These experiments, described below, include: (1) First direct measurement of the evolution of particulates in isochorically heated dense plasma; (2) Temperature relaxation measurements in a strongly-coupled plasma; (3) Viscosity measurements in a dense plasma; and (4) Ionic structure factors in a dense plasma. All these experiments address scientific topics of importance to our sponsors, involve excellent science at the boundaries of traditional fields, utilize unique capabilities at LANL, and contribute to the Campaign milestone in 2018. Given their interdisciplinary nature, it is not surprising that these research needs are not being addressed by the other excellent high-energy density physics (HEDP) facilities coming on line, facilities aimed squarely at more established fields and missions. Although energy rich, these facilities deliver radiation (e.g., particle beams for isochoric heating) over a timescale that is too slow in these unit physics experiments to eliminate hydrodynamic evolution of the target plasma during the time it is being created. A theme shared by all of these experiments is the need to quickly create a quasi-homogeneous 'initial state' whose properties and evolution we wish to study. Otherwise, we cannot create unit experiments to isolate the physics of interest and validate the models in our codes, something that cannot be done with the integrated experiments often done in HED. Moreover, these experiments in some cases involve combinations of solid and plasmas, or matter in the warm-dense matter state, where neither the theoretical approximations of solid state or of fully-ionized weakly-coupled plasmas can be used. In all cases, the capability of 'isochoric heating' ('flash' heating at constant density) is important. In some cases, the ability to selectively heat to different degrees different species within a target, whether mixed or adjacent to each other, is critical for the experiment. This capability requires the delivery of very high power densities, which require the conversion of the laser into very short and intense pulses of secondary radiation (electrons, ions, neutrons, x-rays). Otherwise, there is no possibility of a clean experiment to constrain the models, in the cases there are any, or inform the creation of one. Another typical requirement of these experiments is the ability to probe these exotic extreme conditions of matter with flexible and diverse sources of secondary radiation. Without a high-intensity high-power laser with some unique attributes available on Trident today (e.g., ultra-high laser-puls

Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fernandez, Juan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-04

264

Skylab Experiments, Volume I, Physical Science, Solar Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Up-to-date knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling them to broaden their scope of material selection. The first volume is concerned with the solar astronomy program. The related fields are physics, electronics, biology, chemistry,…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

265

Chladni Patterns on Drumheads: A "Physics of Music" Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In our "Physics of Music" class for non-science majors, we have developed a laboratory exercise in which students experiment with Chladni sand patterns on drumheads. Chladni patterns provide a kinesthetic, visual, and entertaining way to illustrate standing waves on flat surfaces and are very helpful when making the transition from one-dimensional…

Worland, Randy

2011-01-01

266

The Hispanic Experience in Physical Education Programs and Departments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges and identify strategies to increase the representation of Hispanic faculty in the academy, particularly Physical Education (PE) programs and departments at doctorate-granting universities. Recommendations to increase the presence and improve the experiences of Hispanic faculty are provided.…

Hodge, Samuel R.; Cervantes, Carlos M.; Vigo-Valentin, Alexander N.; Canabal-Torres, Maria Y.; Ortiz-Castillo, Esther M.

2012-01-01

267

The design of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tokamak Physics Experiment is designed to develop the scientific basis for a compact and continuously operating tokamak fusion reactor. It is based on an emerging class of tokamak operating modes, characterized by beta limits well in excess of the Troyon limit, confinement scaling well in excess of H-mode, and bootstrap current fractions approaching unity. Such modes are attainable through

J. A. Schmidt; K. I. Thomassen; R. J. Goldston; G. H. Neilson; W. M. Nevins; J. C. Sinnis; P. Andersen; W. L. Barr; D. B. Batchelor; C. Baxi; G. Berg; S. Bernabei; J. M. Bialek; P. T. Bonoli; A. Boozer; D. Bowers; G. Bronner; J. N. Brooks; T. G. Brown; R. Bulmer; D. Butner; R. Campbell; T. Casper; E. Chaniotakis; M. Chaplin; S. J. Chen; E. Chin; J. Chrzanowski; J. Citrolo; M. J. Cole; F. Dahlgren; F. C. Davis; J. Davis; S. Davis; N. Diatchenko; S. Dinkevich; Y. Feldshteyn; B. Felker; T. Feng; M. E. Fenstermacher; R. Fleming; P. J. Fogarty; W. Fragetta; E. Fredd; M. Gabler; J. Galambos; Y. Gohar; P. L. Goranson; N. Greenough; L. R. Grisham; J. Haines; S. Haney; W. Hassenzahl; J. Heim; P. J. Heitzenroeder; D. N. Hill; T. Hodapp; W. A. Houlberg; A. Hubbard; A. Hyatt; M. Jackson; E. F. Jaeger; S. C. Jardin; J. Johnson; G. H. Jones; D. R. Juliano; R. Junge; M. Kalish; C. E. Kessel; D. Knutson; R. J. LaHaye; D. D. Lang; R. A. Langley; S.-L. Liew; E. Lu; H. Mantz; J. Manickam; T. K. Mau; S. Medley; D. R. Mikkelsen; R. Miller; D. Monticello; D. Morgan; P. Moroz; C. Motloch; J. Mueller; L. Myatt; B. E. Nelson; C. L. Neumeyer; D. Nilson; T. O'Conner; L. D. Pearlstein; W. A. Peebles; M. Pelovitz; F. W. Perkins; L. J. Perkins; D. Petersen; R. Pillsbury; P. A. Politzer; N. Pomphrey; M. Porkolab; A. Posey; A. Radovinsky; S. Raftopoulis; S. Ramakrishnan; J. Ramos; W. Rauch; D. Ravenscroft; K. Redler; W. T. Reiersen; A. Reiman; E. Reis; G. Rewoldt; D. J. Richards; R. Rocco; T. D. Rognlien; D. Ruzic; S. Sabbagh; J. Sapp; R. O. Sayer; J. E. Scharer; L. Schmitz; J. Schnitz; L. Sevier; S. E. Shipley; R. T. Simmons; D. Slack; G. R. Smith; R. Stambaugh; G. Steill; T. Stevenson; S. Stoenescu; K. T. St. Onge; D. P. Stotler; T. Strait; D. J. Strickler; D. W. Swain; W. Tang; M. Tuszewski; M. A. Ulrickson; A. VonHalle; M. S. Walker; C. Wang; P. Wang; J. Warren; K. A. Werley; W. P. West; F. Williams; R. Wong; K. Wright; G. A. Wurden; J. J. Yugo; L. Zakharov; J. Zbasnik

1993-01-01

268

Enthalpy of Vaporization by Gas Chromatography: A Physical Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is conducted to measure the enthalpy of vaporization of volatile compounds like methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and others by using gas chromatography. This physical property was measured using a very tiny quantity of sample revealing that it is possible to measure the enthalpies of two or more compounds at the same time.

Ellison, Herbert R.

2005-01-01

269

Double Beta Decay Experiments Department of Physics and Astronomy  

E-print Network

. The experimen- tal investigation of the nuclear double beta decay is one of the key techniques for solving introduced by nuclear structure calculations. The decay rates, (T2 1/2)-1 and (T0 1/2)-1 , of 2 and 0-decay1 Double Beta Decay Experiments A. Piepkea a Department of Physics and Astronomy University

Piepke, Andreas G.

270

Teachers' Experiences with an Adapted Igcse Physics Syllabus in Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on teachers' experiences with implementing a modified International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) physics syllabus in Botswana. The syllabus, characterised by a new organisational and pedagogic paradigm, is a significant shift from the traditional ''teacher-proof'' syllabus to one that is flexible,…

Koosimile, A.T.

2005-01-01

271

Plasma diagnostics for the sustained spheromak physics experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we present an overview of the plasma diagnostics operating or planned for the sustained spheromak physics experiment device now operating at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A set of 46 wall-mounted magnetic probes provide the essential data necessary for magnetic reconstruction of the Taylor relaxed state. Rogowski coils measure currents induced in the flux conserver. A CO2 laser

H. S. McLean; A. Ahmed; D. Buchenauer; D. den Hartog; C. W. Domier; D. N. Hill; C. Holcomb; E. B. Hooper; E. C. Morse; M. Nagata; Y. Roh; B. Stallard; R. D. Wood; S. Woodruff; G. Wurden; Z. Wang

2001-01-01

272

Radical Recombination Kinetics: An Experiment in Physical Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a student kinetic experiment involving second order kinetics as well as displaying photochromism using a wide variety of techniques from both physical and organic chemistry. Describes measurement of (1) the rate of the recombination reaction; (2) the extinction coefficient; and (3) the ESR spectrometer signal. (Author/JN)

Pickering, Miles

1980-01-01

273

Speculative Physics: the Ontology of Theory and Experiment in High Energy Particle Physics and Science Fiction  

E-print Network

The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the second level of the conversation, theories are produced from a close study of the physics objects as speculative engine for new knowledge generation that are then reconceptualized and re-articulated for extrapolation into the speculative ontology of hard science fiction, particularly the hard science fiction written with the double intent of speaking to the science while producing imaginative and socially conscious science through the literary affordances of science fiction. The works of science fiction examined here demonstrate the tension between the internal values of physics in the practice of theory and experiment and questions on ethics, culture, and morality.

Clarissa Ai Ling Lee

2014-06-21

274

Do General Physics Textbooks Discuss Scientists' Ideas about Atomic Structure? A Case in Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in science education has recognized the importance of teaching atomic structure within a history and philosophy of science perspective. The objective of this study is to evaluate general physics textbooks published in Korea based on the eight criteria developed in previous research. The result of this study shows that Korean general…

Niaz, Mansoor; Kwon, Sangwoon; Kim, Nahyun; Lee, Gyoungho

2013-01-01

275

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 83, 035410 (2011) Atomic and electronic surface structures of dopants in oxides  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 83, 035410 (2011) Atomic and electronic surface structures of dopants in oxides Road, Oxford OX1 3QR, United Kingdom (Received 9 September 2010; published 20 January 2011) High stimulated by its photocatalytic properties,1 use as an anode in solid oxide fuel cells2­4 and in oxygen

Castell, Martin

276

Physics 6, 118 (2013) Looking for Hofstadter's Butterfly in Cold Atoms  

E-print Network

Physics 6, 118 (2013) Viewpoint Looking for Hofstadter's Butterfly in Cold Atoms Cheng Chin James, called the Hofstadter butterfly [1]. This effect has never been seen in a natural crystal, because of defects, they may ultimately provide the cleanest view of Hofstadter's butterfly. This system is also

277

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 82, 053842 (2010) Correlated photon pairs generated from a warm atomic ensemble  

E-print Network

, Department of Physics, University of Maryland and National Institute of Standards and Technology, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA 2 Departamento de F´isica, CINVESTAV, Apdo. Post. 14-740, 07000 M-cooled, cold atomic ensemble with one photon in the telecommunications band and the other in the near-IR. Balic

Orozco, Luis A.

278

Fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer experiments in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overstudy committee was formed to study and recommend fundamental experiments in fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer for experimentation in orbit, using the space shuttle system and a space laboratory. The space environment, particularly the low-gravity condition, is an indispensable requirement for all the recommended experiments. The experiments fell broadly into five groups: critical-point thermophysical phenomena, fluid surface dynamics and capillarity, convection at reduced gravity, non-heated multiphase mixtures, and multiphase heat transfer. The Committee attempted to assess the effects of g-jitter and other perturbations of the gravitational field on the conduct of the experiments. A series of ground-based experiments are recommended to define some of the phenomena and to develop reliable instrumentation.

Dodge, F. T.; Abramson, H. N.; Angrist, S. W.; Catton, I.; Churchill, S. W.; Mannheimer, R. J.; Otrach, S.; Schwartz, S. H.; Sengers, J. V.

1975-01-01

279

Physical Construction of the Chemical Atom: Is it Convenient to Go All the Way Back?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an analysis of chemistry texts (mainly textbooks) published during the first half of the 20th century. We show the evolution of the explanations therein in terms of atoms and of atomic structure, when scientists were interpreting phenomena as evidence of the discontinuous, corpuscular structure of matter. In this process of evidence construction, new contributions from physicists and physical chemists that were incorporated to chemical research acquired ‘chemical’ meaning, since they were related to research questions that genuinely came from chemistry. Conversely, the core ideas of 19th-century chemical atomism, among which we must highlight valence and Mendeleev’s periodic system, provided ‘clues’ for imagining an atom in terms of the elements adjusted to their chemical behaviour, which changed periodically as a function of atomic mass. With this, chemistry ceased to be a descriptive science and began to be a ‘law-based’, theoretical science. Little by little, chemistry teaching became the teaching of the internal structure of atoms, which were arranged in the Periodic Table according to criteria and ‘construction rules’ related to quantum mechanics. We pose the question: ‘how can we now teach general chemistry in a way that does not disregard current knowledge about the structure of the atom yet, at the same time, gives priority to chemical criteria, thus making such structure useful to interpret chemical change?’.

Izquierdo-Aymerich, Mercè; Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín

2009-04-01

280

Interaction of Hyperthermal Atoms on Surfaces in Orbit: the University of Alabama Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The University of Alabama experiment which flew on the STS-8 mission had several objectives which were mostly of a speculative nature since so little was known of the processes of interest. The experiment provided original data on: (1) oxidation of metal surfaces; (2) reaction rates of atomic oxygen with carbon and other surfaces and the dependence of these rates on temperature; and (3) the angular distribution of 5 eV atoms scattered off a solid surface. A review of the results is provided.

Gregory, J. C.

1987-01-01

281

Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

2004-01-01

282

Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the very early days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center for combustion, complex fluids, and fluid physics; GRC has led the successful implementation of the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion; fire detection; fire extinguishment; soot phenomena; flame liftoff and stability; and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow; magneto-rheological fluids; colloidal systems; extensional rheology; pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years.

Motil, Brian; Urban, David

2012-01-01

283

Do general physics textbooks discuss scientists’ ideas about atomic structure? A case in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in science education has recognized the importance of teaching atomic structure within a history and philosophy of science perspective. The objective of this study is to evaluate general physics textbooks published in Korea based on the eight criteria developed in previous research. The result of this study shows that Korean general physics textbooks often lack detail about the history and philosophy of science. This result is quite similar to those published for the USA. Furthermore, chemistry textbooks published in the USA, Turkey and Venezuela are quite similar to the physics textbooks. This is a cause for concern as textbooks present theories as facts and ignore the historical reconstructions based on the development of scientific theories that frequently involve controversies and conflicts among scientists. The inclusion of historical reconstructions of ideas about atomic structure can provide students with a better appreciation of the dynamics of scientific progress.

Niaz, Mansoor; Kwon, Sangwoon; Kim, Nahyun; Lee, Gyoungho

2013-01-01

284

Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems.

Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

2014-07-01

285

Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

2005-01-01

286

arXiv:physics/0203077v126Mar2002 Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms  

E-print Network

arXiv:physics/0203077v126Mar2002 Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms D. Budker) In this article, we review the history, current status, physical mechanisms, experimental methods, and applications of nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atomic vapors. We begin by describing the pioneering work

Budker, Dmitry

287

The Influence of Hands On Physics Experiments on Scientific Process Skills According to Prospective Teachers' Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, relationship between prospective science and technology teachers' experiences in conducting Hands on physics experiments and their physics lab I achievement was investigated. Survey model was utilized and the study was carried out in the 2012 spring semester. Seven Hands on physics experiments were conducted with 28 prospective…

Hirça, Necati

2013-01-01

288

Elementary Particle Physics Experiment at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst  

SciTech Connect

In this progress report we summarize the activities of the University of Massachusetts- Amherst group for the three years of this research project. We are fully engaged in research at the energy frontier with the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We have made leading contributions in software development and performance studies for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, as well as on physics analysis with an emphasis on Standard Model measurements and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In addition, we have increased our contributions to the Muon Spectrometer New Small Wheel upgrade project.

Brau, Benjamin; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Willocq, Stephane

2013-07-30

289

Use of a physical metric for OPERA experiment  

E-print Network

A physical metric is introduced as one that directly gives experimental data without further coordinate transformation. It will be shown that the geodesic equation for the Schwartzschild metric does not give the correct expression for the Shapiro time delay experiment. In the physical metric the speed of light on the surface of the earth is exactly the same as that in vacuum to first order in gravity, and this should eliminate the inconsistency of the speed of the neutrino exceeding that of light, if enough care is exerted in the discussion.

Yukio Tomozawa

2011-11-28

290

The FrPNC experiment at TRIUMF: Atomic parity non-conservation in francium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FrPNC collaboration has begun the construction of an on-line laser cooling and trapping apparatus at TRIUMF to measure atomic parity non-conservation (PNC) and the nuclear anapole moment in a string of artificially produced francium isotopes. Atomic PNC experiments provide unique high precision tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at very low energies. Furthermore, precision measurements of spin-dependent atomic PNC can determine nuclear anapole moments and probe the weak force within the nucleus. Francium is an excellent candidate for precision measurements of atomic PNC due to its simple electronic structure and enhanced parity violation: both the optical PNC and anapole moment signals are expected to be over an order of magnitude larger than in cesium.

Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Sheng, D.; Zhang, J.; Collister, R.; Melconian, D.; Flambaum, V. V.; Sprouse, G. D.; Orozco, L. A.; Gwinner, G.

2012-09-01

291

Science Goals of the Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The PARCS (Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space) experiment will use a laser-cooled Cesium atomic clock operating in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide both advanced tests of gravitational theory and to demonstrate a new cold-atom clock technology for space. PARCS is a joint project of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and the University of Colorado (CU). This paper concentrates on the scientific goals of the PARCS mission. The microgravity space environment allows laser-cooled Cs atoms to have Ramsey times in excess of those feasible on Earth, resulting in improved clock performance. Clock stabilities of 5x10(exp -14) at one second, and accuracies better than 10(exp -16) are projected.

Ashby, N.

2003-01-01

292

Hydrogen atom recombination on tungsten at high temperature: Experiment and Molecular Dynamics Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atom recombination at wall is a phenomenon involved in many plasma experiments and also in present tokamaks and future fusion plasma reactors like ITER. This exothermic surface reaction is catalyzed by the material and depends on its composition and temperature. In the MESOX experimental set-up, several methods were developed for the measurement of the recombination parameters. In this paper, a method developed for the experimental evaluation of the recombination coefficient of atomic hydrogen ?H on tungsten at high temperature is presented using two series of atomic lines (H? and He or H? and H2) and the results obtained for surface temperature up to 1350 K are given. A Molecular Dynamics Simulation has been done for the recombination of hydrogen atoms on tungsten in conditions close to the experimental ones using a semi-classical collisional method. Modeling results are compared to the experimental data for two surface temperature values and a fairly good agreement was obtained.

Rutigliano, M.; Santoro, D.; Balat-Pichelin, M.

2014-10-01

293

Physics Results from the Antiproton Experiment (APEX) at Fermilab  

DOE Data Explorer

Is Antimatter stable? The APEX experiment searches for the decay of antiprotons at the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator. Observation of antiproton decay would indicate a violation of the CPT theorem, which is one of the most fundamental theorems of modern physics. The best laboratory limits on antiproton decay come from the APEX experiment which achieved a sensitivity to antiproton lifetimes up to of order 700,000 years for the most sensitive decay modes. Antiproton lifetimes in this range could arise from CPT violation at the Planck scale.[copied from http://www-apex.fnal.gov/] This website presents published results from the APEX Test Experiment (T861) and from the E868 Experiment. Limits were placed on six antiproton decay modes with a muon in the final state and on seven antiproton decay modes with an electron in the final state. See also the summary table and plot and the APEX picture gallery.

APEX Collaboration

294

Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

2009-01-01

295

Controlling ultracold atoms in multi-band optical lattices for simulation of Kondo physics  

E-print Network

We show that ultracold atoms can be controlled in multi-band optical lattices through spatially periodic Raman pulses for investigation of a class of strongly correlated physics related to the Kondo problem. The underlying dynamics of this system is described by a spin-dependent fermionic or bosonic Kondo-Hubbard lattice model even if we have only spin-independent atomic collision interaction. We solve the bosonic Kondo-Hubbard lattice model through a mean-field approximation, and the result shows a clear phase transition from the ferromagnetic superfluid to the Kondo-signet insulator at the integer filling.

L. -M. Duan

2003-10-16

296

Employing confinement induced resonances to realize Kondo physics with ultracold atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently proposed a novel realization of Kondo physics with ultracold atomic gases and illustrated that a mixture of 40K and 23Na atoms has suitable properties for the generation of a Kondo-correlated state with experimentally accessible scales. This system fortuitously satisfies rather special conditions. Here we discuss an alternative realization based on confinement induced resonances which could also be applicable for other mixtures. We first explain the general principle of how to engineer the Kondo correlated state like this. Then we present results for local spectral functions from numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculations for the appropriate effective Anderson impurity model and also predict the experimentally measurable radio frequency response.

Bauer, J.; Demler, E.; Salomon, C.

2015-03-01

297

Tevatron End-of-Run Beam Physics Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Before the Tevatron Collider Run II ended in September of 2011, a number of specialized beam study periods were dedicated to the experiments on various accelerator physics concepts and effects during the last year of the machine operation. The study topics included collimation with bent crystals and hollow electron beams, diffusion measurements and various aspects of beam-beam interactions. In this report we concentrate on the subject of beam-beam interactions, summarizing the results of beam experiments. The covered topics include offset collisions, coherent beam stability, effect of the bunch-length-to-beta-function ratio, and operation of AC dipole with colliding beams.

Valishev, A.; /Fermilab; Gu, X.; Miyamoto, R.; White, S.; /BNL; Schmidt, F.; /CERN; Qiang, J.; /LBNL

2012-05-01

298

Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

1998-12-14

299

The FrPNC Experiment at TRIUMF: Atomic Parity Non-Conservation in Francium  

E-print Network

. Measurements of francium anapole moments in a string of isotopes will help separate the isovector and isoscalar York 11794-3800, USA Abstract. The FrPNC collaboration has begun the construction of an on-line laser anapole moment in a string of artificially produced francium isotopes. Atomic PNC experiments provide

Orozco, Luis A.

300

Limits on temporal variation of quark masses and strong interaction from atomic clock experiments  

E-print Network

We perform calculations of the dependence of nuclear magnetic moments on quark masses and obtain limits on the variation of m_q/Lambda_{QCD} from recent atomic clock experiments with hyperfine transitions in H, Rb, Cs, Hg+ and optical transtion in Hg+.

V. V. Flambaum

2003-02-06

301

Development of the Zeeman Slower for the Ultra-cold Atomic Interference Experiment  

E-print Network

that the Zeeman effect on the energy levels will continuously balance the changing observed energy of the photonsDevelopment of the Zeeman Slower for the Ultra-cold Atomic Interference Experiment Daniel Gochnauer of the Zeeman slower. Some discussion of other electromagnet coils, specifically the MOT coils, will also

Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

302

PREFACE: Atomically controlled fabrication technology: new physics and functional device realization Atomically controlled fabrication technology: new physics and functional device realization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To realize next generation functional devices, atomic level controllability of the application and fabrication techniques is necessary. The conventional route to advance solid state devices, which involves improvement of 'instrumental accuracy', is now facing a major paradigm shift towards 'phenomenal accuracy'. Therefore, to keep up with this critical turn in the development of devices, pioneering research (both theoretical and experimental) on relevant materials, focusing on new physics at the atomic scale, is inevitable. This special section contains articles on the advancements in fabrication of functional devices with an emphasis on the exploration, clarification and understanding of atomistic phenomena. Research articles reporting theoretical and experimental findings on various materials such as semiconductors, metals, magnetic and organic systems, collectively present and 'capture' the appropriate processes and mechanisms of this rapidly developing field. The theoretical investigations employ first-principles quantum-mechanical simulations to clarify and bring about design principles and guidelines, or to develop more reliable computational methods. Experimental studies, on the other hand, introduce novel capabilities to build, view and manipulate materials at the atomic scale by employing pioneering techniques. Thus, the section pays significant attention to novel structures and properties and the accompanying fabrication techniques and design arising from the understanding of properties and structures at the atomic scale. We hope that researchers in the area of physics, materials science and engineering, interested in the development of functional devices via atomic level control, will find valuable information in this collaborative work. We are grateful to all of the authors for their contributions. Atomically controlled fabrication contents On the mechanism of carbon nanotube formation: the role of the catalyst G N Ayre, T Uchino, B Mazumder, A L Hector, J L Hutchison, D C Smith, P Ashburn and C H de Groot Mechanism of atomic-scale passivation and flattening of semiconductor surfaces by wet-chemical preparationsKenta Arima, Katsuyoshi Endo, Kazuto Yamauchi, Kikuji Hirose, Tomoya Ono and Yasuhisa Sano Real-space calculations for electron transport properties of nanostructuresTomoya Ono, Shigeru Tsukamoto, Yoshiyuki Egami and Yoshitaka Fujimoto Thermally activated magnetization reversal in monatomic magnetic chains on surfaces studied by classical atomistic spin-dynamics simulationsDavid S G Bauer, Phivos Mavropoulos, Samir Lounis and Stefan Blügel An atomically controlled Si film formation process at low temperatures using atmospheric-pressure VHF plasmaK Yasutake, H Kakiuchi, H Ohmi, K Inagaki, Y Oshikane and M Nakano Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrorsKazuto Yamauchi, Hidekazu Mimura, Takashi Kimura, Hirokatsu Yumoto, Soichiro Handa, Satoshi Matsuyama, Kenta Arima, Yasuhisa Sano, Kazuya Yamamura, Koji Inagaki, Hiroki Nakamori, Jangwoo Kim, Kenji Tamasaku, Yoshinori Nishino, Makina Yabashi and Tetsuya Ishikawa Surface magnetism in O2 dissociation—from basics to applicationY Kunisada, M C Escaño and H Kasai Real-space finite-difference approach for multi-body systems: path-integral renormalization group method and direct energy minimization methodAkira Sasaki, Masashi Kojo, Kikuji Hirose and Hidekazu Goto Electrical conduction of organic ultrathin films evaluated by an independently driven double-tip scanning tunneling microscopeK Takami, S Tsuruta, Y Miyake, M Akai-Kasaya, A Saito, M Aono and Y Kuwahara

Kuwahara, Yuji; Kasai, Hideaki

2011-10-01

303

Physics Results from the Argo-YBJ Experiment  

E-print Network

The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking since November 2007 at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l.). In this paper we report a few selected results in Gamma-Ray Astronomy (Crab Nebula and Mrk421 observations, search for high energy tails of GRBs) and Cosmic Ray Physics (Moon and Sun shadow observations, proton-air cross section and antiproton/proton preliminary measurements).

G. Di Sciascio; for the ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

2008-11-06

304

Main physics results of the ARGO-YBJ experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking for more than 5 years at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Observatory (Tibet, P. R. China, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm2). With a duty-cycle greater than 86%, the detector collected about 5 × 1011 events in a wide energy range, from few hundred GeV up to about 10 PeV. High altitude location and detector features make ARGO-YBJ capable of investigating a wide range of important issues in Cosmic Ray and Astroparticle Physics by imaging the front of atmospheric showers with unprecedented resolution and detail. In this paper, the main physics results in gamma-ray astronomy and in cosmic ray physics are summarized.

di Sciascio, Giuseppe

2014-08-01

305

Stony Brook Mineral Physics Institute Research Experience for Undergraduates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each summer, the Mineral Physics Institute (MPI) at Stony Brook University offers a group of upper-level undergraduate students a paid opportunity to participate in mineral physics research during a ten-week Summer Scholars experience, funded by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates program. Since 1992, when the program was established under by the Center for High Pressure Research, over 100 students have participated. Students are matched with existing research groups led by Institute faculty representing the physical sciences and mathematics. Research is conducted in MPI's High Pressure Laboratory and at the National Synchrotron Light Source at nearby Brookhaven National Laboratory. Students may also register to earn up to 6 credits of Stony Brook University undergraduate research course work for their participation in the program. 1 Effect of Al Substitution on the Talc to 10Å Phase Transition 2 X-ray Characterization of Clay Minerals and their Thermal Decomposition Products 3 Synthesis of Hydrous Olivine under High Pressure and Temperature 4 Strain Behavior of MgO at High Pressure 5 Temperature Variations in DIA Pressure Assembly using MgO 6 Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3) Fusion Curve Reexamined: New Experiments at 5 GPa During the summer of 2008, six students participated in the program. Their research projects were: The results of the six projects will be presented by the student participants in this session.

Vaughan, M. T.; Arthur, E. J.; Cintrón, I. A.; Labold, J. A.; Mounier, M. T.; Plotnick, D. S.; Pottish, S. D.; Richard, G. A.

2008-12-01

306

WIMP physics with ensembles of direct-detection experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for weakly-interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter is multi-pronged. Ultimately, the WIMP-dark-matter picture will only be confirmed if different classes of experiments see consistent signals and infer the same WIMP properties. In this work, we review the ideas, methods, and status of direct-detection searches. We focus in particular on extracting WIMP physics (WIMP interactions and phase-space distribution) from direct-detection data in the early discovery days when multiple experiments see of order dozens to hundreds of events. To demonstrate the essential complementarity of different direct-detection experiments in this context, we create mock data intended to represent the data from the near-future Generation 2 experiments. We consider both conventional supersymmetry-inspired benchmark points (with spin-independent and -dependent elastic cross sections just below current limits), as well as benchmark points for other classes of models (inelastic and effective-operator paradigms). We also investigate the effect on parameter estimation of loosening or dropping the assumptions about the local WIMP phase-space distribution. We arrive at two main conclusions. Firstly, teasing out WIMP physics with experiments depends critically on having a wide set of detector target materials, spanning a large range of target nuclear masses and spin-dependent sensitivity. It is also highly desirable to obtain data from low-threshold experiments. Secondly, a general reconstruction of the local WIMP velocity distribution, which will only be achieved if there are multiple experiments using different target materials, is critical to obtaining a robust and unbiased estimate of the WIMP mass.

Peter, Annika H. G.; Gluscevic, Vera; Green, Anne M.; Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Lee, Samuel K.

2014-12-01

307

Atomic Physics Effects on Convergent, Child-Langmuir Ion Flow between Nearly Transparent Electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Research during this project at the University of Wisconsin Fusion Technology Institute (UW FTI) on ion and neutral flow through an arbitrary, monotonic potential difference created by nearly transparent electrodes accomplished the following: (1) developed and implemented an integral equation approach for atomic physics effects in helium plasmas; (2) extended the analysis to coupled integral equations that treat atomic and molecular deuterium ions and neutrals; (3) implemented the key deuterium and helium atomic and molecular cross sections; (4) added negative ion production and related cross sections; and (5) benchmarked the code against experimental results. The analysis and codes treat the species D0, D20, D+, D2+, D3+, D and, separately at present, He0 and He+. Extensions enhanced the analysis and related computer codes to include He++ ions plus planar and cylindrical geometries.

Santarius, John F. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Emmert, Gilbert A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] [University of Wisconsin-Madison

2013-11-07

308

Atomic Oxygen and Space Environment Effects on Aerospace Materials Flown with EOIM-3 Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polymer materials samples mounted on a passive carrier tray were flown aboard the STS-46 Atlantis shuttle as complement to the EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials) experiment to evaluate the effects of atomic oxygen on the materials and to measure the gaseous shuttle bay environment. The morphological changes of the samples produced by the atomic oxygen fluence of 2.07 x 10(exp 20) atoms/cm(exp 2) are being reported. The changes have been verified using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), gravimetric measurement, microscopic observations and thermo-optical measurements. The samples, including Kapton, Delrin, epoxies, Beta Cloth, Chemglaze Z306, silver Teflon, silicone coatings, 3M tape and Uralane and Ultem, PEEK, Victrex (PES), Polyethersulfone and Polymethylpentene thermoplastic, have been characterized by their oxygen reaction efficiency on the basis of their erosion losses and the oxygen fluence. Those efficiencies have been compared to results from other experiments, when available. The efficiencies of the samples are all in the range of E-24 g/atom. The results indicate that the reaction efficiencies of the reported materials can be grouped in about three ranges of values. The least affected materials which have efficiencies varying from 1 to 10(exp 25) g/atom, include silicones, epoxies, Uralane and Teflon. A second group with efficiency from 10 to 45(exp 25) g/atom includes additional silicone coatings, the Chemglaze Z306 paint and Kapton. The third range from 50 to 75(exp 25) includes organic compound such as Pentene, Peek, Ultem, Sulfone and a 3M tape. A Delrin sample had the highest reaction efficiency of 179(exp 25) g/atom. Two samples, the aluminum Beta cloth X389-7 and the epoxy fiberglass G-11 nonflame retardant, showed a slight mass increase.

Scialdone, John J.; Clatterbuck, Carroll H.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Park, Gloria; Kolos, Diane

1996-01-01

309

Software for physics of tau lepton decay in LHC experiments  

E-print Network

Software development in high energy physics experiments offers unique experience with rapidly changing environment and variety of different standards and frameworks that software must be adapted to. As such, regular methods of software development are hard to use as they do not take into account how greatly some of these changes influence the whole structure. The following thesis summarizes development of TAUOLA C++ Interface introducing tau decays to new event record standard. Documentation of the program is already published. That is why it is not recalled here again. We focus on the development cycle and methodology used in the project, starting from the definition of the expectations through planning and designing the abstract model and concluding with the implementation. In the last part of the paper we present installation of the software within different experiments surrounding Large Hadron Collider and the problems that emerged during this process.

Tomasz Przedzinski

2010-09-20

310

Introductory Physics Experiments Using the Wii Balance Board  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wii, a video game console by Nintendo, utilizes several different controllers, such as the Wii remote (Wiimote) and the balance board, for game-playing. The balance board was introduced in early 2008. It contains four strain gauges and has Bluetooth connectivity at a relatively low price. Thanks to available open source code, such as GlovePie, any PC with Bluetooth capability can detect the information sent out by the balance board. Based on the ease with which the forces measured by each strain gauge can be obtained, we have designed several experiments for introductory physics courses that make use of this device. We present experiments to measure the forces generated when students lift their arms with and without added weights, distribution of forces on an extended object when weights are repositioned, and other normal forces cases. The results of our experiments are compared with those predicted by Newtonian mechanics. )

Starr, Julian; Sobczak, Robert; Iqbal, Zohaib; Ochoa, Romulo

2010-02-01

311

Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PhaSE) or "Making Jello in Space"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE) is a highly successful experiment that flew aboard two shuttle missions to study the transitions involved in the formation of jellolike colloidal crystals in a microgravity environment. A colloidal suspension, or colloid, consists of fine particles, often having complex interactions, suspended in a liquid. Paint, ink, and milk are examples of colloids found in everyday life. In low Earth orbit, the effective force of gravity is thousands of times less than at the Earth's surface. This provides researchers a way to conduct experiments that cannot be adequately performed in an Earth-gravity environment. In microgravity, colloidal particles freely interact without the complications of settling that occur in normal gravity on Earth. If the particle interactions within these colloidal suspensions could be predicted and accurately modeled, they could provide the key to understanding fundamental problems in condensed matter physics and could help make possible the development of wonderful new "designer" materials. Industries that make semiconductors, electro-optics, ceramics, and composites are just a few that may benefit from this knowledge. Atomic interactions determine the physical properties (e.g., weight, color, and hardness) of ordinary matter. PHaSE uses colloidal suspensions of microscopic solid plastic spheres to model the behavior of atomic interactions. When uniformly sized hard spheres suspended in a fluid reach a certain concentration (volume fraction), the particle-fluid mixture changes from a disordered fluid state, in which the spheres are randomly organized, to an ordered "crystalline" state, in which they are structured periodically. The thermal energy of the spheres causes them to form ordered arrays, analogous to crystals. Seven of the eight PHaSE samples ranged in volume fraction from 0.483 to 0.624 to cover the range of interest, while one sample, having a concentration of 0.019, was included for instrument calibration.

Ling, Jerri S.; Doherty, Michael P.

1998-01-01

312

Autonomy and the Student Experience in Introductory Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of autonomy in the student experience in a large-enrollment undergraduate introductory physics course was studied from a Self-Determination Theory perspective with two studies. Study I, a correlational study, investigated whether certain aspects of the student experience correlated with how autonomy supportive (vs. controlling) students perceived their instructors to be. An autonomy supportive instructor acknowledges students' perspectives, feelings, and perceptions and provides students with information and opportunities for choice, while minimizing external pressures. It was found that the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was positively correlated with student interest and enjoyment in learning physics (beta=0.31***) and negatively correlated with student anxiety about taking physics (beta=-0.23**). It was also positively correlated with how autonomous (vs. controlled) students' reasons for studying physics became over the duration of the course (i.e., studying physics more because they wanted to vs. had to; beta=0.24***). This change in autonomous reasons for studying physics was in turn positively correlated with student performance in the course (beta=0.17*). Additionally, the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was directly correlated with performance for those students entering the course with relatively autonomous reasons for studying physics (beta=0.25**). In summary, students who perceived their instructors as more autonomy supportive tended to have a more favorable experience in the course. If greater autonomy support was in fact the cause of a more favorable student experience, as suggested by Self-determination Theory and experimental studies in other contexts, these results would have implications for instruction and instructor professional development in similar contexts. I discuss these implications. Study II, an experimental study, investigated the effect, on the student experience, of the number of opportunities for choice built into the course format. This was done by comparing two sets of classes. In one set of classes, students spent each class period working through a required series of activities. In the other set of classes, with additional choice, students were free to choose what to work on during nearly half of each class. It was found that the effect of additional choice on student interest and enjoyment in learning physics was significantly different for men vs. women, with a Cohen's d of 0.62 (0.16-1.08; 95% CI). Men became somewhat more interested with additional choice and women became less interested. This gender difference in interest and enjoyment as a result of additional choice could not be accounted for by differences in performance. It was also found that only in classes with additional choice did performance in the course correlate with the degree to which students reasons for studying physics became more autonomous during the quarter (beta=0.30*). I discuss the implications that these effects of additional choice have for instruction and course design in similar contexts.

Hall, Nicholas Ron

313

On the Limitations of Thought Experiments in Physics and the Consequences for Physics Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the role of Thought Experiments (TEs) in ongoing processes of conceptual refinement for physicists and physics learners. Analyze TEs related to stellar evolution and general relativity. Identifies the stages at which crucial errors are made in these TEs and the cognitive processes which lead to these errors. Discusses implications for…

Reiner, Miriam; Burko, Lior M.

2003-01-01

314

Physics Basis and Simulation of Burning Plasma Physics for the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE)  

SciTech Connect

The FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] design for a burning plasma experiment is described in terms of its physics basis and engineering features. Systems analysis indicates that the device has a wide operating space to accomplish its mission, both for the ELMing H-mode reference and the high bootstrap current/high beta advanced tokamak regimes. Simulations with 1.5D transport codes reported here both confirm and constrain the systems projections. Experimental and theoretical results are used to establish the basis for successful burning plasma experiments in FIRE.

C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; S.C. Jardin

2002-01-18

315

Comparison of Numerical Simulations to Experiments for Atomization in a Jet Nebulizer  

PubMed Central

The development of jet nebulizers for medical purposes is an important challenge of aerosol therapy. The performance of a nebulizer is characterized by its output rate of droplets with a diameter under 5 µm. However the optimization of this parameter through experiments has reached a plateau. The purpose of this study is to design a numerical model simulating the nebulization process and to compare it with experimental data. Such a model could provide a better understanding of the atomization process and the parameters influencing the nebulizer output. A model based on the Updraft nebulizer (Hudson) was designed with ANSYS Workbench. Boundary conditions were set with experimental data then transient 3D calculations were run on a 4 µm mesh with ANSYS Fluent. Two air flow rate (2 L/min and 8 L/min, limits of the operating range) were considered to account for different turbulence regimes. Numerical and experimental results were compared according to phenomenology and droplet size. The behavior of the liquid was compared to images acquired through shadowgraphy with a CCD Camera. Three experimental methods, laser diffractometry, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and shadowgraphy were used to characterize the droplet size distributions. Camera images showed similar patterns as numerical results. Droplet sizes obtained numerically are overestimated in relation to PDA and diffractometry, which only consider spherical droplets. However, at both flow rates, size distributions extracted from numerical image processing were similar to distributions obtained from shadowgraphy image processing. The simulation then provides a good understanding and prediction of the phenomena involved in the fragmentation of droplets over 10 µm. The laws of dynamics apply to droplets down to 1 µm, so we can assume the continuity of the distribution and extrapolate the results for droplets between 1 and 10 µm. So, this model could help predicting nebulizer output with defined geometrical and physical parameters. PMID:24244334

Lelong, Nicolas; Vecellio, Laurent; Sommer de Gélicourt, Yann; Tanguy, Christian; Diot, Patrice; Junqua-Moullet, Alexandra

2013-01-01

316

Theory for a Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment with a ballistically expanding cloud of cold atoms  

E-print Network

We have studied one-body and two-body correlation functions in a ballistically expanding, non-interacting atomic cloud in the presence of gravity. We find that the correlation functions are equivalent to those at thermal equilibrium in the trap with an appropriate rescaling of the coordinates. We derive simple expressions for the correlation lengths and give some physical interpretations. Finally a simple model to take into account finite detector resolution is discussed.

Jose Viana Gomes; Aurélien Perrin; Martijn Schellekens; Denis Boiron; Christoph I. Westbrook; Michael Belsley

2006-11-30

317

Study to perform preliminary experiments to evaluate particle generation and characterization techniques for zero-gravity cloud physics experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods of particle generation and characterization with regard to their applicability for experiments requiring cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) of specified properties were investigated. Since aerosol characterization is a prerequisite to assessing performance of particle generation equipment, techniques for characterizing aerosol were evaluated. Aerosol generation is discussed, and atomizer and photolytic generators including preparation of hydrosols (used with atomizers) and the evaluation of a flight version of an atomizer are studied.

Katz, U.

1982-01-01

318

A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

2002-01-01

319

A Reconfigurable Instrument System for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a reconfigurable nuclear instrument system (RNIS) that could satisfy the requirements of diverse nuclear and particle physics experiments, and the inertial confinement fusion diagnostic. Benefiting from the reconfigurable hardware structure and digital pulse processing technology, RNIS shakes off the restrictions of cumbersome crates and miscellaneous modules. It retains all the advantages of conventional nuclear instruments and is more flexible and portable. RNIS is primarily composed of a field programmable hardware board and relevant PC software. Separate analog channels are designed to provide different functions, such as amplifiers, ADC, fast discriminators and Schmitt discriminators for diverse experimental purposes. The high-performance field programmable gate array could complete high-precision time interval measurement, histogram accumulation, counting, and coincidence anticoincidence measurement. To illustrate the prospects of RNIS, a series of applications to the experiments are described in this paper. The first, for which RNIS was originally developed, involves nuclear energy spectrum measurement with a scintillation detector and photomultiplier. The second experiment applies RNIS to a G-M tube counting experiment, and in the third, it is applied to a quantum communication experiment through reconfiguration.

Sang, Ziru; Li, Feng; Jiang, Xiao; Jin, Ge

2014-04-01

320

Negative Experiences in Physical Education and Sport: How Much Do They Affect Physical Activity Participation Later in Life?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…

Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.

2013-01-01

321

Proposed experiment with Rydberg atoms to test the wave function interpretation  

E-print Network

Experiment{Fabre_1983} shows that Rydberg atoms do not pass through 1 micronmeter width slits if their principal quantum number is rather large(n > 60). Thus, the particle density measured after the slits is null while the wave function calculated after the slits is not. This experiment is in contradiction with the Born interpretation (the square of the wave function is proportional to the probability density for the particle to be found at each point in space). The classical interpretation of this experiment, which removes the contradiction, is to suppose that if the particles do not pass, the wave function does not pass either (classical assumption). An alternative interpretation of this experiment is to suppose that the wave function passes through the slits, but that the Born interpretation is not valid any more in this case (alternative assumption). The aim of this paper is to present an experiment testing this alternative assumption compared to the classical assumption.

M. Gondran; M. Bozic; D. Arsenovic; A. Gondran

2007-01-15

322

Nuclear effects in atomic transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomic electrons are sensitive to the properties of the nucleus they are bound to, such as nuclear mass, charge distribution, spin, magnetization distribution, or even excited level scheme. These nuclear parameters are reflected in the atomic transition energies. A very precise determination of atomic spectra may thus reveal information about the nucleus, otherwise hardly accessible via nuclear physics experiments. This

Adriana Palffy

2010-01-01

323

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 022317 (2014) Large-scale modular quantum-computer architecture with atomic memory  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 022317 (2014) Large-scale modular quantum-computer architecture with atomic.-M. Duan,5 and J. Kim4 1 Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland Department of Physics and National Institute of Standards and Technology, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA 2 Department of Physics

Monroe, Christopher

324

Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) power supply design and development  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is an advanced tokamak project aimed at the production of quasi-steady state plasmas with advanced shape, heating, and particle control. TPX is to be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) using many of the facilities from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). TPX will be the first tokamak to utilize superconducting (SC) magnets in both the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) systems. This new feature requires a departure from the traditional tokamak power supply schemes. This paper describes the plan for the adaptation of the PPPL/FTR power system facilities to supply TPX. Five major areas are addressed, namely the AC power system, the TF, PF and Fast Plasma Position Control (FPPC) power supplies, and quench protection for the TF and PF systems. Special emphasis is placed on the development of new power supply and protection schemes.

Neumeyer, C. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Princeton, NJ (United States). EBASCO Div.; Bronner, G.; Lu, E.; Ramakrishnan, S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

1995-04-01

325

Kinetic theory and atomic physics corrections for determination of ion velocities from charge-exchange spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charge-exchange spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for determining ion temperatures, densities and rotational velocities in tokamak plasmas. This technique depends on detailed understanding of the atomic physics processes that affect the measured apparent velocities with respect to the true ion rotational velocities. These atomic effects are mainly due to energy dependence of the charge-exchange cross-sections, and in the case of poloidal velocities, due to gyro-motion of the ion during the finite lifetime of the excited states. Accurate lifetimes are necessary for correct interpretation of measured poloidal velocities, specially for high density plasma regimes on machines such as ITER, where l-mixing effects must be taken into account. In this work, a full nl-resolved atomic collisional radiative model coupled with a full kinetic calculation that includes the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the ion gyro-motion is presented for the first time. The model directly calculates from atomic physics first principles the excited state lifetimes that are necessary to evaluate the gyro-orbit effects. It is shown that even for low density plasmas where l-mixing effects are unimportant and coronal conditions can be assumed, the nl-resolved model is necessary for an accurate description of the gyro-motion effects to determine poloidal velocities. This solution shows good agreement when compared to three QH-mode shots on DIII-D, which contain a wide range of toroidal velocities and high ion temperatures where greater atomic corrections are needed. The velocities obtained from the model are compared to experimental velocities determined from co- and counter-injection of neutral beams on DIII-D.

Muñoz Burgos, J. M.; Burrell, K. H.; Solomon, W. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.; Chrystal, C.

2013-09-01

326

New physics searches with heavy flavour with the ATLAS experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flavour changing neutral currents and precision measurements of CP violation are investigated by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN as probes to physics beyond the Standard Model. This paper presents recent update of flavour tagged time- dependent analysis of Bs ? J/? phi, angular analysis of Bd ? K*?+?? and a search for the rare decay B0s ? ?+?? with measurement of upper limit on its branching fraction. All analyses use 4.9 fb?1 of integrated luminosity collected in 2011 at centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and the results are in agreement with Standard Model predictions.

Chalupkova, Ina; Atlas Collaboration

2014-11-01

327

Report on Physics of Channelization: Theory, Experiment, and Observation  

SciTech Connect

The project involved a study of physical processes that create eroded channel and drainage networks. A particular focus was on how the shape of the channels and the network depended on the nature of the fluid flow. Our approach was to combine theoretical, experimental, and observational studies in close collaboration with Professor Daniel Rothman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Laboratory -scaled experiments were developed and quantitative data on the shape of the pattern and erosion dynamics are obtained with a laser-aided topography technique and fluorescent optical imaging techniques.

Kudrolli, Arshad [Clark University] [Clark University

2014-05-19

328

Moderate energy ions for high energy density physics experiments  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives the results of a preliminary exploration of whether moderate energy ions ({approx_equal}0.3-3 MeV/amu) could be useful as modest-cost drivers for high energy density physics experiments. It is found that if the target thickness is chosen so that the ion beam enters and then leaves the target in the vicinity of the peak of the dE/dX (stopping power) curve, high uniformity of energy deposition may be achievable while also maximizing the amount of energy per beam particle deposited within the target.

Grisham, L.R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2004-12-01

329

Neutrino Oscillation Physics Potential of the T2K Experiment  

E-print Network

The observation of the recent electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam and the high-precision measurement of the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ have led to a re-evaluation of the physics potential of the T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. Sensitivities are explored for CP violation in neutrinos, non-maximal $\\sin^22\\theta_{23}$, the octant of $\\theta_{23}$, and the mass hierarchy, in addition to the measurements of $\\delta_{CP}$, $\\sin^2\\theta_{23}$, and $\\Delta m^2_{32}$, for various combinations of $\

K. Abe; J. Adam; H. Aihara; T. Akiri; C. Andreopoulos; S. Aoki; A. Ariga; S. Assylbekov; D. Autiero; M. Barbi; G. J. Barker; G. Barr; P. Bartet-Friburg; M. Bass; M. Batkiewicz; F. Bay; V. Berardi; B. E. Berger; S. Berkman; S. Bhadra; F. d. M. Blaszczyk; A. Blondel; C. Bojechko; S. Bordoni; S. B. Boyd; D. Brailsford; A. Bravar; C. Bronner; N. Buchanan; R. G. Calland; J. Caravaca Rodr'iguez; S. L. Cartwright; R. Castillo; M. G. Catanesi; A. Cervera; D. Cherdack; G. Christodoulou; A. Clifton; J. Coleman; S. J. Coleman; G. Collazuol; K. Connolly; L. Cremonesi; A. Dabrowska; I. Danko; R. Das; S. Davis; P. de Perio; G. De Rosa; T. Dealtry; S. R. Dennis; C. Densham; D. Dewhurst; F. Di Lodovico; S. Di Luise; O. Drapier; T. Duboyski; K. Duffy; J. Dumarchez; S. Dytman; M. Dziewiecki; S. Emery-Schrenk; A. Ereditato; L. Escudero; T. Feusels; A. J. Finch; G. A. Fiorentini; M. Friend; Y. Fujii; Y. Fukuda; A. P. Furmanski; V. Galymov; A. Garcia; S. Giffin; C. Giganti; K. Gilje; D. Goeldi; T. Golan; M. Gonin; N. Grant; D. Gudin; D. R. Hadley; L. Haegel; A. Haesler; M. D. Haigh; P. Hamilton; D. Hansen; T. Hara; M. Hartz; T. Hasegawa; N. C. Hastings; T. Hayashino; Y. Hayato; C. Hearty; R. L. Helmer; M. Hierholzer; J. Hignight; A. Hillairet; A. Himmel; T. Hiraki; S. Hirota; J. Holeczek; S. Horikawa; K. Huang; A. K. Ichikawa; K. Ieki; M. Ieva; M. Ikeda; J. Imber; J. Insler; T. J. Irvine; T. Ishida; T. Ishii; E. Iwai; K. Iwamoto; K. Iyogi; A. Izmaylov; A. Jacob; B. Jamieson; R. A. Johnson; S. Johnson; J. H. Jo; P. Jonsson; C. K. Jung; M. Kabirnezhad; A. C. Kaboth; T. Kajita; H. Kakuno; J. Kameda; Y. Kanazawa; D. Karlen; I. Karpikov; T. Katori; E. Kearns; M. Khabibullin; A. Khotjantsev; D. Kielczewska; T. Kikawa; A. Kilinski; J. Kim; S. King; J. Kisiel; P. Kitching; T. Kobayashi; L. Koch; T. Koga; A. Kolaceke; A. Konaka; L. L. Kormos; A. Korzenev; Y. Koshio; W. Kropp; H. Kubo; Y. Kudenko; R. Kurjata; T. Kutter; J. Lagoda; K. Laihem; I. Lamont; E. Larkin; M. Laveder; M. Lawe; M. Lazos; T. Lindner; C. Lister; R. P. Litchfield; A. Longhin; J. P. Lopez; L. Ludovici; L. Magaletti; K. Mahn; M. Malek; S. Manly; A. D. Marino; J. Marteau; J. F. Martin; P. Martins; S. Martynenko; T. Maruyama; V. Matveev; K. Mavrokoridis; E. Mazzucato; M. McCarthy; N. McCauley; K. S. McFarland; C. McGrew; A. Mefodiev; C. Metelko; M. Mezzetto; P. Mijakowski; C. A. Miller; A. Minamino; O. Mineev; A. Missert; M. Miura; S. Moriyama; Th. A. Mueller; A. Murakami; M. Murdoch; S. Murphy; J. Myslik; T. Nakadaira; M. Nakahata; K. G. Nakamura; K. Nakamura; S. Nakayama; T. Nakaya; K. Nakayoshi; C. Nantais; C. Nielsen; M. Nirkko; K. Nishikawa; Y. Nishimura; J. Nowak; H. M. O'Keeffe; R. Ohta; K. Okumura; T. Okusawa; W. Oryszczak; S. M. Oser; T. Ovsyannikova; R. A. Owen; Y. Oyama; V. Palladino; J. L. Palomino; V. Paolone; D. Payne; O. Perevozchikov; J. D. Perkin; Y. Petrov; L. Pickard; E. S. Pinzon Guerra; C. Pistillo; P. Plonski; E. Poplawska; B. Popov; M. Posiadala-Zezula; J. -M. Poutissou; R. Poutissou; P. Przewlocki; B. Quilain; E. Radicioni; P. N. Ratoff; M. Ravonel; M. A. M. Rayner; A. Redij; M. Reeves; E. Reinherz-Aronis; C. Riccio; P. A. Rodrigues; P. Rojas; E. Rondio; S. Roth; A. Rubbia; D. Ruterbories; R. Sacco; K. Sakashita; F. S'anchez; F. Sato; E. Scantamburlo; K. Scholberg; S. Schoppmann; J. Schwehr; M. Scott; Y. Seiya; T. Sekiguchi; H. Sekiya; D. Sgalaberna; R. Shah; F. Shaker; M. Shiozawa; S. Short; Y. Shustrov; P. Sinclair; B. Smith; M. Smy; J. T. Sobczyk; H. Sobel; M. Sorel; L. Southwell; P. Stamoulis; J. Steinmann; B. Still; Y. Suda; A. Suzuki; K. Suzuki; S. Y. Suzuki; Y. Suzuki; R. Tacik; M. Tada; S. Takahashi; A. Takeda; Y. Takeuchi; H. K. Tanaka; H. A. Tanaka; M. M. Tanaka; D. Terhorst; R. Terri; L. F. Thompson; A. Thorley; S. Tobayama; W. Toki; T. Tomura; Y. Totsuka; C. Touramanis; T. Tsukamoto; M. Tzanov; Y. Uchida; A. Vacheret; M. Vagins; G. Vasseur; T. Wachala; A. V. Waldron; K. Wakamatsu; C. W. Walter; D. Wark; W. Warzycha; M. O. Wascko; A. Weber; R. Wendell; R. J. Wilkes; M. J. Wilking; C. Wilkinson; Z. Williamson; J. R. Wilson; R. J. Wilson; T. Wongjirad; Y. Yamada; K. Yamamoto; C. Yanagisawa; T. Yano; S. Yen; N. Yershov; M. Yokoyama; K. Yoshida; T. Yuan; M. Yu; A. Zalewska; J. Zalipska; L. Zambelli; K. Zaremba; M. Ziembicki; E. D. Zimmerman; M. Zito; J. Zmuda

2015-02-10

330

The BAIKAL neutrino experiment - physics results and perspectives  

E-print Network

We review the status of the Lake Baikal Neutrino Experiment. The Neutrino Telescope NT200 has been operating since 1998 and has been upgraded to the 10 Mton detector NT200+ in 2005. We present selected astroparticle physics results from long-term operation of NT200. Also discussed are activities towards acoustic detection of UHE-energy neutrinos, and results of associated science activities. Preparation towards a km3-scale (Gigaton volume) detector in Lake Baikal is currently a central activity. As an important milestone, a km3-prototype string, based on completely new technology, has been installed and is operating together with NT200+ since April, 2008.

R. Wischnewski; for the Baikal Collaboration

2008-11-07

331

Electron electric-dipole-moment experiment using electric-field quantized slow cesium atoms  

SciTech Connect

A proof-of-principle electron electric-dipole-moment (e-EDM) experiment using slow cesium atoms, nulled magnetic fields, and electric-field quantization has been performed. With the ambient magnetic fields seen by the atoms reduced to less than 200 pT, an electric field of 6 MV/m lifts the degeneracy between states of unequal |m{sub F}| and, along with the low ({approx_equal}3 m/s) velocity, suppresses the systematic effect from the motional magnetic field. The low velocity and small residual magnetic field have made it possible to induce transitions between states and to perform state preparation, analysis, and detection in regions free of applied static magnetic and electric fields. This experiment demonstrates techniques that may be used to improve the e-EDM limit by two orders of magnitude, but it is not in itself a sensitive e-EDM search, mostly due to limitations of the laser system.

Amini, Jason M.; Munger, Charles T. Jr.; Gould, Harvey [Mail Stop 71-259, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2007-06-15

332

A pellet tracking system for hadron physics experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frozen microspheres of hydrogen (pellets) are used as targets in the hadron physics experiment WASA (Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany) [1] and will also be used in the future PANDA experiment at FAIR (GSI, Darmstadt, Germany) [2]. The interaction region is defined by the overlap of the pellet stream and the accelerator beam and has a size of a few millimeters. One would like to know the interaction point more precisely, to have better possibility to reconstruct particle tracks and events. One would also like to suppress background events that do not originate in a pellet, but e.g. may occur in residual gas in the beam pipe. A solution is provided by the presented pellet tracking system, for which a prototype [3] has been developed in Uppsala. The goal is to track individual pellets in order to know their position at the time of an interaction. The design of such a system, simulation techniques and results are presented.

Pyszniak, A.; Calén, H.; Fransson, K.; Jacewicz, M.; Johansson, T.; Rudy, Z.

2014-03-01

333

Active optical fibres in modern particle physics experiments  

E-print Network

In modern particle physics experiments wavelength-shifting and scintillating fibres based on plastic polymers are used for tracking and calorimetry. In this review the role of photon trapping efficiencies, transmission functions and signal response times for common multimode active fibres is discussed. Numerical simulations involving three dimensional tracking of skew rays through curved fibres demonstrate the characteristics of trapped light. Of practical interest are the parametrisations of transmission functions and the minimum permissible radius of curvature. These are of great importance in today's experiments where high count rates and small numbers of photoelectrons are encountered. Special emphasis has been placed on the timing resolution of fibre detectors and its limitation due to variations in the path length of generated photons.

C. P. Achenbach

2004-04-05

334

The mission of the Lifetime Physical Activity Program (LPAP) is to provide a mul-tifaceted learning experience via a program of physical activity to foster physical,  

E-print Network

187 The mission of the Lifetime Physical Activity Program (LPAP) is to provide a mul- tifaceted learning experience via a program of physical activity to foster physical, social, and emotional wellness of physical activity · Cognitive and behavioral skills · An understanding of physical activity as a mode

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

335

The mission of the Lifetime Physical Activity Program (LPAP) is to provide a mul-tifaceted learning experience via a program of physical activity to foster physical,  

E-print Network

191 The mission of the Lifetime Physical Activity Program (LPAP) is to provide a mul- tifaceted learning experience via a program of physical activity to foster physical, social, and emotional wellness of physical activity · Cognitive and behavioral skills · An understanding of physical activity as a mode

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

336

Demonstration of a Cold Atom Fountain Electron Electric Dipole Moment Experiment  

E-print Network

A Cs fountain electron electric dipole moment (EDM) experiment using electric-field quantization is demonstrated. With magnetic fields reduced to 200 pT or less, the electric field lifts the degeneracy between hyperfine levels of different|mF| and, along with the slow beam and fountain geometry, suppresses systematics from motional magnetic fields. Transitions are induced and the atoms polarized and analyzed in field-free regions. The feasibility of reaching a sensitivity to an electron EDM of 2 x 10 exp(-50) C-m [1.3 x 10 exp(-29) e-cm] in a cesium fountain experiment is discussed.

Jason M. Amini; Charles T. Munger Jr.; Harvey Gould

2006-03-14

337

Virtual experiments, physical validation: dental morphology at the intersection of experiment and theory.  

PubMed

Computational models such as finite-element analysis offer biologists a means of exploring the structural mechanics of biological systems that cannot be directly observed. Validated against experimental data, a model can be manipulated to perform virtual experiments, testing variables that are hard to control in physical experiments. The relationship between tooth form and the ability to break down prey is key to understanding the evolution of dentition. Recent experimental work has quantified how tooth shape promotes fracture in biological materials. We present a validated finite-element model derived from physical compression experiments. The model shows close agreement with strain patterns observed in photoelastic test materials and reaction forces measured during these experiments. We use the model to measure strain energy within the test material when different tooth shapes are used. Results show that notched blades deform materials for less strain energy cost than straight blades, giving insights into the energetic relationship between tooth form and prey materials. We identify a hypothetical 'optimal' blade angle that minimizes strain energy costs and test alternative prey materials via virtual experiments. Using experimental data and computational models offers an integrative approach to understand the mechanics of tooth morphology. PMID:22399789

Anderson, P S L; Rayfield, E J

2012-08-01

338

Virtual experiments, physical validation: dental morphology at the intersection of experiment and theory  

PubMed Central

Computational models such as finite-element analysis offer biologists a means of exploring the structural mechanics of biological systems that cannot be directly observed. Validated against experimental data, a model can be manipulated to perform virtual experiments, testing variables that are hard to control in physical experiments. The relationship between tooth form and the ability to break down prey is key to understanding the evolution of dentition. Recent experimental work has quantified how tooth shape promotes fracture in biological materials. We present a validated finite-element model derived from physical compression experiments. The model shows close agreement with strain patterns observed in photoelastic test materials and reaction forces measured during these experiments. We use the model to measure strain energy within the test material when different tooth shapes are used. Results show that notched blades deform materials for less strain energy cost than straight blades, giving insights into the energetic relationship between tooth form and prey materials. We identify a hypothetical ‘optimal’ blade angle that minimizes strain energy costs and test alternative prey materials via virtual experiments. Using experimental data and computational models offers an integrative approach to understand the mechanics of tooth morphology. PMID:22399789

Anderson, P. S. L.; Rayfield, E. J.

2012-01-01

339

Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Basic Physical Interactions in Analogous Atomic and Solar Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparing the atom to a `tiny solar system' is a common teaching analogy, and the extent to which learners saw the systems as analogous was investigated. English upper secondary students were asked parallel questions about the physical interactions between the components of a simple atomic system and a simple solar system to investigate how they understood the forces acting within the two systems. A sample of just over 100 across the 15-18 age range responded to a pencil-and-paper instrument that asked about four aspects of the two systems. It was found that for both systems, about four fifths of students expected forces to decrease with increasing distance; but that only a little over half expected there to be interactions between the minor constituents (electrons and planets). Most students failed to apply Newton's third law to either system. There was a considerable difference in the extent to which respondents were able to identify the type of force acting in the systems (nearly all for the solar system, but only a small proportion in the case of the atom). The findings are considered in terms of both the limitations of students' understanding of the basic physics and possible implications for the use of the teaching analogy.

Taber, Keith S.

2013-08-01

340

Universal van der Waals physics for three cold atoms near Feshbach resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental studies with cold atoms have advanced our understanding of three-body physics, historically a fundamental yet challenging problem. This is because atomic interactions can be precisely varied in strength using magnetically tunable scattering resonances known as Feshbach resonances. Collisions near the unitarity limit, where scattering is maximum, are known to have universal aspects that are independent of short-range chemical details. Away from this limit, many quantum states are expected to be active during a three-body collision, making the collisional observables practically unpredictable. Here we predict three-body ultracold scattering rates by properly building in the pairwise van der Waals interactions plus the multi-spin properties of a tunable Feshbach resonance state characterized by known dimensionless two-body parameters. Numerically solving the Schrödinger equation then quantitatively determines three-atom collisional properties at all interaction strengths without needing adjustable parameters to fit data. Consequently, we can define a new class of van der Waals universality for cold atom three-body phenomena.

Wang, Yujun; Julienne, Paul S.

2014-10-01

341

Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Basic Physical Interactions in Analogous Atomic and Solar Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparing the atom to a "tiny solar system" is a common teaching analogy, and the extent to which learners saw the systems as analogous was investigated. English upper secondary students were asked parallel questions about the physical interactions between the components of a simple atomic system and a simple solar system to investigate…

Taber, Keith S.

2013-01-01

342

Atomic physics studies of highly charged ions on tokamaks using x-ray spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

An overview is given of atomic physics issues which have been studied on tokamaks with the help resolution x-ray spectroscopy. The issues include the testing of model calculations predicting the excitation of line radiation, the determination of rate coefficients, and accurate atomic structure measurements. Recent research has focussed primarily on highly charged heliumlike (22 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28) and neonlike (34 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 63) ions, and results are presented from measurements on the PLT and TFTR tokamaks. Many of the measurements have been aided by improved instrumental design and new measuring techniques. Remarkable agreement has been found between measurements and theory in most cases. However, in this review those areas are stressed where agreement is worst and where further investigations are needed. 19 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Beiersdorfer, P.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.

1989-07-01

343

Testing for a cosmological influence on local physics using atomic and gravitational clocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existence of a possible influence of the large-scale structure of the universe on local physics is discussed. A particular realization of such an influence is discussed in terms of the behavior in time of atomic and gravitational clocks. Two natural categories of metric theories embodying a cosmic infuence exist. The first category has geodesic equations of motion in atomic units, while the second category has geodesic equations of motion in gravitational units. Equations of motion for test bodies are derived for both categories of theories in the appropriate parametrized post-Newtonian limit and are applied to the Solar System. Ranging data to the Viking lander on Mars are of sufficient precision to reveal (1) if such a cosmological influence exists at the level of Hubble's constant, and (2) which category of theories is appropriate for a descripton of the phenomenon.

Adams, P. J.; Hellings, R. W.; Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.

1983-01-01

344

IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45 (2012) 124006 (13pp) doi:10.1088/0953-4075/45/12/124006  

E-print Network

and internal degrees of freedom is a feature of modern research in ultracold atomic physics. For applicationsIOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt content of collective atomic memories S D Jenkins1, Y O Dudin2, R Zhao2, D N Matsukevich3, A Kuzmich2

Kuzmich, Alex

345

Quantum and semiclassical spin networks: from atomic and molecular physics to quantum computing and gravity  

E-print Network

The mathematical apparatus of quantum--mechanical angular momentum (re)coupling, developed originally to describe spectroscopic phenomena in atomic, molecular, optical and nuclear physics, is embedded in modern algebraic settings which emphasize the underlying combinational aspects. SU(2) recoupling theory, involving Wigner's 3nj symbols, as well as the related problems of their calculations, general properties, asymptotic limits for large entries, play nowadays a prominent role also in quantum gravity and quantum computing applications. We refer to the ingredients of this theory -and of its extension to other Lie and quantum group- by using the collective term of `spin networks'. Recent progress is recorded about the already established connections with the mathematical theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (the so-called Askey Scheme), providing powerful tools based on asymptotic expansions, which correspond on the physical side to various levels of semi-classical limits. These results are useful not only in theoretical molecular physics but also in motivating algorithms for the computationally demanding problems of molecular dynamics and chemical reaction theory, where large angular momenta are typically involved. As for quantum chemistry, applications of these techniques include selection and classification of complete orthogonal basis sets in atomic and molecular problems, either in configuration space (Sturmian orbitals) or in momentum space. In this paper we list and discuss some aspects of these developments -such as for instance the hyperquantization algorithm- as well as a few applications to quantum gravity and topology, thus providing evidence of a unifying background structure.

V. Aquilanti; A. C. P. Bitencourt; C. da S. Ferreira; A. Marzuoli; M. Ragni

2009-01-08

346

Physics results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a {approx} 1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), and Co-Axial Helicity Injection (CHI) for non-inductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high-{beta}{sub t} and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for non-inductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA, stored energies up to 55 kJ, {beta}{sub t} {approx} 10%, and a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 msec was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and {beta}{sub t}=21% were produced.

Kaye, S.; Bell, M. [and others

2000-11-01

347

The LHCf experiment at the LHC: Physics Goals and Status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHCf experiment is the smallest of the six experiments installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While the general purpose detectors have been mainly designed to answer the open questions of Elementary Particle Physics, LHCf has been designed as a fully devoted Astroparticle experiment at the LHC. Indeed, thanks to the excellent performances of its double arm calorimeters, LHCf will be able to measure the flux of neutral particles produced in p-p collisions at LHC in the very forward region, thus providing an invaluable help in the calibration of air-shower Monte Carlo codes currently used for modeling cosmic rays interactions in the Earth atmosphere. Depending on the LHC machine schedule, LHCf will take data in an energy range from 900 GeV up to 14 TeV in the centre of mass system (equivalent to 10 eV in the laboratory frame), thus covering one of the most interesting and debated region of the Cosmic Ray spectrum, the region around and beyond the "knee".

Tricomi, A.; Adriani, O.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Faus, A.; Fukui, K.; Haguenauer, M.; Itow, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Macina, D.; Mase, T.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Menjo, H.; Mizuishi, M.; Muraki, Y.; Papini, P.; Perrot, A. L.; Ricciarini, S.; Sako, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Taki, K.; Tamura, T.; Torii, S.; Turner, W. C.; Velasco, J.; Viciani, A.; Yoshida, K.

2009-12-01

348

Laser Irradiated Enhancement of the Atomic Electron Capture Rate in search of New Physics  

E-print Network

Electron capture processes are important in the search for new physics. In this context, a high capture rate is desired. We investigate the possibility of enhancing the electron capture rate by irradiating laser beam to ''atom''. The possibility of such enhancement can be understood as a consequence of an enhancement of the electron wave function at the origin, $\\Psi (0)$, through an increased effective mass of the electron. We find that an order of magnitude enhancement can be realized by using a laser with intensity on the order of $10^{10}$ W/mm$^2$ and a photon energy on the order of $10^{-3}$ eV.

Takaaki Nomura; Joe Sato; Takashi Shimomura

2007-06-16

349

EDITORIAL: The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue consists of papers that are associated with invited lectures, workshop papers and hot topic papers presented at the 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XX). This conference was organized in Novi Sad (Serbia) from 13 to 17 July 2010 by the Institute of Physics of the University of Belgrade. It

Zoran Lj Petrovic; Dragana Maric; Gordana Malovic

2011-01-01

350

Electron electric dipole moment experiment using electric-fieldquantized slow cesium atoms  

SciTech Connect

A proof-of-principle electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM)experiment using slow cesium atoms, nulled magnetic fields, and electricfield quantization has been performed. With the ambient magnetic fieldsseen by the atoms reduced to less than 200 pT, an electric field of 6MV/m lifts the degeneracy between states of unequal lbar mF rbar and,along with the low (approximately 3 m/s) velocity, suppresses thesystematic effect from the motional magnetic field. The low velocity andsmall residual magnetic field have made it possible to induce transitionsbetween states and to perform state preparation, analysis, and detectionin regions free of applied static magnetic and electric fields. Thisexperiment demonstrates techniques that may be used to improve the e-EDMlimit by two orders of magnitude, but it is not in itself a sensitivee-EDM search, mostly due to limitations of the laser system.

Amini, Jason M.; Munger Jr., Charles T.; Gould, Harvey.

2007-04-05

351

Results on QCD Physics from the CDF-II Experiment  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors review a selection of recent results obtained, in the area of QCD physics, from the CDF-II experiment that studies p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV provided by the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. All results shown correspond to analysis performed using the Tevatron Run II data samples. In particular they will illustrate the progress achieved and the status of the studies on the following QCD processes: jet inclusive production, using different jet clustering algorithm, W({yields} e{nu}{sub e}) + jets and Z({yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}) + jets production, {gamma} + b-jet production, dijet production in double pomeron exchange and finally exclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} production. No deviations from the Standard Model have been observed so far.

Pagliarone, C.; /Cassino U. /INFN, Pisa

2006-12-01

352

X-Ray and Inner-Shell Processes: Their Impact on our Understanding of Atomic Physics and Atoms Interacting with Solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomic physics and the basic concepts of quantum theory have been probed in the last fifty years by using the techniques of optics and lasers in the visible range. The new powerful accelerators, storage rings, and various large scale devices, such as ion beams, synchrotron radiation, plasma confinement machines, powerful lasers, etc. developed by the nuclear physicists and high technology

Jean-Pierre Briand

2000-01-01

353

Atomic layer deposition of metal oxide patterns on nonwoven fiber mats using localized physical compression.  

PubMed

Patterning is an essential part of many industrial processes from printing to semiconductor manufacturing. In this work, we demonstrate a new method to pattern and selectively coat nonwoven textiles by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using compressive mask patterning. A physical mask combined with mechanical compression allows lateral definition and fidelity of the ALD coating to be controlled. We produce features of several sizes on different nonwoven fiber materials and demonstrate the ability to limit diffusion effects to within <200 ?m of the pattern edge. Lateral and vertical penetration of reactive growth species into nonwoven mats is investigated by plan-view and cross-sectional imaging. Vertical growth is also analyzed by imaging coating depth into fiber mat stacks. We develop a fully quantitative transport model that describes well the effect of fiber structure and mechanical compression on the extent of coating under the physical mask. This method could be implemented for high-volume patterning for applications including flexible electronics. PMID:24850237

Sweet, William J; Oldham, Christopher J; Parsons, Gregory N

2014-06-25

354

A Data Transmission Method Based on Ethernet Physical Layer for Particle Physics Experiment  

E-print Network

Due to the advantages of universality, flexibility and high performance, fast Ethernet is widely used in readout system design of modern particle physics experiments. However, Ethernet is usually used together with TCP/IP protocol stack, which makes it difficult to be implemented because designers have to use operating system to process this protocol. Furthermore, TCP/IP protocol degrades the transmission efficiency and real-time performance. To maximize the performance of Ethernet in physics experiment applications, a data readout method based on physical layer (PHY) is proposed in this paper. In this method, TCP/IP protocol is forsaken and replaced with a customized and simple protocol, which make it easier to be implemented. On each readout module, data from front-end electronics is first fed into an FPGA for protocol processing and then sent out to a PHY chip controlled by this FPGA for transmission. This kind of data path is fully implemented by hardware. While from the side of data acquisition system (D...

Xi-Ru, Huang; Jia-Jun, Zheng

2015-01-01

355

Sixteenth International Conference on the physics of electronic and atomic collisions  

SciTech Connect

This report contains abstracts of papers on the following topics: photons, electron-atom collisions; electron-molecule collisions; electron-ion collisions; collisions involving exotic species; ion- atom collisions, ion-molecule or atom-molecule collisions; atom-atom collisions; ion-ion collisions; collisions involving rydberg atoms; field assisted collisions; collisions involving clusters and collisions involving condensed matter.

Dalgarno, A.; Freund, R.S.; Lubell, M.S.; Lucatorto, T.B. (eds.)

1989-01-01

356

A Terrestrial, Atom Interferometer, Experiment Searching for Dark Energy Density and Other Dark Contents of the Vacuum  

E-print Network

1 A Terrestrial, Atom Interferometer, Experiment Searching for Dark Energy Density and Other Dark way to investigate the nature of dark energy and at the same time to look for unknown contents, as in Fig. 5, there is an additional force on the atoms caused by dark energy, FDE shift of A is now

Wechsler, Risa H.

357

Creating a Before-School Physical Activity Program: Pre-Service Physical Educators' Experiences and Implications for PETE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) majors enrolled in an internship course that provided them with authentic experiences promoting and facilitating a before-school physical activity (PA) program and to examine the associated implications for PETE programs within the Comprehensive…

McMullen, Jaimie; van der Mars, Hans; Jahn, Julie A.

2014-01-01

358

MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers Experiment Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Error Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers in low Earth orbit (LEO) poses a serious threat to spacecraft performance and durability. To address this, 40 different polymer samples and a sample of pyrolytic graphite, collectively called the PEACE (Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment) Polymers, were exposed to the LEO space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly 4 years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 1 & 2 (MISSE 1 & 2). The purpose of the PEACE Polymers experiment was to obtain accurate mass loss measurements in space to combine with ground measurements in order to accurately calculate the atomic oxygen erosion yields of a wide variety of polymeric materials exposed to the LEO space environment for a long period of time. Error calculations were performed in order to determine the accuracy of the mass measurements and therefore of the erosion yield values. The standard deviation, or error, of each factor was incorporated into the fractional uncertainty of the erosion yield for each of three different situations, depending on the post-flight weighing procedure. The resulting error calculations showed the erosion yield values to be very accurate, with an average error of 3.30 percent.

McCarthy, Catherine E.; Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim, K.

2010-01-01

359

The effect of atomic mass on the physical spatial resolution in EBSD.  

PubMed

In this study, bicrystals of silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al) were used to investigate the physical spatial resolution of the electron backscatter diffraction system combining a digital image correlation method. Furthermore, the effect of the accelerating voltage and probe current was investigated on the physical spatial resolution of the lateral and longitudinal resolutions for Ag and Al, respectively. The lateral and longitudinal resolutions show high dependency on the accelerating voltage for a low atomic mass material of Al, In addition, these are almost independent of the accelerating voltage for a high atomic mass material of Ag. Moreover, the probe current does not play any role on both the lateral and longitudinal resolutions. The best lateral resolutions for Al and Ag are 40.5 and 12.1 nm at 10 kV and 1 nA, respectively. The best longitudinal resolutions of 23.2 and 80 nm were obtained at 10 kV and 1 nA for Al and Ag, respectively. PMID:23920163

Chen, Delphic; Kuo, Jui-Chao

2013-08-01

360

Oxygen control of atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 surfaces.  

PubMed

Complex oxide thin films and heterostructures have become one of the foci for condensed matter physics research due to a broad variety of properties they exhibit. Similar to the bulk, properties of oxide surfaces can be expected to be strongly affected by oxygen stoichiometry. Here we explore the coupling between atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 (SRO), one of the most well-studied oxide materials. We perform a detailed in situ and ex situ experimental investigation of the surfaces of SRO thin films using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and magnetotransport measurements, as well as ab initio modeling. A number of remarkable linear surface reconstructions were observed by STM and interpreted as oxygen adatoms, favorably adsorbed in a regular rectangular or zigzag patterns. The degree of oxygen coverage and different surface patterns change the work function of the thin films, and modify local electronic and magnetic properties of the topmost atomic layer. The ab initio modeling reveals that oxygen adatoms possess frustrated local spin moments with possible spin-glass behavior of the surface covered by adsorbed oxygen. Additionally, the modeling indicates presence of a pseudo gap on the topmost SrO layer on pristine SrO-terminated surface, suggesting possibility for realization of a surface half-metallic film. PMID:23570268

Tselev, Alexander; Ganesh, P; Qiao, Liang; Siemons, Wolter; Gai, Zheng; Biegalski, Michael D; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

2013-05-28

361

Mini-Column Ion-Exchange Separation and Atomic Absorption Quantitation of Nickel, Cobalt, and Iron: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an undergraduate quantitative analysis experiment, describing an atomic absorption quantitation scheme that is fast, sensitive and comparatively simple relative to other titration experiments. (CS)

Anderson, James L.; And Others

1980-01-01

362

Simulations of the edge plasma: the role of atomic, molecular and surface physics  

SciTech Connect

Atomic, molecular and surface physics plays an important role in simulations of the edge plasma in present day tokamaks, and in the predictive simulations of new devices. The edge plasma - in this context, the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL), the Private Flux Region (PFR) and core region close to the separatrix (or Last Closed Flux Surface, LCFS) - provides the boundary conditions for the main plasma, and is the region where much of the power and all of the particle exhaust occurs. It is also the region where the plasma interacts with solid surfaces, puffed gases and gas arising from recycling. The results of plasma edge simulations can depend strongly on the availability and quality of the atomic, molecular and surface data (the peak plasma temperature at the divertor was found to vary by a factor of five dependent on the choice of atomic physics data in a recent sensitivity analysis). The current material choice for ITER with Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) consisting of C, Be and W also presents challenges, both in the availability of the necessary data for W, and in the plethora of charge states for W. Another challenge presented by the material choice is the likely presence of mixed materials formed by the migration of material from one surface to another. These introduce effects like alloying and preferential sputtering as well as new (much longer) time-scales in the problem.Efforts to incorporate a bundled charge state model within one of the present edge simulation codes, SOLPS, will be described, as well as efforts to address some of the questions raised by mixed materials. Some issues related to data consistency and traceability within the context of the European effort on Integrated Tokamak Modelling will also be addressed.

Coster, D. P.; Gori, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bonnin, X. [CNRS-LIMHP, Universite Paris 13, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Reiter, D. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, FZ Juelich, EURATOM Association, Juelich (Germany); Kukushkin, A. [ITER Organization, Cadarache (France); Krstic, P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strand, P. [Chalmers University, Gothenburg (Sweden); Eriksson, L.-G. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

2009-05-02

363

Experiment to measure the electric dipole moment (edm) of the electron using laser-cooled Cs atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electron edm de is known to be smaller in magnitude than 1.6x10-27e.cm [1]. We will describe progress on an ongoing experiment designed to be sensitive to an electron EDM de as small as 10-29e.cm. The experiment will search for the resulting edm of the Cs atom, proportional to de, using laser-cooled Cs atoms held in an optical dipole force

Yong-Sup Ihn; Daniel Heinzen

2010-01-01

364

Review study and evaluation of possible flight experiments relating to cloud physics experiments in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general objectives of the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory Program are to improve the level of knowledge in atmospheric cloud research by placing at the disposal of the terrestrial-bound atmospheric cloud physicist a laboratory that can be operated in the environment of zero-gravity or near zero-gravity. This laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamic, electrical, or other techniques to support the object under study. The inhouse analysis of the Skylab 3 and 4 experiments in dynamics of oscillations, rotations, collisions and coalescence of water droplets under low gravity-environment is presented.

Hunt, R. J.; Wu, S. T.

1976-01-01

365

H I ZEEMAN EXPERIMENTS OF SHOCKED ATOMIC GAS IN TWO SUPERNOVA REMNANTS INTERACTING WITH MOLECULAR CLOUDS  

SciTech Connect

We have carried out observations of Zeeman splitting of the H I 21 cm emission line from shocked atomic gas in the supernova remnants (SNRs) IC 443 and W51C using the Arecibo telescope. The observed shocked atomic gas is expanding at {approx}100 km s{sup -1} and this is the first Zeeman experiment of such fast-moving, shocked atomic gas. The emission lines, however, are very broad and the systematic error due to baseline curvature hampers an accurate measurement of field strengths. We derive an upper limit of 100-150 {mu}G on the strength of the line-of-sight field component. These two SNRs are interacting with molecular clouds, but the derived upper limits are considerably smaller than the field strengths expected from a strongly shocked dense cloud. We discuss the implications and conclude that either the magnetic field within the telescope beam is mostly randomly oriented or the high-velocity H I emission is from a shocked interclump medium of relatively low density.

Koo, Bon-Chul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Heiles, Carl [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Stanimirovic, Snezana [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Troland, Tom, E-mail: koo@astrohi.snu.ac.k [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

2010-07-15

366

Plasma diagnostics for the sustained spheromak physics experiment H. S. McLeana)  

E-print Network

Plasma diagnostics for the sustained spheromak physics experiment H. S. McLeana) Lawrence Livermore spheromak physics experiment SSPX 1 device produces spheromak2­8 plasmas with an outer diam- eter of 1 m present an overview of the plasma diagnostics operating or planned for the sustained spheromak physics

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

367

Physics 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Chemistry and Physics Departments at the University of Colorado at Boulder, Physics 2000 is a non-threatening introduction to physics. In Einstein's Legacy, cartoon characters guide visitors through visual and conceptual lessons on X-rays, Cat Scans, and Microwave Ovens. A third lesson, Lasers, is still under construction. The Atomic Lab explores two physics phenomena: the two slit experiment and Bose-Einstein condensation. Applets are used throughout the site to allow visitors to interact with animations to demonstrate physics principles. Users can, for example, stretch and shift two waves to learn about wave interference or adjust the frequency of laser beams to cool and trap atoms.

368

Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Particle Formation, Imaging, Observations, and Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents particle formation observations and detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Hydrogen was frozen into particles in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. These newly analyzed data are from the test series held on February 28, 2001. Particle sizes from previous testing in 1999 and the testing in 2001 were similar. Though the 2001 testing created similar particles sizes, many new particle formation phenomena were observed: microparticles and delayed particle formation. These experiment image analyses are some of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles, and they allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

Palaszewski, Bryan

2005-01-01

369

Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Particle Formation Energy and Imaging Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents particle formation energy balances and detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium during the Phase II testing in 2001. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. The particle formation efficiency is also estimated. Particle sizes from the Phase I testing in 1999 and the Phase II testing in 2001 were similar. Though the 2001 testing created similar particles sizes, many new particle formation phenomena were observed. These experiment image analyses are one of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles and it allows designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

Palaszewski, Bryan

2002-01-01

370

An open source/real-time atomic force microscope architecture to perform customizable force spectroscopy experiments.  

PubMed

We describe the realization of an atomic force microscope architecture designed to perform customizable experiments in a flexible and automatic way. Novel technological contributions are given by the software implementation platform (RTAI-LINUX), which is free and open source, and from a functional point of view, by the implementation of hard real-time control algorithms. Some other technical solutions such as a new way to estimate the optical lever constant are described as well. The adoption of this architecture provides many degrees of freedom in the device behavior and, furthermore, allows one to obtain a flexible experimental instrument at a relatively low cost. In particular, we show how such a system has been employed to obtain measures in sophisticated single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments [Fernandez and Li, Science 303, 1674 (2004)]. Experimental results on proteins already studied using the same methodologies are provided in order to show the reliability of the measure system. PMID:19725671

Materassi, Donatello; Baschieri, Paolo; Tiribilli, Bruno; Zuccheri, Giampaolo; Samorì, Bruno

2009-08-01

371

Effect of Calcium and Magnesium on Phosphatidylserine Membranes: Experiments and All-Atomic Simulations  

PubMed Central

It is known that phosphatidylserine (PS?) lipids have a very similar affinity for Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations, as revealed by electrokinetic and stability experiments. However, despite this similar affinity, experimental evidence shows that the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ induces very different aggregation behavior for PS? liposomes as characterized by their fractal dimensions. Also, turbidity measurements confirm substantial differences in aggregation behavior depending on the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ cations. These puzzling results suggest that although these two cations have a similar affinity for PS? lipids, they induce substantial structural differences in lipid bilayers containing each of these cations. In other words, these cations have strong ion-specific effects on the structure of PS? membranes. This interpretation is supported by all-atomic molecular-dynamics simulations showing that Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations have different binding sites and induce different membrane hydration. We show that although both ions are incorporated deep into the hydrophilic region of the membrane, they have different positions and configurations at the membrane. Absorbed Ca2+ cations present a peak at a distance ?2 nm from the center of the lipid bilayer, and their most probable binding configuration involves two oxygen atoms from each of the charged moieties of the PS molecule (phosphate and carboxyl groups). In contrast, the distribution of absorbed Mg2+ cations has two different peaks, located a few angstroms before and after the Ca2+ peak. The most probable configurations (corresponding to these two peaks) involve binding to two oxygen atoms from carboxyl groups (the most superficial binding peak) or two oxygen atoms from phosphate groups (the most internal peak). Moreover, simulations also show differences in the hydration structure of the membrane: we obtained a hydration of 7.5 and 9 water molecules per lipid in simulations with Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. PMID:22824273

Martín-Molina, Alberto; Rodríguez-Beas, César; Faraudo, Jordi

2012-01-01

372

First experience with the ATOMS® implant, a new treatment option for male urinary incontinence  

PubMed Central

Introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as any complaint of involuntary urine leakage. A description is provided of our experience with the ATOMS® (Adjustable Transobturator Male System. Agency for Medical Innovations. A.M.I.) adjustable implant in patients with mild to moderate UI. Material and methods A retrospective study was made of the data referring to 13 patients treated with this adjustable system. Demographic and personal data were collected along with information on the etiology, severity, characteristics, duration of UI, complementary tests, surgery times, complications and results obtained. Results The full continence (no use of pad) recovery rate at the close of the study was 12/13 (92.3%). Three cases required a single filling during the mean 16 months of follow–up (range 4–32; median 14 months). A complication in the form of perineal hematoma was resolved with conservative treatment and a case of urinary retention was resolved by placing a bladder catheter for the duration of one week. Three patients experienced perineal–scrotal dysesthesias that disappeared spontaneously in the first three months. Conclusions The described adjustable continence system has been found to be very effective in males with mild to moderate UI. In our experience, the ATOMS® implant offers excellent results over the middle term with a very low rate of complications that were easily resolved in all cases. PMID:25667760

Cansino, Jose Ramón; Portilla, María Alejandra; Rodriguez, Simón Claudio; Hidalgo, Luis; De la Peña, Javier

2014-01-01

373

Electrochromic WO[subscript 3] Films: Nanotechnology Experiments in Instrumental Analysis and Physical Chemistry Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment teaches students the methodology of investigating novel properties of materials using new instrumental techniques: atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (EQCN), voltammetric techniques (linear potential scan and chronoamperometry), and light reflectance measurements. The unique capabilities of…

Hepel, Maria

2008-01-01

374

Atlas Pulsed Power Facility for High Energy Density Physics Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. It is intended to be an international user facility, providing opportunities for researchers from national laboratories and academic institutions around the world. Emphasizing institutions around the world. Emphasizing hydrodynamic experiments, Atlas will provide the capability for achieving steady shock pressures exceeding 10-Mbar in a volume of several cubic centimeters. In addition, the kinetic energy associated with solid liner implosion velocities exceeding 12 km/s is sufficient to drive dense, hydrodynamic targets into the ionized regime, permitting the study of complex issues associated with strongly-coupled plasmas. The primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently-removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-{micro}s risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line components has been completed. A complete maintenance module and its associated transmission line (the First Article) are now under construction and testing. The current Atlas schedule calls for construction of the machine to be complete by August, 2000. Acceptance testing is scheduled to begin in November, 2000, leading to initial operations in January, 2001.

Miller, R.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Barr, G.W.; Bowman, D.W.; Chochrane, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Elizondo, J.M.; Gribble, R.F.; Griego, J.R.; Hicks, R.D.; Hinckley, W.B.; Hosack, K.W.; Nielsen, K.E.; Parker, J.V.; Parsons, M.O.; Rickets, R.L.; Salazar, H.R.; Sanchez, P.G.; Scudder, D.W.; Shapiro, C.; Thompson, M.C.; Trainor, R.J.; Valdez, G.A.; Vigil, B.N.; Watt, R.G.; Wysock, F.J.

1999-06-07

375

Learning from ``learning algorithms": experiment and modeling in atomic and molecular systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of shaped ultrashort light pulses to control quantum systems has been demonstrated successfully in a number of experiments. An optimal pulse shape for a desired outcome, such as optimization of x-ray harmonic generation or of excitation of a particular vibrational mode, can be found using "survival of the fittest" algorithms that mimic evolution. These "learning control" algorithms can be used in leiu of a detailed understanding of the physics of the process; however, they can also uncover new physical mechanisms. I will describe our on-going work that applies learning-control to both theory and experiment. This work reveals a new "phase-matching" mechanism for high-harmonic generation.

Kapteyn, Henry

2001-03-01

376

A Data Transmission Method Based on Ethernet Physical Layer for Particle Physics Experiment  

E-print Network

Due to the advantages of universality, flexibility and high performance, fast Ethernet is widely used in readout system design of modern particle physics experiments. However, Ethernet is usually used together with TCP/IP protocol stack, which makes it difficult to be implemented because designers have to use operating system to process this protocol. Furthermore, TCP/IP protocol degrades the transmission efficiency and real-time performance. To maximize the performance of Ethernet in physics experiment applications, a data readout method based on physical layer (PHY) is proposed in this paper. In this method, TCP/IP protocol is forsaken and replaced with a customized and simple protocol, which make it easier to be implemented. On each readout module, data from front-end electronics is first fed into an FPGA for protocol processing and then sent out to a PHY chip controlled by this FPGA for transmission. This kind of data path is fully implemented by hardware. While from the side of data acquisition system (DAQ), absence of standard protocol makes the network related applications panic. To solve this problem, in the operating system kernel space, data received by network interface card is drawn away from the traditional flow and redirected to a specified memory space by a customized program. This memory space can be easily accessed by applications in user space. For the purpose of verification, a prototype system is designed and implemented. Preliminary test result shows that this method can meet the requirement of data transmission from readout module to DAQ with good efficiency and simplicity.

Huang Xi-Ru; Cao Ping; Zheng Jia-Jun

2015-03-02

377

A preliminary discussion of gravitational physics experiments for the Spacelab era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of past, present, and proposed future experiments in gravitational physics is given. These experiments are concerned with the measurement of relativistic gravity effects to test theories of gravitation. Certain experiments which could be performed on shuttle and Spacelab missions and the potential of Spacelab for gravitation physics research are discussed.

Decher, R.; Winkler, C. G.

1976-01-01

378

Experiences developing ALEGRA: A C++ coupled physics framework  

SciTech Connect

ALEGRA is a coupled physics framework originally written to simulate inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments being conducted at the PBFA-II facility at Sandia National Laboratories. It has since grown into a large software development project supporting a number of computational programs at Sandia. As the project has grown, so has the development team, from the original two authors to a group of over fifteen programmers crossing several departments. In addition, ALEGRA now runs on a wide variety of platforms, from large PCs to the ASCI Teraflops massively parallel supercomputer. The authors discuss the reasons for ALEGRA`s success, which include the intelligent use of object-oriented techniques and the choice of C++ as the programming language. They argue that the intelligent use of development tools, such as build tools (e.g. make), compiler, debugging environment (e.g. dbx), version control system (e.g. cvs), and bug management software (e.g. ClearDDTS), is nearly as important as the choice of language and paradigm.

Budge, K.G.; Peery, J.S.

1998-11-01

379

The cryogenic helium cooling system for the Tokamak physics experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will use supercritical helium to cool all the magnets and supply helium to the Vacuum cryopumping subsystem. The heat loads will come from the standard steady state conduction and thermal radiation sources and from the pulsed loads of the nuclear and eddy currents caused by the Central Solenoid Coils and the plasma positioning coils. The operations of the TPX will begin with pulses of up to 1000 seconds in duration every 75 minutes. The helium system utilizes a pulse load leveling scheme to buffer out the effects of the pulse load and maintain a constant cryogenic plant operation. The pulse load leveling scheme utilizes the thermal mass of liquid and gaseous helium stored in a remote dewar to absorb the pulses of the tokamak loads. The mass of the stored helium will buffer out the temperature pulses allowing 5 K helium to be delivered to the magnets throughout the length of the pulse. The temperature of the dewar will remain below 5 K with all the energy of the pulse absorbed. This paper will present the details of the heat load sources, of the pulse load leveling scheme operations, a partial helium schematic, dewar temperature as a function of time, the heat load sources as a function of time and the helium temperature as a function of length along the various components that will be cooled.

Felker, B.; Slack, D.S.; Wendland, C.R.

1995-09-29

380

Testing the Bell Inequality at Experiments of High Energy Physics  

E-print Network

Besides using the laser beam, it is very tempting to directly testify the Bell inequality at high energy experiments where the spin correlation is exactly what the original Bell inequality investigates. In this work, we follow the proposal raised in literature and use the successive decays $J/\\psi\\to\\gamma\\eta_c\\to \\Lambda\\bar\\Lambda\\to p\\pi^-\\bar p\\pi^+$ to testify the Bell inequality. Our goal is twofold, namely, we first make a Monte-Carlo simulation of the processes based on the quantum field theory (QFT). Since the underlying theory is QFT, it implies that we pre-admit the validity of quantum picture. Even though the QFT is true, we need to find how big the database should be, so that we can clearly show deviations of the correlation from the Bell inequality determined by the local hidden variable theory. There have been some critiques on the proposed method, so in the second part, we suggest some improvements which may help to remedy the ambiguities indicated by the critiques. It may be realized at an updated facility of high energy physics, such as BES III.

Xi-Qing Hao; Hong-Wei Ke; Yi-Bing Ding; Peng-Nian Shen; Xue-Qian Li

2009-04-07

381

The Spheromak Turbulence Experiment: The Next Phase in Spheromak Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spheromak turbulence experiment (STPX) is a collaboration between FAMU, WVU, Auburn University, and Woodruff Scientific, Inc. The fundamental purpose of STPX is to advance Spheromak physics toward producing a burning plasma and new insights on astrophysical systems with magnetic reconnection. FAMU will employ microwave pulses to manipulate the stable state. In addition, closely coupled NIMROD modeling and experimentation will take place using the FAMU computational cluster. Auburn University is providing a pair of movable probe arrays consisting of a triple probe and a series of four saturation current/floating potential probes for making instantaneous measurements of plasma parameters. West Virginia University is providing an array of (N), X-MHz, B-dot coils for making measurements of magnetic fluctuations. West Virginia University is also providing an array of 25, 2 MHz bandwidth, B-dot coils and differential amplifiers for making high time-resolution measurements of magnetic fluctuations at the edge of the plasma. Woodruff Scientific designed and constructed the STPX vessel.

Mezonlin, Ephrem; Williams, Kyron; Weatherford, C. A.; Johnson, J. A., III; Alexander, A. B.; Scime, Earl; Keesee, A.; Lusk, G.; Reynolds, E.; Vandervort, R.; Arnold, N. I.; Gilmore, K.; Thomas, E., Jr.; Woodruff, Simon

2011-11-01

382

Physics of forced magnetic reconnection in coaxial helicity injection experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment  

SciTech Connect

We numerically examine the physics of fast flux closure in transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). By performing resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with poloidal injector coil currents held constant in time, we find that closed flux surfaces are formed through forced magnetic reconnection. Through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection with an elongated current sheet in the injector region, closed flux surfaces expand in the NSTX global domain. Simulations demonstrate outflows approaching poloidally Alfvénic flows and reconnection times consistent with the Sweet-Parker model. Critical requirements for magnetic reconnection and flux closure are studied in detail. These primary effects, which are magnetic diffusivity, injector flux, injector flux footprint width, and rate of injector voltage reduction, are simulated for transient CHI experiments. The relevant time scales for effective reconnection are ?{sub V}

Ebrahimi, F.; Bhattacharjee, A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Hooper, E. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94526 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94526 (United States); Sovinec, C. R. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2014-05-15

383

Two cultures? Experiences at the physics-biology interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

‘I didn’t really think of this as moving into biology, but rather as exploring another venue in which to do physics.’ John Hopfield provides a personal perspective on working on the border between physical and biological sciences.

Hopfield, John J.

2014-10-01

384

The AMS Measurements and Its Applications in Nuclear Physics at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE)  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), initiated in late 1970s at McMaster university based on the accelerator and detector technique, has long been applied in the studies on archaeology, geology, and cosmology, as a powerful tool for isotope dating. The advantages of AMS in the analysis of rare nuclides by direct counting of the atoms, small sample size and relatively free from the interferences of molecular ions have been well documented. This paper emphasizes that AMS can not only be used for archaeology, geology, environment, biology and so on, but also served as a unique tool for nuclear physics research. In this paper, the determination of the half-lives of {sup 79}Se, the measurements of the cross-sections of {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92g}Nb and {sup 238}U(n,3n){sup 236}U reactions, the detection and determination of ultratrace impurities in neutrino detector materials, and the measurement of the fission product nuclide {sup 126}Sn, are to be introduced, as some of examples of AMS applications in nuclear research conducted in AMS lab of China Institute of Atomic Energy. Searching for superheavy nuclides by using AMS is being planned.

Jiang Shan; Shen Hongtao; He Ming; Dong Kejun; He Guozhu; Wang Xianggao; Yuan Jian; Wang Wei; Wu Shaoyong [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O.Box 275-80, Beijing 102413 (China); Ruan Xiangdong; Wu Weimin [College of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China)

2010-05-12

385

On the physical role of exchange in the formation of an intramolecular bond path between two electronegative atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a detailed energetic decomposition of intramolecular O⋯X interactions (X being O, S, or a halogen atom) based on the interacting quantum atoms approach of Pendás and co-workers. The nature of these interactions (repulsive or attractive, more or less electrostatic) is discussed in the framework of Bader's atoms in molecules theory, a particular emphasis being put on delocalization (measured by delocalization indexes and in terms of the source function) and on the exchange contributions. Notably, the concept of exchange channels introduced by Pendás and collaborators provides means of rationalizing and predicting the presence of bond critical points, enhancing the physical meaning of bond paths.

Tognetti, Vincent; Joubert, Laurent

2013-01-01

386

Probing Pre- and In-service Physics Teachers' Knowledge Using the Double-Slit Thought Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the use of the double-slit thought experiment as a diagnostic tool for probing physics teachers' understanding. A total of 9 pre-service teachers and 18 in-service teachers with a variety of different experience in modern physics teaching at the upper secondary level responded in a paper-and-pencil test and three of these teachers were interviewed. The results showed that the physics teachers' thought experiments with classical particles, light, and electrons were often partial. Many teachers also suffered a lack of the basic ideas and principles of physics, which probably hindered thought experimenting. In particular, understanding the ontological nature of classical particles, light and electrons seemed to be essential in performing the double-slit experiment in an appropriate way. However, the in-service physics teachers who had teaching experience in modern physics were more prepared for the double-slit thought experiment than the pre-service teachers. The results suggest that both thought experiments and the double-slit experiment should be given more weight in physics teacher education, even if experience in modern physics teaching at upper secondary school seems to some extent to develop teachers' abilities.

Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

2014-09-01

387

Movie of phase separation during physics of colloids in space experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area in the video is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.

2002-01-01

388

Phase separation during the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.

2003-01-01

389

The Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Phenol from Cumene Process: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a physical chemistry experiment demonstrating the differences between thermodynamics and kinetics. The experiment used the formation of phenol and acetone from cumene hydroperoxide, also providing an example of an industrially significant process. (CS)

Chen, Edward C. M.; Sjoberg, Stephen L.

1980-01-01

390

The superconducting magnet system for the Tokamak Physics Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The superconducting magnet system for the Tokamak Physics experiment (TPX) will be the first all superconducting magnet system for a Tokamak, where the poloidal field coils, in addition to the toroidal field coils are superconducting. The magnet system is designed to operate in a steady state mode, and to initiate the plasma discharge ohmically. The toroidal field system provides a peak field of 4.0 Tesla on the plasma axis at a plasma major radius of 2.25 m. The peak field on the niobium 3-tin, cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor is 8.4 Tesla for the 16 toroidal field coils. The toroidal field coils must absorb approximately 5 kW due to nuclear heating, eddy currents, and other sources. The poloidal field system provides a total of 18 volt seconds to initiate the plasma and drive a plasma current up to 2 MA. The poloidal field system consists of 14 individual coils which are arranged symmetrically above and below the horizontal mid plane. Four pairs of coils make up the central solenoid, and three paris of poloidal ring coils complete the system. The poloidal field coils all use a cable-in-conduit conductor, using either niobium 3-tin (NB{sub 3}Sn) or niobium titanium (NbTi) superconducting strands depending on the operating conditions for that coil. All of the coils are cooled by flowing supercritical helium, with inlet and outlet connections made on each double pancake. The superconducting magnet system has gone through a conceptual design review, and is in preliminary design started by the LLNL/MIT/PPPL collaboration. A number of changes have been made in the design since the conceptual design review, and are described in this paper.

Lang, D.D.; Bulmer, R.J.; Chaplin, M.R. [and others

1994-06-18

391

Plasma diagnostics for the sustained spheromak physics experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we present an overview of the plasma diagnostics operating or planned for the sustained spheromak physics experiment device now operating at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A set of 46 wall-mounted magnetic probes provide the essential data necessary for magnetic reconstruction of the Taylor relaxed state. Rogowski coils measure currents induced in the flux conserver. A CO2 laser interferometer is used to measure electron line density. Spectroscopic measurements include an absolutely-calibrated spectrometer recording extended domain spectrometer for obtaining time-integrated visible ultraviolet spectra and two time-resolved vacuum monochrometers for studying the time evolution of two separate emission lines. Another time-integrated spectrometer records spectra in the visible range. Filtered silicon photodiode bolometers provide total power measurements, and a 16 channel photodiode spatial array gives radial emission profiles. Two-dimensional imaging of the plasma and helicity injector is provided by gated television cameras and associated image-processing software. An array of fiber-coupled photodetectors with H alpha filters view across the midplane and in the injector region to measure neutral hydrogen concentrations. Several novel diagnostics are being fielded including a transient internal probe (TIP) and an ultrashort-pulse reflectometer (USPR) microwave reflectometer. The TIP probe fires a very high velocity optical bullet through the plasma and will provide fairly nonpertabative internal magnetic field and current measurements to compare with an equilibrium code model fitted to wall-mounted probes. The USPR is being designed to study edge density and turbulent fluctuations. A multipoint Thomson scattering system is currently being installed to give radial temperature and density profiles.

McLean, H. S.; Ahmed, A.; Buchenauer, D.; Den Hartog, D.; Domier, C. W.; Hill, D. N.; Holcomb, C.; Hooper, E. B.; Morse, E. C.; Nagata, M.; Roh, Y.; Stallard, B.; Wood, R. D.; Woodruff, S.; Wurden, G.; Wang, Z.

2001-01-01

392

Plasma diagnostics for the sustained spheromak physics experiment  

SciTech Connect

In this article we present an overview of the plasma diagnostics operating or planned for the sustained spheromak physics experiment device now operating at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A set of 46 wall-mounted magnetic probes provide the essential data necessary for magnetic reconstruction of the Taylor relaxed state. Rogowski coils measure currents induced in the flux conserver. A CO{sub 2} laser interferometer is used to measure electron line density. Spectroscopic measurements include an absolutely-calibrated spectrometer recording extended domain spectrometer for obtaining time-integrated visible ultraviolet spectra and two time-resolved vacuum monochrometers for studying the time evolution of two separate emission lines. Another time-integrated spectrometer records spectra in the visible range. Filtered silicon photodiode bolometers provide total power measurements, and a 16 channel photodiode spatial array gives radial emission profiles. Two-dimensional imaging of the plasma and helicity injector is provided by gated television cameras and associated image-processing software. An array of fiber-coupled photodetectors with H alpha filters view across the midplane and in the injector region to measure neutral hydrogen concentrations. Several novel diagnostics are being fielded including a transient internal probe (TIP) and an ultrashort-pulse reflectometer (USPR) microwave reflectometer. The TIP probe fires a very high velocity optical bullet through the plasma and will provide fairly nonpertabative internal magnetic field and current measurements to compare with an equilibrium code model fitted to wall-mounted probes. The USPR is being designed to study edge density and turbulent fluctuations. A multipoint Thomson scattering system is currently being installed to give radial temperature and density profiles.

McLean, H. S.; Ahmed, A.; Buchenauer, D.; Den Hartog, D.; Domier, C. W.; Hill, D. N.; Holcomb, C.; Hooper, E. B.; Morse, E. C.; Nagata, M. (and others) [and others

2001-01-01

393

Forward physics with the LHCf experiment: a LHC contribution to cosmic-ray physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LHCf is a small detector installed at LHC accelerator to measure neutral particle ?ow in the forward direction of proton -proton (p - p) and proton -nucleus (p - A) interactions. Thanks to the optimal performance that has characterized the last years' running of the LHC collider, several measurements have been taken since 2009 in different running conditions. After data taking for p - p interactions at ?s = 900 GeV, 2.76 TeV and 7 TeV and proton - Lead nucleus (p -Pb) at ?sNN = 5.02 TeV (energy of a couple of projectile and target nucleons in their center of mass reference frame), LHCf is now going to complete its physics program with the 13 TeV p - p run foreseen in 2015. The complete set of results will become a reference data set of forward physics for the calibration and tuning of the hadronic interaction models currently used for the simulation of the atmospheric showers induced by very high energy cosmic rays. For this reason we think that LHCf is giving an important contribution for the study of cosmic rays at the highest energies. In this paper the experiment, the published results and the current status are reviewed.

Bonechi, L.; Adriani, O.; Berti, E.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Del Prete, M.; Haguenauer, M.; Itow, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Makino, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubayashi, E.; Menjo, H.; Mitsuka, G.; Muraki, Y.; Papini, P.; Perrot, A.-L.; Ricciarini, S.; Sako, T.; Sakurai, N.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Tamura, T.; Tiberio, A.; Torii, S.; Tricomi, A.; Turner, W. C.

2014-04-01

394

Experiences that influence a student's choice on majoring in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently the production of college graduates with science and engineering degrees is insufficient to fill the increasing number of jobs requiring these skills. This study focuses on physics majors with an in-depth examination of student transitions from high school to college. Many different areas of influence could affect a student's decision to major in physics. The first phase of this study addresses all of the potential areas of influence identified from the literature. The goal was to identify common influences that might be used to increase students' interest in majoring in physics. Subjects (N=35) from the first phase were recruited from physics majors at diverse Michigan colleges and universities. The second phase of this study explored, in more depth, important areas of influence identified in the first phase of the study. Subjects (N=94) from the second phase were recruited from diverse colleges and universities in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. The interviews were also conducted via email. Approximately half of the students in the study decided to major in physics while still in high school. Their reasons relate to many of the areas of influence. For example, high school physics teachers were cited as a strong influence in many students' decisions to major in physics. Influential physics teachers were described as being helpful, encouraging and interesting. The teachers also need to be their students' number one cheerleader and not their number one critic. Some areas of influence were found to be different for males vs. females. A high percentage of all physics majors had influential adults with careers in physical or biological science fields. This percentage was even larger for female physics majors. Female students also showed a greater initial interest in astronomy than the male students. Thus, high school and college physics teachers should seek to expose students to science-related careers and adults with these careers. Astronomy is also an important and often over looked entry into physics.

Dobbin, Donya Rae

395

Manipulation of Atoms by Laser Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser cooling and laser manipulation of free neutral atoms have reached a level of sophistication not foreseen just a few years ago. This concerns trapping of neutral atoms at muK temperatures as well as the precise preparation of extreme dense and ultra cold atomic beams. These techniques offer plenty of new experiments answering basic physical questions or allowing totally new

W. Ertmer

1992-01-01

396

Atomic and molecular science with synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the following topics: electron correlation in atoms; atomic innershell excitation and decay mechanisms; timing experiments; x-ray scattering; properties of ionized species; electronic properties of actinide atoms; total photon-interaction cross sections; and molecular physics. 66 refs. (LSP)

Not Available

1989-11-07

397

X-ray measurements in helium-like atoms increased discrepancy between experiment and theoretical QED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent 15 parts per million (ppm) experiment on muonic hydrogen ({{p}+}{{? }-}) found a major discrepancy with quantum electrodynamics (QED) and independent nuclear size determinations. Here we find a significant discrepancy in a different type of exotic atom: a medium-Z nucleus with two electrons. Investigation of the data collected is able to discriminate between available QED formulations and reveals a pattern of discrepancy of almost six standard errors of experimental results from the most recent theoretical predictions, with a functional dependence proportional to Zn where n? 4. In both the muonic and highly charged systems, the sign of the discrepancy is the same, with the measured transition energy higher than predicted. Some consequences are possible or probable, and some are more speculative. This may give insight into effective nuclear radii, the Rydberg, the fine-structure constant, or unexpectedly large QED terms.

Chantler, C. T.; Payne, A. T.; Gillaspy, J. D.; Hudson, L. T.; Smale, L. F.; Henins, A.; Kimpton, J. A.; Takacs, E.

2014-12-01

398

Physics Demonstration Experiments at William Jewell College. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are descriptions (with photographs) of demonstration equipment purchased, assembled, developed, and used at William Jewell College (Missouri) during the past 25 years. The descriptions are organized into the following topic areas: (1) mechanics; (2) heat; (3) waves, sound, and acoustics; (4) electricity; (5) optics; and (6) atomic and…

Hilton, Wallace A.

399

Accelerator Preparations for Muon Physics Experiments at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The use of existing Fermilab facilities to provide beams for two muon experiments - the Muon to Electron Conversion Experiment (Mu2e) and the New g-2 Experiment - is under consideration. Plans are being pursued to perform these experiments following the completion of the Tevatron Collider Run II, utilizing the beam lines and storage rings used today for antiproton accumulation without considerable reconfiguration. Operating scenarios being investigated and anticipated accelerator improvements or reconfigurations will be presented.

Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

2009-10-01

400

"Got Disc?" The "Ultimate" Experience in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quality physical education program is one in which students are exposed to and can participate in a variety of sports and activities. One activity that is increasing in popularity in and outside of physical education is the game of "Ultimate." Opportunities to play Ultimate are increasing rapidly in intramural programs and community and…

Johnson, Tyler G.; Darst, Paul W.; Brusseau, Timothy A.

2006-01-01

401

What Undergraduate Physical Education Majors Learn during a Field Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated what undergraduate physical education majors learned while conducting some lessons in a secondary physical education methods course. Results showed that pupil learning, quality lesson planning, and efficient lesson management were characteristics of successful lessons for the trainees. (GLR)

O'Sullivan, Mary; Tsangaridou, Niki

1992-01-01

402

Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study is presented of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector. The reconstruction of tracks, leptons, photons, missing energy and jets is investigated, together with the performance of b-tagging and the trigger. The physics potential for a variety of interesting physics processes, within the Standard Model and beyond, is examined. The study comprises a series of notes based

G. Aad; E. Abat; B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A. A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; T. N. Addy; C. Adorisio; P. Adragna; T. Adye; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; M. Aharrouche; S. P. Ahlen; F. Ahles; A. Ahmad; H. Ahmed; G. Aielli; T. Akdogan; T. P. A. Akesson; G. Akimoto; M. S. Alam; M. A. Alam; J. Albert; S. Albrand; M. Aleksa; I. N. Aleksandrov; F. Alessandria; C. Alexa; G. Alexander; G. Alexandre; T. Alexopoulos; M. Alhroob; G. Alimonti; J. Alison; M. Aliyev; P. P. Allport; S. E. Allwood-Spiers; A. Aloisio; R. Alon; A. Alonso; J. Alonso; M. G. Alviggi; K. Amako; P. Amaral; C. Amelung; V. V. Ammosov; A. Amorim; G. Amoros; N. Amram; C. Anastopoulos; C. F. Anders; K. J. Anderson; A. Andreazza; V. Andrei; M-L. Andrieux; X. S. Anduaga; F. Anghinolfi; A. Antonaki; M. Antonelli; S. Antonelli; B. Antunovic; F. A. Anulli; G. Arabidze; I. Aracena; Y. Arai; A. T. H. Arce; J. P. Archambault; S. Arfaoui; J-F. Arguin; T. Argyropoulos; E. Arik; M. Arik; A. J. Armbruster; O. Arnaez; C. Arnault; A. Artamonov; D. Arutinov; M. Asai; S. Asai; S. Ask; B. Asman; D. Asner; L. Asquith; K. Assamagan; A. Astbury; A. Astvatsatourov; T. Atkinson; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; E. Auge; K. Augsten; M. A. Aurousseau; N. Austin; G. Avolio; R. Avramidou; A. Axen; C. Ay; G. Azuelos; Y. Azuma; M. A. Baak; G. Baccaglioni; C. Bacci; H. Bachacou; K. Bachas; M. Backes; E. Badescu; P. Bagnaia; Y. Bai; D. C. Bailey; J. T. Baines; O. K. Baker; F. Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa; E. Banas; S. Banerjee; D. Banfi; A. Bangert; V. Bansal; S. P. Baranov; A. Barashkou; T. B. Barber; E. L. Barberio; D. Barberis; M. B. Barbero; D. Y. Bardin; T. Barillari; M. Barisonzi; T. Barklow; N. B. Barlow; N. B. Barlow; R. M. Barnett; S. Baron; A. Baroncelli; A. Baroncelli; F. Barreiro; J. Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa; P. Barrillon; R. Bartoldus; D. Bartsch; J. Bastos; R. L. Bates; J. R. Batley; A. Battaglia; M. Battistin; F. Bauer; M. Bazalova; B. Beare; P. H. Beauchemin; R. B. Beccherle; N. Becerici; P. Bechtle; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; M. Beckingham; K. H. Becks; I. Bedajanek; A. J. Beddall; P. Bednar; V. A. Bednyakov; C. Bee; S. Behar Harpaz; P. K. Behera; M. Beimforde; C. Belanger-Champagne; P. J. Bell; W. H. Bell; G. Bella; L. Bellagamba; F. Bellina; M. Bellomo; A. Belloni; K. Belotskiy; O. Beltramello; S. Ben Ami; O. Beltramello; D. Benchekroun; M. Bendel; B. H. Benedict; N. Benekos; Y. Benhammou; G. P. Benincasa; D. P. Benjamin; M. Benoit; J. R. Bensinger; K. Benslama; S. Bentvelsen; M. Beretta; D. Berge; E. Bergeaas Kuutmann; N. Berger; F. Berghaus; E. Berglund; J. Beringer; K. Bernardet; P. Bernat; R. Bernhard; C. Bernius; T. Berry; A. Bertin; N. Besson; S. Bethke; R. M. Bianchi; M. Bianco; O. Biebel; J. Biesiada; M. Biglietti; H. Bilokon; S. Binet; A. Bingul; C. Bini; C. Biscarat; M. Bischofberger; U. Bitenc; K. M. Black; R. E. Blair; G. Blanchot; C. Blocker; J. Blocki; A. Blondel; W. Blum; U. Blumenschein; C. Boaretto; G. J. Bobbink; A. Bocci; B. Bodine; J. Boek; N. Boelaert; S. Boeser; J. A. Bogaerts; A. Bogouch; C. Bohm; J. Bohm; V. Boisvert; T. Bold; V. Boldea; V. G. Bondarenko; M. Bondioli; M. Boonekamp; C. N. Booth; P. S. L. Booth; J. R. A. Booth; A. Borisov; G. Borissov; I. Borjanovic; S. Borroni; K. Bos; D. Boscherini; M. Bosman; M. Bosteels; H. Boterenbrood; J. Bouchami; J. Boudreau; E. V. Bouhova-Thacker; C. Boulahouache; C. Bourdarios; J. Boyd; I. R. Boyko; A. Braem; P. Branchini; G. W. Brandenburg; A. Brandt; O. Brandt; U. Bratzler; J. E. Brau; H. M. Braun; B. Brelier; J. Bremer; R. Brenner; S. Bressler; D. Breton; N. D. Brett; D. Breton; F. M. Brochu; I. Brock; R. Brock; E. Brodet; F. Broggi; G. Brooijmans; W. K. Brooks; E. Brubaker; P. A. Bruckman de Renstrom; D. Bruncko; R. Bruneliere; S. Brunet; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; M. Bruschi; T. Buanes; F. B. Bucci; P. Buchholz; A. G. Buckley; I. A. Budagov; V. Buescher; L. Bugge; F. Bujor; O. Bulekov; M. Bunse; T. Buran; H. Burckhart; S. Burdin; S. Burke; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; F. Butin; B. Butler; J. M. Butler; C. M. Buttar; J. M. Butterworth; T. Byatt; S. Cabrera Urban; D. Caforio; O. Cakir; P. Calafiura; G. Calderini; R. Calkins; L. P. Caloba; R. Calkins; D. Calvet; P. Camarri; M. Cambiaghi; D. Cameron; F. Campabadal Segura; S. Campana; M. Campanelli; V. Canale; J. Cantero; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; I. Caprini; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; M. Capua; R. Caputo; C. Caramarcu; R. Cardarelli; T. Carli; G. Carlino; L. Carminati; B. Caron; S. Caron; S. Carron Montero; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; J. Carvalho; D. Casadei; M. P. Casado; M. Cascella; C. Caso; A. M. Castaneda Hernadez; E. Castaneda Miranda; V. Castillo Gimenez; N. F. Castro; G. Cataldi; A. Catinaccio; J. R. Catmore; A. Catinaccio; G. Cattani; S. Caughron; D. Cauz; P. Cavalleri; D. Cavalli; M. Cavalli-Sforza; V. Cavasinni; A. Cazzato

2008-01-01

403

Atom Chips  

E-print Network

Atoms can be trapped and guided using nano-fabricated wires on surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals. These Atom Chips form the basis for robust and widespread applications of cold atoms ranging from atom optics to fundamental questions in mesoscopic physics, and possibly quantum information systems.

Ron Folman; Peter Krüger; Donatella Cassettari; Björn Hessmo; Thomas Maier; Jörg Schmiedmayer

1999-12-23

404

Synthesis of atom probe experiments on irradiation-induced solute segregation in French ferritic pressure vessel steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructural changes due to neutron irradiation cause an evolution of the mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) steels. This paper aims at identifying and characterising the microstructural changes which have been found to be responsible in part for the observed embrittlement. This intensive work relies principally on an atom probe (AP) study of a low Cu-level French RPV steel (Chooz A). This material has been irradiated in in-service conditions for 0-16 years in the frame of the surveillance program. Under this aging condition, solute clustering occurs (Cu, Ni, Mn, Si, P, …). In order to identify the role of copper, experiments were also carried out on Fe-Cu model alloys submitted to different types of irradiations (neutron, electron, ion). Cu-cluster nucleation appears to be directly related to the presence of displacement cascades during neutron (ion) irradiation. The operating basic physical process is not clearly identified yet. A recovery of the mechanical properties of the irradiated material can be achieved by annealing treatments (20 h at 450°C in the case of the RPV steel under study, following microhardness measurements). It has been shown that the corresponding microstructural evolution was a rapid dissolution of the high number density of irradiation-induced solute clusters and the precipitation of a very low number density of Cu-rich particles.

Auger, P.; Pareige, P.; Welzel, S.; Van Duysen, J.-C.

2000-08-01

405

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 86, 062708 (2012) Atom-dimer scattering amplitude for fermionic mixtures with different masses  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 86, 062708 (2012) Atom-dimer scattering amplitude for fermionic mixtures with different masses: s-wave and p-wave contributions F. Alzetto,1 R. Combescot,1,2 and X. Leyronas1 1 a Feshbach resonance, as a function of the mass ratio, the fermion-dimer scattering amplitude in fermionic

Leyronas, Xavier

406

Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Atomic Oxygen Correlation for the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2) Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) polymers were exposed to the environment of low Earth orbit (LEO) for 3.95 years from 2001 to 2005. There were 41 different PEACE polymers, which were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) in order to determine their atomic oxygen erosion yields. In LEO, atomic oxygen is an environmental durability threat, particularly for long duration mission exposures. Although spaceflight experiments, such as the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment, are ideal for determining LEO environmental durability of spacecraft materials, ground-laboratory testing is often relied upon for durability evaluation and prediction. Unfortunately, significant differences exist between LEO atomic oxygen exposure and atomic oxygen exposure in ground-laboratory facilities. These differences include variations in species, energies, thermal exposures and radiation exposures, all of which may result in different reactions and erosion rates. In an effort to improve the accuracy of ground-based durability testing, ground-laboratory to in-space atomic oxygen correlation experiments have been conducted. In these tests, the atomic oxygen erosion yields of the PEACE polymers were determined relative to Kapton H using a radio-frequency (RF) plasma asher (operated on air). The asher erosion yields were compared to the MISSE 2 PEACE erosion yields to determine the correlation between erosion rates in the two environments. This paper provides a summary of the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment; it reviews the specific polymers tested as well as the techniques used to determine erosion yield in the asher, and it provides a correlation between the space and ground laboratory erosion yield values. Using the PEACE polymers asher to in-space erosion yield ratios will allow more accurate in-space materials performance predictions to be made based on plasma asher durability evaluation.

Stambler, Arielle H.; Inoshita, Karen E.; Roberts, Lily M.; Barbagallo, Claire E.; deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

2011-01-01

407

Tautomerization of Acetylacetone Enol. A Physical Organic Experiment in Kinetics and Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physical organic experiment in thermodynamics and kinetics for undergraduate courses in organic chemistry, biochemistry, or physical chemistry. Details background information, solution preparations, equipment and methods, and the suggested experiments such as determination of general-base-catalytic coefficients and the Bronsted…

Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.

1988-01-01

408

Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

1973-01-01

409

Torsion Balance Experiments: A Low-energy Frontier of Particle Physics  

E-print Network

Torsion Balance Experiments: A Low-energy Frontier of Particle Physics E. G. Adelberger, J. H review recent mechanical experiments that test some of the most basic principles of physics including invariance. The very high sensitivity of these tests allows one to place interesting constraints on string

Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

410

Surface interaction mechanisms of 5eV atomic oxygen: Data analysis from the UAH experiment on STS-8  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) experiment which flew on the STS-8 mission had several objectives which were mostly of a speculative nature since so little was known of the processes of interest. The experiment provided original, if limited, data on: (1) oxidation of metal surfaces, (2) reaction rates of atomic oxygen with carbon and other surfaces and the dependence of these rates on temperature, and (3) the angular distribution of 5eV atoms scattered off a solid surface. Provided is a review of the results, with reference given to fuller published accounts where these are available.

Gregory, J. C.

1987-01-01

411

Application of Atomic Force Microscopy on Sedimentary Rocks - Experiments for the Mission to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilisation of Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) equipment is planned in future Mars missions (Odyssey; http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/odyssey/). Therefore, it is necessary to start developing new geological and palaeontological investigation techniques for the AFM and to test them on terrestrial rocks, in order to establish criteria for unequivocal identification of objects (e.g. microfossils) and environments (e.g. water) expected on Mars and other planets. Experiments in use of the AFM for recognition of microfossils in Archean rocks (Kempe et al., 2002) and for investigations of structures typical of glacial, aquatic or aeolian transport, on surfaces of sedimentary grains in recent sediments were performed. The applied methods are standard in micropaleontology and sedimentology by SEM and optical microscopy. The use of AFM however, allows for higher resolution and direct 3-D measurements in situ on the samples, but it requires special preparation techniques. In an experiment investigating Precambrian filamentous and coccoidal microfossils in etched, silicified stromatolites, with the AFM, it was found that fossils of various Precambrian ages show typical topography because of similar response to etching. This topography is characteristic and can be used as one of the identification criteria. Other identification criteria emblematic of the AFM technique include the hardness and adhesion characteristics of the sample, and the arrangement of carbon platelets within the cell wall. Criteria used in optical and SEM microscopy, such as size and shape of the fossils, are also applicable (Kempe, 2003). The experiments on detrital grain surfaces show that each environment produces typical surfaces that can be imaged and measured (roughness and characteristic form and orientation of marks) by AFM. Thus, ancient Martian detrital sediments could be identified as deposited by water, by wind, or by ice with an automated AFM procedure and without returning the samples to the Earth. References: Kempe, A. 2003: Entwicklung einer neuen Präparationsmethode u. Untersuchungen verkieselter Mikrofossilien des Präkambriums mit Hilfe der Rasterkraft- und Elektronenmikroskopie. Dissert. Dep. Geo- u. Umweltwissenschaften, LMU. Kempe, A., Schopf, J.W., Altermann, W., Kudryavtsev, A.B. &Heckl, W.M. 2002: Atomic Force Microscopy of Precambrian microscopic fossils. PNAS, 99/14, 9117-9120

Altermann, W.; Kempe, A.; Heckl, W. M.

2003-04-01

412

Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics  

E-print Network

A detailed study is presented of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector. The reconstruction of tracks, leptons, photons, missing energy and jets is investigated, together with the performance of b-tagging and the trigger. The physics potential for a variety of interesting physics processes, within the Standard Model and beyond, is examined. The study comprises a series of notes based on simulations of the detector and physics processes, with particular emphasis given to the data expected from the first years of operation of the LHC at CERN.

The ATLAS Collaboration; G. Aad; E. Abat; B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A. A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; T. N. Addy; C. Adorisio; P. Adragna; T. Adye; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; M. Aharrouche; S. P. Ahlen; F. Ahles; A. Ahmad; H. Ahmed; G. Aielli; T. Akdogan; T. P. A. Akesson; G. Akimoto; M. S. Alam; M. A. Alam; J. Albert; S. Albrand; M. Aleksa; I. N. Aleksandrov; F. Alessandria; C. Alexa; G. Alexander; G. Alexandre; T. Alexopoulos; M. Alhroob; G. Alimonti; J. Alison; M. Aliyev; P. P. Allport; S. E. Allwood-Spiers; A. Aloisio; R. Alon; A. Alonso; J. Alonso; M. G. Alviggi; K. Amako; P. Amaral; C. Amelung; V. V. Ammosov; A. Amorim; G. Amoros; N. Amram; C. Anastopoulos; C. F. Anders; K. J. Anderson; A. Andreazza; V. Andrei; M-L. Andrieux; X. S. Anduaga; F. Anghinolfi; A. Antonaki; M. Antonelli; S. Antonelli; B. Antunovic; F. A. Anulli; G. Arabidze; I. Aracena; Y. Arai; A. T. H. Arce; J. P. Archambault; S. Arfaoui; J-F. Arguin; T. Argyropoulos; E. Arik; M. Arik; A. J. Armbruster; O. Arnaez; C. Arnault; A. Artamonov; D. Arutinov; M. Asai; S. Asai; S. Ask; B. Asman; D. Asner; L. Asquith; K. Assamagan; A. Astbury; A. Astvatsatourov; T. Atkinson; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; E. Auge; K. Augsten; M. A. Aurousseau; N. Austin; G. Avolio; R. Avramidou; A. Axen; C. Ay; G. Azuelos; Y. Azuma; M. A. Baak; G. Baccaglioni; C. Bacci; H. Bachacou; K. Bachas; M. Backes; E. Badescu; P. Bagnaia; Y. Bai; D. C. Bailey; J. T. Baines; O. K. Baker; F. Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa; E. Banas; S. Banerjee; D. Banfi; A. Bangert; V. Bansal; S. P. Baranov; S. Baranov; A. Barashkou; T. B. Barber; E. L. Barberio; D. Barberis; M. B. Barbero; D. Y. Bardin; T. Barillari; M. Barisonzi; T. Barklow; N. B. Barlow; B. M. Barnett; R. M. Barnett; S. Baron; A. Baroncelli; A. J. Barr; F. Barreiro; J. Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa; P. Barrillon; R. Bartoldus; D. Bartsch; J. Bastos; R. L. Bates; J. R. Batley; A. Battaglia; M. Battistin; F. Bauer; M. Bazalova; B. Beare; P. H. Beauchemin; R. B. Beccherle; N. Becerici; P. Bechtle; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; M. Beckingham; K. H. Becks; I. Bedajanek; A. J. Beddall; A. Beddall; P. Bednar; V. A. Bednyakov; C. Bee; S. Behar Harpaz; P. K. Behera; M. Beimforde; C. Belanger-Champagne; P. J. Bell; W. H. Bell; G. Bella; L. Bellagamba; F. Bellina; M. Bellomo; A. Belloni; K. Belotskiy; O. Beltramello; S. Ben Ami; O. Benary; D. Benchekroun; M. Bendel; B. H. Benedict; N. Benekos; Y. Benhammou; G. P. Benincasa; D. P. Benjamin; M. Benoit; J. R. Bensinger; K. Benslama; S. Bentvelsen; M. Beretta; D. Berge; E. Bergeaas Kuutmann; N. Berger; F. Berghaus; E. Berglund; J. Beringer; K. Bernardet; P. Bernat; R. Bernhard; C. Bernius; T. Berry; A. Bertin; N. Besson; S. Bethke; R. M. Bianchi; M. Bianco; O. Biebel; J. Biesiada; M. Biglietti; H. Bilokon; S. Binet; A. Bingul; C. Bini; C. Biscarat; M. Bischofberger; U. Bitenc; K. M. Black; R. E. Blair; G. Blanchot; C. Blocker; J. Blocki; A. Blondel; W. Blum; U. Blumenschein; C. Boaretto; G. J. Bobbink; A. Bocci; B. Bodine; J. Boek; N. Boelaert; S. Boeser; J. A. Bogaerts; A. Bogouch; C. Bohm; J. Bohm; V. Boisvert; T. Bold; V. Boldea; V. G. Bondarenko; M. Bondioli; M. Boonekamp; C. N. Booth; P. S. L. Booth; J. R. A. Booth; A. Borisov; G. Borissov; I. Borjanovic; S. Borroni; K. Bos; D. Boscherini; M. Bosman; M. Bosteels; H. Boterenbrood; J. Bouchami; J. Boudreau; E. V. Bouhova-Thacker; C. Boulahouache; C. Bourdarios; J. Boyd; I. R. Boyko; A. Braem; P. Branchini; G. W. Brandenburg; A. Brandt; O. Brandt; U. Bratzler; J. E. Brau; H. M. Braun; B. Brelier; J. Bremer; R. Brenner; S. Bressler; D. Breton; N. D. Brett; D. Britton; F. M. Brochu; I. Brock; R. Brock; E. Brodet; F. Broggi; G. Brooijmans; W. K. Brooks; E. Brubaker; P. A. Bruckman de Renstrom; D. Bruncko; R. Bruneliere; S. Brunet; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; M. Bruschi; T. Buanes; F. B. Bucci; P. Buchholz; A. G. Buckley; I. A. Budagov; V. Buescher; L. Bugge; F. Bujor; O. Bulekov; M. Bunse; T. Buran; H. Burckhart; S. Burdin; S. Burke; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; F. Butin; B. Butler; J. M. Butler; C. M. Buttar; J. M. Butterworth; T. Byatt; S. Cabrera Urban; D. Caforio; O. Cakir; P. Calafiura; G. Calderini; R. Calkins; L. P. Caloba; R. Caloi; D. Calvet; P. Camarri; M. Cambiaghi; D. Cameron; F. Campabadal Segura; S. Campana; M. Campanelli; V. Canale; J. Cantero; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; I. Caprini; M. Caprini; M. Capua; R. Caputo; C. Caramarcu; R. Cardarelli; T. Carli; G. Carlino; L. Carminati; B. Caron; S. Caron; S. Carron Montero; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; J. Carvalho; D. Casadei; M. P. Casado; M. Cascella; C. Caso; A. M. Castaneda Hernadez; E. Castaneda Miranda; V. Castillo Gimenez; N. F. Castro; G. Cataldi; A. Catinaccio; J. R. Catmore; A. Cattai; G. Cattani; S. Caughron; D. Cauz; P. Cavalleri; D. Cavalli; M. Cavalli-Sforza

2009-08-14

413

Physics basis for the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE)  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the properties of high gain (alpha-dominated) fusion plasmas in an advanced toroidal configuration is a critical issue that must be addressed to provide the scientific foundation for an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The functional fusion plasma objectives for major next physics steps in magnetic fusion research can be described as: Burning Plasma Physics - The achievement and understanding of alpha-dominated plasmas that have characteristics similar to those expected in a fusion energy source, and Advanced Toroidal Physics - The achievement and understanding of bootstrap-current-dominated plasmas with externally controlled profiles and other characteristics (e.g. confinement and beta) similar to those expected in an attractive fusion system.

D. M. Meade; R. J. Thome; N. R. Sauthoff; P. J. Heitzenroeder; B. E. Nelson; M.A Ulrickson; C. E. Kessel; J. H. Schultz; P. H. Rutherford; J. C. Wesley; K. M. Young; W. M. Nevins; N. A. Uckan; J. A. Schmidt

2000-07-07

414

Chapter 4: A Comparison of Personal Attributes and Experiences among Physically Active and Inactive Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the researchers aim to compare the personal attributes and experiences of children who met or exceeded physical activity guidelines with those who did not. By creating profiles, the researchers could compare motor performance, physical fitness, self-efficacy, time spent outdoors during physical activity, social support from friends…

Castelli, Darla M.; Erwin, Heather E.

2007-01-01

415

Event-Based Simulation of Quantum Physics Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review an event-based simulation approach which reproduces the statistical distributions of wave theory not by requiring the knowledge of the solution of the wave equation of the whole system but by generating detection events oneby- one according to an unknown distribution. We illustrate its applicability to various single photon and single neutron interferometry experiments and to two Bell-test experiments, a single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment employing post-selection for photon pair identification and a single-neutron Bell test interferometry experiment with nearly 100% detection efficiency.

Michielsen, Kristel; de Raedt, Hans

2015-10-01

416

Preliminary design of two Space Shuttle fluid physics experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mid-deck lockers of the STS and the requirements for operating an experiment in this region are described. The design of the surface tension induced convection and the free surface phenomenon experiments use a two locker volume with an experiment unique structure as a housing. A manual mode is developed for the Surface Tension Induced Convection experiment. The fluid is maintained in an accumulator pre-flight. To begin the experiment, a pressurized gas drives the fluid into the experiment container. The fluid is an inert silicone oil and the container material is selected to be comparable. A wound wire heater, located axisymmetrically above the fluid can deliver three wattages to a spot on the fluid surface. These wattages vary from 1-15 watts. Fluid flow is observed through the motion of particles in the fluid. A 5 mw He/Ne laser illuminates the container. Scattered light is recorded by a 35mm camera. The free surface phenomena experiment consists of a trapezoidal cell which is filled from the bottom. The fluid is photographed at high speed using a 35mm camera which incorporated the entire cell length in the field of view. The assembly can incorporate four cells in one flight. For each experiment, an electronics block diagram is provided. A control panel concept is given for the surface induced convection. Both experiments are within the mid-deck locker weight and c-g limits.

Gat, N.; Kropp, J. L.

1984-01-01

417

Physical Science Experiments in K-12 Schools Related to Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk I shall show movies on the demonstration of surface science experiments at various education levels ranging from middle schools to the university. These experiments demonstrate the concepts of surface tension, surface flows, surface reactions and even miscible interfaces. Experiments that demonstrate capillary effects, pressure variations on account of diameter changes, emulsions and foams will be discussed. Applications involving household agents such as space processing, food and detergents will also be given. All of these experiments are part of a kit that we have assembled for free distribution to area schools.

Narayanan, Ranga

418

Event-based simulation of quantum physics experiments  

E-print Network

We review an event-based simulation approach which reproduces the statistical distributions of wave theory not by requiring the knowledge of the solution of the wave equation of the whole system but by generating detection events one-by-one according to an unknown distribution. We illustrate its applicability to various single photon and single neutron interferometry experiments and to two Bell test experiments, a single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment employing post-selection for photon pair identification and a single-neutron Bell test interferometry experiment with nearly $100\\%$ detection efficiency.

Kristel Michielsen; Hans De Raedt

2014-08-08

419

From physical to virtual : extending the gallery experience online  

E-print Network

This thesis is an exploration of the ways in which interactive features in the virtual space can be developed to complement physical museum exhibitions, as well as create opportunities for museums to reach broader audiences. ...

Ho, Moneta Kwok-Ching, 1976-

2004-01-01

420

PREFACE: Atomically controlled fabrication technology: new physics and functional device realization Atomically controlled fabrication technology: new physics and functional device realization  

Microsoft Academic Search

To realize next generation functional devices, atomic level controllability of the application and fabrication techniques is necessary. The conventional route to advance solid state devices, which involves improvement of 'instrumental accuracy', is now facing a major paradigm shift towards 'phenomenal accuracy'. Therefore, to keep up with this critical turn in the development of devices, pioneering research (both theoretical and experimental)

Yuji Kuwahara; Hideaki Kasai

2011-01-01

421

LDEF atomic oxygen fluence update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The definition of LDEF atomic oxygen exposure involves theoretical prediction of fluxes, modeling of shielding and scattering effects, and comparison of predicted with observed atomic oxygen effects on LDEF experiments. Work is proceeding as follows: atomic oxygen fluxes and fluences have been recalculated using a more detailed orbit prediction program; a micro-environments program is being developed to account for the effects of experiment geometry on atomic oxygen flux; and chemical and physical measurements are being made on copper grounding straps to verify correspondence between predicted exposures and observed surface property variations. These three areas of work are reported briefly.

Bourassa, Roger J.; Gillis, J. R.

1992-01-01

422

Experiments with interacting Bose and Fermi gases  

E-print Network

In the past few years, the study of trapped fermionic atoms evolved from the first cooling experiments which produced quantum degenerate samples to becoming one of the most exciting branches of current atomic physics ...

Stan, Claudiu Andrei

2005-01-01

423

Temperature induced mobility and recombination of atomic oxygen in crystalline Kr and Xe. I. Experiment  

E-print Network

Temperature induced mobility and recombination of atomic oxygen in crystalline Kr and Xe. I thermoluminescence.The recombination follows first order kinetics, from which it is inferred that atomic mobilities of activation energiesis observedin vapor depositedmatrices. I. INTRODUCTION The thermal mobility of atoms

Apkarian, V. Ara

424

Early Atomic Models From Mechanical to Quantum (1904-1913) The European Physical Journal H (2012) DOI: 10.1140/epjh/e2012-30009-7  

E-print Network

Early Atomic Models ­ From Mechanical to Quantum (1904-1913) The European Physical Journal H (2012 Department of Physics University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0390, USA Abstract coherent tale of the path from mechanical atoms to the quantum can

Colorado at Boulder, University of

425

A physical approach to reduce nonspecific adhesion in molecular recognition atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed Central

Atomic force microscopy is one of the few techniques that allow analysis of biological recognition processes at the single-molecule level. A major limitation of this approach is the nonspecific interaction between the force sensor and substrate. We have modeled the nonspecific interaction by looking at the interaction potential between a conical Si3N4 tip with a spherical end face and a mica surface in solution, using DLVO (Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, Overbeek) theory and numerical calculations. Insertion of the tip-sample potential in a simulation of an approach-retract cycle of the cantilever gives the well-known force-distance curve. Simulating a force-distance curve at low salt concentration predicts a discrete hopping of the tip, caused by thermal fluctuations. This hopping behavior was observed experimentally and gave rise to a novel approach to making measurements in adhesion mode that essentially works in the repulsive regime. The distance between tip and sample will still be small enough to allow spacer-involved specific interactions, and the percentage of nonspecific interactions of the bare tip with the mica is minimized. We have validated this physical model by imaging intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) antigen with a tip functionalized with anti-ICAM-1 antibody. The measurement demonstrated that a significant decrease in the number of nonspecific interactions was realized, and the topographical image quality and the specific bonding capability of the tip were not affected. PMID:9929476

Willemsen, O H; Snel, M M; Kuipers, L; Figdor, C G; Greve, J; De Grooth, B G

1999-01-01

426

ANL-E Health Physics experience with D and D  

SciTech Connect

The Argonne National Laboratory--East (ANL-E) Health Physics Section provides direct and/or oversight support to various D&D projects at ANL-E. The health physics problems encountered have been challenging, primarily because they involved the potential for high internal exposures as well as actual high external exposures. The lessons learned are applicable to other radiological facilities. A number of D&D projects being conducted concurrently at ANL-E are described. The problems encountered are then categorized, and lessons learned and recommendations are provided. The main focus will be limited to the support and technical assistance provided by personnel from the ANL Health Physics Section during the course of the work activities.

Baker, S.I.; Mosho, G.D.; Munyon, W.J.; Murdoch, B.T.; Sholeen, C.M.; Shuman, J.P.

1996-04-01

427

The International Telecommunications Satellite (INTELSAT) Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) atomic oxgyen flight experiment: Techniques, results and summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques and results of the ISAC flight experiment are presented, and comparisons between flight tests results and ground based testing are made. The ISAC flight experiment, one component of a larger INTELSAT 6 rescue program, tested solar array configurations and individual silver connects in ground based facilities and during STS-41 (Space Shuttle Discovery). In addition to the INTELSAT specimens, several materials, for which little or no flight data exist, were also tested for atomic oxygen reactivity. Dry lubricants, elastomers, polymeric materials, and inorganic materials were exposed to an oxygen atom fluence of 1.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms. Many of the samples were selected to support Space Station Freedom design and decision-making.

Koontz, S.; King, G.; Dunnet, A.; Kirkendahl, T.; Linton, R.; Vaughn, J.

1993-01-01

428

Limits on temporal variation of fine structure constant, quark masses and strong interaction from atomic clock experiments  

E-print Network

We perform calculations of the dependence of nuclear magnetic moments on quark masses and obtain limits on the variation of the ratio of quark mass and strong interaction scale (m_q/Lambda_{QCD}) from recent atomic clock experiments with hyperfine transitions in H, Rb, Cs, Yb+, Hg+ and optical transition in Hg+. Experiments with Cd+, deuterium/hydrogen, molecule SF_6, Zeeman transitions in He_3/Xe are also discussed.

V. V. Flambaum

2003-09-26

429

A Take-Home Physics Experiment Kit for On-Campus and Off-Campus Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A take-home experiment kit has been developed to reinforce the concepts in a first year physics course that both on and off campus students from a variety of educational backgrounds can successfully use. The kit is inexpensive and is composed of easy to obtain items. The experiments conducted with the kit are directed experiments that require…

Turner, Joanna; Parisi, Alfio

2008-01-01

430

Analytical study of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL) experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design specifications of the research laboratory as a Spacelab facility are discussed along with the types of planned experiments. These include cloud formation, freezing and scavenging, and electrical phenomena. A summary of the program conferences is included.

Davis, M. H.

1977-01-01

431

Stern-Gerlach Experiments and Complex Numbers in Quantum Physics  

E-print Network

It is often stated that complex numbers are essential in quantum theory. In this article, the need for complex numbers in quantum theory is motivated using the results of tandem Stern-Gerlach experiments

S. Sivakumar

2012-07-09

432

Elucidating satisfaction with physical activity: an examination of the day-to-day associations between experiences with physical activity and satisfaction during physical activity initiation.  

PubMed

Satisfaction with physical activity is known to be an important factor in physical activity maintenance, but the factors that influence satisfaction are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate how ongoing experiences with recently initiated physical activity are associated with satisfaction. Participants (n?=?116) included insufficiently active volunteers who initiated a self-directed physical activity regimen and completed daily diaries about their experiences for 28?days. We used multilevel models to examine the associations between experiences with physical activity and satisfaction. Significant between-person effects demonstrated that people reporting higher average levels of positive experiences and lower levels of thinking about the negative aspects of exercise were more likely to report higher levels of satisfaction (ps?experiences and perceived progress toward goals had significant within-person effects (ps?experiences were associated with changes in satisfaction. These findings elucidate a process through which people may determine their satisfaction with physical activity. PMID:23909464

Baldwin, Austin S; Baldwin, Scott A; Loehr, Valerie G; Kangas, Julie L; Frierson, Georita M

2013-01-01

433

How Many Atomic Layers of Zinc Are in a Galvanized Iron Coating? An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an experiment using a novel gasometric assembly to determine the thickness and number of atomic layers of zinc coating on galvanized iron substrates. Students solved this problem through three stages. In the first stage, students were encouraged to find a suitable acidic concentration through the guided-inquiry approach. In…

Yang, Shui-Ping

2007-01-01

434

Dependence of nuclear magnetic moments on quark masses and limits on temporal variation of fundamental constants from atomic clock experiments  

E-print Network

We calculate the dependence of the nuclear magnetic moments on the quark masses including the spin-spin interaction effects and obtain limits on the variation of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ and $(m_q/\\Lambda_{QCD})$ using recent atomic clock experiments examining hyperfine transitions in H, Rb, Cs, Yb$^+$ and Hg$^+$ and the optical transition in H, Hg$^+$ and Yb$^+$ .

V. V. Flambaum; A. F. Tedesco

2006-03-08

435

Echoing with the Voices of Victims: Reflection on Vietnamese Lessons on the Japanese Experiences of Atomic Bombs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the case of a Vietnamese teacher whose conception of teaching changed greatly following a short but intensive series of lessons based on the Japanese experiences with atomic bombs. The following three issues are considered: 1) what types of efforts teachers should make to increase the depth of their lessons, on the basis of…

Saito, Eisuke; Hien, Do Thi; Hang, Khong Thi Diem

2010-01-01

436

A Simple LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) Laboratory Experiment to Introduce Undergraduates to Calibration Functions and Atomic Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory experiment introduces students to a different type of atomic spectroscopy: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS uses a laser-generated spark to excite the sample; once excited, the elemental emission is spectrally resolved and detected. The students use LIBS to analyze a series of standard synthetic silicate samples…

Chinni, Rosemarie C.

2012-01-01

437

Estimating physical reflectance spectra from human color-matching experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents methods for estimating Munsell reflectance spectra, measured physically with a spectrophotometer, from psychophysically derived color-matching functions. The method is general and may also be used to estimate the reflectance spectra from human cone photoreceptor sensitivities. The color-matching functions and the cone sensitivities were found to contain almost identical information and may be considered to give equivalent estimates.

A. Kimball Romney; Tarow Indow

2002-01-01

438

The Context of Thought Experiments in Physics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes a cognitive perspective in an attempt to analyze mental mechanisms involved in contextual learning. In the following, it is suggested that contextualized environments evoke mental mechanisms that support reasoning about "what if", imaginary situations--utilizing a powerful mental mechanism known from the history of physics as…

Reiner, Miriam

2006-01-01

439

Efficient continuous-duty Bitter-type electromagnets for cold atom experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design, construction, and characterization of Bitter-type electromagnets which can generate high magnetic fields under continuous operation with efficient heat removal for cold atom experiments. The electromagnets are constructed from a stack of alternating layers consisting of copper arcs and insulating polyester spacers. Efficient cooling of the copper is achieved via parallel rectangular water cooling channels between copper layers with low resistance to flow; a high ratio of the water-cooled surface area to the volume of copper ensures a short length scale (˜1 mm) to extract dissipated heat. High copper fraction per layer ensures high magnetic field generated per unit energy dissipated. The ensemble is highly scalable and compressed to create a watertight seal without epoxy. From our measurements, a peak field of 770 G is generated 14 mm away from a single electromagnet with a current of 400 A and a total power dissipation of 1.6 kW. With cooling water flowing at 3.8 l/min, the coil temperature only increases by 7 °C under continuous operation.

Sabulsky, Dylan O.; Parker, Colin V.; Gemelke, Nathan D.; Chin, Cheng

2013-10-01

440

Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear, plasma, elementary particle, and atomic and molecular physics are surveyed along with the physics of condensed matter and relativistic astrophysics. Attention is given to the discovery of quarks, psi particles, bosons and nuclear quantum states, the role of group theory and the search for a unified field theory. Also considered are magnetic and inertial confinement regarding fusion power, and the use of tunable lasers and microwave spectroscopy to study Rydberg states. In addition, surface physics, amorphous solids, superfluidity and gravitational collapse are discussed.

Bromley, D. A.

1980-07-01

441

HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS  

SciTech Connect

The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

2010-03-16

442

HIGH PT PHYSICS WITH THE STAR EXPERIMENT AT RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

The STAR experiment at RHIC is a TPC-based, general purpose detector designed to obtain charged particle spectra, with an emphasis on hadrons over a large phase space. An electromagnetic calorimeter provides measurement of e's, {gamma}'s, {pi}{sup 0}'s and jets. Data-taking with Au + Au collisions at {radical}5 = 200 GeV/c{sup 2} begins in Fall 1999. The STAR experiment's investigation of techniques and signals using hard probes to study the high energy-density matter at RHIC and to search for quark-gluon plasma formation will be described.

TURNER,K. FOR THE STAR COLLABORATION

1999-03-21

443

New physics searches with heavy flavour with the ATLAS experiment  

E-print Network

Flavour changing neutral currents and precision measurements of CP violation are investigated in ATLAS as probes to new physics beyond the standard model. This talk presents the most recent results on the search for the rare decay Bs (B0) -> mu+mu-, angular analysis of Bd -> K*mu+mu-, as well as the latest update on the study of the angular amplitudes contributing to flavour tagged Bs -> J/psi phi (mu+mu-K+K-) decays.

Chalupkova, I; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

444

Energetic Neutral Atoms from the Moon: Populations, physics, applications, and the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coexistence of plasma particles and neutral materials in space creates energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). For example, when solar wind plasma interacts with the lunar surface, ENA production is expected. We review recent investigations of the Moon-associated ENAs observed by a lunar orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, and discuss lessons learnt from the experiment. Intensive observations were conducted by the Chandrayaan-1 Energetic Neutrals Analyzer (CENA) sensor, the first and the only ever ENA sensor in a lunar orbit. CENA started its operation in the beginning of 2009. CENA can measure low energy ENAs, i.e. the energy below 3 keV. Using the dataset obtained from its 6-month operation, we discovered several populations of ENAs emitted from the Moon: begin{itemize} Backscattered ENAs of solar wind proton origin Backscattered ENAs of plasmasheet proton origin Sputtered hydrogen from the surface Indeed, backscattered ENAs had never expected as a major ENA population because the porosity (roughness) of the lunar surface is extremely high, and thus impinging plasma particles must have experienced several scattering to be absorbed. However, the observations clearly showed extremely high flux of backscattered ENAs. The discovery gave us a new insight in the field of low energy plasma interaction with porous surface in space. From the measured ENA flux and flying direction at the orbiter, we can derive the place of the ENA production and its flux at the lunar surface. They include information about solar wind plasma at the surface. One of the most attractive regions for investigation is a locally magnetized region (magnetic anomaly). Magnetic anomalies form mini-magnetospheres, which prevent the solar wind to precipitate. The efficiency of the protection influences directly the effectiveness of the space weathering by solar wind plasmas. Using the obtained CENA data, we could successfully image a reduction of the ENA flux inside known magnetic anomalies. The image clearly indicates the effective protection of the surface from the solar wind proton. Recently, we also developed a new method to obtain the electrostatic surface potential inside the anomaly from ENA observations. Improved ENA sensor will fly to Mercury by a Europe-Japan joint Mercury exploration, BepiColombo, as a part of Mercury Plasma Particle Experiment on board Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter. The ENA experiment will image precipitating plasma at the surface of Mercury. Field-aligned potential in the precipitating regions is also to be derived. European Jupiter mission, JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE), will also equip an ENA sensor. ENA environment of the icy moons will be addressed as well.

Futaana, Yoshifumi; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin; Bhardwaj, Anil; Wurz, Peter

445

Skylab Experiments, Volume 5, Astronomy and Space Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented in this book, one of a series, for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling the teachers to broaden their basis for material selection. This fifth volume is concerned with studies of our own and other galaxies and effects of solar…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

446

The Design of Learning Experiences: A Connection to Physical Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school environment must create a rich, beautiful, dynamic, meaningful experience for students to learn; however, architects, school boards, and the state focus almost exclusively only on the building when making design decisions. This document lists specific aspects to developing a visionary campus: one that provides a three-dimensional…

Stueck, Lawrence E.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

447

The Physical Environment: A Powerful Regulator of Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses five environmental dimensions (hardness/softness, open/closed, simple/complex, intrusion/seclusion, and high mobility/low mobility) that affect the experiences of children in day-care centers, demonstrating how to consider these dimensions in solving typical problems in child care settings. (MDM)

Prescott, Elizabeth

1994-01-01

448

Cation Hydration Constants by Proton NMR: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the polarization effect on water by cations and anions. Describes an experiment to illustrate the polarization effect of sodium, lithium, calcium, and strontium ions on the water molecule in the hydration spheres of the ions. Analysis is performed by proton NMR. (MVL)

Smith, Robert L.; And Others

1988-01-01

449

Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments Without Superconducting Electromagnets  

E-print Network

ConductivityC17510) and for Oxygen Free High Conductivity (OFHC) Copper (C10400-10700) ElectricalResistivity(Nano of fusion, so near-term superconducting experience may not ultimately be useful. High magnetic field copper is most effective if the conductor material is OFHC copper, whose resistivity at liquid nitrogen

450

Laser-Induced Molecular Fluorescence: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a companion experiment to the experimental study of the di-iodide visible absorption spectrum. Experimental details, interpretation, and data analysis are provided for an analysis of the di-iodide fluorescence excited by a visible laser, using a Raman instrument. (CS)

Tellinghuisen, Joel

1981-01-01

451

Toward the Standard Model: The Transformation of Particle Physics Experiments, 1964-1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1970s, particle physics experienced a major transformation in the way experiments were performed. At the outset fixed-target experiments employing bubble chambers as detectors dominated, and a plethora of new mesons and baryons were discovered using this approach. By the late 1970s, bubble-chamber experiments were in deep decline. The dominant form of experimentation became the collider experiment, using a

Michael Riordan

2007-01-01

452

Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments  

SciTech Connect

We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors.

Dugrain, Vincent; Reichel, Jakob [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, ENS, UPMC, CNRS, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Rosenbusch, Peter [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 61 av de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

2014-08-15

453

Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments  

E-print Network

We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors.

Vincent Dugrain; Peter Rosenbusch; Jakob Reichel

2014-07-31

454

Viscosity experiments: physical controls and implications for volcanic hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching students about viscosity is easy, effective and fun. It is a topic that is conducive to a range of teaching and learning styles, and allows for the integration of theory, experiments, and calculations. During the course of this exercise, students are required to make predictions about the outcomes of experiments, quantitatively document the results of their experiments, calculate viscosities using the Jeffreys equation (Jeffreys 1925; Nichols 1939; Cas and Wright 1987), and extrapolate the concepts learned from their laboratory results to natural conditions appropriate for silicate magmas and lavas. Students are also introduced to Ken Wohletz's freeware program MAGMA (no longer available), which allows them to determine viscosities for magma and lava compositions, and are required to do some simple graphical analysis of the effects of composition, dissolved H2O, and % solids on magma and lava viscosity using the MAGMA calculations. Viscosity is important for students at all levels of earth science to understand because it is a critical control on morphologies of volcanoes, velocities of lava flows, eruptive styles (effusive versus explosive), and ascent velocities of magmas within the earth. The objectives of the lab are for students to: learn about the rheological property called viscosity and some of the factors that affect it; think about and discuss ways in which viscosity controls styles of eruptions and relates to volcanic hazards; and practice quantitative skills. I have used the viscosity experiments as a classroom demonstration in introductory geology courses, as one part of a more extensive lab on volcanoes in introductory geology courses, and as a more intensive viscosity lab for introductory petrology courses. Generally the students do this exercise after they have had at least one introductory lecture on volcanoes, so that they are familiar with several basic terms, including viscosity, lava, magma, as well as some basic igneous rock terms (basalt, andesite, rhyolite). Over the fives years that I have been using the experiments, students at all levels have commented that the experiments are some of the most memorable, interesting and fun parts of my courses. I would welcome any direct student or instructor feedback for improvements or additions to the exercises (edwardsb AT dickinson.edu).

Ben Edwards

455

Physics of asphaltene micelles and microemulsions - theory and experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static and dynamic surface tension, small-angle neutron scattering, and conductivity measurement are applied to characterize the physical properties of asphaltene micelles and microemulsions. The effect of the structure distribution of asphaltene monomers on micellization kinetics, monomer packing in the micelle, micellar growth, and the percolation of the microemulsion droplets is discussed. A phenomenological model is developed to analyse the conductivity data from asphaltene W/O microemulsion from which a packing scheme for monomers in the micelles is proposed. The percolation transition of asphaltene microemulsion droplets is measured and analysed. An argument is given to rationalize the critical exponents of the percolation transition.

Sheu, Eric Y.

1996-06-01

456

A Final Year Physics Undergraduate Experiment on Ultrasound Propagation in Liquids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an advanced undergraduate physics experiment which permits the measurement of ultrasound velocity and absorption in liquid systems. A description of the tasks the student is expected to perform is also included. (HM)

van der Sluijs, M. J.; van der Sluijs, J. C. A.

1980-01-01

457

Physical properties of powdered pineapple ( Ananas comosus) juice––effect of malt dextrin concentration and atomization speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using response surface methodology, whole industrialized pineapple juice with added malt dextrin was spray dried with an air inlet temperature of 190 °C and outlet temperature of 90 °C. The blower velocity was 25,000 rpm, feed rate 0.18 kg\\/min and variable atomization speed. The physical properties studied were: apparent and true density, color (a, b and L parameters), moisture content

F. D. B. Abadio; A. M. Domingues; S. V. Borges; V. M. Oliveira

2004-01-01

458

Guide for Atomic and Particle Physicists to CODATA’s Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CODATA recommended values of the fundamental constants are\\u000a widely applied in particle, nuclear and atomic physics. They are a result of a complicated evaluation (adjustment) of numerous\\u000a correlated data of different natures. Their application is often rather mechanical and as a result is not free of various\\u000a confusions which are discussed in this note.

S. G. Karshenboim; D. I. Mendeleev

459

Savely G. Karshenboim: Guide for Atomic and Particle Physicists to CODATA’s Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CODATA recommended values of the fundamental constants are widely applied\\u000ain particle, nuclear and atomic physics. They are a result of a complicated\\u000aevaluation (adjustment) of numerous correlated data of different nature. Their\\u000aapplication is often rather mechanical and as a result is not free of various\\u000aconfusions which are discussed in this note.

Savely G. Karshenboim; D. I. Mendeleev

460

DIAGNOSTICS FOR ION BEAM DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K{sup +} beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.

2010-01-04

461

Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experiments.  

PubMed

Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K(+) beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II. PMID:21033977

Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Lidia, S; Ni, P A

2010-10-01

462

Atoms and Molecules. Physical Science in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are more than 20 million known substances in the universe, and they are all made of the same basic ingredients--atoms and molecules. In this fun and engaging program, kids will learn about the three main subatomic particles--protons, neutrons and electrons--as well as the forces that keep atoms and molecules together. They'll discover how…

2000

463

Physical Construction of the Chemical Atom: Is It Convenient to Go All the Way Back?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present an analysis of chemistry texts (mainly textbooks) published during the first half of the 20th century. We show the evolution of the explanations therein in terms of atoms and of atomic structure, when scientists were interpreting phenomena as evidence of the discontinuous, corpuscular structure of matter. In this process…

Izquierdo-Aymerich, Merce; Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin

2009-01-01

464

Divertor plasma physics experiments on the DIII-D tokamak  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present an overview of the results and conclusions of our most recent divertor physics and development work. Using an array of new divertor diagnostics we have measured the plasma parameters over the entire divertor volume and gained new insights into several divertor physics issues. We present direct experimental evidence for momentum loss along the field lines, large heat convection, and copious volume recombination during detachment. These observations are supported by improved UEDGE modeling incorporating impurity radiation. We have demonstrated divertor exhaust enrichment of neon and argon by action of a forced scrape off layer (SOL) flow and demonstrated divertor pumping as a substitute for conventional wall conditioning. We have observed a divertor radiation zone with a parallel extent that is an order of magnitude larger than that estimated from a 1-D conduction limited model of plasma at coronal equilibrium. Using density profile control by divertor pumping and pellet injection we have attained H-mode confinement at densities above the Greenwald limit. Erosion rates of several candidate ITER plasma facing materials are measured and compared with predictions of a numerical model.

Mahdavi, M.A.; Allen, S.L.; Evans, T.E. [and others

1996-10-01

465

Experimenting with the virtual environment Moodle in Physics Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The master's program in Physics Education of the Catholic University in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, includes the discipline ``Digital technologies in Physics education.'' The main goal of this discipline is to discuss the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the process of learning-teaching science. We introduce our students to several virtual platforms, both free and commercial, discussing their functionality and features. We encourage our students to get in touch with computer tools and resources by planning their own computer based course using the Moodle platform. We discuss different patterns of virtual environment courses, whose proposals are centered mainly in the students, or teacher-centered or even system-centered. The student is free to choose between only one topic and a year course to work with, since their interests vary from learning something more about a specific subject to a complete e-learning course covering the entire school year. (The courses are available online in the address sitesinf01.pucmg.br/moodle. Participation only requires filling out an application form.) After three editions of this discipline, we have several courses available. We realize that students tend to focus on traditional methods, always preserving their role as knowledge-givers. In conclusion, we can say that, in spite of exhaustive discussion about autonomy involved with ICTs abilities, most of the students used the new virtual medium to organize traditional teacher-centered courses.

Martins, Maria Ines; Dickman, Adriana