Sample records for atomic physics experiments

  1. Atomic Physics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    This collection provides a basic introduction to Atomic Physics. It reviews the building blocks of atomic structure, explores atomic isotopes, explains Einstein's famous equation E = mc2, and introduces the various types of radiation.

  2. Modern Experiments on Atom-Surface Casimir Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten DeKieviet; Ulrich D. Jentschura; Grzegorz ?ach

    \\u000a In this chapter we review past and current experimental approaches to measuring the long-range interaction between atoms and\\u000a surfaces, the so-called Casimir-Polder force. These experiments demonstrate the importance of going beyond the perfect conductor\\u000a approximation and stipulate the relevance of the Dzyaloshinskii-Lifshitz-Pitaevskii theory. We discuss recent generalizations\\u000a of that theory, that include higher multipole polarizabilities, and present a list of

  3. Several atomic-physics issues connected with the use of neutral beams in fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Post, D.E.; Grisham, L.R.; Fonck, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Energetic neutral beams are used for heating and diagnostics in present magnetic fusion experiments. They are also being considered for use in future large experiments. Atomic physics issues are important for both the production of the neutral beams and the interaction of the beams and the plasma. Interest in neutral beams based on negative hydrogen ions is growing, largely based on advances in producing high current ion sources. An extension of the negative ion approach has been the suggestion to use negative ions of Z > 1 elements, such as carbon and oxygen, to form high power neutral beams for plasma heating.

  4. Application of x-ray lasers to current and future experiments in atomic and molecular physics

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, C. Denise [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The use of intrinsically narrow-banded, intense x-ray lasers has the potential for a significant impact in atomic and molecular physics. As with any new technology, it is impossible to predict all the new information which may emerge as the technology develops. At least at the beginning it will be important for these lasers to have applicability to existing experimental methods, which can then exploit the new tool for experiments which are currently barely feasible with existing and planned sources of radiation in the high-energy regime. Examples of these are: resonant Auger decay, particularly of dilute species, studied with electron spectrometry; multi-photon processes involving the simultaneous utilization of two laser photons; and fragmentation experiments in which the high-energy photon is one of a pump-probe pair. Results from these experiments will go a long way to suggesting directions for future study.

  5. A distributed, graphical user interface based, computer control system for atomic physics experiments.

    PubMed

    Keshet, Aviv; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Atomic physics experiments often require a complex sequence of precisely timed computer controlled events. This paper describes a distributed graphical user interface-based control system designed with such experiments in mind, which makes use of off-the-shelf output hardware from National Instruments. The software makes use of a client-server separation between a user interface for sequence design and a set of output hardware servers. Output hardware servers are designed to use standard National Instruments output cards, but the client-server nature should allow this to be extended to other output hardware. Output sequences running on multiple servers and output cards can be synchronized using a shared clock. By using a field programmable gate array-generated variable frequency clock, redundant buffers can be dramatically shortened, and a time resolution of 100 ns achieved over effectively arbitrary sequence lengths. PMID:23387693

  6. A Distributed GUI-based Computer Control System for Atomic Physics Experiments

    E-print Network

    Keshet, Aviv

    2012-01-01

    Atomic physics experiments often require a complex sequence of precisely timed computer controlled events. A distributed GUI-based control system designed with such experiments in mind, The Cicero Word Generator, is described. The system makes use of a client-server separation between a user interface for sequence design and a set of output hardware servers. Output hardware servers are designed to use standard National Instruments output cards, but the client-server nature allows this to be extended to other output hardware. Output sequences running on multiple servers and output cards can be synchronized using a shared clock. By using an FPGA-generated variable frequency clock, redundant buffers can be dramatically shortened, and a time resolution of 100ns achieved over effectively arbitrary sequence lengths.

  7. Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular and optical physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents a program of research initiatives in atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The current state of atomic, molecular, and optical physics in the US is examined with respect to demographics, education patterns, applications, and the US economy. Recommendations are made for each field, with discussions of their histories and the relevance of the research to government agencies. The section on atomic physics includes atomic theory, structure, and dynamics; accelerator-based atomic physics; and large facilities. The section on molecular physics includes spectroscopy, scattering theory and experiment, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The section on optical physics discusses lasers, laser spectroscopy, and quantum optics and coherence. A section elucidates interfaces between the three fields and astrophysics, condensed matter physics, surface science, plasma physics, atmospheric physics, and nuclear physics. Another section shows applications of the three fields in ultra-precise measurements, fusion, national security, materials, medicine, and other topics.

  8. Experiments in Physics Physics 1291

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Experiments in Physics Physics 1291 General Physics I Lab Columbia University Department of Physics The laboratory experiments described in this manual are an important part of your physics course. Most of the experiments are designed to illustrate important concepts described in the lectures. Whenever possible

  9. Optical Spectroscopy of Hydrogenic Atoms MIT Department of Physics

    E-print Network

    Seager, Sara

    Optical Spectroscopy of Hydrogenic Atoms MIT Department of Physics (Dated: September 1, 2013-classical physical princi- ples must govern atomic phenomena. By the summer of 1912 he arrived at his central idea) This experiment is an exercise in optical spectroscopy in a study of the spectra of "hydrogenic" atoms, i.e. atoms

  10. Experiments in cold atom optics towards precision atom interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aveline, David C.

    Atom optics has been a highly active field of research with many scientific breakthroughs over the past two decades, largely due to successful advances in laser technology, microfabrication techniques, and the development of laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms. This dissertation details several atom optics experiments with the motivation to develop tools and techniques for precision atom wave interferometry. It provides background information about atom optics and the fundamentals behind laser cooling and trapping, including basic techniques for cold gas thermometry and absorptive detection of atoms. A brief overview of magnetic trapping and guiding in tight wire-based traps is also provided before the experimental details are presented. We developed a novel laser source of 780 nm light using frequency-doubled 1560 nm fiber amplifier. This laser system provided up to a Watt of tunable frequency stabilized light for two Rb laser cooling and trapping experiments. One system generates Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical trap while the second is based on atom chip magnetic traps. The atom chip system, detailed in this thesis, was designed and built to develop the tools necessary for transport and loading large numbers of cold atoms and explore the potential for guided atom interferometry. Techniques and results from this experiment are presented, including an efficient magnetic transport and loading method to deliver cold atom to atom chip traps. We also developed a modeling tool for the magnetic fields formed by coiled wire geometries, as well as planar wire patterns. These models helped us design traps and determine adiabatic transportation of cold atoms between macro-scale traps and micro-traps formed on atom chips. Having achieved near unity transfer efficiency, we demonstrated that this approach promises to be a consistent method for loading large numbers of atoms into micro-traps. Furthermore, we discuss an in situ imaging technique to investigate magnetic field contours of the traps and the dynamics of atoms within those confining potentials. We also controlled the propagation along the atom chip guides by accelerating atoms with longitudinal magnetic gradients, and investigated an atom focusing scheme. While the atom chip wire guides perform a role analogous to optical fibers guiding light waves, "free space" cold atoms offer great opportunity for precision interferometry. We describe a second on-going atom optics experiment that measures gravity gradients using a pair of atom fountain interferometers separated by one meter. We have demonstrated Gravity Gradiometer resolution down to 4x10-9 g/m using a 40 kg test mass. The atomic physics subsystem is described in detail, including the vacuum, cold atom source, optics, magnetic coils and shields, and vibration isolation and compensation. The system is designed to be a compact, robust, transportable instrument, taking strides towards future gravity gradient measurements in the field. In the realm of space applications, there has been interest for micro-gravity science experiments aboard the International Space Station, along with instrument development for gravity mapping of Earth and planetary bodies with satellite-based instruments. Furthermore, there are ground-based applications for gravity imaging of local density distributions, precision measurement of gravity, as well as proposals for redefining the kilogram, detecting gravitational waves and determining the Gravitational constant.

  11. Probing the Planck Scale in Low-Energy Atomic Physics

    E-print Network

    Robert Bluhm

    2001-11-25

    Experiments in atomic physics have exceptional sensitivity to small shifts in energy in an atom, ion, or bound particle. They are particularly well suited to search for unique low-energy signatures of new physics, including effects that could originate from the Planck scale. A number of recent experiments have used CPT and Lorentz violation as a candidate signal of new physics originating from the Planck scale. A discussion of these experiments and their theoretical implications is presented.

  12. Quantum Physics of Atoms and Materials

    E-print Network

    Moeck, Peter

    299 9 Quantum Physics of Atoms and Materials The first postulate enunciates the existence: Physics for the Internet Age 9.1 ATOMS, CRYSTALS, AND COMPUTERS Modern computers are made? The answer lies in atomic physics, namely in the motion of electrons within atoms. Between 1900 and 1930

  13. Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases: atomic physics meets condensed matter physics

    E-print Network

    Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases: atomic physics meets condensed matter physics W of atomic and condensed matter physics. Topics of many-body physics can now be studied with the methods the gaseous BEC ultralow density condensed matter physics. Bose-Einstein conden- sation in atomic gases

  14. Probing the Planck Scale in Low-Energy Atomic Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Bluhm

    2001-01-01

    Experiments in atomic physics have exceptional sensitivity to small shifts in\\u000aenergy in an atom, ion, or bound particle. They are particularly well suited to\\u000asearch for unique low-energy signatures of new physics, including effects that\\u000acould originate from the Planck scale. A number of recent experiments have used\\u000aCPT and Lorentz violation as a candidate signal of new physics

  15. Physics Outreach Grant Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, Heide

    2014-03-01

    Descriptions of two different Physics Outreach grant projects will be presented. I will discuss my experiences trying to engage and teach the public in my locality some physics through birthday parties for the laser in 2010. I will also discuss my experiences trying to reach the general public through greeting cards and bookmarks with physics on the back in 2012-2013. These efforts spilled over to a larger audience, which led to a larger impact. I will describe what worked, what didn't, and the value of these efforts. I am pleased to acknowledge the support of my funder APS Outreach.

  16. Bose–Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases: atomic physics meets condensed matter physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Ketterle

    2000-01-01

    Bose–Einstein condensed atomic gases are a new class of quantum fluids. They are produced by cooling a dilute atomic gas to nanokelvin temperatures using laser and evaporative cooling techniques. The study of these quantum gases has become an interdisciplinary field of atomic and condensed matter physics. Topics of many-body physics can now be studied with the methods of atomic physics.

  17. Physical limits on atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, D; Van Aert, S; den Dekker, A J

    2004-02-01

    It is shown that the ultimate resolution is not limited by the bandwidth of the microscope but by the bandwidth (i.e., the scattering power) of the object. In the case of a crystal oriented along a zone axis, the scattering is enhanced by the channeling of the electrons. However, if the object is aperiodic along the beam direction, the bandwidth is much more reduced. A particular challenge are the amorphous objects. For amorphous materials, the natural bandwidth is that of the single atom and of the order of 1 angstrom(-1), which can be reached with the present generation of medium voltage microscopes without aberration correctors. A clear distinction is made between resolving a structure and refining, that is, between resolution and precision. In the case of an amorphous structure, the natural bandwidth also puts a limit on the number of atom coordinates that can be refined quantitatively. As a consequence, amorphous structures cannot be determined from one projection, but only by using atomic resolution tomography. Finally a theory of experiment design is presented that can be used to predict the optimal experimental setting or the best instrumental improvement. Using this approach it is suggested that the study of amorphous objects should be done at low accelerating voltage with correction of both spherical and chromatic aberration. PMID:15306080

  18. Physical Limits on Atomic Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dyck, D.; van Aert, S.; den Dekker, A. J.

    2004-02-01

    It is shown that the ultimate resolution is not limited by the bandwidth of the microscope but by the bandwidth (i.e., the scattering power) of the object. In the case of a crystal oriented along a zone axis, the scattering is enhanced by the channeling of the electrons. However, if the object is aperiodic along the beam direction, the bandwidth is much more reduced. A particular challenge are the amorphous objects. For amorphous materials, the natural bandwidth is that of the single atom and of the order of 1 [Angstrom capital A, ring][minus sign]1, which can be reached with the present generation of medium voltage microscopes without aberration correctors. A clear distinction is made between resolving a structure and refining, that is, between resolution and precision. In the case of an amorphous structure, the natural bandwidth also puts a limit on the number of atom coordinates that can be refined quantitatively. As a consequence, amorphous structures cannot be determined from one projection, but only by using atomic resolution tomography. Finally a theory of experiment design is presented that can be used to predict the optimal experimental setting or the best instrumental improvement. Using this approach it is suggested that the study of amorphous objects should be done at low accelerating voltage with correction of both spherical and chromatic aberration.

  19. Microtraps and Atom Chips: Toolboxes for Cold Atom Physics

    E-print Network

    L. Feenstra; L. M. Andersson; J. Schmiedmayer

    2003-02-03

    Magnetic microtraps and Atom Chips are safe, small-scale, reliable and flexible tools to prepare ultra-cold and degenerate atom clouds as sources for various atom-optical experiments. We present an overview of the possibilities of the devices and indicate how a microtrap can be used to prepare and launch a Bose-Einstein condensate for use in an atom clock or an interferometer.

  20. Potential scattering in atomic physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Burke; Robert St John

    1977-01-01

    An in-depth examination of potential field scattering of particles is presented with particular reference to elastic electron scattering by an ion or a neutral atom. Included are scattering by a short-range, Coulomb, and spin--orbit potentials, and by one-electron atoms, low energy effective-range theory, bound states and resonances, variational methods and bound principles, integral equation methods and the Born approximation, and

  1. Model atom for multiphoton physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Su; J. H. Eberly

    1991-01-01

    We describe in detail some properties of a one-dimensional model atom that has been used for the study of multiphoton processes. We discuss static properties of the atom such as its energy eigenvalues, dipole moment matrix elements, and dipole sum rule, and also some aspects of its time-dependent response to a weak laser field, including second-order level shifts, and exact

  2. Physical experience enhances science learning.

    PubMed

    Kontra, Carly; Lyons, Daniel J; Fischer, Susan M; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-06-01

    Three laboratory experiments involving students' behavior and brain imaging and one randomized field experiment in a college physics class explored the importance of physical experience in science learning. We reasoned that students' understanding of science concepts such as torque and angular momentum is aided by activation of sensorimotor brain systems that add kinetic detail and meaning to students' thinking. We tested whether physical experience with angular momentum increases involvement of sensorimotor brain systems during students' subsequent reasoning and whether this involvement aids their understanding. The physical experience, a brief exposure to forces associated with angular momentum, significantly improved quiz scores. Moreover, improved performance was explained by activation of sensorimotor brain regions when students later reasoned about angular momentum. This finding specifies a mechanism underlying the value of physical experience in science education and leads the way for classroom practices in which experience with the physical world is an integral part of learning. PMID:25911125

  3. Review of Atomic Physics of Dense Plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. More

    2003-01-01

    Atomic physics of dense plasmas is a fascinating, complex and often difficult topic in plasma physics that draws from many scientific disciplines and is an integral part of the description of high energy-density plasmas, magnetic fusion plasmas, laser-plasma interactions and the science of warm condensed matter. In this talk, characteristic \\

  4. Study of atomic physics and population inversions with plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Oona, H.; Hodgdon, M.L.; Rickel, D.G.; Freeman, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma focus can be used to generate high temperature and high density plasmas. Neon-like plasmas have previously been studied in Z-pinches and laser produced plasmas as sources for XUV and x-ray lasers. The plasma focus provides a simple and inexpensive source for studying atomic physics of highly ionized atoms. A detailed understanding of atomic physics at high temperatures, densities, and megagauss magnetic fields is necessary for possible x-ray laser designs. Methods that are generally used for obtaining population inversions include collisional ionization of the inner shells of multi-electron atoms and ions, photoexcitation, and electron collisional excitation of ions, collisional combination of ions, and atom-ion resonant charge exchange. We will discuss some possible experiments to help understand the atomic physics under the above condition. Some ideas and calculations will be given to show the feasibility of doing atomic physics relating to x-ray lasers with a plasma focus. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  5. The Atomic hypothesis: Physical consequences

    E-print Network

    Martin Rivas

    2008-02-22

    The hypothesis that matter is made of some ultimate and indivisible objects, together the restricted relativity principle, establishes a constraint on the kind of variables we are allowed to use for the variational description of elementary particles. We consider that the atomic hypothesis not only states the indivisibility of elementary particles, but also that these ultimate objects, if not annihilated, cannot be modified by any interaction so that all allowed states of an elementary particle are only kinematical modifications of any one of them. Terefore, an elementary particle cannot have excited states. In this way, the kinematical group of spacetime symmetries not only defines the symmetries of the system, but also the variables in terms of which the mathematical description of the elementary particles can be expressed in either the classical or the quantum mechanical description. When considering the interaction of two Dirac particles, the atomic hypothesis restricts the interaction Lagrangian to a kind of minimal coupling interaction.

  6. VOLUME 6S, NUMBER 13 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Very Cold Trapped Atoms in a Vapor Cell

    E-print Network

    Monroe, Christopher

    VOLUME 6S, NUMBER 13 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Very Cold Trapped Atoms in a Vapor Cell 24 SEPTEMBER sample of spin-polarized trapped atoms. The technique used dramati- cally simplifies the production of laser-cooled atoms. In this experiment, 1.8x10' neutral cesium atoms were optically captured directly

  7. ELISA-an electrostatic storage ring for atomic physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Moller

    1997-01-01

    The design of a new type of storage ring (synchrotron) for heavy ions using electrostatic deflection and focusing devices is described. Such a storage ring will be attractive for many atomic-physics experiments, and also for basic research in neighboring fields such as chemistry and biology

  8. ELISA - AN ELECTROSTATIC STORAGE RING FOR ATOMIC PHYSICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Søren Pape Møller; Aarhus C

    The design of a new type of storage ring (synchrotron) for heavy ions using electrostatic deflection and focusing devices is described. Such a storage ring will be attractive for many atomic-physics experiments, and also for basic research in neighboring fields such as chemistry and biology.

  9. Essay: Fifty Years of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics in Physical Review Letters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Haroche

    2008-01-01

    The fiftieth anniversary of Physical Review Letters is a good opportunity to review the extraordinary progress of atomic, molecular, and optical physics reported in this journal during the past half-century. As both a witness and an actor of this story, I recall personal experiences and reflect about the past, present, and possible future of my field of research.

  10. Transition state in atomic physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Jaffé; David Farrelly; T. Uzer

    1999-01-01

    The transition state is fundamental to modern theories of reaction dynamics: essentially, the transition state is a structure in phase space that all reactive trajectories must cross. While transition-state theory (TST) has been used mainly in chemical physics, it is possible to apply the theory to considerable advantage in any collision problem that involves some form of reaction. Of special

  11. ELECTRONIC SPUTTERING: FROM ATOMIC PHYSICS

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Robert E.

    PHYSICS TODAY MARCH 1992 #12;Plasma torus of Jupiter's moon lo is composed of ions (primarily S+ , S2 of Europa. This figure is a composite of a photo of Jupiter and a false-color image of a piece of the torus discovered a similar torus of primarily H + and O + formed by electronic sputtering of H2O from the icy moons

  12. Scattering processes in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchedrin, Gavriil

    The universal way to probe a physical system is to scatter a particle or radiation off the system. The results of the scattering are governed by the interaction Hamiltonian of the physical system and scattered probe. An object of the investigation can be a hydrogen atom immersed in a laser field, heavy nucleus exposed to a flux of neutrons, or space-time metric perturbed by the stress-energy tensor of neutrino flux in the early Universe. This universality of scattering process designates the Scattering Matrix, defined as the unitary matrix of the overlapping in and out collision states, as the central tool in theoretical physics. In this Thesis we present our results in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and cosmology. In these branches of theoretical physics the key element that unifies all of them is the scattering matrix. Additionally, within the scope of Thesis we present underlying ideas responsible for the unification of various physical systems. Within atomic physics problems, namely the axial anomaly contribution to parity nonconservation in atoms, and two-photon resonant transition in a hydrogen atom, it was the scattering matrix which led to the Landau-Yang theorem, playing the central role in these problems. In scattering problems of cosmology and quantum optics we developed and implemented mathematical tools that allowed us to get a new point of view on the subject. Finally, in nuclear physics we were able to take advantage of the target complexity in the process of neutron scattering which led to the formulation of a new resonance width distribution for an open quantum system.

  13. Using diode lasers for atomic physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl E. Wieman; Leo Hollberg

    1991-01-01

    A review of the use of diode lasers in atomic physics with an extensive list of references is presented. The relevant characteristics of diode lasers is discussed and the manner in which to purchase and use them is explained. The various techniques that have been used to control and narrow the spectral outputs of diode lasers are also reviewed. Finally,

  14. Future directions in kaonic atom physics

    E-print Network

    E. Friedman

    2011-11-30

    Recent progress and open problems in kaonic atom physics are presented. A connection between phenomenological deep potentials and the underlying $K^-N$ interaction is established as well as the need for a theory for multinucleon absorption of kaons. $K^-$ absorption at rest to specific $\\Lambda $ hypernuclei states is briefly discussed.

  15. Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6) Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    An atomic oxygen fluence monitor was flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6). The monitor was designed to measure the accumulation of atomic oxygen fluence with time as it impinged upon the ram surface of the MISSE 6B Passive Experiment Container (PEC). This was an active experiment for which data was to be stored on a battery-powered data logger for post-flight retrieval and analysis. The atomic oxygen fluence measurement was accomplished by allowing atomic oxygen to erode two opposing wedges of pyrolytic graphite that partially covered a photodiode. As the wedges of pyrolytic graphite erode, the area of the photodiode that is illuminated by the Sun increases. The short circuit current, which is proportional to the area of illumination, was to be measured and recorded as a function of time. The short circuit current from a different photodiode, which was oriented in the same direction and had an unobstructed view of the Sun, was also to be recorded as a reference current. The ratio of the two separate recorded currents should bear a linear relationship with the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence and be independent of the intensity of solar illumination. Ground hyperthermal atomic oxygen exposure facilities were used to evaluate the linearity of the ratio of short circuit current to the atomic oxygen fluence. In flight, the current measurement circuitry failed to operate properly, thus the overall atomic oxygen mission fluence could only be estimated based on the physical erosion of the pyrolytic graphite wedges. The atomic oxygen fluence was calculated based on the knowledge of the space atomic oxygen erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite measured from samples on the MISSE 2. The atomic oxygen fluence monitor, the expected result and comparison of mission atomic oxygen fluence based on the erosion of the pyrolytic graphite and Kapton H atomic oxygen fluence witness samples are presented in this paper.

  16. STS-8 atomic oxygen effects experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, J. T.; Leger, L. J.; Kuminecz, J. F.; Spiker, I. K.

    1985-01-01

    A flight experiment was performed on the eighth Space Shuttle mission to measure reaction of surfaces with atomic oxygen in the low earth orbital environment. More than 300 individual samples were exposed to ram (normal to surface) conditions for 41.75 hr leading to a total atomic oxygen fluence of 3.5 x 10 to the 20th atoms/sq cm. Reaction rates for surface recession measured primarily by mass change of several organic films were in the range of 3.0 x 10 to the -24th cu cm/atom, and less than 5 x 10 to the -26th cu cm/atom for Teflon. Effects of parameters such as temperature and solar radiation were assessed, as was the importance of atmospheric ionic species on surface recession. In an experiment performed on the fifth Space Shuttle flight, no temperature dependence of reaction rate for the organic films studied was found in the temperature range of 25 to 125 C. Preliminary findings indicate that the reactivity of organic films is not affected by temperature (in the range of 65 to 125 C), solar radiation, or ionic species. Significant surface morphology changes led to a carpet-like appearance also consistent with previous findings.

  17. PhD STUDENT IN ATOMIC THEORY The Theory group in the Atomic Physics division, Department of Physics, Stockholm

    E-print Network

    Lindroth, Eva

    PhD STUDENT IN ATOMIC THEORY The Theory group in the Atomic Physics division, Department of Physics are interested; Contact Prof. Eva Lindroth lindroth@physto.se, +46 8 5537 8616 Atomic Physics, Fysikum Alba Nova ­ Resonances- in Atoms and Ions Recombination processes in electron-ion collisions - Dielectronic Recombination

  18. Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R; Imanaliev, A; Aspect, A; Cheneau, M; Boiron, D; Westbrook, C I

    2015-04-01

    Two-particle interference is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics, and is even less intuitive than wave-particle duality for a single particle. In this duality, classical concepts--wave or particle--are still referred to, and interference happens in ordinary space-time. On the other hand, two-particle interference takes place in a mathematical space that has no classical counterpart. Entanglement lies at the heart of this interference, as it does in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics involving the violation of Bell's inequalities. The Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment is a conceptually simpler situation, in which the interference between two-photon amplitudes also leads to behaviour impossible to describe using a simple classical model. Here we report the realization of the Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment using atoms instead of photons. We create a source that emits pairs of atoms, and cause one atom of each pair to enter one of the two input channels of a beam-splitter, and the other atom to enter the other input channel. When the atoms are spatially overlapped so that the two inputs are indistinguishable, the atoms always emerge together in one of the output channels. This result opens the way to testing Bell's inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics, and to testing theories of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our work also demonstrates a new way to benchmark non-classical atom sources that may be of interest for quantum information processing and quantum simulation. PMID:25832404

  19. Searching New Physics in Muonium Atom

    E-print Network

    K. Jungmann

    1998-05-14

    Quantum Electrodynamics describes electromagnetic interactions of free muons and of muon and electron in the muonium atom to very high accuracy. Contributions of other and yet unknown interactions can be investigated in precision experiments, e.g. by searching for muonium-antimuonium conversion and by measuring the muon magnetic anomaly.

  20. Planning a School Physics Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasiak, Wladyslaw

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for planning the measurement of physical quantities. Provides two examples of optimizing the conditions of indirect measurement for laboratory experiments which involve measurements of acceleration due to gravity and of viscosity by means of Stokes' formula. (ML)

  1. Atomic frequency standard relativistic Doppler shift experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, H. E.; Reinhardt, V. S.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment has been performed to measure possible space anisotropy as it would effect the frequency of a cesium atomic beam standard clock in a laboratory on earth due to motion relative to external coordinate frames. The cesium frequency was measured as a function of orientation with respect to an atomic hydrogen maser standard. Over a period of 34 days 101 measurements were made. The results are consistent with a conclusion that no general orientation dependance attributable to spacial anisotropy was observed. It is shown that both the airplane clock results, and the null results for the atomic beam clock, are consistent with Einstein general or special relativity, or with the Lorentz transformations alone.

  2. More Homespun Experiments in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how some experiments in physics can be presented in class using cheap materials. How to produce an electrostatic charge using a polythene bottle and how to make a tissue paper electroscope using a tin can are among the experiments described. (HM)

  3. 8.422 Atomic and Optical Physics II, Spring 2005

    E-print Network

    Chuang, Isaac

    This is the second of a two-semester subject sequence beginning with Atomic and Optical Physics I (8.421) that provides the foundations for contemporary research in selected areas of atomic and optical physics. Topics ...

  4. Handbook explaining the fundamentals of nuclear and atomic physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanlen, D. F.; Morse, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Indoctrination document presents nuclear, reactor, and atomic physics in an easy, straightforward manner. The entire subject of nuclear physics including atomic structure ionization, isotopes, radioactivity, and reactor dynamics is discussed.

  5. Solar Neutrino Experiments: New Physics?

    E-print Network

    John N. Bahcall

    1993-07-07

    Physics beyond the simplest version of the standard electroweak model is required to reconcile the results of the chlorine and the Kamiokande solar neutrino experiments. None of the 1000 solar models in a full Monte Carlo simulation is consistent with the results of the chlorine or the Kamiokande experiments. Even if the solar models are forced articficially to have a ${}^8 B$ neutrino flux in agreement with the Kamiokande experiment, none of the fudged models agrees with the chlorine observations. This comparison shows that consistency of the chlorine and Kamiokande experiments requires some physical process that changes the shape of the ${}^8 B$ neutrino energy spectrum. The GALLEX and SAGE experiments, which currently have large statistical uncertainties, differ from the predictions of the standard solar model by $2 \\sigma$ and $3 \\sigma$, respectively. The possibility that the neutrino experiments are incorrect is briefly discussed.

  6. Relaxing Atomic Parity Violation Constraints on New Physics

    E-print Network

    V. Barger; K. Cheung; D. P. Roy; D. Zeppenfeld

    1997-10-16

    The weak charge $Q_W$ measured in atomic parity violation experiments can receive compensating contributions from more than one new physics source. We show explicitly that the $\\Delta Q_W$ contribution from the exchange of an extra Z-boson can cancel that from the $s$-channel scalar top or scalar charm exchange in R-parity violating SUSY models proposed to explain the HERA high-$Q^2$ anomaly.

  7. Physics 3, 55 (2010) Keeping atoms synchronized for better timekeeping

    E-print Network

    Gibble, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Physics 3, 55 (2010) Viewpoint Keeping atoms synchronized for better timekeeping Kurt Gibble the clock's coherence time. Subject Areas: Atomic and Molecular Physics, Optics A Viewpoint on: Spin Self of international atomic time [1, 2]. As reported in a paper in Physical Review Letters, Christian Deutsch

  8. I.I. Rabi Prize in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics Talk: Novel Quantum Physics in Few- and Many-body Atomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Cheng

    2011-05-01

    Recent cold atom researches are reaching out far beyond the realm that was conventionally viewed as atomic physics. Many long standing issues in other physics disciplines or in Gedanken-experiments are nowadays common targets of cold atom physicists. Two prominent examples will be discussed in this talk: BEC-BCS crossover and Efimov physics. Here, cold atoms are employed to emulate electrons in superconductors, and nucleons in nuclear reactions, respectively. The ability to emulate exotic or thought systems using cold atoms stems from the precisely determined, simple, and tunable interaction properties of cold atoms. New experimental tools have also been devised toward an ultimate goal: a complete control and a complete characterization of a few- or many-body quantum system. We are tantalizingly close to this major milestone, and will soon open new venues to explore new quantum phenomena that may (or may not!) exist in scientists' dreams.

  9. Surface analysis and atomic physics with slow positron beams.

    PubMed

    Mills, A P

    1982-10-22

    Recent advances in slow positron beam techniques are making it possible to study the interactions of low-energy positrons with gas molecules and solid surfaces and to measure the properties of free positronium atoms. New surface related results include the observation of surfaces with negative positron affinity and the thermionic emission of slow positronium atoms, low-energy positron diffraction measurements, and the sensitive detection of near-surface crystalline imperfections. Two recent successful experiments in atomic physics are the formation of the positronium negative ion and the optical excitation of positronium for high precisin spectroscopy. Prospects for a positron microscope and the study of exotic antimatter systems such as the two-component Fermi gas are based on the imminent possibility of enormous increases in the brightness and instantaneous intensity of positron beams. PMID:17739336

  10. Precision Atomic Physics Techniques for Nuclear Physics with Radioactive Beams

    E-print Network

    Klaus Blaum; Jens Dilling; Wilfried Nörtershäuser

    2012-10-15

    Atomic physics techniques for the determination of ground-state properties of radioactive isotopes are very sensitive and provide accurate masses, binding energies, Q-values, charge radii, spins, and electromagnetic moments. Many fields in nuclear physics benefit from these highly accurate numbers. They give insight into details of the nuclear structure for a better understanding of the underlying effective interactions, provide important input for studies of fundamental symmetries in physics, and help to understand the nucleosynthesis processes that are responsible for the observed chemical abundances in the Universe. Penning-trap and and storage-ring mass spectrometry as well as laser spectroscopy of radioactive nuclei have now been used for a long time but significant progress has been achieved in these fields within the last decade. The basic principles of laser spectroscopic investigations, Penning-trap and storage-ring mass measurements of short-lived nuclei are summarized and selected physics results are discussed.

  11. ATOMIC PHYSICS DMITRY BUDKER | DEREK F. KIMBALL | DAVID P. DEMILLE

    E-print Network

    Pines, Alexander

    ATOMIC PHYSICS DMITRY BUDKER | DEREK F. KIMBALL | DAVID P. DEMILLE an exploration through problems are interested in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical (AMO) Physics. Written as a collection of problems, hints, and physical analogies. While complete coverage of all AMO Physics is not attempted, there are chapters

  12. The diode laser in atomic physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Camparo

    1985-01-01

    Over the past fiie years the use of diode lasers in physics research has expanded rapidly. In part, this has occurred because the diode laser is a highly monochromatic and tunable light source that, when compared to other laser systems, is quite inexpensive and easy to operate. These characteristics make the diode laser ideal for multi-laser experiments, or small scale\\/high

  13. Research in atomic and applied physics using a 6-GeV synchrotron source

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.

    1985-12-01

    The Division of Atomic and Applied Physics in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts a broad program of research using ion beams and synchrotron radiation for experiments in atomic physics and nuclear analytical techniques and applications. Many of the experiments would benefit greatly from the use of high energy, high intensity photon beams from a 6-GeV synchrotron source. A survey of some of the specific scientific possibilities is presented.

  14. Physically representative atomistic modeling of atomic-scale friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yalin

    Nanotribology is a research field to study friction, adhesion, wear and lubrication occurred between two sliding interfaces at nano scale. This study is motivated by the demanding need of miniaturization mechanical components in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), improvement of durability in magnetic storage system, and other industrial applications. Overcoming tribological failure and finding ways to control friction at small scale have become keys to commercialize MEMS with sliding components as well as to stimulate the technological innovation associated with the development of MEMS. In addition to the industrial applications, such research is also scientifically fascinating because it opens a door to understand macroscopic friction from the most bottom atomic level, and therefore serves as a bridge between science and engineering. This thesis focuses on solid/solid atomic friction and its associated energy dissipation through theoretical analysis, atomistic simulation, transition state theory, and close collaboration with experimentalists. Reduced-order models have many advantages for its simplification and capacity to simulating long-time event. We will apply Prandtl-Tomlinson models and their extensions to interpret dry atomic-scale friction. We begin with the fundamental equations and build on them step-by-step from the simple quasistatic one-spring, one-mass model for predicting transitions between friction regimes to the two-dimensional and multi-atom models for describing the effect of contact area. Theoretical analysis, numerical implementation, and predicted physical phenomena are all discussed. In the process, we demonstrate the significant potential for this approach to yield new fundamental understanding of atomic-scale friction. Atomistic modeling can never be overemphasized in the investigation of atomic friction, in which each single atom could play a significant role, but is hard to be captured experimentally. In atomic friction, the interesting physical process is buried between the two contact interfaces, thus makes a direct measurement more difficult. Atomistic simulation is able to simulate the process with the dynamic information of each single atom, and therefore provides valuable interpretations for experiments. In this, we will systematically to apply Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation to optimally model the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurement of atomic friction. Furthermore, we also employed molecular dynamics simulation to correlate the atomic dynamics with the friction behavior observed in experiments. For instance, ParRep dynamics (an accelerated molecular dynamic technique) is introduced to investigate velocity dependence of atomic friction; we also employ MD simulation to "see" how the reconstruction of gold surface modulates the friction, and the friction enhancement mechanism at a graphite step edge. Atomic stick-slip friction can be treated as a rate process. Instead of running a direction simulation of the process, we can apply transition state theory to predict its property. We will have a rigorous derivation of velocity and temperature dependence of friction based on the Prandtl-Tomlinson model as well as transition theory. A more accurate relation to prediction velocity and temperature dependence is obtained. Furthermore, we have included instrumental noise inherent in AFM measurement to interpret two discoveries in experiments, suppression of friction at low temperature and the attempt frequency discrepancy between AFM measurement and theoretical prediction. We also discuss the possibility to treat wear as a rate process.

  15. WHAT DO WE LEARN FROM ATOMIC PHYSICS ABOUT FUNDAMENTAL SYMMETRIES IN NUCLEI AND PARTICLES

    E-print Network

    I. B. Khriplovich

    1995-02-08

    Atomic experiments bring meaningful and valuable information on fundamental symmetries. The hypothesis of a large ($\\sim 100$ eV) P-odd weak matrix element between single-particle states in heavy nuclei is inconsistent with the results of atomic PNC experiments. Upper limits on CP-violation obtained in atomic and molecular spectroscopy are as informative as those established in neutron physics. Very strict upper limits on T-odd, P-even interactions (nucleon-nucleon, electron-nucleon, electron-electron, and $\\beta$-decay) are derived from the same atomic and neutron experiments.

  16. Conclusions from recent pionic--atom experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gotta, D.; Hennebach, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Strauch, Th. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D--52425 Juelich (Germany); Amaro, F.; Covita, D. S.; Santos, J. M. F. dos; Veloso, J. F. C. A. [Dept. of Physics, Coimbra University, P--3000 Coimbra (Portugal); Anagnostopoulos, D. F. [Dept. of Material Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, GR--45110 (Greece); Biri, S. [Institut of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H--4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Gorke, H. [Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Gruber, A.; Hirtl, A.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J.; Schmid, Ph.; Zmeskal, J. [Stefan Meyer Institut, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A--1090 Vienna (Austria); Indelicato, P.; Jensen, Th.; Le Bigot, E.-O. [Lab. Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Paris 6, ENS, CNRS, 4 place Jussieu, F--75005 Paris (France)] (and others)

    2008-08-08

    The most recent pionic--hydrogen experiment marks the completion of a whole series of measurements, the main goal of which was to provide conclusive data on pion--nucleon interaction at threshold for comparison with calculations from Chiral perturbation theory. The precision achieved for hadronic shift and broadening of 0.2% and 2%, respectively, became possible by comprehensive studies of cascade effects in hydrogen and other light exotic atoms including results from the last years of LEAR operation. In order to obtain optimum conditions for the Bragg crystal spectrometer, the cyclotron trap II has been used to provide a suitable X--ray source. To characterize the bent crystal spectrometer, the cyclotron trap has been modified to operate as an electron--cyclotron resonance source, which produces with high intensity narrow X-ray transitions in the few keV range originating from highly charged ions.

  17. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 012509 (2013) Blackbody-radiation shift in the Sr optical atomic clock

    E-print Network

    Safronova, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 012509 (2013) Blackbody-radiation shift in the Sr optical atomic clock M. S of optical atomic clocks. The Sr clock transition has the largest BBR shift of all optical frequency optical lattice clock. We suggest future experiments that could further reduce the present uncertainties

  18. High Rydberg atoms: newcomers to the atomic physics scene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Stebbings

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of high Rydberg atoms which have a greatly increased size due to their having been perturbed in certain ways. The production, detection, and research on these atoms are considered. The motivation for such studies, apart from their intrinsic interest, includes laser development, laser isotope separation, energy deposition in gases, plasma diagnostics, and radio astronomy. (JFP)

  19. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37 (2004) 329343 PII: S0953-4075(04)66158-X

    E-print Network

    Bao, Weizhu

    2004-01-01

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK 3 Institute of Mathematics, University of Vienna the formation of jet atoms by interrupting the collapse, and find very good agreementwith the experiment

  20. Experiment Design and Analysis Guide - Neutronics & Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Misti A Lillo

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a consistent, standardized approach to performing neutronics/physics analysis for experiments inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This document provides neutronics/physics analysis guidance to support experiment design and analysis needs for experiments irradiated in the ATR. This guide addresses neutronics/physics analysis in support of experiment design, experiment safety, and experiment program objectives and goals. The intent of this guide is to provide a standardized approach for performing typical neutronics/physics analyses. Deviation from this guide is allowed provided that neutronics/physics analysis details are properly documented in an analysis report.

  1. Tests of Lorentz Violation in Atomic and Optical Physics

    E-print Network

    Neil Russell

    2005-01-14

    Atomic physics can probe the Lorentz and CPT symmetries at the Planck level. Bounds on coefficients for Lorentz violation have been found using atomic clocks, masers, electromagnetic cavities, and Penning traps, among others, and in future it may be possible to place bounds using spectroscopy of antihydrogen atoms. The CPT '04 Meeting on CPT and Lorentz Symmetry was held in August 2004 in Bloomington, Indiana, USA, and covered Lorentz violation in all branches of physics. This report gives an overview of the recent advances in Lorentz-symmetry studies in atomic and optical physics.

  2. 1. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF ATOMIC PHYSICS OBSERVATORY WHICH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF ATOMIC PHYSICS OBSERVATORY WHICH CONTAINS THE WHITE DOME STRUCTURE. THE SHED-LIKE STRUCTURE TO THE LEFT IS THE SEARCH-LIGHT BUILDING. - Carnegie Institute of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Atomic Physics Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. High-Intensity Laser-Atom Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kylstra; M Dorr

    2000-01-01

    The development of lasers capable of delivering short pulses of very intense radiation, over a widefrequency range, has led to the discovery of new, non-perturbative multiphoton processes in laserinteractions with atomic systems. In this article, we first give a survey of the main properties ofmultiphoton processes such as the multiphoton ionization of atoms, the emission by atoms of highorder harmonics

  4. Atomic oxygen exposure of LDEF experiment trays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic oxygen exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The calculations are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation on atomic oxygen flux. Results incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the 6-year flight of the spacecraft. To facilitate use of the data, both detailed tabulations and summary charts for atomic oxygen fluences are presented.

  5. Scaling method in atomic and molecular physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris M Smirnov

    2001-01-01

    The scaling method based on the parameters of pair atomic interaction potentials proved to be suitable for analyzing the various parameters of dense and condensed rare gases Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and accurate to within a few percent. In this paper, the interaction potential between radon atoms is evaluated based on the relevant scaling laws and using the macroscopic quantities

  6. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Lifetime Measurement of Cold Atoms in an Integrating Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Zhuo; Wang, Xu-Cheng; Cheng, Hua-Dong; Xiao, Ling; Liu, Liang; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-08-01

    We present an experimental measurement of the lifetime of the cold 87Rb atoms in an integrating sphere. The atoms are cooled by the diffuse light which is generated by the diffuse reflection of laser beams in the integrating sphere. Our result shows that the lifetime is primarily determined by the free fall of the cold 87Rb atoms, and its half-life can reach 40 ms, which is suitable for many experiments, especially for a cold atom clock.

  7. Atomic Force Microscope: Modeling, Simulations, and Experiments

    E-print Network

    El Rifai, Osamah M.

    The quality of atomic force microscope (AFM) data strongly depends on scan and controller parameters. Data artifacts can result from poor dynamic response of the instrument. In order to achieve reliable data, dynamic ...

  8. Theoretical Atomic Physics code development IV: LINES, A code for computing atomic line spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, J. Jr.; Clark, R.E.H.

    1988-12-01

    A new computer program, LINES, has been developed for simulating atomic line emission and absorption spectra using the accurate fine structure energy levels and transition strengths calculated by the (CATS) Cowan Atomic Structure code. Population distributions for the ion stages are obtained in LINES by using the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) model. LINES is also useful for displaying the pertinent atomic data generated by CATS. This report describes the use of LINES. Both CATS and LINES are part of the Theoretical Atomic PhysicS (TAPS) code development effort at Los Alamos. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Atomic Structure Calculations from the Los Alamos Atomic Physics Codes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cowan, R. D.

    The well known Hartree-Fock method of R.D. Cowan, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is used for the atomic structure calculations. Electron impact excitation cross sections are calculated using either the distorted wave approximation (DWA) or the first order many body theory (FOMBT). Electron impact ionization cross sections can be calculated using the scaled hydrogenic method developed by Sampson and co-workers, the binary encounter method or the distorted wave method. Photoionization cross sections and, where appropriate, autoionizations are also calculated. Original manuals for the atomic structure code, the collisional excitation code, and the ionization code, are available from this website. Using the specialized interface, you will be able to define the ionization stage of an element and pick the initial and final configurations. You will be led through a series of web pages ending with a display of results in the form of cross sections, collision strengths or rates coefficients. Results are available in tabular and graphic form.

  10. Atomic physics: An almost lightless laser

    E-print Network

    Vuletic, Vladan

    Lasers are often described in terms of a light field circulating in an optical resonator system. Now a laser has been demonstrated in which the field resides primarily in the atomic medium that is used to generate the light.

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Collisions near threshold in atomic and molecular physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Sadeghpour; J. L. Bohn; M. J. Cavagnero; B. D. Esry; I. I. Fabrikant; J. H. Macek; A. R. P. Rau

    2000-01-01

    We review topics of current interest in the physics of electronic, atomic and molecular scattering in the vicinity of thresholds. Starting from phase space arguments, we discuss the modifications of the Wigner law that are required to deal with scattering by Coulomb, dipolar and dispersion potentials, as well as aspects of threshold behaviour observed in ultracold atomic collisions. We employ

  12. NASA GSFC Science Symposium on Atomic and Molecular Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Anand K. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of a conference on atomic and molecular physics in honor of the retirements of Dr. Aaron Temkin and Dr. Richard Drachman. The conference contained discussions on electron, positron, atomic, and positronium physics, as well as a discussion on muon catalyzed fusion. This proceedings document also contains photographs taken at the symposium, as well as speeches and a short biography made in tribute to the retirees.

  13. Laser experiments with single atoms in cavities and traps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Walther

    1996-01-01

    In this paper recent experiments with the one-atom maser or micromaser are described. They deal with the dynamical behavior of the field at parameter values where the field undergoes phase transitions. In the second part of the paper experiments with a single laser-cooled In+ ion in a modified Paul trap are discussed. The aim of this experiment is precision spectroscopy

  14. Los Alamos free atomic tritium beta decay experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, D.A.; Bowles, T.J.; Browne, J.C.; Burritt, T.H.; Cohen, J.S.; Helffrich, J.A.; Maley, M.P.; Martin, R.L.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Wilkerson, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus is under construction at Los Alamos to measure the beta spectrum of free tritium atoms and molecules. The tritium atoms decay in a gaseous windowless source and are analyzed by a Tret'yakov type toroidal field beta spectrometer. The ultimate sensitivity of the experiment to electron antineutrino mass is expected to be <10 eV.

  15. The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Abdallah, J., Jr.; Clark, R. E. H.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Colgan, J.; Cunningham, R. T.; Hakel, P.; Magee, N. H.; Sherrill, M. E.

    2015-07-01

    The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes is a robust, mature platform that has been used to model highly charged ions in a variety of ways. The suite includes capabilities for calculating data related to fundamental atomic structure, as well as the processes of photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation and ionization, photoionization and autoionization within a consistent framework. These data can be of a basic nature, such as cross sections and collision strengths, which are useful in making predictions that can be compared with experiments to test fundamental theories of highly charged ions, such as quantum electrodynamics. The suite can also be used to generate detailed models of energy levels and rate coefficients, and to apply them in the collisional-radiative modeling of plasmas over a wide range of conditions. Such modeling is useful, for example, in the interpretation of spectra generated by a variety of plasmas. In this work, we provide a brief overview of the capabilities within the Los Alamos relativistic suite along with some examples of its application to the modeling of highly charged ions.

  16. Atomic Parity-Violation and Precision Physics

    E-print Network

    D. Bardin; P. Christova; L. Kalinovskaya; Giampiero Passarino

    2001-02-19

    The atomic parity-violation (APV) parameter QW for a nucleus with `n' neutrons and `z' protons has been included in the list of pseudo-observables accessible with the codes TOPAZ0 and ZFITTER. In this way one can add the APV results in the LEP EWWG `global' electroweak fits, checking the corresponding effect when added to the existing precision measurements.

  17. Quantum chaos experiments using interacting atoms in a BEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Rajendra; Summy, Gil

    2011-05-01

    The delta-kicked rotor has been one of the workhorses of both theoretical and experimental studies of quantum chaos. Most experimental work has been accomplished using cold atoms exposed to pulses from standing wave optical potentials. Atoms in these systems are assumed to be independent particles even in experiments done with dilute gasses of Bose-Einstein condensates where atomic collisional interactions can be ignored. Nevertheless, theoretical work has suggested that interactions can play a significant role in modifying the behavior of this system. The presence of atomic collisions adds non-linearity to the Schrodinger equation, making it more reminiscent of classical chaos. We will present results from experiments carried out using Rb87 BECs which have had the atomic interactions manipulated using a Feshbach resonance.

  18. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 043429 (2013) Coherent manipulation of cold Rydberg atoms near the surface of an atom chip

    E-print Network

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 043429 (2013) Coherent manipulation of cold Rydberg atoms near the surface of an atom chip J. D. Carter and J. D. D. Martin Department of Physics and Astronomy and Institute atoms were studied near the surface of an atom chip. The superpositions were created and manipulated

  19. Experiences of Ninth Grade Physical Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Penelope A.

    Numerous studies exist that report the behaviors of elite athletes, but little research exists which describes the experiences of students within public school physical education classes. The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences articulated by ninth graders participating (n=67) in their last semester of required physical

  20. Birth of Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. de Heer; H. H. Stroke

    2003-01-01

    With this volume we start a new era for Comments on Atomic and Molecular Physics: subject coverage extended to Optical Physics and our joining Physica Scripta as part of this journal. We are very happy that after the last few years of problems with and changes of publishers we can look forward to a long and fruitful association in this

  1. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Dynamic splitting and merging of an atom cloud on an atom chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Min; Yan, Bo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-11-01

    Chip-based atom interferometers bring together the advantages of atom chips and Bose-Einstein condensates. Their central prerequisite is that a condensate can be coherently split into two halves with a determined relative phase. This paper demonstrates the dynamical splitting and merging of an atom cloud with two U-wires on an atom chip. Symmetrical and asymmetrical splittings are realized by applying a bias field with different directions and magnitudes. The trajectories of the splitting are consistent with theoretical calculations. The atom chip is a good candidate for constructing an atom interferometer.

  2. The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics

    E-print Network

    Brodsky, Stanley J

    2015-01-01

    Atomic physics and hadronic physics are both governed by the Yang Mills gauge theory Lagrangian; in fact, Abelian quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics can provide important insight into hadronic eigenstates in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of frame-independent light-front relativistic equations of motion consistent with light-front holography which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The production of antihydrogen in flight can provide important insight into the dynamics of hadron production in QCD at the amplitude level. The renormalization scale for the running coupling is unambiguously set in QED; an analogous procedure sets the renormalization scales in QCD, leading to scheme-independent scale-fixed...

  3. Archival of the ZPPR-15B physics experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lell; R. McKnight

    2012-01-01

    This I-NERI collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) began mid-year (April, 2010). This report summarizes the progress for year two of the proposed three-year collaboration to generate a physics validation database of integral experiments for metallic fueled fast reactor systems. The objective of the proposed project is to archive and evaluate the integral

  4. On the Dynamical Overstability of Radiative Blast Waves: The Atomic Physics of Shock Stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Martin Laming

    2003-01-01

    Atomic physics calculations of radiative cooling are used to calculate criteria for the overstability of radiating shocks. Our calculations explain the measurement of shock overstability by Grun et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2738, 1991) and explain why the overstability was not observed in other experiments. The methodology described here (and in Laming & Grun, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 125002,

  5. Positron-Atom/Molecule Scattering Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, T. S.

    1998-05-01

    Recent developments in measurements of total, positronium (Ps) formation, and differential cross sections (DCS's) for positrons (1 to 300 eV) scattered by atoms (including hydrogen, alkali metals, magnesium, and inert gases) and molecules will be reviewed. Measured total and Ps formation cross sections for positron-H scattering are in very good agreement with recent calculations and are consistent with measurements and calculations of other partial cross sections for that collision system.(S. Zhou, H. Li, W.E. Kauppila, C.K. Kwan, and T.S. Stein, Phys. Rev. A 55, 361 (1997).) Ps formation is the dominant partial cross section in positron-H scattering from about 10 to 30 eV and its very important role has interesting connections to recent gamma-ray astrophysics observations. Structure observed in Ps formation cross sections measured for Ar, Kr, CO_2, and SF6 appears to be related to capture of electrons from inner subshells/orbitals of these target atoms/molecules.(W.E. Kauppila, C.K. Kwan, D. Przybyla, and T.S. Stein, XX. ICPEAC Conference Proceedings - Invited Talks - ed. F. Aumayr, G. Betz, and H.P. Winter, 1997.) Differences between various target molecules in regard to the degree of structure in measured DCS's for positron scattering suggest a possible connection between such structure and the degree of spherical symmetry of the target.(D.A. Przybyla, W. Addo-Asah, W.E. Kauppila, C.K. Kwan, and T.S. Stein, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B, to be published.)

  6. Atomic oxygen effects on LDEF experiment AO171

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Norwood, Joseph K.

    1993-01-01

    The Solar Array Materials Passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment (SAMPLE), AO171, contained in total approximately 100 materials and materials processes with a 300 specimen complement. With the exception of experiment solar cell and solar cell modules, all test specimens were weighed before flight, thus allowing an accurate determination of mass loss as a result of space exposure. Since almost all of the test specimens were thermal vacuum baked before flight, the mass loss sustained can be attributed principally to atomic oxygen attack. The atomic oxygen effects observed and measured in five classes of materials is documented. The atomic oxygen reactivity values generated for these materials are compared to those values derived for the same materials from exposures on short term shuttle flights. An assessment of the utility of predicting long term atomic oxygen effects from short term exposures is given. This experiment was located on Row 8 position A which allowed all experiment materials to be exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 6.93 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(sup 2) as a result of being positioned 38 degrees off the RAM direction.

  7. Atoms in Flight: The Remarkable Connections between Atomic and Hadronic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-16

    Atomic physics and hadron physics are both based on Yang Mills gauge theory; in fact, quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics provide important insight into the theory of hadrons in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of light-front relativistic equations of motion which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The renormalization scale for the running coupling, which is unambiguously set in QED, leads to a method for setting the renormalization scale in QCD. The production of atoms in flight provides a method for computing the formation of hadrons at the amplitude level. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, and light-front quantization have equal utility for atomic physics, especially in the relativistic domain. I also present a new perspective for understanding the contributions to the cosmological constant from QED and QCD.

  8. Customized Laboratory Experience in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Karen J.; Rink, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    A new physical chemistry laboratory experience has been designed for upper-level undergraduate chemistry majors. Students customize the first 10 weeks of their laboratory experience by choosing their own set of experiments (from a manual of choices) and setting their own laboratory schedule. There are several topics presented in the accompanying…

  9. Electron-atom collisions: From Franck-Hertz experiment to atom traps

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The key features of the cross sections for electron-impact excitation out of the ground levels of the rare-gas atoms are summarized and application of these cross section data is shown. This is followed by discussions of recent experiments on determination of electron-impact cross sections for excitation out of the metastable levels of He and Ar. The metastiable atom targets are produced by two different methods, i.e., hollow-cathode discharges and charge-exchange collisions of rare-gas ions with Cs atoms. The former method is simple but is limited to low electron energies because of the very small metastable concentration, whereas the latter method yields a fast target beam with predominantly metastable atoms allowing measurements up to the keV range. The measured cross sections show features very different from those of excitation out of the ground levels. Another new development in electron-atom collision is the use of atom traps for measuring ionization cross sections. The experiment is conducted by passing an electron beam pulse through magneto-optically trapped Rb atoms while the trap is momentarily turned off. Turning the trap back on immediately after the electron beam pulse recaptures the unionized atoms allowing only the ions to escape. The ionization cross section is determined by measuring the electron beam current density at the trapped atom region and the fractional loss of trapped atoms due to the electron beam. This method avoids measurements of the absolute number of the target atoms and the overlap between the atomic and electron beams and therefore eliminates the major sources of uncertainty associated with the crossed-beam method for measuring ionization cross section.

  10. University of Oregon Physics Applets: Atomic Emission

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bothun, Greg

    This applet presents the user with an energy level diagram of an atom. The values of the levels (in eV) can be set by parameter tags. Relative transition probabilities can also be set by parameter tags. An active electron can be moved to any level by using the pointing device and then the electron will cascade down to the ground level according to the relative transition probabilities that have been set up. Each time the electron moves from a higher to lower energy level a photon will be emitted. The wavelength of the photon is indicated and some attempt is to color code the outgoing photon by the emitted wavelength.

  11. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Armstrong, F.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); von Przewoski, B. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (United States)] [and others

    1994-08-01

    This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  12. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Dodder, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (Russian Federation); Illarionova, N.S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lehar, F. [CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oyanagi, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Sciences; Olin, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Frosch, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

    1992-06-01

    This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  13. Physics and experiments at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses some of the experiments that will be held at the Brookhaven RHIC. The detectors that will be used at Brookhaven RHIC are also discussed. The main purpose in building this accelerator is to produce and detect the so-called Quark-Gluon plasma. Purposes are emphasized in this paper. 12 refs., 7 figs. (LSP)

  14. Multi-layer atom chips for atom tunneling experiments near the chip surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho-Chiao Chuang; Evan A. Salim; Vladan Vuletic; Dana Z. Anderson; Victor M. Bright

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of an atom chip to be used in ultra-high-vacuum cells for cold-atom tunneling experiments. A fabrication process was developed to pattern micrometer- and nanometer-scale copper wires onto a single chip. The wires, with fabricated widths down to 200nm, can sustain current densities of more than 7.5×107A\\/cm2. Partially suspended wires, developed in order to

  15. Majorana: From Atomic and Molecular, to Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, R.; Angilella, G. G. N.

    2006-10-01

    In the centennial of Ettore Majorana's birth (1906-1938?), we re-examine some aspects of his fundamental scientific production in atomic and molecular physics, including a not well known short communication. There, Majorana critically discusses Fermi's solution of the celebrated Thomas-Fermi equation for electron screening in atoms and positive ions. We argue that some of Majorana's seminal contributions in molecular physics already prelude to the idea of exchange interactions (or Heisenberg-Majorana forces) in his later workson theoretical nuclear physics. In all his papers, he tended to emphasize the symmetries at the basis of a physical problem, as well as the limitations, rather than the advantages, of the approximations of the method employed.

  16. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  17. Highlights INFM 2000/2001 1.Atomic and Molecular Physics, Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics

    E-print Network

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    Highlights INFM 2000/2001 1.Atomic and Molecular Physics, Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics 1, processing, storing, or computing. The marriage of Quantum Physics and Information Technology -originally.2 EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TRANSFER MATRIX OF A QUANTUM DEVICE It is unquestionable that the current

  18. 7th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranawa C Deshmukh; Purushottam Chakraborty; Jim F Williams

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings arose from the 7th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP) which was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras from 4–7 December 2006. The history of the AISAMP has been reviewed by Takayanagi http:\\/\\/www.physics.iitm.ac.in\\/~aisamp7\\/history.html. This international seminar\\/conference series grew out of the Japan–China meetings which were launched in 1985, the fourth of which was

  19. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 063411 (2010) Spatially resolved excitation of Rydberg atoms and surface effects on an atom chip

    E-print Network

    Amsterdam, Universiteit van

    2010-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 063411 (2010) Spatially resolved excitation of Rydberg atoms and surface effects on an atom chip Atreju Tauschinsky,* Rutger M. T. Thijssen, S. Whitlock, H. B. van Linden van den spatially resolved, coherent excitation of Rydberg atoms on an atom chip. Electromagnetically induced

  20. Grid Applications for High Energy Physics Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Khan; T. Adye; C. A. J. Brew; F. Wilson; B. Bense; R. D. Cowles; D. A. Smith; D. Andreotti; C. Bozzi; E. Luppi; P. Veronesi; R. J. Barlow; M. P. Kelly; J. C. Werner; Alberto Forti; Gilbert Grosdidier; E. Feltresi; A. Petzold; H. Lacker; J. E. Sundermann

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of e-science grid in providing computational resources for modern international high energy physics (HEP) experiments. We investigate the suitability of the current generation of grid software to provide the necessary resources to perform large-scale simulation of the experiment and analysis of data in the context of multinational collaboration.

  1. Low-Cost Accelerometers for Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Straulino, Samuele

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of a modern game-console controller as a data acquisition interface for physics experiments is discussed. The investigated controller is equipped with three perpendicular accelerometers and a built-in infrared camera to evaluate its own relative position. A pendulum experiment is realized as a demonstration of the proposed…

  2. Photoelectroconversion by Semiconductors: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Qinbai; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment designed to give students some experience with photochemistry, electrochemistry, and basic theories about semiconductors. Uses a liquid-junction solar cell and illustrates some fundamental physical and chemical principles related to light and electricity interconversion as well as the properties of semiconductors. (JRH)

  3. Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kettle, P.-R.; Olin, A.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.

  4. ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 3, SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

    THE AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THIS TEXT WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, OFFERING SELF-TUTORING MATERIAL FOR LEARNING ATOMIC PHYSICS. THE TOPICS COVERED ARE (1) NUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY, (2) DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY, (3) RADIOACTIVE RADIATIONS, (4) ALPHA AND BETA DECAY, (5) BETA DECAY REACTIONS, (6) RADIOACTIVE DATING AND…

  5. Bringing atomic and nuclear physics laboratory data into the classroom

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Eric B.; Larimer, Ruth-Mary; Rech, Gregory; Lee, Jeffrey; Vue, Chue; Leubane, Tholoana; Zamvil, Kenneth; Guthrie, Laura

    2003-05-27

    To illustrate a number of basic concepts in atomic and nuclear physics, we have developed three websites where students can analyze data from modern laboratories. By working through the on-line procedures, students will become acquainted with characteristic x-ray spectra, the concept of half-life, x-ray fluorescence, and neutron activation analysis.

  6. ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 4, SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

    THE AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THIS TEXT WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, OFFERING SELF-TUTORING MATERIAL FOR LEARNING ATOMIC PHYSICS. THE TOPICS COVERED ARE (1) RADIATION USES AND NUCLEAR FISSION, (2) NUCLEAR REACTORS, (3) ENERGY FROM NUCLEAR REACTORS, (4) NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND FUSION, (5) A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW, AND (6) A…

  7. Experiments on a semiconductor laser pumped rubidium atomic clock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minoru Hashimoto; Motoichi Ohtsu

    1987-01-01

    Experiments designed to improve the performance of a commercial Rb-87 atomic clock by using a semiconductor laser are described. Two resonance gas cells were compared: gas cell A (natural Rb and buffer gases) and gas cell B (Rb-87 and buffer gases). Although the values of the highest microwave frequency stability obtained by using these cells were very similar, the magnitudes

  8. Physical experiments of transpressional folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikoff, Basil; Peterson, Karl

    1998-06-01

    In order to understand the process of folding in obliquely convergent settings, we formed folds within a shear box capable of creating homogeneous transpressional deformations. Folds were created in a single layer of stiff mixed plasticine and silicone that overlay a Newtonian silicone, for a variety of plate convergence angles. As small amplitude folds became visible, they were parallel to the long axis of the horizontal finite strain ellipse. With increasing deformation, the fold hinges rotated parallel with the long axis of the horizontal finite strain ellipse for all angles of convergence. This parallelism indicates that fold hinges, once formed, rotate with the horizontal strain ellipse rather than as material lines. The experiments highlight several interesting effects of transpression dynamics. The fold hinges initiate parallel to either ?1 or ?2 and are parallel to either S1 or S2 with increasing deformation. Neither infinitesimal strain (stress) nor finite strain is resolvable solely from fold geometry. Further, the net amount of contraction determined by folding across the zone was overestimated in all cases except pure contraction. This effect is obvious for the case of wrenching, where folding implies that the zone contracts if elongation parallel to the fold hinge is not considered. Therefore, attempts to balance cross-sections in transpressional zones will tend to overestimate contraction unless the wrench component of deformation is addressed. This result is validated by applying the modeling results in folding in central California adjacent to the San Andreas fault, where cross-section balancing indicates higher amounts of contraction than predicted by plate motion.

  9. Practical Physics: Basic Experiments with Ripple Tanks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-03-20

    This resource contains a set of eight introductory experiments on wave reflections, appropriate for use in high school and middle school. Use of the ripple tank can be a powerful tool to help students visualize wave behavior in general. In these basic experiments, students are introduced to ripple tanks and gain confidence in using them by doing some simple experiments with pulses. SEE RELATED ITEMS for a Teachers' Guide on using ripple tanks, and for ripple tank experiments for the more advanced classroom. This item is part of a much larger collection of physics/astronomy experiments, sponsored by the UK's Institute of Physics and funded by the Nuffield Curriculum Centre.

  10. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, P.

    1994-08-01

    The study of inelastic collision phenomena with highly charged projectile ions and the interpretation of spectral features resulting from these collisions remain as the major focal points in the atomic physics research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. The title of the research project, ``Atomic Physics with Highly Charged Ions,`` speaks to these points. The experimental work in the past few years has divided into collisions at high velocity using the primary beams from the tandem and LINAC accelerators and collisions at low velocity using the CRYEBIS facility. Theoretical calculations have been performed to accurately describe inelastic scattering processes of the one-electron and many-electron type, and to accurately predict atomic transition energies and intensities for x rays and Auger electrons. Brief research summaries are given for the following: (1) electron production in ion-atom collisions; (2) role of electron-electron interactions in two-electron processes; (3) multi-electron processes; (4) collisions with excited, aligned, Rydberg targets; (5) ion-ion collisions; (6) ion-molecule collisions; (7) ion-atom collision theory; and (8) ion-surface interactions.

  11. Theoretical atomic physics code development at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.E.H.; Abdallah, J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a set of computer codes for atomic physics calculations at Los Alamos. These codes can calculate a large variety of data with a minimum of effort on the part of the user. In particular, differential cross sections and electron impact coherence parameters can be readily obtained for arbitrary ions or atoms. Currently, the theory consists of non-relativistic Hartree-Fock structure calculations and non relativistic distorted wave approximation or first order many body theory collisional calculations. 12 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Charmonium physics in the belle experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuk, R. V.; Pakhlova, G. V.; Pakhlov, P. N.; Chistov, R. N.

    2010-04-01

    At the present time, charmonium physics experiences renaissance. Among many discoveries made within the past six years, the majority do not have an unambiguous interpretation and do not comply with traditional theoretical expectations. This review article is devoted to experimental results obtained by the members of the Belle Collaboration from the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow) in the realms of charmonium spectroscopy and the production and decays of charmonia and charmonium-like states.

  13. Charmonium physics in the belle experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuk, R. V.; Pakhlova, G. V.; Pakhlov, P. N.; Chistov, R. N. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-15

    At the present time, charmonium physics experiences renaissance. Among many discoveries made within the past six years, the majority do not have an unambiguous interpretation and do not comply with traditional theoretical expectations. This review article is devoted to experimental results obtained by the members of the Belle Collaboration from the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow) in the realms of charmonium spectroscopy and the production and decays of charmonia and charmonium-like states.

  14. (Atomic physics with large electrostatic accelerators): Foreign trip report, May 14, 1989--June 9, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.

    1989-06-12

    The traveler attended the First International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM '89) in Caen, France, and presented a paper on ''Dielectronic and Direct Excitation of Channeled Ions.'' He then participated in the 5th International Conference on Electrostatic Accelerators and Associated Boosters (Strasbourg, France, and Heidelberg, West Germany) and presented an invited lecture on ''Atomic Physics with Large Electrostatic Accelerators.'' The traveler visited the University of Aarhus (Denmark), where discussions were held on the present status of ASTRID; forthcoming collaborative experiments at CERN; dielectronic and radiative recombination experiments; charge dependence of double excitation and excitation-ionization collisions in helium; and crystal preparation for ORNL experiments in channeling.

  15. Theoretical atomic physics code development I: CATS: Cowan Atomic Structure Code

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, J. Jr.; Clark, R.E.H.; Cowan, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    An adaptation of R.D. Cowan's Atomic Structure program, CATS, has been developed as part of the Theoretical Atomic Physics (TAPS) code development effort at Los Alamos. CATS has been designed to be easy to run and to produce data files that can interface with other programs easily. The CATS produced data files currently include wave functions, energy levels, oscillator strengths, plane-wave-Born electron-ion collision strengths, photoionization cross sections, and a variety of other quantities. This paper describes the use of CATS. 10 refs.

  16. Atomic physics modeling of x-ray laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Osterheld, A.L.; Young, B.K.F.; Walling, R.S.; Goldstein, W.H.; Scofield, J.H.; Chen, M.; Shimkaveg, G.; Carter, M.; Shepherd, R.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.; Matthews, D.; Maxon, S.; London, R.; Stewart, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    We have developed collisional-radiative models to describe the kinetics of x-ray laser plasmas. Careful attention has been paid to indirect processes such as dielectronic recombination and excitation-autoionization. These models can be used for calculations of the ionization dynamics, gain coefficients, and detailed emission spectra. We will present results from ionization balance and gain calculations for neonlike and nickellike collisional lasing schemes, emphasizing the effects of different atomic physics processes and model approximations.

  17. Plasma Gate: Free Software for Atomic and Plasma Physics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maintained by the Plasma Laboratory of Weizmann Institute of Science, the Free Software for Atomic and Plasma Physics Web site contains over thirty links to various programs. Examples of available software include Weizmann Institutes: 369j-symbol calculator and Russia's Institute of Spectroscopy's spectral bibliography database. Although several of the links currently seem to be dead, the site does give those working in this field access to several sites with useful software programs.

  18. Dynamical Overstability of Radiative Blast Waves: The Atomic Physics of Shock Stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Martin Laming; Jacob Grun

    2002-01-01

    Atomic-physics calculations of radiative cooling are used to develop criteria for the overstability of radiating shocks. Our calculations explain the measurement of shock overstability by Grun et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 66, 2738 (1991)] and explain why the overstability was not observed in other experiments. The methodology described here can be especially useful in astrophysical situations where the relevant properties

  19. On the Dynamical Overstability of Radiative Blast Waves: The Atomic Physics of Shock Stability

    E-print Network

    J. Martin Laming; Jacob Grun

    2002-07-26

    Atomic physics calculations of radiative cooling are used to calculate criteria for the overstability of radiating shocks. Our calculations explain the measurement of shock overstability by Grun et al. and explain why the overstability was not observed in other experiments. The methodology described here can be especially useful in astrophysical situations where the relevant properties leading to an overstability can be measured spectroscopically, but the effective adiabatic index is harder to determine.

  20. On the Dynamical Overstability of Radiative Blast Waves The Atomic Physics of Shock Stability

    E-print Network

    Laming, J M; Grun, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    Atomic physics calculations of radiative cooling are used to calculate criteria for the overstability of radiating shocks. Our calculations explain the measurement of shock overstability by Grun et al. and explain why the overstability was not observed in other experiments. The methodology described here can be especially useful in astrophysical situations where the relevant properties leading to an overstability can be measured spectroscopically, but the effective adiabatic index is harder to determine.

  1. Application of ECR ion source beams in atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of intense, high charge state ion beams from ECR ion sources has had significant impact not only on the upgrading of cyclotron and synchrotron facilities, but also on multicharged ion collision research, as evidenced by the increasing number of ECR source facilities used at least on a part time basis for atomic physics research. In this paper one such facility, located at the ORNL ECR source, and dedicated full time to the study of multicharged ion collisions, is described. Examples of applications of ECR ion source beams are given, based on multicharged ion collision physics studies performed at Oak Ridge over the last few years. 21 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The Physics of the Imploding Can Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2010-01-01

    One of the popular demonstrations of atmospheric pressure in introductory physics courses is the "crushing can" or "imploding can" experiment. In this demonstration, which has also been extensively discussed on the Internet, a small amount of water is placed in a soda can and heated until it boils and water vapor almost entirely fills the can. The…

  3. Thermal sensitive foils in physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochní?ek, Zden?k; Kone?ný, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    The paper describes a set of physics demonstration experiments where thermal sensitive foils are used for the detection of the two dimensional distribution of temperature. The method is used for the demonstration of thermal conductivity, temperature change in adiabatic processes, distribution of electromagnetic radiation in a microwave oven and detection of resonant acoustic oscillations in a Rubens’ tube.

  4. Critical Physics Issues for Ignition Experiments: Ignitor

    E-print Network

    The crucial physics issues related to fusion burning plasmas and potential fusion reactors can only be studied by experiment, the defining concepts for a fusion reactor will remain uncertain. An important value of a basic of compact dimensions and high magnetic fields to support high plasma particle densities and high plasma

  5. Experience with software process in physics projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Guatelli; B. Mascialino; L. Moneta; I. Papadopoulos; A. Pfeiffer; M. G. Pia; M. Piergentili

    2004-01-01

    A rigorous software process is known to be one of the key elements for the success of a software project. In spite of its role being widely recognized in software engineering, the adoption of a process is quite unusual in the physics research environment. We present the experience gained in the application of the unified process to a variety of

  6. Experience with Software Process in Physics Projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Guatelli; B. Mascialino; L. Moneta; I. Papadopoulos; A. Pfeiffer; M. G. Pia; M. Piergentili

    2005-01-01

    A rigorous software process is known to be one of the key elements for the success of a software project. In spite of its role being widely recognized in software engineering, the adoption of a process is quite unusual in the physics research environment. We present the experience gained in the application of the Unified Process to a variety of

  7. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Bose-Einstein condensation on an atom chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bo; Cheng, Feng; Ke, Min; Li, Xiao-Lin; Tang, Jiu-Yao; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-10-01

    This paper reports an experiment of creating Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) on an atom chip. The chip-based Z-wire current with a homogeneous bias magnetic field creates a tight magnetic trap, which allows for a fast production of BEC. After a 4.17-s forced radio frequency evaporative cooling, a condensate with about 3000 atoms appears. The transition temperature is about 300 nK. This compact system is quite robust, allowing for versatile extensions and further studying of BEC.

  8. Partial Atomic Charge Derivation of small molecule Partial atomic charge is very crucial for computing physical, chemical and biological

    E-print Network

    Jayaram, Bhyravabotla

    Partial Atomic Charge Derivation of small molecule Partial atomic charge is very crucial for computing physical, chemical and biological properties, and reactivity of molecules. Through the information of the atomic charge in a given species, it is possible to predict the stability, solvation energetics

  9. LEO Atomic Oxygen Measurements: Experiment Design and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G. T.; Chambers, A. R.; White, C. B.

    2009-01-01

    Recently two University of Southampton flight experiments intended to measure the LEO atomic oxygen (AO) flux or fluence have been launched. The first forms part of the Southampton Transient Oxygen and Radiation Monitor (STORM) instrument package that is included as part of the European Materials Exposure and Degradation Experiment on EuTEF (MEDET) module now residing on the external pay load facility of the Columbus laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). The atomic oxygen detectors on STORM comprise screen-printed thick films of a carbon-polymer resistive ink and also thin sputtered films of zinc oxide. The second is a relatively simple experiment package comprising thick-film carbon-polymer sensors similar to those on STORM; this experiment is currently being flown on the Canadian CanX-2 nano-satellite mission. The design and mode of operation of both types of AO sensor will be described and the current status of both of these experiments will be reviewed.

  10. TerascaleTerascale computational atomiccomputational atomic physics for the plasma edgephysics for the plasma edge

    E-print Network

    TerascaleTerascale computational atomiccomputational atomic physics for the plasma edgephysics for the plasma edge Mitch Pindzola Department of Physics Auburn University and David R. Schultz Physics Division Hallam University #12;Direct Dissemination of Atomic DataDirect Dissemination of Atomic Data Controlled

  11. Phys. Fluids B, Vol. 4, No. 8, August 1992, pages 25672576 Atomic Physics Effects

    E-print Network

    Hammett, Greg

    Phys. Fluids B, Vol. 4, No. 8, August 1992, pages 2567­2576 Atomic Physics Effects on Dissipative University Princeton, New Jersey 08543 Abstract The effects of atomic physics processes such as ionization reconsidered in­ cluding atomic physics effects with a hope that the aforemen­ tioned problems could

  12. MISSE 6 Stressed Polymers Experiment Atomic Oxygen Erosion Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Yi, Grace T.; Guo, Aobo; Ashmeade, Claire C.; Roberts, Lily M.; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Polymers and other oxidizable materials used on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded away by reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). For spacecraft design, it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield, Ey (volume loss per incident oxygen atom), of materials susceptible to AO erosion. The Stressed Polymers Experiment was developed and flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6) to compare the AO erosion yields of stressed and non-stressed polymers to determine if erosion is dependent upon stress while in LEO. The experiment contained 36 thin film polymer samples that were exposed to ram AO for 1.45 years. This paper provides an overview of the Stressed Polymers Experiment with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the AO fluence, and the erosion yield results. The MISSE 6 data are compared to data for similar samples flown on previous MISSE missions to determine fluence or solar radiation effects on erosion yield.

  13. Top Quark Physics at the CDF Experiment

    E-print Network

    Bernd Stelzer; for the CDF Collaboration

    2010-07-21

    Fermilab's Tevatron accelerator is recently performing at record luminosities that enables a program systematically addressing the physics of top quarks. The CDF collaboration has analyzed up to 5/fb of proton anti-proton collisions from the Tevatron at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The large datasets available allow to push top quark measurements to higher and higher precision and have lead to the recent observation of electroweak single top quark production at the Tevatron. This article reviews recent results on top quark physics from the CDF experiment.

  14. Recent Physics Results with the COMPASS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Stephan [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, James-Franck Strasse, D-85478 Garching (Germany)

    2006-02-11

    The COMPASS experiment has obtained first physics results in the field of polarized distribution functions for quarks and gluons using muon scattering off polarized deuterons. The analysis using open charm production and pairs of high pT hadrons is presented. We also have used a transversely polarized target to address transverse information for quarks inside the nucleon. In addition, a pilot run with incoming pions taken late 2004 will give first information on the pion polarizabilities and hadron resonances. The physics prospects from this run as well as from future data taking in this field are also outlined.

  15. Analysis of the physical atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions and halogen ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The physical forces between atoms and molecules are important in a number of processes of practical importance, including line broadening in radiative processes, gas and crystal properties, adhesion, and thin films. The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base for the dispersion forces is developed from the literature based on evaluations with the harmonic oscillator dispersion model for higher order coefficients. The Zener model of the repulsive core is used in the context of the recent asymptotic wave functions of Handler and Smith; and an effective ionization potential within the Handler and Smith wave functions is defined to analyze the two body potential data of Waldman and Gordon, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  16. Atom Interferometers

    E-print Network

    Alexander D. Cronin; Joerg Schmiedmayer; David E. Pritchard

    2007-12-21

    Interference with atomic and molecular matter waves is a rich branch of atomic physics and quantum optics. It started with atom diffraction from crystal surfaces and the separated oscillatory fields technique used in atomic clocks. Atom interferometry is now reaching maturity as a powerful art with many applications in modern science. In this review we first describe the basic tools for coherent atom optics including diffraction by nanostructures and laser light, three-grating interferometers, and double wells on AtomChips. Then we review scientific advances in a broad range of fields that have resulted from the application of atom interferometers. These are grouped in three categories: (1) fundamental quantum science, (2) precision metrology and (3) atomic and molecular physics. Although some experiments with Bose Einstein condensates are included, the focus of the review is on linear matter wave optics, i.e. phenomena where each single atom interferes with itself.

  17. Atomic physics effects on dissipative toroidal drift wave stability

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, M.A.; Hahm, T.S.

    1992-02-01

    The effects of atomic physics processes such as ionization, charge exchange, and radiation on the linear stability of dissipative drift waves are investigated in toroidal geometry both numerically and analytically. For typical TFTR and TEXT edge parameters, overall linear stability is determined by the competition between the destabilizing influence of ionization and the stabilizing effect due to the electron temperature gradient. An analytical expression for the linear marginal stability condition, {eta}{sub e}{sup crit}, is derived. The instability is most likely to occur at the extreme edge of tokamaks with a significant ionization source and a steep electron density gradient.

  18. Friction at Atomic-Scale Surface Steps: Experiment and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölscher, Hendrik; Ebeling, Daniel; Schwarz, Udo D.

    2008-12-01

    Experiments performed by friction force microscopy at atomic-scale surface steps on graphite, MoS2, and NaCl in ambient conditions are presented. Both step-down and step-up scans exhibit higher frictional forces at the edge, but distinguish in their load dependence: While the additional frictional force due to the step edge increases linearly with load if the tip has to jump a step up, it remains constant for downward jumps. This phenomenon represents a universal effect that can be explained in terms of a modified Prandtl-Tomlinson model featuring a Schwoebel-Ehrlich barrier at steps.

  19. Integrated physics package of a chip-scale atomic clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shao-Liang; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Lu-Bing; Long, Liang; Wu, Ya-Ming

    2014-07-01

    The physics package of a chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC) has been successfully realized by integrating vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), neutral density (ND) filter, ?/4 wave plate, 87Rb vapor cell, photodiode (PD), and magnetic coil into a cuboid metal package with a volume of about 2.8 cm3. In this physics package, the critical component, 87Rb vapor cell, is batch-fabricated based on MEMS technology and in-situ chemical reaction method. Pt heater and thermistors are integrated in the physics package. A PTFE pillar is used to support the optical elements in the physics package, in order to reduce the power dissipation. The optical absorption spectrum of 87Rb D1 line and the microwave frequency correction signal are successfully observed while connecting the package with the servo circuit system. Using the above mentioned packaging solution, a CSAC with short-term frequency stability of about 7 × 10-10 ?-1/2 has been successfully achieved, which demonstrates that this physics package would become one promising solution for the CSAC.

  20. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  1. Atom optics and space physics: A summary of an 'Enrico Fermi' summer school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimondo, Ennio; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2008-03-01

    We describe the scientific content of the International School of Physics 'Enrico Fermi' on atom optics and space physics, organized by the Italian Physical Society in Varenna at Lake Como, Italy, 2-13 July 2007.

  2. Atom optics and space physics: A summary of an 'Enrico Fermi' summer school

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ennio Arimondo; Wolfgang Ertmer; Ernst M. Rasel; Wolfgang P. Schleich

    2008-01-01

    We describe the scientific content of the International School of Physics 'Enrico Fermi' on atom optics and space physics, organized by the Italian Physical Society in Varenna at Lake Como, Italy, 2-13 July 2007.

  3. Further investigations of experiment A0034 atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal control coatings within the recessed compartments of LDEF Experiment A0034 experienced the maximum leading edge fluence of atomic oxygen with considerably less solar UV radiation exposure than top-surface mounted materials of other LDEF experiments on either the leading or the trailing edge. This combination of exposure within A0034 resulted in generally lower levels of darkening attributable to solar UV radiation than for similar materials on other LDEF experiments exposed to greater cumulative solar UV radiation levels. Changes in solar absorptance and infrared thermal emittance of the exposed coatings are thus unique to this exposure. Analytical results for other applications have been found for environmentally induced changes in fluorescence, surface morphology, light scattering, and the effects of coating outgassing products on adjacent mirrors and windows of the A0034 experiment. Some atmospheric bleaching of the thermal control coatings, in addition to that presumably experience during reentry and recovery operations, has been found since initial post-flight observations and measurements.

  4. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 013822 (2011) Collisionally induced atomic clock shifts and correlations

    E-print Network

    Band, Yehuda B.

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 013822 (2011) Collisionally induced atomic clock shifts and correlations Y. B frequency shifts for atomic clocks using a density-matrix formalism. The formalism is developed for both fermionic and bosonic atomic clocks. Numerical results for a finite-temperature 87 Sr 1 S0 (F = 9/2) atomic

  5. A Data Readout Approach for Physics Experiment

    E-print Network

    Xi-Ru, Huang; Li-Wei, Gao; Jia-Jun, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing physical event rate and number of electronic channels, traditional readout scheme meets the challenge of improving readout speed caused by the limited bandwidth of crate backplane. In this paper, a high-speed data readout method based on Ethernet is designed for each module to have capability of transmitting data to DAQ. Features of explicitly parallel data transmitting and distributed network architecture make the readout system has advantage of adapting varying requirements of particle physics experiments. Furthermore, to guarantee the readout performance and flexibility, a standalone embedded CPU system is utilized for network protocol stack processing. To receive customized data format and protocol from front-end electronics, a field programmable gate array (FPGA) is used for logic reconfiguration. To optimize the interface and improve the data swap speed between CPU and FPGA, a sophisticated method based on SRAM is presented in this paper. For the purpose of evaluating this high-speed...

  6. The Physics of the CMS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sanabria, J. C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de los Andes, A.A. 4976, Bogota (Colombia)

    2007-10-26

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will start running 2008 producing proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Four large experiments will operate together with this accelerator: ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. The main scientific goal of this project is to understand in detail the mechanism for electro-weak symmetry breaking and to search for physics beyond the standard model of particles. ATLAS and CMS are general purpose detectors designed for search and discovery of new physics, and optimized to search for Higgs and signals of supersymmetric matter (SUSY). In this paper the main features of the CMS detector will be presented and its potential for Higgs and SUSY discoveries will be discussed.

  7. Davisson-Germer Prize in Atomic or Surface Physics Lecture: Exploring Flatland with Cold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalibard, Jean

    2012-06-01

    A two-dimensional Bose fluid is a remarkably rich many-body system, which allows one to revisit several features of quantum statistical physics. Firstly, the role of thermal fluctuations is enhanced compared to the 3D case, which destroys the ordered state associated with Bose-Einstein condensation. However interactions between particles can still cause a superfluid transition, thanks to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism. Secondly, a weakly interacting Bose fluid in 2D must be scale-invariant, a remarkable feature that manifests itself in the very simple form taken by the equation of state of the fluid. In this talk I will present recent experimental progress in the investigation of 2D atomic gases, which provide a nice illustration of the main features of low dimensional many-body physics.

  8. Deuterium Experiments in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R; Hill, D N; Hooper, E; McLean, H; Ryutov, D; Woodruff, S

    2004-05-24

    In this paper we report on the results of isotope exchange experiments in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX). We have compared {approx}500 deuterium discharges with similar discharges in hydrogen. Typically, we produce plasmas with peak toroidal currents in the range of 0.6 MA, electron temperatures (T{sub e}) of {approx}200 eV and energy confinement times ({tau}{sub E}) of {approx}200 {micro}s. The D{sub 2} fueled discharges show similar results to those with H{sub 2} fueling with no obvious differences in confinement time. Electron temperatures of {approx}200 eV with similar electron densities were observed. Both the deuterium and hydrogen fueled discharges have a calculated thermal conduction below {chi}{sub e}<10 m{sup 2}/s. However, the D{sub 2} fueled discharges had a modest increase in high-Z (titanium) impurity content suggesting an increase of physical sputtering. We find no significant mass scaling effects.

  9. Tokamak physics experiment: Diagnostic windows study

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.; Wurden, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    We detail the study of diagnostic windows and window thermal stress remediation in the long-pulse, high-power Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) operation. The operating environment of the TPX diagnostic windows is reviewed, thermal loads on the windows estimated, and cooling requirements for the windows considered. Applicable window-cooling technology from other fields is reviewed and its application to the TPX windows considered. Methods for TPX window thermal conditioning are recommended, with some discussion of potential implementation problems provided. Recommendations for further research and development work to ensure performance of windows in the TPX system are presented.

  10. Design, fabrication and characterization of tunable external cavity diode laser and atom trapping chips for atomic physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho-Chiao Chuang

    2008-01-01

    External cavity diode laser systems (ECDLs) have been well documented for their suitability in the fields of laser cooling and atom trapping, and are now widely used in optical and atomic physics. A particularly simple implementation of this idea uses feedback from a diffraction grating mounted in the Littrow configuration and the typical size of this laser is quite large

  11. International research work experience of young females in physics

    E-print Network

    Choi, Serene H -J; Roelofs, Susan H; Alvarez-Elizondo, Martha B; Nieminen, Timo A

    2011-01-01

    International research work for young people is common in physics. However, work experience and career plan of female workers in physics are little studied. We explore them by interviewing three international female workers in physics.

  12. STFC 2012 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW -EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL CONSOLIDATED GRANTS

    E-print Network

    1 STFC 2012 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW - EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL CONSOLIDATED GRANTS Guidelines................................................................................................. 1 Particle Physics Grants Panel ............................................................................................................................. 3 Part A: 2012 Review of Experimental Particle Physics Consolidated Grants ­ Guidelines

  13. New Journal of Physics An ellipsoidal mirror for focusing of neutral atomic and

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 New Journal of Physics An ellipsoidal mirror for focusing of neutral atomic and molecular beams K_fladischer@hotmail.com, dmaclaren@physics.org and Bodil.Holst@ift.uib.no Abstract. Manipulation of atomic and molecular beams,version1-20Jul2010 Author manuscript, published in "New Journal of Physics, 12 (2010) 033018" DOI : 10

  14. FACULTY POSITION IN EXPERIMENTAL ATOMIC, MOLECULAR, AND OPTICAL PHYSICS Purdue University

    E-print Network

    Kihara, Daisuke

    FACULTY POSITION IN EXPERIMENTAL ATOMIC, MOLECULAR, AND OPTICAL PHYSICS Purdue University The Department of Physics at Purdue University (www.physics.purdue.edu) seeks applications for a faculty position at the rank of Assistant Professor in the area of experimental atomic, molecular, and optical

  15. Short Course Mineral Physics: Modeling from the Atomic to the Global Scale

    E-print Network

    Stixrude, Lars

    Short Course Mineral Physics: Modeling from the Atomic to the Global Scale Dipartimento di Scienze challenges in relating atomic structure and bonding to physical properties. Practical exercises give students be inferred by examining the rocks. But these processes are in turn governed by the physics and chemistry

  16. Primer on Detectors and Electronics for Particle Physics Experiments

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    1 Primer on Detectors and Electronics for Particle Physics Experiments Alexander A. Grillo Santa physics experiments. The intended readers are students, especially undergraduates, starting to work in our the primer itself. I Background of Particle Physics Scattering Experiments Physicists have made the most

  17. Skylab experiments. Volume 1: Physical science, solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The basic subject of this volume is the solar astronomy program conducted on Skylab. In addition to descriptions of the individual experiments and the principles involved in their performance, a brief description is included of the sun and the energy characteristics associated with each zone. Wherever possible, related classroom activities have been identified and discussed in some detail. It will be apparent that the relationships rest not only in the field of solar astronomy, but also in the following subjects: (1) physics - optics, electromagnetic spectrum, atomic structure, etc.; (2) chemistry - emission spectra, kinetic theory, X-ray absorption, etc.; (3) biology - radiation and dependence on the sun; (4) electronics - cathode ray tubes, detectors, photomultipliers, etc.; (5) photography; (6) astronomy; and (7) industrial arts.

  18. Atomic Physics in the Quest for Fusion Energy and ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Charles H. Skinner

    2008-02-27

    The urgent quest for new energy sources has led developed countries, representing over half of the world population, to collaborate on demonstrating the scientific and technological feasibility of magnetic fusion through the construction and operation of ITER. Data on high-Z ions will be important in this quest. Tungsten plasma facing components have the necessary low erosion rates and low tritium retention but the high radiative efficiency of tungsten ions leads to stringent restrictions on the concentration of tungsten ions in the burning plasma. The influx of tungsten to the burning plasma will need to be diagnosed, understood and stringently controlled. Expanded knowledge of the atomic physics of neutral and ionized tungsten will be important to monitor impurity influxes and derive tungsten concentrations. Also, inert gases such as argon and xenon will be used to dissipate the heat flux flowing to the divertor. This article will summarize the spectroscopic diagnostics planned for ITER and outline areas where additional data is needed.

  19. Soft physics results from the PHENIX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esumi, ShinIchi

    2015-03-01

    High-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC-BNL and LHC-CERN provide a unique opportunity to study the properties of the high-temperature and high-density nuclear matter called the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), which is supposed to exist in the early universe or inside neutron stars. The PHENIX experiment is one of the major experiments at RHIC to study the properties of QGP, especially focusing on various particle identification capabilities including photons, leptons, and hadrons. This article summarizes the soft physics results from the PHENIX experiment, such as (1) global properties like transverse energy and multiplicity measurements as well as centrality determination, (2) transverse momentum distribution and the nuclear modification factor, which represents the modification of the spectra in A+A collisions relative to the binary-collision-scaled superposition of p+p data, (3) space-time properties with Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) interferometry correlation measurement and source imaging, (4) elliptic collective expansion and higher-order harmonic event anisotropy, and (5) di-hadron correlation, jet modification, and medium response known as jet-quenching from the partonic energy loss and redistribution of the lost energy. These results are reviewed and discussed.

  20. ELASR - An electrostatic storage ring for atomic and molecular physics at KACST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghazaly, Mohamed O. A.

    A new ELectrostAtic Storage Ring (ELASR) has been designed and built at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It was developed to be the core of a new storage ring laboratory for atomic and molecular physics at KACST. ELASR follows the standard design of the pioneering storage ring ELISA and it thereby features a racetrack single-bend shaped ring. Complementary simulation code packages were used to work out the design under the requirements of the projected experiments. This paper reports a short description of the ELASR storage ring through an overview of its design and construction.

  1. Probing physical properties at the nanoscale using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditzler, Lindsay Rachel

    Techniques that measure physical properties at the nanoscale with high sensitivity are significantly limited considering the number of new nanomaterials being developed. The development of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has lead to significant advancements in the ability to characterize physical properties of materials in all areas of science: chemistry, physics, engineering, and biology have made great scientific strides do to the versatility of the AFM. AFM is used for quantification of many physical properties such as morphology, electrical, mechanical, magnetic, electrochemical, binding interactions, and protein folding. This work examines the electrical and mechanical properties of materials applicable to the field of nano-electronics. As electronic devices are miniaturized the demand for materials with unique electrical properties, which can be developed and exploited, has increased. For example, discussed in this work, a derivative of tetrathiafulvalene, which exhibits a unique loss of conductivity upon compression of the self-assembled monolayer could be developed into a molecular switch. This work also compares tunable organic (tetraphenylethylene tetracarboxylic acid and bis(pyridine)s assemblies) and metal-organic (Silver-stilbizole coordination compounds) crystals which show high electrical conductivity. The electrical properties of these materials vary depending on their composition allowing for the development of compositionally tunable functional materials. Additional work was done to investigate the effects of molecular environment on redox active 11-ferroceneyl-1 undecanethiol (Fc) molecules. The redox process of mixed monolayers of Fc and decanethiol was measured using conductive probe atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy. As the concentration of Fc increased large, variations in the force were observed. Using these variations the number of oxidized molecules in the monolayer was determined. AFM is additionally capable of investigating interactions at the nanoscale, such as ligand-receptor interactions. This work examines the interactions between the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a widely investigated enzyme targeted for cancer and antimicrobial pharmaceutical, and methotrexate (MTX), a strong competitive inhibitor of DHFR. The DHFR was immobilized on a gold substrate, bound through a single surface cysteine, and maintained catalytic activity. AFM probe was functionalized with MTX and the interaction strength was measured using AFM. This work highlights the versatility of AFM, specifically force spectroscopy for the quantification of electrical, mechanical, and ligand-receptor interactions at the nanoscale.

  2. Physics of Dark Matter in the Light of Dark Atoms

    E-print Network

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu

    2011-01-01

    Direct searches for dark matter lead to serious problems for simple models with stable neutral Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) as candidates for dark matter. A possibility is discussed that new stable quarks and charged leptons exist and are hidden from detection, being bound in neutral dark atoms of composite dark matter. Stable -2 charged particles $O^{--}$ are bound with primordial helium in O-helium (OHe) atoms, being specific nuclear interacting form of composite Warmer than Cold dark matter. Slowed down in the terrestrial matter, OHe is elusive for direct methods of underground dark matter detection based on the search for effects of nuclear recoil in WIMP-nucleus collisions. The positive results of DAMA experiments can be explained as annual modulation of radiative capture of O-helium by nuclei. In the framework of this approach test of DAMA results in detectors with other chemical content becomes a nontrivial task, while the experimental search of stable charged particles at LHC or in cos...

  3. Atomic motion and physical aging in structural glasses revealed by coherent X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruta, Beatrice

    2015-03-01

    Glasses are essential materials in present day science and technology. Nevertheless, many of their properties remain the subject of numerous studies, since their intrinsic non-equilibrium nature poses formidable problems both at the technological and fundamental level. Although their physical aging has practical implication for material science, a microscopic understanding is still missing since experiments that study the dynamics at the microscopic level are extremely challenging. Here, we will report on the first experiments that follow the evolution of the structural relaxation process in glasses at the atomic length scale. Measurements on metallic glasses have revealed the existence of microscopic structural rearrangements, contrary to the common expectation of a completely arrested state. In these systems, the dynamics evolves from a diffusive atomic motion in the supercooled liquid phase to a stress-dominated dynamics in the glass, characterized by a complex hierarchy of aging regimes. These finding present many similarities with the dynamics of various complex soft materials, like emulsions, gels and glassy colloidal suspensions suggesting the existence of a common physical mechanism. Albeit this apparent universal out-of-equilibrium dynamics, an even more complex scenario emerges when the investigation is enlarged to other glasses. Measurements on sodium-silicate glasses show a surprising fast atomic motion, even hundreds degrees below the glass transition temperature. In addition no aging of the dynamics is observed on experimental time scales of several hours, not even in the glass transition regions, in marked disagreement with macroscopic studies. This surprising stationary dynamics has been observed also in the case of metallic glasses but only for very large annealing times and suggests the existence of a very peculiar relaxation dynamics at the atomic level, unaccounted for in previous experimental and theoretical works.

  4. Controlled Space Physics Experiments using Laboratory Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauel, M. E.; Kesner, J.; Garnier, D.

    2013-12-01

    Modern society's reliance on space-based platforms for a variety of economic and geopolitical purposes makes understanding the physics of the magnetosphere and "space weather'' one of the most important applications of plasma science. During the past decade, results from the CTX and LDX laboratory magnetospheres and from the RT-1 device at University of Tokyo, we have developed techniques to explore space physics using controlled experiments in laboratory magnetospheres. This presentation briefly reviews observations from the laboratory magnetospheres at Columbia University and MIT, including adiabatic drift-resonant transport, low-frequency MHD turbulence, and the formation of high-beta plasmas with profiles similar to Earth's inner magnetosphere. First principle validation of ``whole plasma'' space weather models have been completed in relevant magnetic geometry, including the spectrum and dynamics of turbulence successfully modeled with nonlinear bounce-averaged gyrokinetic simulations. Plans to explore Alfvénic dynamics and whistler wave trapping are discussed through the achievement of higher-density plasmas using radio-frequency heating. Photographs of the laboratory magnetospheres located at MIT (top) and Columbia University (bottom).

  5. Physics evaluation of compact tokamak ignition experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1985-01-01

    At present, several approaches for compact, high-field tokamak ignition experiments are being considered. A comprehensive method for analyzing the potential physics operating regimes and plasma performance characteristics of such ignition experiments with O-D (analytic) and 1-1/2-D (WHIST) transport models is presented. The results from both calculations are in agreement and show that there are regimes in parameter space in which a class of small (R/sub o/ approx. 1-2 m), high-field (B/sub o/ approx. 8-13 T) tokamaks with aB/sub o/S/q/sub */ approx. 25 +- 5 and kappa = b/a approx. 1.6-2.0 appears ignitable for a reasonable range of transport assumptions. Considering both the density and beta limits, an evaluation of the performance is presented for various forms of chi/sub e/ and chi/sub i/, including degradation at high power and sawtooth activity. The prospects of ohmic ignition are also examined. 16 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Hyperthermal atomic oxygen source for near-space simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, James A.; Baker, Paul M.; Hwang, Eunsook S.; Sporleder, David; Stearns, Jaime A.; Chambreau, Steven D.; Braunstein, Matthew; Conforti, Patrick F.

    2009-09-01

    A hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) beam facility has been developed to investigate the collisions of high-velocity AO atoms with vapor-phase counterflow. Application of 4.5 kW, 2.4 GHz microwave power in the source chamber creates a continuous discharge in flowing O2 gas. The O2 feedstock is introduced into the source chamber in a vortex flow to constrain the plasma to the center region, with the chamber geometry promoting resonant excitation of the TM011 mode to localize the energy deposition in the vicinity of the aluminum nitride (AlN) expansion nozzle. The approximately 3500 K environment serves to dissociate the O2, resulting in an effluent consisting of 40% AO by number density. Downstream of the nozzle, a silicon carbide (SiC) skimmer selects the center portion of the discharge effluent, prior to the expansion reaching the first shock front and rethermalizing, creating a beam with a derived 2.5 km s-1 velocity. Differential pumping of the skimmer chamber, an optional intermediate chamber and reaction chamber maintains a reaction chamber pressure in the mid-10-6 to mid-10-5 Torr range. The beam has been characterized with regard to total AO beam flux, O2 dissociation fraction, and AO spatial profile using time-of-flight mass spectrometric and Kapton-H erosion measurements. A series of reactions AO+CnH2n (n =2-4) has been studied under single-collision conditions using mass spectrometric product detection, and at higher background pressure detecting dispersed IR emissions from primary and secondary products using a step-scan Michelson interferometer. In a more recent AO crossed-beam experiment, number densities and predicted IR emission intensities have been modeled using the direct simulation Monte Carlo technique. The results have been used to guide the experimental conditions. IR emission intensity predictions are compared to detected signal levels to estimate absolute reaction cross sections.

  7. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 86, 053630 (2012) Classical rotons in cold atomic traps

    E-print Network

    Guerra, Vasco

    2012-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 86, 053630 (2012) Classical rotons in cold atomic traps H. Terc¸as,1,2,* J. T of a roton minimum in the dispersion relation of elementary excitations in cold atomic gases in the presence the atoms. In optically thick clouds, the rescattered light undergoes diffusive propagation, which

  8. An on-chip optical lattice for cold atom experiments

    E-print Network

    Straatsma, Cameron J E; Duggan, Janet; Ramirez-Serrano, Jaime; Anderson, Dana Z; Salim, Evan A

    2015-01-01

    An atom-chip-based integrated optical lattice system for cold and ultracold atom applications is presented. The retro-reflection optics necessary for forming the lattice are bonded directly to the atom chip, enabling a compact and robust on-chip optical lattice system. After achieving Bose-Einstein condensation in a magnetic chip trap, we load atoms directly into a vertically oriented 1D optical lattice and demonstrate Landau-Zener tunneling. The atom chip technology presented here can be readily extended to higher dimensional optical lattices.

  9. Experimental Atomic Physics Research in the Budker Group

    E-print Network

    Pines, Alexander

    , Armenia, and Russia], [LANL, NIST, LBNL, UCB Chemistry,...] · Each student has their own project · Lots in in dysprosium ' ~ 3-2000 MHz atomic beam PM T atomic freq. standard rf freq. generator fluor. E-field plates

  10. EDITORIAL: First merged issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics with Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-M. Rost

    2006-01-01

    With the first issue of 2006 Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (J. Phys. B) has successfully incorporated the former journal J. Opt. B. Under the well known and recognized name Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics the new merged journal will have a much wider scope, serving both the atomic, molecular and optical

  11. First merged issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics with Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J-M Rost

    2006-01-01

    With the first issue of 2006 Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (J. Phys. B) has successfully incorporated the former journal J. Opt. B. Under the well known and recognized name Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics the new merged journal will have a much wider scope, serving both the atomic, molecular and optical

  12. Status and perspectives of atomic physics research at GSI: The new GSI accelerator project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Th. Stöhlker; H. F. Beyer; F. Bosch; A. Bräuning-Demian; S. Hagmann; D. C Ionescu; K. Jungmann; H.-J Kluge; C. Kozhuharov; Th. Kühl; D. Liesen; R. Mann; P. H Mokler; W. Quint

    2003-01-01

    A short overview on the results of atomic physics research at the storage ring ESR is given followed by a presentation of the envisioned atomic physics program at the planned new GSI facility. The proposed new GSI facility will provide highest intensities of relativistic beams of both stable and unstable heavy nuclei – up to a Lorentz factor of 24.

  13. A learning pathway in high-school level quantum atomic physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juergen Petri; Hans Niedderer

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, one student's learning process in a course on quantum atomic physics in grade 13 of a German gymnasium (secondary school) is described. The course lasted 16 weeks for a total of approximately 80 lessons. The aim of the present study is to elaborate the student's cognitive system for atomic physics as a hypothetical pragmatic model to describe,

  14. ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 1, SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

    AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SELF-TUTORING APPROACH IN EDUCATION. THE MATERIALS COVER SECTIONS ON (1) THE ATOM, (2) ATOMIC PARTICLES, (3) CATHODE RAYS, (4) MEASURING THE ELECTRON, (5) CHARGE AND MASS OF THE ELECTRON, AND (6) MASS OF ATOMS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 003 205 THROUGH ED 003 207, ED…

  15. An all-optical vector atomic magnetometer for fundamental physics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurm, David; Mateos, Ignacio; Zhivun, Elena; Patton, Brian; Fierlinger, Peter; Beck, Douglas; Budker, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a laboratory prototype of a compact all-optical vector magnetometer. Due to their high precision and absolute accuracy, atomic magnetometers are crucial sensors in fundamental physics experiments which require extremely stable magnetic fields (e.g., neutron EDM searches). This all-optical sensor will allow high-resolution measurements of the magnitude and direction of a magnetic field without perturbing the magnetic environment. Moreover, its absolute accuracy makes it calibration-free, an advantage in space applications (e.g., space-based gravitational-wave detection). Magnetometry in precision experiments or space applications also demands long-term stability and well-understood noise characteristics at frequencies below 10-4 Hz. We have characterized the low-frequency noise floor of this sensor and will discuss methods to improve its long-time performance.

  16. Accelerator-based atomic and molecular collision physics

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Accelerators have been shown to have great utility in addressing a broad range of problems in experimental atomic physics. There are, of course, phenomena such as inner-shell MO promotion which can occur only at high collision energies. At much higher energies, large transient Coulomb fields can be generated which lead to copious production electron-positron pairs and to capture of electrons from the negative continuum. But in addition, many advantages can be gained by carrying out low-energy (center-of-mass) collisions at high laboratory energies, specifically in a single pass mode or in multi-pass modes in ion storage rings in which, e.g., collision in the milli-electron volt region can be achieved for electron-molecule reactions. Certain advantages also accrue using {open_quotes}reverse kinematics{close_quotes} in which high velocity ions collide with almost {open_quotes}stationary{close_quotes} electrons as in resonant transfer and excitation (RTE) and collisions of energetic ions in the dense {open_quotes}electron gas{close_quotes} found in crystal channels.

  17. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Surface-induced evaporative cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Min; Yan, Bo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-10-01

    The effects of surface-induced evaporative cooling on an atom chip are investigated. The evolutions of temperature, number and phase-space density of the atom cloud are measured when the atom cloud is brought close to the surface. Rapid decrease of the temperature and number of the atoms is found when the atom-surface distance is < 100 ?m. A gain of about a factor of five on the phase-space density is obtained. It is found that the efficiency of the surface-induced evaporative cooling depends on the atom-surface distance and the shape of the evaporative trap. When the atoms are moved very close to the surface, severe heating is observed, which dominates when the holding time is > 8 ms. It is important that the surface-induced evaporative cooling offers novel possibilities for the realization of a continuous condensation, where a spatially varying evaporative cooling is required.

  18. Hyperthermal atomic oxygen source for near-space simulation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, James A.; Baker, Paul M.; Hwang, Eunsook S.; Sporleder, David; Stearns, Jaime A. [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts 01731 (United States); Chambreau, Steven D. [Propulsion Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States); Braunstein, Matthew; Conforti, Patrick F. [Spectral Sciences, Inc., 4 Fourth Ave., Burlington, Massachusetts 01803 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    A hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) beam facility has been developed to investigate the collisions of high-velocity AO atoms with vapor-phase counterflow. Application of 4.5 kW, 2.4 GHz microwave power in the source chamber creates a continuous discharge in flowing O{sub 2} gas. The O{sub 2} feedstock is introduced into the source chamber in a vortex flow to constrain the plasma to the center region, with the chamber geometry promoting resonant excitation of the TM{sub 011} mode to localize the energy deposition in the vicinity of the aluminum nitride (AlN) expansion nozzle. The approximately 3500 K environment serves to dissociate the O{sub 2}, resulting in an effluent consisting of 40% AO by number density. Downstream of the nozzle, a silicon carbide (SiC) skimmer selects the center portion of the discharge effluent, prior to the expansion reaching the first shock front and rethermalizing, creating a beam with a derived 2.5 km s{sup -1} velocity. Differential pumping of the skimmer chamber, an optional intermediate chamber and reaction chamber maintains a reaction chamber pressure in the mid-10{sup -6} to mid-10{sup -5} Torr range. The beam has been characterized with regard to total AO beam flux, O{sub 2} dissociation fraction, and AO spatial profile using time-of-flight mass spectrometric and Kapton-H erosion measurements. A series of reactions AO+C{sub n}H{sub 2n} (n=2-4) has been studied under single-collision conditions using mass spectrometric product detection, and at higher background pressure detecting dispersed IR emissions from primary and secondary products using a step-scan Michelson interferometer. In a more recent AO crossed-beam experiment, number densities and predicted IR emission intensities have been modeled using the direct simulation Monte Carlo technique. The results have been used to guide the experimental conditions. IR emission intensity predictions are compared to detected signal levels to estimate absolute reaction cross sections.

  19. Hyperthermal atomic oxygen source for near-space simulation experiments.

    PubMed

    Dodd, James A; Baker, Paul M; Hwang, Eunsook S; Sporleder, David; Stearns, Jaime A; Chambreau, Steven D; Braunstein, Matthew; Conforti, Patrick F

    2009-09-01

    A hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) beam facility has been developed to investigate the collisions of high-velocity AO atoms with vapor-phase counterflow. Application of 4.5 kW, 2.4 GHz microwave power in the source chamber creates a continuous discharge in flowing O(2) gas. The O(2) feedstock is introduced into the source chamber in a vortex flow to constrain the plasma to the center region, with the chamber geometry promoting resonant excitation of the TM(011) mode to localize the energy deposition in the vicinity of the aluminum nitride (AlN) expansion nozzle. The approximately 3500 K environment serves to dissociate the O(2), resulting in an effluent consisting of 40% AO by number density. Downstream of the nozzle, a silicon carbide (SiC) skimmer selects the center portion of the discharge effluent, prior to the expansion reaching the first shock front and rethermalizing, creating a beam with a derived 2.5 km s(-1) velocity. Differential pumping of the skimmer chamber, an optional intermediate chamber and reaction chamber maintains a reaction chamber pressure in the mid-10(-6) to mid-10(-5) Torr range. The beam has been characterized with regard to total AO beam flux, O(2) dissociation fraction, and AO spatial profile using time-of-flight mass spectrometric and Kapton-H erosion measurements. A series of reactions AO+C(n)H(2n) (n=2-4) has been studied under single-collision conditions using mass spectrometric product detection, and at higher background pressure detecting dispersed IR emissions from primary and secondary products using a step-scan Michelson interferometer. In a more recent AO crossed-beam experiment, number densities and predicted IR emission intensities have been modeled using the direct simulation Monte Carlo technique. The results have been used to guide the experimental conditions. IR emission intensity predictions are compared to detected signal levels to estimate absolute reaction cross sections. PMID:19791929

  20. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Witherspoon

    2015-04-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ~ ni ~ 1016 cm-3, Te ~ Ti ~ 1.4 eV, V jet ~ 30-100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}$ ~ 1, sonic Mach number Ms ? V jet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ~20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.

  1. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; et al

    2015-04-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ? ni ~ 10¹? cm?³, Te ? Ti ? 1.4 eV, Vjet ? 30–100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}$ ? 1, sonic Mach number Ms ? Vjet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ? 20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on themore »study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.« less

  2. Introducing Fundamental Physical Experiments to Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golin, Genrikh

    2002-01-01

    If students are restricted to making educational experiments only, they might acquire incorrect ideas concerning the nature and role of the experimental method because the educational experiment differs greatly from the scientific experiment by its tasks, complexity, number and variability of experiments and devices used, measurements, and…

  3. arXiv:1001.0944v2[physics.atom-ph]7May2010 Single-Photon Atomic Sorting: Isotope Separation with Maxwell's Demon

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin. University of

    arXiv:1001.0944v2[physics.atom-ph]7May2010 Single-Photon Atomic Sorting: Isotope Separation-to-magnetic moment ratio of a particular isotope in an atomic beam, followed by a magnetic multipole whose gradients deflect and guide the atoms. The underlying mechanism is a reduction of the entropy of the beam

  4. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Modelling of a DNA packaging motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jun; Xie, Ping; Xue, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2009-11-01

    During the assembly of many viruses, a powerful molecular motor packages the genome into a preassembled capsid. The Bacillus subtilis phage phi29 is an excellent model system to investigate the DNA packaging mechanism because of its highly efficient in vitro DNA packaging activity and the development of a single-molecule packaging assay. Here we make use of structural and biochemical experimental data to build a physical model of DNA packaging by the phi29 DNA packaging motor. Based on the model, various dynamic behaviours such as the packaging rate, pause frequency and slip frequency under different ATP concentrations, ADP concentrations, external loads as well as capsid fillings are studied by using Monte Carlo simulation. Good agreement is obtained between the simulated and available experimental results. Moreover, we make testable predictions that should guide future experiments related to motor function.

  5. An ultra-low-power physics package for a chip-scale atomic clock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Mescher; R. Lutwak; Mathew Varghese

    2005-01-01

    We report the design and measured thermal and mechanical performance of an ultra-low-power physics package for a chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC). This physics package enables communications and navigation systems that require a compact, low-power atomic frequency standard. The physics package includes a unique combination of thermal isolation, mechanical stability and robustness, and small package volume. We have demonstrated temperature control

  6. Present and future directions of atomic physics research with multiply-charged ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.

    1985-03-01

    Atomic physics research with multiply-charged ions is now in progress using ion beams from the Brookhaven Double MP-Tandem van de Graaff facility. In the near future, experiments will start using ions produced by photons from the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Examples of typical experiments are discussed to illustrate the comprehensive nature of these facilities. Plans for future expansion by addition of a CRYEBIS type ion source coupled to a heavy-ion storage ring for use in crossed-beam experiments at the NSLS are discussed. 18 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Electron-photon angular correlation in atomic physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Blum; H. Kleinpoppen

    1979-01-01

    A review is given on recent developments of electron-photon angular correlations resulting from electron impact of atoms and molecules. After a description of experimental methods the theory of measurement of electron-photon angular correlations is outlined in the following way. By applying measurements of electron-photon angular correlations a sub-ensemble of excited atoms is selected from the atomic target which can be

  8. Determination of Spin-Lattice Relaxation of Time Using (Super 13)C NMR: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasyna, Zbigniew L.; Jurkiewicz, Antoni

    2004-01-01

    An experiment designed for the physical chemistry laboratory where (super 13)C NMR is applied to determine the spin-lattice relaxation time for carbon atoms in n-hexanol is proposed. It is concluded that students learn the principles and concepts of NMR spectroscopy as well as dynamic NMR experiments.

  9. Atomic physics with ion accelerators - Beam-foil spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Martinson; A. Gaupp

    1974-01-01

    A survey is given of research in atomic spectroscopy with accelerated, excited ions (beam-foil spectroscopy). After a short experimental section recent studies of atomic energy levels (particularly multiply excited configurations), radiative transition probabilities, a auto-ionization mechanisms, fine- and hyperfine-structure effects and radiative corrections are summarized.

  10. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Kinetic theory of (2 + 4)-level atom in ?+ - ?- laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chuang; Yu, De-Shui; Chen, Jing-Biao

    2009-08-01

    The kinetic theory of (2 + 4)-level atoms in ? + - ?- laser fields is presented. We systemically discuss friction coefficient, momentum diffusion tensor and atomic temperature based on the Fokker-Planck equation. This cooling system is much like that of a (1 + 3)-level atom, and the temperature is still limited to the Doppler temperature. Since this cooling system has not been investigated before, this work may be regarded as a necessary complement to the laser cooling theory.

  11. An Experiment on a Physical Pendulum and Steiner's Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russeva, G. B.; Tsutsumanova, G. G.; Russev, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratory curricula usually include experiments on the moment of inertia, the centre of gravity, the harmonic motion of a physical pendulum, and Steiner's theorem. We present a simple experiment using very low cost equipment for investigating these subjects in the general case of an asymmetrical test body. (Contains 3 figures…

  12. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Finding the atomic configuration with a required physical property in multi-atom structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayeul d’Avezac; Alex Zunger

    2007-01-01

    In many problems in molecular and solid state structures one seeks to determine the energy-minimizing decoration of sites with different atom types. In other problems, one is interested in finding a decoration with a target physical property (e.g. alloy band gap) within a certain range. In both cases, the sheer size of the configurational space can be horrendous. We present

  13. Physics Experiments with Nintendo Wii Controllers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Martyn D.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description of the use of Nintendo Wii game controllers in physics demonstrations. The main features of the controller relevant to physics are outlined and the procedure for communicating with a PC is described. A piece of software written by the author is applied to gathering data from a controller suspended from…

  14. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 36 (2003) 18571867 PII: S0953-4075(03)58918-0

    E-print Network

    Bailey, David H.

    2003-01-01

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys from atomic, nuclear and molecular physics. 1. Introduction In this communication we discuss role in many few-body problems of atomic, molecular and nuclear physics. Originally, the few

  15. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38 (2005) S605S615 doi:10.1088/0953-4075/38/9/011

    E-print Network

    Vuletic, Vladan

    2005-01-01

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys on atoms in resonators Adam T Black, James K Thompson and Vladan Vuleti´c Department of Physics, MIT are in colour only in the electronic version) 1. Introduction Atomic physics, being perhaps the most `quantum

  16. STFC 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW -EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL ROLLING GRANTS

    E-print Network

    STFC 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW - EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL ROLLING GRANTS Guidelines for Applicants CONTENTS PAGE Introduction and Timetable 1 Particle Physics Grants Panel 1 Enquiries 2 Part A ­ 2009 Review of Experimental Particle Physics Rolling Grants 3 ­ Guidelines for Applicants 1 Procedures

  17. Atomic Spectral Line Broadening Bibliographic Database Physical Reference Data

    E-print Network

    Fuhr, J; National Institute of Standards and Technology. Gaithersburg

    This database contains approximately 800 recent references. These papers contain numerical data, general information, comments, and review articles and are part of the collection of the Data Center on Atomic Line Shapes and Shifts at NIST.

  18. Exploring many-body physics with ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, Lindsay Jane

    The emergence of many-body physical phenomena from the quantum mechanical properties of atoms can be studied using ultracold alkali gases. The ability to manipulate both Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and degenerate Fermi gases (DFGs) with designer potential energy landscapes, variable interaction strengths and out-of-equilibrium initial conditions provides the opportunity to investigate collective behaviour under diverse conditions. With an appropriately chosen wavelength, optical standing waves provide a lattice potential for one target species while ignoring another spectator species. A "tune-in" scheme provides an especially strong potential for the target and works best for Li-Na, Li-K, and K-Na mixtures, while a "tune-out" scheme zeros the potential for the spectator, and is preferred for Li-Cs, K-Rb, Rb-Cs, K-Cs, and 39K-40K mixtures. Species-selective lattices provide unique environments for studying many-body behaviour by allowing for a phonon-like background, providing for effective mass tuning, and presenting opportunities for increasing the phase-space density of one species. Ferromagnetism is manifest in a two-component DFG when the energetically preferred many-body configuration segregates components. Within the local density approximation (LDA), the characteristic energies and the three-body loss rate of the system all give an observable signature of the crossover to this ferromagnetic state in a trapped DFG when interactions are increased beyond kFa(0) = 1:84. Numerical simulations of an extension to the LDA that account for magnetization gradients show that a hedgehog spin texture emerges as the lowest energy configuration in the ferromagnetic regime. Explorations of strong interactions in 40K constitute the first steps towards the realization of ferromagnetism in a trapped 40K gas. The many-body dynamics of a 87Rb BEC in a double well potential are driven by spatial phase gradients and depend on the character of the junction. The amplitude and frequency characteristics of the transport across a tunable barrier show a crossover between two paradigms of super uidity: Josephson plasma oscillations emerge for high barriers, where transport is via tunnelling, while hydrodynamic behaviour dominates for lower barriers. The phase dependence of the many-body dynamics is also evident in the observation of macroscopic quantum self trapping. Gross-Pitaevskii calculations facilitate the interpretation of system dynamics, but do not describe the observed damping.

  19. The Heidelberg test storage ring for heavy ions and its use for atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Schuch, R.

    1986-11-01

    A brief description of the Heavy-Ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) presently being built at the Max-Planck Institut in Heidelberg is given. It will be able to store ions injected from the tandem postaccelerator combination up to about 30 MeV/nucleon for a charge to mass ratio of 0.5. One of the main purposes of the TSR will be the study of electron cooling. Some atomic physics experiments are discussed using the electron cooling device which provides an electron-ion collision facility with good energy resolution and ion beams of high currents and low emittances. Here the possibilities for measurements of spontaneous and laser-induced radiative recombination and dielectronic recombination in the electron cooling section are discussed.

  20. Kaonic Atoms at DA?NE — the Siddharta Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmeskal, J.; Bazzi, M.; Beer, G.; Bombelli, L.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Bühler, P.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu Petrascu, C.; Fiorini, C.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R. S.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Kienle, P.; Longoni, A.; Lucherini, V.; Marton, J.; Nikolics, K.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Ponta, T.; Vidal, A. Romero; Sandri, P. L.; Scordo, A.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Suzuki, K.; Tatsuno, H.; Doce, O. Vázquez; Widmann, E.

    With precision X-ray spectroscopy of kaonic hydrogen at the DA?NE electron-positron collider at Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati the chiral symmetry breaking scenario in the strangeness sector will be investigated by studying the K-p s-wave interaction at threshold. This is possible by observing the strong interaction induced shift and width of the 1s state in kaonic hydrogen atoms. The results of the first measurement at LNF with DEAR (DA?NE Exotic Atom Research) will be given and the new SIDDHARTA (Silicon Drift Detector for Hadronic Atom Research with Timing Application) project will be described, which is aiming at a substantial improvement of the preceding DEAR result.

  1. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g (Earth's gravity), and the emergence of face-centered-cubic (FCC) crystals late in the coarsening process (as small crystallites lost particles to the slow ripening of large crystallites). Significant quantitative findings from the microgravity experiments have been developed describing complex interactions among crystallites during the growth process, as concentration fields overlap in the surrounding disordered phase. Time-resolved Bragg scattering under microgravity captures one effect of these interactions quite conclusively for the sample at a volume fraction of 0.528. From the earliest time until the sample is almost fully crystalline, the size and overall crystallinity grow monotonically, but the number of crystallites per unit volume (number density) falls. Apparently nucleation is slower than the loss of crystallites because of the transfer of particles from small to large crystals. Thus, coarsening occurs simultaneously with growth, rather than following the completion of nucleation and growth as is generally assumed. In the same sample, an interesting signature appears in the apparent number density of crystallites and the volume fraction within the crystallites shortly before full crystallinity is reached. A brief upturn in both indicates the creation of more domains of the size of the average crystallite simultaneous with the compression of the crystallites. Only the emergence of dendritic arms offers a reasonable explanation. The arms would be "seen" by the light scattering as separate domains whose smaller radii of curvature would compress the interior phase. In fiscal year 1999, numerous papers, a doctoral dissertation, and the PHaSE final report were produced. Although this flight project has been completed, plans are in place for a follow-on colloid experiment by Chaikin and Russel that employs a light microscope within Glenn's Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. PHaSE is providing us with a deeper understanding of the nure of phase transitions. The knowledge derived has added to the understandin

  2. Summary of informal workshop on state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Cocke, C.L.; Datz, S.; Kostroun, V.

    1984-11-13

    The present state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research in the United States is assessed by means of a questionnaire and informal workshop. Recommendations for future facilities are given. 3 refs.

  3. Dynamical overstability of radiative blast waves: the atomic physics of shock stability.

    PubMed

    Laming, J Martin; Grun, Jacob

    2002-09-16

    Atomic-physics calculations of radiative cooling are used to develop criteria for the overstability of radiating shocks. Our calculations explain the measurement of shock overstability by Grun et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2738 (1991)

  4. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 013413 (2013) Spin damping in an rf atomic magnetometer

    E-print Network

    Romalis, Mike

    2013-01-01

    the resulting signal. Hoult in 1979 successfully applied negative feedback to damp such a probe so of negative feedback is close in principle to the damping described here for an atomic system. RecentlyPHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 013413 (2013) Spin damping in an rf atomic magnetometer Orang Alem* and Karen

  5. The physics and (radio)chemistry of solar neutrino experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Hahn

    1995-01-01

    The situation in solar neutrino science has changed drastically in the past several years, with results now available from four neutrino experiments that use different methods to look at different regions of the solar-neutrino energy-spectrum. While the goal of all of these experiments is physics, they all rely heavily on chemistry and radiochemistry. Three of these experiments are radiochemical; the

  6. Interactive Plasma Physics Education Using Data from Fusion Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brisa Calderon; Bill Davis; Andrew Zwicker

    2010-01-01

    The Internet Plasma Physics Education Experience (IPPEX) website was created in 1996 to give users access to data from plasma and fusion experiments. Interactive material on electricity, magnetism, matter, and energy was presented to generate interest and prepare users to understand data from a fusion experiment. Initially, users were allowed to analyze real-time and archival data from the Tokamak Fusion

  7. A Technology Demonstration Experiment for Laser Cooled Atomic Clocks in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klipstein, W. M.; Kohel, J.; Seidel, D. J.; Thompson, R. J.; Maleki, L.; Gibble, K.

    2000-01-01

    We have been developing a laser-cooling apparatus for flight on the International Space Station (ISS), with the intention of demonstrating linewidths on the cesium clock transition narrower than can be realized on the ground. GLACE (the Glovebox Laser- cooled Atomic Clock Experiment) is scheduled for launch on Utilization Flight 3 (UF3) in 2002, and will be mounted in one of the ISS Glovebox platforms for an anticipated 2-3 week run. Separate flight definition projects funded at NIST and Yale by the Micro- gravity Research Division of NASA as a part of its Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program will follow GLACE. Core technologies for these and other LCAP missions are being developed at JPL, with the current emphasis on developing components such as the laser and optics subsystem, and non-magnetic vacuum-compatible mechanical shutters. Significant technical challenges in developing a space qualifiable laser cooling apparatus include reducing the volume, mass, and power requirements, while increasing the ruggedness and reliability in order to both withstand typical launch conditions and achieve several months of unattended operation. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  8. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Realization of Green MOT for Ytterbium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng-Yii; Xiong, Zhuan-Xian; Long, Yun; He, Ling-Xiang; Lü, Bao-Long

    2009-08-01

    We report the experimental realization of a magneto-optical trap (MOT) of 174Yb atoms operating on the 1So-3 P1 intercombination transition at 555.8 nm. The green MOT is loaded by a Zeeman-slowed atomic beam. In order to increase the capture velocity of the MOT, we use the trapping laser beams consisting of five discrete frequency components obtained by modulating the laser light through an electro-optic modulator. The trapped atomic number of the 174Yb isotope is about 6.2 × 105, and the temperature of the cold atomic cloud is estimated to be about 100 ?K. The success of the green MOT is an important step towards the goal of an ytterbium optical clock.

  9. Transforming the final experience in introductory physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Larson; Graca Bressan; Wilson V Ruggiero

    2002-01-01

    The traditional final exam in calculus-based physics is being replaced with a final project. The project consists of problems that require students to apply their skill and knowledge to new situations. Students collaborate with their classmates, discussing solution strategies. At the regularly scheduled final exam meeting, students answer additional questions that require them to build on their solution to each

  10. Model of delocalized atoms in the physics of the vitreous state

    SciTech Connect

    Sanditov, D. S., E-mail: Sanditov@bsu.ru [Buryat State University (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-15

    A development of the model of delocalized atoms of liquids and glasses is proposed. It is shown that the basic equation of the model for the probability of delocalization (excitation) of an atom can be obtained not only from the Clausius relation but also by other methods of statistical physics. Techniques for calculating the parameters of the model are developed. The critical displacement of an atom from the equilibrium position, which corresponds to the maximum interatomic attraction force, can be considered as a delocalization (local excitation) of this atom in an elastic continuum. The energy of the critical displacement of an atom calculated as the work of the limit elastic deformation of the interatomic bond in an elastic continuum is in agreement with the results of calculation by the model of delocalized atoms. This energy can also be calculated from the data on surface tension and atomic volume. In silicate glasses, the process of delocalization of an atom represents the critical displacement of a bridging oxygen atom in the structural fragment of a silicon-oxygen (Si-O-Si) network before the switching of the valence bond, whereas, in amorphous organic polymers, the delocalization of an atom corresponds to the limit displacement of a fragment of the main chain of a macromolecule (a group of atoms in the connecting link).

  11. An Apollo compatible cloud physics experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Hollinden, A. B.; Satterblom, P. R.

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of the utilization of a low-gravity environment to obtain experimental information, in the area of cloud microphysics, which cannot be obtained in ground laboratories. The experiment discussed is designed to obtain quantitative answers about evaporation and breakup of salt particles from ocean spray and other sources. In addition to salt nuclei distribution mechanisms, this breakup has ecological importance in relation to the spreading of salt mists from salted highways and spreading of brine cooling tower spray from electrical power generation plants. This experiment is being submitted for consideration on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program in 1975.

  12. Simulations of Ground and Space-Based Oxygen Atom Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, T. K.; Cline, J. A.; Braunstein, M.

    2002-01-01

    Fast, pulsed atomic oxygen sources are a key tool in ground-based investigations of spacecraft contamination and surface erosion effects. These technically challenging ground-based studies provide a before and after picture of materials under low-earth-orbit (LEO) conditions. It would be of great interest to track in real time the pulsed flux from the source to the surface sample target and beyond in order to characterize the population of atoms and molecules that actually impact the surface and those that make it downstream to any coincident detectors. We have performed simulations in order to provide such detailed descriptions of these ground-based measurements and to provide an assessment of their correspondence to the actual LEO environment. Where possible we also make comparisons to measured fluxes and erosion yields. To perform the calculations we use a detailed description of a measurement beam and surface geometry based on the W, pulsed apparatus at Montana State University. In this system, a short pulse (on the order of 10 microseconds) of an O/O2 beam impacts a flat sample about 40 cm downstream and slightly displaced &om the beam s central axis. Past this target, at the end of the beam axis is a quadrupole mass spectrometer that measures the relative in situ flux of 0102 to give an overall normalized erosion yield. In our simulations we use the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, and track individual atoms within the atomic oxygen pulse. DSMC techniques are typically used to model rarefied (few collision) gas-flows which occur at altitudes above approximately 110 kilometers. These techniques are well suited for the conditions here, and multi-collision effects that can only be treated by this or a similar technique are included. This simulation includes collisions with the surface and among gas atoms that have scattered from the surface. The simulation also includes descriptions of the velocity spread and spatial profiles of the O/O2 beam obtained from separate measurements. These computations use basic engineering models for the gas-gas and gas-surface scattering and focus on the influence of multi-collision effects. These simulations characterize many important quantities of interest including the actual flux of atoms that reach the surface, the energy distribution of this flux, as well as the direction of the velocity of the flux that strikes the surface. These quantities are important in characterizing the conditions which give rise to measured surface erosion. The calculations also yield time- snapshots of the pulse as it impacts and flows around the surface. These snapshots reveal the local environment of gas near the surface for the duration of the pulse. We are also able to compute the flux of molecules that travel downstream and reach the spectrometer, and we characterize their velocity distribution. The number of atoms that reach the spectrometer can in fact be influenced by the presence of the surface due to gas-gas collisions from atoms scattered h m the surface, and it will generally be less than that with the surface absent. This amounts to an overall normalization factor in computing erosion yields. We discuss these quantities and their relationship to the gas-surf$ce interaction parameters. We have also performed similar calculations corresponding to conditions (number densities, temperatures, and velocities) of low-earth orbit. The steady-state nature and lower overall flux of the actual space environment give rise to differences in the nature of the gas-impacts on the surface from those of the ground-based measurements using a pulsed source.

  13. Bounds on Microscopic Physics from P and T Violation in Atoms and Molecules

    E-print Network

    Willy Fischler; Sonia Paban; Scott Thomas

    1992-05-26

    Atomic and molecular electric dipole moments are calculated within the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Present experiments already provide strong bounds on the combination of phases responsible for the dipole moments of the neutron and closed shell atoms. For a supersymmetry breaking scale of 100 GeV, these phases must be smaller than $ \\sim 10^{-2}$.

  14. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms.

  15. Evidence for a phenomenological supersymmetry in atomic physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Kostelecky; Michael Nieto

    1984-01-01

    Supersymmetric quantum mechanics may be used to interrelate the spectra of different atoms and ions, with the resulting supersymmetry being susceptible to breaking by electron-electron interactions. Although the two phenomenological Hamiltonians involved have the same discrete spectrum, their eigenfunctions are different; indeed, there can in principle exist an infinity of potentials whose discrete eigenvalues are identical while differing as to

  16. Integration over spin-angular variables in atomic physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gediminas Gaigalas

    2004-01-01

    A review of methods for finding general expressions for matrix elements (non-diagonal with respect to configurations included) of any one- and two-particle operator for an arbitrary number of shells in an atomic configuration is given. These methods are compared in various aspects, and the advantages or shortcomings of each particular method are discussed. Efficient method to find the abovementioned quantities

  17. Atomic-scale nanowires: physical and electronic structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D R Bowler

    2004-01-01

    The technology to build and study nanowires with sizes ranging from individual atoms to tens of nanometres has been developing rapidly over the last few years. We survey the motivation behind these developments, and summarize the basics behind quantized conduction. Several of the different experimental techniques and materials systems used in the creation of nanowires are examined, and the range

  18. Atomic Parity Violation and Precision Electroweak Physics - An Updated Analysis

    E-print Network

    Jonathan L. Rosner

    1999-08-28

    A new analysis of parity violation in atomic cesium has led to the improved value of the weak charge, $Q_W({\\rm Cs}) = -72.06 \\pm 0.46$. The implications of this result for constraining the Peskin-Takeuchi parameters S and T and for guiding searches for new Z bosons are discussed.

  19. Using the Wiimote in Introductory Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Romulo; Rooney, Frank G.; Somers, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The Wii is a very popular gaming console. An important component of its appeal is the ease of use of its remote controller, popularly known as a Wiimote. This simple-looking but powerful device has a three-axis accelerometer and communicates with the console via Bluetooth protocol. We present two experiments that demonstrate the feasibility of…

  20. Solution Calorimetry Experiments for Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raizen, Deborah A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents two experiments: the first one measures the heat of an exothermic reaction by the reduction of permanganate by the ferris ion; the second one measures the heat of an endothermic process, the mixing of ethanol and cyclohexane. Lists tables to aid in the use of the solution calorimeter. (MVL)

  1. Atomic physics searches for bound state beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Murnick, D.E.; Kwon, N. (Department of Physics, Rutgers University Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States))

    1991-08-05

    Proposed experiments to detect bound state {beta} decay are discussed. This process, although theoretically expected to occur, has not yet been observed. One experiment involves the resonance fluroescence detection of neutral {sup 3}He after the decay of tritium. A second experiment involves storage of {sup 163}Dy{sup 66+} which sould decay to {sup 163}Ho{sup 66+}.

  2. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Four-parameter analytical local model potential for atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Sun, Jiu-Xun; Tian, Rong-Gang; Yang, Wei

    2009-10-01

    Analytical local model potential for modeling the interaction in an atom reduces the computational effort in electronic structure calculations significantly. A new four-parameter analytical local model potential is proposed for atoms Li through Lr, and the values of four parameters are shell-independent and obtained by fitting the results of Xa method. At the same time, the energy eigenvalues, the radial wave functions and the total energies of electrons are obtained by solving the radial Schrödinger equation with a new form of potential function by Numerov's numerical method. The results show that our new form of potential function is suitable for high, medium and low Z atoms. A comparison among the new potential function and other analytical potential functions shows the greater flexibility and greater accuracy of the present new potential function.

  3. Learning Pathways in High-School Level Quantum Atomic Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedderer, Hans; Petri, Juergen

    Investigations of changes in conceptions during physics instruction are the logical and necessary steps to follow successful international research on students' preinstructional conceptions. The theoretical perspective integrates currently available frameworks of cognition, cognitive states, and cognitive processes in physics. Particular emphasis…

  4. Learning Physics by Experiment: I. Falling Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2014-03-01

    As a rule, students enjoy conducting experiments in which the practical aspects are straightforward and well-defined. This also applies even when there is no anticipated result for students to ``prove.'' A laboratory exercise with such properties was created for students to undertake in a completely blind manner, and they happily proceeded without any knowledge at all of what they might expect to find. The philosophy developed for the research in this paper expands the pioneering approach formulated some half century ago and successfully employed more recently. In the present era of differentiated instruction (DI) being implemented in a diversity of educational settings, the design of the subject experiment is especially significant for its inclusive nature and for the positive outcomes it produces for less academically capable students. All students benefit from such an environment because it preempts the wasted effort of undue manipulation and it removes the need to contrive agreement with a textbook via irregular attempts at reverse engineering.

  5. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Lithium atom population transfer by population trapping in a chirped microwave pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Guang-Rui; Zhang, Xian-Zhou; Ren, Zhen-Zhong; Wu, Su-Ling

    2009-12-01

    Using a time-dependent multilevel approach, we demonstrate that lithium atoms can be transferred to states of lower principle quantum number by exposing them to a frequency chirped microwave pulse. The population transfer from n = 79 to n = 70 states of lithium atoms with more than 80% efficiency is achieved by means of the sequential two-photon ?n = -1 transitions. It is shown that the coherent control of the population transfer can be accomplished by the optimization of the chirping parameters and microwave field strength. The calculation results agree well with the experimental ones and novel explanations have been given to understand the experimental results.

  6. Condensed Matter Physics With Light And Atoms: Strongly Correlated Cold Fermions in Optical Lattices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Georges

    2007-01-01

    Various topics at the interface between condensed matter physics and the physics of ultra-cold fermionic atoms in optical lattices are discussed. The lectures start with basic considerations on energy scales, and on the regimes in which a description by an effective Hubbard model is valid. Qualitative ideas about the Mott transition are then presented, both for bosons and fermions, as

  7. Coseismic dislocation modeling by physical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Lorenzo; Toscani, Giovanni; Seno, Silvio

    2013-04-01

    Detecting coseismic surface deformation provides useful information about geometry and kinematic of the seismogenic fault activated during an earthquake. Recent advances in inversion of geodetic data (e.g. GPS, SAR) allowed to better constrain coseismic slip at depth using fault dislocation modeling. Our study presents an analogue modeling technique to reproduce the coseismic deformation using wet kaolin. Rheological data for this analogue material support its use to simulate coseismic brittle- elastoplastic deformation of the Earth's crust acting during the earthquake cycle. We focused our experiments on continental dip-slip faults and our approach is based on the uniform slip model concept. We built two sets of analogue models: the first setup is thought to verify if our analogue modeling technique reproduces surface deformation similar to those obtained using numerical elastic dislocation models; in the second setup some mechanical weak levels have been inserted inside the analogue material to simulate pre-existing discontinuities. We use high-resolution strain analysis based on digital image correlation (particle image velocimetry-PIV) and laser scanning to monitor the experiment surface deformations. The results of the first set of experiments highlighted a good correlation with those obtained by elastic dislocation numerical models. The second set demonstrates the important role carried out by mechanical discontinuities of the rocks hosting seismogenic source on the coseismic deformation detectable at the surface.

  8. Cuban Techno-physical Experiments in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, José; Calzadilla Amaya, Ocatvio; Falcon, Federico; Fuentes, Juan E.; Lodos, Jorge; Vigil Santos, Elena

    When Cuba joined the Intercosmos Program of the socialist countries in the mid-1960s, the great educational and scientific reform taking place at that time in the country had hardly begun to bear fruit. But when, a decade later, the Soviet Union offered all the participant countries the chance to make use of its space vehicles and related installations so that their cosmonauts could carry out original scientific experiments in space, the situation had changed radically in Cuba. In a short time around 200 people already involved in scientific and technological activities succeeded in designing and setting up—in close collaboration with various Soviet, East German and Bulgarian institutions—some 20 scientific experiments that were to be carried out in orbit around the earth during the joint Soviet-Cuban space flight of September 18-26, 1980. Those experiments, and a further one that was also set up for the same space flight—but carried out during a later flight, as mentioned below—are historically important since they were the first in their class to be carried out by humans in space under microgravity conditions.

  9. Diode-laser-based atomic absorption monitor using frequency-modulation spectroscopy for physical vapor deposition process control

    E-print Network

    Fejer, Martin M.

    Diode-laser-based atomic absorption monitor using frequency-modulation spectroscopy for physical; accepted for publication 28 July 1995 We have developed an atomic monitoring system for physical vapor due to the velocity distribution of the atomic vapor within the deposition chamber have been measured

  10. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 063408 (2013) Nondestructive light-shift measurements of single atoms in optical dipole traps

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 063408 (2013) Nondestructive light-shift measurements of single atoms atoms using a nondestructive detection technique that allows us to measure the fluorescent signal of one and the same atom for over 60 s. These measurements allow the efficient and rapid characterization of single-atom

  11. Atomic and molecular physics in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Toburen, L H

    1991-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of energy deposition by high-linear-energy-transfer radiation play an important role in the subsequent chemical and biological processes leading to radiation damage. Because the spatial structures of energy deposition events are of the same dimensions as molecular structures in the mammalian cell, direct measurements of energy deposition distributions appropriate to radiation biology are infeasible. This circumstance has led to the development of models of energy transport based on a knowledge of atomic and molecular interactions that enable one to simulate energy transfer on an atomic scale. Such models require a detailed understanding of the interactions of ions and electrons with biologically relevant material. During the past 20 years, there has been a great deal of progress in our understanding of these interactions, much of it coming from studies in the gas phase. These studies provide information on the systematics of interaction cross sections, and lead to knowledge of the regions of energy deposition where molecular and phase effects are important-knowledge that guides development in appropriate theory. In this report, studies of the doubly differential cross sections, which are crucial to the development of stochastic energy deposition calculations and track structure simulation, are reviewed. We discuss areas of understanding and address directions for future work. Particular attention is given to experimental and theoretical findings that have changed the traditional view of secondary electron production for charged-particle interactions with atomic and molecular targets. PMID:1811483

  12. Novel Atomic Coherence and Interference Effects in Quantum Optics and Atomic Physics

    E-print Network

    Jha, Pankaj

    2012-10-19

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 D. Rubidium Laser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 1. Steady State Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 E. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 VII CARRIER-ENVELOPE PHASE... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 D. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 ix CHAPTER Page IX LASER INDUCED ATOMIC DESORPTION TO CONTROL DIMER DENSITY IN ALKALI-METAL VAPORS? . . . . . . . . 137 A. Introduction...

  13. Decoherence Models for Discrete-Time Quantum Walks and their Application to Neutral Atom Experiments

    E-print Network

    Andrea Alberti; Wolfgang Alt; Reinhard Werner; Dieter Meschede

    2014-12-26

    We discuss decoherence in discrete-time quantum walks in terms of a phenomenological model that distinguishes spin and spatial decoherence. We identify the dominating mechanisms that affect quantum walk experiments realized with neutral atoms walking in an optical lattice. From the measured spatial distributions, we determine with good precision the amount of decoherence per step, which provides a quantitative indication of the quality of our quantum walks. In particular, we find that spin decoherence is the main mechanism responsible for the loss of coherence in our experiment. We also find that the sole observation of ballistic instead of diffusive expansion in position space is not a good indicator for the range of coherent delocalization. We provide further physical insight by distinguishing the effects of short and long time spin dephasing mechanisms. We introduce the concept of coherence length in the discrete-time quantum walk, which quantifies the range of spatial coherences. Unexpectedly, we find that quasi-stationary dephasing does not modify the local properties of the quantum walk, but instead affects spatial coherences. For a visual representation of decoherence phenomena in phase space, we have developed a formalism based on a discrete analogue of the Wigner function. We show that the effects of spin and spatial decoherence differ dramatically in momentum space.

  14. Introducing New Experiments to the Contemporary Physics Lab: Emphasis on Quantum Mechanics Foundations and New Physics Frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, Khalid; Yarrison-Rice, Jan; Jaeger, Herbert

    2013-03-01

    We remodeled our sophomore curriculum extensively both in the laboratories and the lectures. Our Experimental Contemporary Physics laboratory (PHY293) was almost completely re-built both in curriculum and pedagogy. Among the new experiments that we introduced are Nanoparticle plasmon resonance, Saturated absorption and fluorescence in iodine molecules, Quantized conductance in atomic-scale constrictions, and Water droplets behavior and manipulation on metal surfaces. This presentation will focus on the last two experiments. Quantized conductance in a constriction in a gold wire being pulled slowly is a unique direct application of the one-dimensional potential wells. Unlike most experiments on quantum mechanics that use optics, this experiment is transport-based, conceptually simple, and robust in addition to being low-cost. The transport properties of the wire span multiple transport regimes while being pulled. It is quite valuable for students (a significant fraction of whom are biological physics and engineering physics majors) to understand the behavior of water droplets on different surfaces. Water is the medium in which biological activities occur and is important in many other applications like air conditioning and refrigeration. We design simple gradients in the hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of metal surfaces in order to move water droplets in a controlled way, even against gravity. Students explore the effects of surface tension and metal roughness on droplets.

  15. Primary Teachers' Experience of a Physical Education Professional Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Maura; Woods, Catherine B.

    2012-01-01

    Professional development (PD) is essential for primary school teachers to meet the demands of the education system. Quality PD is aligned with classroom conditions, school contexts and teachers' daily experiences. The purpose of the study was to explore primary teachers' experiences of a 6-week physical education professional development programme…

  16. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Aad; E. Abat; B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A. A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; Bobby Samir Acharya; D. L. Adams; T. N. Addy; C. Adorisio; P. Adragna; T. Adye; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; M. Aharrouche; S. P. Ahlen; F. Ahles; A. Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN promises a major step forward in the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose detector for the LHC, whose design was guided by the need to accommodate the wide spectrum of possible physics signatures. The major remit of the ATLAS experiment is the exploration of the TeV

  17. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING and INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY NUCLEAR FUSION Nucl. Fusion 44 (2004) 10151026 PII: S0029-5515(04)83150-8

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    2004-01-01

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING and INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY NUCLEAR FUSION Nucl. Fusion reversed configurations (FRCs) sustained by rotating magnetic fields (RMFs). The dimensions of the FRC are similar to those obtained in the Translation, Confinement and Sustainment (TCS) experiment. Two injection

  18. Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments without Superconducting Electromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, R.D.

    1998-08-19

    Long-pulse fusion physics experiments can be performed economically via resistive electromagnets designed for thermally steady-state operation. Possible fusion experiments using resistive electromagnets include long-pulse ignition with deuterium-tritium fuel. Long-pulse resistive electromagnets are alternatives to today's delicate and costly superconductors. At any rate, superconducting technology is now evolving independent of fusion, so near-term superconducting experience may not ultimately be useful.

  19. Compilation of current high-energy physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1981-05-01

    This is the fourth edition of the compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. Only approved experiments are included.

  20. Divertor design for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Braams, B. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Courant Inst.; Brooks, J.N. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the present divertor design for the planned TPX tokamak, which will explore the physics and technology of steady-state (1000s pulses) heat and particle removal in high confinement (2--4{times} L-mode), high beta ({beta}{sub N} {ge} 3) divertor plasmas sustained by non-inductive current drive. The TPX device will operate in the double-null divertor configuration, with actively cooled graphite targets forming a deep (0.5 m) slot at the outer strike point. The peak heat flux on, the highly tilted (74{degrees} from normal) re-entrant (to recycle ions back toward the separatrix) will be in the range of 4--6 MW/m{sup 2} with 18 MW of neutral beams and RF heating power. The combination of active pumping and gas puffing (deuterium plus impurities), along with higher heating power (45 MW maximum) will allow testing of radiative divertor concepts at ITER-like power densities.

  1. Low-Energy Universality in Atomic and Nuclear Physics

    E-print Network

    L. Platter

    2009-04-15

    An effective field theory developed for systems interacting through short-range interactions can be applied to systems of cold atoms with a large scattering length and to nucleons at low energies. It is therefore the ideal tool to analyze the universal properties associated with the Efimov effect in three- and four-body systems. In this "progress report", we will discuss recent results obtained within this framework and report on progress regarding the inclusion of higher order corrections associated with the finite range of the underlying interaction.

  2. Nuclear beta-decay, Atomic Parity Violation, and New Physics

    E-print Network

    M. J. Ramsey-Musolf

    2000-04-07

    Determinations of vuds with super-allowed Fermi beta-decay in nuclei and of the weak charge of the cesium in atomic parity-violation deviate from the Standard Model predicitions by 2 sigma or more. In both cases, the Standard Model over-predicts the magnitudes of the relevant observables. I discuss the implications of these results for R-parity violating (RPV) extensions of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. I also explore the possible consequences for RPV supersymmetry of prospective future low-energy electroweak measurements.

  3. PREFACE: 8th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim F. Williams; Steve Buckman; Evan J. Bieske

    2009-01-01

    These proceedings arose from the 8th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP) which was held at the University of Western Australia 24-28 November 2008. The history of AISAMP (Takayanagi and Matsuzawa 2002) recognizes its origin from the Japan-China meeting of 1985, and the first use of the name 'The First Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular

  4. 8th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim F Williams; Steve Buckman; Evan J Bieske

    2009-01-01

    These proceedings arose from the 8th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP) which was held at the University of Western Australia 24–28 November 2008. The history of AISAMP (Takayanagi and Matsuzawa 2002) recognizes its origin from the Japan–China meeting of 1985, and the first use of the name ‘The First Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular

  5. Project Physics Teacher Guide 5, Models of the Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Teaching procedures of Project Physics Unit 5 are presented to help teachers make effective use of learning materials. Unit contents are discussed in connection with teaching aid lists, multi-media schedules, schedule blocks, and resource charts. Brief summaries are made for transparencies, 16mm films, and reader articles. Included is information…

  6. Efimov physics in an ultracold Bose-Fermi gas of 40K and 87Rb atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming-Guang; Bloom, Ruth; Cumby, Tyler; Kotula, George; Jin, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    We present measurements of Efimov physics in an ultracold Bose-Fermi gas of 40 K and 87 Rb atoms near an interspecies Feshbach resonance. In particular, we measure loss rate coefficients for the trapped gas and find a resonance in the inelastic collisions of Feshbach molecules with 87 Rb atoms. However, we do not observe any E?mov-related resonances in the rates of inelastic collisions between three atoms. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1125844 and by the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  7. Atomic impact experiments with free helium-3 and helium-4 clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Gspann

    1995-01-01

    Free helium clusters with of the order of 103 to 107 atoms have been predicted to reach final temperatures of about 0.4 K in the case of4He, and of 0.15 K in the case of3He. In the first case, the clusters have to be expected to be superfluid, in the latter case to be normalfluid. Impact experiments with cesium atoms,

  8. Proceedings of the Workshop on Opportunities for Atomic Physics Using Slow, Highly-Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The study of atomic physics with highly-charged ions is an area of intense activity at the present time because of a convergence of theoretical interest and advances in experimental techniques. The purpose of the Argonne Workshop on Opportunities for Atomic Physics Using Slow, Highly-Charged Ions was to bring together atomic, nuclear, and accelerator physicists in order to identify what new facilities would be most useful for the atomic physics community. The program included discussion of existing once-through machines, advanced ion sources, recoil ion techniques, ion traps, and cooler rings. One of the topics of the Workshop was to discuss possible improvement to the ANL Tandem-Linac facility (ATLAS) to enhance the capability for slowing down ions after they are stripped to a high-charge state (the Accel/Decel technique). Another topic was the opportunity for atomic physics provided by the ECR ion source which is being built for the Uranium Upgrade of ATLAS. Eighteen analytics were prepared for the individual papers in this volume.

  9. Proceedings of the workshop on opportunities for atomic physics using slow, highly-charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The study of atomic physics with highly-charged ions is an area of intense activity at the present time because of a convergence of theoretical interest and advances in experimental techniques. The purpose of the Argonne ''Workshop on Opportunities for Atomic Physics Using Slow, Highly-Charged Ions'' was to bring together atomic, nuclear, and accelerator physicists in order to identify what new facilities would be most useful for the atomic physics community. The program included discussion of existing once-through machines, advanced ion sources, recoil ion techniques, ion traps, and cooler rings. One of the topics of the Workshop was to discuss possible improvement to the ANL Tandem-Linac facility (ATLAS) to enhance the capability for slowing down ions after they are stripped to a high-charge state (the Accel/Decel technique). Another topic was the opportunity for atomic physics provided by the ECR ion source which is being built for the Uranium Upgrade of ATLAS. 18 analytics were prepared for the individual papers in this volume.

  10. Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Lehar, F. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kettle, P.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  11. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Tunneling between double wells of atom in crossed electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li; Wang, Lei; Yang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Hong-Ping

    2009-12-01

    The tunneling between double wells of atom in crossed electromagnetic fields is investigated by a one-dimensional Hamiltonian model. The crossed fields induced outer well is apart from the nuclear origin and it is very difficult to access by means of spectroscopy but it will be possible if there exists the tunneling of the electron between the outer well and the Coulomb potential predominated well at the nuclear origin. A one-dimensional quantum calculation with B-spline basis has been performed for hydrogen atom in crossed fields accessible in our laboratory, at B = 0.8 T and F = -220 V·cm-1. The calculation shows that the wavefunctions of some excited states close to the Stark saddle point in the outer well extend over to the Coulomb potential well, making it possible to penetrate the quantum information of the outer well. However, the tunneling rate is very small and the spectral measurement of the transitions from the ground state should be of a high resolution and high sensitivity.

  12. Physics Experiments Planned for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdon, Charles P.

    1998-11-01

    This talk will review the current status and plans for high energy density physics experiments to be conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF a multi-laboratory effort, presently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a 192 beam solid state glass laser system designed to deliver 1.8MJ (at 351nm) in temporal shaped pulses. This review will begin by introducing the NIF in the context of its role in the overall United States Stockpile Stewardship Program. The major focus of this talk will be to describe the physics experiments planned for the NIF. By way of introduction to the experiments a short review of the NIF facility design and projected capabilities will be presented. In addition the current plans and time line for the activation of the laser and experimental facilities will also be reviewed. The majority of this talk will focus on describing the national inertial confinement fusion integrated theory and experimental target ignition plan. This national plan details the theory and experimental program required for achieving ignition and modest thermonuclear gain on the NIF. This section of the presentation will include a status of the current physics basis, ignition target designs, and target fabrication issues associated with the indirect-drive and direct-drive approaches to ignition. The NIF design provides the capabilities to support experiments for both approaches to ignition. Other uses for the NIF, including non ignition physics relevant to the national security mission, studies relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy, and basic science applications, will also be described. The NIF offers the potential to generate new basic scientific understanding about matter under extreme conditions by making available a unique facility for research into: astrophysics and space physics, hydrodynamics, condensed matter physics, material properties, plasma physics and radiation sources, and radiative properties. Examples of experiments, already proposed for the NIF, in a number of these areas will be presented.

  13. The Basic Physics of Electron-Atom Collisions: How Much Do We Know and How Much Is Left to Learn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, T. J.

    2001-05-01

    Electron-atom scattering is perhaps the most investigated quantum mechanical process in physics, but not the best understood. Indeed, the simplest example of this process, electron-hydrogen scattering, has only just recently succumbed to comprehensive solution. Given that we believe in Quantum Mechanics, Special Relativity, and Coulomb's Law, what makes electron-atom scattering so difficult to understand? This talk will present a review of where we stand, both theoretically and experimentally, in our knowledge of these collisions ranging from total cross sections to the most esoteric spin and polarization parameters. Particular attention will be paid to areas where lack of basic knowledge limits our understanding of applied electron-driven processes. Recommendations for future experiments will be made.

  14. Theory of neutrino-atom collisions: the history, present status and BSM physics

    E-print Network

    Konstantin A. Kouzakov; Alexander I. Studenikin

    2014-06-19

    An overview of the current theoretical studies on neutrino-atom scattering processes is presented. The ionization channel of these processes, which is studied in experiments searching for neutrino magnetic moments, is brought into focus. Recent developments in the theory of atomic ionization by impact of reactor antineutrinos are discussed. It is shown that the stepping approximation is well applicable for the data analysis practically down to the ionization threshold.

  15. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Experimental study of highly excited even-parity bound states of the Sm atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wen-Jie; Dai, Chang-Jian; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Hong-Ying

    2009-08-01

    In this work, a three-step autoionization detection method and direct photoionization detection method are employed to measure the highly excited even-parity states of the Sm atom in the energy region between 36360 cm-1 and 40800 cm-1. Comparisons between the results from the two detection techniques enable us to discriminate the Rydberg states from the valence states in the same energy region with the information of level energies, possible J values and their relative intensities. Furthermore, in the experiment two different excitation schemes are designed to obtain the spectra of highly excited even-parity states of the Sm atom. With a detailed analysis of the experimental data, this work not only confirms the results about many spectral data from the literature with different excitation schemes, but also reports new spectral data on 29 Rydberg states and 23 valence states.

  16. Lasers as a Bridge between Atomic and Nuclear Physics

    E-print Network

    Sergei G. Matinyan

    1997-06-02

    This paper reviews the application of optical and UV laser radiation to several topics in low-energy nuclear physics. We consider the laser-induced nuclear anti-Stokes transitions, the laser-assisted and the laser-induced internal conversion, and the Electron Bridge and Inverse Electron Bridge mechanisms as tools for deexciting and exciting of low-lying nuclear isomeric states. A study of the anomalous, by low-lying, nuclear isomeric states (on an example of the $^{229}$Th nucleus) is presented in detail.

  17. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Ionization of atoms by chirped attosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Fang; Peng, Liang-You; Gong, Qi-Huang

    2009-11-01

    We investigate the ionization dynamics of atoms by chirped attosecond pulses using the strong field approximation method. The pulse parameters are carefully chosen in the regime where the strong field approximation method is valid. We analyse the effects of the chirp of attosecond pulses on the energy distributions and the corresponding left-right asymmetry of the ionized electrons. For a single chirped attosecond pulse, the ionized electrons can be redistributed and the left-right asymmetry shows oscillations because of the introduction of the chirp. For time-delayed double attosecond pulses at different intensities with the weaker one chirped, exchanging the order of the two pulses shows a relative shift of the energy spectra, which can be explained by the different effective time delays of different frequency components because of the chirp.

  18. Interaction of Hyperthermal Atoms on Surfaces in Orbit: the University of Alabama Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Alabama experiment which flew on the STS-8 mission had several objectives which were mostly of a speculative nature since so little was known of the processes of interest. The experiment provided original data on: (1) oxidation of metal surfaces; (2) reaction rates of atomic oxygen with carbon and other surfaces and the dependence of these rates on temperature; and (3) the angular distribution of 5 eV atoms scattered off a solid surface. A review of the results is provided.

  19. Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, Daniel

    2014-03-24

    This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.

  20. Accurate measurement and physical insight: The X-ray extended range technique for fundamental atomic physics, condensed matter research and biological sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantler, C. T.

    2010-02-01

    Research in core physics or atomic and condensed matter science is increasingly relevant for diverse fields and are finding application in chemistry, engineering and biological sciences, linking to experimental research at synchrotrons, reactors and specialised facilities. Over recent synchrotron experiments and publications we have developed methods for measuring the absorption coefficient far from the edge and in the XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) region in neutral atoms, simple compounds and organometallics reaching accuracies of below 0.02%. This is 50-500 times more accurate than earlier methods, and 50-250 times more accurate than claimed uncertainties in theoretical computations for these systems. The data and methodology are useful for a wide range of applications, including major synchrotron and laboratory techniques relating to fine structure, near-edge analysis and standard crystallography. Experiments are sensitive to theoretical and computational issues, including correlation between convergence of electronic and atomic orbitals and wavefunctions. Hence, particularly in relation to the popular techniques of XAFS and XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure), this development calls for strong theoretical involvement but has great applications in solid state structural determination, catalysis and enzyme environments, active centres of biomolecules and organometallics, phase changes and fluorescence investigations and others. We discuss key features of the X-ray extended range technique (XERT) and illustrate applications.

  1. Resiliency in Physics: The Lived Experiences of African-American Women Who Completed Doctoral Physics Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnette, Samara Fleming

    2013-01-01

    Currently, little is known about African-American women with doctoral degrees in physics. This study examined the lived experiences of African-American women who completed doctoral programs in physics. Due to factors of race and gender, African-American women automatically enter a double-bind in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

  2. PREFACE: 7th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranawa C. Deshmukh; Purushottam Chakraborty; Jim F. Williams

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings arose from the 7th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP) which was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras from 4-7 December 2006. The history of the AISAMP has been reviewed by Takayanagi http:\\/\\/www.physics.iitm.ac.in\\/~aisamp7\\/history.html. This international seminar\\/conference series grew out of the Japan-China meetings which were launched in 1985, the fourth of which was

  3. Clock Technology Development in the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, Dave; Thompson, R. J.; Klipstein, W. M.; Kohel, J.; Maleki, L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program. It focuses on clock technology development. The topics include: 1) Overview of LCAP Flight Projects; 2) Space Clock 101; 3) Physics with Clocks in microgravity; 4) Space Clock Challenges; 5) LCAP Timeline; 6) International Space Station (ISS) Science Platforms; 7) ISS Express Rack; 8) Space Qualification of Components; 9) Laser Configuration; 10) Clock Rate Comparisons: GPS Carrier Phase Frequency Transfer; and 11) ISS Model Views. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  4. Experiences in Sport, Physical Activity, and Physical Education Among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  5. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37 (2004) 35513562 PII: S0953-4075(04)81883-2

    E-print Network

    Roach, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37 (2004) 3551­3562 PII: S0953-4075(04)81883-2 Atom wave diffraction in an accelerating potential Timothy M Roach Physics Department, The College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA 01610

  6. Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Urban, David

    2012-01-01

    From the very first days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center both Combustion, Fluid Physics, and Acceleration Measurement GRC has led the successful implementation of an Acceleration Measurement systems, the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion fire detection fire extinguishment soot phenomena flame liftoff and stability and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow magneto-rheological fluids colloidal systems extensional rheology pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years. We also provide a look to the future development. Experiments presented in combustion include areas such as droplet combustion, gaseous diffusion flames, solid fuels, premixed flame studies, fire safety, and super critical oxidation processes. In fluid physics, experiments are discussed in multiphase flows, capillary phenomena, and heat pipes. Finally in complex fluids, experiments in rheology and soft condensed materials will be presented.

  7. Physics and Mathematics of cold atoms LPMMC, Universite Grenoble 1/CNRS

    E-print Network

    van Tiggelen, Bart

    Workshop Physics and Mathematics of cold atoms LPMMC, Universit´e Grenoble 1/CNRS October 11th will last approximately 45 minutes with 10 minutes for questions and discussion. Thursday 11th Venue: Maison. Superfluid properties of trapped Bosons in quasi-two dimensions I will review experimental and theoretical

  8. Do General Physics Textbooks Discuss Scientists' Ideas about Atomic Structure? A Case in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Kwon, Sangwoon; Kim, Nahyun; Lee, Gyoungho

    2013-01-01

    Research in science education has recognized the importance of teaching atomic structure within a history and philosophy of science perspective. The objective of this study is to evaluate general physics textbooks published in Korea based on the eight criteria developed in previous research. The result of this study shows that Korean general…

  9. A variational method for relativistic computations in atomic and molecular physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Dolbeault; Maria J. Esteban; Marechal Lattre de Tassigny

    2002-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the numerical computation of energy levels of Dirac operators with applications in atomic and molecular physics. Our approach is based at a theoretical level on a rigourous variational method. This provides a numerical method which is free of the numerical drawbacks which are often present in discretized relativistic approaches. It is moreover independent of the

  10. Ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices: mimicking condensed matter physics and beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maciej Lewenstein; Anna Sanpera; Veronica Ahufinger; Bogdan Damski; Aditi Sen; Ujjwal Sen

    2007-01-01

    We review recent developments in the physics of ultracold atomic and molecular gases in optical lattices. Such systems are nearly perfect realisations of various kinds of Hubbard models, and as such may very well serve to mimic condensed matter phenomena. We show how these systems may be employed as quantum simulators to answer some challenging open questions of condensed matter,

  11. Physics 6, 118 (2013) Looking for Hofstadter's Butterfly in Cold Atoms

    E-print Network

    2013-01-01

    Physics 6, 118 (2013) Viewpoint Looking for Hofstadter's Butterfly in Cold Atoms Cheng Chin James, called the Hofstadter butterfly [1]. This effect has never been seen in a natural crystal, because of defects, they may ultimately provide the cleanest view of Hofstadter's butterfly. This system is also

  12. On the Dynamical Overstability of Radiative Blast Waves: The Atomic Physics of Shock Stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Martin Laming

    2002-01-01

    Radiative shocks can exhibit a number of interesting hydrodynamic instabilities and overstabilities. Of these, a rippling overstability first discovered theoretically by Vishniac (1983, ApJ, 274, 152) and experimentally by Grun et al. (1991, PRL, 66, 2738), which can lead to clumping of the ambient gas, is of particular interest to astrophysicists. In this paper atomic physics calculations of radiative cooling

  13. Navigating a Career in Science: from Experimental Atomic Physics to AGU

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Killeen

    2007-01-01

    Building and sustaining a satisfying career in the geosciences involves hard work, some luck, some pluck - and a lot off tenacity. In this presentation I will recount some lessons I learned - and am still learning - on my own path from a start in a graduate program in experimental atomic physics to my current position as president of

  14. The Atomic Era: A New Interdisciplinary Course Combining Physics, the Humanities and the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carstens-Wickham, Belinda

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the development of the interdisciplinary course The Atomic Era which features a unique combination of physics, sociology, and German studies taught jointly by a physicist, a sociologist and a germanist. Addresses and analyzes the objectives of the course, laboratories and demonstrations, instructional goals, assignments, organization,…

  15. When Physical Activity Participation Promotes Inactivity: Negative Experiences of Spanish Adolescents in Physical Education and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Brown, David H. K.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses negative experiences in physical education and sport reported during qualitative interviews of a group of inactive adolescent Spanish boys and girls. The purpose of this analysis is twofold. First and most important, it seeks to give voice to these young people reporting negative experiences and connect them to contexts of…

  16. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 012716 (2013) Breakup of Rydberg-blockaded atom clouds via dipole-dipole interactions

    E-print Network

    Eisfeld, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    the clouds. The dynamics is akin to an ensemble average over systems where only one atom per cloudPHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 012716 (2013) Breakup of Rydberg-blockaded atom clouds via dipole Rydberg-blockaded atom clouds where each cloud carries initially a coherently shared single excitation. We

  17. PHYSICAL REVIEW C VOLUME 27, NUMBER 4 APRIL 1983 Atomic final-state interactions in tritium decay

    E-print Network

    Williams, Roy

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C VOLUME 27, NUMBER 4 APRIL 1983 Atomic final-state interactions in tritium decay R of the ejected P ray with the bound atomic e1ectron in the P decay of a tritium atom. The excited state probabi1 effects are expected to be more pro- nounced, but not, to our knowledge, for tritium. The interaction

  18. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 83, 063830 (2011) Laser-cooled atoms inside a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber

    E-print Network

    Vuletic, Vladan

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 83, 063830 (2011) Laser-cooled atoms inside a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber of laser-cooled rubidium atoms into a single-mode hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber. Inside the fiber]. Here, we present an approach making use of laser-cooled atoms trapped inside such a hollow-core fiber

  19. Proposed Laser-Based HED physics experiments for Stockpile Stewardship

    SciTech Connect

    Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fernandez, Juan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-04

    An analysis of the scientific areas in High Energy Density (HED) physics that underpin the enduring LANL mission in Stockpile Stewardship (SS) has identified important research needs that are not being met. That analysis has included the work done as part of defining the mission need for the High Intensity Laser Laboratory (HILL) LANL proposal to NNSA, LDRD DR proposal evaluations, and consideration of the Predictive Capability Framework and LANL NNSA milestones. From that evaluation, we have identified several specific and scientifically-exciting experimental concepts to address those needs. These experiments are particularly responsive to physics issues in Campaigns 1 and 10. These experiments are best done initially at the LANL Trident facility, often relying on the unique capabilities available there, although there are typically meritorious extensions envisioned at future facilities such as HILL, or the NIF once the ARC short-pulse laser is available at sufficient laser intensity. As the focus of the LANL HEDP effort broadens from ICF ignition of the point design at the conclusion of the National Ignition Campaign, into a more SS-centric effort, it is useful to consider these experiments, which address well-defined issues, with specific scientific hypothesis to test or models to validate or disprove, via unit-physics experiments. These experiments are in turn representative of a possible broad experimental portfolio to elucidate the physics of interest to these campaigns. These experiments, described below, include: (1) First direct measurement of the evolution of particulates in isochorically heated dense plasma; (2) Temperature relaxation measurements in a strongly-coupled plasma; (3) Viscosity measurements in a dense plasma; and (4) Ionic structure factors in a dense plasma. All these experiments address scientific topics of importance to our sponsors, involve excellent science at the boundaries of traditional fields, utilize unique capabilities at LANL, and contribute to the Campaign milestone in 2018. Given their interdisciplinary nature, it is not surprising that these research needs are not being addressed by the other excellent high-energy density physics (HEDP) facilities coming on line, facilities aimed squarely at more established fields and missions. Although energy rich, these facilities deliver radiation (e.g., particle beams for isochoric heating) over a timescale that is too slow in these unit physics experiments to eliminate hydrodynamic evolution of the target plasma during the time it is being created. A theme shared by all of these experiments is the need to quickly create a quasi-homogeneous 'initial state' whose properties and evolution we wish to study. Otherwise, we cannot create unit experiments to isolate the physics of interest and validate the models in our codes, something that cannot be done with the integrated experiments often done in HED. Moreover, these experiments in some cases involve combinations of solid and plasmas, or matter in the warm-dense matter state, where neither the theoretical approximations of solid state or of fully-ionized weakly-coupled plasmas can be used. In all cases, the capability of 'isochoric heating' ('flash' heating at constant density) is important. In some cases, the ability to selectively heat to different degrees different species within a target, whether mixed or adjacent to each other, is critical for the experiment. This capability requires the delivery of very high power densities, which require the conversion of the laser into very short and intense pulses of secondary radiation (electrons, ions, neutrons, x-rays). Otherwise, there is no possibility of a clean experiment to constrain the models, in the cases there are any, or inform the creation of one. Another typical requirement of these experiments is the ability to probe these exotic extreme conditions of matter with flexible and diverse sources of secondary radiation. Without a high-intensity high-power laser with some unique attributes available on Trident today (e.g., ultra-high laser-puls

  20. Solid Polarized Targets for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Crabb; W. Meyer

    1997-01-01

    The development, in the early 1960s, of the dynamic nuclear polarization process in solid diamagnetic materials, doped with paramagnetic radicals, led to the use of solid polarized targets in numerous nuclear and particle physics experiments. Since then steady progress has been made in all contributing subsystems so that proton polarizations near 100% and deuteron polarizations higher than 50% have been

  1. Double Beta Decay Experiments Department of Physics and Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Piepke, Andreas G.

    1 Double Beta Decay Experiments A. Piepkea a Department of Physics and Astronomy University. The experimen- tal investigation of the nuclear double beta decay is one of the key techniques for solving, such as the evaluation of the beta spec- tra near their endpoint, or neutrinoless double beta decay. The latter technique

  2. Results on top-quark physics from the CMS experiment

    E-print Network

    Silvano Tosi; on behalf of the CMS Collaboration

    2011-06-30

    The most recent results on top-quark physics reported by the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented in this talk. The results are based on a data sample of about 36/pb of data collected during 2010 at a pp center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV.

  3. Teachers' Experiences with an Adapted Igcse Physics Syllabus in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koosimile, A.T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on teachers' experiences with implementing a modified International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) physics syllabus in Botswana. The syllabus, characterised by a new organisational and pedagogic paradigm, is a significant shift from the traditional ''teacher-proof'' syllabus to one that is flexible,…

  4. Physical Activity Experiences of Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, William J.; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.; Staples, Kerri; Grizenko, Natalie; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity experiences of 12 age-matched boys with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were explored by converging information from Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessments and semistructured interviews. The knowledge-based approach and the inhibitory model of executive functions, a combined theoretical lens,…

  5. First physics results from the HARP experiment at CERN

    E-print Network

    A. Cervera Villanueva

    2004-06-19

    The first physics results of the HARP experiment are presented. We emphasize the high performance of the forward part of the apparatus. The differential raw pion yield and its efficiency correction up to polar angles of 250 mrad are shown. The analysed setting is 12.9 GeV/c incident protons in a 5% interacion legth aluminium target.

  6. A Physical Chemistry Experiment in Polymer Crystallization Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singfield, Kathy L.; Chisholm, Roderick A.; King, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment currently used in an undergraduate physical chemistry lab to investigate the rates of crystallization of a polymer is described. Specifically, the radial growth rates of typical disc-shaped crystals, called spherulites, growing between microscope glass slides are measured and the data are treated according to polymer…

  7. The Hispanic Experience in Physical Education Programs and Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.; Cervantes, Carlos M.; Vigo-Valentin, Alexander N.; Canabal-Torres, Maria Y.; Ortiz-Castillo, Esther M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges and identify strategies to increase the representation of Hispanic faculty in the academy, particularly Physical Education (PE) programs and departments at doctorate-granting universities. Recommendations to increase the presence and improve the experiences of Hispanic faculty are provided.…

  8. Implementing a Physical Education Curriculum: Two Teachers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser-Thomas, Jessica L.; Beaudoin, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we present a case study of two teachers' experiences implementing a junior-high school physical education curriculum. Using interviews, observations, and document analysis, we organized our data around Brunelle et al.'s (1988) conceptual framework. Our results noted several constraining factors to implementation: lack of time to…

  9. The 2010 Nobel Prize in physics—ground-breaking experiments on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Y.

    2011-11-01

    The 2010 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Professors Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov for their ground-breaking experiments on graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, and more generally, for their pioneering work in uncovering a new class of materials, namely two-dimensional atomic crystals. This paper gives an accessible account and review of the story of graphene; from its first description in the literature, to the realization and confirmation of its remarkable properties, through to its impressive potential for broad-reaching applications. The story of graphene is written within the context of the enormous impact that Geim and Novoselovs' work has had on this field of research, and recounts their personal pathways of discovery, which ultimately led to their award of the 2010 Nobel Prize.

  10. Limits on temporal variation of quark masses and strong interaction from atomic clock experiments

    E-print Network

    V. V. Flambaum

    2003-02-06

    We perform calculations of the dependence of nuclear magnetic moments on quark masses and obtain limits on the variation of m_q/Lambda_{QCD} from recent atomic clock experiments with hyperfine transitions in H, Rb, Cs, Hg+ and optical transtion in Hg+.

  11. Speculative Physics: the Ontology of Theory and Experiment in High Energy Particle Physics and Science Fiction

    E-print Network

    Clarissa Ai Ling Lee

    2014-06-21

    The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the second level of the conversation, theories are produced from a close study of the physics objects as speculative engine for new knowledge generation that are then reconceptualized and re-articulated for extrapolation into the speculative ontology of hard science fiction, particularly the hard science fiction written with the double intent of speaking to the science while producing imaginative and socially conscious science through the literary affordances of science fiction. The works of science fiction examined here demonstrate the tension between the internal values of physics in the practice of theory and experiment and questions on ethics, culture, and morality.

  12. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 137, 214302 (2012) Ultrafast probing of ejection dynamics of Rydberg atoms and molecular

    E-print Network

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    on a similar time scale as the n = 3 Rydberg atoms. © 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 137, 214302 (2012) Ultrafast probing of ejection dynamics of Rydberg atoms and molecular fragments from electronically excited helium nanodroplets Oliver Bünermann,1

  13. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 053824 (2010) Realization of a bipolar atomic Solc filter in the cavity-QED microlaser

    E-print Network

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 053824 (2010) Realization of a bipolar atomic Solc filter in the cavity. Fang-Yen,3 R. R. Dasari,3 M. S. Feld,3 Jai-Hyung Lee,1 and Kyungwon An1,* 1 School of Physics 18 May 2010) We report experimental realization of a rudimentary atomic Solc filter, recently

  14. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 023423 (2013) Rydberg atoms with a reduced sensitivity to dc and low-frequency electric fields

    E-print Network

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 023423 (2013) Rydberg atoms with a reduced sensitivity to dc and low-frequency electric fields L. A. Jones, J. D. Carter, and J. D. D. Martin Department of Physics and Astronomy sensitivity to high frequency fields, is applicable to sensors and/or quantum devices using Rydberg atoms. DOI

  15. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 053422 (2014) Trapping neutral atoms in the field of a vortex pinned by a superconducting nanodisk

    E-print Network

    Horovitz, Baruch

    2014-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 053422 (2014) Trapping neutral atoms in the field of a vortex pinned by a superconducting nanodisk Vladimir Sokolovsky, Daniel Rohrlich,* and Baruch Horovitz Department of Physics, Ben) Atom chips made of superconducting material can generate magnetic traps with significantly reduced

  16. Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Urban, David

    2012-01-01

    From the very early days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center for combustion, complex fluids, and fluid physics; GRC has led the successful implementation of the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion; fire detection; fire extinguishment; soot phenomena; flame liftoff and stability; and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow; magneto-rheological fluids; colloidal systems; extensional rheology; pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years.

  17. The Influence of Hands On Physics Experiments on Scientific Process Skills According to Prospective Teachers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirça, Necati

    2013-01-01

    In this study, relationship between prospective science and technology teachers' experiences in conducting Hands on physics experiments and their physics lab I achievement was investigated. Survey model was utilized and the study was carried out in the 2012 spring semester. Seven Hands on physics experiments were conducted with 28 prospective…

  18. Atomic Oxygen and Space Environment Effects on Aerospace Materials Flown with EOIM-3 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.; Clatterbuck, Carroll H.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Park, Gloria; Kolos, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Polymer materials samples mounted on a passive carrier tray were flown aboard the STS-46 Atlantis shuttle as complement to the EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials) experiment to evaluate the effects of atomic oxygen on the materials and to measure the gaseous shuttle bay environment. The morphological changes of the samples produced by the atomic oxygen fluence of 2.07 x 10(exp 20) atoms/cm(exp 2) are being reported. The changes have been verified using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), gravimetric measurement, microscopic observations and thermo-optical measurements. The samples, including Kapton, Delrin, epoxies, Beta Cloth, Chemglaze Z306, silver Teflon, silicone coatings, 3M tape and Uralane and Ultem, PEEK, Victrex (PES), Polyethersulfone and Polymethylpentene thermoplastic, have been characterized by their oxygen reaction efficiency on the basis of their erosion losses and the oxygen fluence. Those efficiencies have been compared to results from other experiments, when available. The efficiencies of the samples are all in the range of E-24 g/atom. The results indicate that the reaction efficiencies of the reported materials can be grouped in about three ranges of values. The least affected materials which have efficiencies varying from 1 to 10(exp 25) g/atom, include silicones, epoxies, Uralane and Teflon. A second group with efficiency from 10 to 45(exp 25) g/atom includes additional silicone coatings, the Chemglaze Z306 paint and Kapton. The third range from 50 to 75(exp 25) includes organic compound such as Pentene, Peek, Ultem, Sulfone and a 3M tape. A Delrin sample had the highest reaction efficiency of 179(exp 25) g/atom. Two samples, the aluminum Beta cloth X389-7 and the epoxy fiberglass G-11 nonflame retardant, showed a slight mass increase.

  19. Employing confinement induced resonances to realize Kondo physics with ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, J.; Demler, E.; Salomon, C.

    2015-03-01

    We recently proposed a novel realization of Kondo physics with ultracold atomic gases and illustrated that a mixture of 40K and 23Na atoms has suitable properties for the generation of a Kondo-correlated state with experimentally accessible scales. This system fortuitously satisfies rather special conditions. Here we discuss an alternative realization based on confinement induced resonances which could also be applicable for other mixtures. We first explain the general principle of how to engineer the Kondo correlated state like this. Then we present results for local spectral functions from numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculations for the appropriate effective Anderson impurity model and also predict the experimentally measurable radio frequency response.

  20. Photoemission from solids: the transition from solid-state to atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, D.A.

    1980-08-01

    As the photon energy is increased, photoemission from solids undergoes a slow transition from solid-state to atomic behavior. However, throughout the energy range h..nu.. = 10 to 1000 eV or higher both types of phenomena are present. Thus angle-resolved photoemission can only be understood quantitatively if each experimenter recognizes the presence of band-structure, photoelectron diffraction, and photoelectron asymmetry effects. The quest for this understanding will build some interesting bridges between solid-state and atomic physics and should also yield important new insights about the phenomena associated with photoemission.

  1. Elementary Particle Physics Experiment at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, Benjamin; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Willocq, Stephane

    2013-07-30

    In this progress report we summarize the activities of the University of Massachusetts- Amherst group for the three years of this research project. We are fully engaged in research at the energy frontier with the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We have made leading contributions in software development and performance studies for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, as well as on physics analysis with an emphasis on Standard Model measurements and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In addition, we have increased our contributions to the Muon Spectrometer New Small Wheel upgrade project.

  2. Physics Results from the Antiproton Experiment (APEX) at Fermilab

    DOE Data Explorer

    APEX Collaboration

    Is Antimatter stable? The APEX experiment searches for the decay of antiprotons at the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator. Observation of antiproton decay would indicate a violation of the CPT theorem, which is one of the most fundamental theorems of modern physics. The best laboratory limits on antiproton decay come from the APEX experiment which achieved a sensitivity to antiproton lifetimes up to of order 700,000 years for the most sensitive decay modes. Antiproton lifetimes in this range could arise from CPT violation at the Planck scale.[copied from http://www-apex.fnal.gov/] This website presents published results from the APEX Test Experiment (T861) and from the E868 Experiment. Limits were placed on six antiproton decay modes with a muon in the final state and on seven antiproton decay modes with an electron in the final state. See also the summary table and plot and the APEX picture gallery.

  3. Physical and chemical evidence for metallofullerenes with metal atoms as part of the cage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmer, David E.; Hunter, Joanna M.; Shelimov, Konstantin B.; Jarrold, Martin F.

    1994-11-01

    SINCE the discovery of fullerenes1, efforts have been made to trap metal atoms inside fullerene cages2, and both endohedral3,4 and exohedral5,6 metallofullerenes have been synthesized. There is, however, a third possibility: a 'networked' metallofullerene, where the metal atom is incorporated into the carbon cage. Here we report the results of experiments to study the structure and reactivity of gas-phase fullerenes doped with niobium (NbCn+ with n = 28-50). These experiments, which use injected-ion drift-tube tech-niques, indicate that for fullerenes containing an even number of carbon atoms the metal is endohedral, but for fullerenes with an odd number of carbon atoms, the niobium metal is bound as a part of the carbon cage. Thus, networked metallofullerenes appear to be a stable class of metallofullerene. We suggest that such metallo-fullerenes can form if the metal atom retains sufficient electron density to form several strong covalent metal-carbon bonds.

  4. Comparison of numerical simulations to experiments for atomization in a jet nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Lelong, Nicolas; Vecellio, Laurent; Sommer de Gélicourt, Yann; Tanguy, Christian; Diot, Patrice; Junqua-Moullet, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The development of jet nebulizers for medical purposes is an important challenge of aerosol therapy. The performance of a nebulizer is characterized by its output rate of droplets with a diameter under 5 µm. However the optimization of this parameter through experiments has reached a plateau. The purpose of this study is to design a numerical model simulating the nebulization process and to compare it with experimental data. Such a model could provide a better understanding of the atomization process and the parameters influencing the nebulizer output. A model based on the Updraft nebulizer (Hudson) was designed with ANSYS Workbench. Boundary conditions were set with experimental data then transient 3D calculations were run on a 4 µm mesh with ANSYS Fluent. Two air flow rate (2 L/min and 8 L/min, limits of the operating range) were considered to account for different turbulence regimes. Numerical and experimental results were compared according to phenomenology and droplet size. The behavior of the liquid was compared to images acquired through shadowgraphy with a CCD Camera. Three experimental methods, laser diffractometry, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and shadowgraphy were used to characterize the droplet size distributions. Camera images showed similar patterns as numerical results. Droplet sizes obtained numerically are overestimated in relation to PDA and diffractometry, which only consider spherical droplets. However, at both flow rates, size distributions extracted from numerical image processing were similar to distributions obtained from shadowgraphy image processing. The simulation then provides a good understanding and prediction of the phenomena involved in the fragmentation of droplets over 10 µm. The laws of dynamics apply to droplets down to 1 µm, so we can assume the continuity of the distribution and extrapolate the results for droplets between 1 and 10 µm. So, this model could help predicting nebulizer output with defined geometrical and physical parameters. PMID:24244334

  5. Phase Transfer Catalytic Reactions: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabestary, Nahid; Khazaeli, Sadegh; Hickman, Richie

    1998-11-01

    This article describes the application of phase-transfer catalysis within an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. Phase-transfer catalysis has been covered extensively in various books, articles, and patents. Many important industrial products are manufactured using this technique. However, very little of the subject is reflected in current undergraduate curriculum. The kinetic experiment designed here introduces many important concepts in phase-transfer catalysis and nucleophilic displacement reactions involving both mechanism and kinetics. Since this laboratory exploration includes catalytic reactions, organic synthesis, and chemical analysis, it covers many areas of chemistry. Thus, we believe this can be an important contribution to the students' learning. In this experiment, we have demonstrated that the reactions of alkyl bromides with NaCl under phase-transfer conditions can be carried out replacing bromide with chloride via a nucleophilic displacement reaction within a three-hour physical chemistry laboratory period.

  6. Physics Regimes in the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE)

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. Meade; S.C.Jardin; C.E. Kessel; M.A. Ulrickson; J.H. Schultz; P.H. Rutherford; J.A. Schmidt; J.C. Wesley; K.M. Young; N.A.Uckan; R.J. Thome; P. Heitzenroeder; B.E. Nelson; and C.C.Baker

    2001-06-19

    Burning plasma science is recognized widely as the next frontier in fusion research. The Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) is a design study of a next-step burning plasma experiment with the goal of developing a concept for an experimental facility to explore and understand the strong nonlinear coupling among confinement, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) self-heating, stability, edge physics, and wave-particle interactions that is fundamental to fusion plasma behavior. This will require plasmas dominated by alpha heating (Q greater than or equal to 5) that are sustained for a duration comparable to characteristic plasma timescales (greater than or equal to 10) tau(subscript ''E''), approximately 4 tau(subscript ''He''), approximately 2 tau(subscript ''skin''). The work reported here has been undertaken with the objective of finding the minimum size (cost) device to achieve these physics goals.

  7. Optical Pattern Formation in Spatially Bunched Atoms: A Self-Consistent Model and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittberger, Bonnie L.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2014-05-01

    The nonlinear optics and optomechanical physics communities use different theoretical models to describe how optical fields interact with a sample of atoms. There does not yet exist a model that is valid for finite atomic temperatures but that also produces the zero temperature results that are generally assumed in optomechanical systems. We present a self-consistent model that is valid for all atomic temperatures and accounts for the back-action of the atoms on the optical fields. Our model provides new insights into the competing effects of the bunching-induced nonlinearity and the saturable nonlinearity. We show that it is crucial to keep the fifth and seventh-order nonlinearities that arise when there exists atomic bunching, even at very low optical field intensities. We go on to apply this model to the results of our experimental system where we observe spontaneous, multimode, transverse optical pattern formation at ultra-low light levels. We show that our model accurately predicts our experimentally observed threshold for optical pattern formation, which is the lowest threshold ever reported for pattern formation. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through Grant #PHY-1206040.

  8. Comparison of deuterium and hydrogen experiments in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Wood; D. N. Hill; E. B. Hooper; H. S. McLean; D. Ryutov; S. Woodruff

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report on the results of deuterium and hydrogen experiments in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX). We have compared ?500 deuterium discharges with similar discharges in hydrogen. Typically, we produce H2 plasmas with peak toroidal currents in the range of 0.6MA, electron temperatures (Te) of ?200eV and energy confinement times (?E) of ?200?s. The D2 fueled

  9. Active optical fibres in modern particle physics experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carsten Patrick Achenbach

    2004-01-01

    In modern particle physics experiments wavelength-shifting and scintillating\\u000afibres based on plastic polymers are used for tracking and calorimetry. In this\\u000areview the role of photon trapping efficiencies, transmission functions and\\u000asignal response times for common multimode active fibres is discussed.\\u000aNumerical simulations involving three dimensional tracking of skew rays through\\u000acurved fibres demonstrate the characteristics of trapped light. Of

  10. Initial physics results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Kaye; M. G. Bell; R. E. Bell; J. Bialek; T. Bigelow; M. Bitter; P. Bonoli; D. Darrow; P. Efthimion; J. Ferron; E. Fredrickson; D. Gates; L. Grisham; J. Hosea; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; S. Kubota; H. Kugel; B. Leblanc; R. Maingi; J. Manickam; T. K. Mau; R. J. Maqueda; E. Mazzucato; J. Menard; D. Mueller; B. Nelson; N. Nishino; M. Ono; F. Paoletti; S. Paul; Y.-K. M. Peng; C. K. Phillips; R. Raman; P. Ryan; S. A. Sabbagh; M. Schaffer; C. H. Skinner; D. Stutman; D. Swain; E. Synakowski; Y. Takase; J. Wilgen; J. R. Wilson; W. Zhu; S. Zweben; A. Bers; M. Carter; B. Deng; C. Domier; E. Doyle; M. Finkenthal; K. Hill; T. Jarboe; S. Jardin; H. Ji; L. Lao; K. C. Lee; N. Luhmann; R. Majeski; S. Medley; T. Peebles; R. I. Pinsker; G. Porter; A. Ram; M. Rensink; T. Rognlien; D. Stotler; B. Stratton; G. Taylor; W. Wampler; G. A. Wurden; X. Q. Xu; L. Zeng

    2001-01-01

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R\\/a~=1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of neutral beam injection (NBI) and co-axial helicity injection (CHI) for noninductive

  11. Atomic Physics Effects on Convergent, Child-Langmuir Ion Flow between Nearly Transparent Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, John F. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Emmert, Gilbert A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] [University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2013-11-07

    Research during this project at the University of Wisconsin Fusion Technology Institute (UW FTI) on ion and neutral flow through an arbitrary, monotonic potential difference created by nearly transparent electrodes accomplished the following: (1) developed and implemented an integral equation approach for atomic physics effects in helium plasmas; (2) extended the analysis to coupled integral equations that treat atomic and molecular deuterium ions and neutrals; (3) implemented the key deuterium and helium atomic and molecular cross sections; (4) added negative ion production and related cross sections; and (5) benchmarked the code against experimental results. The analysis and codes treat the species D0, D20, D+, D2+, D3+, D and, separately at present, He0 and He+. Extensions enhanced the analysis and related computer codes to include He++ ions plus planar and cylindrical geometries.

  12. Various applications of atomic physics and kinetics codes to plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, J.; Clark, R. E. H.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Csanak, G.; Fontes, C. J.

    1996-07-01

    A collection of computer codes developed at Los Alamos have been applied to a variety of plasma modeling problems. The CATS, RATS, ACE, and GIPPER codes are used to calculate a consistent set of atomic physics data for a given problem. The calculated data include atomic energy levels, oscillator strengths, electron impact excitation and ionization cross sections, photoionization cross sections, and autoionization rates. The FINE and LINES codes access these data sets directly to perform plasma modeling calculations. Preliminary results of some of the current applications are presented, including, the calculation of holmium opacity, the modeling of plasma flat panel display devices, the analysis of some new results from the LANL TRIDENT laser and prediction of the radiative properties of the plasma wakefield light source for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). For the latter project, the simultaneous solution of atomic kinetics for the level populations and the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution is currently being implemented.

  13. WIMP physics with ensembles of direct-detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Annika H. G.; Gluscevic, Vera; Green, Anne M.; Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Lee, Samuel K.

    2014-12-01

    The search for weakly-interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter is multi-pronged. Ultimately, the WIMP-dark-matter picture will only be confirmed if different classes of experiments see consistent signals and infer the same WIMP properties. In this work, we review the ideas, methods, and status of direct-detection searches. We focus in particular on extracting WIMP physics (WIMP interactions and phase-space distribution) from direct-detection data in the early discovery days when multiple experiments see of order dozens to hundreds of events. To demonstrate the essential complementarity of different direct-detection experiments in this context, we create mock data intended to represent the data from the near-future Generation 2 experiments. We consider both conventional supersymmetry-inspired benchmark points (with spin-independent and -dependent elastic cross sections just below current limits), as well as benchmark points for other classes of models (inelastic and effective-operator paradigms). We also investigate the effect on parameter estimation of loosening or dropping the assumptions about the local WIMP phase-space distribution. We arrive at two main conclusions. Firstly, teasing out WIMP physics with experiments depends critically on having a wide set of detector target materials, spanning a large range of target nuclear masses and spin-dependent sensitivity. It is also highly desirable to obtain data from low-threshold experiments. Secondly, a general reconstruction of the local WIMP velocity distribution, which will only be achieved if there are multiple experiments using different target materials, is critical to obtaining a robust and unbiased estimate of the WIMP mass.

  14. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PhaSE) or "Making Jello in Space"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Jerri S.; Doherty, Michael P.

    1998-01-01

    The Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE) is a highly successful experiment that flew aboard two shuttle missions to study the transitions involved in the formation of jellolike colloidal crystals in a microgravity environment. A colloidal suspension, or colloid, consists of fine particles, often having complex interactions, suspended in a liquid. Paint, ink, and milk are examples of colloids found in everyday life. In low Earth orbit, the effective force of gravity is thousands of times less than at the Earth's surface. This provides researchers a way to conduct experiments that cannot be adequately performed in an Earth-gravity environment. In microgravity, colloidal particles freely interact without the complications of settling that occur in normal gravity on Earth. If the particle interactions within these colloidal suspensions could be predicted and accurately modeled, they could provide the key to understanding fundamental problems in condensed matter physics and could help make possible the development of wonderful new "designer" materials. Industries that make semiconductors, electro-optics, ceramics, and composites are just a few that may benefit from this knowledge. Atomic interactions determine the physical properties (e.g., weight, color, and hardness) of ordinary matter. PHaSE uses colloidal suspensions of microscopic solid plastic spheres to model the behavior of atomic interactions. When uniformly sized hard spheres suspended in a fluid reach a certain concentration (volume fraction), the particle-fluid mixture changes from a disordered fluid state, in which the spheres are randomly organized, to an ordered "crystalline" state, in which they are structured periodically. The thermal energy of the spheres causes them to form ordered arrays, analogous to crystals. Seven of the eight PHaSE samples ranged in volume fraction from 0.483 to 0.624 to cover the range of interest, while one sample, having a concentration of 0.019, was included for instrument calibration.

  15. Experience, gender, and performance: Connecting high school physics experience and gender differences to introductory college physics performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Robert H.

    Current science educational practice is coming under heavy criticism based on the dismaying results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study of 1998, the latest in a series of large scale surveys; and from research showing the appallingly low representation of females in science-related fields. These critical evaluations serve to draw attention to science literacy in general and lack of persistence among females in particular, two issues that relate closely to the "preparation for future study" goal held by many high school science teachers. In other words, these teachers often seek to promote future success and to prevent future failure in their students' academic careers. This thesis studies the connection between the teaching practices recommended by reformers and researchers for high school teachers, and their students' subsequent college physics performance. The teaching practices studied were: laboratory experiences, class discussion experiences, content coverage, and reliance on textbooks. This study analyzed a survey of 1500 students from 16 different lecture-format college physics courses at 14 different universities. Using hierarchical linear modeling, this study accounted for course-level variables (Calculus-based/Non-calculus course type, professor's gender, and university selectivity). This study controlled for the student's parents education, high school science/mathematics achievement, high school calculus background, and racial background. In addition, the interactions between gender and both pedagogical/curricular and course-level variables were analyzed. The results indicated that teaching fewer topics in greater depth in high school physics appeared to be helpful to college physics students. An interaction between college course type and content coverage showed that students in Calculus-based physics reaped even greater benefits from a depth-oriented curriculum. Also students with fewer labs per month in high school physics appeared to perform better in college physics than did students with many more labs per month. The only significant interaction was between gender and Calculus-based/Non-calculus college course type. Females appeared to do better on average than their males counterparts in Non-calculus physics, but this trend is clearly reversed for Calculus-based physics. This is a disturbing result for educators who have worked to promote persistence among women in engineering and science research. Recommendations are included for high school physics teachers, students and their parents, and college physics instructors.

  16. Construction and Characterization of External Cavity Diode Lasers for Atomic Physics

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Kyle S.; Bennetts, Shayne; Debs, John E.; Kuhn, Carlos C. N.; McDonald, Gordon D.; Robins, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Since their development in the late 1980s, cheap, reliable external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) have replaced complex and expensive traditional dye and Titanium Sapphire lasers as the workhorse laser of atomic physics labs1,2. Their versatility and prolific use throughout atomic physics in applications such as absorption spectroscopy and laser cooling1,2 makes it imperative for incoming students to gain a firm practical understanding of these lasers. This publication builds upon the seminal work by Wieman3, updating components, and providing a video tutorial. The setup, frequency locking and performance characterization of an ECDL will be described. Discussion of component selection and proper mounting of both diodes and gratings, the factors affecting mode selection within the cavity, proper alignment for optimal external feedback, optics setup for coarse and fine frequency sensitive measurements, a brief overview of laser locking techniques, and laser linewidth measurements are included. PMID:24796259

  17. A distributed atomic physics database and modeling system for plasma spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, J.K.; Liedahl, D.; Chen, M.H.; Iglesias, C.A.; Lee, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Salter, J.M. [South Gosforth Computer Systems, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-01

    We are undertaking to develop a set of computational capabilities which will facilitate the access, manipulation, and understanding of atomic data in calculations of x-ray spectral modeling. In this present limited description we will emphasize the objectives for this work, the design philosophy, and aspects of the atomic database, as a more complete description of this work is available. The project is referred to as the Plasma Spectroscopy Initiative; the computing environment is called PSI, or the ``PSI shell`` since the primary interface resembles a UNIX shell window. The working group consists of researchers in the fields of x-ray plasma spectroscopy, atomic physics, plasma diagnostics, line shape theory, astrophysics, and computer science. To date, our focus has been to develop the software foundations, including the atomic physics database, and to apply the existing capabilities to a range of working problems. These problems have been chosen in part to exercise the overall design and implementation of the shell. For successful implementation the final design must have great flexibility since our goal is not simply to satisfy our interests but to vide a tool of general use to the community.

  18. Atomic physics with highly charged ions: Progress report, 15 August 1985--14 August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, P.

    1988-08-01

    The study of inelastic collision phenomena with highly charged projectile ions and the interpretation of spectral features resulting from these collisions remain as the major focal points in the atomic physics research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. The title of the research project ''Atomic Physics with Highly Charged Ions'' speaks to these points. The experimental work is made possible locally by the use of relatively high velocity, highly charged projectiles (v typically 5% c) as obtained from the 6 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The work in the past few years has divided into collisions at high velocity using the primary beams from the accelerator and collisions at low velocity using secondary beams (recoil ions produced in a high velocity collision) in a so-called SIRS (Secondary Ion Recoil Source) geometry. Theoretical calculations have been performed to accurately describe inelastic scattering processes of the one-electron and many-electron type, and to accurately predict atomic transition energies and intensities for x-rays and Auger electrons. Correlation effects and polarization phenomena in ion-atom collisions have been investigated.

  19. Study to perform preliminary experiments to evaluate particle generation and characterization techniques for zero-gravity cloud physics experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, U.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of particle generation and characterization with regard to their applicability for experiments requiring cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) of specified properties were investigated. Since aerosol characterization is a prerequisite to assessing performance of particle generation equipment, techniques for characterizing aerosol were evaluated. Aerosol generation is discussed, and atomizer and photolytic generators including preparation of hydrosols (used with atomizers) and the evaluation of a flight version of an atomizer are studied.

  20. The 18th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Cacciatore; Santolo De Benedictis

    2007-01-01

    The 18th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XVIII) was organised in Lecce (Italy) from 12 to 16 July 2006 by the Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas (Bari, Rome, Potenza) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR–IMIP) and the Chemistry Department of Bari University.The ESCAMPIG conference is a regular biennial Europhysics Conference of

  1. Software for physics of tau lepton decay in LHC experiments

    E-print Network

    Tomasz Przedzinski

    2010-09-20

    Software development in high energy physics experiments offers unique experience with rapidly changing environment and variety of different standards and frameworks that software must be adapted to. As such, regular methods of software development are hard to use as they do not take into account how greatly some of these changes influence the whole structure. The following thesis summarizes development of TAUOLA C++ Interface introducing tau decays to new event record standard. Documentation of the program is already published. That is why it is not recalled here again. We focus on the development cycle and methodology used in the project, starting from the definition of the expectations through planning and designing the abstract model and concluding with the implementation. In the last part of the paper we present installation of the software within different experiments surrounding Large Hadron Collider and the problems that emerged during this process.

  2. Enhanced synthesis of Sn nanowires with aid of Se atom via physical vapor transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Huacheng; Wang, Wendong; Liu, Peiwen; Wang, Guangming; Liu, Ankang; He, Zhe; Cheng, Zhaofang; Zhang, Shengli; Xia, Minggang

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate tin (Sn) nanowires growth enhanced by Selenium (Se) atoms via physical vapor transport (PVT) method. The Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show that Sn nanowires are synthesized with a large quantity, good quality and high purity of Sn. The growth of Sn nanowires is attributed to Solid-Vapor-Liquid mechanism. The effects of gold nanoparticles catalyst, Si substrate, and Se atoms on Sn nanowires growth are discussed in detail. We find that Se atom plays a key role in the growth of Sn nanowires. The gaseous Sn atoms are absorbed by the eutectic alloy droplets of Se-Au at first. Then Sn atoms precipitate at the liquid-solid phase interface due to a supersaturated solution and form a one-dimensional nanostructure. In all, this PVT method could provide a simple and quick way to synthesize monocrystalline Sn nanowires with an advantage in both quality and quantity. The optical transmittance of Sn nanowires thin film with 2 ?m2 density approaches 85-90% in visible wavelength. Therefore, the Sn nanowires thin film can be applied to transparent electrode along with their metallic property.

  3. Symmetry and aesthetics in introductory physics: An experiment in interdisciplinary physics and fine arts education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Janet Krause

    In a recent editorial in Physics Today (July, 2006, p. 10) the ability of physicists to "imagine new realities" was correlated with what have been traditionally considered non-scientific qualities of imagination and creativity, which are usually associated with fine arts. In view of the current developments in physics of the 21st Century, including the searches for cosmic dark energy and evidence from the Large Hadron Collider which, it is hoped, will verify or refute the proposals of String Theory, the importance of developing creativity and imagination through education is gaining recognition. Two questions are addressed by this study: First, How can we bring the sense of aesthetics and creativity, which are important in the practice of physics, into the teaching and learning of physics at the introductory college level, without sacrificing the mathematical rigor which is necessary for proper understanding of physics? Second, How can we provide access to physics for a diverse population of students which includes physics majors, arts majors, and future teachers? An interdisciplinary curriculum which begins with teaching math as a language of nature, and utilizes arts to help visualize the connections between mathematics and the physical universe, may provide answers to these questions. In this dissertation I describe in detail the case study of the eleven students - seven physics majors and four arts majors - who participated in an experimental course, Symmetry and Aesthetics in Introductory Physics, in Winter Quarter, 2007, at UCSB's College of Creative Studies. The very positive results of this experiment suggest that this model deserves further testing, and could provide an entry into the study of physics for physics majors, liberal arts majors, future teachers, and as a foundation for media arts and technology programs.

  4. Multi-wavelength holography with a single spatial light modulator for ultracold atom experiments.

    PubMed

    Bowman, David; Ireland, Philip; Bruce, Graham D; Cassettari, Donatella

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a method to independently and arbitrarily tailor the spatial profile of light of multiple wavelengths and we show possible applications to ultracold atoms experiments. A single spatial light modulator is programmed to create a pattern containing multiple spatially separated structures in the Fourier plane when illuminated with a single wavelength. When the modulator is illuminated with overlapped laser beams of different wavelengths, the position of the structures is wavelength-dependent. Hence, by designing their separations appropriately, a desired overlap of different structures at different wavelengths is obtained. We employ regional phase calculation algorithms and demonstrate several possible experimental scenarios by generating light patterns with 670 nm, 780 nm and 1064 nm laser light which are accurate to the level of a few percent. This technique is easily integrated into cold atom experiments, requiring little optical access. PMID:25968675

  5. From the Dawn of Nuclear Physics to the First Atomic Bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolbright, Stephen; Schumacher, Jacob; Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina

    2014-03-01

    This work gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission within the historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. The work refers to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners. EM-A is grateful to Prof. Walter Grunden and to Prof. Emeritus Shadahiko Kano, Prof. Emeritus Monitori Hoshi for sharing their own notes, documents, and references, and to CCCU for sponsoring her participation in the 2013 Nuclear Weapons Seminar in Japan.

  6. Source physics experiments at the Nevada Test Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ping (Nuclear Security Technologies, Inc.); Snelson, Catherine (Nuclear Security Technologies, Inc.); Abbott, Robert; Coblentz, David D. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Corbell, Robert; Bowyer, Theodore W. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Sussman, Aviva J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Carrigan, Charles R. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Bradley, Christopher R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Patton, Howard J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Seifert, Carolyn E. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Sweeney, Jerry J. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Brunish, Wendee M. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Hawkins, Ward L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Antoun,Tarabay H. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Wohletz, Kenneth H. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Zucca, John Jay (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)

    2010-10-01

    The U. S. capability to monitor foreign underground nuclear test activities relies heavily on measurement of explosion phenomena, including characteristic seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and acoustic signals. Despite recent advances in each of these fields, empirical, rather than physics-based, approaches are used to predict and explain observations. Seismologists rely on prior knowledge of the variations of teleseismic and regional seismic parameters such as p- and s-wave arrivals from simple one-dimensional models for the teleseismic case to somewhat more complicated enhanced two-dimensional models for the regional case. Likewise, radionuclide experts rely on empirical results from a handful of limited experiments to determine the radiological source terms present at the surface after an underground test. To make the next step in the advancement of the science of monitoring we need to transform these fields to enable predictive, physics-based modeling and analysis. The Nevada Test Site Source Physics Experiments (N-SPE) provide a unique opportunity to gather precise data from well-designed experiments to improve physics-based modeling capability. In the seismic experiments, data collection will include time domain reflectometry to measure explosive performance and yield, free-field accelerometers, extensive seismic arrays, and infrasound and acoustic measurements. The improved modeling capability that we will develop using this data should enable important advances in our ability to monitor worldwide for nuclear testing. The first of a series of source physics experiments will be conducted in the granite of Climax Stock at the NTS, near the locations of the HARD HAT and PILE DRIVER nuclear tests. This site not only provides a fairly homogeneous and well-documented geology, but also an opportunity to improve our understanding of how fractures, joints, and faults affect seismic wave generation and propagation. The Climax Stock experiments will consist of a 220 lb (TNT equivalent) calibration shot and a 2200 lb (TNT equivalent) over-buried shot conducted in the same emplacement hole. An identical 2200 lb shot at the same location will follow to investigate the effects of pre-conditioning. These experiments also provide an opportunity to advance capabilities for near-field monitoring, and on-site inspections (OSIs) of suspected testing sites. In particular, geologic, physical, and cultural signatures of underground testing can be evaluated using the N-SPE activities as case studies. Furthermore, experiments to measure the migration of radioactive noble gases to the surface from underground explosions will enable development of higher fidelity radiological source term models that can predict migration through a variety of geologic conditions. Because the detection of short-lived radionuclides is essential to determining if an explosion was nuclear or conventional, a better understanding of the gaseous and particulate radionuclide source terms that reach the surface from underground testing is critical to development of OSI capability.

  7. Physics Basis and Simulation of Burning Plasma Physics for the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE)

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; S.C. Jardin

    2002-01-18

    The FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] design for a burning plasma experiment is described in terms of its physics basis and engineering features. Systems analysis indicates that the device has a wide operating space to accomplish its mission, both for the ELMing H-mode reference and the high bootstrap current/high beta advanced tokamak regimes. Simulations with 1.5D transport codes reported here both confirm and constrain the systems projections. Experimental and theoretical results are used to establish the basis for successful burning plasma experiments in FIRE.

  8. Stochastic optimization of a cold atom experiment using a genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Rohringer, W.; Buecker, R.; Manz, S.; Betz, T.; Koller, Ch.; Goebel, M.; Perrin, A.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Schumm, T. [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, TU-Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-12-29

    We employ an evolutionary algorithm to automatically optimize different stages of a cold atom experiment without human intervention. This approach closes the loop between computer based experimental control systems and automatic real time analysis and can be applied to a wide range of experimental situations. The genetic algorithm quickly and reliably converges to the most performing parameter set independent of the starting population. Especially in many-dimensional or connected parameter spaces, the automatic optimization outperforms a manual search.

  9. The experiment PANDA: physics with antiprotons at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, Gianluigi

    2015-05-01

    PANDA is an experiment that will run at the future facility FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany. A high intensity and cooled antiproton beam will collide on a fixed hydrogen or nuclear target covering center-of-mass energies between 2.2 and 5.5 GeV. PANDA addresses various physics aspects from the low energy non-perturbative region towards the perturbative regime of QCD. With the impressive theoretical developments in this field, e.g. lattice QCD, the predictions are becoming more accurate in the course of time. The data harvest with PANDA will, therefore, be an ideal test bench with the aim to provide a deeper understanding of hadronic phenomena such as confinement and the generation of hadron masses. A variety of physics topics will be covered with PANDA, for example: the formation or production of exotic non-qqbar charm meson states connected to the recently observed XYZ spectrum; the study of gluon-rich matter, such as glueballs and hybrids; the spectroscopy of the excited states of strange and charm baryons, their production cross section and their spin correlations; the behaviour of hadrons in nuclear matter; the hypernuclear physics; the electromagnetic proton form factors in the timelike region. The PANDA experiment is designed to achieve the above mentioned physics goals with a setup with the following characteristics: an almost full solid angle acceptance; excellent tracking capabilities with high resolution (1-2 % at 1 GeV/c in the central region); secondary vertex detection with resolution ? 100 microns or better; electromagnetic calorimetry for detections of gammas and electrons up to 10 GeV; good particle identification of charge tracks (electrons, muons, pions, kaons, protons); a dedicated interchangeable central apparatus for the hypernuclear physics; detector and data acquisition system capable of working at 20 MHz interaction rate with an intelligent software trigger that can provide maximum flexibility.

  10. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37 (2004) 15411551 PII: S0953-4075(04)75560-1

    E-print Network

    Marjoribanks, Robin S.

    2004-01-01

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys,9 , P E Young3 and J S Wark1 1 Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA 4 Plasma Physics Group, Blackett

  11. Demonstration of a Cold Atom Fountain Electron Electric Dipole Moment Experiment

    E-print Network

    Jason M. Amini; Charles T. Munger Jr.; Harvey Gould

    2006-03-14

    A Cs fountain electron electric dipole moment (EDM) experiment using electric-field quantization is demonstrated. With magnetic fields reduced to 200 pT or less, the electric field lifts the degeneracy between hyperfine levels of different|mF| and, along with the slow beam and fountain geometry, suppresses systematics from motional magnetic fields. Transitions are induced and the atoms polarized and analyzed in field-free regions. The feasibility of reaching a sensitivity to an electron EDM of 2 x 10 exp(-50) C-m [1.3 x 10 exp(-29) e-cm] in a cesium fountain experiment is discussed.

  12. Early Atomic Models From Mechanical to Quantum (1904-1913) The European Physical Journal H (2012) DOI: 10.1140/epjh/e2012-30009-7

    E-print Network

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    2012-01-01

    Early Atomic Models ­ From Mechanical to Quantum (1904-1913) The European Physical Journal H (2012 to atomic physics, in the critically important years between 1904 and 1913: J. J made in the nascent field of atomic physics during the relatively short

  13. Interactive Plasma Physics Education Using Data from Fusion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Brisa; Davis, Bill; Zwicker, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    The Internet Plasma Physics Education Experience (IPPEX) website was created in 1996 to give users access to data from plasma and fusion experiments. Interactive material on electricity, magnetism, matter, and energy was presented to generate interest and prepare users to understand data from a fusion experiment. Initially, users were allowed to analyze real-time and archival data from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiment. IPPEX won numerous awards for its novel approach of allowing users to participate in ongoing research. However, the latest revisions of IPPEX were in 2001 and the interactive material is no longer functional on modern browsers. Also, access to real-time data was lost when TFTR was shut down. The interactive material on IPPEX is being rewritten in ActionScript3.0, and real-time and archival data from the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) will be made available to users. New tools like EFIT animations, fast cameras, and plots of important plasma parameters will be included along with an existing Java-based ``virtual tokamak.'' Screenshots from the upgraded website and future directions will be presented.

  14. A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

  15. Experiences of physical activity during pregnancy in Danish nulliparous women with a physically active life before pregnancy. A qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanne K Hegaard; Hanne Kjaergaard; Peter P Damm; Kerstin Petersson; Anna-Karin Dykes

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National guidelines recommend that healthy pregnant women take 30 minutes or more of moderate exercise a day. Most women reduce the level of physical activity during pregnancy but only a few studies of women's experiences of physical activity during pregnancy exist. The aim of the present study was to elucidate experiences and views of leisure time physical activity during

  16. Negative Experiences in Physical Education and Sport: How Much Do They Affect Physical Activity Participation Later in Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2013-01-01

    People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…

  17. Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) power supply design and development

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Princeton, NJ (United States). EBASCO Div.; Bronner, G.; Lu, E.; Ramakrishnan, S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

    1995-04-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is an advanced tokamak project aimed at the production of quasi-steady state plasmas with advanced shape, heating, and particle control. TPX is to be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) using many of the facilities from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). TPX will be the first tokamak to utilize superconducting (SC) magnets in both the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) systems. This new feature requires a departure from the traditional tokamak power supply schemes. This paper describes the plan for the adaptation of the PPPL/FTR power system facilities to supply TPX. Five major areas are addressed, namely the AC power system, the TF, PF and Fast Plasma Position Control (FPPC) power supplies, and quench protection for the TF and PF systems. Special emphasis is placed on the development of new power supply and protection schemes.

  18. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; /SUNY, Albany /Alberta U. /Ankara U. /Annecy, LAPP /Argonne /Arizona U. /Texas U., Arlington /Athens U. /Natl. Tech. U., Athens /Baku, Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /Belgrade U. /VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Humboldt U., Berlin /Bern U., LHEP /Birmingham U. /Bogazici U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U.

    2011-11-28

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN promises a major step forward in the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose detector for the LHC, whose design was guided by the need to accommodate the wide spectrum of possible physics signatures. The major remit of the ATLAS experiment is the exploration of the TeV mass scale where groundbreaking discoveries are expected. In the focus are the investigation of the electroweak symmetry breaking and linked to this the search for the Higgs boson as well as the search for Physics beyond the Standard Model. In this report a detailed examination of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector is provided, with a major aim being to investigate the experimental sensitivity to a wide range of measurements and potential observations of new physical processes. An earlier summary of the expected capabilities of ATLAS was compiled in 1999 [1]. A survey of physics capabilities of the CMS detector was published in [2]. The design of the ATLAS detector has now been finalised, and its construction and installation have been completed [3]. An extensive test-beam programme was undertaken. Furthermore, the simulation and reconstruction software code and frameworks have been completely rewritten. Revisions incorporated reflect improved detector modelling as well as major technical changes to the software technology. Greatly improved understanding of calibration and alignment techniques, and their practical impact on performance, is now in place. The studies reported here are based on full simulations of the ATLAS detector response. A variety of event generators were employed. The simulation and reconstruction of these large event samples thus provided an important operational test of the new ATLAS software system. In addition, the processing was distributed world-wide over the ATLAS Grid facilities and hence provided an important test of the ATLAS computing system - this is the origin of the expression 'CSC studies' ('computing system commissioning'), which is occasionally referred to in these volumes. The work reported does generally assume that the detector is fully operational, and in this sense represents an idealised detector: establishing the best performance of the ATLAS detector with LHC proton-proton collisions is a challenging task for the future. The results summarised here therefore represent the best estimate of ATLAS capabilities before real operational experience of the full detector with beam. Unless otherwise stated, simulations also do not include the effect of additional interactions in the same or other bunch-crossings, and the effect of neutron background is neglected. Thus simulations correspond to the low-luminosity performance of the ATLAS detector. This report is broadly divided into two parts: firstly the performance for identification of physics objects is examined in detail, followed by a detailed assessment of the performance of the trigger system. This part is subdivided into chapters surveying the capabilities for charged particle tracking, each of electron/photon, muon and tau identification, jet and missing transverse energy reconstruction, b-tagging algorithms and performance, and finally the trigger system performance. In each chapter of the report, there is a further subdivision into shorter notes describing different aspects studied. The second major subdivision of the report addresses physics measurement capabilities, and new physics search sensitivities. Individual chapters in this part discuss ATLAS physics capabilities in Standard Model QCD and electroweak processes, in the top quark sector, in b-physics, in searches for Higgs bosons, supersymmetry searches, and finally searches for other new particles predicted in more exotic models.

  19. The BAIKAL neutrino experiment - physics results and perspectives

    E-print Network

    Wischnewski, R

    2008-01-01

    We review the status of the Lake Baikal Neutrino Experiment. The Neutrino Telescope NT200 has been operating since 1998 and has been upgraded to the 10 Mton detector NT200+ in 2005. We present selected astroparticle physics results from long-term operation of NT200. Also discussed are activities towards acoustic detection of UHE-energy neutrinos, and results of associated science activities. Preparation towards a km3-scale (Gigaton volume) detector in Lake Baikal is currently a central activity. As an important milestone, a km3-prototype string, based on completely new technology, has been installed and is operating together with NT200+ since April, 2008.

  20. Neutrino Oscillation Physics Potential of the T2K Experiment

    E-print Network

    K. Abe; J. Adam; H. Aihara; T. Akiri; C. Andreopoulos; S. Aoki; A. Ariga; S. Assylbekov; D. Autiero; M. Barbi; G. J. Barker; G. Barr; P. Bartet-Friburg; M. Bass; M. Batkiewicz; F. Bay; V. Berardi; B. E. Berger; S. Berkman; S. Bhadra; F. d. M. Blaszczyk; A. Blondel; C. Bojechko; S. Bordoni; S. B. Boyd; D. Brailsford; A. Bravar; C. Bronner; N. Buchanan; R. G. Calland; J. Caravaca Rodr'iguez; S. L. Cartwright; R. Castillo; M. G. Catanesi; A. Cervera; D. Cherdack; G. Christodoulou; A. Clifton; J. Coleman; S. J. Coleman; G. Collazuol; K. Connolly; L. Cremonesi; A. Dabrowska; I. Danko; R. Das; S. Davis; P. de Perio; G. De Rosa; T. Dealtry; S. R. Dennis; C. Densham; D. Dewhurst; F. Di Lodovico; S. Di Luise; O. Drapier; T. Duboyski; K. Duffy; J. Dumarchez; S. Dytman; M. Dziewiecki; S. Emery-Schrenk; A. Ereditato; L. Escudero; T. Feusels; A. J. Finch; G. A. Fiorentini; M. Friend; Y. Fujii; Y. Fukuda; A. P. Furmanski; V. Galymov; A. Garcia; S. Giffin; C. Giganti; K. Gilje; D. Goeldi; T. Golan; M. Gonin; N. Grant; D. Gudin; D. R. Hadley; L. Haegel; A. Haesler; M. D. Haigh; P. Hamilton; D. Hansen; T. Hara; M. Hartz; T. Hasegawa; N. C. Hastings; T. Hayashino; Y. Hayato; C. Hearty; R. L. Helmer; M. Hierholzer; J. Hignight; A. Hillairet; A. Himmel; T. Hiraki; S. Hirota; J. Holeczek; S. Horikawa; K. Huang; A. K. Ichikawa; K. Ieki; M. Ieva; M. Ikeda; J. Imber; J. Insler; T. J. Irvine; T. Ishida; T. Ishii; E. Iwai; K. Iwamoto; K. Iyogi; A. Izmaylov; A. Jacob; B. Jamieson; R. A. Johnson; S. Johnson; J. H. Jo; P. Jonsson; C. K. Jung; M. Kabirnezhad; A. C. Kaboth; T. Kajita; H. Kakuno; J. Kameda; Y. Kanazawa; D. Karlen; I. Karpikov; T. Katori; E. Kearns; M. Khabibullin; A. Khotjantsev; D. Kielczewska; T. Kikawa; A. Kilinski; J. Kim; S. King; J. Kisiel; P. Kitching; T. Kobayashi; L. Koch; T. Koga; A. Kolaceke; A. Konaka; L. L. Kormos; A. Korzenev; Y. Koshio; W. Kropp; H. Kubo; Y. Kudenko; R. Kurjata; T. Kutter; J. Lagoda; K. Laihem; I. Lamont; E. Larkin; M. Laveder; M. Lawe; M. Lazos; T. Lindner; C. Lister; R. P. Litchfield; A. Longhin; J. P. Lopez; L. Ludovici; L. Magaletti; K. Mahn; M. Malek; S. Manly; A. D. Marino; J. Marteau; J. F. Martin; P. Martins; S. Martynenko; T. Maruyama; V. Matveev; K. Mavrokoridis; E. Mazzucato; M. McCarthy; N. McCauley; K. S. McFarland; C. McGrew; A. Mefodiev; C. Metelko; M. Mezzetto; P. Mijakowski; C. A. Miller; A. Minamino; O. Mineev; A. Missert; M. Miura; S. Moriyama; Th. A. Mueller; A. Murakami; M. Murdoch; S. Murphy; J. Myslik; T. Nakadaira; M. Nakahata; K. G. Nakamura; K. Nakamura; S. Nakayama; T. Nakaya; K. Nakayoshi; C. Nantais; C. Nielsen; M. Nirkko; K. Nishikawa; Y. Nishimura; J. Nowak; H. M. O'Keeffe; R. Ohta; K. Okumura; T. Okusawa; W. Oryszczak; S. M. Oser; T. Ovsyannikova; R. A. Owen; Y. Oyama; V. Palladino; J. L. Palomino; V. Paolone; D. Payne; O. Perevozchikov; J. D. Perkin; Y. Petrov; L. Pickard; E. S. Pinzon Guerra; C. Pistillo; P. Plonski; E. Poplawska; B. Popov; M. Posiadala-Zezula; J. -M. Poutissou; R. Poutissou; P. Przewlocki; B. Quilain; E. Radicioni; P. N. Ratoff; M. Ravonel; M. A. M. Rayner; A. Redij; M. Reeves; E. Reinherz-Aronis; C. Riccio; P. A. Rodrigues; P. Rojas; E. Rondio; S. Roth; A. Rubbia; D. Ruterbories; R. Sacco; K. Sakashita; F. S'anchez; F. Sato; E. Scantamburlo; K. Scholberg; S. Schoppmann; J. Schwehr; M. Scott; Y. Seiya; T. Sekiguchi; H. Sekiya; D. Sgalaberna; R. Shah; F. Shaker; M. Shiozawa; S. Short; Y. Shustrov; P. Sinclair; B. Smith; M. Smy; J. T. Sobczyk; H. Sobel; M. Sorel; L. Southwell; P. Stamoulis; J. Steinmann; B. Still; Y. Suda; A. Suzuki; K. Suzuki; S. Y. Suzuki; Y. Suzuki; R. Tacik; M. Tada; S. Takahashi; A. Takeda; Y. Takeuchi; H. K. Tanaka; H. A. Tanaka; M. M. Tanaka; D. Terhorst; R. Terri; L. F. Thompson; A. Thorley; S. Tobayama; W. Toki; T. Tomura; Y. Totsuka; C. Touramanis; T. Tsukamoto; M. Tzanov; Y. Uchida; A. Vacheret; M. Vagins; G. Vasseur; T. Wachala; A. V. Waldron; K. Wakamatsu; C. W. Walter; D. Wark; W. Warzycha; M. O. Wascko; A. Weber; R. Wendell; R. J. Wilkes; M. J. Wilking; C. Wilkinson; Z. Williamson; J. R. Wilson; R. J. Wilson; T. Wongjirad; Y. Yamada; K. Yamamoto; C. Yanagisawa; T. Yano; S. Yen; N. Yershov; M. Yokoyama; K. Yoshida; T. Yuan; M. Yu; A. Zalewska; J. Zalipska; L. Zambelli; K. Zaremba; M. Ziembicki; E. D. Zimmerman; M. Zito; J. Zmuda

    2015-02-10

    The observation of the recent electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam and the high-precision measurement of the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ have led to a re-evaluation of the physics potential of the T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. Sensitivities are explored for CP violation in neutrinos, non-maximal $\\sin^22\\theta_{23}$, the octant of $\\theta_{23}$, and the mass hierarchy, in addition to the measurements of $\\delta_{CP}$, $\\sin^2\\theta_{23}$, and $\\Delta m^2_{32}$, for various combinations of $\

  1. Stalking the Anti-Racist Atom: Engaging Educational Equity and Diversity in Physics Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodari, Apriel K.

    2006-12-01

    One of the first articles I ever read on diversity in physics education stated, “There’s no such thing as an anti-racist atom.” This perspective, that the science of physics is itself inherently unbiased, illustrates the difficulty of engaging our intellectual community on this topic. We genuinely believe that our science is devoid of the complications of the human condition, and therefore we need not worry about these things. It is clear however, as people competing for scarce resources in a non-equitable society, we engage in all of the same behaviors everyone else does, include those that work against equity and diversity. Over the last several years, my colleagues and I have held workshops aimed at addressing educational equity and diversity in physics teaching. In this discussion, I will present some of the questions we have posed, along with lessons learned and ideas about what we can do next.

  2. Ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices: mimicking condensed matter physics and beyond

    E-print Network

    Maciej Lewenstein; Anna Sanpera; Veronica Ahufinger; Bogdan Damski; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen

    2007-05-31

    We review recent developments in the physics of ultracold atomic and molecular gases in optical lattices. Such systems are nearly perfect realisations of various kinds of Hubbard models, and as such may very well serve to mimic condensed matter phenomena. We show how these systems may be employed as quantum simulators to answer some challenging open questions of condensed matter, and even high energy physics. After a short presentation of the models and the methods of treatment of such systems, we discuss in detail, which challenges of condensed matter physics can be addressed with (i) disordered ultracold lattice gases, (ii) frustrated ultracold gases, (iii) spinor lattice gases, (iv) lattice gases in "artificial" magnetic fields, and, last but not least, (v) quantum information processing in lattice gases. For completeness, also some recent progress related to the above topics with trapped cold gases will be discussed.

  3. Temperature Dependence in Atom-Surface Scattering Chemical Physics Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovoth, Israel

    E-print Network

    Manson, Joseph R.

    Temperature Dependence in Atom-Surface Scattering Eli Pollak Chemical Physics Department, Weizmann measure of the temperature dependence of energy resolved atom-surface scattering spectra measured under conditions of higher translational energies, larger surface temperatures and partic- ularly for heavier mass

  4. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 053417 (2013) Efficient direct evaporative cooling in an atom-chip magnetic trap

    E-print Network

    Du, Shengwang

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 053417 (2013) Efficient direct evaporative cooling in an atom-chip magnetic (Received 12 March 2013; published 31 May 2013) We demonstrate direct evaporative cooling of 87 Rb atoms. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.053417 PACS number(s): 37.10.Gh Forced evaporative cooling is the dominant

  5. Implications of the recent solar neutrino experiment for particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Fukugita, M. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Theoretical Physics); Yanagidu, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-03-14

    This paper discusses physical implications of the results of recent solar neutrino experiments from the Homestake, Kamioka and Baksan Laboratories. The authors argue that the results from Homestake and Kamioka, if the two data sets are combined, strongly suggest some unusual neutrino properties rather than the modification of astrophysical models of the sun. If the time variation of neutrino captures, as observed at Homestake, is a statistical fluke, the neutrino conversion in matter proposed by Mikheyev and Smirnov among several possibilities yields the most attractive explanation for the neutrino flux deficit. The authors remark that the solution includes the possibility predicted by simple SO(10) models and it is tested by the gallium experiment.

  6. Testing atomic and collision physics, QED, Plasma Physics, Laboratory Astrophysics and Fundamental Constants a visible, VUV, X-ray synchrotron source allied with an Electron Beam Ion Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantler, Christopher T.

    2012-11-01

    Recent Australian expertise in developing atomic and collision physics, new tests of QED, Plasma Physics and Synchrotron Science is pooled in a proposal to unite the novel sources of a synchrotron beam-line across energy regimes with an Electron Beam Ion Trap to produce a unique tool for advancing fundamental research and physics including plasma physics, laboratory astrophysics, investigations of the constancy of fundamental constants of nature and tests of QED.

  7. Resolving all-order method convergence problems for atomic physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gharibnejad, H.; Derevianko, A. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Eliav, E. [Department of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Safronova, M. S. [Department of Physics, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The development of the relativistic all-order method where all single, double, and partial triple excitations of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock wave function are included to all orders of perturbation theory led to many important results for the study of fundamental symmetries, development of atomic clocks, ultracold atom physics, and others, as well as provided recommended values of many atomic properties critically evaluated for their accuracy for a large number of monovalent systems. This approach requires iterative solutions of the linearized coupled-cluster equations leading to convergence issues in some cases where correlation corrections are particularly large or lead to an oscillating pattern. Moreover, these issues also lead to similar problems in the configuration-interaction (CI)+all-order method for many-particle systems. In this work, we have resolved most of the known convergence problems by applying two different convergence stabilizer methods, namely, reduced linear equation and direct inversion of iterative subspace. Examples are presented for B, Al, Zn{sup +}, and Yb{sup +}. Solving these convergence problems greatly expands the number of atomic species that can be treated with the all-order methods and is anticipated to facilitate many interesting future applications.

  8. Atomic resolution mapping of phonon excitations in STEM-EELS experiments.

    PubMed

    Egoavil, R; Gauquelin, N; Martinez, G T; Van Aert, S; Van Tendeloo, G; Verbeeck, J

    2014-12-01

    Atomically resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy experiments are commonplace in modern aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopes. Energy resolution has also been increasing steadily with the continuous improvement of electron monochromators. Electronic excitations however are known to be delocalized due to the long range interaction of the charged accelerated electrons with the electrons in a sample. This has made several scientists question the value of combined high spatial and energy resolution for mapping interband transitions and possibly phonon excitation in crystals. In this paper we demonstrate experimentally that atomic resolution information is indeed available at very low energy losses around 100meV expressed as a modulation of the broadening of the zero loss peak. Careful data analysis allows us to get a glimpse of what are likely phonon excitations with both an energy loss and gain part. These experiments confirm recent theoretical predictions on the strong localization of phonon excitations as opposed to electronic excitations and show that a combination of atomic resolution and recent developments in increased energy resolution will offer great benefit for mapping phonon modes in real space. PMID:24949597

  9. The effects of atomic-oxygen-rich environments on the physical and mechanical properties of selected polymers

    E-print Network

    Rock, Neil Ivan

    1992-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF ATOMIC-OXYGEN-RICH ENVIRONMENTS ON THE PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECT POLYMERS A Thesis by NEIL IVAN ROCK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering Q 1992 NEIL IVAN ROCK ALL RIGHTS RESERVED THE EFFECTS OF ATOMIC-OXYGEN-RICH ENVIRONMENTS ON THE PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECT POLYMERS...

  10. Spectroscopy and atomic physics of highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni for tokamak plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Cheng, C.-C.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the spectroscopy and atomic physics for some highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni ions produced in tokamak plasmas. Forbidden and intersystem wavelengths for Cr and Ni ions are extrapolated and interpolated using the known wavelengths for Fe lines identified in solar-flare plasmas. Tables of transition probabilities for the B I, C I, N I, O I, and F I isoelectronic sequences are presented, and collision strengths and transition probabilities for Cr, Fe, and Ni ions of the Be I sequence are given. Similarities of tokamak and solar spectra are discussed, and it is shown how the atomic data presented may be used to determine ion abundances and electron densities in low-density plasmas.

  11. Prospects for Lorentz violation in atomic spectroscopy and spin-precession experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Arnaldo J.; Kostelecký, V. Alan

    2015-04-01

    A breaking of Lorentz symmetry has been suggested as a low-energy signature for theories beyond the Standard Model and General Relativity. In this talk, signals of Lorentz violation in atomic spectroscopy and spin-precession experiments are discussed. The analysis is based on the general effective field theory known as the Standard-Model Extension, including contributions from operators with renormalizable and nonrenormalizable mass dimensions. Possible signals for Lorentz violation are identified, including several classes of time variations of the measured frequencies. Effects of CPT violation in matter-antimatter comparisons are also considered. Bounds on coefficients for Lorentz violation are obtained using existing analyses of muon and electron experiments, and estimates of sensitivities in future experiments are presented.

  12. A Terrestrial, Atom Interferometer, Experiment Searching for Dark Energy Density and Other Dark Contents of the Vacuum

    E-print Network

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    1 A Terrestrial, Atom Interferometer, Experiment Searching for Dark Energy Density and Other Dark way to investigate the nature of dark energy and at the same time to look for unknown contents, as in Fig. 5, there is an additional force on the atoms caused by dark energy, FDE shift of A is now

  13. Speed Dependence of Atomic Stick-Slip Friction in Optimally Matched Experiments and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qunyang; Dong, Yalin; Perez, Danny; Martini, Ashlie; Carpick, Robert W.

    2011-03-01

    The atomic stick-slip behavior of a Pt tip sliding on a Au(111) surface is studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments and accelerated (i.e., reduced sliding speed) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The MD and AFM conditions are controlled to match, as closely as possible, the geometry and orientation, load, temperature, and compliance. We observe clear stick-slip without any damage. Comparison of both MD and AFM results with the thermally activated Prandtl-Tomlinson model shows that MD results at the highest speeds are not in the thermally activated regime. At lower speeds, within the thermally activated regime, AFM and MD provide consistent energetics, but attempt frequencies differ by orders of magnitude. Because this discrepancy lies in attempt frequencies and not energetics, atomistic details in MD simulations can be reliably used in interpreting AFM data if the MD speeds are slow enough.

  14. Electron electric dipole moment experiment using electric-fieldquantized slow cesium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Jason M.; Munger Jr., Charles T.; Gould, Harvey.

    2007-04-05

    A proof-of-principle electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM)experiment using slow cesium atoms, nulled magnetic fields, and electricfield quantization has been performed. With the ambient magnetic fieldsseen by the atoms reduced to less than 200 pT, an electric field of 6MV/m lifts the degeneracy between states of unequal lbar mF rbar and,along with the low (approximately 3 m/s) velocity, suppresses thesystematic effect from the motional magnetic field. The low velocity andsmall residual magnetic field have made it possible to induce transitionsbetween states and to perform state preparation, analysis, and detectionin regions free of applied static magnetic and electric fields. Thisexperiment demonstrates techniques that may be used to improve the e-EDMlimit by two orders of magnitude, but it is not in itself a sensitivee-EDM search, mostly due to limitations of the laser system.

  15. c10i, 6/15/1994 PHYSICS OF ``RANDOM EXPERIMENTS''

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    c10i, 6/15/1994 CHAPTER 10 PHYSICS OF ``RANDOM EXPERIMENTS'' ``I believe, for instance saw some of the difficulties that this view leads us to; in some real physical experiments of physical considerations that show the fundamental difficulty with the notion of ``random'' experiments

  16. Mini-Column Ion-Exchange Separation and Atomic Absorption Quantitation of Nickel, Cobalt, and Iron: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate quantitative analysis experiment, describing an atomic absorption quantitation scheme that is fast, sensitive and comparatively simple relative to other titration experiments. (CS)

  17. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Spontaneous Emission of a Polarized Atom in a Medium Between Two Parallel Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, De-Hua; Huang, Kai-Yun; Xu, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Using the photon closed orbit theory, the spontaneous emission rate of a polarized atom in a medium between two parallel mirrors is derived and calculated. It is found that the spontaneous emission rate of a polarized atom between the mirrors is related to the atomic position and the polarization direction. The results show that in the vicinity of the mirror, the variation of the spontaneous emission rate depends crucially on the atomic polarization direction. With the increase of the polarization angle, the oscillation in the spontaneous emission rate becomes decreased. For the polarization direction parallel to the mirror plane, the oscillation is the greatest; while for the perpendicular polarization direction, the oscillation is nearly vanished. The agreement between our result and the quantum electrodynamics result suggests the correctness of our calculation. This study further verifies that the atomic spontaneous emission process can be effectively controlled by changing the polarization orientation of the atom.

  18. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38 (2005) 333341 doi:10.1088/0953-4075/38/4/002

    E-print Network

    Lin, Chii-Dong

    2005-01-01

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS B: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS J. Phys Cocke and C D Lin J R Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan ionization alignment effect of the molecular ions. The latter is modelled quantum mechanically as resulting

  19. MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers Experiment Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Catherine E.; Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim, K.

    2010-01-01

    Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers in low Earth orbit (LEO) poses a serious threat to spacecraft performance and durability. To address this, 40 different polymer samples and a sample of pyrolytic graphite, collectively called the PEACE (Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment) Polymers, were exposed to the LEO space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly 4 years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 1 & 2 (MISSE 1 & 2). The purpose of the PEACE Polymers experiment was to obtain accurate mass loss measurements in space to combine with ground measurements in order to accurately calculate the atomic oxygen erosion yields of a wide variety of polymeric materials exposed to the LEO space environment for a long period of time. Error calculations were performed in order to determine the accuracy of the mass measurements and therefore of the erosion yield values. The standard deviation, or error, of each factor was incorporated into the fractional uncertainty of the erosion yield for each of three different situations, depending on the post-flight weighing procedure. The resulting error calculations showed the erosion yield values to be very accurate, with an average error of 3.30 percent.

  20. EDITORIAL: The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoran Lj Petrovic; Dragana Maric; Gordana Malovic

    2011-01-01

    This special issue consists of papers that are associated with invited lectures, workshop papers and hot topic papers presented at the 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XX). This conference was organized in Novi Sad (Serbia) from 13 to 17 July 2010 by the Institute of Physics of the University of Belgrade. It

  1. Spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms and its contribution to the fundamental physical constants

    PubMed Central

    Hayano, Ryugo S.

    2010-01-01

    Antiprotonic helium atom, a metastable neutral system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus, was serendipitously discovered, and has been studied at CERN’s antiproton decelerator facility. Its transition frequencies have recently been measured to nine digits of precision by laser spectroscopy. By comparing these experimental results with three-body QED calculations, the antiproton-to-electron massratio was determined as 1836.152674(5). This result contributed to the CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants. PMID:20075605

  2. Laser Irradiated Enhancement of the Atomic Electron Capture Rate in search of New Physics

    E-print Network

    Takaaki Nomura; Joe Sato; Takashi Shimomura

    2007-06-16

    Electron capture processes are important in the search for new physics. In this context, a high capture rate is desired. We investigate the possibility of enhancing the electron capture rate by irradiating laser beam to ''atom''. The possibility of such enhancement can be understood as a consequence of an enhancement of the electron wave function at the origin, $\\Psi (0)$, through an increased effective mass of the electron. We find that an order of magnitude enhancement can be realized by using a laser with intensity on the order of $10^{10}$ W/mm$^2$ and a photon energy on the order of $10^{-3}$ eV.

  3. Results From the Physics of Colloids Experiment on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, David; Bailey, Arthur; Manley, Suliana; Prasad, Vikram; Christianson, Rebecca; Sankaran, Subramanian; Doherty, Michael; Jankovsky, Amy; Lorik, Tibor; Shiley, William

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment was accommodated within International Space Station (ISS) EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack 2 and was remotely operated from early June 2001 until February 2002 from NASA Glenn Research Center's Telescience Support Center (TSC) in Cleveland, Ohio, and from the remote site at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. PCS was launched on 4/19/2001 on Space Shuttle STS-100. The experiment was activated on 5/31/2001. The entire experimental setup performed remarkably well, and accomplished 2400 hours of science operations on-orbit. The sophisticated instrumentation in PCS is capable of dynamic and static light scattering from 11 to 169 degrees, Bragg scattering over the range from 10 to 60 degrees, dynamic and static light scattering at low angles from 0.3 to 6.0 degrees, and color imaging. The long duration microgravity environment on the ISS facilitated extended studies on the growth and coarsening characteristics of binary crystals. The de-mixing of the colloid-polymer critical-point sample was also studied as it phase-separated into two phases. Further, aging studies on a col-pol gel, gelation rate studies in extremely low concentration fractal gels over several days, and studies on a glass sample, all provided valuable information. Several exciting and unique aspects of these results are discussed here.

  4. Initial physics results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, S. M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bialek, J.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Bonoli, P.; Darrow, D.; Efthimion, P.; Ferron, J.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Grisham, L.; Hosea, J.; Johnson, D.; Kaita, R.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Maingi, R.; Manickam, J.; Mau, T. K.; Maqueda, R. J.; Mazzucato, E.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B.; Nishino, N.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Paul, S.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Phillips, C. K.; Raman, R.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Schaffer, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, J. R.; Zhu, W.; Zweben, S.; Bers, A.; Carter, M.; Deng, B.; Domier, C.; Doyle, E.; Finkenthal, M.; Hill, K.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Ji, H.; Lao, L.; Lee, K. C.; Luhmann, N.; Majeski, R.; Medley, S.; Park, H.; Peebles, T.; Pinsker, R. I.; Porter, G.; Ram, A.; Rensink, M.; Rognlien, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Taylor, G.; Wampler, W.; Wurden, G. A.; Xu, X. Q.; Zeng, L.

    2001-05-01

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a?1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of neutral beam injection (NBI) and co-axial helicity injection (CHI) for noninductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high ?t and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for noninductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA and with a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit, respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 ms was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and ?t=21% were produced.

  5. Initial Physics Results From the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bialek, J. [and others

    2001-01-03

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a approximately equal to 1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) and Co-Axial Helicity Injection (CHI) for non-inductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high-bt and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for non-inductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA and with a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 msec was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and bt =21% were produced.

  6. H I ZEEMAN EXPERIMENTS OF SHOCKED ATOMIC GAS IN TWO SUPERNOVA REMNANTS INTERACTING WITH MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Bon-Chul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Heiles, Carl [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Stanimirovic, Snezana [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Troland, Tom, E-mail: koo@astrohi.snu.ac.k [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    We have carried out observations of Zeeman splitting of the H I 21 cm emission line from shocked atomic gas in the supernova remnants (SNRs) IC 443 and W51C using the Arecibo telescope. The observed shocked atomic gas is expanding at {approx}100 km s{sup -1} and this is the first Zeeman experiment of such fast-moving, shocked atomic gas. The emission lines, however, are very broad and the systematic error due to baseline curvature hampers an accurate measurement of field strengths. We derive an upper limit of 100-150 {mu}G on the strength of the line-of-sight field component. These two SNRs are interacting with molecular clouds, but the derived upper limits are considerably smaller than the field strengths expected from a strongly shocked dense cloud. We discuss the implications and conclude that either the magnetic field within the telescope beam is mostly randomly oriented or the high-velocity H I emission is from a shocked interclump medium of relatively low density.

  7. H I Zeeman Experiments of Shocked Atomic Gas in Two Supernova Remnants Interacting with Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Heiles, Carl; Stanimirovi?, Snežana; Troland, Tom

    2010-07-01

    We have carried out observations of Zeeman splitting of the H I 21 cm emission line from shocked atomic gas in the supernova remnants (SNRs) IC 443 and W51C using the Arecibo telescope. The observed shocked atomic gas is expanding at ~100 km s-1 and this is the first Zeeman experiment of such fast-moving, shocked atomic gas. The emission lines, however, are very broad and the systematic error due to baseline curvature hampers an accurate measurement of field strengths. We derive an upper limit of 100-150 ?G on the strength of the line-of-sight field component. These two SNRs are interacting with molecular clouds, but the derived upper limits are considerably smaller than the field strengths expected from a strongly shocked dense cloud. We discuss the implications and conclude that either the magnetic field within the telescope beam is mostly randomly oriented or the high-velocity H I emission is from a shocked interclump medium of relatively low density.

  8. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Interference effects on the photoionization cross sections between two neighbouring atoms: nitrogen as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian-Hua; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2009-12-01

    Interference effects on the photoionization cross sections between two neighbouring atoms are considered based on the coherent scattering of the ionized electrons by the two nuclei when their separation is less than or comparable to the de Broglie wave length of the ionized electrons. As an example, the single atomic nitrogen ionization cross section and the total cross sections of two nitrogen atoms with coherently added photoionization amplitudes are calculated from the threshold to about 60 Å (1 Å = 0.1 nm) of the photon energy. The photoionization cross sections of atomic nitrogen are obtained by using the close-coupling R-matrix method. In the calculation 19 states are included. The ionization energy of the atomic nitrogen and the photoionization cross sections agree well with the experimental results. Based on the R-matrix results of atomic nitrogen, the interference effects between two neighbouring nitrogen atoms are obtained. It is shown that the interference effects are considerable when electrons are ionized just above the threshold, even for the separations between the two atoms are larger than two times of the bond length of N2 molecules. Therefore, in hot and dense samples, effects caused by the coherent interference between the neighbours are expected to be observable for the total photoionization cross sections.

  9. Probing new physics scenarios in accelerator and reactor neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Iura, A.; Girardi, I.; Meloni, D.

    2015-06-01

    We perform a detailed combined fit to the {{\\bar{? }}e}\\to {{\\bar{? }}e} disappearence data of the Daya Bay experiment and the appearance {{? }? }\\to {{? }e} and disappearance {{? }? }\\to {{? }? } data of the Tokai to Kamioka (T2K) one in the presence of two models of new physics affecting neutrino oscillations, namely a model where sterile neutrinos can propagate in a large compactified extra dimension and a model where non-standard interactions (NSI) affect the neutrino production and detection. We find that the Daya Bay ? T2K data combination constrains the largest radius of the compactified extra dimensions to be R? 0.17 ?m at 2? C.L. (for the inverted ordering of the neutrino mass spectrum) and the relevant NSI parameters in the range O({{10}-3})-O({{10}-2}), for particular choices of the charge parity violating phases.

  10. The engineering design of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX)

    SciTech Connect

    Reiersen, W.T.

    1994-09-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is designed to develop the scientific basis for a compact and continuously operating tokamak fusion reactor. TPX has a long pulse (1000s) capability, can accommodate high divertor heat loads, has a flexible poloidal field (PF) system, and auxiliary heating and current drive systems that make it an ideal test bed for development of attractive reactor concepts. The design incorporates superconducting magnets in both the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) systems. Long pulse deuterium operation will produce 6 {times} 10{sup 21} neutrons per year requiring remote maintenance of the in-vessel hardware. This paper provides an overview of the TPX design with the emphasis on developments in the tokamak design since the Conceptual Design Review (CDR) in March, 1993.

  11. Instability of an atomic chain arising from lattice misfit Institute of Solid State Physics, Academia Sinica, 230031-Hefei, People's Republic of China

    E-print Network

    Gong, Xingao

    that both for a gold atom at the bottom of a trough of Au(110)-(1 2),7 and a platinum atom on Pt(110)-(1 2Instability of an atomic chain arising from lattice misfit W. Fan Institute of Solid State Physics and structural dynamics of an atom chain on a crystalline substrate with a lattice misfit between the chain

  12. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Elastic Collisions Between two Ground-State P and D Atoms at Low and Ultralow Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, De-Heng; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Sun, Jin-Feng; Ma, Heng; Liu, Yu-Fang; Zhu, Zun-Lue

    2010-02-01

    The PD(X3?-) interaction potential is constructed using the CCSD(T) theory and the basis set, aug-cc-pV5Z. Using this potential, the spectroscopic parameters are accurately determined. The present Do, De, Re, ?e, ?e?e, ?e, and Be are of 3.056 99 eV, 3.161 75 eV, 0.142 39 nm, 1701.558 cm-1, 23.6583 cm-1, 0.085 99 cm-1, and 4.3963 cm-1, respectively, which almost perfectly conform with the measurements. A total of 26 vibrational states is predicted when J = 0 by solving the radial Schrödinger equation of nuclear motion. The complete vibrational levels, classical turning points, initial rotation and centrifugal distortion constants when J = 0 are reported for the first time, which favorably agree with the experiments. The total and various partial-wave cross sections are calculated for the elastic impact between two ground-state P and D atoms at 1.0 × 10-12 - 1.0 × 10-4 a.u. when they approach each other along the PD(X3?-) potential. No shape resonances exist in the total elastic cross sections, though the peaks can be found for each partial wave until l = 6. The shape of the total elastic cross sections is dominated by the s partial wave at very low temperatures. Due to the weakness of the shape resonances of each partial wave, they are all passed into oblivion by the strong total elastic cross sections.

  13. Effect of Calcium and Magnesium on Phosphatidylserine Membranes: Experiments and All-Atomic Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Molina, Alberto; Rodríguez-Beas, César; Faraudo, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    It is known that phosphatidylserine (PS?) lipids have a very similar affinity for Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations, as revealed by electrokinetic and stability experiments. However, despite this similar affinity, experimental evidence shows that the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ induces very different aggregation behavior for PS? liposomes as characterized by their fractal dimensions. Also, turbidity measurements confirm substantial differences in aggregation behavior depending on the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ cations. These puzzling results suggest that although these two cations have a similar affinity for PS? lipids, they induce substantial structural differences in lipid bilayers containing each of these cations. In other words, these cations have strong ion-specific effects on the structure of PS? membranes. This interpretation is supported by all-atomic molecular-dynamics simulations showing that Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations have different binding sites and induce different membrane hydration. We show that although both ions are incorporated deep into the hydrophilic region of the membrane, they have different positions and configurations at the membrane. Absorbed Ca2+ cations present a peak at a distance ?2 nm from the center of the lipid bilayer, and their most probable binding configuration involves two oxygen atoms from each of the charged moieties of the PS molecule (phosphate and carboxyl groups). In contrast, the distribution of absorbed Mg2+ cations has two different peaks, located a few angstroms before and after the Ca2+ peak. The most probable configurations (corresponding to these two peaks) involve binding to two oxygen atoms from carboxyl groups (the most superficial binding peak) or two oxygen atoms from phosphate groups (the most internal peak). Moreover, simulations also show differences in the hydration structure of the membrane: we obtained a hydration of 7.5 and 9 water molecules per lipid in simulations with Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. PMID:22824273

  14. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Energy spectrum and superfluidity of spin-2 ultracold bosons in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong-Jun; Liu, Xian-Feng; Han, Jiu-Rong

    2009-12-01

    This paper studies the superfluidity of ultracold spin-2 Bose atoms with weak interactions in optical lattices by calculating the excitation energy spectrum using the Bogoliubov approach. The energy spectra exhibit the characteristics of the superfluid-phase explicitly and it finds the nonvanishing critical speeds of superfluid. The obtained results display that the critical speeds of superfluid are different for five spin components and can be controlled by adjusting the lattice parameters in experiments. Finally it discusses the feasibilities of implementing and measuring superfluid.

  15. Oxygen control of atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tselev, Alexander; Ganesh, P; Qiao, Liang; Siemons, Wolter; Gai, Zheng; Biegalski, Michael D; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-05-28

    Complex oxide thin films and heterostructures have become one of the foci for condensed matter physics research due to a broad variety of properties they exhibit. Similar to the bulk, properties of oxide surfaces can be expected to be strongly affected by oxygen stoichiometry. Here we explore the coupling between atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 (SRO), one of the most well-studied oxide materials. We perform a detailed in situ and ex situ experimental investigation of the surfaces of SRO thin films using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and magnetotransport measurements, as well as ab initio modeling. A number of remarkable linear surface reconstructions were observed by STM and interpreted as oxygen adatoms, favorably adsorbed in a regular rectangular or zigzag patterns. The degree of oxygen coverage and different surface patterns change the work function of the thin films, and modify local electronic and magnetic properties of the topmost atomic layer. The ab initio modeling reveals that oxygen adatoms possess frustrated local spin moments with possible spin-glass behavior of the surface covered by adsorbed oxygen. Additionally, the modeling indicates presence of a pseudo gap on the topmost SrO layer on pristine SrO-terminated surface, suggesting possibility for realization of a surface half-metallic film. PMID:23570268

  16. The effect of atomic mass on the physical spatial resolution in EBSD.

    PubMed

    Chen, Delphic; Kuo, Jui-Chao

    2013-08-01

    In this study, bicrystals of silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al) were used to investigate the physical spatial resolution of the electron backscatter diffraction system combining a digital image correlation method. Furthermore, the effect of the accelerating voltage and probe current was investigated on the physical spatial resolution of the lateral and longitudinal resolutions for Ag and Al, respectively. The lateral and longitudinal resolutions show high dependency on the accelerating voltage for a low atomic mass material of Al, In addition, these are almost independent of the accelerating voltage for a high atomic mass material of Ag. Moreover, the probe current does not play any role on both the lateral and longitudinal resolutions. The best lateral resolutions for Al and Ag are 40.5 and 12.1 nm at 10 kV and 1 nA, respectively. The best longitudinal resolutions of 23.2 and 80 nm were obtained at 10 kV and 1 nA for Al and Ag, respectively. PMID:23920163

  17. Self-directed learning: A heretical experiment in teaching physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, M. P.

    1995-06-01

    An account is given of the instruction of university-level introductory physics courses according to an educational framework in which (1) curiosity-driven inquiry is recognized as an essential activity of both science and science teaching; (2) the principal role of the instructor is to provide students the incentive to learn science through their pursuit of personally meaningful questions; (3) the commission of errors is regarded as a natural concomitant to learning and is not penalized; (4) emphasis is placed on laboratory investigations that foster minimally restrictive free exploration rather than prescriptive adherence to formal procedure; (5) research skills are developed through out-of-class projects that involve literature search, experiment, and the modeling of real-world physical phenomena: (6) the precise and articulate use of language is regarded as seminal to communication in science (as it is in the humanities) and is promoted through activities that help develop written and oral language skills; (7) the evaluation of student performance is based on a portfolio of accomplished work rather than on the outcome of formal testing.

  18. Power supplies and quench protection for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C.L. [Raytheon Engineers & Constructors, Princeton, NJ (United States). EBASCO Div.

    1994-07-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is an advanced tokamak project aimed at the production of quasi-steady state plasmas with advanced shape, heating, and particle control. TPX is to be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) using many of the facilities from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). First plasma is scheduled for the year 2000. TPX will be the first tokamak to utilize superconducting (SC) magnets in both the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) systems. This is a new feature which requires not only a departure from the traditional tokamak power supply schemes but also that ultra-reliable quench protection devices be used to rapidly discharge the stored energy from the magnets in the event of a quench. This paper describes the plan and basis for the adaptation and augmentation of the PPPL/TFTR power system facilities to supply TPX. Following a description of the basic operational requirements, four major areas are addressed, namely the AC power system, the TF power supply, the PF power supply, and quench protection for the TF and PF systems.

  19. Creating a Before-School Physical Activity Program: Pre-Service Physical Educators' Experiences and Implications for PETE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Jaimie; van der Mars, Hans; Jahn, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) majors enrolled in an internship course that provided them with authentic experiences promoting and facilitating a before-school physical activity (PA) program and to examine the associated implications for PETE programs within the Comprehensive…

  20. A Data Transmission Method Based on Ethernet Physical Layer for Particle Physics Experiment

    E-print Network

    Xi-Ru, Huang; Jia-Jun, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Due to the advantages of universality, flexibility and high performance, fast Ethernet is widely used in readout system design of modern particle physics experiments. However, Ethernet is usually used together with TCP/IP protocol stack, which makes it difficult to be implemented because designers have to use operating system to process this protocol. Furthermore, TCP/IP protocol degrades the transmission efficiency and real-time performance. To maximize the performance of Ethernet in physics experiment applications, a data readout method based on physical layer (PHY) is proposed in this paper. In this method, TCP/IP protocol is forsaken and replaced with a customized and simple protocol, which make it easier to be implemented. On each readout module, data from front-end electronics is first fed into an FPGA for protocol processing and then sent out to a PHY chip controlled by this FPGA for transmission. This kind of data path is fully implemented by hardware. While from the side of data acquisition system (D...

  1. Simulations of the edge plasma: the role of atomic, molecular and surface physics

    SciTech Connect

    Coster, D. P.; Gori, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bonnin, X. [CNRS-LIMHP, Universite Paris 13, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Reiter, D. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, FZ Juelich, EURATOM Association, Juelich (Germany); Kukushkin, A. [ITER Organization, Cadarache (France); Krstic, P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strand, P. [Chalmers University, Gothenburg (Sweden); Eriksson, L.-G. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2009-05-02

    Atomic, molecular and surface physics plays an important role in simulations of the edge plasma in present day tokamaks, and in the predictive simulations of new devices. The edge plasma - in this context, the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL), the Private Flux Region (PFR) and core region close to the separatrix (or Last Closed Flux Surface, LCFS) - provides the boundary conditions for the main plasma, and is the region where much of the power and all of the particle exhaust occurs. It is also the region where the plasma interacts with solid surfaces, puffed gases and gas arising from recycling. The results of plasma edge simulations can depend strongly on the availability and quality of the atomic, molecular and surface data (the peak plasma temperature at the divertor was found to vary by a factor of five dependent on the choice of atomic physics data in a recent sensitivity analysis). The current material choice for ITER with Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) consisting of C, Be and W also presents challenges, both in the availability of the necessary data for W, and in the plethora of charge states for W. Another challenge presented by the material choice is the likely presence of mixed materials formed by the migration of material from one surface to another. These introduce effects like alloying and preferential sputtering as well as new (much longer) time-scales in the problem.Efforts to incorporate a bundled charge state model within one of the present edge simulation codes, SOLPS, will be described, as well as efforts to address some of the questions raised by mixed materials. Some issues related to data consistency and traceability within the context of the European effort on Integrated Tokamak Modelling will also be addressed.

  2. First experience with the ATOMS® implant, a new treatment option for male urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Cansino, Jose Ramón; Portilla, María Alejandra; Rodriguez, Simón Claudio; Hidalgo, Luis; De la Peña, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as any complaint of involuntary urine leakage. A description is provided of our experience with the ATOMS® (Adjustable Transobturator Male System. Agency for Medical Innovations. A.M.I.) adjustable implant in patients with mild to moderate UI. Material and methods A retrospective study was made of the data referring to 13 patients treated with this adjustable system. Demographic and personal data were collected along with information on the etiology, severity, characteristics, duration of UI, complementary tests, surgery times, complications and results obtained. Results The full continence (no use of pad) recovery rate at the close of the study was 12/13 (92.3%). Three cases required a single filling during the mean 16 months of follow–up (range 4–32; median 14 months). A complication in the form of perineal hematoma was resolved with conservative treatment and a case of urinary retention was resolved by placing a bladder catheter for the duration of one week. Three patients experienced perineal–scrotal dysesthesias that disappeared spontaneously in the first three months. Conclusions The described adjustable continence system has been found to be very effective in males with mild to moderate UI. In our experience, the ATOMS® implant offers excellent results over the middle term with a very low rate of complications that were easily resolved in all cases. PMID:25667760

  3. The new spin physics program of the COMPASS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Luís

    2015-05-01

    The COMPASS experiment, at CERN SPS, has been compiling for more than a decade successful and precise results on nucleon structure and hadron spectroscopy, leading to statistical errors much smaller than previously measured. The new COMPASS spin physics program, starting this year, aims to a rather complete nucleon structure description; this new representation goes beyond the collinear approximation by including the quark intrinsic transverse momentum distributions. The theoretical framework, for this new picture of the nucleon, is given by the Transverse Momentum Dependent distributions (TMDs) and by the Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs). The TMDs, in particular Sivers, Boer-Mulders, pretzelosity and transversity functions will be obtained through the polarised Drell-Yan process, for the first time. The results will be complementary to those already obtained via polarised Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS). Also unpolarised SIDIS will be studied, allowing the knowledge improvement of the strange quark PDF and the access to the kaon fragmentation functions (FFs). Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) off an unpolarised hydrogen target will be used to study the GPDs, in a kinematic region not yet covered by any existing experiment.

  4. a Physical Random Signal in Ether-Drift Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consoli, M.; Pluchino, A.

    2015-01-01

    In ether-drift experiments, one usually assumes that the oscopic Earth's motion should be detectable in the laboratory from the time dependence of the data. Therefore a stochastic signal, which does not exhibit the smooth modulations expected from the Earth's rotation, tends to be considered as a spurious instrumental effect. The real situation, however, might be more subtle if the hypothetical ether (i.e. the physical vacuum) resembles a turbulent fluid where large-scale and small-scale motions are only indirectly related. In this case, the data might contain a genuine stochastic component. To test this scenario, a numerical simulation was performed to estimate the signal by assuming i) an `emergent-gravity' picture and ii) a simple model of statistically isotropic and homogeneous turbulence. In this framework, the present data become consistent with velocity fluctuations whose absolute scale is determined by the Earth's cosmic motion with respect to the CMB (projected in the plane of the interferometer at the latitude of the laboratory). Therefore the Earth's motion, although undetectable from the naive time dependence of the data, could nevertheless show up in their statistical distributions. In particular, the predicted non-gaussian nature of the instantaneous data could be tested with the forthcoming generation of precise cryogenic experiments, with potentially important implications for our understanding of both gravity and relativity.

  5. Interplay of particle, nuclear and atomic physics in rare weak decays

    SciTech Connect

    Suhonen, Jouni [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2010-11-24

    The neutrinoless double beta decays of atomic nuclei are considered at the present the most viable way to access the fundamental nature and absolute mass scale of the neutrino. Recently one sub-class of these decays, the neutrinoless double electron capture (0{nu}ECEC), has attracted a lot of attention due to its potential of detection. In particular, the resonant 0{nu}ECEC is of interest owing to the possible huge enhancement of the corresponding decay rate by a resonance condition. At present the mass differences of the involved atom pairs are being measured by the Penning trap technique for several potential resonant 0{nu}ECEC decays. By evaluating the associated nuclear matrix elements using nuclear-structure models one can access the half-lives of these decays and thus predict their detection potential in underground experiments in the future. The absolute mass scale of the neutrino can also be accessed through beta decays of small decay energy. In these cases the effects of atomic origin may introduce non-negligible, even dramatic effects for Q values in the regime of few hundreds of eV and below.

  6. The physics of non-Newtonian liquid slurry atomization. Part 2: Twin-fluid atomization of non-Newtonian liquids -- First quarterly technical report, 1 January--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, A.; Chigier, N.

    1994-06-01

    The changes in the physical processes of atomization as a result of adding a high molecular weight polymer in low concentrations to liquid have been studied. Both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids were investigated with particular emphasis on the non-Newtonian rheological characteristics. It was found that viscoelastic liquids are much more difficult to atomize than viscoinelastic liquids. Viscoinelastic liquids showed a breakup behavior similar to that of water sprays. Viscoelastic materials showed remarkably different breakup patterns. The ligaments were seen to undergo a very large stretching motion before they breakup, resulting in long threads of liquid attached to droplets. The normal stresses developed in viscoelastic materials are much higher than their associated shear stresses. Consequently, the development of the large normal stresses appears to be the most important rheological mechanism that inhibits breakup. The non-Newtonian liquids selected for the experiment were aqueous solutions of Xanthan gum and Polyacrylamide E10.

  7. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Multiphoton ionization of the hydrogen atom exposed to circularly or linearly polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei-Jie; He, Feng

    2009-12-01

    This paper studies the multiphoton ionization of the hydrogen atom exposed to the linearly or circularly polarized laser pulses by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. It finds that the ratio of the ionization probabilities by linearly and circularly polarized laser pulses varies with the numbers of absorbing photons. With the same laser intensity, the circularly polarized laser pulse favors to ionize the atom with more ease than the linearly polarized laser pulse if only two or three photons are necessary to be absorbed. For the higher order multiphoton ionization, the linearly polarized laser pulse has the advantage over circularly polarized laser pulse to ionize the atom.

  8. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Variation of photoabsorption cross section of atomic silver from isolated to condensed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiao-Guang; Gong, Yu-Bing; Qu, Zhao-Jun

    2009-04-01

    The influence of the local-field on the photoabsorption cross section of the atomic silver is studied in detail by using the Clausius-Mossotti (CM) model and the Onsager model separately. The variations of the photoabsorption cross section of atomic silver with number density and radius of the environmental interaction cavity are studied systematically by using more general expressions for the photoabsorption cross sections, proposed by Sun et al recently. It has proved to be reasonable to model the optical response properties of bulky material by coupling the property of isolated atom with the environmental effects in the present work.

  9. Neutrino oscillation physics potential of the T2K experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T2K Collaboration; Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bartet-Friburg, P.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; de Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Feusels, T.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Garcia, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashino, T.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Koga, T.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, J. P.; Ludovici, L.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martins, P.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K. G.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shah, R.; Shaker, F.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Wakamatsu, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Warzycha, W.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshida, K.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; ?muda, J.

    2015-04-01

    The observation of the recent electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam and the high-precision measurement of the mixing angle ? _{13} have led to a re-evaluation of the physics potential of the T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. Sensitivities are explored for CP violation in neutrinos, non-maximal sin ^22? _{23}, the octant of ? _{23}, and the mass hierarchy, in addition to the measurements of ? _{CP}, sin ^2? _{23}, and ? m^2_{32}, for various combinations of ?-mode and bar {? }-mode data-taking. With an exposure of 7.8× 10^{21} protons-on-target, T2K can achieve 1? resolution of 0.050 (0.054) on sin ^2? _{23} and 0.040 (0.045)× 10^{-3} {eV}^2 on ? m^2_{32} for 100% (50%) neutrino beam mode running assuming sin ^2? _{23}=0.5 and ? m^2_{32} = 2.4× 10^{-3} eV^2. T2K will have sensitivity to the CP-violating phase ? _{CP} at 90% C.L. or better over a significant range. For example, if sin ^22? _{23} is maximal (i.e. ? _{23}=45°) the range is -115° < ? _{CP}< -60° for normal hierarchy and +50° < ? _{CP}< +130° for inverted hierarchy. When T2K data is combined with data from the NO?A experiment, the region of oscillation parameter space where there is sensitivity to observe a non-zero ? _{CP} is substantially increased compared to if each experiment is analyzed alone.

  10. Review study and evaluation of possible flight experiments relating to cloud physics experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. J.; Wu, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    The general objectives of the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory Program are to improve the level of knowledge in atmospheric cloud research by placing at the disposal of the terrestrial-bound atmospheric cloud physicist a laboratory that can be operated in the environment of zero-gravity or near zero-gravity. This laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamic, electrical, or other techniques to support the object under study. The inhouse analysis of the Skylab 3 and 4 experiments in dynamics of oscillations, rotations, collisions and coalescence of water droplets under low gravity-environment is presented.

  11. Between atomic and nuclear physics: radioactive decays of highly-charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanasov, Dinko; Blaum, Klaus; Bosch, Fritz; Brandau, Carsten; Bühler, Paul; Chen, Xiangcheng; Dillmann, Iris; Faestermann, Thomas; Gao, Bingshui; Geissel, Hans; Gernhäuser, Roman; Hagmann, Siegbert; Izumikawa, Takuji; Hillenbrand, Pierre-Michel; Kozhuharov, Christophor; Kurcewicz, Jan; Litvinov, Sergey A.; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Ma, Xinwen; Münzenberg, Gottfried; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Nolden, Fritz; Ohtsubo, Takashi; Ozawa, Akira; Cagla Ozturk, Fatma; Patyk, Zygmunt; Reed, Matthew; Reifarth, Rene; Shahab Sanjari, Mohammad; Schneider, Dieter; Steck, Markus; Stöhlker, Thomas; Sun, Baohua; Suzaki, Fumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Trageser, Christian; Tu, Xiaolin; Uesaka, Tomohiro; Walker, Philip; Wang, Meng; Weick, Helmut; Winckler, Nicolas; Woods, Philip; Xu, Hushan; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Yan, Xinliang; Zhang, Yuhu; FRS-ESR, for the; ILIMA; SPARC; TBWD Collaborations

    2015-07-01

    Highly charged radioactive ions can be stored for extended periods of time in storage rings which allows for precision measurements of their decay modes. The straightforward motivation for performing such studies is that fully ionised nuclei or few-electron ions can be viewed as clean quantum-mechanical systems, in which the interactions of the many electrons can be either excluded or treated precisely. Thus, the influence of the electron shell on the decay probability can be investigated. Another important motivation is stellar nucleosynthesis, which proceeds at high temperatures and the involved atoms are therefore highly ionised. Presented here is a compact review of the relevant experiments conducted at heavy-ion storage rings. Furthermore, we outline the perspectives for future experiments at new-generation storage-ring facilities.

  12. Electrochromic WO[subscript 3] Films: Nanotechnology Experiments in Instrumental Analysis and Physical Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepel, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This experiment teaches students the methodology of investigating novel properties of materials using new instrumental techniques: atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (EQCN), voltammetric techniques (linear potential scan and chronoamperometry), and light reflectance measurements. The unique capabilities of…

  13. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Scaled-energy spectroscopy of a |M| = 1 Rydberg barium atom in an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Quan, Wei; Shen, Li; Yang, Hai-Feng; Shi, Ting-Yun; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Hong-Ping; Zhan, Ming-Sheng

    2009-11-01

    We observe strong energy-dependent quantum defects in the scaled-energy Stark spectra for |M| = 1 Rydberg states of barium atoms at three scaled energies: ? = -2.000, ? = -2.500 and ? = -3.000. In an attempt to explain the observations, theoretical calculations of closed orbit theory based on a model potential including core effect are performed for non-hydrogenic atoms. While such a potential has been uniformly successful for alkali atoms with a single valence electron, it fails to match experimental results for barium atoms in the 6snp Rydberg states with two valence electrons. Our study points out that this discrepancy is due to the strong perturbation from the 5d8p state, which voids the simple approximation for constant quantum defects of principle quantum number n.

  14. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: A generic procedure for determining atomic LS spectral terms and their LS eigenfunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhuang; Bacalis, C. N.

    2009-02-01

    This paper develops a Fortran code which is capable to construct the simplest LS eigenfunctions for desired symmetry and determine all permitted atomic LS spectral terms under a given orbital occupancy by implementing and extending the Schaefer and Harris method. Examples (in some cases the most complete set to date) of multiple spectroscopic terms of LS coupling of atomic states for both non-equivalent and equivalent electronic configurations are given. It also corrects a few observed errors from the recent literature.

  15. Fingerprints of classical chaos in manipulation of cold atoms in the dynamical tunneling experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Osovski, Shmuel; Moiseyev, Nimrod [Department of Chemistry and Minerva Center of Nonlinear Physics in Complex Systems Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2005-09-15

    The recent pioneering experiments of the [Nature 412, 52 (2001)] and [Science, 293, 274 (2001)] groups have demonstrated the dynamical tunneling of cold atoms interacting with standing electromagnetic waves. It has been shown [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 253201 (2002)], that the tunneling oscillations observed in these experiments correspondingly stems from two- and three-Floquet quantum state mechanism and can be controlled by varying the experimental parameters. The question where are the fingerprints of the classical chaotic dynamics in a quantum dynamical process which is controlled by 2 or 3 quantum states remains open. Our calculations show that although the effective ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) associated with the two experiments is large, and the quantum system is far from its semiclassical limit, the quantum Floquet-Bloch quasienergy states still can be classified as regular and chaotic states. In both experiments the quantum and the classical phase-space entropies are quite similar, although the classical phase space is a mixed regular-chaotic space. It is also shown that as the wave packet which is initially localized at one of the two inner regular islands oscillates between them through the chaotic sea, it accumulates a random phase which causes the decay of the amplitude of the oscillating mean momentum, , as measured in both experiments. The extremely high sensitivity of the rate of decay of the oscillations of to the very small changes in the population of different Floquet-Bloch states, is another type of fingerprint of chaos in quantum dynamics that presumably was measured in the NIST and AUSTIN experiments for the first time.

  16. Present trends and future perspectives for atomic and molecular physics at the new X-ray light sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Piancastelli; M. Simon; K. Ueda

    2010-01-01

    The major advances in the actual and predicted performances of new light sources (low-emittance storage rings and soft and hard X-ray free-electron lasers) in the last few years have provided a new impulse to the development of atomic and molecular physics, in particular in what concerns electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, liquids and clusters investigated with photoelectron spectroscopy,

  17. A preliminary discussion of gravitational physics experiments for the Spacelab era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, R.; Winkler, C. G.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of past, present, and proposed future experiments in gravitational physics is given. These experiments are concerned with the measurement of relativistic gravity effects to test theories of gravitation. Certain experiments which could be performed on shuttle and Spacelab missions and the potential of Spacelab for gravitation physics research are discussed.

  18. The use of cylindrical lenses in easy experiments for physics education and the magic arts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanislaw Bednarek; Jerzy Krysiak

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the properties of cylindrical lenses and provide some examples of their use in easy school physics experiments. Such experiments could be successfully conducted in the context of science education, in fun experiments that teach physics and in science fair projects, or used to entertain an audience by staging tricks, effects or illusions

  19. Nanotopographical changes on graphite tube surfaces in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry experiments as studied by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habicht, J.; Prohaska, Th.; Friedbacher, G.; Grasserbauer, M.; Ortner, H. M.

    1995-07-01

    Atomic force microscope images of surfaces of graphite tubes used in chromium determinations in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS) reveal severe topographical modifications on both the micrometer and the nanometer scale after only a few atomisation cycles. A previously undescribed nanostructure has been found on unused and also on used graphite tubes. During the first atomisation cycles the protrusion size distribution is found to become more uniform, which is in agreement with the observed increase in reproducibility of ET-AAS measurements after some 10 to 20 analysis cycles. The homogenisation of the graphite surface is interpreted as the initial phase of a secondary coating.

  20. FPGA-based Cherenkov Ring Recognition in Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments

    E-print Network

    Jantsch, Axel

    FPGA-based Cherenkov Ring Recognition in Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments Ming Liu adopted to identify particles flying through the detector systems in nuclear and particle physics for particle recognition. 1 Introduction Nuclear and particle physics is a branch of physics that studies

  1. The AMS Measurements and Its Applications in Nuclear Physics at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE)

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Shan; Shen Hongtao; He Ming; Dong Kejun; He Guozhu; Wang Xianggao; Yuan Jian; Wang Wei; Wu Shaoyong [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O.Box 275-80, Beijing 102413 (China); Ruan Xiangdong; Wu Weimin [College of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China)

    2010-05-12

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), initiated in late 1970s at McMaster university based on the accelerator and detector technique, has long been applied in the studies on archaeology, geology, and cosmology, as a powerful tool for isotope dating. The advantages of AMS in the analysis of rare nuclides by direct counting of the atoms, small sample size and relatively free from the interferences of molecular ions have been well documented. This paper emphasizes that AMS can not only be used for archaeology, geology, environment, biology and so on, but also served as a unique tool for nuclear physics research. In this paper, the determination of the half-lives of {sup 79}Se, the measurements of the cross-sections of {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92g}Nb and {sup 238}U(n,3n){sup 236}U reactions, the detection and determination of ultratrace impurities in neutrino detector materials, and the measurement of the fission product nuclide {sup 126}Sn, are to be introduced, as some of examples of AMS applications in nuclear research conducted in AMS lab of China Institute of Atomic Energy. Searching for superheavy nuclides by using AMS is being planned.

  2. Teaching physics to large classes: the Botswana experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Pushpendra K.

    1997-03-01

    Some of the skills required to teach large classes are very different from the skills used for smaller classes. Good planning, coordination and team work are essential to the success of the course. In developing countries, there are also limitations of resources which include lack of manpower, laboratory equipment, facilities for their repair and maintenance, classroom and laboratory space, and audio-visual materials and equipment. This paper discusses the teaching of a physics course at the University of Botswana to a class of over 450 students. The lectures are held in two groups, and the class is divided into groups of 25 to 30 students for tutorials. Laboratories are conducted for groups of 50 to 60 students. The frequency of tests, different assessment components, and procedures and strategies for fair marking are also discussed. The experience gained from the case of Botswana can be applied to other countries of Africa, many of which have similar socio-economic conditions with a similar academic background of students.

  3. Lower hybrid system design for the Tokamak physics experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, P.L.; Conner, D.L.; Swain, D.W.; Yugo, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bernabei, S.; Greenough, N. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

    1995-12-31

    The lower hybrid (LH) launcher configuration has been redesigned to integrate the functions of the vertical four-way power splitter and the front waveguide array (front array). This permits 256 waveguide channels to be fed by only 64 waveguides at the vacuum window interface. The resulting configuration is a more compact coupler, which incorporates the simplicity of a multijunction coupler while preserving the spectral flexibility of a conventional lower hybrid launcher. Other spin-offs of the redesign are reduction in thermal incompatibility between the front array and vacuum windows, improved maintainability, in situ vacuum window replacement, a reduced number of radio frequency (rf) connections, and a weight reduction of 7300 kg. There should be a significant cost reduction as well. Issues associated with the launcher design and fabrication have been addressed by a research and development program that includes brazing of the front array and testing of the power splitter configuration to confirm that phase errors due to reflections in the shorted splitter legs will not significantly impact the rf spectrum. The Conceptual Design Review requires that radiation levels at the torus radial port mounting flange and outer surface of the toroidal field coils should be sufficiently low to permit hands-on maintenance. Low activation materials and neutron shielding are incorporated in the launcher design to meet these requirements. The launcher is configured to couple 3 MW of steady state LH heating/LH current drive power at 3.7 GHz to the Tokamak Physics Experiment plasma.

  4. The Spheromak Turbulence Experiment: The Next Phase in Spheromak Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezonlin, Ephrem; Williams, Kyron; Weatherford, C. A.; Johnson, J. A., III; Alexander, A. B.; Scime, Earl; Keesee, A.; Lusk, G.; Reynolds, E.; Vandervort, R.; Arnold, N. I.; Gilmore, K.; Thomas, E., Jr.; Woodruff, Simon

    2011-10-01

    The spheromak turbulence experiment (STPX) is a collaboration between FAMU, WVU, Auburn University, and Woodruff Scientific, Inc. The fundamental purpose of STPX is to advance Spheromak physics toward producing a burning plasma and new insights on astrophysical systems with magnetic reconnection. FAMU will employ microwave pulses to manipulate the stable state. In addition, closely coupled NIMROD modeling and experimentation will take place using the FAMU computational cluster. Auburn University is providing a pair of movable probe arrays consisting of a triple probe and a series of four saturation current/floating potential probes for making instantaneous measurements of plasma parameters. West Virginia University is providing an array of (N), X-MHz, B-dot coils for making measurements of magnetic fluctuations. West Virginia University is also providing an array of 25, 2 MHz bandwidth, B-dot coils and differential amplifiers for making high time-resolution measurements of magnetic fluctuations at the edge of the plasma. Woodruff Scientific designed and constructed the STPX vessel. Research supported in part by DOE FES and NSF.

  5. Experiences developing ALEGRA: A C++ coupled physics framework

    SciTech Connect

    Budge, K.G.; Peery, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    ALEGRA is a coupled physics framework originally written to simulate inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments being conducted at the PBFA-II facility at Sandia National Laboratories. It has since grown into a large software development project supporting a number of computational programs at Sandia. As the project has grown, so has the development team, from the original two authors to a group of over fifteen programmers crossing several departments. In addition, ALEGRA now runs on a wide variety of platforms, from large PCs to the ASCI Teraflops massively parallel supercomputer. The authors discuss the reasons for ALEGRA`s success, which include the intelligent use of object-oriented techniques and the choice of C++ as the programming language. They argue that the intelligent use of development tools, such as build tools (e.g. make), compiler, debugging environment (e.g. dbx), version control system (e.g. cvs), and bug management software (e.g. ClearDDTS), is nearly as important as the choice of language and paradigm.

  6. Advantages and limitations of LSO scintillator in nuclear physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ludziejewski, T.; Moszynska, K.; Moszynski, M.; Wolski, D. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)] [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Klamra, W.; Norlin, L.O. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Physics] [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; Devitsin, E.; Kozlov, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-08-01

    Light yield, light pulse shape due to {gamma}-rays and {alpha}-particles, energy and time resolutions for three different samples of the LSO scintillator were studied using an XP2020Q photomultiplier and an S3590-03 photodiode. Light yields of 4,200{+-}200 phe/MeV and 18,500{+-}900 e-h pair/MeV were measured for the PM tube and the photodiode, respectively. The light pulse shape exhibits a pure exponential decay with a time constant of 47.2{+-}1.3 ns for both {gamma}-rays and {alpha}-particles. Energy resolutions of 10% and 14.6% for the 662 keV {gamma}-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source were obtained for the photomultiplier and the photodiode readout, respectively. A time resolution of 180 ns was observed for {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays at 1 MeV threshold and 400 ps for 100 keV threshold. The study confirmed a number of advantages of the LSO scintillator for nuclear physics experiments, however, for small size samples. For larger volumes the natural radioactivity of the LSO, about 300 counts/s/cm{sup 3}, may limit possible applications. The high number of e-h pair produced in the photodiodes makes LSO very attractive for small compact scintillation probes.

  7. Hadron Physics with KLOE and KLOE-2 Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Di Donato, C. [Sezione I.N.F.N. Napoli- Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant'Angelo Via Cintia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy)

    2010-12-28

    The KLOE experiment has collected 2.5 fb{sup -1} at the peak of the {phi} resonance at the e{sup +}e{sup -} collider DA{Phi}NE in Frascati and KLOE-2 is expected to start data taking at the upgraded DA{Phi}NE {phi}-factory late 2010, with the aim to collect 25 fb{sup -1} at the {phi} peak and it is under discussion the collection of 5 fb{sup -1} between 1 and 2.5 GeV. KLOE data have been used to investigate the properties of the light scalar mesons f{sub 0}(980), a{sub 0}(980) and light pseudoscalar mesons {eta}, {eta}', using {phi} radiative decays. Gamma-gamma interactions allow to investigate also the f{sub 0}(600)/{sigma} meson, observing the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} into e{sup +}e{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}; a direct search of the f{sub 0}(600)/{sigma} into {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} decay is performed with data taken at a center of mass of 1 GeV, where {phi} decays are suppressed. We present ongoing analysis and final results already published with the full KLOE statistics and the scientific program of KLOE-2 collaboration on hadron physics.

  8. Particle Control in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.D.; Hill, D.N.; Hooper, E.B.; Buchenauer, D.; McLean, H.; Wang, Z.; Woodruff, S.; Wurden, G.

    2000-05-01

    In this paper we report on density and impurity measurements in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) which has recently started operation. The SSPX spheromak plasma is sustained by coaxial helicity injection for a duration of 2msec with peak toroidal currents of up to 0.5MA. The plasma-facing components consist of tungsten-coated copper to minimize sputtering. The surfaces are conditioned by a combination of baking at 150 C, glow discharge cleaning, Titanium gettering, and pulse-discharge cleaning with helium plasmas. In this way we can achieve density control so that the plasma density ({approx} 1-4 x 10{sup 20}m{sup -3}) matches the gas input. Low-density operation is presently limited by breakdown requirements, but we hope that new gas valves with supersonic nozzles will allow for a further reduction in density. We find that the conditioning reduces the impurity radiation to the point where it is no longer important to the energy balance, and long-lived spheromak plasmas are obtained (decay times of 1.5msec).

  9. Physics Design of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Neilson; M.C. Zarnstorff; J.F. Lyon; the NCSX Team

    2002-02-21

    Compact quasi-axisymmetric stellarators offer the possibility of combining the steady-state low-recirculating power, external control, and disruption resilience of previous stellarators with the low-aspect ratio, high beta-limit, and good confinement of advanced tokamaks. Quasi-axisymmetric equilibria have been developed for the proposed National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) with average aspect ratio approximately 4.4 and average elongation approximately 1.8. Even with bootstrap-current consistent profiles, they are passively stable to the ballooning, kink, vertical, Mercier, and neoclassical-tearing modes for b > 4%, without the need for external feedback or conducting walls. The bootstrap current generates only 1/4 of the magnetic rotational transform at b = 4% (the rest is from the coils). Transport simulations show adequate fast-ion confinement and thermal neoclassical transport similar to equivalent tokamaks. Modular coils have been designed which reproduce the physics properties, provide good flux surfaces, and allow flexible variation of the plasma shape to control the predicted MHD stability and transport properties.

  10. Ion acoustic wave experiments in a high school plasma physics laboratory Walter Gekelman

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angles, University of

    Ion acoustic wave experiments in a high school plasma physics laboratory Walter Gekelman Department and faculty from UCLA constructed a plasma physics device and began research on ion acoustic waves. Plasma

  11. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Model Potential Calculations of Oscillator Strength Spectra of Rydberg Li Atoms in External Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Hui-Yan; Shi, Ting-Yun

    2009-08-01

    By combining the B-spline basis set with model potential (B-spline + MP), we present oscillator strength spectra of Rydberg Li atoms in external fields. The photoabsorption spectra are analyzed. Over the narrow energy ranges considered in this paper, the structure of the spectra can be independent of the initial state chosen for a given atom. Our results are in good agreement with previous high-precision experimental data and theoretical calculations, where the R-matrix approach together with multichannel quantum defect theory (R-matrix+MQDT) was used. It is suggested that the present methods can be applied to deal with the oscillator strength spectra of Rydberg atoms in crossed electric and magnetic fields.

  12. Fundamental underwater cutting method experiment as a dismantling tool for a commercial atomic reactor vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Hamasaki, M.; Murao, Y.; Tateiwa, F.

    1982-10-01

    A new underwater cutting technique applying underwater dismantling to commercial atomic reactor vessels has been developed. This technique involves gas cutting the mild steel underwater after removing the stainless steel cladding by arc gouging. The arc gouging is achieved by blowing out metal--which is melted by an arc between a mild steel electrode wire and the stainless steel--by jetting water from a rear water nozzle. The fuel gas employed for preheating for the gas cutting was a mixed gas of propane and 30% methylacetylene. The test piece used was made of 300-mm-thick mild steel with 8-mm-thick stainless steel cladding. The fundamental cutting experiment was carried out successfully under a cutting speed condition of 15 cm/min at a water depth of 20 cm. This apparatus is easy to handle, compact, and cheap.

  13. Optics and interferometry with atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, Alexander D.; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Pritchard, David E. [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Atominstitut Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, TU-Wien (Austria); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Interference with atomic and molecular matter waves is a rich branch of atomic physics and quantum optics. It started with atom diffraction from crystal surfaces and the separated oscillatory fields technique used in atomic clocks. Atom interferometry is now reaching maturity as a powerful art with many applications in modern science. In this review the basic tools for coherent atom optics are described including diffraction by nanostructures and laser light, three-grating interferometers, and double wells on atom chips. Scientific advances in a broad range of fields that have resulted from the application of atom interferometers are reviewed. These are grouped in three categories: (i) fundamental quantum science, (ii) precision metrology, and (iii) atomic and molecular physics. Although some experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates are included, the focus of the review is on linear matter wave optics, i.e., phenomena where each single atom interferes with itself.

  14. Atom Chips

    E-print Network

    Ron Folman; Peter Krüger; Donatella Cassettari; Björn Hessmo; Thomas Maier; Jörg Schmiedmayer

    1999-12-23

    Atoms can be trapped and guided using nano-fabricated wires on surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals. These Atom Chips form the basis for robust and widespread applications of cold atoms ranging from atom optics to fundamental questions in mesoscopic physics, and possibly quantum information systems.

  15. Physical Education for Children: Movement Foundations and Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Charles A.; Thaxton, Nolan A.

    This textbook for elementary physical education teachers is divided into seven parts. The topics covered are: (1) instructional objectives and competencies definitions for elementary physical education; (2) physical and mental characteristics of elementary school children; (3) the science of movement and perceptual motor development of children;…

  16. Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Atomic Oxygen Correlation for the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambler, Arielle H.; Inoshita, Karen E.; Roberts, Lily M.; Barbagallo, Claire E.; deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2) Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) polymers were exposed to the environment of low Earth orbit (LEO) for 3.95 years from 2001 to 2005. There were 41 different PEACE polymers, which were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) in order to determine their atomic oxygen erosion yields. In LEO, atomic oxygen is an environmental durability threat, particularly for long duration mission exposures. Although spaceflight experiments, such as the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment, are ideal for determining LEO environmental durability of spacecraft materials, ground-laboratory testing is often relied upon for durability evaluation and prediction. Unfortunately, significant differences exist between LEO atomic oxygen exposure and atomic oxygen exposure in ground-laboratory facilities. These differences include variations in species, energies, thermal exposures and radiation exposures, all of which may result in different reactions and erosion rates. In an effort to improve the accuracy of ground-based durability testing, ground-laboratory to in-space atomic oxygen correlation experiments have been conducted. In these tests, the atomic oxygen erosion yields of the PEACE polymers were determined relative to Kapton H using a radio-frequency (RF) plasma asher (operated on air). The asher erosion yields were compared to the MISSE 2 PEACE erosion yields to determine the correlation between erosion rates in the two environments. This paper provides a summary of the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment; it reviews the specific polymers tested as well as the techniques used to determine erosion yield in the asher, and it provides a correlation between the space and ground laboratory erosion yield values. Using the PEACE polymers asher to in-space erosion yield ratios will allow more accurate in-space materials performance predictions to be made based on plasma asher durability evaluation.

  17. Focal plane array based infrared thermography in fine physical experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainer, Boris G.

    2008-03-01

    By two examples of dissimilar physical phenomena causing thermophysical effects, the unique capabilities of one of the up-to-date methods of experimental physics—focal plane array (FPA) based infrared (IR) thermography (IRT), are demonstrated distinctly. Experimenters inexperienced in IRT can grasp how this method provides a means for combining real-time visualization with quantitative analysis. A narrow-band short-wavelength IR camera was used in the experiments. It is discussed and stated that IRT is best matched and suited to the next two test conditions—when a heated specimen is thin and when heat is generated in the immediate region of a surface of a solid. The first prerequisite is realized in the search for directional patterns of combined low-power radiation sources with the use of the IRT-aided method. The second one is realized in studies of water vapour adsorption on uneven (irregular) surfaces of solid materials. With multiple swatches taken from a set of different fabrics and used as experimental samples, a sharp distinction between adsorptivities of their surfaces is strikingly illustrated by IRT time-domain measurements exhibiting the associated thermal effect ranging within an order of magnitude. It is justified that the described IRT-aided test can find practical implementation at least in the light industry. Emissivities of different fabrics are evaluated experimentally with the described reflection method based on the narrow spectral range of IRT. On the basis of direct IR observations, attention is paid to the need for close control over the surface temperature increase while the adsorption isotherms are being measured. Sensitivity of the FPA-based IRT method, as applied to examine the kinetics of initial stages of adsorption of gaseous molecules on the solid surface, is evaluated analytically and quantitatively. The relationship between the amount of adsorbate and the measurable excess of adsorbent temperature is found. It is discovered that the method makes it possible to control nano-quantities of the adsorbed matter, namely, it is sensitive to an incipient molecular film of 1/300-monolayer effective thickness.

  18. Experiments with interacting Bose and Fermi gases

    E-print Network

    Stan, Claudiu Andrei

    2005-01-01

    In the past few years, the study of trapped fermionic atoms evolved from the first cooling experiments which produced quantum degenerate samples to becoming one of the most exciting branches of current atomic physics ...

  19. Surface interaction mechanisms of 5eV atomic oxygen: Data analysis from the UAH experiment on STS-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) experiment which flew on the STS-8 mission had several objectives which were mostly of a speculative nature since so little was known of the processes of interest. The experiment provided original, if limited, data on: (1) oxidation of metal surfaces, (2) reaction rates of atomic oxygen with carbon and other surfaces and the dependence of these rates on temperature, and (3) the angular distribution of 5eV atoms scattered off a solid surface. Provided is a review of the results, with reference given to fuller published accounts where these are available.

  20. LDEF atomic oxygen fluence update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, Roger J.; Gillis, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The definition of LDEF atomic oxygen exposure involves theoretical prediction of fluxes, modeling of shielding and scattering effects, and comparison of predicted with observed atomic oxygen effects on LDEF experiments. Work is proceeding as follows: atomic oxygen fluxes and fluences have been recalculated using a more detailed orbit prediction program; a micro-environments program is being developed to account for the effects of experiment geometry on atomic oxygen flux; and chemical and physical measurements are being made on copper grounding straps to verify correspondence between predicted exposures and observed surface property variations. These three areas of work are reported briefly.

  1. Little Shop of Physics: Online Experiments (Last reviewed in the Scout Report on January 25, 2002)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Not to be confused with a certain Roger Corman movie that has a rather similar title, this site presents a wide range of very nice physics experiments, all of which can be done online. Dedicated staff members of the physics department at Colorado State University created the Little Shop of Physics site. The site includes the "Amazing Physics" area, which features experiments that will require common household items. There are a number of rather fun experiments offered up, and they include the "Two Ball Bounce", "Straw Flute", and "Vanishing Rods". Moving right along, "Computer Stuff" offers users a clutch of engaging and potentially mind-blowing experiments that require only a computer and just a touch of interest in physics. Teachers can convert physics neophytes with this site, and students who might be suspect of physics may become passionate converts after just a few visits.

  2. Plasma diagnostics for the sustained spheromak physics experiment

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, H. S.; Ahmed, A.; Buchenauer, D.; Den Hartog, D.; Domier, C. W.; Hill, D. N.; Holcomb, C.; Hooper, E. B.; Morse, E. C.; Nagata, M. (and others) [and others

    2001-01-01

    In this article we present an overview of the plasma diagnostics operating or planned for the sustained spheromak physics experiment device now operating at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A set of 46 wall-mounted magnetic probes provide the essential data necessary for magnetic reconstruction of the Taylor relaxed state. Rogowski coils measure currents induced in the flux conserver. A CO{sub 2} laser interferometer is used to measure electron line density. Spectroscopic measurements include an absolutely-calibrated spectrometer recording extended domain spectrometer for obtaining time-integrated visible ultraviolet spectra and two time-resolved vacuum monochrometers for studying the time evolution of two separate emission lines. Another time-integrated spectrometer records spectra in the visible range. Filtered silicon photodiode bolometers provide total power measurements, and a 16 channel photodiode spatial array gives radial emission profiles. Two-dimensional imaging of the plasma and helicity injector is provided by gated television cameras and associated image-processing software. An array of fiber-coupled photodetectors with H alpha filters view across the midplane and in the injector region to measure neutral hydrogen concentrations. Several novel diagnostics are being fielded including a transient internal probe (TIP) and an ultrashort-pulse reflectometer (USPR) microwave reflectometer. The TIP probe fires a very high velocity optical bullet through the plasma and will provide fairly nonpertabative internal magnetic field and current measurements to compare with an equilibrium code model fitted to wall-mounted probes. The USPR is being designed to study edge density and turbulent fluctuations. A multipoint Thomson scattering system is currently being installed to give radial temperature and density profiles.

  3. Plasma diagnostics for the sustained spheromak physics experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, H. S.; Ahmed, A.; Buchenauer, D.; Den Hartog, D.; Domier, C. W.; Hill, D. N.; Holcomb, C.; Hooper, E. B.; Morse, E. C.; Nagata, M.; Roh, Y.; Stallard, B.; Wood, R. D.; Woodruff, S.; Wurden, G.; Wang, Z.

    2001-01-01

    In this article we present an overview of the plasma diagnostics operating or planned for the sustained spheromak physics experiment device now operating at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A set of 46 wall-mounted magnetic probes provide the essential data necessary for magnetic reconstruction of the Taylor relaxed state. Rogowski coils measure currents induced in the flux conserver. A CO2 laser interferometer is used to measure electron line density. Spectroscopic measurements include an absolutely-calibrated spectrometer recording extended domain spectrometer for obtaining time-integrated visible ultraviolet spectra and two time-resolved vacuum monochrometers for studying the time evolution of two separate emission lines. Another time-integrated spectrometer records spectra in the visible range. Filtered silicon photodiode bolometers provide total power measurements, and a 16 channel photodiode spatial array gives radial emission profiles. Two-dimensional imaging of the plasma and helicity injector is provided by gated television cameras and associated image-processing software. An array of fiber-coupled photodetectors with H alpha filters view across the midplane and in the injector region to measure neutral hydrogen concentrations. Several novel diagnostics are being fielded including a transient internal probe (TIP) and an ultrashort-pulse reflectometer (USPR) microwave reflectometer. The TIP probe fires a very high velocity optical bullet through the plasma and will provide fairly nonpertabative internal magnetic field and current measurements to compare with an equilibrium code model fitted to wall-mounted probes. The USPR is being designed to study edge density and turbulent fluctuations. A multipoint Thomson scattering system is currently being installed to give radial temperature and density profiles.

  4. RNA and Its Ionic Cloud: Solution Scattering Experiments and Atomically Detailed Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Kirmizialtin, Serdal; Pabit, Suzette A.; Meisburger, Steve P.; Pollack, Lois; Elber, Ron

    2012-01-01

    RNA molecules play critical roles in many cellular processes. Traditionally viewed as genetic messengers, RNA molecules were recently discovered to have diverse functions related to gene regulation and expression. RNA also has great potential as a therapeutic and a tool for further investigation of gene regulation. Metal ions are an integral part of RNA structure and should be considered in any experimental or theoretical study of RNA. Here, we report a multidisciplinary approach that combines anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations with explicit solvent and ions around RNA. From experiment and simulation results, we find excellent agreement in the number and distribution of excess monovalent and divalent ions around a short RNA duplex. Although similar agreement can be obtained from a continuum description of the solvent and mobile ions (by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and accounting for finite ion size), the use of MD is easily extended to flexible RNA systems with thermal fluctuations. Therefore, we also model a short RNA pseudoknot and find good agreement between the MD results and the experimentally derived solution structures. Surprisingly, both deviate from crystal structure predictions. These favorable comparisons of experiment and simulations encourage work on RNA in all-atom dynamic models. PMID:22385853

  5. Experiences that influence a student's choice on majoring in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbin, Donya Rae

    Currently the production of college graduates with science and engineering degrees is insufficient to fill the increasing number of jobs requiring these skills. This study focuses on physics majors with an in-depth examination of student transitions from high school to college. Many different areas of influence could affect a student's decision to major in physics. The first phase of this study addresses all of the potential areas of influence identified from the literature. The goal was to identify common influences that might be used to increase students' interest in majoring in physics. Subjects (N=35) from the first phase were recruited from physics majors at diverse Michigan colleges and universities. The second phase of this study explored, in more depth, important areas of influence identified in the first phase of the study. Subjects (N=94) from the second phase were recruited from diverse colleges and universities in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. The interviews were also conducted via email. Approximately half of the students in the study decided to major in physics while still in high school. Their reasons relate to many of the areas of influence. For example, high school physics teachers were cited as a strong influence in many students' decisions to major in physics. Influential physics teachers were described as being helpful, encouraging and interesting. The teachers also need to be their students' number one cheerleader and not their number one critic. Some areas of influence were found to be different for males vs. females. A high percentage of all physics majors had influential adults with careers in physical or biological science fields. This percentage was even larger for female physics majors. Female students also showed a greater initial interest in astronomy than the male students. Thus, high school and college physics teachers should seek to expose students to science-related careers and adults with these careers. Astronomy is also an important and often over looked entry into physics.

  6. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Influence of Isotope Substitution Helium Atom on Partial Cross Sections in He-HF Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chun-Ri; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Li; Jiang, Gui-Sheng; Huang, Guo-Dong

    2009-11-01

    Close-coupling equation and anisotropic potential developed in our previous research are applied to HF-3He (4He, 6He, 8He, 10He) collision system, and partial cross sections (PCSs) at the incident energy of 40 meV are calculated. By analyzing the differences of these PCSs, change rules of PCSs with the increase of partial wave number, and with the change of the mass of isotope substitution helium atom are obtained. The results show that excitation PCSs converge faster than elastic PCSs for collision energy and each of systems considered here. Also excitation PCSs converge more rapidly for high-excited states. Tail effect is present only in elastic scattering and low-excited states but not in high-excited states. With the increase of the mass of isotope substitution helium atom, converging speed of elastic, total inelastic, and state-to-state excitation PCS slows down, and the maxima of these PCSs undergoes a regular change.

  7. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Simulation of Chromium Atom Deposition Pattern in a Gaussain Laser Standing Wave with Different Laser Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Tao; Zhu, Bao-Hua

    2009-07-01

    One-dimensional deposition of a neutral chromium atomic beam focused by a near-resonant Gaussian standing-laser field is discussed by using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta type algorithm. The deposition pattern of neutral chromium atoms in a laser standing wave with different laser power is discussed and the simulation result shows that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of a nanometer stripe is 115 nm and the contrast is 2.5:1 with laser power 3.93 mW; the FWHM is 0.8 nm and the contrast is 27:1 with laser power 16 mW, the optimal laser power; but with laser power increasing to 50 mW, the nanometer structure forms multi-crests and the quality worsens quickly with increasing laser power.

  8. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Calculation of Energy and Other Properties of Muonic Helium Atom Using Boundary Conditions of Wave Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, B.

    2010-09-01

    The properties of muonic helium atom (4He+2?-e-) in ground state are considered. In this work, the energy and average distance between particles have been obtained using a wave function, which satisfies boundary conditions. It is shown that the obtained energy are very close to the values calculated by others. But the small differences of the expectation values of r2n are due to the incorporated boundary conditions in proposed wave function and are expected.

  9. Matter wave probe for detecting Fermi superfluidity in trapped ultra-cold atom experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satyan Bhongale; Han Pu

    2008-01-01

    We propose a robust matter wave probe for detecting Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluidity in a trapped two-component Fermi gas.In hear the matter wave corresponds to a Bose condensed state (BEC) of some third species of atoms- `probe-atoms'. This detection scheme is based on the extreme control of atom-atom interactions that is made available by techniques based on scattering resonances such as

  10. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 033844 (2010) Optical coherent transients in cold atoms: From free-induction decay to optical precursors

    E-print Network

    Du, Shengwang

    2010-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 033844 (2010) Optical coherent transients in cold atoms: From free characteristics over a wide range of optical depth can be fully accounted for as optical coherent transients description of the optical transients at a weak power limit. At low optical depth with moderate absorption

  11. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135, 054705 (2011) Atomic imaging of nucleation of trimethylaluminum on clean and H2O

    E-print Network

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135, 054705 (2011) Atomic imaging of nucleation August 2011) The direct reaction of trimethylaluminum (TMA) on a Ge(100) surface and the effects­17 The lowest interface trap densities have been obtained using a stoichiometric GeO2 layer typically formed

  12. Getting Physical with Your Chemistry: Mechanically Investigating Local Structure and Properties of Surfaces with the Atomic Force Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, William F.; Hoh, Jan H.

    2005-01-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) investigates mechanically the chemical properties of individual molecules, surfaces, and materials using suitably designed probes. The current state of the art of AFM in terms of imaging, force measurement, and sample manipulation and its application to physical chemistry is discussed.

  13. Physics Demonstration Experiments at William Jewell College. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Wallace A.

    Presented are descriptions (with photographs) of demonstration equipment purchased, assembled, developed, and used at William Jewell College (Missouri) during the past 25 years. The descriptions are organized into the following topic areas: (1) mechanics; (2) heat; (3) waves, sound, and acoustics; (4) electricity; (5) optics; and (6) atomic and…

  14. Lab-in-a-box @ school: Exiting hands-on experiments in soft matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Karin; Brinkmann, Martin; Müller, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Soft materials like liquids and polymers are part of everyday life, yet at school, this topic is rarely touched. Within the priority program SPP 1064 'Nano- and Microfluidics' of the German Science Foundation, we designed an outreach project that allows pupils (age 14 to 18) to perform hands-on experiments (www.labinabox.de). The experiments allow them e.g. to feel viscosity and viscoelasticity, experience surface tension or see structure formation. We call the modus operandi 'subjective experiments' to contrast them with the scientifically objective experiments, which pupils often describe as being boring. Over a dozen different experiments under the topic 'physics of fluids' are collected in a big box that travels to the school. Three other topics of boxes are available, 'physics of light, 'physics of liquid crystals', and 'physics of adhesion and friction'. Each experiment can be performed by 1-3 pupils within 10 - 20 min. That way, each scholar can perform 6 to 8 different small experiments within one topic. 'Subjective experiments' especially catch the attention of girls without disadvantaging boys. Both are fascinated by the hands-on physics experience and are therefore eager to perform also 'boring' objective experiments. Morover, before/after polls reveal that their interest in physics has greatly advanced. The project can easily be taken over and/or adapted to other topics in the natural sciences. Financial support of the German Science Foundation DFG is acknowledged.

  15. An Interdisciplinary Service Learning Experience in Geriatrics for Occupational and Physical Therapy Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jackson Thomas; Elizabeth B. Reigart; Becki A. Trickey

    1998-01-01

    An interdisciplinary service learning experience in geriatrics was provided for occupational and physical therapy students and supported by an Allied Health Project Grant. The service learning experience, which was developed by faculty from the Occupational Therapy, Physical Therapy, and Communication Sciences Disorders Programs at the Medical University of South Carolina, functioned as the clinical component of an interdisciplinary geriatrics course.

  16. Guided-Inquiry Experiments for Physical Chemistry: The POGIL-PCL Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, Sally S.; Grushow, Alexander; Whitnell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The POGIL-PCL project implements the principles of process-oriented, guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) in order to improve student learning in the physical chemistry laboratory (PCL) course. The inquiry-based physical chemistry experiments being developed emphasize modeling of chemical phenomena. In each experiment, students work through at least…

  17. Computer Simulations for Lab Experiences in Secondary Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Physical science instruction often involves modeling natural systems, such as electricity that possess particles which are invisible to the unaided eye. The effect of these particles' motion is observable, but the particles are not directly observable to humans. Simulations have been developed in physics, chemistry and biology that, under certain…

  18. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Aad; E. Abat; B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A. A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; T. N. Addy; C. Adorisio; P. Adragna; T. Adye; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; M. Aharrouche; S. P. Ahlen; F. Ahles; A. Ahmad; H. Ahmed; G. Aielli; T. Akdogan; T. P. A. Akesson; G. Akimoto; M. S. Alam; M. A. Alam; J. Albert; S. Albrand; M. Aleksa; I. N. Aleksandrov; F. Alessandria; C. Alexa; G. Alexander; G. Alexandre; T. Alexopoulos; M. Alhroob; G. Alimonti; J. Alison; M. Aliyev; P. P. Allport; S. E. Allwood-Spiers; A. Aloisio; R. Alon; A. Alonso; J. Alonso; M. G. Alviggi; K. Amako; P. Amaral; C. Amelung; V. V. Ammosov; A. Amorim; G. Amoros; N. Amram; C. Anastopoulos; C. F. Anders; K. J. Anderson; A. Andreazza; V. Andrei; M-L. Andrieux; X. S. Anduaga; F. Anghinolfi; A. Antonaki; M. Antonelli; S. Antonelli; B. Antunovic; F. A. Anulli; G. Arabidze; I. Aracena; Y. Arai; A. T. H. Arce; J. P. Archambault; S. Arfaoui; J-F. Arguin; T. Argyropoulos; E. Arik; M. Arik; A. J. Armbruster; O. Arnaez; C. Arnault; A. Artamonov; D. Arutinov; M. Asai; S. Asai; S. Ask; B. Asman; D. Asner; L. Asquith; K. Assamagan; A. Astbury; A. Astvatsatourov; T. Atkinson; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; E. Auge; K. Augsten; M. A. Aurousseau; N. Austin; G. Avolio; R. Avramidou; A. Axen; C. Ay; G. Azuelos; Y. Azuma; M. A. Baak; G. Baccaglioni; C. Bacci; H. Bachacou; K. Bachas; M. Backes; E. Badescu; P. Bagnaia; Y. Bai; D. C. Bailey; J. T. Baines; O. K. Baker; F. Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa; E. Banas; S. Banerjee; D. Banfi; A. Bangert; V. Bansal; S. P. Baranov; A. Barashkou; T. B. Barber; E. L. Barberio; D. Barberis; M. B. Barbero; D. Y. Bardin; T. Barillari; M. Barisonzi; T. Barklow; N. B. Barlow; N. B. Barlow; R. M. Barnett; S. Baron; A. Baroncelli; A. Baroncelli; F. Barreiro; J. Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa; P. Barrillon; R. Bartoldus; D. Bartsch; J. Bastos; R. L. Bates; J. R. Batley; A. Battaglia; M. Battistin; F. Bauer; M. Bazalova; B. Beare; P. H. Beauchemin; R. B. Beccherle; N. Becerici; P. Bechtle; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; M. Beckingham; K. H. Becks; I. Bedajanek; A. J. Beddall; P. Bednar; V. A. Bednyakov; C. Bee; S. Behar Harpaz; P. K. Behera; M. Beimforde; C. Belanger-Champagne; P. J. Bell; W. H. Bell; G. Bella; L. Bellagamba; F. Bellina; M. Bellomo; A. Belloni; K. Belotskiy; O. Beltramello; S. Ben Ami; O. Beltramello; D. Benchekroun; M. Bendel; B. H. Benedict; N. Benekos; Y. Benhammou; G. P. Benincasa; D. P. Benjamin; M. Benoit; J. R. Bensinger; K. Benslama; S. Bentvelsen; M. Beretta; D. Berge; E. Bergeaas Kuutmann; N. Berger; F. Berghaus; E. Berglund; J. Beringer; K. Bernardet; P. Bernat; R. Bernhard; C. Bernius; T. Berry; A. Bertin; N. Besson; S. Bethke; R. M. Bianchi; M. Bianco; O. Biebel; J. Biesiada; M. Biglietti; H. Bilokon; S. Binet; A. Bingul; C. Bini; C. Biscarat; M. Bischofberger; U. Bitenc; K. M. Black; R. E. Blair; G. Blanchot; C. Blocker; J. Blocki; A. Blondel; W. Blum; U. Blumenschein; C. Boaretto; G. J. Bobbink; A. Bocci; B. Bodine; J. Boek; N. Boelaert; S. Boeser; J. A. Bogaerts; A. Bogouch; C. Bohm; J. Bohm; V. Boisvert; T. Bold; V. Boldea; V. G. Bondarenko; M. Bondioli; M. Boonekamp; C. N. Booth; P. S. L. Booth; J. R. A. Booth; A. Borisov; G. Borissov; I. Borjanovic; S. Borroni; K. Bos; D. Boscherini; M. Bosman; M. Bosteels; H. Boterenbrood; J. Bouchami; J. Boudreau; E. V. Bouhova-Thacker; C. Boulahouache; C. Bourdarios; J. Boyd; I. R. Boyko; A. Braem; P. Branchini; G. W. Brandenburg; A. Brandt; O. Brandt; U. Bratzler; J. E. Brau; H. M. Braun; B. Brelier; J. Bremer; R. Brenner; S. Bressler; D. Breton; N. D. Brett; D. Breton; F. M. Brochu; I. Brock; R. Brock; E. Brodet; F. Broggi; G. Brooijmans; W. K. Brooks; E. Brubaker; P. A. Bruckman de Renstrom; D. Bruncko; R. Bruneliere; S. Brunet; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; M. Bruschi; T. Buanes; F. B. Bucci; P. Buchholz; A. G. Buckley; I. A. Budagov; V. Buescher; L. Bugge; F. Bujor; O. Bulekov; M. Bunse; T. Buran; H. Burckhart; S. Burdin; S. Burke; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; F. Butin; B. Butler; J. M. Butler; C. M. Buttar; J. M. Butterworth; T. Byatt; S. Cabrera Urban; D. Caforio; O. Cakir; P. Calafiura; G. Calderini; R. Calkins; L. P. Caloba; R. Calkins; D. Calvet; P. Camarri; M. Cambiaghi; D. Cameron; F. Campabadal Segura; S. Campana; M. Campanelli; V. Canale; J. Cantero; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; I. Caprini; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; M. Capua; R. Caputo; C. Caramarcu; R. Cardarelli; T. Carli; G. Carlino; L. Carminati; B. Caron; S. Caron; S. Carron Montero; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; J. Carvalho; D. Casadei; M. P. Casado; M. Cascella; C. Caso; A. M. Castaneda Hernadez; E. Castaneda Miranda; V. Castillo Gimenez; N. F. Castro; G. Cataldi; A. Catinaccio; J. R. Catmore; A. Catinaccio; G. Cattani; S. Caughron; D. Cauz; P. Cavalleri; D. Cavalli; M. Cavalli-Sforza; V. Cavasinni; A. Cazzato

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study is presented of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector. The reconstruction of tracks, leptons, photons, missing energy and jets is investigated, together with the performance of b-tagging and the trigger. The physics potential for a variety of interesting physics processes, within the Standard Model and beyond, is examined. The study comprises a series of notes based

  19. "Got Disc?" The "Ultimate" Experience in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler G.; Darst, Paul W.; Brusseau, Timothy A.

    2006-01-01

    A quality physical education program is one in which students are exposed to and can participate in a variety of sports and activities. One activity that is increasing in popularity in and outside of physical education is the game of "Ultimate." Opportunities to play Ultimate are increasing rapidly in intramural programs and community and…

  20. Limits on temporal variation of fine structure constant, quark masses and strong interaction from atomic clock experiments

    E-print Network

    V. V. Flambaum

    2003-09-26

    We perform calculations of the dependence of nuclear magnetic moments on quark masses and obtain limits on the variation of the ratio of quark mass and strong interaction scale (m_q/Lambda_{QCD}) from recent atomic clock experiments with hyperfine transitions in H, Rb, Cs, Yb+, Hg+ and optical transition in Hg+. Experiments with Cd+, deuterium/hydrogen, molecule SF_6, Zeeman transitions in He_3/Xe are also discussed.

  1. Radiative corrections in atomic physics in the presence of perturbing potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Blundell; K. T. Cheng; J. Sapirstein

    1997-01-01

    Energy shifts of radiative corrections in atoms due to perturbing potentials are calculated. The potentials considered are a constant magnetic field, the magnetic field of a nucleus, and the Coulomb interaction from other electrons in many-electron atoms.

  2. Dependence of nuclear magnetic moments on quark masses and limits on temporal variation of fundamental constants from atomic clock experiments

    E-print Network

    V. V. Flambaum; A. F. Tedesco

    2006-03-08

    We calculate the dependence of the nuclear magnetic moments on the quark masses including the spin-spin interaction effects and obtain limits on the variation of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ and $(m_q/\\Lambda_{QCD})$ using recent atomic clock experiments examining hyperfine transitions in H, Rb, Cs, Yb$^+$ and Hg$^+$ and the optical transition in H, Hg$^+$ and Yb$^+$ .

  3. Echoing with the Voices of Victims: Reflection on Vietnamese Lessons on the Japanese Experiences of Atomic Bombs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Hien, Do Thi; Hang, Khong Thi Diem

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the case of a Vietnamese teacher whose conception of teaching changed greatly following a short but intensive series of lessons based on the Japanese experiences with atomic bombs. The following three issues are considered: 1) what types of efforts teachers should make to increase the depth of their lessons, on the basis of…

  4. How Many Atomic Layers of Zinc Are in a Galvanized Iron Coating? An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shui-Ping

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an experiment using a novel gasometric assembly to determine the thickness and number of atomic layers of zinc coating on galvanized iron substrates. Students solved this problem through three stages. In the first stage, students were encouraged to find a suitable acidic concentration through the guided-inquiry approach. In…

  5. A Simple LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) Laboratory Experiment to Introduce Undergraduates to Calibration Functions and Atomic Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment introduces students to a different type of atomic spectroscopy: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS uses a laser-generated spark to excite the sample; once excited, the elemental emission is spectrally resolved and detected. The students use LIBS to analyze a series of standard synthetic silicate samples…

  6. Davisson-Germer Prize in Atomic or Surface Physics: The COLTRIMS multi-particle imaging technique-new Insight into the World of Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Bocking, Horst

    2008-05-01

    The correlated many-particle dynamics in Coulombic systems, which is one of the unsolved fundamental problems in AMO-physics, can now be experimentally approached with so far unprecedented completeness and precision. The recent development of the COLTRIMS technique (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) provides a coincident multi-fragment imaging technique for eV and sub-eV fragment detection. In its completeness it is as powerful as the bubble chamber in high energy physics. In recent benchmark experiments quasi snapshots (duration as short as an atto-sec) of the correlated dynamics between electrons and nuclei has been made for atomic and molecular objects. This new imaging technique has opened a powerful observation window into the hidden world of many-particle dynamics. Recent multiple-ionization studies will be presented and the observation of correlated electron pairs will be discussed.

  7. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Calculation of the elastic collision properties of Na and Li atoms at ultracold temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji-Cai; Zhang, Ying; Du, Bing-Ge; Sun, Jin-Feng

    2009-04-01

    This paper firstly reports a theoretical study of elastic scattering properties in a mixture of 23Na and 7Li atoms at cold and ultracold temperatures in detail. Based on the new constructed accurate singlet X1 ?+g and the triplet ?3?+u states interatomic potentials for 23Na7Li mixture, it calculates the scattering lengths and the effective ranges by three computational methods, and obtains good agreements. Using the mass scaling method, it also calculates 23Na6Li scattering lengths and s-wave and total elastic cross sections, whose rich resonance structures were found and interpreted in terms of quasibound diatomic levels trapped behind a centrifugal barrier.

  8. Cold-Atom Physics Using Ultrathin Optical Fibers: Light-Induced Dipole Forces and Surface Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Sagué; E. Vetsch; W. Alt; D. Meschede; A. Rauschenbeutel

    2007-01-01

    The strong evanescent field around ultrathin unclad optical fibers bears a high potential for detecting, trapping, and manipulating cold atoms. Introducing such a fiber into a cold-atom cloud, we investigate the interaction of a small number of cold cesium atoms with the guided fiber mode and with the fiber surface. Using high resolution spectroscopy, we observe and analyze light-induced dipole

  9. PREFACE: Atomically controlled fabrication technology: new physics and functional device realization Atomically controlled fabrication technology: new physics and functional device realization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Kuwahara; Hideaki Kasai

    2011-01-01

    To realize next generation functional devices, atomic level controllability of the application and fabrication techniques is necessary. The conventional route to advance solid state devices, which involves improvement of 'instrumental accuracy', is now facing a major paradigm shift towards 'phenomenal accuracy'. Therefore, to keep up with this critical turn in the development of devices, pioneering research (both theoretical and experimental)

  10. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 82, 033804 (2010) Full inversion of a two-level atom with a single-photon pulse in one-dimensional geometries

    E-print Network

    Fan, Shanhui

    2010-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 82, 033804 (2010) Full inversion of a two-level atom with a single-photon pulse-mode waveguide (a) coupled directly to a two-level atom (b) side-coupled to a cavity containing a two-level atom and show that in both cases it is possible to invert the atom with a single-photon pulse. In contrast

  11. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics

    E-print Network

    The ATLAS Collaboration; G. Aad; E. Abat; B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A. A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; T. N. Addy; C. Adorisio; P. Adragna; T. Adye; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; M. Aharrouche; S. P. Ahlen; F. Ahles; A. Ahmad; H. Ahmed; G. Aielli; T. Akdogan; T. P. A. Akesson; G. Akimoto; M. S. Alam; M. A. Alam; J. Albert; S. Albrand; M. Aleksa; I. N. Aleksandrov; F. Alessandria; C. Alexa; G. Alexander; G. Alexandre; T. Alexopoulos; M. Alhroob; G. Alimonti; J. Alison; M. Aliyev; P. P. Allport; S. E. Allwood-Spiers; A. Aloisio; R. Alon; A. Alonso; J. Alonso; M. G. Alviggi; K. Amako; P. Amaral; C. Amelung; V. V. Ammosov; A. Amorim; G. Amoros; N. Amram; C. Anastopoulos; C. F. Anders; K. J. Anderson; A. Andreazza; V. Andrei; M-L. Andrieux; X. S. Anduaga; F. Anghinolfi; A. Antonaki; M. Antonelli; S. Antonelli; B. Antunovic; F. A. Anulli; G. Arabidze; I. Aracena; Y. Arai; A. T. H. Arce; J. P. Archambault; S. Arfaoui; J-F. Arguin; T. Argyropoulos; E. Arik; M. Arik; A. J. Armbruster; O. Arnaez; C. Arnault; A. Artamonov; D. Arutinov; M. Asai; S. Asai; S. Ask; B. Asman; D. Asner; L. Asquith; K. Assamagan; A. Astbury; A. Astvatsatourov; T. Atkinson; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; E. Auge; K. Augsten; M. A. Aurousseau; N. Austin; G. Avolio; R. Avramidou; A. Axen; C. Ay; G. Azuelos; Y. Azuma; M. A. Baak; G. Baccaglioni; C. Bacci; H. Bachacou; K. Bachas; M. Backes; E. Badescu; P. Bagnaia; Y. Bai; D. C. Bailey; J. T. Baines; O. K. Baker; F. Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa; E. Banas; S. Banerjee; D. Banfi; A. Bangert; V. Bansal; S. P. Baranov; S. Baranov; A. Barashkou; T. B. Barber; E. L. Barberio; D. Barberis; M. B. Barbero; D. Y. Bardin; T. Barillari; M. Barisonzi; T. Barklow; N. B. Barlow; B. M. Barnett; R. M. Barnett; S. Baron; A. Baroncelli; A. J. Barr; F. Barreiro; J. Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa; P. Barrillon; R. Bartoldus; D. Bartsch; J. Bastos; R. L. Bates; J. R. Batley; A. Battaglia; M. Battistin; F. Bauer; M. Bazalova; B. Beare; P. H. Beauchemin; R. B. Beccherle; N. Becerici; P. Bechtle; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; M. Beckingham; K. H. Becks; I. Bedajanek; A. J. Beddall; A. Beddall; P. Bednar; V. A. Bednyakov; C. Bee; S. Behar Harpaz; P. K. Behera; M. Beimforde; C. Belanger-Champagne; P. J. Bell; W. H. Bell; G. Bella; L. Bellagamba; F. Bellina; M. Bellomo; A. Belloni; K. Belotskiy; O. Beltramello; S. Ben Ami; O. Benary; D. Benchekroun; M. Bendel; B. H. Benedict; N. Benekos; Y. Benhammou; G. P. Benincasa; D. P. Benjamin; M. Benoit; J. R. Bensinger; K. Benslama; S. Bentvelsen; M. Beretta; D. Berge; E. Bergeaas Kuutmann; N. Berger; F. Berghaus; E. Berglund; J. Beringer; K. Bernardet; P. Bernat; R. Bernhard; C. Bernius; T. Berry; A. Bertin; N. Besson; S. Bethke; R. M. Bianchi; M. Bianco; O. Biebel; J. Biesiada; M. Biglietti; H. Bilokon; S. Binet; A. Bingul; C. Bini; C. Biscarat; M. Bischofberger; U. Bitenc; K. M. Black; R. E. Blair; G. Blanchot; C. Blocker; J. Blocki; A. Blondel; W. Blum; U. Blumenschein; C. Boaretto; G. J. Bobbink; A. Bocci; B. Bodine; J. Boek; N. Boelaert; S. Boeser; J. A. Bogaerts; A. Bogouch; C. Bohm; J. Bohm; V. Boisvert; T. Bold; V. Boldea; V. G. Bondarenko; M. Bondioli; M. Boonekamp; C. N. Booth; P. S. L. Booth; J. R. A. Booth; A. Borisov; G. Borissov; I. Borjanovic; S. Borroni; K. Bos; D. Boscherini; M. Bosman; M. Bosteels; H. Boterenbrood; J. Bouchami; J. Boudreau; E. V. Bouhova-Thacker; C. Boulahouache; C. Bourdarios; J. Boyd; I. R. Boyko; A. Braem; P. Branchini; G. W. Brandenburg; A. Brandt; O. Brandt; U. Bratzler; J. E. Brau; H. M. Braun; B. Brelier; J. Bremer; R. Brenner; S. Bressler; D. Breton; N. D. Brett; D. Britton; F. M. Brochu; I. Brock; R. Brock; E. Brodet; F. Broggi; G. Brooijmans; W. K. Brooks; E. Brubaker; P. A. Bruckman de Renstrom; D. Bruncko; R. Bruneliere; S. Brunet; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; M. Bruschi; T. Buanes; F. B. Bucci; P. Buchholz; A. G. Buckley; I. A. Budagov; V. Buescher; L. Bugge; F. Bujor; O. Bulekov; M. Bunse; T. Buran; H. Burckhart; S. Burdin; S. Burke; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; F. Butin; B. Butler; J. M. Butler; C. M. Buttar; J. M. Butterworth; T. Byatt; S. Cabrera Urban; D. Caforio; O. Cakir; P. Calafiura; G. Calderini; R. Calkins; L. P. Caloba; R. Caloi; D. Calvet; P. Camarri; M. Cambiaghi; D. Cameron; F. Campabadal Segura; S. Campana; M. Campanelli; V. Canale; J. Cantero; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; I. Caprini; M. Caprini; M. Capua; R. Caputo; C. Caramarcu; R. Cardarelli; T. Carli; G. Carlino; L. Carminati; B. Caron; S. Caron; S. Carron Montero; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; J. Carvalho; D. Casadei; M. P. Casado; M. Cascella; C. Caso; A. M. Castaneda Hernadez; E. Castaneda Miranda; V. Castillo Gimenez; N. F. Castro; G. Cataldi; A. Catinaccio; J. R. Catmore; A. Cattai; G. Cattani; S. Caughron; D. Cauz; P. Cavalleri; D. Cavalli; M. Cavalli-Sforza

    2009-08-14

    A detailed study is presented of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector. The reconstruction of tracks, leptons, photons, missing energy and jets is investigated, together with the performance of b-tagging and the trigger. The physics potential for a variety of interesting physics processes, within the Standard Model and beyond, is examined. The study comprises a series of notes based on simulations of the detector and physics processes, with particular emphasis given to the data expected from the first years of operation of the LHC at CERN.

  12. Preliminary design of two Space Shuttle fluid physics experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, N.; Kropp, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The mid-deck lockers of the STS and the requirements for operating an experiment in this region are described. The design of the surface tension induced convection and the free surface phenomenon experiments use a two locker volume with an experiment unique structure as a housing. A manual mode is developed for the Surface Tension Induced Convection experiment. The fluid is maintained in an accumulator pre-flight. To begin the experiment, a pressurized gas drives the fluid into the experiment container. The fluid is an inert silicone oil and the container material is selected to be comparable. A wound wire heater, located axisymmetrically above the fluid can deliver three wattages to a spot on the fluid surface. These wattages vary from 1-15 watts. Fluid flow is observed through the motion of particles in the fluid. A 5 mw He/Ne laser illuminates the container. Scattered light is recorded by a 35mm camera. The free surface phenomena experiment consists of a trapezoidal cell which is filled from the bottom. The fluid is photographed at high speed using a 35mm camera which incorporated the entire cell length in the field of view. The assembly can incorporate four cells in one flight. For each experiment, an electronics block diagram is provided. A control panel concept is given for the surface induced convection. Both experiments are within the mid-deck locker weight and c-g limits.

  13. Physical Science Experiments in K-12 Schools Related to Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Ranga

    In this talk I shall show movies on the demonstration of surface science experiments at various education levels ranging from middle schools to the university. These experiments demonstrate the concepts of surface tension, surface flows, surface reactions and even miscible interfaces. Experiments that demonstrate capillary effects, pressure variations on account of diameter changes, emulsions and foams will be discussed. Applications involving household agents such as space processing, food and detergents will also be given. All of these experiments are part of a kit that we have assembled for free distribution to area schools.

  14. Event-Based Simulation of Quantum Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michielsen, Kristel; de Raedt, Hans

    2015-10-01

    We review an event-based simulation approach which reproduces the statistical distributions of wave theory not by requiring the knowledge of the solution of the wave equation of the whole system but by generating detection events oneby- one according to an unknown distribution. We illustrate its applicability to various single photon and single neutron interferometry experiments and to two Bell-test experiments, a single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment employing post-selection for photon pair identification and a single-neutron Bell test interferometry experiment with nearly 100% detection efficiency.

  15. The Historical-Philosophical Dimension in Physics Teaching: Danish Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Poul V.

    1998-01-01

    Details an eight-year project designed to reform a physics curriculum using a philosophical, historical perspective and inservice teacher training. Includes information on the development and implementation of the project as well as details about the teacher's guide. (DDR)

  16. From physical to virtual : extending the gallery experience online

    E-print Network

    Ho, Moneta Kwok-Ching, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is an exploration of the ways in which interactive features in the virtual space can be developed to complement physical museum exhibitions, as well as create opportunities for museums to reach broader audiences. ...

  17. The Determination of Partial Specific Volume: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, S. F.; Serpentino, Peter M.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a method for the accurate determination of partial specific volume of a protein. Method is simple enough to include in the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory but requires patience and careful handling which provide good training in laboratory techniques. (SLH)

  18. Atomic and molecular physics of plasma-based environmental technologies for abatement of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kuthi, A. [Plasma and Materials Technologies, Inc., Chatsworth, CA (United States); Burkhart, C.P.; Bayless, J.R. [First Point Scientific, Inc., Agoura Hills, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Non-thermal plasma techniques represent a new generation of air emission control technology that potentially could treat large-volume emissions containing dilute concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In order to apply non-thermal plasmas in an industrial scale, it is important to establish the electrical power requirements and byproducts of the process. There is a need for reliable data concerning the primary decomposition mechanisms and subsequent chemical kinetics associated with non-thermal processing of VOCs. There are many basic atomic and molecular physics issues that are essential in evaluating the economic performance of non- thermal plasma reactors. These studies are important in understanding how the input electrical power is dissipated in the plasma and how efficiently it is converted to the production of the plasma species (radicals, ions, or electrons) responsible for the decomposition of the VOCs. This paper will present results from the basic experimental and theoretical studies aimed at identifying the reaction mechanisms responsible for the primary decomposition of various types of VOCs.

  19. The Social Experience of Physically Disabled Australian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papasotiriou, Maria; Windle, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Research on the university experience of disabled students has focused on barriers in learning and teaching, while the social world of university has as yet gained little attention as a distinctive object of study. Here we examine social experience and socially imposed restrictions through the lenses of social capital and self-concept. A…

  20. MOLECULAR PHYSICS, 1998, VOL. 94, NO. 6, 897 903 Temporary trapping of a light atom in between two heavy atoms

    E-print Network

    Narevicius, Edvardas

    propulsion for space vehicles. Experimental observation of sharp struc- tures in the cross of Nonlinear Physics in Complex Systems, TechnionÐ Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel excited ArHCl that these quantum di raction resonances can be associated, within the framework

  1. Ultracold Atomic Strontium:. from Unconventional Laser Cooling and Future Optical Standards to Photon-Free Anisotropic Many Body Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftus, T.; Xu, X.-Y.; Ido, T.; Boyd, M.; Hall, J. L.; Gallagher, A.; Ye, J.

    2004-12-01

    We report the first experimental study of sub-Doppler cooling in alkaline earth atoms (87Sr) enabled by the presence of nuclear spin-originated magnetic degeneracy in the atomic ground state. A detailed investigation of system thermodynamics with respect to trapping beam parameters clearly reveals sub-Doppler temperatures despite the presence of multiple, closely spaced excited-states. This novel result is confirmed by a multi-level theory of the radiative cooling force. In addition, we describe an experimental study of magnetically trapped 3P2 state metastable 88Sr, a system that may ultimately provide unique insights into the physics of many-body systems with anisotropic interactions.

  2. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: High Accuracy Calculation for Excited-State Energies of H Atoms in a Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li-Bo; Du, Meng-Li

    2009-08-01

    Using the recently developed finite-basis-set method with B splines, excited states of H atoms in a magnetic field have been calculated. Energy levels are presented for the ten excited states, 2s0, 3d'0, 3p0, 3p-1, 3d-1, 4d-1, 3d-2, 4d-2, 4f-2, and 5f-2 as a function of magnetic field strengths with a range from zero up to 2.35 × 106 T. The obtained results are compared with available high accuracy theoretical data reported in the literature and found to be in excellent agreement. The comparison also shows that the current method can produce energy levels with an accuracy higher than the existing high accuracy method [Phys. Rev. A 54 (1996) 287]. Here high accuracy energy levels are for the first time reported for the 3d'0, 4d-1, 4d-2, 4f-2, and 5f-2 states.

  3. Photochemistry of Benzophenone in 2Propanol: An Easy Experiment for Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Courses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Churio; M. A. Grela

    1997-01-01

    In this article we describe a laboratory experiment for undergraduate physical chemistry courses dealing with the photophysics and photochemistry of benzophenone in 2-propanol. This is an easy-to-perform experiment aimed to introduce the basic concepts of photochemistry which may help to achieve a systematic approach to the subject, incorporating related topics of chemical kinetics and molecular spectroscopy. This experiment provides quantitative

  4. REMOTE EXPERIMENTS IN EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS C. Thomsen, H. Scheel, and S. Morgner

    E-print Network

    Nabben, Reinhard

    REMOTE EXPERIMENTS IN EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS C. Thomsen, H. Scheel, and S. Morgner Institut für,harry,morgner)@physik.tu-berlin.de KEY WORDS: eLearning, eTeaching, remote experiments, magnetism, oral examinations ABSTRACT: Information technology has made experimenting via the internet possible. Different from simulations, applets

  5. Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dugrain, Vincent; Reichel, Jakob [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, ENS, UPMC, CNRS, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Rosenbusch, Peter [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 61 av de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-08-15

    We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors.

  6. Assessing the engagement, learning, and overall experience of students operating an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with remote access technology.

    PubMed

    Erasmus, Daniel J; Brewer, Sharon E; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The use of internet-based technologies in the teaching of laboratories has emerged as a promising education tool. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using remote access technology to operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in analyzing the iron content in a crude myoglobin extract. Sixty-two students were surveyed on their level of engagement, learning, and overall experience. Feedback from students suggests that the use of remote access technology is effective in teaching students the principles of chemical analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy. PMID:25395308

  7. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: First-Principles Study on Native Defect Complexes in InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng-Qi; Shi, Jun-Jie; Yang, Mao

    2010-01-01

    We present first-principles calculations of the formation energy of different native defects and their complexes in wurtzite InN using density-functional theory and the pseudopotential plane-wave method. Our calculations are aimed in the three cases: N/In = 1, N/In > 1 (N-rich), and N/In < 1 (In-rich). Our results indicate that the antisite defect has the lowest formation energy under N/In = 1. The formation energy of nitrogen interstitial (nitrogen vacancy) defect is significantly low under the N-rich (In-rich) condition. Thus the antisite defect is an important defect if N/In = 1, and the nitrogen interstitial (nitrogen vacancy) defect is a vital defect under the N-rich (In-rich) condition. The atomic site relaxation around the nitrogen interstitial and vacancy is investigated. Our calculations show that the nitrogen vacancy cannot be observed although it is one of the most important defects in InN. Our results are confirmed by experiments.

  8. A space-borne solar stereoscope experiment in solar physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Grigoryev

    1993-01-01

    A space experiment project is proposed, with the main purpose of obtaining 3-dimensional images of the solar atmosphere. We give a list of problems and objectives which can be resolved through the space-borne solar stereoscope.

  9. Dissociation and recombination of oxygen atoms produced in a microwave discharge. Part I. Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Brake; J. Hinkle; J. Asmussen; M. Hawley; R. Kerber

    1983-01-01

    A microwave-initiated plasma (2.44 GHz) flow system has been developed to generate and detect atomic oxygen as a function of distance from the discharge exit. It was found that an increase in power or a decrease in pressure resulted in larger amounts of atomic oxygen at specific points downstream from the discharge. Flow rate had little effect on the production

  10. Nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium self-consistent average-atom model for plasma physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Faussurier; C. Blancard; E. Berthier

    2001-01-01

    A time-dependent collisional-radiative average-atom model is presented to study statistical properties of highly charged ion plasmas in off-equilibrium conditions. The time evolution of electron populations and the electron covariance matrix is obtained as approximate solutions of a master equation. Atomic structure is described either with a screened-hydrogenic model including l splitting, or by calculating one-electron states in a self-consistent average-atom

  11. Russian Space Program: Experiments in Solar-Terrestrial Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Zelenyi; V. D. Kuznetsov; Yu. D. Kotov; A. A. Petrukovich; M. M. Mogilevsky; K. A. Boyarchuk; G. N. Zastenker; Yu. I. Yermolaev

    2004-01-01

    We present a brief review of scientific milestones of the Russian Space Research Program for 2006-2015 in the field of solar and solar-terrestrial physics and describe several space projects: CORONAS-PHOTON, RESONANCE, CLIPPER, INTERHELIOPROBE, and THERION-F2.

  12. The Context of Thought Experiments in Physics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    This paper takes a cognitive perspective in an attempt to analyze mental mechanisms involved in contextual learning. In the following, it is suggested that contextualized environments evoke mental mechanisms that support reasoning about "what if", imaginary situations--utilizing a powerful mental mechanism known from the history of physics as…

  13. Source physics experiments at the Nevada Test Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Lee; Catherine Snelson; Robert Abbott; David D. Coblentz; Robert Corbell; Theodore W. Bowyer; Aviva J. Sussman; Charles R. Carrigan; Christopher R. Bradley; Howard J. Patton; Carolyn E. Seifert; Jerry J. Sweeney; Wendee M. Brunish; Ward L. Hawkins; Tarabay H. Antoun; Kenneth H. Wohletz; John Jay Zucca

    2010-01-01

    The U. S. capability to monitor foreign underground nuclear test activities relies heavily on measurement of explosion phenomena, including characteristic seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and acoustic signals. Despite recent advances in each of these fields, empirical, rather than physics-based, approaches are used to predict and explain observations. Seismologists rely on prior knowledge of the variations of teleseismic and regional seismic parameters

  14. Physical Education for Children: Movement Foundations and Experiences. Instructor's Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Charles A.; Thaxton, Nolan A.

    This guide to the textbook of the same title is divided into four areas: structure of the text; suggested course outlines for both semester and quarter courses; suggested approaches for using the text when teaching elementary school physical education courses; and short-answer examination questions for each chapter in the text. Material is…

  15. The Evaluation of an Experiment in Physical Geography Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Martin J.

    1986-01-01

    Reports results of a study designed to assess the effects of organizing a physical geography course according to the General Theory of Systems in order to help students think about the environment in more holistic terms. Concludes that more committed, achievement-oriented students did better under this approach, while those with a nonacademic…

  16. Environmental Learning Experiences: Bio-Physical, Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junglas, Mary R.; And Others

    This environmental education curriculum guide was developed for teacher use at the senior high school level. Although the guide deals with the bio-physical aspects of the environment, it is designed to encourage an integration of the disciplines into an inter-disciplinary approach. The volume consists of a set of ideas, activities, and opinions…

  17. ACCELERATORS FOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS: FROM DIAGNOSTICS AND CONTROL TO DESIGN

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    accelerators at CERN. The overall system performance, i.e. the quality of particle beams being accelerated high-energy physics laboratory in the world. Here, a number of particle accelerators are connected in series to permit the acceleration of particles to unprecedented high energies to explore the nature

  18. Energetic Neutral Atoms from the Moon: Populations, physics, applications, and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin; Bhardwaj, Anil; Wurz, Peter

    Coexistence of plasma particles and neutral materials in space creates energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). For example, when solar wind plasma interacts with the lunar surface, ENA production is expected. We review recent investigations of the Moon-associated ENAs observed by a lunar orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, and discuss lessons learnt from the experiment. Intensive observations were conducted by the Chandrayaan-1 Energetic Neutrals Analyzer (CENA) sensor, the first and the only ever ENA sensor in a lunar orbit. CENA started its operation in the beginning of 2009. CENA can measure low energy ENAs, i.e. the energy below 3 keV. Using the dataset obtained from its 6-month operation, we discovered several populations of ENAs emitted from the Moon: begin{itemize} Backscattered ENAs of solar wind proton origin Backscattered ENAs of plasmasheet proton origin Sputtered hydrogen from the surface Indeed, backscattered ENAs had never expected as a major ENA population because the porosity (roughness) of the lunar surface is extremely high, and thus impinging plasma particles must have experienced several scattering to be absorbed. However, the observations clearly showed extremely high flux of backscattered ENAs. The discovery gave us a new insight in the field of low energy plasma interaction with porous surface in space. From the measured ENA flux and flying direction at the orbiter, we can derive the place of the ENA production and its flux at the lunar surface. They include information about solar wind plasma at the surface. One of the most attractive regions for investigation is a locally magnetized region (magnetic anomaly). Magnetic anomalies form mini-magnetospheres, which prevent the solar wind to precipitate. The efficiency of the protection influences directly the effectiveness of the space weathering by solar wind plasmas. Using the obtained CENA data, we could successfully image a reduction of the ENA flux inside known magnetic anomalies. The image clearly indicates the effective protection of the surface from the solar wind proton. Recently, we also developed a new method to obtain the electrostatic surface potential inside the anomaly from ENA observations. Improved ENA sensor will fly to Mercury by a Europe-Japan joint Mercury exploration, BepiColombo, as a part of Mercury Plasma Particle Experiment on board Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter. The ENA experiment will image precipitating plasma at the surface of Mercury. Field-aligned potential in the precipitating regions is also to be derived. European Jupiter mission, JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE), will also equip an ENA sensor. ENA environment of the icy moons will be addressed as well.

  19. Physical modelling and advanced simulations of gas–liquid two-phasejet flows in atomization and sprays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Jiang; G. A. Siamas; K. Jagus; T. G. Karayiannis

    2010-01-01

    This review attempts to summarize the physical models and advanced\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009methods used in computational studies of gas–liquid two-phase jet\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009flows encountered in atomization and spray processes. In traditional\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based on Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009(RANS) approach, physical modelling of atomization and sprays is\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009an essential part of the two-phase flow computation. In more advanced\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009CFD such as direct

  20. Light new physics in coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments

    E-print Network

    Patrick deNiverville; Maxim Pospelov; Adam Ritz

    2015-05-28

    Experiments aiming to detect coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering present opportunities to probe new light weakly-coupled states, such as sub-GeV mass dark matter, in several extensions of the Standard Model. These states can be produced along with neutrinos in the collisions of protons with the target, and their production rate can be enhanced if there exists a light mediator produced on-shell. We analyze the sensitivity reach of several proposed experiments to light dark matter interacting with the Standard Model via a light vector mediator coupled to the electromagnetic current. We also determine the corresponding sensitivity to massless singlet neutrino-type states with interactions mediated by the baryon number current. In both cases we observe that proposed coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments, such as COHERENT at the SNS and CENNS at Fermilab, will have sensitivity well beyond the existing limits.

  1. Implementation of the GFS physical package in the GRAPES regional model: single column experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baode; Huang, Wei; Bao, Jian-wen

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern about coupling among physical components in NWP models. The Physics package of the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) has been considerably turned and connection among various components is well considered. Thus, the full GFS physical package was implemented into the GRAPES-MESO and its single column version as well. Using the data collected at ARM Southern Great Plain site during the summer 1997 Intensive Observing Period, several experiments of single-column model (SCM) were conducted to test performance of a set of original physical processes of GRAPES(CTL experiment) and the GFS physics package implemented(GFS experiment). Temperature, moisture, radiation, surface heat flux, surface air temperature and precipitation are evaluated. It is found that potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment is more accurate than that of CTL experiment. Errors of surface downward solar and long-wave radiation simulated by GFS experiment are less than that of CTL experiment and upward latent and sensible heat flux are also better agreeing with observation. The maximum and minimum 2-m air temperatures of the GFS experiment are close to observation compared with that of CTL experiment. Analysis of precipitation simulated shows that both sets of physical processes well reproduce heavy rainfall events. Failure and delay of moderate rainfall events and over predictions of drizzle events are commonly found for two sets of experiments. For the case of three rainfall events, the errors of potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment were smaller than that of CTL experiment. It is shown that the late occurrences of rainfall are resulted from a more stable temperature profile and lower moisture simulated in boundary layer than those from the observation prior to rainfall. When the simulated rainfall occurs, the simulated temperature and moisture become more favorable to the precipitation than observation.

  2. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  3. HIGH PT PHYSICS WITH THE STAR EXPERIMENT AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    TURNER,K. FOR THE STAR COLLABORATION

    1999-03-21

    The STAR experiment at RHIC is a TPC-based, general purpose detector designed to obtain charged particle spectra, with an emphasis on hadrons over a large phase space. An electromagnetic calorimeter provides measurement of e's, {gamma}'s, {pi}{sup 0}'s and jets. Data-taking with Au + Au collisions at {radical}5 = 200 GeV/c{sup 2} begins in Fall 1999. The STAR experiment's investigation of techniques and signals using hard probes to study the high energy-density matter at RHIC and to search for quark-gluon plasma formation will be described.

  4. Many-body Physics in One-dimensional Ultra-cold Atomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Bobo

    Over the last ten years or so, there have been a number of dramatic experimental developments in trapping, cooling and controlling atoms, which open up new opportunities for studying strongly interacting many-body systems. Cold atom systems are very clean and highly tunable. Systems with different dimensionalities can be realized through optical lattice confinement, and the interactions between atoms can be fine-tuned to any value desired by Feshbach resonance. In this way various simple models can be realized to analyze subtle many-body problems which are difficult to analyze because of the complexity of the systems in real materials. In the first part of the thesis, we investigate ground state properties of Tonks-Girardeau(TG) gas in an one-dimensional periodic trap. The key issue we are interested in is whether periodically-trapped TG gas has an off-diagonal long range order. Through numerical calculations, the single-particle reduced density matrix is computed for systems with up to 265 bosons. Scaling analysis on the occupation number of the lowest orbital shows that there is no Bose-Einstein condensation for the periodically-trapped TG gas in both commensurate and incommensurate cases. We find that, for the commensurate case, the scaling exponents of the occupation number of the lowest orbital, the amplitude of the lowest orbital and the zero-momentum peak height with the particle numbers are 0, 0.5 and 1, respectively, while for the incommensurate case, they are 0.5, 0.5, and 1.5, respectively. These exponents are related to each other by a universal relation. In the second part we study the one-dimensional "hard-sphere" fermions and bosons systems. The pair distribution functions of the one-dimensional "hard-sphere" fermions and bosons systems have been exactly evaluated by introducing gap variables. Some interesting results are obtained. Meanwhile, the pair distribution function could be measured in experiments, so hopefully our numerical results may be observed experimentally in the near future. Lastly, we investigate the one-dimensional multi-component fermions and bosons systems. This is an extension of the work of C.N.Yang and Y.Z.You in 2011. Yang and You studied the ground state energy of w-component fermions and bosons with repulsive interactions. In this part, we investigate w-component fermions and bosons in an attractive interaction regime. Several theorems about the ground state energy of w-component fermions and bosons systems are stated and proved. Combing the results in the work of Yang and You, we finally have a comprehensive picture for the ground state energy of one-dimensional fermions and bosons systems.

  5. A Space Experiment to Measure the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers and Demonstrate a Technique to Identify Sources of Silicone Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Baney-Barton, Elyse; Sechkar, Edward A.; Hunt, Patricia K.; Willoughby, Alan; Bemer, Meagan; Hope, Stephanie; Koo, Julie; Kaminski, Carolyn; Youngstrom, Erica

    1999-01-01

    A low Earth orbital space experiment entitled, "Polymers Erosion And Contamination Experiment", (PEACE) has been designed as a Get-Away Special (GAS Can) experiment to be accommodated as a Shuttle in-bay environmental exposure experiment. The first objective is to measure the atomic oxygen erosion yields of approximately 40 different polymeric materials by mass loss and erosion measurements using atomic force microscopy. The second objective is to evaluate the capability of identifying sources of silicone contamination through the use of a pin-hole contamination camera which utilizes environmental atomic oxygen to produce a contaminant source image on an optical substrate.

  6. Physical properties of powdered pineapple ( Ananas comosus) juice––effect of malt dextrin concentration and atomization speed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. D. B. Abadio; A. M. Domingues; S. V. Borges; V. M. Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Using response surface methodology, whole industrialized pineapple juice with added malt dextrin was spray dried with an air inlet temperature of 190 °C and outlet temperature of 90 °C. The blower velocity was 25,000 rpm, feed rate 0.18 kg\\/min and variable atomization speed. The physical properties studied were: apparent and true density, color (a, b and L parameters), moisture content

  7. Results from LDEF experiment A0114: The interaction of atomic oxygen with materials surfaces at orbital altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    1994-01-01

    In 1975 the University of Alabama in Huntsville proposed an experiment for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) designed to investigate the effects of the collision of the ambient orbital atmosphere, mainly consisting of atomic oxygen, with satellite surfaces travelling at about 8 km per second. In 1989, the potential for recovery of significant data from A0114 on a wide variety of materials was recognized and funding for three years of data analysis was appropriated. Some significant or unique findings from the experiment A0114 include: numerous measurements of oxidation rates of surfaces under fast O atom bombardment, including Si, Ge, GaAs, SiC, and optical quality metal films; measurement of the stable attitude of the LDEF spacecraft in orbit using the gas dynamics pinhole camera; description of the formation of thick oxide films on copper at 20 C with fast oxygen; measurement of erosion rates of Kapton and other polymers at space station lifetime atomic oxygen fluences (10(exp 22) atoms/sq cm); and measurement of the cosmogenic isotopes Be-7 on spacecraft surfaces.

  8. The Physical Environment: A Powerful Regulator of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth

    1994-01-01

    Discusses five environmental dimensions (hardness/softness, open/closed, simple/complex, intrusion/seclusion, and high mobility/low mobility) that affect the experiences of children in day-care centers, demonstrating how to consider these dimensions in solving typical problems in child care settings. (MDM)

  9. The Design of Learning Experiences: A Connection to Physical Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stueck, Lawrence E.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    The school environment must create a rich, beautiful, dynamic, meaningful experience for students to learn; however, architects, school boards, and the state focus almost exclusively only on the building when making design decisions. This document lists specific aspects to developing a visionary campus: one that provides a three-dimensional…

  10. Experiments in Molecular Physics with an Acoustic Interferometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Rossing

    1973-01-01

    An acoustic interferometer provides an inexpensive means for making precise studies of the kinetics of gas molecules. Two experiments are described: (1) Measurement of the vibrational relaxation time of gas molecules and (2) determination of intermolecular (van der Waals) forces in molecules.

  11. Robotic assist devices for bimanual physical therapy: preliminary experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter S. Lum; David J. Reinkensmeyer; Steven L. Lehman

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary experiments were performed on a dynamically simplified system consisting of two outstretched hands constrained to flexion\\/extension while holding an object. A prototype device was designed to measure and assist in a transport task, in which the two hands moved a pencil-like object rhythmically back and forth, and in a bimanual squeezing task, in which the two hands squeezed the

  12. Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments Without Superconducting Electromagnets

    E-print Network

    ConductivityC17510) and for Oxygen Free High Conductivity (OFHC) Copper (C10400-10700) ElectricalResistivity(Nano of fusion, so near-term superconducting experience may not ultimately be useful. High magnetic field copper is most effective if the conductor material is OFHC copper, whose resistivity at liquid nitrogen

  13. Laser-Induced Molecular Fluorescence: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    1981-01-01

    Describes a companion experiment to the experimental study of the di-iodide visible absorption spectrum. Experimental details, interpretation, and data analysis are provided for an analysis of the di-iodide fluorescence excited by a visible laser, using a Raman instrument. (CS)

  14. Experiments in Molecular Physics with an Acoustic Interferometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1973-01-01

    A device which provides an inexpensive means for making precise studies of the kinetics of gas molecules is discussed. Two experiments are described: (1) Measurement of the vibrational relaxation time of gas molecules and (2) determination of intermolecular forces in molecules. (Author/DF)

  15. Emulating Solid-State Physics with a Hybrid System of Ultracold Ions and Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bissbort, U.; Cocks, D.; Negretti, A.; Idziaszek, Z.; Calarco, T.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Hofstetter, W.; Gerritsma, R.

    2013-08-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate a hybrid system composed of a crystal of trapped ions coupled to a cloud of ultracold fermions. The ions form a periodic lattice and induce a band structure in the atoms. This system combines the advantages of high fidelity operations and detection offered by trapped ion systems with ultracold atomic systems. It also features close analogies to natural solid-state systems, as the atomic degrees of freedom couple to phonons of the ion lattice, thereby emulating a solid-state system. Starting from the microscopic many-body Hamiltonian, we derive the low energy Hamiltonian, including the atomic band structure, and give an expression for the atom-phonon coupling. We discuss possible experimental implementations such as a Peierls-like transition into a period-doubled dimerized state.

  16. Emulating Solid-State Physics with a Hybrid System of Ultracold Ions and Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, Walter; Ulf, Bissbort; Cocks, Daniel; Negretti, Antonio; Idziaszek, Zbigniew; Calarco, Tommaso; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Gerritsma, Rene

    2014-05-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate a hybrid system composed of a crystal of trapped ions coupled to a cloud of ultracold fermions. The ions form a periodic lattice and induce a band structure in the atoms. This system combines the advantages of high fidelity operations and detection offered by trapped ion systems with ultracold atomic systems. It also features close analogies to natural solid-state systems, as the atomic degrees of freedom couple to phonons of the ion lattice, thereby emulating a solid-state system. Starting from the microscopic many-body Hamiltonian, we derive the low energy Hamiltonian, including the atomic band structure, and give an expression for the atom-phonon coupling. We discuss possible experimental implementations such as a Peierls-like transition into a period-doubled dimerized state.

  17. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Structures, stabilities and magnetic moment of small copper-nickel clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Cui-Ju; Xue, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Chun

    2009-04-01

    This paper obtains the lowest-energy geometric structures and the electronic and magnetic properties of small CuNiN clusters by using all-electron density functional theory. The calculated results reveal that the Cu atom prefers to occupy the apical site when N <= 9 and for the clusters with N = 10, the Cu atom starts to encapsulate in the cage. The CuNi7 and CuNi9 are magic clusters. The magnetism correlates closely with the symmetry of the clusters. For these clusters, the charge tends to transfer from the nickel atoms to the copper atoms. It finds that the doping of Cu atom decreases the stability of pure NiN clusters.

  18. Infrared Spectra of Simple Inorganic Ion Pairs in Solid Solution: A Physical Inorganic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Philip J.; Tong, William G.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a physical inorganic experiment in which large single crystals of the alkali halides doped with divalent ion impurities are prepared easily. Demonstrates the ion pairing of inorganic ions in solid solution. (CS)

  19. DIAGNOSTICS FOR ION BEAM DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.

    2010-01-04

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K{sup +} beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  20. SU-E-E-05: Initial Experience On Physics Rotation of Radiological Residents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J; Williams, D; DiSantis, D; Hardy, P; Oates, M [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The new ABR core exam integrates physics into clinical teaching, with an emphasis on understanding image quality, image artifacts, radiation dose and patient safety for each modality and/or sub-specialty. Accordingly, physics training of radiological residents faces a challenge. A traditional teaching of physics through didactic lectures may not fully fulfill this goal. It is also difficult to incorporate physics teaching in clinical practice due to time constraints. A dedicated physics rotation may be a solution. This study is to evaluate a full week physics workshop developed for the first year radiological residents. Methods: The physics rotation took a full week. It included three major parts, introduction lectures, hand-on experiences and observation of technologist operation. An introduction of basic concepts was given to each modality at the beginning. Hand-on experiments were emphasized and took most of time. During hand-on experiments, residents performed radiation measurements, studied the relationship between patient dose and practice (i.e., fluoroscopy), investigated influence of acquisition parameters (i.g., kV, mAs) on image quality, and evaluated image quality using phantoms A physics test before and after the workshop was also given but not for comparison purpose. Results: The evaluation shows that the physics rotation during the first week of residency in radiology is preferred by all residents. The length of a full week of physics workshop is appropriate. All residents think that the intensive workshop can significantly benefit their coming clinical rotations. Residents become more comfortable regarding the use of radiation and counseling relevant questions such as a pregnant patient risk from a CE PE examination. Conclusion: A dedicated physics rotation, assisting with didactic lectures, may fulfill the requirements of physics of the new ABR core exam. It helps radiologists deeply understand the physics concepts and more efficiently use the medical physics in practice.