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Sample records for atomic-orbital formalism suitable

  1. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  2. Real and hybrid atomic orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-09-01

    It is shown that the Schrödinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. Thus the real and hybrid atomic orbitals have as sound a pedigree as the more familiar complex orbitals based on the separation of the Schrödinger equation in spherical polar coordinates.

  3. Using Atomic Orbitals and Kinesthetic Learning to Authentically Derive Molecular Stretching Vibrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Adam J.; Schmidt, Timothy W.; Young, Nigel A.

    2013-01-01

    The stretching modes of ML[subscript "x"] complexes have the same symmetry as the atomic orbitals on M that are used to form its s bonds. In the exercise suggested here, the atomic orbitals are used to derive the form of the stretching modes without the need for formal group theory. The analogy allows students to help understand many…

  4. A New Way of Presenting Atomic Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordass, W. T.; Linnett, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Describes how the isometric projection with a transparent grid showing the x, y, and z axes drawn at 120 degrees each other is used. This method of presenting atomic orbitals was developed using the Cambridge University Titan computer and has the advantage over contour maps in that there is no distortion. (LS)

  5. Is It Time to Retire the Hybrid Atomic Orbital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grushow, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A rationale for the removal of the hybrid atomic orbital from the chemistry curriculum is examined. Although the hybrid atomic orbital model does not accurately predict spectroscopic energies, many chemical educators continue to use and teach the model despite the confusion it can cause for students. Three arguments for retaining the model in the…

  6. Translation and integration of numerical atomic orbitals in linear molecules.

    PubMed

    Heinäsmäki, Sami

    2014-02-14

    We present algorithms for translation and integration of atomic orbitals for LCAO calculations in linear molecules. The method applies to arbitrary radial functions given on a numerical mesh. The algorithms are based on pseudospectral differentiation matrices in two dimensions and the corresponding two-dimensional Gaussian quadratures. As a result, multicenter overlap and Coulomb integrals can be evaluated effectively. PMID:24527905

  7. Translation and integration of numerical atomic orbitals in linear molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinäsmäki, Sami

    2014-02-01

    We present algorithms for translation and integration of atomic orbitals for LCAO calculations in linear molecules. The method applies to arbitrary radial functions given on a numerical mesh. The algorithms are based on pseudospectral differentiation matrices in two dimensions and the corresponding two-dimensional Gaussian quadratures. As a result, multicenter overlap and Coulomb integrals can be evaluated effectively.

  8. Atomic orbital-based SOS-MP2 with tensor hypercontraction. I. GPU-based tensor construction and exploiting sparsity.

    PubMed

    Song, Chenchen; Martínez, Todd J

    2016-05-01

    We present a tensor hypercontracted (THC) scaled opposite spin second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (SOS-MP2) method. By using THC, we reduce the formal scaling of SOS-MP2 with respect to molecular size from quartic to cubic. We achieve further efficiency by exploiting sparsity in the atomic orbitals and using graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate integral construction and matrix multiplication. The practical scaling of GPU-accelerated atomic orbital-based THC-SOS-MP2 calculations is found to be N(2.6) for reference data sets of water clusters and alanine polypeptides containing up to 1600 basis functions. The errors in correlation energy with respect to density-fitting-SOS-MP2 are less than 0.5 kcal/mol for all systems tested (up to 162 atoms). PMID:27155629

  9. Atomic orbital-based SOS-MP2 with tensor hypercontraction. I. GPU-based tensor construction and exploiting sparsity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chenchen; Martínez, Todd J.

    2016-05-01

    We present a tensor hypercontracted (THC) scaled opposite spin second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (SOS-MP2) method. By using THC, we reduce the formal scaling of SOS-MP2 with respect to molecular size from quartic to cubic. We achieve further efficiency by exploiting sparsity in the atomic orbitals and using graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate integral construction and matrix multiplication. The practical scaling of GPU-accelerated atomic orbital-based THC-SOS-MP2 calculations is found to be N2.6 for reference data sets of water clusters and alanine polypeptides containing up to 1600 basis functions. The errors in correlation energy with respect to density-fitting-SOS-MP2 are less than 0.5 kcal/mol for all systems tested (up to 162 atoms).

  10. Visualizing Three-Dimensional Hybrid Atomic Orbitals Using Winplot: An Application for Student Self Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saputra, Andrian; Canaval, Lorentz R.; Sunyono; Fadiawati, Noor; Diawati, Chansyanah; Setyorini, M.; Kadaritna, Nina; Kadaryanto, Budi

    2015-01-01

    Quick and real-time plotting equations using the Winplot software can be employed to create accurate hybrid atomic orbitals without complicated scripting. Performing this task on their own, students can more easily understand and remember hybrid atomic orbitals, in terms of shape and orientation.

  11. Atomic-orbital close-coupling calculations for collisions involving fusion relevant highly charged impurity ions using very large basis sets

    SciTech Connect

    Igenbergs, Katharina; Wallerberger, Markus; Schweinzer, Josef; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2012-05-25

    The atomic-orbital close-coupling formalism is a well-known method for the semiclassical treatment of ion-atom collisions. Cross sections for these kinds of collisions are mainly needed in the analysis of certain spectroscopic data from nuclear fusion experiments as well as astrophysical data. We shall outline how the computational implementation can be improved in such a way that collisions involving heavy, highly charged impurity ions, such as Ar{sup 18+} can be treated. Furthermore we show and discuss exemplary results.

  12. Solution of atomic orbitals in an interpolating wavelet basis.

    PubMed

    Höynälänmaa, Tommi; Rantala, Tapio T; Ruotsalainen, Keijo

    2004-12-01

    The Schrödinger equation of hydrogenic atoms and the Hartree-Fock equations of some many-electron atoms are solved using interpolating wavelets as basis functions. The nonstandard operator form is used to compute operators in basis sets including multiple resolution levels. We introduce an algorithm for converting matrices from nonstandard operator form to standard operator form. We also consider the different components of the Hamiltonian and Fock operators separately and derive analytic formulas for their evaluation. Extension to many-electron atoms is done within the Hartree-Fock formalism. Convergence of atomic parameters such as orbital eigenvalues with respect to the number of resolution levels is inspected numerically for hydrogenlike atoms (ions) and some light many-electron atoms (helium, lithium, beryllium, neon, sodium, magnesium, and argon). PMID:15697547

  13. The Chocolate Shop and Atomic Orbitals: A New Atomic Model Created by High School Students to Teach Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Atomic orbital theory is a difficult subject for many high school and beginning undergraduate students, as it includes mathematical concepts not yet covered in the school curriculum. Moreover, it requires certain ability for abstraction and imagination. A new atomic orbital model "the chocolate shop" created "by" students…

  14. Atomic-orbital expansion model for describing ion-atom collisions at intermediate and low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.D.; Fritsch, W.

    1983-01-01

    In the description of inelastic processes in ion-atom collisions at moderate energies, the semiclassical close-coupling method is well established as the standard method. Ever since the pioneering work on H/sup +/ + H in the early 60's, the standard procedure is to expand the electronic wavefunction in terms of molecular orbitals (MO) or atomic orbitals (AO) for describing collisions at, respectively, low or intermediate velocities. It has been recognized since early days that traveling orbitals are needed in the expansions in order to represent the asymptotic states in the collisions correctly. While the adoption of such traveling orbitals presents no conceptual difficulties for expansions using atomic orbitals, the situation for molecular orbitals is less clear. In recent years, various forms of traveling MO's have been proposed, but conflicting results for several well-studied systems have been reported.

  15. Laplace-transformed atomic orbital-based Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for relativistic two-component Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmich-Paris, Benjamin; Repisky, Michal; Visscher, Lucas

    2016-07-01

    We present a formulation of Laplace-transformed atomic orbital-based second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) energies for two-component Hamiltonians in the Kramers-restricted formalism. This low-order scaling technique can be used to enable correlated relativistic calculations for large molecular systems. We show that the working equations to compute the relativistic MP2 energy differ by merely a change of algebra (quaternion instead of real) from their non-relativistic counterparts. With a proof-of-principle implementation we study the effect of the nuclear charge on the magnitude of half-transformed integrals and show that for light elements spin-free and spin-orbit MP2 energies are almost identical. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of separation of charge distributions on the Coulomb and exchange energy contributions, which show the same long-range decay with the inter-electronic/atomic distance as for non-relativistic MP2. A linearly scaling implementation is possible if the proper distance behavior is introduced to the quaternion Schwarz-type estimates as for non-relativistic MP2.

  16. Laplace-transformed atomic orbital-based Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for relativistic two-component Hamiltonians.

    PubMed

    Helmich-Paris, Benjamin; Repisky, Michal; Visscher, Lucas

    2016-07-01

    We present a formulation of Laplace-transformed atomic orbital-based second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) energies for two-component Hamiltonians in the Kramers-restricted formalism. This low-order scaling technique can be used to enable correlated relativistic calculations for large molecular systems. We show that the working equations to compute the relativistic MP2 energy differ by merely a change of algebra (quaternion instead of real) from their non-relativistic counterparts. With a proof-of-principle implementation we study the effect of the nuclear charge on the magnitude of half-transformed integrals and show that for light elements spin-free and spin-orbit MP2 energies are almost identical. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of separation of charge distributions on the Coulomb and exchange energy contributions, which show the same long-range decay with the inter-electronic/atomic distance as for non-relativistic MP2. A linearly scaling implementation is possible if the proper distance behavior is introduced to the quaternion Schwarz-type estimates as for non-relativistic MP2. PMID:27394099

  17. An atomic orbital based real-time time-dependent density functional theory for computing electronic circular dichroism band spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goings, Joshua J.; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-06-01

    One of the challenges of interpreting electronic circular dichroism (ECD) band spectra is that different states may have different rotatory strength signs, determined by their absolute configuration. If the states are closely spaced and opposite in sign, observed transitions may be washed out by nearby states, unlike absorption spectra where transitions are always positive additive. To accurately compute ECD bands, it is necessary to compute a large number of excited states, which may be prohibitively costly if one uses the linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework. Here we implement a real-time, atomic-orbital based TDDFT method for computing the entire ECD spectrum simultaneously. The method is advantageous for large systems with a high density of states. In contrast to previous implementations based on real-space grids, the method is variational, independent of nuclear orientation, and does not rely on pseudopotential approximations, making it suitable for computation of chiroptical properties well into the X-ray regime.

  18. Embedded-cluster calculations in a numeric atomic orbital density-functional theory framework

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Daniel Oberhofer, Harald; Reuter, Karsten; Logsdail, Andrew J. Farrow, Matthew R.; Catlow, C. Richard A.; Sokol, Alexey A.; Sherwood, Paul; Blum, Volker

    2014-07-14

    We integrate the all-electron electronic structure code FHI-aims into the general ChemShell package for solid-state embedding quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. A major undertaking in this integration is the implementation of pseudopotential functionality into FHI-aims to describe cations at the QM/MM boundary through effective core potentials and therewith prevent spurious overpolarization of the electronic density. Based on numeric atomic orbital basis sets, FHI-aims offers particularly efficient access to exact exchange and second order perturbation theory, rendering the established QM/MM setup an ideal tool for hybrid and double-hybrid level density functional theory calculations of solid systems. We illustrate this capability by calculating the reduction potential of Fe in the Fe-substituted ZSM-5 zeolitic framework and the reaction energy profile for (photo-)catalytic water oxidation at TiO{sub 2}(110)

  19. Explicitly correlated atomic orbital basis second order Møller-Plesset theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollman, David S.; Wilke, Jeremiah J.; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2013-02-01

    The scope of problems treatable by ab initio wavefunction methods has expanded greatly through the application of local approximations. In particular, atomic orbital (AO) based wavefunction methods have emerged as powerful techniques for exploiting sparsity and have been applied to biomolecules as large as 1707 atoms [S. A. Maurer, D. S. Lambrecht, D. Flaig, and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 144107 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3693908. Correlated wavefunction methods, however, converge notoriously slowly to the basis set limit and, excepting the use of large basis sets, will suffer from a severe basis set incompleteness error (BSIE). The use of larger basis sets is prohibitively expensive for AO basis methods since, for example, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) scales linearly with the number of atoms, but still scales as O(N^5) in the number of functions per atom. Explicitly correlated F12 methods have been shown to drastically reduce BSIE for even modestly sized basis sets. In this work, we therefore explore an atomic orbital based formulation of explicitly correlated MP2-F12 theory. We present working equations for the new method, which produce results identical to the widely used molecular orbital (MO) version of MP2-F12 without resorting to a delocalized MO basis. We conclude with a discussion of several possible approaches to a priori screening of contraction terms in our method and the prospects for a linear scaling implementation of AO-MP2-F12. The discussion includes concrete examples involving noble gas dimers and linear alkane chains.

  20. Mapping Atomic Orbitals with the Transmission Electron Microscope: Images of Defective Graphene Predicted from First-Principles Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Lorenzo; Löffler, Stefan; Biddau, Giulio; Hambach, Ralf; Kaiser, Ute; Draxl, Claudia; Schattschneider, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been a promising candidate for mapping atomic orbitals for a long time. Here, we explore its capabilities by a first-principles approach. For the example of defected graphene, exhibiting either an isolated vacancy or a substitutional nitrogen atom, we show that three different kinds of images are to be expected, depending on the orbital character. To judge the feasibility of visualizing orbitals in a real microscope, the effect of the optics' aberrations is simulated. We demonstrate that, by making use of energy filtering, it should indeed be possible to map atomic orbitals in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope.

  1. Mapping Atomic Orbitals with the Transmission Electron Microscope: Images of Defective Graphene Predicted from First-Principles Theory.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Lorenzo; Löffler, Stefan; Biddau, Giulio; Hambach, Ralf; Kaiser, Ute; Draxl, Claudia; Schattschneider, Peter

    2016-07-15

    Transmission electron microscopy has been a promising candidate for mapping atomic orbitals for a long time. Here, we explore its capabilities by a first-principles approach. For the example of defected graphene, exhibiting either an isolated vacancy or a substitutional nitrogen atom, we show that three different kinds of images are to be expected, depending on the orbital character. To judge the feasibility of visualizing orbitals in a real microscope, the effect of the optics' aberrations is simulated. We demonstrate that, by making use of energy filtering, it should indeed be possible to map atomic orbitals in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope. PMID:27472127

  2. Visualization of a Large Set of Hydrogen Atomic Orbital Contours Using New and Expanded Sets of Parametric Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhile, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic orbitals are a theme throughout the undergraduate chemistry curriculum, and visualizing them has been a theme in this journal. Contour plots as isosurfaces or contour lines in a plane are the most familiar representations of the hydrogen wave functions. In these representations, a surface of a fixed value of the wave function ? is plotted…

  3. Characterizing Oxidation State using Bader Analysis, Maximally Localized Wannier Functions and Atomic Orbitals Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Kyle; Kanai, Yosuke

    2013-03-01

    The concept of oxidation state of atoms in molecules and materials is widely used to predict and understand chemical and physical properties. This concept is perhaps driven more empirically than by any rigorous criteria differentiating one oxidation state from another. Within the oxidation state framework, an integer number of electrons is assigned to the nuclei within a system. In practice, a distribution of electron density makes it difficult to quantify such discrete assignments without some ambiguities. We explore three different charge analysis approaches in density functional theory calculations for addressing the oxidation state of important organometallic molecules [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and [Ru(bpy)3]3+, which are widely used for solar energy conversion applications. Bader charge analysis, Wannier function analysis, and atomic orbital projection are employed in this work. Given the highly-localized nature of the d-electrons of the ruthenium atom, the charge analysis methods are also compared with Hubbard-U correction. We also discuss how the solvation by water molecules influences the oxidation state characterization for these organometallic complexes.

  4. Accelerating Atomic Orbital-based Electronic Structure Calculation via Pole Expansion plus Selected Inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Chen, Mohan; Yang, Chao; He, Lixin

    2012-02-10

    We describe how to apply the recently developed pole expansion plus selected inversion (PEpSI) technique to Kohn-Sham density function theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations that are based on atomic orbital discretization. We give analytic expressions for evaluating charge density, total energy, Helmholtz free energy and atomic forces without using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. We also show how to update the chemical potential without using Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. The advantage of using PEpSI is that it has a much lower computational complexity than that associated with the matrix diagonalization procedure. We demonstrate the performance gain by comparing the timing of PEpSI with that of diagonalization on insulating and metallic nanotubes. For these quasi-1D systems, the complexity of PEpSI is linear with respect to the number of atoms. This linear scaling can be observed in our computational experiments when the number of atoms in a nanotube is larger than a few hundreds. Both the wall clock time and the memory requirement of PEpSI is modest. This makes it even possible to perform Kohn-Sham DFT calculations for 10,000-atom nanotubes on a single processor. We also show that the use of PEpSI does not lead to loss of accuracy required in a practical DFT calculation.

  5. Estimation of Molecular Acidity via Electrostatic Potential at the Nucleus and Valence Natural Atomic Orbitals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shubin; Pedersen, Lee G.

    2009-01-01

    An effective approach of estimating molecular pKa values from simple density functional calculations is proposed in this work. Both the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) at the nucleus of the acidic atom and the sum of valence natural atomic orbitals are employed for three categories of compounds, amines and anilines, carbonyl acids and alcohols, and sulfonic acids and thiols. A strong correlation between experimental pKa values and each of these two quantities for each of the three categories has been discovered. Moreover, if the MEP is subtracted by the isolated atomic MEP for each category of compounds, we observe a single unique linear relationship between the resultant MEP difference and experimental pKa data of amines, anilines, carbonyl acids, alcohols, sulfonic acids, thiols, and their substituents. These results can generally be utilized to simultaneously estimate pKa values at multiple sites with a single calculation for either relatively small molecules in drug design or amino acids in proteins and macromolecules. PMID:19317439

  6. Liquid Water through Density-Functional Molecular Dynamics: Plane-Wave vs Atomic-Orbital Basis Sets.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Giacomo; Hutter, Jürg; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    We determine and compare structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of liquid water at near ambient conditions through density-functional molecular dynamics simulations, when using either plane-wave or atomic-orbital basis sets. In both frameworks, the electronic structure and the atomic forces are self-consistently determined within the same theoretical scheme based on a nonlocal density functional accounting for van der Waals interactions. The overall properties of liquid water achieved within the two frameworks are in excellent agreement with each other. Thus, our study supports that implementations with plane-wave or atomic-orbital basis sets yield equivalent results and can be used indiscriminately in study of liquid water or aqueous solutions. PMID:27434607

  7. Introduction of a fully relativistic capable basis set in the ab initio orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Patrick Ryan

    Large simulation cell sizes, relativistic effects, and the need to correctly model excited state properties are major impediments to the accurate prediction of the optical properties of candidate materials for solid-state laser crystal and luminescent applications. To overcome these challenges, new methods must be created to improve the electron orbital wavefunction and interactions. In this work, a method has been developed to create new analytical four-component, fully-relativistic and single-component scalar relativistic descriptions of the atomic orbital wave functions from Grasp2K numerically represented atomic orbitals. In addition, adapted theory for the calculation of the relativistic kinetic energy contribution to Hamiltonian which bypasses directly solving the Dirac equation has been explicated. The orbital description improvements are tested against YAG, YBCO, SnO2 and BiF3. The improvements to the basis set reflect an improvement in both computational speed and accuracy.

  8. Seeing the atomic orbital: first-principles study of the effect of tip termination on atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minghuang; Cuma, Martin; Liu, Feng

    2003-06-27

    We perform extensive first-principles calculations to simulate the topographical atomic-force-microscope image of an adatom on the Si(111)-(7 x 7) surface, demonstrating the feasibility of imaging not only the atoms but also the atomic orbitals. Our comparative study of tip terminations shows that two subatomic features can appear for a single adatom when it is imaged by a Si(001)-type tip having two dangling bonds on its apex, while only one feature would appear if it were imaged by a Si(111)-type tip having one dangling bond on the apex. The key condition for seeing the atomic orbitals is to bring the tip so close to the surface that the angular-dependent force dominates the tip-surface interaction. PMID:12857147

  9. The splitting of atomic orbitals with a common principal quantum number revisited: np vs. ns.

    PubMed

    Katriel, Jacob

    2012-04-14

    Atomic orbitals with a common principal quantum number are degenerate, as in the hydrogen atom, in the absence of interelectronic repulsion. Due to the virial theorem, electrons in such orbitals experience equal nuclear attractions. Comparing states of several-electron atoms that differ by the occupation of orbitals with a common principal quantum number, such as 1s(2) 2s vs. 1s(2) 2p, we find that although the difference in energies, ΔE, is due to the interelectronic repulsion term in the Hamiltonian, the difference between the interelectronic repulsions, ΔC, makes a smaller contribution to ΔE than the corresponding difference between the nuclear attractions, ΔL. Analysis of spectroscopic data for atomic isoelectronic sequences allows an extensive investigation of these issues. In the low nuclear charge range of pertinent isoelectronic sequences, i.e., for neutral atoms and mildly positively charged ions, it is found that ΔC actually reverses its sign. About 96% of the nuclear attraction difference between the 6p (2)P and the 6s (2)S states of the Cs atom is cancelled by the corresponding interelectronic repulsion difference. From the monotonic increase of ΔE with Z it follows (via the Hellmann-Feynman theorem) that ΔL > 0. Upon increasing the nuclear charge along an atomic isoelectronic sequence with a single electron outside a closed shell from Z(c), the critical charge below which the outmost electron is not bound, to infinity, the ratio ΔC/ΔL increases monotonically from lim(Z→Z(c)(+))ΔC/ΔL=-1 to lim(Z→∞)ΔC/ΔL=1. These results should allow for a more nuanced discussion than is usually encountered of the crude electronic structure of many-electron atoms and the structure of the periodic table. PMID:22502506

  10. Consistent structures and interactions by density functional theory with small atomic orbital basis sets

    SciTech Connect

    Grimme, Stefan Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Bannwarth, Christoph; Hansen, Andreas

    2015-08-07

    A density functional theory (DFT) based composite electronic structure approach is proposed to efficiently compute structures and interaction energies in large chemical systems. It is based on the well-known and numerically robust Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhoff (PBE) generalized-gradient-approximation in a modified global hybrid functional with a relatively large amount of non-local Fock-exchange. The orbitals are expanded in Ahlrichs-type valence-double zeta atomic orbital (AO) Gaussian basis sets, which are available for many elements. In order to correct for the basis set superposition error (BSSE) and to account for the important long-range London dispersion effects, our well-established atom-pairwise potentials are used. In the design of the new method, particular attention has been paid to an accurate description of structural parameters in various covalent and non-covalent bonding situations as well as in periodic systems. Together with the recently proposed three-fold corrected (3c) Hartree-Fock method, the new composite scheme (termed PBEh-3c) represents the next member in a hierarchy of “low-cost” electronic structure approaches. They are mainly free of BSSE and account for most interactions in a physically sound and asymptotically correct manner. PBEh-3c yields good results for thermochemical properties in the huge GMTKN30 energy database. Furthermore, the method shows excellent performance for non-covalent interaction energies in small and large complexes. For evaluating its performance on equilibrium structures, a new compilation of standard test sets is suggested. These consist of small (light) molecules, partially flexible, medium-sized organic molecules, molecules comprising heavy main group elements, larger systems with long bonds, 3d-transition metal systems, non-covalently bound complexes (S22 and S66×8 sets), and peptide conformations. For these sets, overall deviations from accurate reference data are smaller than for various other tested DFT

  11. Consistent structures and interactions by density functional theory with small atomic orbital basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimme, Stefan; Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Bannwarth, Christoph; Hansen, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    A density functional theory (DFT) based composite electronic structure approach is proposed to efficiently compute structures and interaction energies in large chemical systems. It is based on the well-known and numerically robust Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhoff (PBE) generalized-gradient-approximation in a modified global hybrid functional with a relatively large amount of non-local Fock-exchange. The orbitals are expanded in Ahlrichs-type valence-double zeta atomic orbital (AO) Gaussian basis sets, which are available for many elements. In order to correct for the basis set superposition error (BSSE) and to account for the important long-range London dispersion effects, our well-established atom-pairwise potentials are used. In the design of the new method, particular attention has been paid to an accurate description of structural parameters in various covalent and non-covalent bonding situations as well as in periodic systems. Together with the recently proposed three-fold corrected (3c) Hartree-Fock method, the new composite scheme (termed PBEh-3c) represents the next member in a hierarchy of "low-cost" electronic structure approaches. They are mainly free of BSSE and account for most interactions in a physically sound and asymptotically correct manner. PBEh-3c yields good results for thermochemical properties in the huge GMTKN30 energy database. Furthermore, the method shows excellent performance for non-covalent interaction energies in small and large complexes. For evaluating its performance on equilibrium structures, a new compilation of standard test sets is suggested. These consist of small (light) molecules, partially flexible, medium-sized organic molecules, molecules comprising heavy main group elements, larger systems with long bonds, 3d-transition metal systems, non-covalently bound complexes (S22 and S66×8 sets), and peptide conformations. For these sets, overall deviations from accurate reference data are smaller than for various other tested DFT methods

  12. Application of atomic-orbital projections to the study of the electronic properties of metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapito, Luis; Calzolari, Arrigo; Ferretti, Andrea; Nardelli, Marco

    2013-03-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOF) are a new class of artificial crystalline materials. Because of their flexibility for synthesis and instrinsic ultrahigh surface area and porosity, MOFs show superior performance in gas storage, catalysis, and sensing applications. We use an efficient projection of plane-wave wavefunctions onto atomic orbitals for studying the electronic properties of these intriguing materials. The present scheme harnesses the robust periodic algorithms and systematic convergence of the plane-wave method for an atomistic electronic (Landauer conductance) and chemical (charge transfer, bond and atomic charge) analysis that provides guidelines for the design of MOF electronic materials.

  13. Efficient quantum mechanical calculation of solvation free energies based on density functional theory, numerical atomic orbitals and Poisson Boltzmann equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingliang; Wong, Chung F.; Liu, Jianhong; Zhang, Peixin

    2007-07-01

    We have successfully coupled the Kohn-Sham with Poisson-Boltzmann equations to predict the solvation free energy, where the Kohn-Sham equations were solved by implementing the flexible pseudo atomic orbitals as in S IESTA package. It was found that the calculated solvation free energy is in good agreement with experimental results for small neutral molecules, and its standard error is 1.33 kcal/mol, the correlation coefficient is 0.97. Due to its high efficiency and accuracy, the proposed model can be a promising tool for computing solvation free energies in computer aided drug design in future.

  14. An atomic orbital-based formulation of the complete active space self-consistent field method on graphical processing units

    SciTech Connect

    Hohenstein, Edward G.; Luehr, Nathan; Ufimtsev, Ivan S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2015-06-14

    Despite its importance, state-of-the-art algorithms for performing complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) computations have lagged far behind those for single reference methods. We develop an algorithm for the CASSCF orbital optimization that uses sparsity in the atomic orbital (AO) basis set to increase the applicability of CASSCF. Our implementation of this algorithm uses graphical processing units (GPUs) and has allowed us to perform CASSCF computations on molecular systems containing more than one thousand atoms. Additionally, we have implemented analytic gradients of the CASSCF energy; the gradients also benefit from GPU acceleration as well as sparsity in the AO basis.

  15. Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    I explore a belief about learning and teaching that is commonly held in education and society at large that nonetheless is deeply flawed. The belief asserts that mastery of "formalisms"--specialized representations such as symbolic equations and diagrams with no inherent meaning except that which is established by convention--is prerequisite to…

  16. Visualization of atom's orbits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byungwhan

    2014-02-01

    High-resolution imaging techniques have been used to obtain views of internal shapes of single atoms or columns of atoms. This review article focuses on the visualization of internal atomic structures such as the configurations of electron orbits confined to atoms. This is accomplished by applying visualization techniques to the reported images of atoms or molecules as well as static and dynamic ions in a plasma. It was found that the photon and electron energies provide macroscopic and microscopic views of the orbit structures of atoms, respectively. The laser-imaged atoms showed a rugged orbit structure, containing alternating dark and bright orbits believed to be the pathways for an externally supplied laser energy and internally excited electron energy, respectively. By contrast, the atoms taken by the electron microscopy provided a structure of fine electron orbits, systematically formed in increasing order of grayscale representing the energy state of an orbit. This structure was identical to those of the plasma ions. The visualized electronic structures played a critical role in clarifying vague postulates made in the Bohr model. Main features proposed in the atomic model are the dynamic orbits absorbing an externally supplied electromagnetic energy, electron emission from them while accompanying light radiation, and frequency of electron waves not light. The light-accompanying electrons and ionic speckles induced by laser light signify that light is composed of electrons and ions. PMID:24749452

  17. Ionic bonding of lanthanides, as influenced by d- and f-atomic orbitals, by core-shells and by relativity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wen-Xin; Xu, Wei; Schwarz, W H Eugen; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2015-03-15

    Lanthanide trihalide molecules LnX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) were quantum chemically investigated, in particular detail for Ln = Lu (lutetium). We applied density functional theory (DFT) at the nonrelativistic and scalar and SO-coupled relativistic levels, and also the ab initio coupled cluster approach. The chemically active electron shells of the lanthanide atoms comprise the 5d and 6s (and 6p) valence atomic orbitals (AO) and also the filled inner 4f semivalence and outer 5p semicore shells. Four different frozen-core approximations for Lu were compared: the (1s(2) -4d(10) ) [Pd] medium core, the [Pd+5s(2) 5p(6) = Xe] and [Pd+4f(14) ] large cores, and the [Pd+4f(14) +5s(2) 5p(6) ] very large core. The errors of LuX bonding are more serious on freezing the 5p(6) shell than the 4f(14) shell, more serious upon core-freezing than on the effective-core-potential approximation. The LnX distances correlate linearly with the AO radii of the ionic outer shells, Ln(3+) -5p(6) and X(-) -np(6) , characteristic for dominantly ionic Ln(3+) -X(-) binding. The heavier halogen atoms also bind covalently with the Ln-5d shell. Scalar relativistic effects contract and destabilize the LuX bonds, spin orbit coupling hardly affects the geometries but the bond energies, owing to SO effects in the free atoms. The relativistic changes of bond energy BE, bond length Re , bond force k, and bond stretching frequency vs do not follow the simple rules of Badger and Gordy (Re ∼BE∼k∼vs ). The so-called degeneracy-driven covalence, meaning strong mixing of accidentally near-degenerate, nearly nonoverlapping AOs without BE contribution is critically discussed. PMID:25565146

  18. Atomic-Orbital Close-Coupling Calculations Of Electron Capture From Hydrogen Atoms Into Highly Excited Rydberg States Of Multiply Charged Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Igenbergs, Katharina; Wallerberger, Markus; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2011-06-01

    Collisions of neutral hydrogen atoms with multiply charged ions have been studied in the past using the semi-classical atomic-orbital close-coupling method. We present total and state-resolved cross sections for charge exchange as well as ionization. The advent of supercomputers and parallel programming facilities now allow treatment of collision systems that have been out of reach before, because much larger basis sets involving high quantum numbers are now feasible.

  19. Communication: An effective linear-scaling atomic-orbital reformulation of the random-phase approximation using a contracted double-Laplace transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurkus, Henry F.; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2016-01-01

    An atomic-orbital (AO) reformulation of the random-phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy is presented allowing to reduce the steep computational scaling to linear, so that large systems can be studied on simple desktop computers with fully numerically controlled accuracy. Our AO-RPA formulation introduces a contracted double-Laplace transform and employs the overlap-metric resolution-of-the-identity. First timings of our pilot code illustrate the reduced scaling with systems comprising up to 1262 atoms and 10 090 basis functions.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of a Planning Language Suitable for Formal Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Rick W.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2008-01-01

    The marriage of model checking and planning faces two seemingly diverging alternatives: the need for a planning language expressive enough to capture the complexity of real-life applications, as opposed to a language simple, yet robust enough to be amenable to exhaustive verification and validation techniques. In an attempt to reconcile these differences, we have designed an abstract plan description language, ANMLite, inspired from the Action Notation Modeling Language (ANML) [17]. We present the basic concepts of the ANMLite language as well as an automatic translator from ANMLite to the model checker SAL (Symbolic Analysis Laboratory) [7]. We discuss various aspects of specifying a plan in terms of constraints and explore the implications of choosing a robust logic behind the specification of constraints, rather than simply propose a new planning language. Additionally, we provide an initial assessment of the efficiency of model checking to search for solutions of planning problems. To this end, we design a basic test benchmark and study the scalability of the generated SAL models in terms of plan complexity.

  1. Direct Atomic-Orbital-Based Relativistic Two-Component Linear Response Method for Calculating Excited-State Fine Structures.

    PubMed

    Egidi, Franco; Goings, Joshua J; Frisch, Michael J; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present a linear-response formalism of the complex two-component Hartree-Fock Hamiltonian that includes relativistic effects within the Douglas-Kroll-Hess and the Exact-Two-Component frameworks. The method includes both scalar and spin relativistic effects in the variational description of electronic ground and excited states, although it neglects the picture-change and explicit spin-orbit contributions arising from the two-electron interaction. An efficient direct formalism of solving the complex two-component response function is also presented in this work. The presence of spin-orbit couplings in the Hamiltonian and the two-component nature of the wave function and Fock operator allows the computation of excited-state zero-field splittings of systems for which relativistic effects are dominated by the one-electron term. Calculated results are compared to experimental reference values to assess the quality of the underlying approximations. The results show that the relativistic two-component linear response methods are able to capture the excited-state zero-field splittings with good agreement with experiments for the systems considered here, with all approximations exhibiting a similar performance. However, the error increases for heavy elements and for states of high orbital angular momentum, suggesting the importance of the two-electron relativistic effect in such situations. PMID:27387787

  2. Formal descriptions for formulation.

    PubMed

    This, Hervé

    2007-11-01

    Two formalisms used to describe the physical microstructure and the organization of formulated products are given. The first, called "complex disperse systems formalism" (CDS formalism) is useful for the description of the physical nature of disperse matter. The second, called "non periodical organizational space formalism" (NPOS formalism) has the same operators as the CDS formalism, but different elements; it is useful to describe the arrangement of any objects in space. Both formalisms can be viewed as the same, applied to different orders of magnitude for spatial size. PMID:17875375

  3. Small Atomic Orbital Basis Set First-Principles Quantum Chemical Methods for Large Molecular and Periodic Systems: A Critical Analysis of Error Sources.

    PubMed

    Sure, Rebecca; Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Grimme, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In quantum chemical computations the combination of Hartree-Fock or a density functional theory (DFT) approximation with relatively small atomic orbital basis sets of double-zeta quality is still widely used, for example, in the popular B3LYP/6-31G* approach. In this Review, we critically analyze the two main sources of error in such computations, that is, the basis set superposition error on the one hand and the missing London dispersion interactions on the other. We review various strategies to correct those errors and present exemplary calculations on mainly noncovalently bound systems of widely varying size. Energies and geometries of small dimers, large supramolecular complexes, and molecular crystals are covered. We conclude that it is not justified to rely on fortunate error compensation, as the main inconsistencies can be cured by modern correction schemes which clearly outperform the plain mean-field methods. PMID:27308221

  4. Small Atomic Orbital Basis Set First‐Principles Quantum Chemical Methods for Large Molecular and Periodic Systems: A Critical Analysis of Error Sources

    PubMed Central

    Sure, Rebecca; Brandenburg, Jan Gerit

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In quantum chemical computations the combination of Hartree–Fock or a density functional theory (DFT) approximation with relatively small atomic orbital basis sets of double‐zeta quality is still widely used, for example, in the popular B3LYP/6‐31G* approach. In this Review, we critically analyze the two main sources of error in such computations, that is, the basis set superposition error on the one hand and the missing London dispersion interactions on the other. We review various strategies to correct those errors and present exemplary calculations on mainly noncovalently bound systems of widely varying size. Energies and geometries of small dimers, large supramolecular complexes, and molecular crystals are covered. We conclude that it is not justified to rely on fortunate error compensation, as the main inconsistencies can be cured by modern correction schemes which clearly outperform the plain mean‐field methods. PMID:27308221

  5. Interdependence of Formal Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzonsky, Michael D.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Investigated the intercorrelations among tasks that appear to require Piagetian formal reasoning to determine whether formal reasoning is used selectively or all-pervasively. Subjects were 60 undergraduate females. (SDH)

  6. A Comprehensive Analysis in Terms of Molecule-Intrinsic Quasi-Atomic Orbitals. IV. Bond Breaking and Bond Forming along the Dissociative Reaction Path of Dioxetane.

    PubMed

    West, Aaron C; Schmidt, Michael W; Gordon, Mark S; Ruedenberg, Klaus

    2015-10-15

    The quantitative analysis of molecular density matrices in terms of oriented quasi-atomic orbitals (QUAOs) is shown to yield detailed conceptual insight into the dissociation of dioxetane on the basis of ab initio wave functions. The QUAOs persist and can be followed throughout the reaction path. The kinetic bond orders and the orbital populations of the QUAOs quantitatively reveal the changes of the bonding interactions along the reaction path. At the transition state the OO bond is broken, and the molecule becomes a biradical. After the transition state the reaction path bifurcates. The minimum energy path gently descends from the transition state via a valley-ridge inflection point to a second saddle point, from which two new minimum energy paths lead to two equivalent formaldehyde dimers. The CC bond breaks, and the π-bonds of the formaldehyde fragments form in close vicinity of the second saddle point. The changes of the interactions in this region are elucidated by the analysis of the rearrangements of the QUAOs. PMID:26371996

  7. More than Formal Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Gila

    1989-01-01

    The origins of the emphasis on formal proof are discussed as well as more recent views. Factors in acceptance of a proof and the social process of acceptance by mathematicians are included. The impact of formal proof on the curriculum and implications for teaching are given. (DC)

  8. Geometry and Formal Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, George A.

    This paper presents a method of encoding geometric line-drawings in a way which allows sets of such drawings to be interpreted as formal languages. A characterization of certain geometric predicates in terms of their properties as languages is obtained, and techniques usually associated with generative grammars and formal automata are then applied…

  9. Software Formal Inspections Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

  10. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  11. Software Formal Inspections Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

  12. Adolescence and Formal Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasi, A.; Hoeffel, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between the development of formal operations and the development of the adolescent personality, as hypothesized by Inhelder and Piaget. It is suggested that the concepts of possibility and reflectivity have a variety of meanings, and that once these meanings are examined, the logical foundation for the…

  13. Correlates of Formal Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.; Pulos, Steven

    This study of Piagetian formal reasoning in seventh grade students reports the relationships between four aspects of the ability to control variables in an experiment and the relationships between those four aspects and other constructs. The four aspects of the ability to control variables identified are: (1) set up a controlled experiment, (2)…

  14. An atomic orbital-based formulation of analytical gradients and nonadiabatic coupling vector elements for the state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field method on graphical processing units.

    PubMed

    Snyder, James W; Hohenstein, Edward G; Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J

    2015-10-21

    We recently presented an algorithm for state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) orbital optimization that capitalizes on sparsity in the atomic orbital basis set to reduce the scaling of computational effort with respect to molecular size. Here, we extend those algorithms to calculate the analytic gradient and nonadiabatic coupling vectors for SA-CASSCF. Combining the low computational scaling with acceleration from graphical processing units allows us to perform SA-CASSCF geometry optimizations for molecules with more than 1000 atoms. The new approach will make minimal energy conical intersection searches and nonadiabatic dynamics routine for molecular systems with O(10(2)) atoms. PMID:26493897

  15. An atomic orbital-based formulation of analytical gradients and nonadiabatic coupling vector elements for the state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field method on graphical processing units

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, James W.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J.

    2015-10-21

    We recently presented an algorithm for state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) orbital optimization that capitalizes on sparsity in the atomic orbital basis set to reduce the scaling of computational effort with respect to molecular size. Here, we extend those algorithms to calculate the analytic gradient and nonadiabatic coupling vectors for SA-CASSCF. Combining the low computational scaling with acceleration from graphical processing units allows us to perform SA-CASSCF geometry optimizations for molecules with more than 1000 atoms. The new approach will make minimal energy conical intersection searches and nonadiabatic dynamics routine for molecular systems with O(10{sup 2}) atoms.

  16. Biodiversity: Habitat Suitability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat suitability quantifies the relationship between species and habitat, and is evaluated according to the species’ fitness (i.e. proportion of birth rate to death rate). Even though it might maximize evolutionary success, species are not always in habitat that optimizes fit...

  17. Semisymmetric systems: Hermitian formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchdahl, H. A.

    1995-04-01

    The power series representing the characteristic function of a regular semisymmetric system involves four linearly independent rotational invariants XA (A=1,.. .,4) that jointly satisfy a quadratic identity. When the X A are appropriately chosen, this takes the form -(X1)2-(X2 )2-(X3)2+( X4)2=0 . The XA are thus the components of a null vector in a four-dimensional Euclidean space whose metric is gAB: =diag(-1,-1 ,-1,1) . Such a vector is equivalent to a simple 2-spinor xi alpha . The intrinsic presence of a spin vector in the formalism used hitherto suggests that it might be of advantage to replace the latter with an explicit 2-spinor formalism. A way of doing this is examined.

  18. Formalizing the concept of sound.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-08-03

    The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.

  19. Formalizing Space Shuttle Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Judith; DiVito, Ben L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies in which requirements for new flight-software subsystems on NASA's Space Shuttle were analyzed, one using standard formal specification techniques, the other using state exploration. These applications serve to illustrate three main theses: (1) formal methods can complement conventional requirements analysis processes effectively, (2) formal methods confer benefits regardless of how extensively they are adopted and applied, and (3) formal methods are most effective when they are judiciously tailored to the application.

  20. The formal verification of generic interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The task assignment 3 of the design and validation of digital flight control systems suitable for fly-by-wire applications is studied. Task 3 is associated with formal verification of embedded systems. In particular, results are presented that provide a methodological approach to microprocessor verification. A hierarchical decomposition strategy for specifying microprocessors is also presented. A theory of generic interpreters is presented that can be used to model microprocessor behavior. The generic interpreter theory abstracts away the details of instruction functionality, leaving a general model of what an interpreter does.

  1. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for tachyon inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghamohammadi, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Golanbari, T.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2014-10-01

    Tachyon inflation is reconsidered by using the recent observational data obtained from Planck-2013 and BICEP2. The Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is picked out as a desirable approach in this work, which allows one to easily obtain the main parameters of the model. The Hubble parameter is supposed as a power-law and exponential function of the scalar field, and each case is considered separately. The constraints on the model, which come from observational data, are explained during the work. The results show a suitable value for the tensor spectral index and an appropriate form of the potential.

  2. Formal verification of AI software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

  3. Multifractal formalisms of human behavior.

    PubMed

    Ihlen, Espen A F; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2013-08-01

    With the mounting realization that variability is an inevitable part of human behavior comes the need to integrate this phenomenon in concomitant models and theories of motor control. Among other things, this has resulted in a debate throughout the last decades about the origin of variability in behavior, the outcome of which has important implications for motor control theories. To date, a monofractal formalism of variability has been used as the basis for arguing for component- versus interaction-oriented theories of motor control. However, monofractal formalism alone cannot decide between the opposing sides of the debate. The present theoretical overview introduces multifractal formalisms as a necessary extension of the conventional monofractal formalism. In multifractal formalisms, the scale invariance of behavior is numerically defined as a spectrum of scaling exponents, rather than a single average exponent as in the monofractal formalism. Several methods to estimate the multifractal spectrum of scaling exponents - all within two multifractal formalisms called large deviation and Legendre formalism - are introduced and briefly discussed. Furthermore, the multifractal analyses within these two formalisms are applied to several performance tasks to illustrate how explanations of motor control vary with the methods used. The main section of the theoretical overview discusses the implications of multifractal extensions of the component- and interaction-oriented models for existing theories of motor control. PMID:24054900

  4. Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Heather L.; Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to the field of sciences and engineering in Canada and the United States, including professional development of adults working in these fields. It offers…

  5. Resource suitability: Methods for analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Frederick

    1983-09-01

    There is a growing need to develop methods for analyzing resource suitability that are both legally defensible and accurate. Three approaches to suitability analysis are reviewed: the US Soil Conservation Service capability classification and important farmlands mapping; the McHarg, or Pennsylvania, suitability analysis method; and Dutch approaches to suitability analysis. Computer applications and the carrying-capacity concept are briefly reviewed. Three applications of suitability analysis are discussed: examples from Medford Township, New Jersey; Whitman County, Washington; and Abuja, the new federal capital city of Nigeria.

  6. NASA Formal Methods Workshop, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The workshop brought together researchers involved in the NASA formal methods research effort for detailed technical interchange and provided a mechanism for interaction with representatives from the FAA and the aerospace industry. The workshop also included speakers from industry to debrief the formal methods researchers on the current state of practice in flight critical system design, verification, and certification. The goals were: define and characterize the verification problem for ultra-reliable life critical flight control systems and the current state of practice in industry today; determine the proper role of formal methods in addressing these problems, and assess the state of the art and recent progress toward applying formal methods to this area.

  7. Habitat Suitability Information: Blacknose Dace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trial, Joan G.; Stanley, Jon G.; Batcheller, Mary; Gebhart, Gary; Maughan, O. Eugene; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Blacknose dace, a freshwater species. The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater, marine, and estuarine areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of Blacknose dace.

  8. Formalism and functionalism in linguistics.

    PubMed

    Newmeyer, Frederick J

    2010-05-01

    Formalism and functionalism in linguistics are often taken to be diametrically opposed approaches. However, close examination of the relevant phenomena reveals that the two are complementary, rather than being irrevocably in opposition to each other. One can be a formal linguist and a functional linguist at the same time, without there being any contradiction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271372

  9. Complex cobordism and formal groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchstaber, Viktor M.

    2012-10-01

    This paper surveys the current state of the theory of cobordism, focusing on geometric and universal properties of complex cobordism, the Landweber-Novikov algebra, and the formal group law of geometric cobordisms. The relationships with K-theory, algebraic cycles, formal group laws, compact Lie group actions on manifolds, toric topology, infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, and nilmanifolds are described. The survey contains key results and open problems. Bibliography: 124 titles.

  10. Relativistic calculation of nuclear magnetic shielding tensor using the regular approximation to the normalized elimination of the small component. III. Introduction of gauge-including atomic orbitals and a finite-size nuclear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaya, S.; Maeda, H.; Funaki, M.; Fukui, H.

    2008-12-01

    The relativistic calculation of nuclear magnetic shielding tensors in hydrogen halides is performed using the second-order regular approximation to the normalized elimination of the small component (SORA-NESC) method with the inclusion of the perturbation terms from the metric operator. This computational scheme is denoted as SORA-Met. The SORA-Met calculation yields anisotropies, Δσ =σ∥-σ⊥, for the halogen nuclei in hydrogen halides that are too small. In the NESC theory, the small component of the spinor is combined to the large component via the operator σ⃗ṡπ⃗U/2c, in which π⃗=p⃗+A⃗, U is a nonunitary transformation operator, and c ≅137.036 a.u. is the velocity of light. The operator U depends on the vector potential A⃗ (i.e., the magnetic perturbations in the system) with the leading order c-2 and the magnetic perturbation terms of U contribute to the Hamiltonian and metric operators of the system in the leading order c-4. It is shown that the small Δσ for halogen nuclei found in our previous studies is related to the neglect of the U(0,1) perturbation operator of U, which is independent of the external magnetic field and of the first order with respect to the nuclear magnetic dipole moment. Introduction of gauge-including atomic orbitals and a finite-size nuclear model is also discussed.

  11. Generalized Boltzmann formalism for oscillating neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Strack, P.; Burrows, A.

    2005-05-01

    In the standard approaches to neutrino transport in the simulation of core-collapse supernovas, one will often start from the classical Boltzmann equation for the neutrino's spatial, temporal, and spectral evolution. For each neutrino species, and its antiparticle, the classical density in phase space, or the associated specific intensity, will be calculated as a function of time. The neutrino radiation is coupled to matter by source and sink terms on the 'right-hand side' of the transport equation and together with the equations of hydrodynamics this set of coupled partial differential equations for classical densities describes, in principle, the evolution of core collapse and explosion. However, with the possibility of neutrino oscillations between species, a purely quantum-physical effect, how to generalize this set of Boltzmann equations for classical quantities to reflect oscillation physics has not been clear. To date, the formalisms developed have retained the character of quantum operator physics involving complex quantities and have not been suitable for easy incorporation into standard supernova codes. In this paper, we derive generalized Boltzmann equations for quasiclassical, real-valued phase-space densities that retain all the standard oscillation phenomenology, including the matter-enhanced resonant flavor conversion (Mikheev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect), neutrino self-interactions, and the interplay between decohering matter coupling and flavor oscillations. With this formalism, any code(s) that can now handle the solution of the classical Boltzmann or transport equation can easily be generalized to include neutrino oscillations in a quantum-physically consistent fashion.

  12. ADM canonical formalism for gravitating spinning objects

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhoff, Jan; Schaefer, Gerhard; Hergt, Steven

    2008-05-15

    In general relativity, systems of spinning classical particles are implemented into the canonical formalism of Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner [R. Arnowitt, S. Deser, and C. W. Misner, in Gravitation: An Introduction to Current Research, edited by L. Witten (Wiley, New York, 1962), p. 227; arXiv:gr-qc/0405109]. The implementation is made with the aid of a symmetric stress-energy tensor and not a 4-dimensional covariant action functional. The formalism is valid to terms linear in the single spin variables and up to and including the next-to-leading order approximation in the gravitational spin-interaction part. The field-source terms for the spinning particles occurring in the Hamiltonian are obtained from their expressions in Minkowski space with canonical variables through 3-dimensional covariant generalizations as well as from a suitable shift of projections of the curved spacetime stress-energy tensor originally given within covariant spin supplementary conditions. The applied coordinate conditions are the generalized isotropic ones introduced by Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner. As applications, the Hamiltonian of two spinning compact bodies with next-to-leading order gravitational spin-orbit coupling, recently obtained by Damour, Jaranowski, and Schaefer [Phys. Rev. D 77, 064032 (2008)], is rederived and the derivation of the next-to-leading order gravitational spin(1)-spin(2) Hamiltonian, shown for the first time in [J. Steinhoff, S. Hergt, and G. Schaefer, Phys. Rev. D 77, 081501(R) (2008)], is presented.

  13. The Formal Semantics of PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1999-01-01

    A specification language is a medium for expressing what is computed rather than how it is computed. Specification languages share some features with programming languages but are also different in several important ways. For our purpose, a specification language is a logic within which the behavior of computational systems can be formalized. Although a specification can be used to simulate the behavior of such systems, we mainly use specifications to state and prove system properties with mechanical assistance. We present the formal semantics of the specification language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). This specification language is based on the simply typed lambda calculus. The novelty in PVS is that it contains very expressive language features whose static analysis (e.g., typechecking) requires the assistance of a theorem prover. The formal semantics illuminates several of the design considerations underlying PVS, the interaction between theorem proving and typechecking.

  14. Formal verification of mathematical software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, D.

    1984-01-01

    Methods are investigated for formally specifying and verifying the correctness of mathematical software (software which uses floating point numbers and arithmetic). Previous work in the field was reviewed. A new model of floating point arithmetic called the asymptotic paradigm was developed and formalized. Two different conceptual approaches to program verification, the classical Verification Condition approach and the more recently developed Programming Logic approach, were adapted to use the asymptotic paradigm. These approaches were then used to verify several programs; the programs chosen were simplified versions of actual mathematical software.

  15. Ultrafast charge transfer and atomic orbital polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Deppe, M.; Foehlisch, A.; Hennies, F.; Nagasono, M.; Beye, M.; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Echenique, P. M.; Wurth, W.

    2007-11-07

    The role of orbital polarization for ultrafast charge transfer between an atomic adsorbate and a substrate is explored. Core hole clock spectroscopy with linearly polarized x-ray radiation allows to selectively excite adsorbate resonance states with defined spatial orientation relative to the substrate surface. For c(4x2)S/Ru(0001) the charge transfer times between the sulfur 2s{sup -1}3p*{sup +1} antibonding resonance and the ruthenium substrate have been studied, with the 2s electron excited into the 3p{sub perpendicular}* state along the surface normal and the 3p{sub parallel}* state in the surface plane. The charge transfer times are determined as 0.18{+-}0.07 and 0.84{+-}0.23 fs, respectively. This variation is the direct consequence of the different adsorbate-substrate orbital overlap.

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pronghorn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.; Cook, John G.; Armbruster, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  17. A brief overview of NASA Langley's research program in formal methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    An overview of NASA Langley's research program in formal methods is presented. The major goal of this work is to bring formal methods technology to a sufficiently mature level for use by the United States aerospace industry. Towards this goal, work is underway to design and formally verify a fault-tolerant computing platform suitable for advanced flight control applications. Also, several direct technology transfer efforts have been initiated that apply formal methods to critical subsystems of real aerospace computer systems. The research team consists of six NASA civil servants and contractors from Boeing Military Aircraft Company, Computational Logic Inc., Odyssey Research Associates, SRI International, University of California at Davis, and Vigyan Inc.

  18. Evidence Arguments for Using Formal Methods in Software Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Pai, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    We describe a generic approach for automatically integrating the output generated from a formal method/tool into a software safety assurance case, as an evidence argument, by (a) encoding the underlying reasoning as a safety case pattern, and (b) instantiating it using the data produced from the method/tool. We believe this approach not only improves the trustworthiness of the evidence generated from a formal method/tool, by explicitly presenting the reasoning and mechanisms underlying its genesis, but also provides a way to gauge the suitability of the evidence in the context of the wider assurance case. We illustrate our work by application to a real example-an unmanned aircraft system- where we invoke a formal code analysis tool from its autopilot software safety case, automatically transform the verification output into an evidence argument, and then integrate it into the former.

  19. A Formalization of Student Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danna, Frederic; Sebillot, Pascale

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on student modeling within an Intelligent Tutoring System. Describes three domain-independent properties that the formalism representing student knowledge and the processes synthesizing this knowledge must possess to build accurate student models for second-language learning. Notes when, how, and where hypothetical reasoning mechanisms…

  20. Chao Formalism & Kondratenko Crossing Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, R. S.; Chao, A. W.; Krisch, A. D.; Leonova, M. A.; Morozov, V. S.; Sivers, D. W.; Wong, V. K.; Gebel, R.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Schnase, A.; Stockhorst, H.; Hinterberger, F.; Ulbrich, K.; Kondratenko, A. M.

    2007-06-01

    We recently started testing Chao's proposed new matrix formalism for describing the spin dynamics due to a single spin resonance; this seems to be the first generalization of the Froissart-Stora equation since it was published in 1960. The Chao matrix formalism allows one to calculate analytically the polarization's behavior inside a resonance, which is not possible using the Froissart-Stora equation. We recently tested some Chao formalism predictions using a 1.85 GeV/c polarized deuteron beam stored in COSY. We swept an rf dipole's frequency through 200 Hz while varying the distance from the sweep's end frequency to an rf-induced spin resonance's central frequency. While the Froissart-Stora formula can make no prediction in this case, the data seem to support the Chao formalism. We also started investigating the new Kondratenko method to preserve beam polarization during a spin resonance crossing; the method uses 3 rapid changes of the crossing rate near the resonance. With a proper choice of crossing parameters, Kondratenko Crossing may better preserve the polarization than simple fast crossing. We tested Kondratenko's idea using 2.1 GeV/c polarized protons stored in COSY; the frequency of a ferrite rf dipole was swept though an rf-induced spin resonance using Kondratenko's crossing shape. We have not yet observed a significant advantage of Kondratenko Crossing over simple fast crossing. We plan to study it further by choosing better crossing parameters and a smaller momentum spread.

  1. Ambitwistor string theory in the operator formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid-Edwards, R. A.

    2016-06-01

    After a brief overview of the operator formalism for conventional string theory, an operator formalism for ambitwistor string theory is presented. It is shown how tree level supergravity scattering amplitudes are recovered in this formalism. More general applications of this formalism to loop amplitudes and the construction of an ambitwistor string field theory are briefly discussed.

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Marten

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the pine marten (Martes americana) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the species-habitat requirements of the pine marten. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of a HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word and mathematical. Suitability index graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are then synthesized into a model which is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  3. Notoph gauge theory: Superfield formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, R. P.

    2011-05-01

    We derive absolutely anticommuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetry transformations for the 4D free Abelian 2-form gauge theory by exploiting the superfield approach to BRST formalism. The antisymmetric tensor gauge field of the above theory was christened as the "notoph" (i.e. the opposite of "photon") gauge field by Ogievetsky and Palubarinov way back in 1966-67. We briefly outline the problems involved in obtaining the absolute anticonimutativity of the (anti-) BRST transformations and their resolution within the framework of geometrical superfield approach to BRST formalism. One of the highlights of our results is the emergence of a Curci-Ferrari type of restriction in the context of 4D Abelian 2-form (notoph) gauge theory which renders the nilpotent (anti-) BRST symmetries of the theory to be absolutely anticommutative in nature.

  4. Formal Analysis of Message Passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Stephen F.; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    The message passing paradigm underlies many important families of programs - for instance programs in the area of high performance computing that support science and engineering research. Unfortunately, very few formal methods researchers are involved in developing formal analysis tools and techniques for message passing programs. This paper summarizes research being done in our groups in support of this area, specifically with respect to the Message Passing Interface. We emphasize the need for specialized varieties of many familiar notions such as deadlock detection, race analysis, symmetry analysis, partial order reduction, static analysis and symbolic reasoning support. Since these issues are harbingers of those being faced in multicore programming, the time is ripe to build a critical mass of researchers working in this area.

  5. Formal total synthesis of platencin.

    PubMed

    Varseev, Georgy N; Maier, Martin E

    2009-01-01

    The right bicycle: A concise formal synthesis of platencin was based on an efficient oxygen-mediated palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation of 1 to form a bicyclo[3.2.1]octane, and a deoxygenative rearrangement of tosylhydrazone 2 to construct the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane 3. The total yield of the core structure 4 of platencin was 17.5% for 13 steps from a commercially available compound. Ts = p-toluenesulfonyl, TBS = tert-butyldimethylsilyl, Piv = pivaloyl. PMID:19353600

  6. Formal Validation of Aerospace Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesens, David; Moy, Yannick; Kanig, Johannes

    2013-08-01

    Any single error in critical software can have catastrophic consequences. Even though failures are usually not advertised, some software bugs have become famous, such as the error in the MIM-104 Patriot. For space systems, experience shows that software errors are a serious concern: more than half of all satellite failures from 2000 to 2003 involved software. To address this concern, this paper addresses the use of formal verification of software developed in Ada.

  7. Formalizing narratives using nested circumscription

    SciTech Connect

    Baral, C.; Gabaldon, A.; Provetti, A.

    1996-12-31

    The representation of narratives of actions and observations is a current issue in Knowledge Representation, where traditional plan-oriented treatments of action seem to fall short. To address narratives, Pinto and Reiter have extended Situation Calculus axioms, Kowalski and Sergot have introduced the Event Calculus in Logic Programming, and Baral et al. have defined the specification language L which allows to express actual and hypothetical situations in a uniform setting. The L entailment relation can formalize several forms of reasoning about actions and change. In this paper we illustrate a translation of L theories into Nested Abnormality Theories, a novel form of circumscription. The proof of soundness and completeness of the translation is the main technical result of the paper, but attention is also devoted to the features of Nested Abnormality Theories to capture commonsense reasoning in general and to clarify which assumptions a logical formalization forces upon a domain. These results also help clarifying the relationship between L and other recent circumscriptive formalization for narratives, such as Miller and Shanahan`s.

  8. Formal development of a clock synchronization circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.

    1995-01-01

    This talk presents the latest stage in formal development of a fault-tolerant clock synchronization circuit. The development spans from a high level specification of the required properties to a circuit realizing the core function of the system. An abstract description of an algorithm has been verified to satisfy the high-level properties using the mechanical verification system EHDM. This abstract description is recast as a behavioral specification input to the Digital Design Derivation system (DDD) developed at Indiana University. DDD provides a formal design algebra for developing correct digital hardware. Using DDD as the principle design environment, a core circuit implementing the clock synchronization algorithm was developed. The design process consisted of standard DDD transformations augmented with an ad hoc refinement justified using the Prototype Verification System (PVS) from SRI International. Subsequent to the above development, Wilfredo Torres-Pomales discovered an area-efficient realization of the same function. Establishing correctness of this optimization requires reasoning in arithmetic, so a general verification is outside the domain of both DDD transformations and model-checking techniques. DDD represents digital hardware by systems of mutually recursive stream equations. A collection of PVS theories was developed to aid in reasoning about DDD-style streams. These theories include a combinator for defining streams that satisfy stream equations, and a means for proving stream equivalence by exhibiting a stream bisimulation. DDD was used to isolate the sub-system involved in Torres-Pomales' optimization. The equivalence between the original design and the optimized verified was verified in PVS by exhibiting a suitable bisimulation. The verification depended upon type constraints on the input streams and made extensive use of the PVS type system. The dependent types in PVS provided a useful mechanism for defining an appropriate bisimulation.

  9. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Muskellunge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, Mark F.; Solomon, R. Charles

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the muskellunge (Esox masquinongy Mitchell). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  10. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bobcat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyle, Katherine A.; Fendley, Timothy T.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the bobcat (Felis rufus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  11. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žáček, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  12. On Vasyliunas's equivalent conductivity formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Vasyliunas's (1972) equivalent conductivity formalism (ECF) for representing the coupling of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere is discussed, and a new, simpler, derivation is presented of the ECF, in which certain of the underlying assumptions and their implications are made transparent. The derivation presented indicates that the only role of the ions in the ECF is to insure quasi-neutrality. It is shown that the ECF is not as robust as usually assumed and that caution must be used to insure that reasonable results are obtained.

  13. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  14. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  15. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  16. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal Complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Formal Complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal Complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  17. A Formal Approach to Domain-Oriented Software Design Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a formal approach to domain-oriented software design environments, based on declarative domain theories, formal specifications, and deductive program synthesis. A declarative domain theory defines the semantics of a domain-oriented specification language and its relationship to implementation-level subroutines. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that guides them in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory, which includes an axiomatization of JPL's SPICELIB subroutine library. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development. Furthermore, AMPHION synthesizes one to two page programs consisting of calls to SPICELIB subroutines from these specifications in just a few minutes. Test results obtained by metering AMPHION's deductive program synthesis component are examined. AMPHION has been installed at JPL and is currently undergoing further refinement in preparation for distribution to hundreds of SPICELIB users worldwide. Current work to support end-user customization of AMPHION's specification acquisition subsystem is briefly discussed, as well as future work to enable domain-expert creation of new AMPHION applications through development of suitable domain theories.

  18. Formal Methods at Intel - An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, John

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Intel has invested heavily in formal methods, which are now deployed in several domains: hardware, software, firmware, protocols etc. Many different formal methods tools and techniques are in active use, including symbolic trajectory evaluation, temporal logic model checking, SMT-style combined decision procedures, and interactive higher-order logic theorem proving. I will try to give a broad overview of some of the formal methods activities taking place at Intel, and describe the challenges of extending formal verification to new areas and of effectively using multiple formal techniques in combination

  19. Formal methods technology transfer: Some lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David

    1992-01-01

    IBM has a long history in the application of formal methods to software development and verification. There have been many successes in the development of methods, tools and training to support formal methods. And formal methods have been very successful on several projects. However, the use of formal methods has not been as widespread as hoped. This presentation summarizes several approaches that have been taken to encourage more widespread use of formal methods, and discusses the results so far. The basic problem is one of technology transfer, which is a very difficult problem. It is even more difficult for formal methods. General problems of technology transfer, especially the transfer of formal methods technology, are also discussed. Finally, some prospects for the future are mentioned.

  20. A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.

    2013-01-01

    Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…

  1. Formal modeling of virtual machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremers, A. B.; Hibbard, T. N.

    1978-01-01

    Systematic software design can be based on the development of a 'hierarchy of virtual machines', each representing a 'level of abstraction' of the design process. The reported investigation presents the concept of 'data space' as a formal model for virtual machines. The presented model of a data space combines the notions of data type and mathematical machine to express the close interaction between data and control structures which takes place in a virtual machine. One of the main objectives of the investigation is to show that control-independent data type implementation is only of limited usefulness as an isolated tool of program development, and that the representation of data is generally dictated by the control context of a virtual machine. As a second objective, a better understanding is to be developed of virtual machine state structures than was heretofore provided by the view of the state space as a Cartesian product.

  2. Identification of process suitable diluent

    SciTech Connect

    Dean R. Peterman

    2014-01-01

    The Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separation (STMAS) was formed within the USDOE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program in order to develop more efficient methods for the separation of americium and other minor actinides (MA) from used nuclear fuel. The development of processes for MA separations is driven by the potential benefits; reduced long-term radiotoxicty of waste placed in a geologic repository, reduced timeframe of waste storage, reduced repository heat load, the possibility of increased repository capacity, and increased utilization of energy potential of used nuclear fuel. The research conducted within the STMAS framework is focused upon the realization of significant simplifications to aqueous recycle processes proposed for MA separations. This report describes the research efforts focused upon the identification of a process suitable diluent for a flowsheet concept for the separation of MA which is based upon the dithiophosphinic acid (DPAH) extractants previously developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  3. 10 CFR 963.11 - Suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.11 Suitability determination. DOE will evaluate whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable... determinations described in §§ 963.12 and 963.15. If DOE's evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site for the...

  4. 10 CFR 963.11 - Suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.11 Suitability determination. DOE will evaluate whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable... determinations described in §§ 963.12 and 963.15. If DOE's evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site for the...

  5. 10 CFR 963.11 - Suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.11 Suitability determination. DOE will evaluate whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable... determinations described in §§ 963.12 and 963.15. If DOE's evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site for the...

  6. 10 CFR 963.11 - Suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.11 Suitability determination. DOE will evaluate whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable... determinations described in §§ 963.12 and 963.15. If DOE's evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site for the...

  7. 10 CFR 963.11 - Suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.11 Suitability determination. DOE will evaluate whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable... determinations described in §§ 963.12 and 963.15. If DOE's evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site for the...

  8. Two-state vector formalism and quantum interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, F. A.; Li, Fu; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2016-08-01

    We show that two-state vector formalism (TSVF), applied to quantum systems that make use of delicate interference effects, can lead to paradoxes. We consider a few schemes of nested Mach–Zehnder interferometers that make use of destructive interference. A particular interpretation of TSVF applied to these schemes makes predictions that are contradictory to quantum theory and can not always be verified. Our results suggest that TSVF might not be a suitable tool to describe quantum systems that make use of delicate quantum interference effects.

  9. Measurement-feedback formalism meets information reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Naoto; Matsumoto, Takumi; Sagawa, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    There have been two distinct formalisms of thermodynamics of information: one is the measurement-feedback formalism, which concerns bipartite systems with measurement and feedback processes, and the other is the information reservoir formalism, which considers bit sequences as a thermodynamic fuel. In this paper, we derive a second-law-like inequality by applying the measurement-feedback formalism to information reservoirs, which provides a stronger bound of extractable work than any other known inequality in the same setup. In addition, we demonstrate that the Mandal-Jarzynski model, which is a prominent model of the information reservoir formalism, is equivalent to a model obtained by the contraction of a bipartite system with autonomous measurement and feedback. Our results provide a unified view on the measurement-feedback and the information-reservoir formalisms.

  10. Survey of Existing Tools for Formal Verification.

    SciTech Connect

    Punnoose, Ratish J.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Jackson, Mayo

    2014-12-01

    Formal methods have come into wide use because of their effectiveness in verifying "safety and security" requirements of digital systems; a set of requirements for which testing is mostly ineffective. Formal methods are routinely used in the design and verification of high-consequence digital systems in industry. This report outlines our work in assessing the capabilities of commercial and open source formal tools and the ways in which they can be leveraged in digital design workflows.

  11. Anyons in the operational formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Neori, Klil H.; Goyal, Philip

    2015-01-13

    The operational formalism to quantum mechanics seeks to base the theory on a firm foundation of physically well-motivated axioms [1]. It has succeeded in deriving the Feynman rules [2] for general quantum systems. Additional elaborations have applied the same logic to the question of identical particles, confirming the so-called Symmetrization Postulate [3]: that the only two options available are fermions and bosons [4, 5]. However, this seems to run counter to results in two-dimensional systems, which allow for anyons, particles with statistics which interpolate between Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein (see [6] for a review). In this talk we will show that the results in two dimensions can be made compatible with the operational results. That is, we will show that anyonic behavior is a result of the topology of the space in two dimensions [7], and does not depend on the particles being identical; but that nevertheless, if the particles are identical, the resulting system is still anyonic.

  12. Anyons in the operational formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neori, Klil H.; Goyal, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The operational formalism to quantum mechanics seeks to base the theory on a firm foundation of physically well-motivated axioms [1]. It has succeeded in deriving the Feynman rules [2] for general quantum systems. Additional elaborations have applied the same logic to the question of identical particles, confirming the so-called Symmetrization Postulate [3]: that the only two options available are fermions and bosons [4, 5]. However, this seems to run counter to results in two-dimensional systems, which allow for anyons, particles with statistics which interpolate between Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein (see [6] for a review). In this talk we will show that the results in two dimensions can be made compatible with the operational results. That is, we will show that anyonic behavior is a result of the topology of the space in two dimensions [7], and does not depend on the particles being identical; but that nevertheless, if the particles are identical, the resulting system is still anyonic.

  13. Universal formalism of Fano resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Luo, Hong-Gang; Grebogi, Celso

    2015-01-15

    The phenomenon of Fano resonance is ubiquitous in a large variety of wave scattering systems, where the resonance profile is typically asymmetric. Whether the parameter characterizing the asymmetry should be complex or real is an issue of great experimental interest. Using coherent quantum transport as a paradigm and taking into account of the collective contribution from all available scattering channels, we derive a universal formula for the Fano-resonance profile. We show that our formula bridges naturally the traditional Fano formulas with complex and real asymmetry parameters, indicating that the two types of formulas are fundamentally equivalent (except for an offset). The connection also reveals a clear footprint for the conductance resonance during a dephasing process. Therefore, the emergence of complex asymmetric parameter when fitting with experimental data needs to be properly interpreted. Furthermore, we have provided a theory for the width of the resonance, which relates explicitly the width to the degree of localization of the close-by eigenstates and the corresponding coupling matrices or the self-energies caused by the leads. Our work not only resolves the issue about the nature of the asymmetry parameter, but also provides deeper physical insights into the origin of Fano resonance. Since the only assumption in our treatment is that the transport can be described by the Green’s function formalism, our results are also valid for broad disciplines including scattering problems of electromagnetic waves, acoustics, and seismology.

  14. Formal Methods for Life-Critical Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Johnson, Sally C.

    1993-01-01

    The use of computer software in life-critical applications, such as for civil air transports, demands the use of rigorous formal mathematical verification procedures. This paper demonstrates how to apply formal methods to the development and verification of software by leading the reader step-by-step through requirements analysis, design, implementation, and verification of an electronic phone book application. The current maturity and limitations of formal methods tools and techniques are then discussed, and a number of examples of the successful use of formal methods by industry are cited.

  15. Third NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This publication constitutes the proceedings of NASA Langley Research Center's third workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. This workshop brought together formal methods researchers, industry engineers, and academicians to discuss the potential of NASA-sponsored formal methods and to investigate new opportunities for applying these methods to industry problems. contained herein are copies of the material presented at the workshop, summaries of many of the presentations, a complete list of attendees, and a detailed summary of the Langley formal methods program. Much of this material is available electronically through the World-Wide Web via the following URL.

  16. The Second NASA Formal Methods Workshop 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C. (Compiler); Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Butler, Ricky W. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the workshop was to bring together formal methods researchers and aerospace industry engineers to investigate new opportunities for applying formal methods to aerospace problems. The first part of the workshop was tutorial in nature. The second part of the workshop explored the potential of formal methods to address current aerospace design and verification problems. The third part of the workshop involved on-line demonstrations of state-of-the-art formal verification tools. Also, a detailed survey was filled in by the attendees; the results of the survey are compiled.

  17. Multifractal formalism and anisotropic selfsimilar functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Slimane, Mourad

    1998-09-01

    In this paper we prove that the conjectures of Frisch and Parisi and Arneodo et al. (called the multifractal formalism for functions) may fail for some non-homogeneous selfsimilar functions on [open face R]2. In these cases, we compute the correct spectrum of singularities and we show how the multifractal formalism must be modified.

  18. 39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... Applicability § 3001.20 Formal intervention. (a) Who may intervene. A notice of intervention will be entertained... interest of such nature that intervention is allowed by the Act, or appropriate to its administration....

  19. 39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... Applicability § 3001.20 Formal intervention. (a) Who may intervene. A notice of intervention will be entertained... interest of such nature that intervention is allowed by the Act, or appropriate to its administration....

  20. 39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... Applicability § 3001.20 Formal intervention. (a) Who may intervene. A notice of intervention will be entertained... interest of such nature that intervention is allowed by the Act, or appropriate to its administration....

  1. 39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... Applicability § 3001.20 Formal intervention. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 33407, June 10, 2014. (a) Who may intervene. A notice of intervention will be entertained in those cases that are noticed for...

  2. 39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... Applicability § 3001.20 Formal intervention. (a) Who may intervene. A notice of intervention will be entertained... interest of such nature that intervention is allowed by the Act, or appropriate to its administration....

  3. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  4. Do Formal Supports Replace Informal Supports?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barer, Barbara M.; And Others

    Health policy researchers have long been interested in the extent to which the provision of formal supports replaces or undermines the informal support system. This study examined the linkages between the formal and informal support system as they are mediated by a health care setting which readily provides patients with access to social services.…

  5. Restorative Practices as Formal and Informal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Candice C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews restorative practices (RP) as education in formal and informal contexts of learning that are fertile sites for cultivating peace. Formal practices involve instruction about response to conflict, while informal learning occurs beyond academic lessons. The research incorporated content analysis and a critical examination of the…

  6. Formal Moral Education and Individual Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Gary Gene

    This report provides a summarization of a study designed to determine if there is a significant relationship between formal religious education and the moral judgment development of college students, and after controlling for formal religious education, to see if there was also a significant relationship between the educational environment or…

  7. Male-Female Differences in Formal Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.

    Two studies were conducted to clarify the influence of experiences and aptitudes on male-female differences in formal thought. Participants were 788 seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-graders in three school districts differing in location, socioeconomic composition, and course offerings. Formal thought was measured with tasks involving proportional…

  8. Does (In)Formal Learning Enhance Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Heijden, Beatrice I.J.M.; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel R.; Meys, Ely

    2008-01-01

    Not much is known about the actual contribution of informal learning to employability over and above formal learning activities. This paper presents findings of a research project among university staff members and is aimed to determine the contribution of formal and informal learning activities in the light of future career potential. Findings…

  9. Methodological imperfection and formalizations in scientific activity

    SciTech Connect

    Svetlichny, G.

    1987-03-01

    Any mathematical formalization of scientific activity allows for imperfections in the methodology that is formalized. These can be of three types, dirty, rotten, and dammed. Restricting mathematical attention to those methods that cannot be construed to be imperfect drastically reduces the class of objects that must be analyzed, and related all other objects to these more regular ones. Examples are drawn from empirical logic.

  10. Multiverse in the Third Quantized Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Faizal

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we will analyze the third quantization of gravity in path integral formalism. We will use the time-dependent version of Wheeler—DeWitt equation to analyze the multiverse in this formalism. We will propose a mechanism for baryogenesis to occur in the multiverse, without violating the baryon number conservation.

  11. 14 CFR 302.404 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formal complaints. 302.404 Section 302.404 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL... business or the ends of justice. (e) Service. A formal complaint, and any amendments thereto, shall...

  12. Formal hardware verification of digital circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, J.; Seger, C.-J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of formal methods to verify the correctness of digital circuits is less constrained by the growing complexity of digital circuits than conventional methods based on exhaustive simulation. This paper briefly outlines three main approaches to formal hardware verification: symbolic simulation, state machine analysis, and theorem-proving.

  13. 37 CFR 251.41 - Formal hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.41 Formal hearings. (a) The formal hearings that... distribution hearings. All parties intending to participate in a hearing of a Copyright Arbitration...

  14. Integrating Formal and Informal Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart; Ellstrom, Per-Erik; Aberg, Carina

    2004-01-01

    A model for workplace learning is presented, which intends to integrate formal and informal learning with the use of e-learning. An important underlying assumption is that the integration of formal and informal learning is necessary in order to create desirable competencies, from both an individual and an organisational perspective. Two case…

  15. 37 CFR 251.41 - Formal hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.41 Formal hearings. (a) The formal hearings that... distribution hearings. All parties intending to participate in a hearing of a Copyright Arbitration...

  16. Directly executable formal models of middleware for MANET and Cloud Networking and Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchenko, D. V.; Sadeq Jaafar, Mustafa; Zinkin, S. A.; Trokoz, D. A.; Pashchenko, T. U.; Sinev, M. P.

    2016-04-01

    The article considers some “directly executable” formal models that are suitable for the specification of computing and networking in the cloud environment and other networks which are similar to wireless networks MANET. These models can be easily programmed and implemented on computer networks.

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Wood Duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sousa, Patrick J.; Farmer, Adrian H.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop models for breeding and wintering habitats for the wood duck (Aix sponsa). The models are scaled to produce indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat). Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  18. 45 CFR 12a.4 - Suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.4 Suitability determination. (a) Suitability determination. Within 30... § 12a.6, which properties are suitable for use as facilities to assist the homeless and report its... use as a facility to assist the homeless without regard to any particular use. (c)...

  19. 45 CFR 12a.6 - Suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suitability criteria. 12a.6 Section 12a.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.6 Suitability criteria. (a) All properties, buildings and land will be determined suitable unless a...

  20. Unified formalism for nonautonomous mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero-Liñán, María; Echeverría-Enríquez, Arturo; Diego, David Martín de; Muñoz-Lecanda, Miguel C.; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2008-06-01

    We present a unified geometric framework for describing both the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms of regular and nonregular time-dependent mechanical systems, which is based on the approach of Skinner and Rusk ["Generalized Hamiltonian dynamics I. Formulation on T*Q⊗TQ," J. Math. Phys. 24, 2589 (1983)]. The dynamical equations of motion and their compatibility and consistency are carefully studied, making clear that all the characteristics of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formalisms are recovered in this formulation. As an example, a semidiscretization of the nonlinear wave equation is studied, proving the applicability of the proposed formalism.

  1. Relativistic density functional calculations using two-spinor minimax finite-element method and linear combination of atomic orbitals for ZnO, CdO, HgO, UubO and Cu2, Ag2, Au2, Rg2.

    PubMed

    Kullie, O; Zhang, H; Kolb, J; Kolb, D

    2006-12-28

    In previous work the authors have presented a highly accurate two-spinor fully relativistic solution of the two-center Coulomb problem utilizing the finite-element method (FEM) and furthermore developed a relativistic minimax two-spinor linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). In the present paper the authors present Dirac-Fock-Slater (DFS-) density functional calculations for two-atomic molecules up to super heavy systems using the fully nonlinear minimax FEM and the minimax LCAO in its linearized approximation (linear approximation to relativistic minimax). The FEM gives highly accurate benchmark results for the DFS functional. Especially considering molecules with up to super heavy atoms such as UubO and Rg2, the authors found that LCAO fails to give the correct systematic trends. The accurate FEM results shed a new light on the quality of the DFS-density functional. PMID:17199347

  2. Experiences Using Formal Methods for Requirements Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, Steve; Lutz, Robyn; Covington, Rick; Kelly, John; Ampo, Yoko; Hamilton, David

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes three cases studies in the lightweight application of formal methods to requirements modeling for spacecraft fault protection systems. The case studies differ from previously reported applications of formal methods in that formal methods were applied very early in the requirements engineering process, to validate the evolving requirements. The results were fed back into the projects, to improve the informal specifications. For each case study, we describe what methods were applied, how they were applied, how much effort was involved, and what the findings were. In all three cases, the formal modeling provided a cost effective enhancement of the existing verification and validation processes. We conclude that the benefits gained from early modeling of unstable requirements more than outweigh the effort needed to maintain multiple representations.

  3. Further Examination of Formal Operational Reasoning Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1979-01-01

    Three paper-and-pencil formal operations tests were administered to groups of eighth graders and adults. These measures provided scores that indicated each subject's level of reasoning for three second-order operations: combinations, proportionality, and propositional logic. (JMB)

  4. Open systems & non-formal education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Gerald F.

    1988-10-01

    Professor Dib created an important structure that can be used to attach the many and various activities that fall in the category of this title. While I plan to use his structure, I will be emphasizing a different component of his spectrum and promoting a different need. Professor Dib suggested a critical need to move our teaching styles away from formal modes to non-formal modes of delivery. I suggest an equally critical need in the area of informal education. And, I will propose aways to move us toward the same goal, non-formal activities. I believe we need to find ways to use the many informal education activities that occur almost automatically in our societies to move our potential learners to richer non-formal endeavors. Both needs are real; both activities are valid.

  5. Formal specification of human-computer interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auernheimer, Brent

    1990-01-01

    A high-level formal specification of a human computer interface is described. Previous work is reviewed and the ASLAN specification language is described. Top-level specifications written in ASLAN for a library and a multiwindow interface are discussed.

  6. Importance of Reversibility in the Quantum Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, François

    2011-10-01

    In this Letter I stress the role of causal reversibility (time symmetry), together with causality and locality, in the justification of the quantum formalism. First, in the algebraic quantum formalism, I show that the assumption of reversibility implies that the observables of a quantum theory form an abstract real C⋆ algebra, and can be represented as an algebra of operators on a real Hilbert space. Second, in the quantum logic formalism, I emphasize which axioms for the lattice of propositions (the existence of an orthocomplementation and the covering property) derive from reversibility. A new argument based on locality and Soler’s theorem is used to derive the representation as projectors on a regular Hilbert space from the general quantum logic formalism. In both cases it is recalled that the restriction to complex algebras and Hilbert spaces comes from the constraints of locality and separability.

  7. A non-commuting stabilizer formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Xiaotong; Van den Nest, Maarten; Buerschaper, Oliver

    2015-05-15

    We propose a non-commutative extension of the Pauli stabilizer formalism. The aim is to describe a class of many-body quantum states which is richer than the standard Pauli stabilizer states. In our framework, stabilizer operators are tensor products of single-qubit operators drawn from the group 〈αI, X, S〉, where α = e{sup iπ/4} and S = diag(1, i). We provide techniques to efficiently compute various properties related to bipartite entanglement, expectation values of local observables, preparation by means of quantum circuits, parent Hamiltonians, etc. We also highlight significant differences compared to the Pauli stabilizer formalism. In particular, we give examples of states in our formalism which cannot arise in the Pauli stabilizer formalism, such as topological models that support non-Abelian anyons.

  8. The Intersituational Generality of Formal Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Mary Ann; Ausubel, David P.

    1969-01-01

    Shows that, contrary to Piagetian Theory, formal thought in a variety of subject matters is not possible until sufficient requisite concrete background experience in each content area involved has been attained. (MH)

  9. Why Engineers Should Consider Formal Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a logical analysis of a typical argument favoring the use of formal methods for software development, and suggests an alternative argument that is simpler and stronger than the typical one.

  10. Transitions from Formal Education to the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joann S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames the transition to adulthood in the context of the moving from formal educational settings to the often less-structured learning that occurs in workplace settings. Although schooling may end, learning continues.

  11. General formalism for singly thermostated Hamiltonian dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ramshaw, John D

    2015-11-01

    A general formalism is developed for constructing modified Hamiltonian dynamical systems which preserve a canonical equilibrium distribution by adding a time evolution equation for a single additional thermostat variable. When such systems are ergodic, canonical ensemble averages can be computed as dynamical time averages over a single trajectory. Systems of this type were unknown until their recent discovery by Hoover and colleagues. The present formalism should facilitate the discovery, construction, and classification of other such systems by encompassing a wide class of them within a single unified framework. This formalism includes both canonical and generalized Hamiltonian systems in a state space of arbitrary dimensionality (either even or odd) and therefore encompasses both few- and many-particle systems. Particular attention is devoted to the physical motivation and interpretation of the formalism, which largely determine its structure. An analogy to stochastic thermostats and fluctuation-dissipation theorems is briefly discussed. PMID:26651677

  12. Design for validation, based on formal methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.

    1990-01-01

    Validation of ultra-reliable systems decomposes into two subproblems: (1) quantification of probability of system failure due to physical failure; (2) establishing that Design Errors are not present. Methods of design, testing, and analysis of ultra-reliable software are discussed. It is concluded that a design-for-validation based on formal methods is needed for the digital flight control systems problem, and also that formal methods will play a major role in the development of future high reliability digital systems.

  13. Methodological Imperfection and Formalizations of Scientific Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetlichny, George

    1987-03-01

    Any mathematical formalization of scientific activity allows for imperfections in the methodology that is formalized. These can be of three types, “dirty,” “rotten,” and “dammed.” Restricting mathematical attention to those methods that cannot be construed to be imperfect drastically reduces the class of objects that must be analyzed, and relates all other objects to these more regular ones. Examples are drawn from empirical logic.

  14. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Longnose Sucker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  15. Formality of the Chinese collective leadership.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiying; Graesser, Arthur C

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the linguistic patterns in the discourse of four generations of the collective leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1921 to 2012. The texts of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao were analyzed using computational linguistic techniques (a Chinese formality score) to explore the persuasive linguistic features of the leaders in the contexts of power phase, the nation's education level, power duration, and age. The study was guided by the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, which includes a central route (represented by formal discourse) versus a peripheral route (represented by informal discourse) to persuasion. The results revealed that these leaders adopted the formal, central route more when they were in power than before they came into power. The nation's education level was a significant factor in the leaders' adoption of the persuasion strategy. The leaders' formality also decreased with their increasing age and in-power times. However, the predictability of these factors for formality had subtle differences among the different types of leaders. These results enhance our understanding of the Chinese collective leadership and the role of formality in politically persuasive messages. PMID:27406253

  16. Formal verification of an avionics microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivas, Mandayam, K.; Miller, Steven P.

    1995-01-01

    Formal specification combined with mechanical verification is a promising approach for achieving the extremely high levels of assurance required of safety-critical digital systems. However, many questions remain regarding their use in practice: Can these techniques scale up to industrial systems, where are they likely to be useful, and how should industry go about incorporating them into practice? This report discusses a project undertaken to answer some of these questions, the formal verification of the AAMPS microprocessor. This project consisted of formally specifying in the PVS language a rockwell proprietary microprocessor at both the instruction-set and register-transfer levels and using the PVS theorem prover to show that the microcode correctly implemented the instruction-level specification for a representative subset of instructions. Notable aspects of this project include the use of a formal specification language by practicing hardware and software engineers, the integration of traditional inspections with formal specifications, and the use of a mechanical theorem prover to verify a portion of a commercial, pipelined microprocessor that was not explicitly designed for formal verification.

  17. (abstract) Formal Inspection Technology Transfer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welz, Linda A.; Kelly, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A Formal Inspection Technology Transfer Program, based on the inspection process developed by Michael Fagan at IBM, has been developed at JPL. The goal of this program is to support organizations wishing to use Formal Inspections to improve the quality of software and system level engineering products. The Technology Transfer Program provides start-up materials and assistance to help organizations establish their own Formal Inspection program. The course materials and certified instructors associated with the Technology Transfer Program have proven to be effective in classes taught at other NASA centers as well as at JPL. Formal Inspections (NASA tailored Fagan Inspections) are a set of technical reviews whose objective is to increase quality and reduce the cost of software development by detecting and correcting errors early. A primary feature of inspections is the removal of engineering errors before they amplify into larger and more costly problems downstream in the development process. Note that the word 'inspection' is used differently in software than in a manufacturing context. A Formal Inspection is a front-end quality enhancement technique, rather than a task conducted just prior to product shipment for the purpose of sorting defective systems (manufacturing usage). Formal Inspections are supporting and in agreement with the 'total quality' approach being adopted by many NASA centers.

  18. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bigmouth Buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indices (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  19. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Rainbow Trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, Robert F.; Hickman, Terry; Solomon, R. Charles; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1984-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), a freshwater species. The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of Fallfish habitat.

  20. Formal Methods for Verification and Validation of Partial Specifications: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, Steve; Callahan, John

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes our work exploring the suitability of formal specification methods for independent verification and validation (IV&V) of software specifications for large, safety critical systems. An IV&V contractor often has to perform rapid analysis on incomplete specifications, with no control over how those specifications are represented. Lightweight formal methods show significant promise in this context, as they offer a way of uncovering major errors, without the burden of full proofs of correctness. We describe a case study of the use of partial formal models for V&V of the requirements for Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery on the space station. We conclude that the insights gained from formalizing a specification are valuable, and it is the process of formalization, rather than the end product that is important. It was only necessary to build enough of the formal model to test the properties in which we were interested. Maintenance of fidelity between multiple representations of the same requirements (as they evolve) is still a problem, and deserves further study.

  1. A Formal Approach for Milk-Run Transport Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Ichiro

    A formal approach for specifying and reasoning about earth-friendly logistics management systems is presented. To reduce fossil fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from transport, we must enhance the transport efficiency of trucks, which play an essential role as carriers in modern logistics services. This paper addresses the milk-run approach. It is one of the most effective and popular solutions to this problem, but it makes it be complicated to implement in a logistics management system. We propose a language for specifying the routes of trucks and an order relation between the requirements of routes and the possible routes of trucks. The former is formulated as process calculus and the latter selects suitable trucks according to their routes.

  2. A Formal Model of Partitioning for Integrated Modular Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiVito, Ben L.

    1998-01-01

    The aviation industry is gradually moving toward the use of integrated modular avionics (IMA) for civilian transport aircraft. An important concern for IMA is ensuring that applications are safely partitioned so they cannot interfere with one another. We have investigated the problem of ensuring safe partitioning and logical non-interference among separate applications running on a shared Avionics Computer Resource (ACR). This research was performed in the context of ongoing standardization efforts, in particular, the work of RTCA committee SC-182, and the recently completed ARINC 653 application executive (APEX) interface standard. We have developed a formal model of partitioning suitable for evaluating the design of an ACR. The model draws from the mathematical modeling techniques developed by the computer security community. This report presents a formulation of partitioning requirements expressed first using conventional mathematical notation, then formalized using the language of SRI'S Prototype Verification System (PVS). The approach is demonstrated on three candidate designs, each an abstraction of features found in real systems.

  3. Formal Methods Case Studies for DO-333

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Darren; Miller, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    RTCA DO-333, Formal Methods Supplement to DO-178C and DO-278A provides guidance for software developers wishing to use formal methods in the certification of airborne systems and air traffic management systems. The supplement identifies the modifications and additions to DO-178C and DO-278A objectives, activities, and software life cycle data that should be addressed when formal methods are used as part of the software development process. This report presents three case studies describing the use of different classes of formal methods to satisfy certification objectives for a common avionics example - a dual-channel Flight Guidance System. The three case studies illustrate the use of theorem proving, model checking, and abstract interpretation. The material presented is not intended to represent a complete certification effort. Rather, the purpose is to illustrate how formal methods can be used in a realistic avionics software development project, with a focus on the evidence produced that could be used to satisfy the verification objectives found in Section 6 of DO-178C.

  4. Formal methods for Hopfield-like networks.

    PubMed

    Ben Amor, Hedi; Corblin, Fabien; Fanchon, Eric; Elena, Adrien; Trilling, Laurent; Demongeot, Jacques; Glade, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    Building a meaningful model of biological regulatory network is usually done by specifying the components (e.g. the genes) and their interactions, by guessing the values of parameters, by comparing the predicted behaviors to the observed ones, and by modifying in a trial-error process both architecture and parameters in order to reach an optimal fitness. We propose here a different approach to construct and analyze biological models avoiding the trial-error part, where structure and dynamics are represented as formal constraints. We apply the method to Hopfield-like networks, a formalism often used in both neural and regulatory networks modeling. The aim is to characterize automatically the set of all models consistent with all the available knowledge (about structure and behavior). The available knowledge is formalized into formal constraints. The latter are compiled into Boolean formula in conjunctive normal form and then submitted to a Boolean satisfiability solver. This approach allows to formulate a wide range of queries, expressed in a high level language, and possibly integrating formalized intuitions. In order to explore its potential, we use it to find cycles for 3-nodes networks and to determine the flower morphogenesis regulatory network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Applications of this technique are numerous and concern the building of models from data as well as the design of biological networks possessing specified behaviors. PMID:23381497

  5. Towards Formal Verification of a Separation Microkernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterfield, Andrew; Sanan, David; Hinchey, Mike

    2013-08-01

    The best approach to verifying an IMA separation kernel is to use a (fixed) time-space partitioning kernel with a multiple independent levels of separation (MILS) architecture. We describe an activity that explores the cost and feasibility of doing a formal verification of such a kernel to the Common Criteria (CC) levels mandated by the Separation Kernel Protection Profile (SKPP). We are developing a Reference Specification of such a kernel, and are using higher-order logic (HOL) to construct formal models of this specification and key separation properties. We then plan to do a dry run of part of a formal proof of those properties using the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover.

  6. First order formalism for quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gleiser, M.; Holman, R.; Neto, N.P.

    1987-05-01

    We develop a first order formalism for the quantization of gravity. We take as canonical variables both the induced metric and the extrinsic curvature of the (d - 1) -dimensional hypersurfaces obtained by the foliation of the d - dimensional spacetime. After solving the constraint algebra we use the Dirac formalism to quantize the theory and obtain a new representation for the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, defined in the functional space of the extrinsic curvature. We also show how to obtain several different representations of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation by considering actions differing by a total divergence. In particular, the intrinsic and extrinsic time approaches appear in a natural way, as do equivalent representations obtained by functional Fourier transforms of appropriate variables. We conclude with some remarks about the construction of the Hilbert space within the first order formalism. 10 refs.

  7. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science. PMID:19805422

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Laughing Gull

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zale, Alexander V.; Mulholland, Rosemarie

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for laughing gull (Larus atricilla). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas along the Gulf of Mexico coast. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

  9. MOOC & B-Learning: Students' Barriers and Satisfaction in Formal and Non-Formal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez-Santiuste, Elba; Gámiz-Sánchez, Vanesa-M.; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The study presents a comparative analysis of two virtual learning formats: one non-formal through a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) and the other formal through b-learning. We compare the communication barriers and the satisfaction perceived by the students (N = 249) by developing a qualitative analysis using semi-structured questionnaires and…

  10. Formal and Non-Formal Digital Practices: Institutionalizing Transactional Learning Spaces in a Media Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how a classroom procedure known as PGE (Plan/Go-through/Evaluate) group work aims at integrating formal and non-formal media experiences and practices into classroom-based media learning. The study displays, on the one hand, how PGE group work emerged and was institutionally embedded in a media course. On the other hand, the…

  11. Combining Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning for Workforce Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    2008-01-01

    This literature review, undertaken for Australian Industry Group, shows how multiple variations and combinations of formal, informal and non-formal learning, accompanied by various government incentives and organisational initiatives (including job redesign, cross-skilling, multi-skilling, diversified career pathways, action learning projects,…

  12. The Interrelatedness of Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: Evidence from Labour Market Program Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn; Harrison, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Definitions, differences and relationships between formal, non-formal and informal learning have long been contentious. There has been a significant change in language and reference from adult education to what amounts to forms of learning categorised by their modes of facilitation. Nonetheless, there is currently a renewed interest in the…

  13. The Comparative Functionality of Formal and Non-Formal Education for Women: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derryck, Vivian Lowery

    This final report describes a five-phase study to ascertain whether formal or non-formal education has the greater functionality to accelerate women's integration into development activities. Part 1 (two chapters), introduction and background, defines the problem, sets parameters of the study, and provides definitions of education terms. Part 2…

  14. Educación no formal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H.

    Se comentan en esta comunicación, las principales contribuciones realizadas en el campo de la educación en astronomía en los niveles primario, secundario y terciario, como punto de partida para la discusión de la actual inserción de los contenidos astronómicos en los nuevos contenidos curriculares de la EGB - Educación General Básica- y Polimodal, de la Reforma Educativa. En particular, se discuten los alcances de la educación formal y no formal, su importancia para la capacitación de profesores y maestros, y perspectivas a futuro.

  15. Keldysh formalism for multiple parallel worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M.; Nazarov, Y. V.

    2016-03-01

    We present a compact and self-contained review of the recently developed Keldysh formalism for multiple parallel worlds. The formalism has been applied to consistent quantum evaluation of the flows of informational quantities, in particular, to the evaluation of Renyi and Shannon entropy flows. We start with the formulation of the standard and extended Keldysh techniques in a single world in a form convenient for our presentation. We explain the use of Keldysh contours encompassing multiple parallel worlds. In the end, we briefly summarize the concrete results obtained with the method.

  16. Extending the ADM formalism to Weyl geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Barreto, A. B.; Almeida, T. S.; Romero, C.

    2015-03-26

    In order to treat quantum cosmology in the framework of Weyl spacetimes we take the first step of extending the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism to Weyl geometry. We then obtain an expression of the curvature tensor in terms of spatial quantities by splitting spacetime in (3+l)-dimensional form. We next write the Lagrangian of the gravitation field based in Weyl-type gravity theory. We extend the general relativistic formalism in such a way that it can be applied to investigate the quantum cosmology of models whose spacetimes are endowed with a Weyl geometrical structure.

  17. 24 CFR 581.6 - Suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 581.6 Suitability... earth slides. (6) Inaccessible. A property that is inaccessible will be determined unsuitable....

  18. 24 CFR 581.6 - Suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 581.6 Suitability... earth slides. (6) Inaccessible. A property that is inaccessible will be determined unsuitable....

  19. 24 CFR 581.6 - Suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 581.6 Suitability... earth slides. (6) Inaccessible. A property that is inaccessible will be determined unsuitable....

  20. 24 CFR 581.6 - Suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 581.6 Suitability... earth slides. (6) Inaccessible. A property that is inaccessible will be determined unsuitable....

  1. Generative Graph Grammar of Neo-Vaiśeṣika Formal Ontology (NVFO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavva, Rajesh; Singh, Navjyoti

    NLP applications for Sanskrit so far work within computational paradigm of string grammars. However, to compute 'meanings', as in traditional śā bdabodha prakriyā-s, there is a need to develop suitable graph grammars. Ontological structures are fundamentally graphs. We work within the formal framework of Neo-Vaiśeṣika Formal Ontology (NVFO) to propose a generative graph grammar. The proposed formal grammar only produces well-formed graphs that can be readily interpreted in accordance with Vaiśeṣ ika Ontology. We show that graphs not permitted by Vaiśeṣ ika ontology are not generated by the proposed grammar. Further, we write Interpreter of these graphical structures. This creates computational environment which can be deployed for writing computational applications of Vaiśeṣ ika ontology. We illustrate how this environment can be used to create applications like computing śā bdabodha of sentences.

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Green Sunfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuber, Robert J.; Gebhart, Glen; Maughan, O. Eugene

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Smallmouth Buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  4. Formal Synthesis of (±)-Roseophilin

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Abdallah Y.; Frontier, Alison J.

    2009-01-01

    A formal synthesis of (±)-roseophilin is described. Scandium(III)-catalyzed Nazarov cyclization of 2,5-disubstituted N-tosylpyrrole 19 gives a 5,5’-fused ketopyrrole, and ansa-bridge formation via π-allyl palladium macrocyclization gives 21. PMID:19053717

  5. A Simplified Approach to Product Operator Formalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiese, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The utilization of the simple and traditional vector model-based product operator formalism is highlighted. It is seen as a critical device in the area of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry for a comprehensive analysis of spin coupling and quantum coherences.

  6. Formal Method of Description Supporting Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Ueno, Maomi; Kikukawa, Isao; Yokoyama, Setsuo; Miyadera, Youzou

    2006-01-01

    Teachers need to assess learner portfolios in the field of education. However, they need support in the process of designing and practicing what kind of portfolios are to be assessed. To solve the problem, a formal method of describing the relations between the lesson forms and portfolios that need to be collected and the relations between…

  7. Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

    2010-01-01

    The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project--to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of…

  8. The Transition to Formal Thinking in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tall, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the changes in thinking involved in the transition from school mathematics to formal proof in pure mathematics at university. School mathematics is seen as a combination of visual representations, including geometry and graphs, together with symbolic calculations and manipulations. Pure mathematics in university shifts…

  9. Preparing for Formal Proofs in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Art

    2009-01-01

    One way in which geometry teachers can help students develop their reasoning is by providing proof-readiness experiences. Blum and Kirsch (1991) suggest that "preformal proofs" can help students develop deductive reasoning. Preformal proofs, which follow the basic principles of deductive reasoning, can help prepare students for formal deduction in…

  10. 28 CFR 68.39 - Formal hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formal hearings. 68.39 Section 68.39 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED...

  11. Hearing-Impaired Formal Inservice Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Media Center for the Deaf, Amherst, MA.

    The HI-FI (Hearing-Impaired Formal Inservice) Program is described as a set of inservice materials targeted for workshops of regular classroom teachers and other school personnel concerned with school district and classroom management of hearing impaired (HI) children. An introductory section focuses on the design of the program materials,…

  12. An Elementary Formalism for General Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    diSessa, Andrea A.

    1981-01-01

    An elementary formalism is developed for representing curved space-time which allows transparent qualitative explanation of general relativistic effects and is used to make a conceptual analysis of Einstein's principle of equivalence. A final section outlines a number of student activities. (Author/SK)

  13. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... established in accordance with 50 CFR 13.45 and 18.27 for FWS and 50 CFR 220.45 and 228.5 for NMFS. (4)...

  14. Conservation-dissipation formalism of irreversible thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yi; Hong, Liu; Yang, Zaibao; Yong, Wen-An

    2015-06-01

    We propose a conservation-dissipation formalism (CDF) for coarse-grained descriptions of irreversible processes. This formalism is based on a stability criterion for non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The criterion ensures that non-equilibrium states tend to equilibrium in long time. As a systematic methodology, CDF provides a feasible procedure in choosing non-equilibrium state variables and determining their evolution equations. The equations derived in CDF have a unified elegant form. They are globally hyperbolic, allow a convenient definition of weak solutions, and are amenable to existing numerics. More importantly, CDF is a genuinely nonlinear formalism and works for systems far away from equilibrium. With this formalism, we formulate novel thermodynamics theories for heat conduction in rigid bodies and non-isothermal compressible Maxwell fluid flows as two typical examples. In these examples, the non-equilibrium variables are exactly the conjugate variables of the heat fluxes or stress tensors. The new theory generalizes Cattaneo's law or Maxwell's law in a regularized and nonlinear fashion.

  15. 14 CFR 302.20 - Formal intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Formal intervention. 302.20 Section 302.20 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS Rules of General Applicability Oral Evidentiary Hearing Proceedings § 302.20...

  16. 14 CFR 13.5 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Formal complaints. 13.5 Section 13.5... Aviation Administration, Office of the Chief Counsel, Attention: Enforcement Docket (AGC-10), 800... of the complaint are maintained in current docket form in the Enforcement Docket (AGC-10), Office...

  17. Quantum formalism to describe binocular rivalry.

    PubMed

    Manousakis, Efstratios

    2009-11-01

    On the basis of the general character and operation of the process of perception, a formalism is sought to mathematically describe the subjective or abstract/mental process of perception. It is shown that the formalism of orthodox quantum theory of measurement, where the observer plays a key role, is a broader mathematical foundation which can be adopted to describe the dynamics of the subjective experience. The mathematical formalism describes the psychophysical dynamics of the subjective or cognitive experience as communicated to us by the subject. Subsequently, the formalism is used to describe simple perception processes and, in particular, to describe the probability distribution of dominance duration obtained from the testimony of subjects experiencing binocular rivalry. Using this theory and parameters based on known values of neuronal oscillation frequencies and firing rates, the calculated probability distribution of dominance duration of rival states in binocular rivalry under various conditions is found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. This theory naturally explains an observed marked increase in dominance duration in binocular rivalry upon periodic interruption of stimulus and yields testable predictions for the distribution of perceptual alteration in time. PMID:19520143

  18. Leadership and Exchange in Formal Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, T. O.

    This volume reviews and reinterprets the existing literature on leadership, power, and influence processes; and provides a theoretical basis for understanding the leadership process in formal organizations. Numerous cited studies demonstrate that leadership is always relative to the situation; e.g., the effective leader makes a significant…

  19. Formal Schema Theory and Teaching EFL Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Barbara N; Man, Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Inquirers designed and conducted a study investigating whether or not results derived from previous research focusing on teaching and learning English as a native or foreign language would be replicated in a learning environment in which English is taught as a foreign language as in China. Because activation of formal schemata plays an important…

  20. Formal and Applied Counseling in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israelashvili, Moshe; Wegman-Rozi, Orit

    2012-01-01

    Living in Israel is intensive and demanding but also meaningful and exciting. This article addresses the gap between the narrowly defined formal status of counseling in Israel and the widespread occurrence of counseling in various settings. It is argued that several recent changes, especially in the definition of treatment, along with the…

  1. Identifying Concrete and Formal Operational Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docherty, Edward M.

    This paper presents a study designed to determine if groups of concrete and formal operational children can be identified through the technique of cluster analysis, using a battery of Piagetian tasks. A Total of 64 subjects, 8 boys and 8 girls from each of the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth grade levels, were selected from a public elementary…

  2. Partial Derivative Automata Formalized in Coq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, José Bacelar; Moreira, Nelma; Pereira, David; de Sousa, Simão Melo

    In this paper we present a computer assisted proof of the correctness of a partial derivative automata construction from a regular expression within the Coq proof assistant. This proof is part of a formalization of Kleene algebra and regular languages in Coq towards their usage in program certification.

  3. External sources in field-antifield formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Bering, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    We introduce external sources JA directly into the quantum master action W of the field-antifield formalism instead of the effective action. The external sources JA lead to a set of BRST-invariant functions WA that are in antisymplectic involution. As a byproduct, we encounter quasi-groups with open gauge algebras.

  4. Teaching Some Informatics Concepts Using Formal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sojung; Park, Seongbin

    2014-01-01

    There are many important issues in informatics and many agree that algorithms and programming are most important issues that need to be included in informatics education (Dagiene and Jevsikova, 2012). In this paper, we propose how some of these issues can be easily taught using the notion of a formal system which consists of axioms and inference…

  5. Formal Foundations for Hierarchical Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Whiteside, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Safety cases are increasingly being required in many safety-critical domains to assure, using structured argumentation and evidence, that a system is acceptably safe. However, comprehensive system-wide safety arguments present appreciable challenges to develop, understand, evaluate, and manage, partly due to the volume of information that they aggregate, such as the results of hazard analysis, requirements analysis, testing, formal verification, and other engineering activities. Previously, we have proposed hierarchical safety cases, hicases, to aid the comprehension of safety case argument structures. In this paper, we build on a formal notion of safety case to formalise the use of hierarchy as a structuring technique, and show that hicases satisfy several desirable properties. Our aim is to provide a formal, theoretical foundation for safety cases. In particular, we believe that tools for high assurance systems should be granted similar assurance to the systems to which they are applied. To this end, we formally specify and prove the correctness of key operations for constructing and managing hicases, which gives the specification for implementing hicases in AdvoCATE, our toolset for safety case automation. We motivate and explain the theory with the help of a simple running example, extracted from a real safety case and developed using AdvoCATE.

  6. Aspects of Financing Non-Formal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Francisco X. Swett

    1983-01-01

    Various financing structures for nonformal education are presented, using examples from Colombia, Brazil, Costa Rica, and Ecuador. Many resources of the formal education system can be used in the planning, coordination, and execution of nonformal education. The importance of community involvement and financial backing is stressed. (JA)

  7. 14 CFR 201.1 - Formal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Formal requirements. 201.1 Section 201.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIR CARRIER AUTHORITY UNDER SUBTITLE VII OF TITLE 49 OF THE UNITED STATES CODE-...

  8. 14 CFR 201.1 - Formal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formal requirements. 201.1 Section 201.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIR CARRIER AUTHORITY UNDER SUBTITLE VII OF TITLE 49 OF THE UNITED STATES CODE-...

  9. 14 CFR 201.1 - Formal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Formal requirements. 201.1 Section 201.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIR CARRIER AUTHORITY UNDER SUBTITLE VII OF TITLE 49 OF THE UNITED STATES CODE-...

  10. 14 CFR 201.1 - Formal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Formal requirements. 201.1 Section 201.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIR CARRIER AUTHORITY UNDER SUBTITLE VII OF TITLE 49 OF THE UNITED STATES CODE-...

  11. 14 CFR 201.1 - Formal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Formal requirements. 201.1 Section 201.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIR CARRIER AUTHORITY UNDER SUBTITLE VII OF TITLE 49 OF THE UNITED STATES CODE-...

  12. HIV Education in the Formal Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsubuga, Yusuf K.; Bonnet, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic presents a complex of issues that require global answers, involving entire societies. The only sustainable solution is to include all sectors of society in a multidisciplinary collaboration, within which the formal education system plays a key role in delivering a comprehensive response to the disease at the national level.…

  13. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Formal consultation. 402.14 Section 402.14 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED...

  14. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... established in accordance with 50 CFR 13.45 and 18.27 for FWS and 50 CFR 220.45 and 228.5 for NMFS. (4)...

  15. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... established in accordance with 50 CFR 13.45 and 18.27 for FWS and 50 CFR 220.45 and 228.5 for NMFS. (4)...

  16. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... established in accordance with 50 CFR 13.45 and 18.27 for FWS and 50 CFR 220.45 and 228.5 for NMFS. (4)...

  17. 14 CFR 13.5 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Investigative Procedures § 13.5 Formal complaints. (a) Any person may... purpose of seeking an appropriate order or other enforcement action; (2) Be submitted to the Federal... performance of official duties shall be referred to the Secretary of the Department concerned for action...

  18. Gravitational Compton Scattering from the Worldline Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Corradini, Olindo; Dávila, José Manuel; Schubert, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We report on an ongoing study of photon amplitudes, graviton amplitudes and mixed photon-graviton amplitudes at tree-level using the worldline formalism. We explicitly recalculate the amplitude with one photon and one graviton coupled to a scalar propagator, relevant for graviton photoproduction. We comment on the factorization properties of this amplitude, and outline a generalization to similar processes involving more gravitons.

  19. Safety in Children's Formal Play Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Paul F.; Lockhart, Robert

    This study was designed to examine the issue of the safety of children's formal play environments. Safety was defined in terms of morbidity and mortality data. Protection and safety education were considered the prime factors in accident prevention while the goal of a safety program was considered to be the minimizing of injuries. Several data…

  20. Informal Science Learning in the Formal Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Lori; Straits, William

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…

  1. Helping Students Understand Formal Chemical Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Charles R.; Herron, J. Dudley

    1980-01-01

    Investigated outcomes of the use of the learning cycle, which divides instruction into the Piagetian phases of exploration, invention, and discovery in general college chemistry laboratory experiments. Differences between concrete and formal operational students were explored in students' ability to master chemistry material varying in cognitive…

  2. Relating transverse-momentum-dependent and collinear factorization theorems in a generalized formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J.; Gamberg, L.; Prokudin, A.; Rogers, T. C.; Sato, N.; Wang, B.

    2016-08-01

    We construct an improved implementation for combining transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization and collinear factorization. TMD factorization is suitable for low transverse momentum physics, while collinear factorization is suitable for high transverse momenta and for a cross section integrated over transverse momentum. The result is a modified version of the standard W +Y prescription traditionally used in the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism and related approaches. We further argue that questions regarding the shape and Q dependence of the cross sections at lower Q are largely governed by the matching to the Y term.

  3. Formalism and the notion of truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Joseph M.

    The most widely acknowledged conceptions of truth take some kind of relation to be at truth's core. This dissertation attempts to establish that an adequate conception of this relation begins with an investigation of the entanglement of the formal and the material as set forth in the model theoretical development of set theoretical mathematics. Truth concerns first and most crucially a certain commerce across the border between the formal and the material, between the ideal and the real. The entanglement of the formal and the material must be thought in itself, apart from or prior to any assimilation into philosophical schemas committed to larger metaphysical claims. This is accomplished in model theory. The twentieth century witnessed two attempts at bringing model theoretical mathematics to bear on accounting philosophically for the concept of truth: that of Alfred Tarski, and that of Alain Badiou. In order to investigate the relevance of model theory to the task of working out a philosophical conception of truth, this dissertation investigates, through comparative work, these two thinkers. It is necessary to see where their projects converge in important ways, as well as where their projects diverge in equally important ways. What brings their work into close proximity is their shared conviction that truth must be thought in light of model theory. Nonetheless, the two do not agree about exactly how model theory sheds light on truth. Comparative study thus reveals both a shared site for thinking and a struggle over the significance of that site. Agreement between Tarski and Badiou concerns the excess of the purely formal over itself, marked by the generation of an undecidable statement within formal systems of a certain level of complexity. Both thinkers determine that this formal excess touches on the material, and both further determine that the consequent entanglement of the formal and the material provides the basic frame for any philosophical consideration

  4. 20 CFR 702.347 - Formal hearings; termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formal hearings; termination. 702.347 Section 702.347 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN... Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.347 Formal hearings; termination. (a) Formal hearings...

  5. 20 CFR 702.347 - Formal hearings; termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formal hearings; termination. 702.347 Section 702.347 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN... Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.347 Formal hearings; termination. (a) Formal hearings...

  6. 20 CFR 702.347 - Formal hearings; termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formal hearings; termination. 702.347 Section 702.347 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN... Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.347 Formal hearings; termination. (a) Formal hearings...

  7. 20 CFR 702.347 - Formal hearings; termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formal hearings; termination. 702.347 Section 702.347 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN... Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.347 Formal hearings; termination. (a) Formal hearings...

  8. 20 CFR 702.347 - Formal hearings; termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; termination. 702.347 Section 702.347 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S... Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.347 Formal hearings; termination. (a) Formal hearings are...

  9. Formally verifying Ada programs which use real number types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, David

    1986-01-01

    Formal verification is applied to programs which use real number arithmetic operations (mathematical programs). Formal verification of a program P consists of creating a mathematical model of F, stating the desired properties of P in a formal logical language, and proving that the mathematical model has the desired properties using a formal proof calculus. The development and verification of the mathematical model are discussed.

  10. 20 CFR 702.336 - Formal hearings; new issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; new issues. 702.336 Section... Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.336 Formal hearings; new issues. (a) If, during the course of the formal hearing, the evidence presented warrants consideration of an issue or issues not previously...

  11. 5 CFR 2638.309 - Reliance on formal advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reliance on formal advisory opinions... OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Formal Advisory Opinion Service § 2638.309 Reliance on formal advisory opinions. (a) Any formal advisory opinion referred to...

  12. 5 CFR 2638.309 - Reliance on formal advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reliance on formal advisory opinions... OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Formal Advisory Opinion Service § 2638.309 Reliance on formal advisory opinions. (a) Any formal advisory opinion referred to...

  13. 5 CFR 2638.309 - Reliance on formal advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reliance on formal advisory opinions... OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Formal Advisory Opinion Service § 2638.309 Reliance on formal advisory opinions. (a) Any formal advisory opinion referred to...

  14. Interpreter composition issues in the formal verification of a processor-memory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fura, David A.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes interpreter composition techniques suitable for the formal specification and verification of a processor-memory module using the HOL theorem proving system. The processor-memory module is a multichip subsystem within a fault-tolerant embedded system under development within the Boeing Defense and Space Group. Modeling and verification methods were developed that permit provably secure composition at the transaction-level of specification, significantly reducing the complexity of the hierarchical verification of the system.

  15. Extended Maxwell Garnett formalism for composite adhesives for microwave-assisted adhesion of polymer surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shanker, B.; Lakhtakia, A. )

    1993-01-01

    Adhesives with dielectric loss are needed for microwave-assisted joining of polymeric substances. The dielectric loss in an otherwise suitable adhesive may be enhanced by doping it with fine metallic particles. Here we use a recently extended Maxwell Garnett formalism to estimate the complex dielectric constant of a metal-doped composite adhesive, with specific focus on the imaginary part of the dielectric constant of the composite adhesive. 14 refs.

  16. Formal methods demonstration project for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divito, Ben L.

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program is cooperating in a pilot project to apply formal methods to live requirements analysis activities. As one of the larger ongoing shuttle Change Requests (CR's), the Global Positioning System (GPS) CR involves a significant upgrade to the Shuttle's navigation capability. Shuttles are to be outfitted with GPS receivers and the primary avionics software will be enhanced to accept GPS-provided positions and integrate them into navigation calculations. Prior to implementing the CR, requirements analysts at Loral Space Information Systems, the Shuttle software contractor, must scrutinize the CR to identify and resolve any requirements issues. We describe an ongoing task of the Formal Methods Demonstration Project for Space Applications whose goal is to find an effective way to use formal methods in the GPS CR requirements analysis phase. This phase is currently under way and a small team from NASA Langley, ViGYAN Inc. and Loral is now engaged in this task. Background on the GPS CR is provided and an overview of the hardware/software architecture is presented. We outline the approach being taken to formalize the requirements, only a subset of which is being attempted. The approach features the use of the PVS specification language to model 'principal functions', which are major units of Shuttle software. Conventional state machine techniques form the basis of our approach. Given this background, we present interim results based on a snapshot of work in progress. Samples of requirements specifications rendered in PVS are offered to illustration. We walk through a specification sketch for the principal function known as GPS Receiver State processing. Results to date are summarized and feedback from Loral requirements analysts is highlighted. Preliminary data is shown comparing issues detected by the formal methods team versus those detected using existing requirements analysis methods. We conclude by discussing our plan to complete the remaining

  17. Formal concept analysis and linguistic hedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belohlavek, Radim; Vychodil, Vilem

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an application of linguistic hedges to formal concept analysis of data with fuzzy attributes. Formal concept analysis aims at extraction of particular (bi-)clusters, called formal concepts, from data. The clusters link collections of objects (extents) and attributes (intents), and have a clear interpretation due to a simple verbal description of the concept-forming operators. We insert linguistic hedges such as 'very' or 'extremely' in the description of the operators. In this way, linguistic hedges become parameters for formal concept analysis that control the number of clusters extracted from data. Namely, as we show theoretically as well as experimentally, stronger hedges result in a smaller number of clusters. The new concept-forming operators form Galois-like connections. We study their properties and axiomatize them. Then, we show that a concept lattice with hedges, i.e. the set of all formal concepts of the new operators is indeed a complete lattice which is isomorphic to a particular ordinary concept lattice. We describe the isomorphism and its inverse. These mappings serve as translation procedures. As a consequence, we obtain a theorem characterizing the structure of concept lattices with hedges which generalizes the well-known main theorem of ordinary concept lattices. The isomorphism and its inverse enable us to compute a concept lattice with hedges using algorithms for ordinary concept lattices. We demonstrate by experiments that when selecting various hedges from the strongest to weaker hedges, the reduction in size of the corresponding concept lattices is smooth. From a broader perspective, we argue that linguistic hedges represent mathematically and computationally a feasible way to parameterize methods for knowledge extraction from data that enable one to emphasize or to suppress extracted patterns while keeping their interpretation.

  18. Suitability of Varicose Veins for Endovenous Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, S. D.; Kuhan, G.; Altaf, N.; Simpson, R.; Beech, A.; Richards, T.; MacSweeney, S. T.; Braithwaite, B. D.

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), and foam sclerotherapy (FS) for patients with symptomatic varicose veins (VVs). The study comprised 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs. Data on 577 legs from 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs were collected for the year 2006. Median patient age was 55 years (interquartile range 45-66), and 62% patients were women. A set of criteria based on duplex ultrasonography was used to select patients for each procedure. Great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux was present in 77% (446 of 577) of legs. Overall, 328 (73%) of the legs were suitable for at least one of the endovenous options. Of the 114 legs with recurrent GSV reflux disease, 83 (73%) were suitable to receive endovenous therapy. Patients with increasing age were less likely to be suitable for endovenous therapy (P = 0.03). Seventy-three percent of patients with VVs caused by GSV incompetence are suitable for endovenous therapy.

  19. Formal Safety Certification of Aerospace Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    In principle, formal methods offer many advantages for aerospace software development: they can help to achieve ultra-high reliability, and they can be used to provide evidence of the reliability claims which can then be subjected to external scrutiny. However, despite years of research and many advances in the underlying formalisms of specification, semantics, and logic, formal methods are not much used in practice. In our opinion this is related to three major shortcomings. First, the application of formal methods is still expensive because they are labor- and knowledge-intensive. Second, they are difficult to scale up to complex systems because they are based on deep mathematical insights about the behavior of the systems (t.e., they rely on the "heroic proof"). Third, the proofs can be difficult to interpret, and typically stand in isolation from the original code. In this paper, we describe a tool for formally demonstrating safety-relevant aspects of aerospace software, which largely circumvents these problems. We focus on safely properties because it has been observed that safety violations such as out-of-bounds memory accesses or use of uninitialized variables constitute the majority of the errors found in the aerospace domain. In our approach, safety means that the program will not violate a set of rules that can range for the simple memory access rules to high-level flight rules. These different safety properties are formalized as different safety policies in Hoare logic, which are then used by a verification condition generator along with the code and logical annotations in order to derive formal safety conditions; these are then proven using an automated theorem prover. Our certification system is currently integrated into a model-based code generation toolset that generates the annotations together with the code. However, this automated formal certification technology is not exclusively constrained to our code generator and could, in principle, also be

  20. Non-Formal Education: The Definitional Problem. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education Discussion Papers Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleis, Russell J.; And Others

    The three essays in this discussion paper present ways of structuring the concept of non-formal education. "Toward a Contextual Definition of Non-Formal Education" isolates three primary sub-systems: organizational, human, and curricular. Within these subsets non-formal education is differentiated from formal education by a more loosely integrated…

  1. Systolic temporal arithmetic: A new formalism for specification, verification, and synthesis of systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, N.

    1989-01-01

    A novel formalism, termed Systolic Temporal Arithmetic (STA), is introduced. It provides necessary constructs to describe arithmetic operations in dynamic environments. The motivation behind the development of STA is to use it for systolic array design at the array architecture level. It is particularly useful for formally specifying systolic array designs, and for formally verifying their correctness with respect to the algorithm specifications. Besides providing value and operation abstractions from the lower level, the formalism exploits unique systolic features such as synchrony, regularity, repeatability, modularity, pipelinability, parallel processing ability, as well as spatial and temporal locality, to provide constructs and verification techniques for simple, efficient, and effective systolic array specification verification. STA overcomes many limitations of current specification and verification techniques. It can be used with lower level formalism for multilevel reasoning of systolic arrays. Application examples are given to show how STA can be applied to specify and verify several different systolic arrays. To present a more unified design environment, STA is also extended to describe systolic array synthesis process. A synthesis procedure for systolic arrays is presented which also includes an algorithm transformation technique developed that can improve the computation time of resulting arrays for suitable algorithms, without much increase in area requirement. Several systolic array synthesis examples are also provided in this dissertation.

  2. Formal verification of medical monitoring software using Z language: a representative sample.

    PubMed

    Babamir, Seyed Morteza; Borhani, Mehdi

    2012-08-01

    Medical monitoring systems are useful aids assisting physicians in keeping patients under constant surveillance; however, taking sound decision by the systems is a physician concern. As a result, verification of the systems behavior in monitoring patients is a matter of significant. The patient monitoring is undertaken by software in modern medical systems; so, software verification of modern medial systems have been noticed. Such verification can be achieved by the Formal Languages having mathematical foundations. Among others, the Z language is a suitable formal language has been used to formal verification of systems. This study aims to present a constructive method to verify a representative sample of a medical system by which the system is visually specified and formally verified against patient constraints stated in Z Language. Exploiting our past experience in formal modeling Continuous Infusion Insulin Pump (CIIP), we think of the CIIP system as a representative sample of medical systems in proposing our present study. The system is responsible for monitoring diabetic's blood sugar. PMID:21681513

  3. Formal Methods of V&V of Partial Specifications: An Experience Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, Steve; Callahan, John

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes our work exploring the suitability of formal specification methods for independent verification and validation (IV&V) of software specifications for large, safety critical systems. An IV&V contractor often has to perform rapid analysis on incomplete specifications, with no control over how those specifications are represented. Lightweight formal methods show significant promise in this context, as they offer a way of uncovering major errors, without the burden of full proofs of correctness. We describe an experiment in the application of the method SCR. to testing for consistency properties of a partial model of requirements for Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery on the space station. We conclude that the insights gained from formalizing a specification is valuable, and it is the process of formalization, rather than the end product that is important. It was only necessary to build enough of the formal model to test the properties in which we were interested. Maintenance of fidelity between multiple representations of the same requirements (as they evolve) is still a problem, and deserves further study.

  4. Evaluation of a habitat suitability index model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farmer, A.H.; Cade, B.S.; Stauffer, D.F.

    2002-01-01

    We assisted with development of a model for maternity habitat of the Indiana bat (Myotis soda/is), for use in conducting assessments of projects potentially impacting this endangered species. We started with an existing model, modified that model in a workshop, and evaluated the revised model, using data previously collected by others. Our analyses showed that higher indices of habitat suitability were associated with sites where Indiana bats were present and, thus, the model may be useful for identifying suitable habitat. Utility of the model, however, was based on a single component-density of suitable roost trees. Percentage of landscape in forest did not allow differentiation between sites occupied and not occupied by Indiana bats. Moreover, in spite of a general opinion by participants in the workshop that bodies of water were highly productive feeding areas and that a diversity of feeding habitats was optimal, we found no evidence to support either hypothesis.

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Lesser Scaup (Wintering)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, Rosemarie

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a model for evaluating wintering habitat quality for the lesser scaup (Aythya affinis). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimal habitat) for Southern Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastal areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Guidelines for model application and techniques for measuring model variables are provided.

  6. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  7. Stochastic Formal Correctness of Numerical Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daumas, Marc; Lester, David; Martin-Dorel, Erik; Truffert, Annick

    2009-01-01

    We provide a framework to bound the probability that accumulated errors were never above a given threshold on numerical algorithms. Such algorithms are used for example in aircraft and nuclear power plants. This report contains simple formulas based on Levy's and Markov's inequalities and it presents a formal theory of random variables with a special focus on producing concrete results. We selected four very common applications that fit in our framework and cover the common practices of systems that evolve for a long time. We compute the number of bits that remain continuously significant in the first two applications with a probability of failure around one out of a billion, where worst case analysis considers that no significant bit remains. We are using PVS as such formal tools force explicit statement of all hypotheses and prevent incorrect uses of theorems.

  8. A Formal Basis for Safety Case Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    By capturing common structures of successful arguments, safety case patterns provide an approach for reusing strategies for reasoning about safety. In the current state of the practice, patterns exist as descriptive specifications with informal semantics, which not only offer little opportunity for more sophisticated usage such as automated instantiation, composition and manipulation, but also impede standardization efforts and tool interoperability. To address these concerns, this paper gives (i) a formal definition for safety case patterns, clarifying both restrictions on the usage of multiplicity and well-founded recursion in structural abstraction, (ii) formal semantics to patterns, and (iii) a generic data model and algorithm for pattern instantiation. We illustrate our contributions by application to a new pattern, the requirements breakdown pattern, which builds upon our previous work

  9. A Formal Framework for Workflow Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravo, Glória

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we provide a new formal framework to model and analyse workflows. A workflow is the formal definition of a business process that consists in the execution of tasks in order to achieve a certain objective. In our work we describe a workflow as a graph whose vertices represent tasks and the arcs are associated to workflow transitions. Each task has associated an input/output logic operator. This logic operator can be the logical AND (•), the OR (⊗), or the XOR -exclusive-or—(⊕). Moreover, we introduce algebraic concepts in order to completely describe completely the structure of workflows. We also introduce the concept of logical termination. Finally, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition for this property to hold.

  10. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  11. Formal Management of CAD/CAM Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlhase, Michael; Lemburg, Johannes; Schröder, Lutz; Schulz, Ewaryst

    Systematic engineering design processes have many aspects in common with software engineering, with CAD/CAM objects replacing program code as the implementation stage of the development. They are, however, currently considerably less formal. We propose to draw on the mentioned similarities and transfer methods from software engineering to engineering design in order to enhance in particular the reliability and reusability of engineering processes. We lay out a vision of a document-oriented design process that integrates CAD/CAM documents with requirement specifications; as a first step towards supporting such a process, we present a tool that interfaces a CAD system with program verification workflows, thus allowing for completely formalised development strands within a semi-formal methodology.

  12. Analyzing phonetic confusions using formal concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Moreno, C; García-Moral, A I; Valverde-Albacete, F J

    2010-09-01

    Confusion matrices have been used as a tool for the analysis of speech perception or human speech recognition (HSR) for decades. However, they are rarely employed in automatic speech recognition (ASR) mainly due to the lack of a systematic procedure for their exploration. The generalization of formal concept analysis employed in this paper provides a conceptual interpretation of confusion matrices that enables the analysis of the structure of confusions for both human and machine performances. Generalized formal concept analysis transforms confusion matrices into ordered lattices of confusion events, supporting classic results in HSR that identify a hierarchy of virtual articulatory-acoustic channels. Translating this technique into ASR, a detailed map of the relationships among the speech units employed in the system can be traced to make different sources of confusions apparent: the influence of the lexicon, segmentation errors, dialectal variations or limitations of the feature extraction procedures, among others. PMID:20815472

  13. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    SciTech Connect

    Krieg, S.A.

    1995-06-13

    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms.

  14. Decidability of formal theories and hyperincursivity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grappone, Arturo G.

    2000-05-01

    This paper shows the limits of the Proof Standard Theory (briefly, PST) and gives some ideas of how to build a proof anticipatory theory (briefly, PAT) that has no such limits. Also, this paper considers that Gödel's proof of the undecidability of Principia Mathematica formal theory is not valid for axiomatic theories that use a PAT to build their proofs because the (hyper)incursive functions are self-representable.

  15. Fourth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This publication consists of papers presented at NASA Langley Research Center's fourth workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. Topic considered include: Proving properties of accident; modeling and validating SAFER in VDM-SL; requirement analysis of real-time control systems using PVS; a tabular language for system design; automated deductive verification of parallel systems. Also included is a fundamental hardware design in PVS.

  16. Terra in K-16 formal education settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.; Rogerson, T. M.; Hitke, K. M.; Riebeek, H.

    2009-12-01

    Since it began, the Terra mission has had an active presence in formal education at the K-16 level. This educational presence was provided through the S’COOL project for the first five years of the mission, joined by the MY NASA DATA project for the second five years. The Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S’COOL) Project, begun in 1997 under the auspices of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, seeks to motivate students across the entire K-12 spectrum to learn science basics and how they tie in to a larger picture. Beginning early on, college level participants have also participated in the project, both in science classes and in science education coursework. The project uses the connection to an on-going NASA science investigation as a powerful motivator for student observations, analysis and learning, and has reached around the globe as shown in the world map. This poster will review the impact that Terra, through S’COOL, has made in formal education over the last decade. The MY NASA DATA Project began in 2004 under the NASA Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN). A 5-year REASoN grant enabled the creation of an extensive website which wraps easily accessible Earth science data - including Terra parameters from CERES (involving MODIS data fusion), MISR, and MOPITT (an example for carbon monoxide is given in the graph, with dark areas indicating high CO levels) - with explanatory material written at the middle school level, and an extensive collection of peer-reviewed lesson plans. The MY NASA DATA site has a rapidly growing user-base and was recently adopted by a number of NASA Earth Science missions, in addition to Terra, as a formal education arm of their Education and Public Outreach efforts. This poster will summarize the contributions that Terra, through MY NASA DATA, has made to formal education since 2004.

  17. Toward a Formal Evaluation of Refactorings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, John; Kuzmina, Nadya; Gamboa, Ruben; Caldwell, James

    2008-01-01

    Refactoring is a software development strategy that characteristically alters the syntactic structure of a program without changing its external behavior [2]. In this talk we present a methodology for extracting formal models from programs in order to evaluate how incremental refactorings affect the verifiability of their structural specifications. We envision that this same technique may be applicable to other types of properties such as those that concern the design and maintenance of safety-critical systems.

  18. Extension of Liouville Formalism to Postinstability Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical formalism has been developed for predicting the postinstability motions of a dynamic system governed by a system of nonlinear equations and subject to initial conditions. Previously, there was no general method for prediction and mathematical modeling of postinstability behaviors (e.g., chaos and turbulence) in such a system. The formalism of nonlinear dynamics does not afford means to discriminate between stable and unstable motions: an additional stability analysis is necessary for such discrimination. However, an additional stability analysis does not suggest any modifications of a mathematical model that would enable the model to describe postinstability motions efficiently. The most important type of instability that necessitates a postinstability description is associated with positive Lyapunov exponents. Such an instability leads to exponential growth of small errors in initial conditions or, equivalently, exponential divergence of neighboring trajectories. The development of the present formalism was undertaken in an effort to remove positive Lyapunov exponents. The means chosen to accomplish this is coupling of the governing dynamical equations with the corresponding Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the flow of error probability. The underlying idea is to suppress the divergences of different trajectories that correspond to different initial conditions, without affecting a target trajectory, which is one that starts with prescribed initial conditions.

  19. [How to write an article: formal aspects].

    PubMed

    Corral de la Calle, M A; Encinas de la Iglesia, J

    2013-06-01

    Scientific research and the publication of the results of the studies go hand in hand. Exquisite research methods can only be adequately reflected in formal publication with the optimum structure. To ensure the success of this process, it is necessary to follow orderly steps, including selecting the journal in which to publish and following the instructions to authors strictly as well as the guidelines elaborated by diverse societies of editors and other institutions. It is also necessary to structure the contents of the article in a logical and attractive way and to use an accurate, clear, and concise style of language. Although not all the authors are directly involved in the actual writing, elaborating a scientific article is a collective undertaking that does not finish until the article is published. This article provides practical advice about formal and not-so-formal details to take into account when writing a scientific article as well as references that will help readers find more information in greater detail. PMID:23489765

  20. A "Suitable Person": An "Insider" Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on a doctoral study carried out across seven counties in England which focused on twelve parents' experiences of carrying out the role of a "suitable person" ("SP") by managing a direct payment for an adult child (living in her/his own home) who has severe learning disabilities, autism and very complex…

  1. 7 CFR 1955.63 - Suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suitability determination. 1955.63 Section 1955.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS...

  2. 10 CFR 26.63 - Suitable inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.63 Suitable.... Licensees and other entities may also rely on those licensees' and entities' determinations of fitness that..., and other information that could reflect on the individual's fitness to be granted authorization....

  3. 10 CFR 26.63 - Suitable inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.63 Suitable.... Licensees and other entities may also rely on those licensees' and entities' determinations of fitness that..., and other information that could reflect on the individual's fitness to be granted authorization....

  4. 10 CFR 26.63 - Suitable inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.63 Suitable.... Licensees and other entities may also rely on those licensees' and entities' determinations of fitness that..., and other information that could reflect on the individual's fitness to be granted authorization....

  5. 10 CFR 26.63 - Suitable inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.63 Suitable.... Licensees and other entities may also rely on those licensees' and entities' determinations of fitness that..., and other information that could reflect on the individual's fitness to be granted authorization....

  6. 10 CFR 26.63 - Suitable inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.63 Suitable.... Licensees and other entities may also rely on those licensees' and entities' determinations of fitness that..., and other information that could reflect on the individual's fitness to be granted authorization....

  7. 45 CFR 12a.6 - Suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suitability criteria. 12a.6 Section 12a.6 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO... substances such as radon, periodic flooding, sinkholes or earth slides. (6) Inaccessible. A property that...

  8. 45 CFR 12a.6 - Suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suitability criteria. 12a.6 Section 12a.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO... substances such as radon, periodic flooding, sinkholes or earth slides. (6) Inaccessible. A property that...

  9. 45 CFR 12a.6 - Suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suitability criteria. 12a.6 Section 12a.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO... substances such as radon, periodic flooding, sinkholes or earth slides. (6) Inaccessible. A property that...

  10. Assessing the Suitability of Water for Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Water quality assessment to evaluate the suitability of an irrigation water has traditionally (Ayers and Westcot, 1985) considered only salinity and SAR (sodium adsorption ratio). The criteria have been developed from a combination of field observations by experts and short duration co...

  11. Mapping global environmental suitability for Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Messina, Jane P; Kraemer, Moritz Ug; Brady, Oliver J; Pigott, David M; Shearer, Freya M; Weiss, Daniel J; Golding, Nick; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Gething, Peter W; Cohn, Emily; Brownstein, John S; Khan, Kamran; Tatem, Andrew J; Jaenisch, Thomas; Murray, Christopher Jl; Marinho, Fatima; Scott, Thomas W; Hay, Simon I

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak have raised concerns about continued global spread of Zika virus, prompting its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. We conducted species distribution modelling to map environmental suitability for Zika. We show a large portion of tropical and sub-tropical regions globally have suitable environmental conditions with over 2.17 billion people inhabiting these areas. PMID:27090089

  12. Mapping global environmental suitability for Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Jane P; Kraemer, Moritz UG; Brady, Oliver J; Pigott, David M; Shearer, Freya M; Weiss, Daniel J; Golding, Nick; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Gething, Peter W; Cohn, Emily; Brownstein, John S; Khan, Kamran; Tatem, Andrew J; Jaenisch, Thomas; Murray, Christopher JL; Marinho, Fatima; Scott, Thomas W; Hay, Simon I

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak have raised concerns about continued global spread of Zika virus, prompting its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. We conducted species distribution modelling to map environmental suitability for Zika. We show a large portion of tropical and sub-tropical regions globally have suitable environmental conditions with over 2.17 billion people inhabiting these areas. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15272.001 PMID:27090089

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Flathead Catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Lawrence A.; Terrell, James W.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  14. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Cactus Wren

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Slider Turtle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morreale, Stephen J.; Gibbons, J. Whitfield

    1986-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the slider turtle (Pseudemys scripta). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Lesser Scaup (Breeding)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1986-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the lesser scaup (Aythya affinis). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Barred Owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the barred owl (Strix varia). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  18. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Spotted Owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laymon, Stephen A.; Salwasser, Hal; Barrett, Reginald H.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  19. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  20. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Hairy Woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sousa, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the hairy woodpecker (Picoides villosus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  1. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Snowshoe Hare

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carreker, Raymond G.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the Snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Swamp Rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  3. A Formal Mentorship Program for Faculty Development

    PubMed Central

    Le, Jennifer; Nazer, Lama; Hess, Karl; Wang, Jeffrey; Law, Anandi V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a formal mentorship program at a college of pharmacy. Methods. After extensive review of the mentorship literature within the health sciences, a formal mentorship program was developed between 2006 and 2008 to support and facilitate faculty development. The voluntary program was implemented after mentors received training, and mentors and protégés were matched and received an orientation. Evaluation consisted of conducting annual surveys and focus groups with mentors and protégés. Results. Fifty-one mentor-protégé pairs were formed from 2009 to 2012. A large majority of the mentors (82.8%-96.9%) were satisfied with the mentorship program and its procedures. The majority of the protégés (≥70%) were satisfied with the mentorship program, mentor-protégé relationship, and program logistics. Both mentors and protégés reported that the protégés most needed guidance on time management, prioritization, and work-life balance. While there were no significant improvements in the proteges’ number of grant submissions, retention rates, or success in promotion/tenure, the total number of peer-reviewed publications by junior faculty members was significantly higher after program implementation (mean of 7 per year vs 21 per year, p=0.03) in the college’s pharmacy practice and administration department. Conclusions. A formal mentorship program was successful as measured by self-reported assessments of mentors and protégés. PMID:24954940

  4. Formal Assurance Arguments: A Solution In Search of a Problem?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graydon, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    An assurance case comprises evidence and argument showing how that evidence supports assurance claims (e.g., about safety or security). It is unsurprising that some computer scientists have proposed formalizing assurance arguments: most associate formality with rigor. But while engineers can sometimes prove that source code refines a formal specification, it is not clear that formalization will improve assurance arguments or that this benefit is worth its cost. For example, formalization might reduce the benefits of argumentation by limiting the audience to people who can read formal logic. In this paper, we present (1) a systematic survey of the literature surrounding formal assurance arguments, (2) an analysis of errors that formalism can help to eliminate, (3) a discussion of existing evidence, and (4) suggestions for experimental work to definitively answer the question.

  5. k.p formalism within FLAPW method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishidou, Tatsuya; Oguchi, Tamio

    2009-03-01

    We provide k.p formalism within the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method. Unlike the pure plane waves, the LAPW functions do not behave trivially in moving from k to k+q and their incompleteness as a basis set should be taken into account. Derivatives of the sphere matching coefficients play the key role, for which we find a simple formula. Concrete formula for the k.p matrix elements is derived and numerically tested. Generalized second-order perturbation theory allowing for a degenerate case is presented and the literally-exact electronic band gradients and curvatures are accessible.

  6. Does Formal Employment Reduce Informal Caregiving?

    PubMed

    He, Daifeng; McHenry, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine the impact of formal employment on informal caregiving. We instrument for individual work hours with state unemployment rates. We find that, among women of prime caregiving ages (40-64 years), working 10% more hours per week reduces the probability of providing informal care by about 2 percentage points. The effects are stronger for more time-intensive caregiving and if care recipients are household members. Our results imply that work-promoting policies have the unintended consequence of reducing informal caregiving in an aging society. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26017375

  7. QED spectra in the path integral formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Yu. A.

    2014-07-01

    Relativistic Hamiltonians, derived from the path integrals, are known to provide a simple and useful formalism for hadron spectroscopy in QCD. The accuracy of this approach is tested using the QED systems, and the calculated spectrum is shown to reproduce exactly that of the Dirac hydrogen atom, while the Breit-Fermi nonrelativistic expansion is obtained using Foldy-Wouthuizen transformation. The calculated positronium spectrum, including spin-dependent terms, coincides with the standard QED perturbation theory to the considered order O(α4).

  8. Representations of spacetime: Formalism and ontological commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Jonathan Stanley

    This dissertation consists of two parts. The first is on the relation between formalism and ontological commitment in the context of theories of spacetime, and the second is on scientific realism. The first part begins with a look at how the substantivalist/relationist debate over the ontological status of spacetime has been influenced by a particular mathematical formalism, that of tensor analysis on differential manifolds (TADM). This formalism has motivated the substantivalist position known as manifold substantivalism. Chapter 1 focuses on the hole argument which maintains that manifold substantivalism is incompatible with determinism. I claim that the realist motivations underlying manifold substantivalism can be upheld, and the hole argument avoided, by adopting structural realism with respect to spacetime. In this context, this is the claim that it is the structure that spacetime points enter into that warrants belief and not the points themselves. In Chapter 2, an elimination principle is defined by means of which a distinction can be made between surplus structure and essential structure with respect to formulations of a theory in two distinct mathematical formulations and some prior ontological commitments. This principle is then used to demonstrate that manifold points may be considered surplus structure in the formulation of field theories. This suggests that, if we are disposed to read field theories literally, then, at most, it should be the essential structure common to all alternative formulations of such theories that should be taken literally. I also investigate how the adoption of alternative formalisms informs other issues in the philosophy of spacetime. Chapter 3 offers a realist position which takes a semantic moral from the preceding investigation and an epistemic moral from work done on reliability. The semantic moral advises us to read only the essential structure of our theories literally. The epistemic moral shows us that such structure

  9. Results of a Formal Methods Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J.; Covington, R.; Hamilton, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a cooperative study conducted by a team of researchers in formal methods at three NASA Centers to demonstrate FM techniques and to tailor them to critical NASA software systems. This pilot project applied FM to an existing critical software subsystem, the Shuttle's Jet Select subsystem (Phase I of an ongoing study). The present study shows that FM can be used successfully to uncover hidden issues in a highly critical and mature Functional Subsystem Software Requirements (FSSR) specification which are very difficult to discover by traditional means.

  10. Formal Verification of Large Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, Xiang; Knight, John

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a scalable proof structure to facilitate formal verification of large software systems. In our approach, we mechanically synthesize an abstract specification from the software implementation, match its static operational structure to that of the original specification, and organize the proof as the conjunction of a series of lemmas about the specification structure. By setting up a different lemma for each distinct element and proving each lemma independently, we obtain the important benefit that the proof scales easily for large systems. We present details of the approach and an illustration of its application on a challenge problem from the security domain

  11. Formal Aspects of Human-Automation Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Heymann, Michael; Moodi, Michael; Remington, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    While new versions of automated control systems such as flight guidance systems are introduced at a rapid pace, it is widely recognized that user interaction with these machines is increasingly problematic. One cause for this difficulty that is commonly cited in the literature, is the discrepancy between the machine's behavior and the operator's (e.g., pilot) expectations. This paper discusses a formal approach to the analysis of operator's interaction with complex automated control systems. We focus attention on the issue of interface correctness; that is, on the question whether the display provides adequate information about the machine's configurations (states, modes, and associated parameters) and transitions, so as to enable the operator to successfully perform the specified set of tasks. To perform the analysis several assumptions are made: (1) A complete formal model of the machine's behavior is available (e.g., as a state transition system, or as a hybrid-machine); (2) A specification of operator's tasks is available and can be formally described (e.g., the reliable and predictable transition between activities involved in executing a climb to a new altitude); (3) The pilot is well trained and has a correct 'mental' model of the machine's response-map. By 'comparing' the machine's model with the set of operator's tasks we formally (i.e., mathematically) evaluate two questions: 1) does the machine's output interface (display) enable the operator to determine, unambiguously, what the current configuration (e.g., mode) of the machine is, and 2) does the display enable the operator to determine, unambiguously, what the next configuration of the machine will be, in response to a specified interaction by the operator (e.g., engaging a mode or changing a parameter such as a speed or target altitude). This paper describes a methodology for conducting such an evaluation using examples from automated flight control systems of modem 'glass cockpit' jetliners

  12. BRST and the pure spinor formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J. Antonio

    2008-03-06

    The aim of this talk is to show the relation between the standard BRST approach of the GS superstring with the quantization technics used in the pure spinor approach to superstring. To that end we will use the Batalin-Fradkin-Tyutin (BFT) conversion program of second class constraints to first class constraints in the GS superstring using light cone coordinates. By applying this systematic procedure we were able to obtain a gauge system that is equivalent to the recent model proposed in [1] to relate the GS superstring to the pure spinor formalism.

  13. Formal analysis of ORM using OWL DL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-lin; Liu, Da-xin

    2012-01-01

    ORM (Object Role Modeling), current version is 2.0, is a fully communication oriented information modeling method. Currently, ORM has been used in ontology engineering to model domain ontologies. To ensure the semantics of ORM model is consistent, it needs using reasoning engines to check semantic conflicts and redundancy. Furthermore, only publish ORM domain ontologies on the Semantic Web described by OWL can it is shared by different applications. Therefore, it needs to map ORM models into OWL DL. Several methods to transform ORM models have been considered and a series of general OWL DL formalization rules have been proposed.

  14. Formal analysis of ORM using OWL DL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Lin; Liu, Da-Xin

    2011-12-01

    ORM (Object Role Modeling), current version is 2.0, is a fully communication oriented information modeling method. Currently, ORM has been used in ontology engineering to model domain ontologies. To ensure the semantics of ORM model is consistent, it needs using reasoning engines to check semantic conflicts and redundancy. Furthermore, only publish ORM domain ontologies on the Semantic Web described by OWL can it is shared by different applications. Therefore, it needs to map ORM models into OWL DL. Several methods to transform ORM models have been considered and a series of general OWL DL formalization rules have been proposed.

  15. Towards a Formalization of Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slay, Jill; Lin, Yi-Chi; Turnbull, Benjamin; Beckett, Jason; Lin, Paul

    While some individuals have referred to digital forensics as an art, the literature of the discipline suggests a trend toward the formalization of digital forensics as a forensic science. Questions about the quality of digital evidence and forensic soundness continue to be raised by researchers and practitioners in order to ensure the trustworthiness of digital evidence and its value to the courts. This paper reviews the development of digital forensic models, procedures and standards to lay a foundation for the discipline. It also points to new work that provides validation models through a complete mapping of the discipline.

  16. Application of the projection operator formalism to non-Hamiltonian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jianhua; Kim, K. S.

    2011-01-01

    Reconstruction of equations of motion from incomplete or noisy data and dimension reduction are two fundamental problems in the study of dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom. For the latter, extensive efforts have been made, but with limited success, to generalize the Zwanzig-Mori projection formalism, originally developed for Hamiltonian systems close to thermodynamic equilibrium, to general non-Hamiltonian systems lacking detailed balance. One difficulty introduced by such systems is the lack of an invariant measure, needed to define a statistical distribution. Based on a recent discovery that a non-Hamiltonian system defined by a set of stochastic differential equations can be mapped to a Hamiltonian system, we develop such general projection formalism. In the resulting generalized Langevin equations, a set of generalized fluctuation-dissipation relations connect the memory kernel and the random noise terms, analogous to Hamiltonian systems obeying detailed balance. Lacking of these relations restricts previous application of the generalized Langevin formalism. Result of this work may serve as the theoretical basis for further technical developments on model reconstruction with reduced degrees of freedom. We first use an analytically solvable example to illustrate the formalism and the fluctuation-dissipation relation. Our numerical test on a chemical network with end-product inhibition further demonstrates the validity of the formalism. We suggest that the formalism can find wide applications in scientific modeling. Specifically, we discuss potential applications to biological networks. In particular, the method provides a suitable framework for gaining insights into network properties such as robustness and parameter transferability.

  17. The formal verification used for the AAMP5 and AAMP-FV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivas, Mandayam

    1995-01-01

    The main goal of the project was two-fold: First, to investigate the feasibility of formally specifying and verifying a complex commercial microprocessor that was not expressly designed for formal verification. Second, to explore effective ways to transfer the technology to an industrial setting. The choice of the AAMP5 satisfied the first goal since the AAMP5 was not designed for formal verification, but to provide a more than threefold performance improvement while remaining object-code-compatible with the earlier AAMP2, which is used in numerous avionics applications, including the Boeing 737, 747, 757, and 767. To satisfy the technology transfer objective, we had to develop a suitable verification methodology and a formal infrastructure to make the technology usable by practicing engineers. This infrastructure includes techniques for decomposing the microcompressor verification problem into a st of verification conditions that the engineers can formulate and strategies to automate the proof of the verification conditions. The development of the infrastructure was one of the key accomplishments of the project. Most of the infrastructure and methodology are general enough to be reused for other microprocessors, certainly in the verification of another member of the AAMP family. This methodology was used to formally specify the entire microarchitecture and more than half of the instruction set and to verify a core set of eleven AAMP5 instructions representative of several instruction classes. However, the methodology and the formal machinery developed are adequate to cover most of the remaining AAMP5 instructions. Although PVS was the vehicle of the experiment, the methodology is applicable to other sufficiently powerful theorem provers.

  18. Niche Suitability Affects Development: Skull Asymmetry Increases in Less Suitable Areas

    PubMed Central

    Maestri, Renan; Fornel, Rodrigo; Galiano, Daniel; de Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2015-01-01

    For conservation purposes, it is important to take into account the suitability of a species to particular habitats; this information may predict the long-term survival of a species. In this sense, morphological measures of developmental stress, such as fluctuating asymmetry, can be proxies for an individual’s performance in different regions. In this study, we conducted tests to determine whether areas with different levels of suitability for a species (generated by ecological niche models) were congruent with morphological markers that reflect environmental stress and morphological variance. We generated a Maxent niche model and compared the suitability assessments of several areas with the skull morphology data (fluctuating asymmetry and morphological disparity) of populations of the Atlantic forest endemic to Brazil rodent Akodon cursor. Our analyses showed a significant negative relationship between suitability levels and fluctuating asymmetry levels, which indicates that in less suitable areas, the individuals experience numerous disturbances during skull ontogeny. We have not found an association between morphological variance and environmental suitability. As expected, these results suggest that in environments with a lower suitability, developmental stress is increased. Such information is helpful in the understanding of the species evolution and in the selection of priority areas for the conservation of species. PMID:25874364

  19. 25 CFR 151.14 - Formalization of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formalization of acceptance. 151.14 Section 151.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.14 Formalization of acceptance. Formal acceptance of land in trust status shall be accomplished by the issuance...

  20. Communicating More than Content: Formal Features of Children's Television Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents a taxonomy of formal features of television and examines ways in which these features are used in current productions for children. Coding categories for formal features include action, pace, visual events, and auditory features. Concludes that commercial producers stress formal features as much or more than content. (PD)

  1. 25 CFR 151.14 - Formalization of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formalization of acceptance. 151.14 Section 151.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.14 Formalization of acceptance. Formal acceptance of land in trust status shall be accomplished by the issuance...

  2. Is Lawson's Classroom Test of Formal Reasoning Valid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, C.; Hacker, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    A unidimensional latent trait model was used to test a single-factor hypothesis of the Lawson Classroom Test of Formal Reasoning. The test failed to provide a valid measure of formal reasoning. This was a result of test format which neglected aspects of formal reasoning emphasized by Inhelder and Piaget. (Author/DWH)

  3. "Passing It On": Beyond Formal or Informal Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Informal pedagogies are a subject of debate in music education, and there is some evidence of teachers abandoning formal pedagogies in favour of informal ones. This article presents a case of one teacher's formal pedagogy and theorises it by comparing it with a case of informal pedagogy. The comparison reveals affordances of formal pedagogies…

  4. How External Institutions Penetrate Schools through Formal and Informal Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Min; Frank, Kenneth A.; Penuel, William R.; Kim, Chong Min

    2013-01-01

    Purposes: This study investigates the role of formal and informal leaders in the diffusion of external reforms into schools and to teachers' practices. Formal leaders are designated by their roles in the formal organization of the school (e.g., principals, department chairs, and instructional coaches) and informal leaders refer to those who…

  5. Atomic orbital basis sets for use with effective core potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Blaudeau, J.P.; Brozell, S.R.; Matsika, S.; Zhang, Z.; Pitzer, R.M.

    2000-03-15

    Basis sets developed for use with effective core potentials describe pseudo-orbitals rather than orbitals. The primitive Gaussian functions and the contraction coefficients in the basis set must therefore both describe the valence region effectively and allow the pseudo-orbital to be small in the core region. The latter is particularly difficult using 1s primitive functions, which have their maxima at the nucleus. Several methods of choosing contraction coefficients are tried, and it is found that natural orbitals give the best results. The number and optimization of primitive functions are done following Dunning's correlation-consistent procedure. Optimization of orbital exponents for larger atoms frequently results in coalescence of adjacent exponents; use of orbitals with higher principal quantum number is one alternative. Actinide atoms or ions provide the most difficult cases in that basis sets must be optimized for valence shells of different radial size simultaneously considering correlation energy and spin-orbit energy.

  6. Affine gravity, Palatini formalism and charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph; Livshits, Gideon I.

    2011-12-01

    Affine gravity and the Palatini formalism contribute both to produce a simple and unique formula for calculating charges at spatial and null infinity for Lovelock type Lagrangians whose variational derivatives do not depend on second-order derivatives of the field components. The method is based on the covariant generalization due to Julia and Silva of the Regge-Teitelboim procedure that was used to define properly the mass in the classical formulation of Einstein's theory of gravity. Numerous applications reproduce standard results obtained by other secure but mostly specialized method like in ADM energy for asymptotically flat spacetimes and in Abbot and Deser for asymptotically de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes, both at spatial infinity. As a novel application we calculate the Bondi energy loss in five dimensional gravity, based on the asymptotic solution given by Tanabe et al. and obtain, as expected, the same result. We also give the for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and find the superpotential for Lovelock theories of gravity when the number of dimensions tends to infinity with maximally symmetrical boundaries. The paper is written in standard component formalism.

  7. Formality Theorem for Hochschild Cochains via Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgushev, Vasily

    2011-08-01

    We construct a 2-colored operad Ger ∞ which, on the one hand, extends the operad Ger ∞ governing homotopy Gerstenhaber algebras and, on the other hand, extends the 2-colored operad governing open-closed homotopy algebras. We show that Tamarkin's Ger ∞-structure on the Hochschild cochain complex C •( A, A) of an A ∞-algebra A extends naturally to a {{Ger}^+_{infty}}-structure on the pair ( C •( A, A), A). We show that a formality quasi-isomorphism for the Hochschild cochains of the polynomial algebra can be obtained via transfer of this {{Ger}^+_{infty}}-structure to the cohomology of the pair ( C •( A, A), A). We show that {{Ger}^+_{infty}} is a sub DG operad of the first sheet E 1(SC) of the homology spectral sequence for the Fulton-MacPherson version SC of Voronov's Swiss Cheese operad. Finally, we prove that the DG operads {{Ger}^+_{infty}} and E 1(SC) are non-formal.

  8. A Formal Ontology of Subcellular Neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Stephen D.; Fong, Lisa L.; Gupta, Amarnath; Condit, Christopher; Bug, William J.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2007-01-01

    The complexity of the nervous system requires high-resolution microscopy to resolve the detailed 3D structure of nerve cells and supracellular domains. The analysis of such imaging data to extract cellular surfaces and cell components often requires the combination of expert human knowledge with carefully engineered software tools. In an effort to make better tools to assist humans in this endeavor, create a more accessible and permanent record of their data, and to aid the process of constructing complex and detailed computational models, we have created a core of formalized knowledge about the structure of the nervous system and have integrated that core into several software applications. In this paper, we describe the structure and content of a formal ontology whose scope is the subcellular anatomy of the nervous system (SAO), covering nerve cells, their parts, and interactions between these parts. Many applications of this ontology to image annotation, content-based retrieval of structural data, and integration of shared data across scales and researchers are also described. PMID:18974798

  9. Integrating Formal Methods and Testing 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cukic, Bojan

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, qualitative program verification methodologies and program testing are studied in separate research communities. None of them alone is powerful and practical enough to provide sufficient confidence in ultra-high reliability assessment when used exclusively. Significant advances can be made by accounting not only tho formal verification and program testing. but also the impact of many other standard V&V techniques, in a unified software reliability assessment framework. The first year of this research resulted in the statistical framework that, given the assumptions on the success of the qualitative V&V and QA procedures, significantly reduces the amount of testing needed to confidently assess reliability at so-called high and ultra-high levels (10-4 or higher). The coming years shall address the methodologies to realistically estimate the impacts of various V&V techniques to system reliability and include the impact of operational risk to reliability assessment. Combine formal correctness verification, process and product metrics, and other standard qualitative software assurance methods with statistical testing with the aim of gaining higher confidence in software reliability assessment for high-assurance applications. B) Quantify the impact of these methods on software reliability. C) Demonstrate that accounting for the effectiveness of these methods reduces the number of tests needed to attain certain confidence level. D) Quantify and justify the reliability estimate for systems developed using various methods.

  10. Group adaptation, formal darwinism and contextual analysis.

    PubMed

    Okasha, S; Paternotte, C

    2012-06-01

    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis. PMID:22487485

  11. The simplest formal argument for fitness optimization.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alen

    2008-12-01

    The Formal Darwinism Project aims to provide a formal argument linking population genetics to fitness optimization, which of necessity includes defining fitness. This bridges the gulf between those biologists who assume that natural selection leads to something close to fitness optimization and those biologists who believe on theoretical grounds that there is no sense of fitness that can usefully be said to be optimized. The current paper's main objective is to provide a careful mathematical introduction to the project, and it also reflects on the project's scope and limitations. The central argument is the proof of close ties between the mathematics of motion, as embodied in the Price equation, and the mathematics of optimization, as represented by optimization programmes. To make these links, a general and abstract model linking genotype, phenotype and number of successful gametes is assumed. The project has begun with simple dynamic models and simple linking models, and its progress will involve more realistic versions of them. The versions given here are fully mathematically rigorous, but elementary enough to serve as an introduction. PMID:19147931

  12. Detecting Mode Confusion Through Formal Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven P.; Potts, James N.

    1999-01-01

    Aircraft safety has improved steadily over the last few decades. While much of this improvement can be attributed to the introduction of advanced automation in the cockpit, the growing complexity of these systems also increases the potential for the pilots to become confused about what the automation is doing. This phenomenon, often referred to as mode confusion, has been involved in several accidents involving modern aircraft. This report describes an effort by Rockwell Collins and NASA Langley to identify potential sources of mode confusion through two complementary strategies. The first is to create a clear, executable model of the automation, connect it to a simulation of the flight deck, and use this combination to review of the behavior of the automation and the man-machine interface with the designers, pilots, and experts in human factors. The second strategy is to conduct mathematical analyses of the model by translating it into a formal specification suitable for analysis with automated tools. The approach is illustrated by applying it to a hypothetical, but still realistic, example of the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System.

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: American Alligator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newsom, John D.; Joanen, Ted; Howard, Rebecca J.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a model for evaluating American alligator habitat quality. The model is applicable in marshes along the northern Gulf of Mexico. It is scaled to produce an index between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat). Habitat suitability index models are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

  14. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red King Crab

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jewett, Stephen C.; Onuf, Christopher P.

    1988-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for evaluating habitat of different life stages of red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica). A model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat) in Alaskan coastal waters, especially in the Gulf of Alaska and the southeastern Bering Sea. HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  15. Spatial Experiment Technologies Suitable for Unreturnable Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Weibo; Tong, Guanghui

    2016-07-01

    The system composition and main function of the bioreactor piggybacked on TZ cargo transport spacecraft are introduced briefly in the paper.The spatial experiment technologies which are suitable for unreturnable bioreactor are described in detail,including multi-channel liquid transportion and management,multi-type animal cells circuit testing,dynamic targets microscopic observation in situ etc..The feasibility and effectiveness of these technologies which will be used in space experiment in bioreactor are verified in tests and experiments on the ground.

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Chum Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hale, Stephen S.; McMahon, Thomas E.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model and instream flow suitability curves for the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Pink Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, Robert F.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model and instream flow suitability curves for the pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  18. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Redbreast Sunfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aho, John M.; Anderson, Charles S.; Terrell, James W.

    1986-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop habitat suitability index models and instream flow suitability curves for the redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  19. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Shortnose Sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crance, Johnie H.

    1986-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop habitat suitability index models and instream flow suitability curves for the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  20. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Arctic Grayling Riverine Populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubert, Wayne A.; Helzner, Rhonda S.; Lee, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model and instream flow suitability curves for Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) riverine populations. The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is sclaed to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  1. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Gizzard Shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Kathryn L.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop habitat suitability index models and instream flow suitability curves for the gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Inland Stocks of Striped Bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crance, Johnie H.

    1984-01-01

    The Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and instream flow Suitability Index (SI) presented in this publication aid in identifying important variables that determine the quality of striped bass habitat. Facts, ideas, and opinions obtained from published and unpublished reports, a Delphi panel of 18 striped bass experts/authorities, and the Striped Bass Committee, Southern Division, American Fisheries Society, are synthesized and presented in a format that can be used for habitat impact assessment and development of management alternatives.

  3. Indigenous Knowledge and Education from the Quechua Community to School: Beyond the Formal/Non-Formal Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumida Huaman, Elizabeth; Valdiviezo, Laura Alicia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose to approach Indigenous education beyond the formal/non-formal dichotomy. We argue that there is a critical need to conscientiously include Indigenous knowledge in education processes from the school to the community; particularly, when formal systems exclude Indigenous cultures and languages. Based on ethnographic…

  4. Guidance for Using Formal Methods in a Certification Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Duncan; Delseny, Herve; Hayhurst, Kelly; Wiels, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the challenges to using formal methods in a certification context and describes the effort by the Formal Methods Subgroup of RTCA SC-205/EUROCAE WG-71 to propose guidance to make the use of formal methods a recognized approach. This guidance, expected to take the form of a Formal Methods Technical Supplement to DO-178C/ED-12C, is described, including the activities that are needed when using formal methods, new or modified objectives with respect to the core DO-178C/ED-12C document, and evidence needed for meeting those objectives.

  5. Systolic temporal arithmetic; A new formalism for specification and verification of systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, N. ); Bayoumi, M.A. )

    1990-08-01

    This paper introduces a novel formalism named systolic temporal arithmetic (STA) suitable for describing arithmetic operations in dynamic environments. The motivation behind the development of STA is to use it for formal specifications and verifications of systolic arrays at the array architecture level. Besides providing value and operation abstraction from the lower level, it also exploits several features of systolic arrays such as synchrony, regularity, repeatability, modularity, pipelinability, parallel processing ability, as well as spatial and temporal locality. STA provides constructs and verification techniques for simple, efficient, and effective systolic array specification and verification. Verification techniques such as mathematical induction are suggested to exploit these systolic array features so as to speedup the process.

  6. If formal CME is ineffective, why do physicians still participate?

    PubMed

    McLeod, P J; McLeod, A H

    2004-03-01

    Formal or traditional CME can be criticized because organizers often ignore adult learning principles when designing courses. Critics also suggest that formal CME courses have limited impact on attendees' behaviors and practices. The authors agree that attention must be paid to pedagogic principles to assure success of educational courses, but feel that the extant negative evidence related to the impact of formal CME is narrow in scope and of inadequate strength to seriously damn formal approaches. Survey responses were received from 853 practicing physicians who say they still regularly attend formal CME courses. They are motivated to attend to satisfy specific professional needs and for personal reasons. Formal CME is still popular despite what its critics say. The authors are convinced that attention to physicians' perceived needs, effective use of social marketing strategies, and adherence to adult learning principles can assure successful delivery of CME and that formal CME is a useful complement to physician-driven informal CME. PMID:15203529

  7. Endorsement of formal leaders: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Michener, H A; Lawler, E J

    1975-02-01

    This experiment develops an integrative, path-analytic model for the endorsement accorded formal leaders. The model contains four independent variables reflecting aspects of group structure (i.e., group success-failure, the payoff distribution, the degree of support by others members for the leader, and the vulnerability of the leader). Also included are two intervening variables reflecting perceptual processes (attributed competence and attributed fairness), and one dependent variable endorsement). The results indicate that endorsement is greater when the group's success is high, when the payoff distribution is flat rather than hierarchial, and when the leader is not vulnerable to removal from office. Other support had no significant impact on endorsement. Analyses further demonstrate that the effect of success-failure on endorsement is mediated by attributed competence, while the effect of the payoff distributed is mediated by attributed fairness. These results suggest that moral and task evaluations are distinct bases of endorsement. PMID:1123712

  8. Formalizing Linguistic Conventions for Conceptual Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Jörg; Delfmann, Patrick; Herwig, Sebastian; Lis, Łukasz; Stein, Armin

    A precondition for the appropriate analysis of conceptual models is not only their syntactic correctness but also their semantic comparability. Assuring comparability is challenging especially when models are developed by different persons. Empirical studies show that such models can vary heavily, especially in model element naming, even if they express the same issue. In contrast to most ontology-driven approaches proposing the resolution of these differences ex-post, we introduce an approach that avoids naming differences in conceptual models already during modeling. Therefore we formalize naming conventions combining domain thesauri and phrase structures based on a lin-guistic grammar. This allows for guiding modelers automatically during the modeling process using standardized labels for model elements. Our approach is generic, making it applicable for any modeling language.

  9. The Nuclear Energy Density Functional Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguet, T.

    The present document focuses on the theoretical foundations of the nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method. As such, it does not aim at reviewing the status of the field, at covering all possible ramifications of the approach or at presenting recent achievements and applications. The objective is to provide a modern account of the nuclear EDF formalism that is at variance with traditional presentations that rely, at one point or another, on a Hamiltonian-based picture. The latter is not general enough to encompass what the nuclear EDF method represents as of today. Specifically, the traditional Hamiltonian-based picture does not allow one to grasp the difficulties associated with the fact that currently available parametrizations of the energy kernel E[g',g] at play in the method do not derive from a genuine Hamilton operator, would the latter be effective. The method is formulated from the outset through the most general multi-reference, i.e. beyond mean-field, implementation such that the single-reference, i.e. "mean-field", derives as a particular case. As such, a key point of the presentation provided here is to demonstrate that the multi-reference EDF method can indeed be formulated in a mathematically meaningful fashion even if E[g',g] does not derive from a genuine Hamilton operator. In particular, the restoration of symmetries can be entirely formulated without making any reference to a projected state, i.e. within a genuine EDF framework. However, and as is illustrated in the present document, a mathematically meaningful formulation does not guarantee that the formalism is sound from a physical standpoint. The price at which the latter can be enforced as well in the future is eventually alluded to.

  10. A monolithic bolometer array suitable for FIRST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, J. J.; LeDuc, H. G.; Lange, A. E.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    1997-01-01

    The development of arrays of infrared bolometers that are suitable for use in the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) mission is reported. The array architecture is based on the silicon nitride micromesh bolometer currently baselined for use in the case of the Planck mission. This architecture allows each pixel to be efficiently coupled to one or both polarizations and to one or more spatial models of radiation. Micromesh structures are currently being developed, coupled with transistor-edge sensors and read out by a SQUID amplifier. If these devices are successful, then the relatively large cooling power available at 300 mK may enable a SQUID-based multiplexer to be integrated on the same wafer as the array, creating a monolithic, fully multiplexed, 2D array with relatively few connections to the sub-Kelvin stage.

  11. Application of a new dosimetry formalism to volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Karen E.; Bedford, James L.

    2009-12-01

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) offers a challenge to classical dosimetry protocols as the beams are dynamic in orientation and aperture shape and may include small apertures. The aim of this paper is to apply a formalism to VMAT beams that has recently been published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) working party to improve the dosimetry for small and non-standard fields. We investigated three possible fields and assessed their suitability as plan class specific reference (pcsr) fields. The factors in the new dosimetry formalism were investigated: the conversion of dose to water from the conventional reference field to the pcsr and then from the pcsr to a treatment plan, using a PTW semiflex chamber, two Farmer chambers and an electron diode. Finally, the dose was compared for Alanine, the new formalism and calculated using Pinnacle3 (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) for two typical clinical VMAT beams. Correction factors between the reference field and the pcsr determined with Alanine range from 0.1% to 2.3% for the three pcsr fields. Dose to water measured using the calibrated ionization chambers is less than 2% different to the dose calculated by Pinnacle3. VMAT planning and delivery procedures have been successfully implemented and a new dosimetry protocol has been investigated for this new technique. Calibration factors for pcsr fields are found to be up to 2.3% different when using the new formalism, compared to using a standard dosimetry protocol. Using the calibration factors determined in the pcsr fields, the ionization chambers and electron diode agree to within 1% with Alanine dosimetry for two clinical VMAT plans. Good agreements between calculations and measurements are found for these two plans when the new formalism is used.

  12. Relating transverse-momentum-dependent and collinear factorization theorems in a generalized formalism

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Collins, J.; Gamberg, L.; Prokudin, A.; Rogers, T. C.; Sato, N.; Wang, B.

    2016-08-08

    We construct an improved implementation for combining TMD factorization transverse- momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization and collinear factorization. TMD factorization is suit- able for low transverse momentum physics, while collinear factorization is suitable for high transverse momenta and for a cross section integrated over transverse momentum. The result is a modified version of the standard W + Y prescription traditionally used in the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism and related approaches. As a result, we further argue that questions regarding the shape and Q- dependence of the cross sections at lower Q are largely governed by the matching to the Y -term.

  13. Formal concept analysis with background knowledge: a case study in paleobiological taxonomy of belemnites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belohlavek, Radim; Kostak, Martin; Osicka, Petr

    2013-05-01

    We present a case study in identification of taxa in paleobiological data. Our approach utilizes formal concept analysis and is based on conceiving a taxon as a group of individuals sharing a collection of attributes. In addition to the incidence relation between individuals and their attributes, the method uses expert background knowledge regarding importance of attributes which helps to filter out correctly formed but paleobiologically irrelevant taxa. We present results of experiments carried out with belemnites-a group of extinct cephalopods which seems particularly suitable for such a purpose. We demonstrate that the methods are capable of revealing taxa and relationships among them that are relevant from a paleobiological point of view.

  14. Formal Provenance Representation of the Data and Information Supporting the National Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2014-01-01

    The Global Change Information System (GCIS) provides a framework for the formal representation of structured metadata about data and information about global change. The pilot deployment of the system supports the National Climate Assessment (NCA), a major report of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). A consumer of that report can use the system to browse and explore that supporting information. Additionally, capturing that information into a structured data model and presenting it in standard formats through well defined open inter- faces, including query interfaces suitable for data mining and linking with other databases, the information becomes valuable for other analytic uses as well.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Brown Trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, Robert F.; Zuckerman, Laurence D.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1984-01-01

    The Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models presented in this publication aid in identifying important habitat variables for brown trout (Salmo trutto Linneas). Facts, ideas, and concepts obtained from the research literature and expert reviews are synthesized and presented in a format that can be used for impact assessment. A brief discussion of the appropriateness of using selected Suitability Index (SI) curves from HSI models as a component of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) is provided. Additional SI curves, developed specifically for analysis of brown trout habitat with IFIM, also are presented.

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: White Bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Karen; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1984-01-01

    Habitat characteristics important to white bass (Morone chrysops) are reviewed in this report using two techniques developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) and the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM). The Suitability Index (SI) curves and graphs and Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models developed in this report are based primarily on a synthesis of information obtained from a review of literature concerning the habitat requirements of the species. A discussion of IFIM and white bass SI curves available for use with IFIM is included.

  17. 10 CFR 963.14 - Preclosure suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preclosure suitability criteria. 963.14 Section 963.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.14 Preclosure suitability criteria. DOE will evaluate preclosure...

  18. 10 CFR 963.17 - Postclosure suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination... suitability of a geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site through suitability criteria that reflect both...) Infiltration—for example, precipitation entering the mountain in excess of water returned to the atmosphere...

  19. 10 CFR 963.14 - Preclosure suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preclosure suitability criteria. 963.14 Section 963.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.14 Preclosure suitability criteria. DOE will evaluate preclosure...

  20. 10 CFR 963.14 - Preclosure suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preclosure suitability criteria. 963.14 Section 963.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.14 Preclosure suitability criteria. DOE will evaluate preclosure...

  1. 10 CFR 963.17 - Postclosure suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination... suitability of a geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site through suitability criteria that reflect both...) Infiltration—for example, precipitation entering the mountain in excess of water returned to the atmosphere...

  2. 10 CFR 963.14 - Preclosure suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preclosure suitability criteria. 963.14 Section 963.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.14 Preclosure suitability criteria. DOE will evaluate preclosure...

  3. 10 CFR 963.14 - Preclosure suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preclosure suitability criteria. 963.14 Section 963.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.14 Preclosure suitability criteria. DOE will evaluate preclosure...

  4. Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

    The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project---to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of assuming that "experience is the best teacher"(e.g. Aristotle, 360 BC; Dewey, 1934; Kolb, 1997; Pliny, AD 77). As a practical geographer I endorsed that assumption throughout my teaching career, paying attention to local topography, physical features, and natural resources in the geographic hinterland. I was particularly interested in understanding the impact of the physical landscape on humankind, and reciprocally, noting humankind's widespread impressions on the natural world. Until I began this research project, I assumed that everyone else paid a similar attention to immediate surroundings. The work that I describe in this dissertation emerges out of a conviction that there are many degrees of truth to the idea that experience is a great teacher. Its effectiveness seems to depend on how one's "experience" is mediated, and how "learning from it" is defined. This motivated me to think about design principles for linking people's experiences to learning. I began to explore, experimentally, how I might enhance people's abilities to notice, represent, and discuss their experiences in order to better learn from them. This study investigated how different ways of connecting outdoor learning experiences to formal schooling impacts students' performance. I studied high-school students in outdoor settings as they engaged in evocative issues of learning pertaining to consequential everyday life encounters. Different kinds of "expert mediation" were introduced and tested as the students engaged in investigative activities around the science of dam removal and habitat restoration. I measured outcomes with the aid of pre- and

  5. Formal verification of an oral messages algorithm for interactive consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1992-01-01

    The formal specification and verification of an algorithm for Interactive Consistency based on the Oral Messages algorithm for Byzantine Agreement is described. We compare our treatment with that of Bevier and Young, who presented a formal specification and verification for a very similar algorithm. Unlike Bevier and Young, who observed that 'the invariant maintained in the recursive subcases of the algorithm is significantly more complicated than is suggested by the published proof' and who found its formal verification 'a fairly difficult exercise in mechanical theorem proving,' our treatment is very close to the previously published analysis of the algorithm, and our formal specification and verification are straightforward. This example illustrates how delicate choices in the formulation of the problem can have significant impact on the readability of its formal specification and on the tractability of its formal verification.

  6. The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism for higher order field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitagliano, Luca

    2010-06-01

    We generalize the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism of Skinner and Rusk to higher order field theories on fiber bundles. As a byproduct we solve the long standing problem of defining, in a coordinate free manner, a Hamiltonian formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories. Namely, our formalism does only depend on the action functional and, therefore, unlike previously proposed ones, is free from any relevant ambiguity.

  7. Formal Techniques for Synchronized Fault-Tolerant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiVito, Ben L.; Butler, Ricky W.

    1992-01-01

    We present the formal verification of synchronizing aspects of the Reliable Computing Platform (RCP), a fault-tolerant computing system for digital flight control applications. The RCP uses NMR-style redundancy to mask faults and internal majority voting to purge the effects of transient faults. The system design has been formally specified and verified using the EHDM verification system. Our formalization is based on an extended state machine model incorporating snapshots of local processors clocks.

  8. Formal modeling and verification of fractional order linear systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunna; Shi, Likun; Guan, Yong; Li, Xiaojuan; Shi, Zhiping

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a formalization of a fractional order linear system in a higher-order logic (HOL) theorem proving system. Based on the formalization of the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, we formally specify and verify the linear and superposition properties of fractional order systems. The proof provides a rigor and solid underpinnings for verifying concrete fractional order linear control systems. Our implementation in HOL demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach in practical applications. PMID:27126601

  9. A formalism for the calculus of variations with spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäckdahl, Thomas; Valiente Kroon, Juan A.

    2016-02-01

    We develop a frame and dyad gauge-independent formalism for the calculus of variations of functionals involving spinorial objects. As a part of this formalism, we define a modified variation operator which absorbs frame and spin dyad gauge terms. This formalism is applicable to both the standard spacetime (i.e., SL(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors as well as to space (i.e., SU(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors. We compute expressions for the variations of the connection and the curvature spinors.

  10. Gyrokinetic Formalism in Plasmas with Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, S. C.; Chan, V. S.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Chu, M. S.

    1998-11-01

    There is considerable theoretical and experimental evidence that plasma rotations in tokamaks can improve stability and confinement. Understanding the physics of rotating tokamak plasmas is thus of great importance for attaining high performance in reactors. Since present and future tokamaks are likely to have auxiliary heating such as radio frequency (RF) waves or neutral beam injection, it is of interest to understand the interaction of auxiliary heating with plasma rotation, and its consequences to transport and stability. In the past, rotation has not been self-consistently treated in auxiliary heating in that it is either ignored or ambipolarity is not self-consistently maintained. In this work, we describe a gyrokinetic formalism for RF in rotating plasmas which takes ambipolarity and equilibrium into account. A non-canonical guiding center Lagrangian for rotating plasma in a fluctuating field is obtained, and from which the gyrokinetic equation is deduced. Limiting the wave equations to the cyclotron frequency or below, quasilinear equations using an eikonal approximation are derived. Conservation laws for the system shall be discussed.

  11. Formal policies for flexible EHR security.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd; Pharow, Peter

    2006-01-01

    State of the Art methodologies for establishing requirements and solutions to securing applications are based on narrative descriptions about the use of available system, sometimes also dedicated to system components. Even nowadays new developments to ruling application security services by the use of predicate logic suffer from being administered manually. Therefore, security and privacy requirements cannot be properly met resulting in restrictions and fears for allowing the use of sensitive data and functions. Because of the sensitivity of personal health information and especially of genetic data with its wider implications beyond the original subject of care, weaknesses in guaranteeing fine-grained security and privacy rules lead to less acceptance or even the avoidance of essential information transfer and use. To overcome the problem, security and privacy have to become properties of the architectural components of the respective health information system. Embedding security into the systems architecture allows for negotiating and enforcing any security and privacy services related to principals, their roles, their relationships, further contextual information as well as other regulations summarized in formally modeled policies. The paper introduces the evolving paradigm of the model-driven architecture, first time also comprehensively deployed for security and privacy services in bio-genetic and health information systems. PMID:17095829

  12. A Hamilton Jacobi formalism for thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, S. G.

    2008-09-01

    We show that classical thermodynamics has a formulation in terms of Hamilton-Jacobi theory, analogous to mechanics. Even though the thermodynamic variables come in conjugate pairs such as pressure/volume or temperature/entropy, the phase space is odd-dimensional. For a system with n thermodynamic degrees of freedom it is 2n+1-dimensional. The equations of state of a substance pick out an n-dimensional submanifold. A family of substances whose equations of state depend on n parameters define a hypersurface of co-dimension one. This can be described by the vanishing of a function which plays the role of a Hamiltonian. The ordinary differential equations (characteristic equations) defined by this function describe a dynamical system on the hypersurface. Its orbits can be used to reconstruct the equations of state. The 'time' variable associated to this dynamics is related to, but is not identical to, entropy. After developing this formalism on well-grounded systems such as the van der Waals gases and the Curie-Weiss magnets, we derive a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for black hole thermodynamics in General Relativity. The cosmological constant appears as a constant of integration in this picture.

  13. Fostering Formal Commutativity Knowledge with Approximate Arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Sonja Maria; Haider, Hilde; Eichler, Alexandra; Godau, Claudia; Frensch, Peter A.; Gaschler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    How can we enhance the understanding of abstract mathematical principles in elementary school? Different studies found out that nonsymbolic estimation could foster subsequent exact number processing and simple arithmetic. Taking the commutativity principle as a test case, we investigated if the approximate calculation of symbolic commutative quantities can also alter the access to procedural and conceptual knowledge of a more abstract arithmetic principle. Experiment 1 tested first graders who had not been instructed about commutativity in school yet. Approximate calculation with symbolic quantities positively influenced the use of commutativity-based shortcuts in formal arithmetic. We replicated this finding with older first graders (Experiment 2) and third graders (Experiment 3). Despite the positive effect of approximation on the spontaneous application of commutativity-based shortcuts in arithmetic problems, we found no comparable impact on the application of conceptual knowledge of the commutativity principle. Overall, our results show that the usage of a specific arithmetic principle can benefit from approximation. However, the findings also suggest that the correct use of certain procedures does not always imply conceptual understanding. Rather, the conceptual understanding of commutativity seems to lag behind procedural proficiency during elementary school. PMID:26560311

  14. Fostering Formal Commutativity Knowledge with Approximate Arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sonja Maria; Haider, Hilde; Eichler, Alexandra; Godau, Claudia; Frensch, Peter A; Gaschler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    How can we enhance the understanding of abstract mathematical principles in elementary school? Different studies found out that nonsymbolic estimation could foster subsequent exact number processing and simple arithmetic. Taking the commutativity principle as a test case, we investigated if the approximate calculation of symbolic commutative quantities can also alter the access to procedural and conceptual knowledge of a more abstract arithmetic principle. Experiment 1 tested first graders who had not been instructed about commutativity in school yet. Approximate calculation with symbolic quantities positively influenced the use of commutativity-based shortcuts in formal arithmetic. We replicated this finding with older first graders (Experiment 2) and third graders (Experiment 3). Despite the positive effect of approximation on the spontaneous application of commutativity-based shortcuts in arithmetic problems, we found no comparable impact on the application of conceptual knowledge of the commutativity principle. Overall, our results show that the usage of a specific arithmetic principle can benefit from approximation. However, the findings also suggest that the correct use of certain procedures does not always imply conceptual understanding. Rather, the conceptual understanding of commutativity seems to lag behind procedural proficiency during elementary school. PMID:26560311

  15. An enantioselective formal synthesis of montelukast sodium.

    PubMed

    Bollikonda, Satyanarayana; Mohanarangam, Saravanan; Jinna, Rajender Reddy; Kandirelli, Venkata Kiran Kumar; Makthala, Laxman; Sen, Saikat; Chaplin, David A; Lloyd, Richard C; Mahoney, Thomas; Dahanukar, Vilas Hareshwar; Oruganti, Srinivas; Fox, Martin E

    2015-04-17

    A formal synthesis of the antiasthma drug montelukast sodium is described, wherein the key chiral diol intermediate was accessed with greater convergence of the C-C bond-forming steps as compared to previous routes. Improved synthetic efficiency was achieved by deploying homogeneous metal-based catalysis in two pivotal steps. In the first, a tandem Mizoroki-Heck reaction and double-bond isomerization between a previously known allyl alcohol intermediate and a hindered 2-(2-halophenyl)propan-2-ol secured direct access to the 3-(2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-1-phenylpropan-1-one moiety in the product. In the second step, asymmetric hydrogenation of the ketone functionality in the Mizoroki-Heck reaction product provided a convenient method to introduce the benzylic alcohol chiral center and obtain the desired chiral diol precursor of montelukast sodium. A detailed catalyst screening led to the identification of ((R)-Xyl-BINAP)((R,R)-DPEN)RuCl2 as a catalyst that afforded an enantioselectivity of 99% ee in the hydrogenation step on a multigram lab scale at a molar substrate:catalyst loading of 5000:1. PMID:25807000

  16. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  17. The Most Suitable Habitats in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Paul A.; 5756406268

    2016-06-01

    Astrophysical environments constrain life on the surface of planets. The classical habitable zone characterized by stellar luminosity and temperature may be defined both for single stars and planets in binary star systems. However, in many cases, habitability is strongly affected by stellar UV radiation, winds, and catastrophic events such as nearby supernovae, GRBs, and AGN. Planets with sufficiently thick atmospheres and strong magnetic fields provide protection against radiation from the host star(s) and some nearby radiation events. Atmospheric ozone provides significant UV shield if present. Single star and binary winds provide additional protection for habitable zone planets from galactic cosmic-rays. In certain cases, binary star winds have increased protection over single stars, by providing a longer path-length against particle fluxes, since these binaries produce a higher wind flux and thus a larger “heliosphere” than a single star of comparable mass. Metallicity also plays an important role, with improvements in habitability increasing with stellar metallicity. It is proposed that circumbinary planets, Earth-like and super-Earths, with thick atmospheres, including ozone, high metallicity, and strong magnetic fields are the most suitable habitats in the Galaxy.

  18. Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation.

    PubMed

    Germano, Jennifer M; Bishop, Phillip J

    2009-02-01

    Translocations are important tools in the field of conservation. Despite increased use over the last few decades, the appropriateness of translocations for amphibians and reptiles has been debated widely over the past 20 years. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation, we reviewed the results of amphibian and reptile translocation projects published between 1991 and 2006. The success rate of amphibian and reptile translocations reported over this period was twice that reported in an earlier review in 1991. Success and failure rates were independent of the taxonomic class (Amphibia or Reptilia) released. Reptile translocations driven by human-wildlife conflict mitigation had a higher failure rate than those motivated by conservation, and more recent projects of reptile translocations had unknown outcomes. The outcomes of amphibian translocations were significantly related to the number of animals released, with projects releasing over 1000 individuals being most successful. The most common reported causes of translocation failure were homing and migration of introduced individuals out of release sites and poor habitat. The increased success of amphibian and reptile translocations reviewed in this study compared with the 1991 review is encouraging for future conservation projects. Nevertheless, more preparation, monitoring, reporting of results, and experimental testing of techniques and reintroduction questions need to occur to improve translocations of amphibians and reptiles as a whole. PMID:19143783

  19. Hamiltonian formalism for perfect fluids in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Demaret, J.; Moncrief, V.

    1980-05-15

    Schutz's Hamiltonian theory of a relativistic perfect fluid, based on the velocity-potential version of classical perfect fluid hydrodynamics as formulated by Seliger and Whitham, is used to derive, in the framework of the Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner (ADM) method, a general partially reduced Hamiltonian for relativistic systems filled with a perfect fluid. The time coordinate is chosen, as in Lund's treatment of collapsing balls of dust, as minus the only velocity potential different from zero in the case of an irrotational and isentropic fluid. A ''semi-Dirac'' method can be applied to quantize astrophysical and cosmological models in the framework of this partially reduced formalism. If one chooses Taub's adapted comoving coordinate system, it is possible to derive a fully reduced ADM Hamiltonian, which is equal to minus the total baryon number of the fluid, generalizing a result previously obtained by Moncrief in the more particular framework of Taub's variational principle, valid for self-gravitating barotropic relativistic perfect fluids. An unconstrained Hamiltonian density is then explicitly derived for a fluid obeying the equation of state p=(gamma-1)rho (1 < or = ..gamma.. < or = 2), which can adequately describe the phases of very high density attained in a catastrophic collapse or during the early stages of the Universe. This Hamiltonian density, shown to be equivalent to Moncrief's in the particular case of an isentropic fluid, can be simplified for fluid-filled class-A diagonal Bianchi-type cosmological models and appears as a suitable starting point for the study of the canonical quantization of these models.

  20. A Formal Semantics for the SRI Hierarchical Program Design Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, R. S.; Moore, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    A formal statement of what it means to use (a subset of) the methodology is presented. It is formally defined that some specified module exists and what it means to say that another module is paid correctly implemented on top of it. No attention is to motivation, either of the methodology or of the formal development of it. Concentration is entirely upon mathematical succinctness and precision. A discussion is presented of how to use certain INTERLISP programs which implement the formal definitions. Among these are a program which generates Floyd like verification conditions sufficient to imply the correctness of a module implementation.

  1. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status. PMID:21468408

  2. A formal model of interpersonal inference

    PubMed Central

    Moutoussis, Michael; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; El-Deredy, Wael; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We propose that active Bayesian inference—a general framework for decision-making—can equally be applied to interpersonal exchanges. Social cognition, however, entails special challenges. We address these challenges through a novel formulation of a formal model and demonstrate its psychological significance. Method: We review relevant literature, especially with regards to interpersonal representations, formulate a mathematical model and present a simulation study. The model accommodates normative models from utility theory and places them within the broader setting of Bayesian inference. Crucially, we endow people's prior beliefs, into which utilities are absorbed, with preferences of self and others. The simulation illustrates the model's dynamics and furnishes elementary predictions of the theory. Results: (1) Because beliefs about self and others inform both the desirability and plausibility of outcomes, in this framework interpersonal representations become beliefs that have to be actively inferred. This inference, akin to “mentalizing” in the psychological literature, is based upon the outcomes of interpersonal exchanges. (2) We show how some well-known social-psychological phenomena (e.g., self-serving biases) can be explained in terms of active interpersonal inference. (3) Mentalizing naturally entails Bayesian updating of how people value social outcomes. Crucially this includes inference about one's own qualities and preferences. Conclusion: We inaugurate a Bayes optimal framework for modeling intersubject variability in mentalizing during interpersonal exchanges. Here, interpersonal representations are endowed with explicit functional and affective properties. We suggest the active inference framework lends itself to the study of psychiatric conditions where mentalizing is distorted. PMID:24723872

  3. Formalizing structured file services for the data storage and retrieval subsystem of the data management system for Spacestation Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamsek, Damir A.

    1993-01-01

    A brief example of the use of formal methods techniques in the specification of a software system is presented. The report is part of a larger effort targeted at defining a formal methods pilot project for NASA. One possible application domain that may be used to demonstrate the effective use of formal methods techniques within the NASA environment is presented. It is not intended to provide a tutorial on either formal methods techniques or the application being addressed. It should, however, provide an indication that the application being considered is suitable for a formal methods by showing how such a task may be started. The particular system being addressed is the Structured File Services (SFS), which is a part of the Data Storage and Retrieval Subsystem (DSAR), which in turn is part of the Data Management System (DMS) onboard Spacestation Freedom. This is a software system that is currently under development for NASA. An informal mathematical development is presented. Section 3 contains the same development using Penelope (23), an Ada specification and verification system. The complete text of the English version Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is reproduced in Appendix A.

  4. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Spotted Bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Thomas E.; Gebhart, Glen; Maughan, O. Eugene; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1984-01-01

    The Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models presented in this publication aid in identifying habitat variable important to the growth and survival of spotted bass (Micropterus punctulatus). Facts, ideas, and concepts obtained from the research literature and expert reviews are synthesized and presented in a format that can be used for impact assessment. The models are hypotheses of species-habitat relationships, and model users should recognize that the degree of veracity of the HSI model, SI graphs, and assumptions will vary according to geographical area and the extent of the data base for individual variables. A brief discussion of selected Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM), and a discussion of SI curves available for the IFIM analysis of Spotted bass habitat are also included.

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, Robert F.; Miller, William J.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1986-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  6. Pedagogical Basis of DAS Formalism in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other…

  7. 47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...

  8. 47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...

  9. 47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...

  10. Environmental Education in the Formal Sector of Education in Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucunguzi, P.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a critical review of the present state of environmental education in the formal sector of education in Uganda. Recommends an improved approach to formal environmental education based on a multidisciplinary foundation that embraces the biophysical environment, people, culture, politics, and socioeconomic systems. (LZ)

  11. Automatically Grading Customer Confidence in a Formal Specification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukur, Zarina; Burke, Edmund; Foxley, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Describes an automatic grading system for a formal methods computer science course that is able to evaluate a formal specification written in the Z language. Quality is measured by considering first, specification correctness (syntax, semantics, and satisfaction of customer requirements), and second, specification maintainability (comparison of…

  12. The Archival Photograph and Its Meaning: Formalisms for Modeling Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Allen C.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores ontological principles and their potential applications in the formal description of archival photographs. Current archival descriptive practices are reviewed and the larger question is addressed: do archivists who are engaged in describing photographs need a more formalized system of representation, or do existing encoding…

  13. Recognising Non-Formal and Informal Learning: An Open Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perulli, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    The social-institutional endorsement towards the perspective of recognising and enhancing learning acquired outside the formal education and training contexts (non-formal and informal learning), has been gaining strength and has entered policy agendas throughout Europe, but also in other major non-European countries. Nevertheless there are still…

  14. Toward a mathematical formalism of performance, task difficulty, and activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samaras, George M.

    1988-01-01

    The rudiments of a mathematical formalism for handling operational, physiological, and psychological concepts are developed for use by the man-machine system design engineer. The formalism provides a framework for developing a structured, systematic approach to the interface design problem, using existing mathematical tools, and simplifying the problem of telling a machine how to measure and use performance.

  15. Integrating Formal and Grounded Representations in Combinatorics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The terms "concreteness fading" and "progressive formalization" have been used to describe instructional approaches to science and mathematics that use grounded representations to introduce concepts and later transition to more formal representations of the same concepts. There are both theoretical and empirical reasons to…

  16. 18 CFR 5.14 - Formal study dispute resolution process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal study dispute resolution process. 5.14 Section 5.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.14 Formal study...

  17. 7 CFR 18.5 - Formal complaint procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Formal complaint procedure. 18.5 Section 18.5... EXTENSION SERVICES § 18.5 Formal complaint procedure. A procedure shall be provided for the filing of a... origin, sex, or religion. (b) Time limits for processing. The procedure will include time limits for...

  18. 7 CFR 18.5 - Formal complaint procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Formal complaint procedure. 18.5 Section 18.5... EXTENSION SERVICES § 18.5 Formal complaint procedure. A procedure shall be provided for the filing of a... origin, sex, or religion. (b) Time limits for processing. The procedure will include time limits for...

  19. 7 CFR 18.5 - Formal complaint procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Formal complaint procedure. 18.5 Section 18.5... EXTENSION SERVICES § 18.5 Formal complaint procedure. A procedure shall be provided for the filing of a... origin, sex, or religion. (b) Time limits for processing. The procedure will include time limits for...

  20. 7 CFR 18.5 - Formal complaint procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formal complaint procedure. 18.5 Section 18.5... EXTENSION SERVICES § 18.5 Formal complaint procedure. A procedure shall be provided for the filing of a... origin, sex, or religion. (b) Time limits for processing. The procedure will include time limits for...

  1. 7 CFR 18.5 - Formal complaint procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Formal complaint procedure. 18.5 Section 18.5... EXTENSION SERVICES § 18.5 Formal complaint procedure. A procedure shall be provided for the filing of a... origin, sex, or religion. (b) Time limits for processing. The procedure will include time limits for...

  2. 17 CFR 230.470 - Formal requirements for amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal requirements for amendments. 230.470 Section 230.470 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Amendments; Withdrawals § 230.470 Formal requirements for amendments. Except for...

  3. 47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...

  4. Catalytic Asymmetric Formal Total Synthesis of (-)-Triptophenolide and (+)-Triptolide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Dan; Li, Liang-Qun; Li, Ming-Ming; Geng, Hui-Chun; Qin, Hong-Bo

    2016-06-01

    Catalytic asymmetric formal synthesis of (-)-Triptophenolide and (+)-Triptolide have been achieved. Key reaction involves Palladium catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition of aryl boronic acid to 3-methyl cyclohexe-1-none to form quaternary carbon. Claisen rearrangement and subsequent aldol reaction furnished trans-decaline key intermediate, which assured a formal total synthesis of (-)-Triptophenolide and (+)-Triptolide. PMID:27095015

  5. Academic Achievement and Formal Thought in Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Stella Maris; de Anglat, Hilda Difabio

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Research on university-level academic performance has significantly linked failure and dropping out to formal reasoning deficiency. We have not found any papers on formal thought in Argentine university students, in spite of the obvious shortcomings observed in the classrooms. Thus, the main objective of this paper was exploring the…

  6. Blending Formal and Informal Learning Networks for Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerkawski, Betül C.

    2016-01-01

    With the emergence of social software and the advance of web-based technologies, online learning networks provide invaluable opportunities for learning, whether formal or informal. Unlike top-down, instructor-centered, and carefully planned formal learning settings, informal learning networks offer more bottom-up, student-centered participatory…

  7. 7 CFR 1726.201 - Formal competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., as described in 7 CFR 1726.201, were followed in awarding this contract.” The certification executed... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.201 Formal... formal competitive bidding: (a) Selection of qualified bidders. The borrower (acting through its...

  8. 7 CFR 1726.201 - Formal competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., as described in 7 CFR 1726.201, were followed in awarding this contract.” The certification executed... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.201 Formal... formal competitive bidding: (a) Selection of qualified bidders. The borrower (acting through its...

  9. 7 CFR 1726.201 - Formal competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., as described in 7 CFR 1726.201, were followed in awarding this contract.” The certification executed... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.201 Formal... formal competitive bidding: (a) Selection of qualified bidders. The borrower (acting through its...

  10. Enhancing Formal E-Learning with Edutainment on Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labus, A.; Despotovic-Zrakic, M.; Radenkovic, B.; Bogdanovic, Z.; Radenkovic, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of the possibilities of enhancing the formal e-learning process by harnessing the potential of informal game-based learning on social networks. The goal of the research is to improve the outcomes of the formal learning process through the design and implementation of an educational game on a social network…

  11. I, Pronoun: A Study of Formality in Online Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Alexander; Evans, Mary B.; McBride, Alicia A.; Queen, Matt; Spyridakis, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that investigated readers' perceptions of tone formality in online text passages. The study found that readers perceived text passages to be less formal when they contained personal pronouns, active voice verbs, informal punctuation, or verb contractions. The study reveals that professional…

  12. 49 CFR 1111.1 - Content of formal complaints; joinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Content of formal complaints; joinder. 1111.1 Section 1111.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE COMPLAINT AND INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES § 1111.1 Content of formal complaints; joinder....

  13. 7 CFR 3017.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 3017.835 Section... FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 3017.835 Are debarment proceedings formal? (a) Debarment proceedings are conducted in a fair...

  14. 29 CFR 1471.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 1471.835 Section 1471.835... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1471.835 Are debarment proceedings formal? (a) Debarment proceedings are conducted in a fair and informal manner. The debarring official may...

  15. 31 CFR 19.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 19.835 Section 19.835 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 19.835 Are debarment proceedings formal? (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 1404.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 1404.835 Section 1404.835 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.835 Are debarment proceedings formal? (a) Debarment proceedings are conducted...

  17. 2 CFR 180.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 180.835... REQUIREMENTS OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 180.835 Are debarment proceedings formal? (a) Debarment proceedings are conducted in a fair...

  18. 31 CFR 19.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 19.835 Section 19.835 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 19.835 Are debarment proceedings formal? (a)...

  19. 5 CFR 919.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 919.835... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 919.835 Are debarment proceedings formal? (a) Debarment proceedings are conducted in a fair and informal manner....

  20. 29 CFR 98.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Are debarment proceedings formal? 98.835 Section 98.835 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 98.835 Are debarment proceedings formal? (a) Debarment proceedings are conducted in a fair...

  1. 2 CFR 180.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 180.835... TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 180.835 Are debarment proceedings formal? (a) Debarment proceedings are conducted in a fair and informal manner....

  2. 2 CFR 180.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 180.835... AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 180.835 Are debarment proceedings formal? (a) Debarment proceedings are conducted in a fair and informal manner. The...

  3. 31 CFR 19.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 19.835 Section 19.835 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 19.835 Are debarment proceedings formal? (a)...

  4. 5 CFR 919.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 919.835... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 919.835 Are debarment proceedings formal? (a) Debarment proceedings are conducted in a fair and informal manner....

  5. Home Education Transitions with Formal Schooling: Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Glenda

    2007-01-01

    Home education is a well established phenomenon in Australia but little is known about the movement of students between home schooling and formal education and how students view and handle the transitions. A sociocultural theoretical framework has been used to explore student perceptions of their transition experiences between formal education and…

  6. How Online Journalists Learn within a Non-Formal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronstad, Morten; Eide, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of workplace learning, with a focus on the non-formal learning that takes place among online journalists. The focus of this article is journalists working in an online newspaper and their experiences with workplace and non-formal learning, centering on framework conditions…

  7. Formal or Nonformal Education? Entrepreneurial Women in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Claire C.

    1984-01-01

    Ghanian women have a long history as traders. In early 1978, 42 Central Accra schoolgirls and 42 girls engaged in selling were surveyed to determine the relationship of formal education to marketing skills. Formal education was not significantly helpful in promoting schoolgirls' trading knowledge nor in providing skills likely to land them jobs.…

  8. On the Equivalence of Formal Grammars and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Explores concepts of formal language and automata theory underlying computational linguistics. A computational formalism is described known as a "logic grammar," with which computational systems process linguistic data, with examples in declarative and procedural semantics and definite clause grammars. (13 references) (CB)

  9. Mixed symmetry tensors in the worldline formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradini, Olindo; Edwards, James P.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the first quantised approach to quantum field theory coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field. Representing the colour degrees of freedom with a single family of auxiliary variables the matter field transforms in a reducible representation of the gauge group which — by adding a suitable Chern-Simons term to the particle action — can be projected onto a chosen fully (anti-)symmetric representation. By considering F families of auxiliary variables, we describe how to extend the model to arbitrary tensor products of F reducible representations, which realises a U( F ) "flavour" symmetry on the world-line particle model. Gauging this symmetry allows the introduction of constraints on the Hilbert space of the colour fields which can be used to project onto an arbitrary irreducible representation, specified by a certain Young tableau. In particular the occupation numbers of the wavefunction — i.e. the lengths of the columns (rows) of the Young tableau — are fixed through the introduction of Chern-Simons terms. We verify this projection by calculating the number of colour degrees of freedom associated to the matter field. We suggest that, using the worldline approach to quantum field theory, this mechanism will allow the calculation of one-loop scattering amplitudes with the virtual particle in an arbitrary representation of the gauge group.

  10. New Technologies and Learning Environments: A Perspective from Formal and Non-Formal Education in Baja California, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Julieta Lopez; Reynaga, Francisco Javier Arriaga

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of two research works, the first approaches non-formal education and the second addresses formal education. In both studies in-depth interview techniques were used. There were some points of convergence between them on aspects such as the implementation of learning environments and the integration of ICT. The interview…

  11. 5 CFR 731.105 - Authority to take suitability actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authority to take suitability actions. 731.105 Section 731.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.105 Authority to take suitability actions....

  12. 5 CFR 731.105 - Authority to take suitability actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority to take suitability actions. 731.105 Section 731.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.105 Authority to take suitability actions. (a) Neither OPM nor an agency acting under...

  13. 5 CFR 731.105 - Authority to take suitability actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authority to take suitability actions. 731.105 Section 731.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.105 Authority to take suitability actions. (a) Neither OPM nor an agency acting under...

  14. 5 CFR 731.105 - Authority to take suitability actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to take suitability actions. 731.105 Section 731.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.105 Authority to take suitability actions....

  15. 10 CFR 963.15 - Postclosure suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.16 and 963.17 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... conducted under § 963.16 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable...

  16. 10 CFR 963.15 - Postclosure suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.16 and 963.17 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... conducted under § 963.16 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable...

  17. 10 CFR 963.12 - Preclosure suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.13 and 963.14 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... under § 963.13 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable radiation...

  18. 10 CFR 963.13 - Preclosure suitability evaluation method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preclosure suitability evaluation method. 963.13 Section 963.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site using the method described in paragraph (b) of this...

  19. 10 CFR 963.13 - Preclosure suitability evaluation method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preclosure suitability evaluation method. 963.13 Section 963.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site using the method described in paragraph (b) of this...

  20. 10 CFR 963.12 - Preclosure suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.13 and 963.14 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... under § 963.13 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable radiation...

  1. 10 CFR 963.15 - Postclosure suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.16 and 963.17 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... conducted under § 963.16 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable...

  2. 10 CFR 963.12 - Preclosure suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.13 and 963.14 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... under § 963.13 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable radiation...

  3. 10 CFR 963.13 - Preclosure suitability evaluation method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preclosure suitability evaluation method. 963.13 Section 963.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site using the method described in paragraph (b) of this...

  4. 10 CFR 963.13 - Preclosure suitability evaluation method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preclosure suitability evaluation method. 963.13 Section 963.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site using the method described in paragraph (b) of this...

  5. 10 CFR 963.15 - Postclosure suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.16 and 963.17 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... conducted under § 963.16 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable...

  6. 10 CFR 963.13 - Preclosure suitability evaluation method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preclosure suitability evaluation method. 963.13 Section 963.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site using the method described in paragraph (b) of this...

  7. 10 CFR 963.15 - Postclosure suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.16 and 963.17 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... conducted under § 963.16 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable...

  8. 10 CFR 963.12 - Preclosure suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.13 and 963.14 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... under § 963.13 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable radiation...

  9. 10 CFR 963.12 - Preclosure suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.13 and 963.14 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... under § 963.13 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable radiation...

  10. A review of research on formal reasoning and science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    A central purpose of education is to improve students' reasoning abilities. The present review examines research in developmental psychology and science education that has attempted to assess the validity of Piaget's theory of formal thought and its relation to educational practice. Should a central objective of schools be to help students become formal thinkers? To answer this question research has focused on the following subordinate questions: (1) What role does biological maturation play in the development of formal reasoning? (2) Are Piaget's formal tasks reliable and valid? (3) Does formal reasoning constitute a unified and general mode of intellectual functioning? (4) How does the presence or absence of formal reasoning affect school achievement? (5) Can formal reasoning be taught? (6) What is the structural or functional nature of advanced reasoning? The general conclusion drawn is that although Piaget's work and that which has sprung from it leaves a number of unresolved theoretical and methodological problems, it provides an important background from which to make substantial progress toward a most significant educational objective.All our dignity lies in thought. By thought we must elevate ourselves, not by space and time which we can not fill. Let us endeavor then to think well; therein lies the principle of morality. Blaise Pascal 1623-1662.

  11. Correlates of formal reasoning: Content and problem effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linn, Marcia C.; Pulos, Steven; Gans, Adrienne

    Piaget's structural theory of formal thought suggests that a general construct of formal reasoning exists. The content of the task and type of problem employed are often ignored in Piagetian based studies but are important for generalizing findings to other studies and to educational problems. The study reported here examines content and problem effects of formal thought in 13-year-old adolescents. Specifically, three controlling variables tasks with different content and two question type tests (analysis and controlling questions) were administered to 120 seventh graders. Ability measures and personality dimensions associated with formal reasoning in the literature are used to clarify what formal reasoning is and how content and problem type are involved in formal reasoning. Significant main effects were found for problem and content effects (p = 0.001), and a significant interaction was found between the two (p = 0.001). Across the three tasks general ability, field dependency, and locus of control were consistently and significantly related to the controlling questions. However, only measures of field dependency were related to the analysis questions. Combinations of ability and personality factors were found to be uniquely related to each task, within each question type. Results have implications for a theory of formal thought and the teaching of the controlling variables strategy.

  12. Proceedings of the Second NASA Formal Methods Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Second NASA Formal Methods Symposium sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and held in Washington D.C. April 13-15, 2010. Topics covered include: Decision Engines for Software Analysis using Satisfiability Modulo Theories Solvers; Verification and Validation of Flight-Critical Systems; Formal Methods at Intel -- An Overview; Automatic Review of Abstract State Machines by Meta Property Verification; Hardware-independent Proofs of Numerical Programs; Slice-based Formal Specification Measures -- Mapping Coupling and Cohesion Measures to Formal Z; How Formal Methods Impels Discovery: A Short History of an Air Traffic Management Project; A Machine-Checked Proof of A State-Space Construction Algorithm; Automated Assume-Guarantee Reasoning for Omega-Regular Systems and Specifications; Modeling Regular Replacement for String Constraint Solving; Using Integer Clocks to Verify the Timing-Sync Sensor Network Protocol; Can Regulatory Bodies Expect Efficient Help from Formal Methods?; Synthesis of Greedy Algorithms Using Dominance Relations; A New Method for Incremental Testing of Finite State Machines; Verification of Faulty Message Passing Systems with Continuous State Space in PVS; Phase Two Feasibility Study for Software Safety Requirements Analysis Using Model Checking; A Prototype Embedding of Bluespec System Verilog in the PVS Theorem Prover; SimCheck: An Expressive Type System for Simulink; Coverage Metrics for Requirements-Based Testing: Evaluation of Effectiveness; Software Model Checking of ARINC-653 Flight Code with MCP; Evaluation of a Guideline by Formal Modelling of Cruise Control System in Event-B; Formal Verification of Large Software Systems; Symbolic Computation of Strongly Connected Components Using Saturation; Towards the Formal Verification of a Distributed Real-Time Automotive System; Slicing AADL Specifications for Model Checking; Model Checking with Edge-valued Decision Diagrams

  13. Formal Specification of the OpenMP Memory Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

    2006-12-19

    OpenMP [2] is an important API for shared memory programming, combining shared memory's potential for performance with a simple programming interface. Unfortunately, OpenMP lacks a critical tool for demonstrating whether programs are correct: a formal memory model. Instead, the current official definition of the OpenMP memory model (the OpenMP 2.5 specification [2]) is in terms of informal prose. As a result, it is impossible to verify OpenMP applications formally since the prose does not provide a formal consistency model that precisely describes how reads and writes on different threads interact. We expand on our previous work that focused on the formal verification of OpenMP programs through a formal memory model [?]. As in that work, our formalization, which is derived from the existing prose model [2], provides a two-step process to verify whether an observed OpenMP execution is conformant. This paper extends the model to cover the entire specification. In addition to this formalization, our contributions include a discussion of ambiguities in the current prose-based memory model description. Although our formal model may not capture the current informal memory model perfectly, in part due to these ambiguities, our model reflects our understanding of the informal model's intent. We conclude with several examples that may indicate areas of the OpenMP memory model that need further refinement, however it is specified. Our goal is to motivate the OpenMP community to adopt those refinements eventually, ideally through a formal model, in later OpenMP specifications.

  14. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    In Mississippi, some questions need to be answered about bioenergy crops: how much suitable land is available? How much material can that land produce? Which production systems work best in which scenarios? What levels of inputs will be required for productivity and longterm sustainability? How will the crops reach the market? What kinds of infrastructure will be necessary to make that happen? This publication helps answer these questions: • Which areas in the state are best for bioenergy crop production? • How much could these areas produce sustainably? • How can bioenergy crops impact carbon sequestration and carbon credits? âÂÃÃÂ

  15. Multisymplectic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formalisms of Classical Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román-Roy, Narciso

    2009-11-01

    This review paper is devoted to presenting the standard multisymplectic formulation for describing geometrically classical field theories, both the regular and singular cases. First, the main features of the Lagrangian formalism are revisited and, second, the Hamiltonian formalism is constructed using Hamiltonian sections. In both cases, the variational principles leading to the Euler-Lagrange and the Hamilton-De Donder-Weyl equations, respectively, are stated, and these field equations are given in different but equivalent geometrical ways in each formalism. Finally, both are unified in a new formulation (which has been developed in the last years), following the original ideas of Rusk and Skinner for mechanical systems.

  16. A Formalization of HIPAA for a Medical Messaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Peifung E.; Mitchell, John C.; Sundaram, Sharada

    The complexity of regulations in healthcare, financial services, and other industries makes it difficult for enterprises to design and deploy effective compliance systems. We believe that in some applications, it may be practical to support compliance by using formalized portions of applicable laws to regulate business processes that use information systems. In order to explore this possibility, we use a stratified fragment of Prolog with limited use of negation to formalize a portion of the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). As part of our study, we also explore the deployment of our formalization in a prototype hospital Web portal messaging system.

  17. Land-use suitability analysis for urban development in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renzhi; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2014-12-01

    Land-use suitability analyses are of considerable use in the planning of mega-cities. An Urban Development Land-use Suitability Mapping (UDLSM) approach has been constructed, based on opportunity and constraint criteria. Two Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods, the Ideal Point Method (IPM) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA), were used to generate the opportunity map. The protection map was obtained by means of constraint criteria, utilizing the Boolean union operator. A suitability map was then generated by overlaying the opportunity and protection maps. By applying the UDLSM approach to Beijing, its urban development land-use suitability was mapped, and a sensitivity analysis undertaken to examine the robustness of the proposed approach. Indirect validation was achieved by mutual comparisons of suitability maps resulting from the two MCE methods, where the overall agreement of 91% and kappa coefficient of 0.78 indicated that both methods provide very similar spatial land-use suitability distributions. The suitability level decreases from central Beijing to its periphery, and the area classed as suitable amounts to 28% of the total area. Leading attributes of each opportunity factor for suitability were revealed, with 2256 km(2), i.e. 70%, of existing development land being overlaid by suitable areas in Beijing. Conflicting parcels of land were identified by overlaying the resultant map with two previous development blueprints for Beijing. The paper includes several recommendations aimed at improving the long-term urban development plans for Beijing. PMID:25036557

  18. A logarithmic correction in the entropy functional formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, Fayçal; Faizal, Mir

    2016-04-01

    The entropy functional formalism allows one to recover general relativity, modified gravity theories, as well as the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula. In most approaches to quantum gravity, the Bekenstein-Hawking’s entropy formula acquires a logarithmic correction term. As such terms occur almost universally in most approaches to quantum gravity, we analyze the effect of such terms on the entropy functional formalism. We demonstrate that the leading correction to the micro-canonical entropy in the entropy functional formalism can be used to recover modified theories of gravity already obtained with an uncorrected micro-canonical entropy. Furthermore, since the entropy functional formalism reproduces modified gravity, the rise of gravity-dependent logarithmic corrections turns out to be one way to impose constraints on these theories of modified gravity. The constraints found here for the simple case of an ℱ(R)-gravity are the same as those obtained in the literature from cosmological considerations.

  19. Formal Program Development in Library Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunsheye, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    The formal program developments and trends at the Ibadan University Library School with a postgraduate program, and the Ahmadu Bello School, with an undergraduate program, are reviewed in relation to society's information needs. (Author/MBR)

  20. A Formal Total Synthesis of (−)-Brevisamide

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amos B.; Kutsumura, Noriki; Potuzak, Justin

    2011-01-01

    A formal total synthesis of (−)-brevisamide has been achieved. The synthetic approach highlights a chemoselective asymmetric dihydroxylation and a one-pot Fraser-Reid epoxidation/PMB protection reaction sequence. PMID:21572531

  1. CSR-induced emittance growth in achromats: Linear formalism revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, M.

    2015-09-01

    We review the R-matrix formalism used to describe Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR)-induced projected emittance growth in electron beam transport lines and establish the connection with a description in terms of the dispersion-invariant function.

  2. On an order reduction theorem in the Lagrangian formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, D. R.

    1996-11-01

    We provide a new proof of a important theorem in the Lagrangian formalism about necessary and sufficient conditions for a second-order variational system of equations to follow from a first-order Lagrangian.

  3. Formal methods and digital systems validation for airborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1993-01-01

    This report has been prepared to supplement a forthcoming chapter on formal methods in the FAA Digital Systems Validation Handbook. Its purpose is as follows: to outline the technical basis for formal methods in computer science; to explain the use of formal methods in the specification and verification of software and hardware requirements, designs, and implementations; to identify the benefits, weaknesses, and difficulties in applying these methods to digital systems used on board aircraft; and to suggest factors for consideration when formal methods are offered in support of certification. These latter factors assume the context for software development and assurance described in RTCA document DO-178B, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification,' Dec. 1992.

  4. Experiences Using Lightweight Formal Methods for Requirements Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, Steve; Lutz, Robyn; Covington, Rick; Kelly, John; Ampo, Yoko; Hamilton, David

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes three case studies in the lightweight application of formal methods to requirements modeling for spacecraft fault protection systems. The case studies differ from previously reported applications of formal methods in that formal methods were applied very early in the requirements engineering process, to validate the evolving requirements. The results were fed back into the projects, to improve the informal specifications. For each case study, we describe what methods were applied, how they were applied, how much effort was involved, and what the findings were. In all three cases, formal methods enhanced the existing verification and validation processes, by testing key properties of the evolving requirements, and helping to identify weaknesses. We conclude that the benefits gained from early modeling of unstable requirements more than outweigh the effort needed to maintain multiple representations.

  5. Graduate nurse internship program: a formalized orientation program.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Tracy; Hall, Mellisa

    2014-01-01

    The graduate nurse internship program was developed on the basis of Watson's Human Caring Theory. In this article, the author discusses how an orientation program was formalized into an internship program and how the theory was applied. PMID:25036082

  6. Cultural diversity and differences in formal reasoning ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.; Bealer, Jonathan M.

    To test the hypothesis that cultural diversity contributes to the development of formal reasoning, samples of adolescents from three predominately white middle-class communities located in areas that varied in the extent to which they offered cultural diversity (i.e., rural, suburan homogeneous, suburban heterogeneous) were administered a test of formal reasoning and a test of analytical intelligence. Results showed significant differences in formal reasoning in favor of the suburban heterogeneous sample on complex reasoning items. The suburban groups showed equal performance (but superior to the rural Ss) on the test of analytical intelligence. On the less complex reasoning items and on one item embedded in a rural farming context, the rural Ss showed relatively better performance. Implications for using science instruction to promote formal reasoning are discussed.

  7. Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick

    2013-06-01

    This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not. PMID:23559513

  8. Using formal specification in the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) experiment. Formal design and verification technology for life critical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Doug; Jamsek, Damir

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this task was to investigate how formal methods could be incorporated into a software engineering process for flight-control systems under DO-178B and to demonstrate that process by developing a formal specification for NASA's Guidance and Controls Software (GCS) Experiment. GCS is software to control the descent of a spacecraft onto a planet's surface. The GCS example is simplified from a real example spacecraft, but exhibits the characteristics of realistic spacecraft control software. The formal specification is written in Larch.

  9. Skinner-Rusk unified formalism for higher-order systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2012-07-01

    The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of R. Skinner and R. Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, first-order and higher-order field theories, and higher-order autonomous systems. In this work we present a generalization of this formalism for higher-order non-autonomous mechanical systems.

  10. Formal analysis of device authentication applications in ubiquitous computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Dongwan; Claycomb, William R.

    2010-11-01

    Authentication between mobile devices in ad-hoc computing environments is a challenging problem. Without pre-shared knowledge, existing applications rely on additional communication methods, such as out-of-band or location-limited channels for device authentication. However, no formal analysis has been conducted to determine whether out-of-band channels are actually necessary. We answer this question through formal analysis, and use BAN logic to show that device authentication using a single channel is not possible.

  11. Formal functional test designs with a test representation language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the category-partition method to the test design phase of hardware, software, or system test development is discussed. The method provides a formal framework for reducing the total number of possible test cases to a minimum logical subset for effective testing. An automatic tool and a formal language were developed to implement the method and produce the specification of test cases.

  12. Proceedings of the First NASA Formal Methods Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen (Editor); Giannakopoulou, Dimitra (Editor); Pasareanu, Corina S. (Editor)

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Model Checking - My 27-Year Quest to Overcome the State Explosion Problem; Applying Formal Methods to NASA Projects: Transition from Research to Practice; TLA+: Whence, Wherefore, and Whither; Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation; Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design; Building a Formal Model of a Human-Interactive System: Insights into the Integration of Formal Methods and Human Factors Engineering; Model Checking for Autonomic Systems Specified with ASSL; A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process; Software Model Checking Without Source Code; Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries; A Comparative Study of Randomized Constraint Solvers for Random-Symbolic Testing; Component-Oriented Behavior Extraction for Autonomic System Design; Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3; A Module Language for Typing by Contracts; From Goal-Oriented Requirements to Event-B Specifications; Introduction of Virtualization Technology to Multi-Process Model Checking; Comparing Techniques for Certified Static Analysis; Towards a Framework for Generating Tests to Satisfy Complex Code Coverage in Java Pathfinder; jFuzz: A Concolic Whitebox Fuzzer for Java; Machine-Checkable Timed CSP; Stochastic Formal Correctness of Numerical Algorithms; Deductive Verification of Cryptographic Software; Coloured Petri Net Refinement Specification and Correctness Proof with Coq; Modeling Guidelines for Code Generation in the Railway Signaling Context; Tactical Synthesis Of Efficient Global Search Algorithms; Towards Co-Engineering Communicating Autonomous Cyber-Physical Systems; and Formal Methods for Automated Diagnosis of Autosub 6000.

  13. Weaving a Formal Methods Education with Problem-Based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Paul

    The idea of weaving formal methods through computing (or software engineering) degrees is not a new one. However, there has been little success in developing and implementing such a curriculum. Formal methods continue to be taught as stand-alone modules and students, in general, fail to see how fundamental these methods are to the engineering of software. A major problem is one of motivation — how can the students be expected to enthusiastically embrace a challenging subject when the learning benefits, beyond passing an exam and achieving curriculum credits, are not clear? Problem-based learning has gradually moved from being an innovative pedagogique technique, commonly used to better-motivate students, to being widely adopted in the teaching of many different disciplines, including computer science and software engineering. Our experience shows that a good problem can be re-used throughout a student's academic life. In fact, the best computing problems can be used with children (young and old), undergraduates and postgraduates. In this paper we present a process for weaving formal methods through a University curriculum that is founded on the application of problem-based learning and a library of good software engineering problems, where students learn about formal methods without sitting a traditional formal methods module. The process of constructing good problems and integrating them into the curriculum is shown to be analagous to the process of engineering software. This approach is not intended to replace more traditional formal methods modules: it will better prepare students for such specialised modules and ensure that all students have an understanding and appreciation for formal methods even if they do not go on to specialise in them.

  14. Barriers to formal emergency obstetric care services' utilization.

    PubMed

    Essendi, Hildah; Mills, Samuel; Fotso, Jean-Christophe

    2011-06-01

    Access to appropriate health care including skilled birth attendance at delivery and timely referrals to emergency obstetric care services can greatly reduce maternal deaths and disabilities, yet women in sub-Saharan Africa continue to face limited access to skilled delivery services. This study relies on qualitative data collected from residents of two slums in Nairobi, Kenya in 2006 to investigate views surrounding barriers to the uptake of formal obstetric services. Data indicate that slum dwellers prefer formal to informal obstetric services. However, their efforts to utilize formal emergency obstetric care services are constrained by various factors including ineffective health decision making at the family level, inadequate transport facilities to formal care facilities and insecurity at night, high cost of health services, and inhospitable formal service providers and poorly equipped health facilities in the slums. As a result, a majority of slum dwellers opt for delivery services offered by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) who lack essential skills and equipment, thereby increasing the risk of death and disability. Based on these findings, we maintain that urban poor women face barriers to access of formal obstetric services at family, community, and health facility levels, and efforts to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality among the urban poor must tackle the barriers, which operate at these different levels to hinder women's access to formal obstetric care services. We recommend continuous community education on symptoms of complications related to pregnancy and timely referral. A focus on training of health personnel on "public relations" could also restore confidence in the health-care system with this populace. Further, we recommend improving the health facilities in the slums, improving the services provided by TBAs through capacity building as well as involving TBAs in referral processes to make access to services timely. Measures can also be

  15. Purely non-local Hamiltonian formalism, Kohno connections and ∨-systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we extend purely non-local Hamiltonian formalism to a class of Riemannian F-manifolds, without assumptions on the semisimplicity of the product ○ or on the flatness of the connection ∇. In the flat case, we show that the recurrence relations for the principal hierarchy can be re-interpreted using a local and purely non-local Hamiltonian operators and in this case they split into two Lenard-Magri chains, one involving the even terms, the other involving the odd terms. Furthermore, we give an elementary proof that the Kohno property and the ∨-system condition are equivalent under suitable assumptions and we show how to associate a purely non-local Hamiltonian structure to any ∨-system, including degenerate ones.

  16. A Formal Algorithm for Verifying the Validity of Clustering Results Based on Model Checking

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shaobin; Cheng, Yuan; Lang, Dapeng; Chi, Ronghua; Liu, Guofeng

    2014-01-01

    The limitations in general methods to evaluate clustering will remain difficult to overcome if verifying the clustering validity continues to be based on clustering results and evaluation index values. This study focuses on a clustering process to analyze crisp clustering validity. First, we define the properties that must be satisfied by valid clustering processes and model clustering processes based on program graphs and transition systems. We then recast the analysis of clustering validity as the problem of verifying whether the model of clustering processes satisfies the specified properties with model checking. That is, we try to build a bridge between clustering and model checking. Experiments on several datasets indicate the effectiveness and suitability of our algorithms. Compared with traditional evaluation indices, our formal method can not only indicate whether the clustering results are valid but, in the case the results are invalid, can also detect the objects that have led to the invalidity. PMID:24608823

  17. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  19. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  1. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  3. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  4. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 203.5 - Suitable substitute decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suitable substitute decision. 203.5 Section 203.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS LOW-NOISE-EMISSION PRODUCTS § 203.5 Suitable substitute decision. (a) If the...

  11. 40 CFR 203.5 - Suitable substitute decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Suitable substitute decision. 203.5 Section 203.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS LOW-NOISE-EMISSION PRODUCTS § 203.5 Suitable substitute decision. (a) If the...

  12. 40 CFR 203.5 - Suitable substitute decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suitable substitute decision. 203.5 Section 203.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS LOW-NOISE-EMISSION PRODUCTS § 203.5 Suitable substitute decision. (a) If the...

  13. 40 CFR 203.5 - Suitable substitute decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suitable substitute decision. 203.5 Section 203.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS LOW-NOISE-EMISSION PRODUCTS § 203.5 Suitable substitute decision. (a) If the...

  14. 30 CFR 75.515 - Cable fittings; suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cable fittings; suitability. 75.515 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.515 Cable fittings; suitability. Cables shall enter metal frames of motors, splice boxes, and electric...

  15. 30 CFR 75.515 - Cable fittings; suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cable fittings; suitability. 75.515 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.515 Cable fittings; suitability. Cables shall enter metal frames of motors, splice boxes, and electric...

  16. 30 CFR 75.515 - Cable fittings; suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cable fittings; suitability. 75.515 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.515 Cable fittings; suitability. Cables shall enter metal frames of motors, splice boxes, and electric...

  17. 30 CFR 77.505 - Cable fittings; suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cable fittings; suitability. 77.505 Section 77... Electrical Equipment-General § 77.505 Cable fittings; suitability. Cables shall enter metal frames of motors... cables, pass through metal frames, the holes shall be substantially bushed with insulated bushings....

  18. 30 CFR 75.515 - Cable fittings; suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cable fittings; suitability. 75.515 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.515 Cable fittings; suitability. Cables shall enter metal frames of motors, splice boxes, and electric...

  19. 10 CFR 963.16 - Postclosure suitability evaluation method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... where there is a human intrusion as specified by 10 CFR 63.322. DOE will model the performance of the... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Postclosure suitability evaluation method. 963.16 Section... Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.16 Postclosure suitability evaluation method. (a) DOE will...

  20. 10 CFR 963.16 - Postclosure suitability evaluation method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... where there is a human intrusion as specified by 10 CFR 63.322. DOE will model the performance of the... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Postclosure suitability evaluation method. 963.16 Section... Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.16 Postclosure suitability evaluation method. (a) DOE will...

  1. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  2. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  3. 28 CFR 2.73 - Parole suitability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parole suitability criteria. 2.73 Section 2.73 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS District of Columbia Code: Prisoners and Parolees § 2.73 Parole suitability criteria. (a)...

  4. 10 CFR 26.419 - Suitability and fitness evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Suitability and fitness evaluations. 26.419 Section 26.419 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.419 Suitability and fitness evaluations. Licensees and other entities who implement FFD programs under...

  5. 10 CFR 26.419 - Suitability and fitness evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suitability and fitness evaluations. 26.419 Section 26.419 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.419 Suitability and fitness evaluations. Licensees and other entities who implement FFD programs under...

  6. 10 CFR 26.419 - Suitability and fitness evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Suitability and fitness evaluations. 26.419 Section 26.419 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.419 Suitability and fitness evaluations. Licensees and other entities who implement FFD programs under...

  7. 10 CFR 26.419 - Suitability and fitness evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suitability and fitness evaluations. 26.419 Section 26.419 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.419 Suitability and fitness evaluations. Licensees and other entities who implement FFD programs under...

  8. 10 CFR 26.419 - Suitability and fitness evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Suitability and fitness evaluations. 26.419 Section 26.419 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.419 Suitability and fitness evaluations. Licensees and other entities who implement FFD programs under...

  9. 46 CFR 90.10-38 - Specially suitable for vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... battery cables, must be in accordance with the applicable provisions of 49 CFR 176.905. ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specially suitable for vehicles. 90.10-38 Section 90.10... GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-38 Specially suitable for...

  10. 46 CFR 90.10-38 - Specially suitable for vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... battery cables, must be in accordance with the applicable provisions of 49 CFR 176.905. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specially suitable for vehicles. 90.10-38 Section 90.10... GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-38 Specially suitable for...

  11. Evaluation of Agricultural Land Suitability: Application of Fuzzy Indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The problem of evaluation of agricultural land suitability is considered as a fuzzy modeling task. The application of individual fuzzy indicators provides an opportunity for assessment of lsand suitability of lands as degree or grade of performance when the lands are used for agricultural purposes....

  12. 10 CFR 963.16 - Postclosure suitability evaluation method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... where there is a human intrusion as specified by 10 CFR 63.322. DOE will model the performance of the... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Postclosure suitability evaluation method. 963.16 Section... Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.16 Postclosure suitability evaluation method. (a) DOE will...

  13. Digital image watermarking: its formal model, fundamental properties and possible attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyeem, Hussain; Boles, Wageeh; Boyd, Colin

    2014-12-01

    While formal definitions and security proofs are well established in some fields like cryptography and steganography, they are not as evident in digital watermarking research. A systematic development of watermarking schemes is desirable, but at present, their development is usually informal, ad hoc, and omits the complete realization of application scenarios. This practice not only hinders the choice and use of a suitable scheme for a watermarking application, but also leads to debate about the state-of-the-art for different watermarking applications. With a view to the systematic development of watermarking schemes, we present a formal generic model for digital image watermarking. Considering possible inputs, outputs, and component functions, the initial construction of a basic watermarking model is developed further to incorporate the use of keys. On the basis of our proposed model, fundamental watermarking properties are defined and their importance exemplified for different image applications. We also define a set of possible attacks using our model showing different winning scenarios depending on the adversary capabilities. It is envisaged that with a proper consideration of watermarking properties and adversary actions in different image applications, use of the proposed model would allow a unified treatment of all practically meaningful variants of watermarking schemes.

  14. Hot-electron relaxation in metals within the Götze-Wölfle memory function formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Nabyendu; Singh, Navinder

    2016-04-01

    We consider nonequilibrium relaxation of electrons due to their coupling with phonons in a simple metal. In our model, electrons are living at a higher temperature than that of the phonon bath, mimicking a nonequilibrium steady-state situation. We study the relaxation of such hot electrons proposing a suitable generalization of the memory function formalism formulated by Götze and Wölfle (GW) [W. Götze and P. Wölfle, Phys. Rev. B 6, 1226 (1972)]. We derive analytical expressions for both the DC or zero frequency scattering rates and the optical scattering rates in various temperature and frequency regimes. Limiting cases are in accord with the previous studies. An interesting feature that the DC scattering rate at high temperatures and optical scattering rate at high frequencies are independent of the temperature difference between the electrons and the phonons is found in this study. The present formalism forms a basis which can also be extended to study hot-electron relaxation in variety of complex materials.

  15. Formal methods in the development of safety critical software systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.G.

    1991-11-15

    As the use of computers in critical control systems such as aircraft controls, medical instruments, defense systems, missile controls, and nuclear power plants has increased, concern for the safety of those systems has also grown. Much of this concern has focused on the software component of those computer-based systems. This is primarily due to historical experience with software systems that often exhibit larger numbers of errors than their hardware counterparts and the fact that the consequences of a software error may endanger human life, property, or the environment. A number of different techniques have been used to address the issue of software safety. Some are standard software engineering techniques aimed at reducing the number of faults in a software protect, such as reviews and walkthroughs. Others, including fault tree analysis, are based on identifying and reducing hazards. This report examines the role of one such technique, formal methods, in the development of software for safety critical systems. The use of formal methods to increase the safety of software systems is based on their role in reducing the possibility of software errors that could lead to hazards. The use of formal methods in the development of software systems is controversial. Proponents claim that the use of formal methods can eliminate errors from the software development process, and produce programs that are probably correct. Opponents claim that they are difficult to learn and that their use increases development costs unacceptably. This report discusses the potential of formal methods for reducing failures in safety critical software systems.

  16. Formalizing an electronic institution for the distribution of human tissues.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Salceda, J; Padget, J A; Cortés, U; López-Navidad, A; Caballero, F

    2003-03-01

    The use of multi-agent systems (MAS) in health-care domains is increasing. Such agent-mediated medical systems can manage complex tasks and have the potential to adapt gracefully to unexpected events. However, in these kinds of systems the issues of privacy, security and trust are particularly sensitive in relation to matters such as agents' access to patient records, what is acceptable behaviour for an agent in a particular role and the development of trust both between (heterogeneous) agents and between users and agents. To address these issues we propose a formal normative framework, deriving from and developing the notion of an electronic institution. Such institutions provide a framework to define and police norms that guide, control and regulate the behaviour of the heterogeneous agents that participate in the institution. These norms define the acceptable actions that each agent may perform depending on the role or roles it is playing, and clearly specifies the data it may access and/or modify in playing those roles. In this paper, we present the formalization of Carrel, a virtual organization for the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation purposes, as an electronic institution using the ISLANDER institution specification language as formalizing languages. We demonstrate aspects of the formalization of such an institution, example fragments in the language used for the textual specification, and how such formalization can be used as a blueprint in the implementation of the final agent architecture, through techniques such as skeleton generation. PMID:12667738

  17. Proceedings of the Sixth NASA Langley Formal Methods (LFM) Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozier, Kristin Yvonne (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    Today's verification techniques are hard-pressed to scale with the ever-increasing complexity of safety critical systems. Within the field of aeronautics alone, we find the need for verification of algorithms for separation assurance, air traffic control, auto-pilot, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), adaptive avionics, automated decision authority, and much more. Recent advances in formal methods have made verifying more of these problems realistic. Thus we need to continually re-assess what we can solve now and identify the next barriers to overcome. Only through an exchange of ideas between theoreticians and practitioners from academia to industry can we extend formal methods for the verification of ever more challenging problem domains. This volume contains the extended abstracts of the talks presented at LFM 2008: The Sixth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop held on April 30 - May 2, 2008 in Newport News, Virginia, USA. The topics of interest that were listed in the call for abstracts were: advances in formal verification techniques; formal models of distributed computing; planning and scheduling; automated air traffic management; fault tolerance; hybrid systems/hybrid automata; embedded systems; safety critical applications; safety cases; accident/safety analysis.

  18. Formal verification of digital circuits described in VHDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Ashraf Mohammed El-Farghly

    1992-01-01

    The formal verification of digital circuits described in VHSIC (very high speed integrated circuit) hardware description language (VHDL) is presented. VHDL is made processable by proof tools. A subset, called P-VHDL, dedicated to the description of combinatorial and synchronous sequential circuits is defined. The semantics of this subset is much simpler than the complete VHDL. The delta delay is replaced by a serialization function, and the time scale is chosen equal to the clock period. The use of the finite state machine as a formal model for the subset became possible. The finite state machine semantics is shown to represent the P-VHDL semantics. Based on this formal model, a proof oriented compiler for P-VHDL is written. A complete denotational semantic for P-VHDL is defined. Three different domains for the three values holders in the language are proposed: the variables, the signals, and the registers. Formal semantics for the VHDL timing constructs are given. The equivalence between these semantics and the VHDL informal operational semantics is proven. It is shown that semantics can form a basis for building a formal timing verifier.

  19. Experimental test of the Chao matrix formalism for spin dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, V. S.; Chao, A. W.; Krisch, A. D.; Leonova, M. A.; Raymond, R. S.; Sivers, D. W.; Wong, V. K.; Gebel, R.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Schnase, A.; Stockhorst, H.; Hinterberger, F.; Ulbrich, K.

    2007-04-01

    We recently started testing Chao's proposed new matrix formalism for describing the spin dynamics due to a single spin resonance in a stored polarized beam. This formalism seems to be the first generalization of the Froissart-Stora equation since it was published in 1960. It allows one to calculate analytically the polarization's behavior inside a resonance, which is not possible using the Froissart-Stora equation. We recently tested some Chao formalism predictions using a 1.85 GeV/c polarized deuteron beam stored in COSY. We swept an rf dipole's frequency through 200 Hz, at different sweep rates, while varying the distance from the sweep's end frequency to an rf-induced spin resonance's central frequency. We compared our experimental data with the predictions of the Chao formalism and the prediction of a phenomenological Froissart-Stora-based two-fluid model. The Froissart-Stora formula itself can make no prediction inside the resonance. The data seem to support the validity of the Chao formalism. (Supported by the German BMBF Science Ministry.)

  20. Formal Verification of the AAMP-FV Microcode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven P.; Greve, David A.; Wilding, Matthew M.; Srivas, Mandayam

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the experiences of Collins Avionics & Communications and SRI International in formally specifying and verifying the microcode in a Rockwell proprietary microprocessor, the AAMP-FV, using the PVS verification system. This project built extensively on earlier experiences using PVS to verify the microcode in the AAMP5, a complex, pipelined microprocessor designed for use in avionics displays and global positioning systems. While the AAMP5 experiment demonstrated the technical feasibility of formal verification of microcode, the steep learning curve encountered left unanswered the question of whether it could be performed at reasonable cost. The AAMP-FV project was conducted to determine whether the experience gained on the AAMP5 project could be used to make formal verification of microcode cost effective for safety-critical and high volume devices.