Science.gov

Sample records for atomistic stirling engine

  1. Simulational nanoengineering: Molecular dynamics implementation of an atomistic Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapaport, D. C.

    2009-04-01

    A nanoscale-sized Stirling engine with an atomistic working fluid has been modeled using molecular dynamics simulation. The design includes heat exchangers based on thermostats, pistons attached to a flywheel under load, and a regenerator. Key aspects of the behavior, including the time-dependent flows, are described. The model is shown to be capable of stable operation while producing net work at a moderate level of efficiency.

  2. Simulational nanoengineering: Molecular dynamics implementation of an atomistic Stirling engine.

    PubMed

    Rapaport, D C

    2009-04-01

    A nanoscale-sized Stirling engine with an atomistic working fluid has been modeled using molecular dynamics simulation. The design includes heat exchangers based on thermostats, pistons attached to a flywheel under load, and a regenerator. Key aspects of the behavior, including the time-dependent flows, are described. The model is shown to be capable of stable operation while producing net work at a moderate level of efficiency. PMID:19518394

  3. Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, G.T.; Hooper

    1983-01-01

    The Stirling engine was invented by a Scottish clergyman in 1816, but fell into disuse with the coming of the diesel engine. Advances in materials science and the energy crisis have made a hot air engine economically attractive. Explanations are full and understandable. Includes coverage of the underlying thermodynamics and an interesting historical section. Topics include: Introduction to Stirling engine technology, Theoretical concepts--practical realities, Analysis, simulation and design, Practical aspects, Some alternative energy sources, Present research and development, Stirling engine literature.

  4. Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.

    1980-01-01

    Stirling engines exist in a bewildering array of mechanical arrangements. This book attempts to describe and classify the systems in a rational way, to explain the intricacies of the cycle, and to present a large amount of detailed information related to Stirling engines such as design, heat exchangers, working fluids, operation and performance, control equipment, recently developed engines, and current and proposed uses. (LCL)

  5. Stirling engine application study

    SciTech Connect

    Teagan, W.P.; Cunningham, D.R.

    1983-03-01

    The potential for Stirling engine applications in the 0.5 to 5000 hp output range is assessed. The following are included: a market survey of potential engine applications, classification of applications, conventional engine markets and performance characteristics, status of Sterling engine systems, selection of application classes for Stirling engines, and the possible effects of technology, economic conditions, and regulatory changes. (MHR)

  6. Stirling Engine Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Recent advances in the feasibility studies related to the Stirling engines and Stirling engine heat pumps which have been considered attractive due to their promising role in helping to solve the global environmental and energy problems,are reviewed. This article begins to describe the brief history of the Stirling engines and theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling cycle in order to understand several advantages on the Stirling engine. Furthermore,they could throw light on our question why the dream engines had not been promoted to practical applications during two hundred years. The present review shows that the Stirling engines with several unique advantages including 30 to 40% thermal efficiency and preferable exhaust characteristics,had been designed and constructed by recent tackling for the development of the advanced automobile and other applications using them. Based on the current state of art,it is being provided to push the Stirling engines combined with heat pumps based on the reversed Rankine cycle to the market. At present,however, many problems, especially for the durability, cost, and delicate engine parts must be enforced to solve. In addition,there are some possibilities which can increase the attractiveness of the Stirling engines and heat pumps. The review closes with suggestions for further research.

  7. Free piston stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a basic introduction to free piston Stirling engine technology through a review of specialized background material. It also includes information based on actual construction and operation experience with these machines, as well as theoretical and analytical insights into free piston Stirling engine technology.

  8. Liquid piston Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a presentation on piston stirling engines. Topics covered include: liquid piston engines; basic design and power calculations; more advanced power calculations; design example; and past research work and some present research needs.

  9. Stirling engines for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The results of recent and ongoing automobile Stirling engine development efforts are reviewed and technology status and requirements are identified. Key technology needs include those for low cost, high temperature (1300 - 1500 F) metal alloys for heater heads, and reliable long-life, low-leakage shaft seals. Various fuel economy projections for Stirling powered automobiles are reviewed and assessed.

  10. Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bolger, S.R.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes an engine. It comprises at least two variable volume compartments joined by a porous medium regenerator; heat exchangers in heat exchange relationships with the variable volume compartments; a fixed quantity of gas in the compartments; a piston in each of the compartments; means to control the pistons to vary the volumes of the gas transferring between the compartments in the form of overlapping quadrilateral waveforms to compress the gas in both compartments through the same cycle pressure ratio during a cycle compression step, to shift the gas between compartments and to expand the gas in both compartments through the same cycle pressure ratio during a cycle expansion step.

  11. Stirling engine application study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.

    1983-01-01

    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  12. The Phillips Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    This book is about the Stirling engine and its development from the heavy cast-iron machine of the 19th century to that of today. It is a history of a research effort spanning nearly 50 years, together with an outline of principles, and some technical details and descriptions of the more important engines. Contents include: the hot-air engine; the 20th-century revival; the Stirling cycle; rhombic-drive engines; heating and cooling; pistons and seals; electric generators and heat pumps; exotic heat sources; the engine and the environment; swashplate engines; and the past and the future.

  13. The Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This video describes the Stirling engine, an external combustion engine which creates heat energy to power the motor, and can use many types of fuel. It can be used for both stationary and propulsion purposes and has advantages of better fuel economy and cleaner exhaust than internal combustion engines. The engine is shown being road tested at Langley Air Force Base.

  14. Stirling engine piston ring

    DOEpatents

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  15. Stirling Engine Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaze, Gina M.

    2004-01-01

    Stirling technology is being developed to replace RTG s (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators), more specifically a stirling convertor, which is a stirling engine coupled to a linear alternator. Over the past three decades, the stirling engine has been designed to perform different functions. Stirling convertors have been designed to decrease fuel consumption in automobiles. They have also been designed for terrestrial and space applications. Currently NASA Glenn is using the convertor for space based applications. A stiring converter is a better means of power for deep space mission and "dusty" mission, like the Mars Rovers, than solar panels because it is not affected by dust. Spirit and Opportunity, two Mars rovers currently navigating the planet, are losing their ability to generate electricity because dust is collecting on their solar panels. Opportunity is losing more energy because its robotic arm has a heater with a switch that can not be turned off. The heater is not needed at night, but yet still runs. This generates a greater loss of electricity and in turn diminishes the performance of the rover. The stirling cycle has the potential to provide very efficient conversion of heat energy to electric a1 energy, more so than RTG's. The stirling engine converts the thermal energy produced by the decaying radioisotope to mechanical energy; the linear alternator converts this into electricity. convertor. Since the early 1990's tests have been performed to maximize the efficiency of the stirling converter. Many months, even years, are dedicated to preparing and performing tests. Currently, two stirling convertors #'s 13 and 14, which were developed by Stirling Technology Company, are on an extended operation test. As of June 7th, the two convertors reached 7,500 hours each of operation. Before the convertors could run unattended, many safety precautions had to be examined. So, special instrumentation and circuits were developed to detect off nominal conditions

  16. Performance of Stirling Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Shoichi; Hirata, Koichi; Toda, Fujio

    We have developed five kinds of high- and low-temperature differential Stirling engines and their engine performance was investigated experimentally. In order to determine the parameters that affect engine performance, experimental results were discussed and compared with results calculated using analytical methods. We show an arranging method for the experimental results, and consider the performance of general Stirling engines. After using the arranging method with nondimensional numbers obtained by a dimensional analysis, a prediction method, which is used at the early design stage, is formulated. One of the nondimensional numbers in this prediction method is calculated based on engine specifications, including the properties of the working gas. The prediction method can predict engine speed, output power, the effect of working gas and operating conditions.

  17. Stirling cycle piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, G. R.

    1985-02-12

    This device is an improvement over the conventional type of Stirling cycle engine where the expander piston is connected to a crankshaft and the displacer piston is connected to the same or another crankshaft for operation. The improvement is based on both the expansion and displacer pistons being an integral unit having regenerating means which eliminate the mechanisms that synchronize the regeneration mode.

  18. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R.; Hindes, C.; Battista, R.; Connelly, M.; Cronin, M.; Howarth, R.; Donahue, A.; Slate, E.; Stotts, R.; Lacy, R.

    1988-01-01

    The study of high power kinematic Stirling engines for transportation use, testing of Mod I and Mod II Stirling engines, and component development activities are summarized. Mod II development testing was performed to complete the development of the basic engine and begin characterization of performance. Mod I engines were used for Mod II component development and to obtain independent party (U.S. Air Force) evaluation of Stirling engine vehicle performance.

  19. Stirling engine design manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve both as an introduction to Stirling engine analysis methods and as a key to the open literature on Stirling engines. Over 800 references are listed and these are cross referenced by date of publication, author and subject. Engine analysis is treated starting from elementary principles and working through cycles analysis. Analysis methodologies are classified as first, second or third order depending upon degree of complexity and probable application; first order for preliminary engine studies, second order for performance prediction and engine optimization, and third order for detailed hardware evaluation and engine research. A few comparisons between theory and experiment are made. A second order design procedure is documented step by step with calculation sheets and a worked out example to follow. Current high power engines are briefly described and a directory of companies and individuals who are active in Stirling engine development is included. Much remains to be done. Some of the more complicated and potentially very useful design procedures are now only referred to. Future support will enable a more thorough job of comparing all available design procedures against experimental data which should soon be available.

  20. Stirling engine power control

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, James P.

    1983-01-01

    A power control method and apparatus for a Stirling engine including a valved duct connected to the junction of the regenerator and the cooler and running to a bypass chamber connected between the heater and the cylinder. An oscillating zone of demarcation between the hot and cold portions of the working gas is established in the bypass chamber, and the engine pistons and cylinders can run cold.

  1. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W.; Piller, S.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results, progress in manufacturing, assembling and testing of a Mod I engine in the United States, P40 Stirling engine dynamometer and multifuels testing, analog/digital controls system testing, Stirling reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and computer code development are summarized.

  2. Stirling cycle engine

    DOEpatents

    Lundholm, Gunnar

    1983-01-01

    In a Stirling cycle engine having a plurality of working gas charges separated by pistons reciprocating in cylinders, the total gas content is minimized and the mean pressure equalization among the serial cylinders is improved by using two piston rings axially spaced at least as much as the piston stroke and by providing a duct in the cylinder wall opening in the space between the two piston rings and leading to a source of minimum or maximum working gas pressure.

  3. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following: the Stirling reference engine system design; components and subsystems; F-40 baseline Stirling engine installation and test; the first automotive engine to be built on the program; computer development activities; and technical assistance to the Government. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are given.

  4. Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  5. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  6. Understanding Stirling engines. Technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, W.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the basic Stirling engine, as well as some of the most promising modern varieties. The intent is to familiarize people in developing countries with the engine's operation and range of applications.

  7. The optimization of Stirling refrigerator and Stirling heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xin-Mei

    2007-03-01

    The optimization of an irreversible Stirling refrigerator or a Stirling heat engine is an important research subject for a long time. Taking into account of the influence of mixed thermal resistance and regeneration loss in the performance study, we have derived the optimal relation of both of them. For Stirling refrigerator, we have deduced the optimal relation between the thermal resistance coefficient and the efficiency. To the Stirling heat engine, we have deduced the optimal relation between the power output and the efficiency. The conclusions obtained mirror the observed performance of the Stirling refrigerator or the Stirling heat engine quite well. Thus, the results may provide a new theoretical guidance to the optimal design and the selection of optimal operating condition of the Stirling refrigerator or the Stirling heat engine.

  8. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results; the manufacture, assembly, and test of a Mod I engine in the United States; design initiation of the Mod I-A engine system; transient performance testing; Stirling reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies; components and subsystems; and the study and test of low cost alloys are summarized.

  9. Stirling Engine Gets Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Frank

    2010-01-01

    One of the basic truths regarding energy conversion is that no thermodynamic cycle can be devised that is more efficient than a Carnot cycle operating between the same temperature limits. The efficiency of the Stirling cycle (patented by Rev. Robert Stirling in 1816) can approach that of the Carnot cycle and yet has not had the commercial success…

  10. The stirling engine for vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, P.

    1978-01-01

    The performance data of experimental Stirling engines are considered along with questions of exhaust-gas composition, engine noise, engine volume and weight, engine control, and the engine-starting process. The Stirling engine can use practically any liquid or gaseous fuel for its operation. It is found that technically a use of the Stirling engine in motor vehicles is feasible. Economic questions related to an introduction of the Stirling engine are discussed along with possible new developments which could improve the economic situation in favor of a use of Stirling engine.

  11. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Mod I engine testing and test results, the test of a Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analysis, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, Mod I-A engine performance are discussed. Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low-cost casting alloys are also covered. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

  12. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Smith, G.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Meacher, J.

    1986-01-01

    This is the ninth Semiannual Technical Progress Report prepared under the Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program. It covers the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth quarters of activity after award of the contract. Quarterly Technical Progress Reports related program activities from the first through the thirteenth quarters; thereafter, reporting was changed to a Semiannual format. This report summarizes the study of higher-power kinematic Stirling engines for transportation use, development testing of Mod I Stirling engines, and component development activities. Component development testing included successful conical fuel nozzle testing and functional checkout of Mod II controls and auxiliaries on Mod I engine test beds. Overall program philosophy is outlined and data and test results are presented.

  13. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Rohdenburg, C.; Vatsky, A.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results, testing of the Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analyses, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, upgraded Mod I performance and testing, Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studied, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low cost casting alloys are summarized. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

  14. Free-Piston Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1989-01-01

    Engines promise cost-effective solar-power generation. Report describes two concepts for Stirling-engine systems for conversion of solar heat to electrical energy. Recognized most promising technologies for meeting U.S. Department of Energy goals for performance and cost for terrestrial electrical-energy sources.

  15. Stirling engine with pressurized crankcase

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, John A.

    1988-01-01

    A two piston Stirling engine wherein the pistons are coupled to a common crankshaft via bearing means, the pistons include pad means to minimize friction between the pistons and the cylinders during reciprocation of the pistons, means for pressurizing the engine crankcase, and means for cooling the crankshaft and the bearing means eliminating the need for oil in the crankcase.

  16. Stirling engines and irrigation pumping

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    A brief outline is given of the performance that might be achievable from various kinds of Stirling engine driven irrigation pumps. Some emphasis is placed on the very simple liquid piston engines, suitable for low technology manufacture, that have been the recent subject of research. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, Naotsugu; Watanabe, Hiroichi; Raggi, L.; Isshiki, Seita; Hirata, Koichi

    1996-12-31

    A few rotary displacer Stirling engines in which the displacer has one gas pocket space at one side and rotates in a main enclosed cylinder, which is heated from one side and cooled from opposite side without any regenerator, have been studied for some time by the authors. The authors tried to improve this engine by equipping it with a regenerator, because without a regenerator, pressure oscillation and efficiency are too small. Here, several types of regenerative rotary displacer piston Stirling engines are proposed. One is the contra-rotating tandem two disc type displacer engine using axial heat conduction through side walls or by heat pipes and another is a single disc type with circulating fluid regenerator or heat pipes. Stirling engines of this new rotary displacer type are thought to attain high speed. Here, experimental results of the original rotary displacer Stirling engine without a regenerator, and one contra-rotating tandem displacer engine with side wall regenerator by axial heat conduction are reported accompanied with a discussion of the results.

  18. Stirling engines and irrigation pumping

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1987-08-01

    This report was prepared in support of the Renewable Energy Applications and Training Project sponsored by the US Agency for International Development for which ORNL provides technical assistance. It briefly outlines the performance that might be achievable from various kinds of Stirling-engine-driven irrigation pumps. Some emphasis is placed on the very simple liquid-piston engines that have been the subject of research in recent years and are suitable for manufacture in less well-developed countries. In addition to the results quoted here (possible limits on M/sup 4/ and pumping head for different-size engines and various operating conditions), the method of calculation is described in sufficient detail for engineers to apply the techniques to other Stirling engine designs for comparison. The liquid-piston Fluidyne is a form of Stirling engine sharing many of the characteristics of conventional kinematic and free-piston Stirling machines. The use of liquid pistons, however, gives it some unique advantages as well as certain problems that are not encountered or are not important in engines with solid pistons. Because the output is naturally available in the form of an oscillating liquid flow or a fluctuating pressure, the Fluidyne is well suited to liquid pumping, but other applications have also been considered. 27 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Automotive Stirling engine systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program is to develop a Stirling engine for automotive use that provides a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy relative to a comparable internal-combustion engine while meeting emissions goals. This paper traces the engine systems' development efforts focusing on: (1) a summary of engine system performance for all Mod I engines; (2) the development, program conducted for the upgraded Mod I; and (3) vehicle systems work conducted to enhance vehicle fuel economy. Problems encountered during the upgraded Mod I test program are discussed. The importance of the EPA driving cycle cold-start penalty and the measures taken to minimize that penalty with the Mod II are also addressed.

  20. Mod II Stirling engine overviews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    The Mod II engine is a second-generation automotive Stirling engine (ASE) optimized for part-power operation. It has been designed specifically to meet the fuel economy and exhaust emissions objectives of the ASE development program. The design, test experience, performance, and comparison of data to analytical performance estimates of the Mod II engine to date are reviewed. Estimates of Mod II performance in its final configuration are also given.

  1. Stirling Engines and Irrigation Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    This report was prepared in support of the Renewable Energy Applications and Training Project that is sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development for which ORNL provides technical assistance. It briefly outlines the performance that might be achievable from various kinds of Stirling-engine-driven irrigation pumps. Some emphasis is placed on the very simple liquid-piston engines that have been the subject of research in recent years and are suitable for manufacture in less well-developed countries. In addition to the results quoted here (possible limits on M4 and pumping head for different-size engines and various operating conditions), the method of calculation is described in sufficient detail for engineers to apply the techniques to other Stirling engine designs for comparison.

  2. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Chiu, W.; Darooka, D.; Mullings, D. M.; Johnson, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual design study for a Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine (CASE) is performed. Year 1990 structural ceramic technology is assumed. Structural and performance analyses of the conceptual design are performed as well as a manufacturing and cost analysis. The general conclusions from this study are that such an engine would be 10-26% more efficient over its performance map than the current metal Automotive Stirling Reference Engine (ASRE). Cost of such a ceramic engine is likely to be somewhat higher than that of the ASRE but engine cost is very sensitive to the ultimate cost of the high purity, ceramic powder raw materials required to fabricate high performance parts. When the design study is projected to the year 2000 technology, substantinal net efficiency improvements, on the order of 25 to 46% over the ASRE, are computed.

  3. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Smith, G.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Meacher, J.

    1986-01-01

    The major accomplishments were the completion of the Basic Stirling Engine (BSE) and the Stirling Engine System (SES) designs on schedule, the approval and acceptance of those designs by NASA, and the initiation of manufacture of BSE components. The performance predictions indicate the Mod II engine design will meet or exceed the original program goals of 30% improvement in fuel economy over a conventional Internal Combustion (IC) powered vehicle, while providing acceptable emissions. This was accomplished while simultaneously reducing Mod II engine weight to a level comparable with IC engine power density, and packaging the Mod II in a 1985 Celebrity with no external sheet metal changes. The projected mileage of the Mod II Celebrity for the combined urban and highway CVS cycle is 40.9 mpg which is a 32% improvement over the IC Celebrity. If additional potential improvements are verified and incorporated in the Mod II, the mileage could increase to 42.7 mpg.

  4. Overview of a stirling engine test project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaby, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted on three Stirling engines ranging in size from 1.33 to 53 horsepower (1 to 40 kW). The tests were directed toward developing alternative, backup component concepts to improve engine efficiency and performance or to reduce costs. Some of the activities included investigating attractive concepts and materials for cooler-regenerator units, installing a jet impingement device on a Stirling engine to determine its potential for improved engine performance, and presenting performance maps for initial characterization of Stirling engines. The experiment results of the tests are presented along with predictions of results of future tests to be conducted on the Stirling engines.

  5. Bellcrank mechanisms for Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, J.R.; Senft, V.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a family of linkage drive systems for Stirling engines containing several new members. These mechanisms are adaptable to all three configurations of Stirling engine, impose minimal side loads on pistons and displacer rods, and include compact forms suitable for pressurized high performance engines. This group of drive systems is generated by a simple common scheme. Near sinusoidal motion is taken from a crankshaft carrying a single crankpin by two connecting rods each driving a bellcrank. The stationary pivots of the bellcranks are located so that their oscillatory motion has the phase angle separation required between the piston and displacer. The bellcranks are further configured to bring the third pin motion to a location suitable for coupling with the piston or displacer of the engine in a way which minimizes side loading. The paper presents a number of new linkage drives from the dual bellcrank family and indicates how they are embodied in beta and alpha type Stirling engines. The paper includes a design for a small multipurpose engine incorporating one of the subject mechanisms.

  6. Stirling engine design manual. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve as an introduction to Stirling cycle heat engines, as a key to the available literature on Stirling engines and to identify non-proprietary Stirling engine design methodologies. Two different fully described Stirling engines are discussed. Engine design methods are categorized as first-order, second-order, and third-order with increased order number indicating increased complexity. FORTRAN programs are listed for both an isothermal second-order design program and an adiabatic second-order design program. Third-order methods are explained and enumerated. In this second edition of the Stirling Engine Design Manual the references have been updated. A revised personal and corporate author index is given and an expanded directory lists over 80 individuals and companies active in Stirling engines.

  7. How Does Stirling Engine Work?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biwa, Tetsushi; Tashiro, Yusuke; Yazaki, Taichi

    In this paper the working mechanism of Stirling engine is studied from the standpoint of thermoacoustic framework. The work flux measurement is performed in a glass tube equipped with/without a regenerator-heat exchanger assembly. An atmospheric pressure air confined in the tube is periodically perturbed by two speakers at the same frequency (=48Hz) but out of phase. It is experimentally demonstrated that the phasing of two pistons in the Stirling engine (alpha arrangement type) plays the role in creating a steady work flux from the compression piston to the expansion piston, whereas a differentially heated regenerator in the engine operates as a power amplifier for the traveling wave propagating up the temperature gradient.

  8. Stirling engine with a liquid working substance

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.

    1989-06-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of a Stirling engine using a liquid (propylene) as its working substance is presented. This is the first experimental work on liquid Stirling engines (or Malone engines) since the 1920s. Liquid-Stirling technology appears advantageous to conventional freon-based Rankine-cycle technology in many applications. The theory developed here is simple, intuitive, and modular because of the nature of liquid working fluids and because the temperature spanned by liquid Stirling engines is not large. The experimental engine is extremely versatile, and can operate as either a heat pump or prime mover. Extensive measurements with it are in substantial agreement with the simple theory.

  9. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, William D.; Shaltens, Richard K.

    1997-01-01

    The development and verification of automotive Stirling engine (ASE) component and system technology is described as it evolved through two experimental engine designs: the Mod 1 and the Mod 2. Engine operation and performance and endurance test results for the Mod 1 are summarized. Mod 2 engine and component development progress is traced from the original design through hardware development, laboratory test, and vehicle installation. More than 21,000 hr of testing were accomplished, including 4800 hr with vehicles that were driven more dm 59,000 miles. Mod 2 engine dynamometer tests demonstrated that the engine system configuration had accomplished its performance goals for power (60 kW) and efficiency (38.5%) to within a few percent. Tests with the Mod 2 engine installed in a delivery van demonstrated combined metro-highway fuel economy improvements consistent with engine performance goals and the potential for low emission levels. A modified version of the Mod 2 has been identified as a manufacturable design for an ASE. As part of the ASE project, the Industry Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP), NASA Technology Utilization (TU) project, and the industry-funded Stirling Natural Gas Engine program were undertaken to transfer ASE technology to end users. The results of these technology transfer efforts are also summarized.

  10. Heat exchanger module for stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Darche, M. J. P.; Carlquist, S.

    1985-02-12

    The invention relates to Stirling engines and provides a modular assembly composed of a cylinder head, a heater, a regenerator, a cooler and a cold duct, and making it possible by mounting a plurality of identical modules on an engine assembly to construct a multi-cylinder double acting Stirling engine of the indirect heating type.

  11. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program Mod I Stirling engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simetkosky, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the Mod I 4-cylinder automotive Stirling engine is discussed and illustrated with drawings, block diagrams, photographs, and graphs and tables of preliminary test data. The engine and its drive, cold-engine, hot-engine, external-heat, air/fuel, power-control, electronic-control, and auxiliary systems are characterized. Performance results from a total of 1900 h of tests on 4 prototype engines include average maximum efficiency (at 2000 rpm) 34.5 percent and maximum output power 54.4 kW. The modifications introduced in an upgraded version of the Mod I are explained; this engine has maximum efficiency 40.4 percent and maximum power output 69.2 kW.

  12. A thermoacoustic Stirling heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, S.; Swift, G. W.

    1999-05-01

    Electrical and mechanical power, together with other forms of useful work, are generated worldwide at a rate of about 1012 watts, mostly using heat engines. The efficiency of such engines is limited by the laws of thermodynamics and by practical considerations such as the cost of building and operating them. Engines with high efficiency help to conserve fossil fuels and other natural resources, reducing global-warming emissions and pollutants. In practice, the highest efficiencies are obtained only in the most expensive, sophisticated engines, such as the turbines in central utility electrical plants. Here we demonstrate an inexpensive thermoacoustic engine that employs the inherently efficient Stirling cycle. The design is based on a simple acoustic apparatus with no moving parts. Our first small laboratory prototype, constructed using inexpensive hardware (steel pipes), achieves an efficiency of 0.30, which exceeds the values of 0.10-0.25 attained in other heat engines, with no moving parts. Moreover, the efficiency of our prototype is comparable to that of the common internal combustion engine (0.25-0.40) and piston-driven Stirling engines, (0.20-0.38).

  13. Downsizing assessment of automotive Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, R. H.; Tew, R. C., Jr.; Klann, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A 67 kW (90 hp) Stirling engine design, sized for use in a 1984 1440 kg (3170 lb) automobile was the focal point for developing automotive Stirling engine technology. Since recent trends are towards lighter vehicles, an assessment was made of the applicability of the Stirling technology being developed for smaller, lower power engines. Using both the Philips scaling laws and a Lewis Research Center (Lewis) Stirling engine performance code, dimensional and performance characteristics were determined for a 26 kW (35 hp) and a 37 kW (50 hp) engine for use in a nominal 907 kg (2000 lb) vehicle. Key engine elements were sized and stressed and mechanical layouts were made to ensure mechanical fit and integrity of the engines. Fuel economy estimates indicated that the Stirling engine would maintain a 30 to 45 percent fuel economy advantage comparable spark ignition and diesel powered vehicles in the 1984 period.

  14. Stirling Laboratory Research Engine: Preprototype configuration report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of a simple Stirling research engine that could be used by industrial, university, and government laboratories was studied. The conceptual and final designs, hardware fabrication and the experimental validation of a preprototype stirling laboratory research engine (SLRE) were completed. Also completed was a task to identify the potential markets for research engines of this type. An analytical effort was conducted to provide a stirling cycle computer model. The versatile engine is a horizontally opposed, two piston, single acting stirling engine with a split crankshaft drive mechanism; special instrumentation is installed at all component interfaces. Results of a thermodynamic energy balance for the system are reported. Also included are the engine performance results obtained over a range of speeds, working pressures, phase angles and gas temperatures. The potential for a stirling research engine to support the laboratory requirements of educators and researchers was demonstrated.

  15. Rebirth of the stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sternlicht, B.

    1983-01-01

    Revived interest in external combustion is attributed to such advantages as ability to use a variety of energy sources, high system efficiency and low pollution. A relatively high weight-power ratio, which is undesirable in propulsion applications, and manufacturing costs that have not yet been refined are the two remaining technological challenges. A diagram explaining the Stirling cycle is presened. It is revealed that the first-generation automotive engine (MOD I), which is now being tested, has efficiency in most of the operating ranges that exceeds the analytical predictions that were incorporated into the design. The engine's power density has been improved by 35%. MOD II, which is the second-generation engine and represents the conclusion of the program in 1985, is expected to have 50% fuel economy improvement. This is considerably greater than the 30% currently specified, and the engine weight is expected to be about 5 lb/hp, which is comparable to the weight of diesel engines. It is also expected to meet or surpass both the emission and noise standards. It is concluded that whether the automotive industry will choose the Stirling engine or the gas turbine as its prime mover will depend on a variety of factors, of which technology is only one.

  16. Stirling engine design manual, 2nd edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve as an introduction to Stirling cycle heat engines, as a key to the available literature on Stirling engines and to identify nonproprietary Stirling engine design methodologies. Two different fully described Stirling engines are discussed. Engine design methods are categorized as first order, second order, and third order with increased order number indicating increased complexity. FORTRAN programs are listed for both an isothermal second order design program and an adiabatic second order design program. Third order methods are explained and enumerated. In this second edition of the manual the references are updated. A revised personal and corporate author index is given and an expanded directory lists over 80 individuals and companies active in Stirling engines.

  17. Solar powered Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, R.J.

    1987-11-24

    In a solar dish module which comprises a dish which receives incident solar rays and reflects them to a focus at which is located the combination of a receiver and a heat engine organized and arranged so that the heat energy of the reflected solar rays collected at the receiver powers the engine, and wherein the receiver and heat engine are supported from the dish by a framework, the improvement is described which comprises journal means for journaling at least the engine on the framework to maintain certain predetermined spatial orientation for the engine in relation to the direction of gravity irrespective of spatial orientation of the dish.

  18. Recent Stirling engine loss-understanding results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, Roy C.; Thieme, Lanny G.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1990-01-01

    For several years, NASA and other U.S. government agencies have been funding experimental and analytical efforts to improve the understanding of Stirling thermodynamic losses. NASA's objective is to improve Stirling engine design capability to support the development of new engines for space power. An overview of these efforts was last given at the 1988 IECEC. Recent results of this research are reviewed.

  19. Demonstration Experiments with a Stirling Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Christopher G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes an investigation with the primary purpose of allowing students to generate and interpret a pressure/volume diagram of a Stirling engine. Explains how the Stirling engine can be used to demonstrate the principles of operation of a refrigerator and a heat pump. (DDR)

  20. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program: A success

    SciTech Connect

    Tabata, W.K.

    1987-01-01

    The original 5 y Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been stretched to a 10 y program due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

  1. Automotive Stirling engine development program - A success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, William K.

    1987-01-01

    The original 5-year Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

  2. Automotive Stirling engine development program: A success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, W. K.

    1987-01-01

    The original 5-yr Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

  3. Stirling Engine for Classroom Demonstration Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Andrew

    2005-04-01

    In the study of Thermodynamics, the Carnot cycle is representative of an ideal engine. Such an engine has the maximum efficiency possible for a given temperature difference. The Stirling Cycle engine closely resembles the Carnot cycle in terms of efficiency. In order to demonstrate the Stirling Cycle in a classroom setting, a Stirling engine was built. Robert Stirling first patented the Stirling engine in 1816. The Stirling engine runs on the temperature differential between hot and cold air. As the air is cycled through the engine, the expansion and contraction of the air drives the piston. The work on the piston is transferred into mechanical work via a walking beam. There are no exhaust values that vent gases, because the gases inside the engine never leave. The power for the Stirling engine does not come from explosions like a combustion engine. Rather, the engine is powered by an external heat source. These engines also have practical purposes. They are used in very specialized applications where quiet operation is important. Examples of such uses are in submarines and auxiliary power generators.

  4. Stirling engine heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, L.N.; Houtman, W.H.; Percival, W.H.

    1988-06-28

    A hot gas engine is described wherein a working gas flows back and forth in a closed path between a relatively cooler compression cylinder side of the engine and a relatively hotter expansion cylinder side of the engine and the path contains means including a heat source and a heat sink acting upon the gas in cooperation with the compression and expansion cylinders to cause the gas to execute a thermodynamic cycle wherein useful mechanical output power is developed by the engine, the improvement in the heat source which comprises a plurality of individual tubes each forming a portion of the closed path for the working gas.

  5. Mod I automotive Stirling engine mechanical development

    SciTech Connect

    Simetkosky, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Mod I Stirling engine was the first automotive Stirling engine designed specifically for automotive application. Testing of these engines has revealed several deficiencies in engine mechanical integrity which have been corrected by redesign or upgrade. The main deficiencies uncovered during the Mod I program lie in the combustion, auxiliary, main seal, and heater head areas. This paper will address each of the major area deficiencies in detail, and describe the corrective actions taken as they apply to the Mod I and the next Stirling-engine design, the Upgraded Mod I (a redesign to incorporate new materials for cost/weight reduction and improved performance).

  6. Heater head for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Darooka, D.K.

    1988-09-06

    A heater head is described for a compound Stirling engine modules, each including a displacer cylinder coaxially aligned with the displacer cylinder of the other of the engine modules, a displacer piston mounted for reciprocation in the displacer cylinder.

  7. Demonstration experiments with a Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deacon, Christopher G.; Goulding, Richard; Haridass, C.; de Young, Brad

    1994-05-01

    Heat engines are used in teaching thermodynamics as ideas to develop theory and real things to illustrate working thermodynamic principles. The Stirling engine combines both possibilities. We use it as a tool to illustrate some basic thermodynamic principles; to show the characteristics of a heat engine and interpret a pV diagram. We also show how the Stirling engine can be used to demonstrate the principles of operation of a refrigerator and heat pump.

  8. Materials technology assessment for stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.; Watson, G. K.; Johnston, J. R.; Croft, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    A materials technology assessment of high temperature components in the improved (metal) and advanced (ceramic) Stirling engines was undertaken to evaluate the current state-of-the-art of metals and ceramics, identify materials research and development required to support the development of automotive Stirling engines, and to recommend materials technology programs to assure material readiness concurrent with engine system development programs. The most critical component for each engine is identified and some of the material problem areas are discussed.

  9. Numerical analysis of Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Hiroshi

    1992-11-01

    A simulation model of the Stirling engine based on the third order method of analysis is presented. The fundamental equations are derived by applying conservation laws of physics to the machine model, the characteristic equations for heat transfer and gas flow are represented, and a numerical calculation technique using these equations is discussed. A numerical model of the system for balancing pressure in four cylinders is included in the simulation model. Calculations results from the model are compared with experimental results. A comparable study of engine performance using helium and hydrogen as working gas is conducted, clarifying the heat transfer and gas flow characteristics, and the effects of temperature conditions in the hot and cold engine sections on driving conditions. The design optimization of the heat exchanger is addressed.

  10. Self-pressurizing Stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-10-12

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  11. Automotive Stirling engine: Mod 2 design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, Noel P.

    1986-01-01

    The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod 2, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, demonstrating poor performance. Installed in a General Motors Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/l (41 mpg)- a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod 2 Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation.

  12. Stirling engine with pressurized crankcase

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.A.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a Stirling cycle engine comprising an engine housing which includes compression and expansion cylinders and a crankcase area; a compression piston and an expansion piston positioned in respective cylinders in the housing and coupled to a common crankshaft via bearing means. The crankshaft being positioned in the crankcase area which is defined by the pistons and the housing. The pistons includes pad means between the pistons and their respective cylinders to minimize the friction therebetween during reciprocal movement thereof; the crankcase being pressurized to inhibit the passing of working gas past the pistons; and means for cooling the crankshaft and the bearing means eliminating the need for oil in the crankcase.

  13. Stirling Engine Dynamic System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakis, Christopher G.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermo-Mechanical systems branch at the Glenn Research Center focuses a large amount time on Stirling engines. These engines will be used on missions where solar power is inefficient, especially in deep space. I work with Tim Regan and Ed Lewandowski who are currently developing and validating a mathematical model for the Stirling engines. This model incorporates all aspects of the system including, mechanical, electrical and thermodynamic components. Modeling is done through Simplorer, a program capable of running simulations of the model. Once created and then proven to be accurate, a model is used for developing new ideas for engine design. My largest specific project involves varying key parameters in the model and quantifying the results. This can all be done relatively trouble-free with the help of Simplorer. Once the model is complete, Simplorer will do all the necessary calculations. The more complicated part of this project is determining which parameters to vary. Finding key parameters depends on the potential for a value to be independently altered in the design. For example, a change in one dimension may lead to a proportional change to the rest of the model, and no real progress is made. Also, the ability for a changed value to have a substantial impact on the outputs of the system is important. Results will be condensed into graphs and tables with the purpose of better communication and understanding of the data. With the changing of these parameters, a more optimal design can be created without having to purchase or build any models. Also, hours and hours of results can be simulated in minutes. In the long run, using mathematical models can save time and money. Along with this project, I have many other smaller assignments throughout the summer. My main goal is to assist in the processes of model development, validation and testing.

  14. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Stirling Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Sanyo; Morita, Hiroyuki; Kurata, Osamu; Yamashita, Iwao

    The hydrogen combustion Stirling engine utilizes internal combustion of a stoichiometric H2 and O2 mixture injected into the working gas as thermal input, and the cyclic operation is completed with the removal of water from the engine after condensation at the cooler. In the prototype engine, a catalytic combustor is substituted for the conventional heater, and the H2-O2 mixture is injected at a constant flow rate from the boundary between the regenerator and the cooler. The engine internal heating characteristics were compared to those on external heating to clarify the internal heating effect on the engine performance. The internal heating performance showed almost the same characteristics as those of external heating, except for the increase of expansion work due to the direct thermal input. The increase of expansion work improved the engine performance, particularly in the region of high engine speed. Furthermore, it was found that the steady injection method was able to suppress the mixture strength to a relatively low level.

  15. Stirling engine research at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, R.E.; Daley, J.G.; Roach, P.D.

    1986-06-01

    Stirling engine research at Argonne National Laboratory has been focused at (1) development of mathematical models and analytical tools for predicting component and engine performance, and (2) experimental research into fundamental heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena occurring in Stirling cycle devices. A result of the analytical effort has been the formation of a computer library specifically for Stirling engine researchers and developers. The library contains properties of structural materials commonly used, thermophysical properties of several working fluids, correlations for heat transfer calculations and general specifications of mechanical arrangements (including various drive mechanisms) that can be utilized to model a particular engine. The library also contains alternative modules to perform analysis at different levels of sophistication, including design optimization. A reversing flow heat transfer facility is operating at Argonne to provide data at prototypic Stirling engine operating conditions under controlled laboratory conditions. This information is needed to validate analytical models.

  16. Practical bellows seals for Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.A.; Emigh, S.G.; Riggle, P.

    1987-01-01

    Rod seals, and to a lesser extent piston seals, are the primary impediments to long life and high reliability for kinematic Stirling engines. Hermetic metal bellows have been successfully demonstrated for 6.9 years and 4 x 10/sup 9/ cycles in a free-piston Stirling engine. A totally different radioisotope fueled free-piston Stirling engine with a flexing metal diaphragm was still operating at last report after more than 12 years and 3 x 10/sup 10/ cycles. A concept for implementing logn life bellows to function as rod seals and piston seals in kinematic Stirling engines has been developed and is presented for the first time in this paper.

  17. Rotary Stirling-Cycle Engine And Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed electric-power generator comprises three motor generators coordinated by microprocessor and driven by rotary Stirling-cycle heat engine. Combination offers thermodynamic efficiency of Stirling cycle, relatively low vibration, and automatic adjustment of operating parameters to suit changing load on generator. Rotary Stirling cycle engine converts heat to power via compression and expansion of working gas between three pairs of rotary pistons on three concentric shafts in phased motion. Three motor/generators each connected to one of concentric shafts, can alternately move and be moved by pistons. Microprocessor coordinates their operation, including switching between motor and generator modes at appropriate times during each cycle.

  18. Recent Stirling engine loss - understanding results

    SciTech Connect

    Tew, R.C.; Thieme, L.G.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    For several years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other US Government agencies have been funding experimental and analytical efforts to improve the understanding of Stirling thermodynamic losses. NASA`s objective is to improve Stirling engine design capability to support the development of new engines for space power. An overview of these efforts was last given at the 1988 IECEC. Recent results of this research are reviewed.

  19. Automotive Stirling Engine Mod I design review report. Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This volume, No. 3, of the Automotive Stirling Engine Mod 1 Design Review Report contains a preliminary parts list and detailed drawings of equipment for the basic Stirling engine and for the following systems: vehicular Stirling Engine System; external heat system; hot and cold engine systems; engine drive; controls and auxiliaries; and vehicle integration. (LCL)

  20. V160 Stirling engine program update

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, L.; Torstensson, B.; Williams, T. Y.; Houtman, W.H.; Monahan, R.

    1988-01-01

    Development efforts being made toward the preproduction stage of the V160 Stirling engine are examined. The history of continued reliability encompassing all engine models is reviewed, and efforts towards engine manufacturing and cost reduction are addressed. A preview is given of the initial product line based on the V160 engine and substantiated through testing of the offered configurations.

  1. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The third quarter (April-June, 1978) effort of the Ford/DOE Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program is reported, specifically Task 1 of that effort, which is Fuel Economy Assessment. At the end of this quarter the total fourth generation fuel economy projection was 26.12 MPG (gasoline) with a confidence level of 44%. This represents an improvement of 66.4% over the baseline M-H fuel economy of 15.7 MPG. The confidence level for the original 20.6 MPG goal has been increased from 53% to 57%. Engine 3X17 has accumulated a total of 213 hours of variable speed running. A summary of the individual sub-tasks of Task 1 are given. The sub-tasks are grouped into two categories: Category 1 consists of those sub-tasks which are directly related to fuel economy and Category 2 consists of those sub-tasks which are not directly related to fuel economy but are an integral part of the Task 1 effort.

  2. Anatomy of the Stirling engine cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Organ, A. J.

    Conditions are isolated for thermodynamic processes in two Stirling cycle machines to be identical. The conditions form the basis for the concept of 'functional similarity'. Using the similarity conditions the designer may scale the detailed gas circuit specification of a viable Stirling engine to a derivative design of different size, crankshaft speed, working fluid and pressure. The method complements, and provides an independent check of, the simulation approach to gas circuit design.

  3. Stirling laboratory research engine survey report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. W.; Hoehn, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    As one step in expanding the knowledge relative to and accelerating the development of Stirling engines, NASA, through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is sponsoring a program which will lead to a versatile Stirling Laboratory Research Engine (SLRE). An objective of this program is to lay the groundwork for a commercial version of this engine. It is important to consider, at an early stage in the engine's development, the needs of the potential users so that the SLRE can support the requirements of educators and researchers in academic, industrial, and government laboratories. For this reason, a survey was performed, the results of which are described.

  4. Advanced radioisotope heat source for Stirling Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobry, T. J.; Walberg, G.

    2001-02-01

    The heat exchanger on a Stirling Engine requires a thermal energy transfer from a heat source to the engine through a very limited area on the heater head circumference. Designing an effective means to assure maximum transfer efficiency is challenging. A single General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), which has been qualified for space operations, would satisfy thermal requirements for a single Stirling Engine that would produce 55 electrical watts. However, it is not efficient to transfer its thermal energy to the engine heat exchanger from its rectangular geometry. This paper describes a conceptual design of a heat source to improve energy transfer for Stirling Engines that may be deployed to power instrumentation on space missions. .

  5. Cost estimating Brayton and Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortgang, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    Brayton and Stirling engines were analyzed for cost and selling price for production quantities ranging from 1000 to 400,000 units per year. Parts and components were subjected to indepth scrutiny to determine optimum manufacturing processes coupled with make or buy decisions on materials and small parts. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for each detail and/or assembly. For low annual production volumes, the Brayton engine appears to have a lower cost and selling price than the Stirling Engine. As annual production quantities increase, the Stirling becomes a lower cost engine than the Brayton. Both engines could benefit cost wise if changes were made in materials, design and manufacturing process as annual production quantities increase.

  6. The Base Engine for Solar Stirling Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meijer, R. J.; Godett, T. M.

    1984-01-01

    A new concept in Stirling engine technology is embodied in the base engine now being developed at Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. This is a versatile energy conversion unit suitable for many different applications and heat sources. The base engine, rated 40 kW at 2800 RPM, is a four-cylinder, double-acting variable displacement Stirling engine with pressurized crankcase and rotating shaft seal. Remote-heating technology is incorporated with a stacked-heat-exchanger configuration and a liquid metal heat pipe connected to a distinctly separate combustor or other heat source. High efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions, long life, low manufacturing cost and low material cost are specifically emphasized. The base engine, its design philosophy and approach, its projected performance, and some of its more attractive applications are described.

  7. Base engine for solar Stirling power

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, R.J.; Godett, T.M.

    1984-03-01

    A new concept in Stirling engine technology is embodied in the base engine now being developed at Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. This is a versatile energy conversion unit suitable for many different applications and heat sources. The base engine, rated 40 kW at 2800 RPM, is a four-cylinder, double-acting variable displacement Stirling engine with pressurized crankcase and rotating shaft seal. Remote-heating technology is incorporated with a stacked-heat-exchanger configuration and a liquid metal heat pipe connected to a distinctly separate combustor or other heat source. High efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions, long life, low manufacturing cost and low material cost are specifically emphasized. The base engine, its design philosophy and approach, its projected performance, and some of its more attractive applications are described.

  8. Improving Free-Piston Stirling Engine Specific Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Maxwell Henry

    2014-01-01

    This work uses analytical methods to demonstrate the potential benefits of optimizing piston and/or displacer motion in a Stirling Engine. Isothermal analysis was used to show the potential benefits of ideal motion in ideal Stirling engines. Nodal analysis is used to show that ideal piston and displacer waveforms are not optimal in real Stirling engines. Constrained optimization was used to identify piston and displacer waveforms that increase Stirling engine specific power.

  9. Improving Free-Piston Stirling Engine Specific Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2015-01-01

    This work uses analytical methods to demonstrate the potential benefits of optimizing piston and/or displacer motion in a Stirling engine. Isothermal analysis was used to show the potential benefits of ideal motion in ideal Stirling engines. Nodal analysis is used to show that ideal piston and displacer waveforms are not optimal in real Stirling engines. Constrained optimization was used to identify piston and displacer waveforms that increase Stirling engine specific power.

  10. Fast Whole-Engine Stirling Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Tew, Roy C.; Demko, Rikako

    2007-01-01

    An experimentally validated approach is described for fast axisymmetric Stirling engine simulations. These simulations include the entire displacer interior and demonstrate it is possible to model a complete engine cycle in less than an hour. The focus of this effort was to demonstrate it is possible to produce useful Stirling engine performance results in a time-frame short enough to impact design decisions. The combination of utilizing the latest 64-bit Opteron computer processors, fiber-optical Myrinet communications, dynamic meshing, and across zone partitioning has enabled solution times at least 240 times faster than previous attempts at simulating the axisymmetric Stirling engine. A comparison of the multidimensional results, calibrated one-dimensional results, and known experimental results is shown. This preliminary comparison demonstrates that axisymmetric simulations can be very accurate, but more work remains to improve the simulations through such means as modifying the thermal equilibrium regenerator models, adding fluid-structure interactions, including radiation effects, and incorporating mechanodynamics.

  11. Hermetic metal seals for Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.A.; Emigh, S.G.; Gray, D.M.; Krogness, J.C.; Noble, J.E.; Olam, R.W.; Oster, J.F.; Riggle, P.

    1984-08-01

    Dynamic seals continue to be one of the major technical problems facing Stirling engine designers. Much effort has been expended to develop the quasi-hermetic rolling diaphragm or rollsock seal, but unpredictable lifetime has resulted in general disuse of this once promising seal. Most modern engines use some version of the Leningrader sliding seal for rod seals and a dry ring seal for piston and/or displacer seals. Reliable long-life seals remain an elusive goal. This paper documents the successful hardware implementation of metal bellows and diaphragm seals in two long-life Stirling engine applications with test data to >10/sup 10/ cycles and discusses bellows seal concepts which can provide reliable and efficient longlife seals for virtually any Stirling engine application.

  12. Fast Whole-Engine Stirling Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Tew, Roy C.; Demko, Rikako

    2005-01-01

    An experimentally validated approach is described for fast axisymmetric Stirling engine simulations. These simulations include the entire displacer interior and demonstrate it is possible to model a complete engine cycle in less than an hour. The focus of this effort was to demonstrate it is possible to produce useful Stirling engine performance results in a time-frame short enough to impact design decisions. The combination of utilizing the latest 64-bit Opteron computer processors, fiber-optical Myrinet communications, dynamic meshing, and across zone partitioning has enabled solution times at least 240 times faster than previous attempts at simulating the axisymmetric Stirling engine. A comparison of the multidimensional results, calibrated one-dimensional results, and known experimental results is shown. This preliminary comparison demonstrates that axisymmetric simulations can be very accurate, but more work remains to improve the simulations through such means as modifying the thermal equilibrium regenerator models, adding fluid-structure interactions, including radiation effects, and incorporating mechanodynamics.

  13. Phase-angle controller for Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Frosch, R.A.; McDougal, A.R.

    1980-12-23

    A first embodiment incorporating an actuator including a restraint link adapted to be connected with a pivotal carrier arm for a force transfer gear interposed between the crankshaft for an expander portion of a stirling engine and a crankshaft for the displacer portion of the engine is described. The restraint link is releasably supported against axial displacement by releasably trapped hydraulic fluid for selectively establishing a phase angle relationship between the crankshaft and a second embodiment incorporating a hydraulic coupler for use in varying the phase angle of gear-coupled crankshafts for a Stirling engine whereby phase angle changes are obtainable.

  14. Phase-angle controller for Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, A. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An actuator includes a restraint link adapted to be connected with a pivotal carrier arm for a force transfer gear interposed between the crankshaft for an expander portion of a Stirling engine and a crankshaft for the displacer portion of the engine. The restraint link is releasably trapped hydraulic fluid for selectively establishing a phase angle relationship between the crankshaft. A second embodiment incorporates a hydraulic coupler for use in varying the phase angle of gear-coupled crank fpr a Stirling engine whereby phase angle changes are obtainable.

  15. Identification of a Stirling engine's torque characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, G.T.; Hooper, C.; Taylor, D.R.

    1983-08-01

    The Stirling engine has many advantages claimed for it when compared to other reciprocating heat engines, one of these claimed advantages being the so-called 'smooth torque' characteristic. On further investigation of this virtue it was found that no definitive description of 'smooth torque' existed. With the expansion in recent years of the quantity of Stirling Engine test data it is apparent that some means of obtaining a numerical value for the smoothness of a torque is required. This paper defines a coefficient which enables the smoothness of a torque output to be measured in a definitive way so that comparisons can be made objectively.

  16. System safety in Stirling engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankaitis, H.

    1981-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Stirling Engine Project Office has required that contractors make safety considerations an integral part of all phases of the Stirling engine development program. As an integral part of each engine design subtask, analyses are evolved to determine possible modes of failure. The accepted system safety analysis techniques (Fault Tree, FMEA, Hazards Analysis, etc.) are applied in various degrees of extent at the system, subsystem and component levels. The primary objectives are to identify critical failure areas, to enable removal of susceptibility to such failures or their effects from the system and to minimize risk.

  17. Ceramic applications in the advanced Stirling automotive engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.; Cairelli, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The ideal cycle, its application to a practical machine, and the specific advantages of high efficiency, low emissions, multi-fuel capability, and low noise of the stirling engine are discussed. Certain portions of the Stirling engine must operate continuously at high temperature. Ceramics offer the potential of cost reduction and efficiency improvement for advanced engine applications. Potential applications for ceramics in Stirling engines, and some of the special problems pertinent to using ceramics in the Stirling engine are described. The research and technology program in ceramics which is planned to support the development of advanced Stirling engines is outlined.

  18. NASA Lewis Stirling engine computer code evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Stirling engine performance code was evaluated by comparing code predictions without engine-specific calibration factors to GPU-3, P-40, and RE-1000 Stirling engine test data. The error in predicting power output was /minus/11 percent for the P-40 and 12 percent for the RE-1000 at design conditions and 16 percent for the GPU-3 at near-design conditions (2000 rpm engine speed versus 3000 rpm at design). The efficiency and heat input predictions showed better agreement with engine test data than did the power predictions. Concerning all data points, the error in predicting the GPU-3 brake power was significantly larger than for the other engines and was mainly a result of inaccuracy in predicting the pressure phase angle. Analysis into this pressure phase angle prediction error suggested that improvement to the cylinder hysteresis loss model could have a significant effect on overall Stirling engine performance predictions. 13 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. NASA Lewis Stirling engine computer code evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Timothy J.

    1989-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Stirling engine performance code was evaluated by comparing code predictions without engine-specific calibration factors to GPU-3, P-40, and RE-1000 Stirling engine test data. The error in predicting power output was -11 percent for the P-40 and 12 percent for the Re-1000 at design conditions and 16 percent for the GPU-3 at near-design conditions (2000 rpm engine speed versus 3000 rpm at design). The efficiency and heat input predictions showed better agreement with engine test data than did the power predictions. Concerning all data points, the error in predicting the GPU-3 brake power was significantly larger than for the other engines and was mainly a result of inaccuracy in predicting the pressure phase angle. Analysis into this pressure phase angle prediction error suggested that improvements to the cylinder hysteresis loss model could have a significant effect on overall Stirling engine performance predictions.

  20. Experimental research on the Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishizaki, Y.; Tani, Y.; Haramura, N.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments on Stirling engines of the 50 KW class were conducted to clarify the characteristics of the engine and its problems. The problems involve durability of the high temperature heat exchanger which is exposed to high flame temperatures above 1600 C, thermal distortion and high temperature corrosion of the devices near combustion, and of the preheater.

  1. Computer program for Stirling engine performance calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, R. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The thermodynamic characteristics of the Stirling engine were analyzed and modeled on a computer to support its development as a possible alternative to the automobile spark ignition engine. The computer model is documented. The documentation includes a user's manual, symbols list, a test case, comparison of model predictions with test results, and a description of the analytical equations used in the model.

  2. Double acting stirling engine piston ring

    DOEpatents

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1986-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  3. Two piston V-type Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.A.

    1987-01-06

    This patent describes a Stirling cycle engine comprising: a compression piston reciprocal in a cold compression space and an expansion piston operated from a common crank shaft reciprocal in an expansion space out of phase with respect to each other. The pistons reciprocate along axes which are angularly disposed to one another, such that a V-configuration engine is formed. A regenerator means is positioned immediately adjacent a cooling means. The cooling means is axially aligned immediately adjacent the cold compression piston so as to minimize cold duct volume. A heating means is coupled with the regenerator and the expansion space completing the Stirling cycle.

  4. Heat exchanger for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, M.; Nomaguchi, T.; Kazumoto, Y.; Tsuchino, K.; Kawajiri, K.; Hisamori, Y.

    1987-05-05

    A heat exchanger is described for a Stirling engine comprising: a domed cylinder having a domed portion and a cylindrical portion. The domed cylinder serves as a high-temperature cylinder and a regenerator housing of the Stirling engine; a cylindrical inner liner which is coaxially disposed inside the domed cylinder and which divides the inside of the domed cylinder into an expansion space inside of the inner liner and a regenerator space between the outer surface of the inner liner and the inner surface of the cylindrical portion of the domed cylinder.

  5. Automotive Stirling Engine Mod 1 Design Review, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Risk assessment, safety analysis of the automotive stirling engine (ASE) mod I, design criteria and materials properties for the ASE mod I and reference engines, combustion are flower development, and the mod I engine starter motor are discussed. The stirling engine system, external heat system, hot engine system, cold engine system, and engine drive system are also discussed.

  6. Improved Stirling engine performance using jet impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. C.; Britt, E. J.; Thieme, L. G.

    1982-01-01

    Of the many factors influencing the performance of a Stirling engine, that of transferring the combustion gas heat into the working fluid is crucial. By utilizing the high heat transfer rates obtainable with a jet impingement heat transfer system, it is possible to reduce the flame temperature required for engine operation. Also, the required amount of heater tube surface area may be reduced, resulting in a decrease in the engine nonswept volume and a related increase in engine efficiency. A jet impingement heat transfer system was designed by Rasor Associates, Inc., and tested in the GPU-3 Stirling engine at the NASA Lewis Research Center. For a small penalty in pumping power (less than 0.5% of engine output) the jet impingement heat transfer system provided a higher combustion-gas-side heat transfer coefficient and a smoothing of heater temperature profiles resulting in lower combustion system temperatures and a 5 to 8% increase in engine power output and efficiency.

  7. Stirling engine supporting research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The supporting research and technology effort is intended to provide technical support to the current engine program and also to investigate advanced concepts for the next generation of Stirling engines. Technical areas represented are: seals, materials, engine experiments, combustion, system analysis, cseramics, and tribology. A collage of more recent work in each area is presented. Under seals, analysis and some experimental data on the effect of wear on rod seal performance is presented. The material work described concerns the effect of water content on hydrogen permeation. Results of experiments with the Philips' Advenco engine are presented. A comparison is made of two combustor nozzles, an air atomizing and an ultrasonic atomizing nozzle. A new venture in systems analysis to provide more rigorous Stirling engine simulation is discussed. The results of hydrogen corrosion tests on silicon carbide are presented. Friction and wear tests on candidate materials for engine hot ring tests are discussed.

  8. Sensitivity analysis of Stirling engine design parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Naso, V.; Dong, W.; Lucentini, M.; Capata, R.

    1998-07-01

    In the preliminary Stirling engine design process, the values of some design parameters (temperature ratio, swept volume ratio, phase angle and dead volume ratio) have to be assumed; as a matter of fact it can be difficult to determine the best values of these parameters for a particular engine design. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to analyze the sensitivity of engine's performance variations corresponding to variations of these parameters.

  9. Two piston V-type Stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A two piston Stirling engine which includes a heat exchanger arrangement placing the cooler and regenerator directly adjacent the compression space for minimal cold duct volume; a sealing arrangement which eliminates the need for piston seals, crossheads and piston rods; and a simplified power control system.

  10. Piston rod seal for a Stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal for a Stirling engine, a hydrostatic bearing and differential pressure regulating valve are utilized to provide for a low pressure differential across a rubbing seal between the hydrogen and oil so as to reduce wear on the seal.

  11. "Starfish" Heater Head For Stirling Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitale, N.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed "starfish" heater head for Stirling engine enables safe use of liquid sodium as heat-transfer fluid. Sodium makes direct contact with heater head but does not come in contact with any structural welds. Design concept minimizes number of, and simplifies nonstructural thermal welds and facilitates inspection of such welds.

  12. Piston rod seal for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, W.

    1984-01-31

    In a piston rod seal for a Stirling engine, a hydrostatic bearing and differential pressure regulating valve are utilized to provide for a low pressure differential across a rubbing seal between the hydrogen and oil so as to reduce wear on the seal. 3 figs.

  13. Stirling engine patents: international patent inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, B.K.

    1983-09-01

    One hundred seventy-five years (1817-1982) of research and development (R and D) in Stirling-cycle engines is represented in this international inventory of patent applications. The following lists are included: assignor, assignee, patent numbers, US patent classification, and international patent classification. (MHR)

  14. A stirling engine computer model for performance calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, R.; Jefferies, K.; Miao, D.

    1978-01-01

    To support the development of the Stirling engine as a possible alternative to the automobile spark-ignition engine, the thermodynamic characteristics of the Stirling engine were analyzed and modeled on a computer. The modeling techniques used are presented. The performance of an existing rhombic-drive Stirling engine was simulated by use of this computer program, and some typical results are presented. Engine tests are planned in order to evaluate this model.

  15. Automotive Stirling reference engine design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The reference Stirling engine system is described which provides the best possible fuel economy while meeting or exceeding all other program objectives. The system was designed to meet the requirements of a 1984 Pontiac Phoenix (X-body). This design utilizes all new technology that can reasonably be expected to be developed by 1984 and that is judged to provide significant improvement, relative to development risk and cost. Topics covered include: (1) external heat system; (2) hot engine system; (3) cold engine system; (4) engine drive system; (5) power control system and auxiliaries; (6) engine instalation; (7) optimization and vehicle simulation; (8) engine materials; and (9) production cost analysis.

  16. Stirling Engine With Radial Flow Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitale, N.; Yarr, George

    1993-01-01

    Conflict between thermodynamical and structural requirements resolved. In Stirling engine of new cylindrical configuration, regenerator and acceptor and rejector heat exchangers channel flow of working gas in radial direction. Isotherms in regenerator ideally concentric cylinders, and gradient of temperature across regenerator radial rather than axial. Acceptor and rejector heat exchangers located radially inward and outward of regenerator, respectively. Enables substantial increase in power of engine without corresponding increase in diameter of pressure vessel.

  17. High-Temperature Materials For Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1990-01-01

    Heat-resistant piston rings and linings increase engine efficiency. Report discusses research on materials for piston rings and cylinder coatings in automotive Stirling engines. Data from tests show cobalt-based alloy, Stellite 6B, good choice for piston rings and PS200, plasma-sprayed metal-bonded chromium carbide matrix with dispersed solid lubricants, functions well as cylinder coating. Materials make it possible to place piston rings at tops of pistons ("hot" piston rings) instead of at cooler bottoms.

  18. Stirling engine with air working fluid

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1985-01-01

    A Stirling engine capable of utilizing air as a working fluid which includes a compact heat exchange module which includes heating tube units, regenerator and cooler positioned about the combustion chamber. This arrangement has the purpose and effect of allowing the construction of an efficient, high-speed, high power-density engine without the use of difficult to seal light gases as working fluids.

  19. Structural design of Stirling engine with free pistons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusov, Jozef; Gavlas, Stanislav; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    Stirling engine is a device that converts thermal energy to mechanical work, which is mostly used to drive a generator of electricity. Advantage of Stirling engine is that it works with closed-cycle, where working medium is regularly cooled and heated, which acts on the working piston. This engine can be made in three modifications - alpha, beta, gamma. This paper discusses the design of the gamma Stirling engine with free pistons.

  20. A 1050 K Stirling space engine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penswick, L. Barry

    1988-01-01

    As part of the NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Program on Conversion Systems for Nuclear Applications, Sunpower, Inc. completed for NASA Lewis a reference design of a single-cylinder free-piston Stirling engine that is optimized for the lifetimes and temperatures appropriate for space applications. The NASA effort is part of the overall SP-100 program which is a combined DOD/DOE/NASA project to develop nuclear power for space. Stirling engines have been identified as a growth option for SP-100 offering increased power output and lower system mass and radiator area. Superalloy materials are used in the 1050 K hot end of the engine; the engine temperature ratio is 2.0. The engine design features simplified heat exchangers with heat input by sodium heat pipes, hydrodynamic gas bearings, a permanent magnet linear alternator, and a dynamic balance system. The design shows an efficiency (including the alternator) of 29 percent and a specific mass of 5.7 kg/kW. This design also represents a significant step toward the 1300 K refractory Stirling engine which is another growth option of SP-100.

  1. Design of applicative 100 W Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kagawa, Noboru; Hirata, Koichi; Takeuchi, Makoto

    1995-12-31

    A small 100 W displacer type Stirling engine is being developed under a project of a JSME committee, RC127. The project consists of sixteen Japanese academic researchers of universities and governmental laboratories and eleven enterprise members related to the Stirling field. The engine has very unique features. Its expansion cylinder is heated by combustion gas or solar energy directly, and a simple cooling system rejects heat from the working fluid. A regenerator is built in the displacer piston with heating and cooling tubes in which the working fluid flows from/to outer tubes. The outer tubes for heating were located at the top of the expansion cylinder and the tubes for cooling are in the middle of the cylinder. The target performance is a 100 W output with 20% thermal efficiency at the operating conditions of 923 K expansion space temperature, 343 K compression space temperature, and 1,000 rpm. The 100 W displacer engine was designed based on a design manual established by a related JSME committee, RC110. It contains several guides to design for cycle, heat exchanger system, and mechanism of most Stirling cycle machines. The engine was designed by using the fundamental method, the second and third-order analyses accomplished with the newly arranged knowledge about each component. This paper presents the engine specifications and the theoretical analysis results. The design method is also introduced briefly.

  2. A Stirling engine with a liquid working substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, G. W.

    1989-06-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of a Stirling engine using a liquid (propylene) as its working substance is presented. This is the first experimental work on liquid Stirling engines (or Malone engines) since the 1920s. Liquid-Stirling technology appears advantageous to conventional freon-based Rankine-cycle technology in many applications. The theory developed here is simple, intuitive, and modular because of the nature of liquid working fluids and because the temperature spanned by liquid Stirling engines is not large. The experimental engine is extremely versatile, and can operate as either a heat pump or prime mover. Extensive measurements with it are in substantial agreement with the simple theory.

  3. Stirling engines. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel consumption, engine design and testing, computerized simulation, and lubrication systems relative to the Stirling cycle engine. Solar energy conversion research, thermodynamic efficiency, economics, and utilization for power generation and automobile engines are included. Materials used in Stirling engines are briefly evaluated. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Resistance Heater Helps Stirling-Engine Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Stirling engine heater head consists of 18 double-turn coils of tubing, each of which is tightly wrapped with resistance-heating element, through which working gas flows. Coils form a toroid about periphery of heater-head body. With new resistance heater, total circuit resistance can be selected independently of tube geometry by changing size of wires and/or number of wire wraps around each tube.

  5. Automotive Stirling engine system component review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindes, Chip; Stotts, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The design and testing of the power and combustion control system for the basic Stirling engine, Mod II, are examined. The power control system is concerned with transparent operation, and the Mod II uses engine working gas pressure variation to control the power output of the engine. The main components of the power control system, the power control valve, the pump-down system, and the hydrogen stable system, are described. The combustion control system consists of a combustion air supply system and an air/fuel ratio control system, and the system is to maintain constant heater head temperature, and to maximize combustion efficiency and to minimize exhaust emissions.

  6. Overheat Prevention in Solar-Powered Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrigus, W. E.; Pons, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed controller for solar-powered Stirling engine prevents engine from burning up when energy added by Sun exceeds that withdrawn by load. Head-temperature controller used existing electrical control unit of Stirling engine to regulate power output in response to head temperature. Power out-put is varied so keeps head temperature fairly constant.

  7. An experimental study on a model Stirling engine car

    SciTech Connect

    Sohma, Yutaka; Wu, Chungming; Isshiki, Seita; Ushiyama, Izumi

    1999-07-01

    A Stirling engine is a mechanical device that operates on a closed regenerative thermodynamic cycle, with cyclic compression and expansion of the working fluid at different temperature levels. The flow is controlled by volume changes, and there exists a net conversion of the heat to work. Stirling engines are ideally suited to off-grid electric power generation because of their multi-fuel capability, potentially high efficiency and low noise. The first model Stirling Techno-rally was held in August 1997 for further promotion of the clean and quiet Stirling engine as one of the Centennial Anniversary events of JSME. In the race, more than one hundred cars competed for the time on a course of 13 meters length and 30 centimeters width. In Ashikaga Institute of Technology, a model Stirling engine car Ashikaga Gekkoh was made for this event. In this paper the authors report on this model car that won the championship of the Stirling Techno-rally.

  8. A thermoacoustic-Stirling hybrid heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, Scott

    2000-03-01

    By combining the thermodynamic reversibility of the Stirling cycle and the simplicity of thermoacoustic heat engines, a new type of engine/>hybrid heat engine has been developed. It has no moving parts and converts heat into acoustic work at 42% of the Carnot efficiency, a 50% increase over other no-moving-parts heat engines. By carefully shaping crucial components, boundary-layer processes and hydrodynamic end effects are used to suppress the acoustic streaming that would otherwise seriously degrade the engine performance. Streaming suppression is clearly demonstrated by measurements of temperature distributions and heat flows within the engine. Analysis of loss mechanisms suggest the path of future research on these engines.

  9. Composite Matrix Regenerator for Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Timothy R.

    1997-01-01

    This project concerns the design, fabrication and testing of carbon regenerators for use in Stirling power convertors. Radial fiber design with nonmetallic components offers a number of potential advantages over conventional steel regenerators: reduced conduction and pressure drop losses, and the capability for higher temperature, higher frequency operation. Diverse composite fabrication methods are explored and lessons learned are summarized. A pulsed single-blow test rig has been developed that has been used for generating thermal effectiveness data for different flow velocities. Carbon regenerators have been fabricated by carbon vapor infiltration of electroflocked preforms. Performance data in a small Stirling engine are obtained. Prototype regenerators designed for the BP-1000 power convertor were fabricated and delivered to NASA-Lewis.

  10. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Rohdenburg, C.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Program status and plans are discussed for component and technology development; reference engine system design, the upgraded Mod 1 engine; industry test and evaluation; and product assurance. Four current Mod 1 engines reached a total of 2523 operational hours, while two upgraded engines accumulated 166 hours.

  11. Externally heated valve engine -- An alternative to the Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kazimierski, Z.; Brzeski, L.

    1996-12-31

    A new concept of the Externally Heated Valve (EHV) engine is presented. The principle of the engine operation is described in the introduction to the paper. Heat delivered to the working medium (air) in the heater, or several heaters working commutatively, can come from a combustion chamber or other heat generator such as nuclear reactors or solar collectors. The engine construction is original entirely different from the well-known Stirling engine. New results of the EHV engine computer modeling are presented. This is connected with a new kind of the annular heater applied to the EHV engine. A whirl motion inside the heater is caused to ensure the proper condition of the heat exchanger during the whole engine cycle. Three heaters working commutatively have been considered in this model. Comparisons between the power and efficiency of the Stirling engine and EHV engine have been performed for the same engine capacity, rotational frequency, maximum and minimum temperatures of the working gas and for the same mean pressures of both the engine cycles. The power of the EHV engine is in this case over three times higher than the Stirling engine power, while the efficiency of both the engines is almost the same.

  12. Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

  13. Low temperature differential thermoacoustic Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biwa, Tetsushi; Hasegawa, Daichi; Yazaki, Taichi

    2010-07-01

    To what extent can we lower the critical temperature ratio (CTR) necessary to start a thermoacoustic engine? We present an experimental method for predicting the CTR before the temperature ratio arrives at it using quality factor measurements. Based on the experimental quality factors, we tried to decrease the CTR of a thermoacoustic Stirling engine consisting of a looped tube and a branch resonator. Installation of the multiple regenerators at suitable positions can markedly enhance acoustic power production while overcoming energy dissipation. Results show that the CTR is decreased from 1.76 to 1.19 using five differentially heated regenerators.

  14. Choosing An Alloy For Automotive Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Joseph R.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes study of chemical compositions and microstructures of alloys for automotive Stirling engines. Engines offer advantages of high efficiency, low pollution, low noise, and ability to use variety of fuels. Twenty alloys evaluated for resistance to corrosion permeation by hydrogen, and high temperature. Iron-based alloys considered primary candidates because of low cost. Nickel-based alloys second choice in case suitable iron-based alloy could not be found. Cobalt-based alloy included for comparison but not candidate, because it is expensive strategic material.

  15. Double acting stirling engine phase control

    DOEpatents

    Berchowitz, David M.

    1983-01-01

    A mechanical device for effecting a phase change between the expansion and compression volumes of a double-acting Stirling engine uses helical elements which produce opposite rotation of a pair of crankpins when a control rod is moved, so the phase between two pairs of pistons is changed by +.psi. and the phase between the other two pairs of pistons is changed by -.psi.. The phase can change beyond .psi.=90.degree. at which regenerative braking and then reversal of engine rotation occurs.

  16. Tests Of A Stirling-Engine Power Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dochat, George

    1995-01-01

    Report describes acceptance tests of power converter consisting of pair of opposed free-piston Stirling engines driving linear alternators. Stirling engines offer potential for extremely long life, high reliability, high efficiency at low hot-to-cold temperature ratios, and relatively low heater-head temperatures.

  17. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    DOEpatents

    Johansson, Lennart N.

    2004-06-29

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  18. Initial testing of a variable-stroke Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Thieme, L.G.

    1985-02-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems Program, NASA Lewis Research Center is evaluating variable-stroke control for Stirling engines. The engine being tested is the Advenco Stirling engine; this engine was manufactured by Philips Research Laboratories of the Netherlands and uses a variable-angle swash-plate drive to achieve variable stroke operation. This report describes the engine, presents initial steady-state test data taken at Lewis, and describes a major drive system failure and subsequent modifications. Computer simulation results are presented to show potential part-load efficiency gains with variable-stroke control.

  19. Initial testing of a variable-stroke Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, L. G.

    1985-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems Program, NASA Lewis Research Center is evaluating variable-stroke control for Stirling engines. The engine being tested is the Advenco Stirling engine; this engine was manufactured by Philips Research Laboratories of the Netherlands and uses a variable-angle swash-plate drive to achieve variable stroke operation. The engine is described, initial steady-state test data taken at Lewis are presented, a major drive system failure and subsequent modifications are described. Computer simulation results are presented to show potential part-load efficiency gains with variable-stroke control.

  20. Congeneration system with a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, R.J.; Meijer, E.J.; Godett, T.M.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a cogeneration system for producing process heat for useful purposes and electric energy. It comprises an electric generator; a Stirling cycle engine having an output shaft operatively coupled to the generator for driving the generator, the engine including at least one internal fuel combustor; means for circulating a cooling liquid about the generator and engine to extract heat therefrom; an exhaust system coupled with the engine for exhausting combustion gases from the engine, the exhaust system including a condensing heat exchanger for cooling the combustion gases below the condensing, temperature of the water vapor in the exhaust gases; means for directing the cooling liquid around the condensing heat exchanger to extract heat therefrom and heat the liquid; and means for directing the cooling liquid for useful purposes.

  1. Stirling engines for gas fired micro-cogen and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, N.W.; Beale, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design and performance of free-piston Stirling engine-alternators particularly suited for use as natural gas fired micro-cogen and cooling devices. Stirling based cogen systems offer significant potential advantages over internal combustion engines in efficiency, to maintain higher efficiencies at lower power levels than than combustion engines significantly expands the potential for micro-cogen. System cost reduction and electric prices higher than the U.S. national average will have a far greater effect on commercial success than any further increase in Stirling engine efficiency. There exist niche markets where Stirling engine efficiency. There exist niche markets where Stirling based cogen systems are competitive. Machines of this design are being considered for production in the near future as gas-fired units for combined heat and power in sufficiently large quantities to assure competitive prices for the final unit.

  2. Non-heat pipe receiver/p-40 Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The technology for a full-up hybrid dish-Stirling Solar Thermal Power system is discussed. Overall solar-to-electric efficiency for the dish-Stirling system demonstration is approximately 30%. Hybrid operation is provided by fossil fuel combustion augmentation, which enables the Stirling engine to operate continuously at constant speed and power, regardless of insolation level, thus providing the capability to operate on cloudy days and at night.

  3. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Ernst, W.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Meacher, J.

    1985-01-01

    Development test activities on Mod I engines directed toward evaluating technologies for potential inclusion in the Mod II engine are summarized. Activities covered include: test of a 12-tube combustion gas recirculation combustor; manufacture and flow-distribution test of a two-manifold annular heater head; piston rod/piston base joint; single-solid piston rings; and a digital air/fuel concept. Also summarized are results of a formal assessment of candidate technologies for the Mod II engine, and preliminary design work for the Mod II. The overall program philosophy weight is outlined, and data and test results are presented.

  4. Loss terms in free-piston Stirling engine models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Lloyd B.

    1992-01-01

    Various models for free piston Stirling engines are reviewed. Initial models were developed primarily for design purposes and to predict operating parameters, especially efficiency. More recently, however, such models have been used to predict engine stability. Free piston Stirling engines have no kinematic constraints and stability may not only be sensitive to the load, but also to various nonlinear loss and spring constraints. The present understanding is reviewed of various loss mechanisms for free piston Stirling engines and how they have been incorporated into engine models is discussed.

  5. Stability analysis of free piston Stirling engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégot, Sylvie; Layes, Guillaume; Lanzetta, François; Nika, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a stability analysis of a free piston Stirling engine. The model and the detailed calculation of pressures losses are exposed. Stability of the machine is studied by the observation of the eigenvalues of the model matrix. Model validation based on the comparison with NASA experimental results is described. The influence of operational and construction parameters on performance and stability issues is exposed. The results show that most parameters that are beneficial for machine power seem to induce irregular mechanical characteristics with load, suggesting that self-sustained oscillations could be difficult to maintain and control.

  6. High-Temperature Alloys for Automotive Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Titran, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Stirling engine is external-combustion engine that offers fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations. One of most critical areas in engine development concerns material selection for component parts. Alloys CG-27 and XF-818 identified capable of withstanding rigorous requirements of automotive Stirling engine. Alloys chosen for availability, performance, and manufacturability. Advanced iron-base alloys have potential for variety of applications, including stationary solar-power systems.

  7. Potential impacts of Brayton and Stirling cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heft, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two engine technologies (Brayton cycle and Stirling cycle) are examined for their potential economic impact and fuel utilization. An economic analysis of the expected response of buyers to the attributes of the alternative engines was performed. Hedonic coefficients for vehicle fuel efficiency, performance and size were estimated for domestic cars based upon historical data. The marketplace value of the fuel efficiency enhancement provided by Brayton or Stirling engines was estimated. Under the assumptions of 10 years for plant conversions and 1990 and 1995 as the introduction data for turbine and Stirling engines respectively, the comparative fuel savings and present value of the future savings in fuel costs were estimated.

  8. Potential impacts of Brayton and Stirling cycle engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heft, R. C.

    1980-11-01

    Two engine technologies (Brayton cycle and Stirling cycle) are examined for their potential economic impact and fuel utilization. An economic analysis of the expected response of buyers to the attributes of the alternative engines was performed. Hedonic coefficients for vehicle fuel efficiency, performance and size were estimated for domestic cars based upon historical data. The marketplace value of the fuel efficiency enhancement provided by Brayton or Stirling engines was estimated. Under the assumptions of 10 years for plant conversions and 1990 and 1995 as the introduction data for turbine and Stirling engines respectively, the comparative fuel savings and present value of the future savings in fuel costs were estimated.

  9. Stirling engine alternatives for the terrestrial solar application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, J.

    1985-01-01

    The first phase of the present study of Stirling engine alternatives for solar thermal-electric generation has been completed. Development risk levels are considered to be high for all engines evaluated. Free-piston type and Ringbom-type Stirling engine-alternators are not yet developed for the 25 to 50-kW electrical power range, although smaller machines have demonstrated the inherent robustness of the machines. Kinematic-type Stirling engines are presently achieving a 3500 hr lifetime or longer on critical components, and lifetime must still be further extended for the solar application. Operational and technical characteristics of all types of Stirling engines have been reviewed with engine developers. Technical work of merit in progress in each engine development organization should be recognized and supported in an appropriate manner.

  10. Stirling cycle engine and refrigeration systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higa, W. H. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A Stirling cycle heat engine is disclosed in which displacer motion is controlled as a function of the working fluid pressure P sub 1 and a substantially constant pressure P sub 0. The heat engine includes an auxiliary chamber at the constant pressure P sub 0. An end surface of a displacer piston is disposed in the auxiliary chamber. During the compression portion of the engine cycle when P sub 1 rises above P sub 0 the displacer forces the working fluid to pass from the cold chamber to the hot chamber of the engine. During the expansion portion of the engine cycle the heated working fluid in the hot chamber does work by pushing down on the engine's drive piston. As the working fluid pressure P sub 1 drops below P sub 0 the displacer forces most of the working fluid in the hot chamber to pass through the regenerator to the cold chamber. The engine is easily combinable with a refrigeration section to provide a refrigeration system in which the engine's single drive piston serves both the engine and the refrigeration section.

  11. Commissioning and Performance Analysis of WhisperGen Stirling Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradip, Prashant Kaliram

    Stirling engine based cogeneration systems have potential to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission, due to their high cogeneration efficiency and emission control due to steady external combustion. To date, most studies on this unit have focused on performance based on both experimentation and computer models, and lack experimental data for diversified operating ranges. This thesis starts with the commissioning of a WhisperGen Stirling engine with components and instrumentation to evaluate power and thermal performance of the system. Next, a parametric study on primary engine variables, including air, diesel, and coolant flowrate and temperature were carried out to further understand their effect on engine power and efficiency. Then, this trend was validated with the thermodynamic model developed for the energy analysis of a Stirling cycle. Finally, the energy balance of the Stirling engine was compared without and with heat recovery from the engine block and the combustion chamber exhaust.

  12. Creep rupture behavior of Stirling engine materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.; Scheuerman, C. M.; Stephens, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The automotive Stirling engine, being investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternate to the internal combustion engine, uses high-pressure hydrogen as the working fluid. The long-term effects of hydrogen on the high temperature strength properties of materials is relatively unknown. This is especially true for the newly developed low-cost iron base alloy NASAUT 4G-A1. This iron-base alloy when tested in air has creep-rupture strengths in the directionally solidified condition comparable to the cobalt base alloy HS-31. The equiaxed (investment cast) NASAUT 4G-A1 has superior creep-rupture to the equiaxed iron-base alloy XF-818 both in air and 15 MPa hydrogen.

  13. Linear hydraulic drive system for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.M.

    1984-02-21

    A hydraulic drive system operating from the periodic pressure wave produced by a Stirling engine along a first axis thereof and effecting transfer of power from the Stirling engine to a load apparatus therefor and wherein the movable, or working member of the load apparatus is reciprocatingly driven along an axis substantially at right angles to the first axis to achieve an arrangement of a Stirling engine and load apparatus assembly which is much shorter and the components of the load apparatus more readily accessible. 2 figs.

  14. Ceramic applications in the advanced Stirling automotive engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.; Cairelli, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements of the ideal Stirling cycle, as well as basic types of practical engines are described. Advantages, disadvantages, and problem areas of these Stirling engines are discussed. The potential for ceramic components is also considered. Currently ceramics are used in only two areas, the air preheater and insulating tiles between the burner and the heater head. For the advanced Stirling engine to achieve high efficiency and low cost, the principal components are expected to be made from ceramic materials, including the heater head, air preheater, regenerator, the burner and the power piston. Supporting research and technology programs for ceramic component development are briefly described.

  15. Linear hydraulic drive system for a Stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, Michael M.

    1984-02-21

    A hydraulic drive system operating from the periodic pressure wave produced by a Stirling engine along a first axis thereof and effecting transfer of power from the Stirling engine to a load apparatus therefor and wherein the movable, or working member of the load apparatus is reciprocatingly driven along an axis substantially at right angles to the first axis to achieve an arrangement of a Stirling engine and load apparatus assembly which is much shorter and the components of the load apparatus more readily accessible.

  16. Overview of DOE's large stationary Stirling engine development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uherka, K. L.; Holtz, R. E.; Bunker, W.

    This paper summarizes the results to date of a program, sponsored by DOE's Office of Fossil Energy, to develop large stationary Stirling engine power systems. Primary applications for such power plants include cogeneration and total energy systems, with a major advantage being their ability to employ solid coal and other non-scarce fuels in an environmentally acceptable manner. The major effort in the Stirling engine development program was an industry-based design competition, involving three independent contractual teams. Conceptual designs for state-of-the-art coal-fired Stirling engine systems were developed and all three design teams recommended development of 373 kW modules as base units, which can be coupled together to form individual Stirling engines up to 2238 kW in size. Heat transport system design concepts were also developed for integrating engine hot-end sections with coal combustors.

  17. Initial experiments with a laser driven Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Operation of a Beale free piston Stirling engine with a 40-W CO2 laser is described. Advantages of such a system include: closed-cycle operation, long life, inexpensive construction, and size scalability to 100 MW.

  18. Heat pipe gas combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrle, P.

    1990-12-01

    Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion (HPGC) system suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator, and a film-cooled gas combustor. The principal component is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. Given here are the test results of the endurance tests run on a Gas Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE).

  19. Stirling engine control mechanism and method

    DOEpatents

    Dineen, John J.

    1983-01-01

    A reciprocating-to-rotating motion conversion and power control device for a Stirling engine includes a hub mounted on an offset portion of the output shaft for rotation relative to the shaft and for sliding motion therealong which causes the hub to tilt relative to the axis of rotation of the shaft. This changes the angle of inclination of the hub relative to the shaft axis and changes the axial stroke of a set of arms connected to the hub and nutating therewith. A hydraulic actuating mechanism is connected to the hub for moving its axial position along the shaft. A balancing wheel is linked to the hub and changes its angle of inclination as the angle of inclination of the hub changes to maintain the mechanism in perfect balance throughout its range of motion.

  20. Progress toward the evolution of a Stirling Space Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    Following the successful testing of the 25 kWe Space Power Demonstrator (SPD) engine in 1985, a Stirling Space Engine (SSE) technology advancement program was initiated. The program's objective was to advance free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator technology sufficiently so that a Stirling engine system may become a viable candidate for space power applications. Evolution of the SSE technology is planned to occur at three different engine heater temperature levels: 650, 1050, and 1300 K. These temperatures define three phases of technology development with the first phase involving the 650 K SPD engine. Technology development of the 650 K engine and preliminary design of the 1050 K engine will be discussed.

  1. Progress toward the evolution of a Stirling space engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    Following the successful testing of the 25 kWe Space Power Demonstrator (SPD) engine in 1985, a Stirling Space Engine (SSE) technology advancement program was initiated. The program's objective was to advance free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator technolgy sufficiently so that a Stirling engine system may become a viable candidate for space power applications. Evolution of the SSE technology is planned to occur at three different engine heater temperature levels: 650, 1050, and 1300 K. These temperatures define three phases of technology development with the first phase involving the 650 K SPD engine. Technology development of the 650 K engine and preliminary design of the 1050 K engine will be discussed.

  2. Progress toward the evolution of a Stirling Space Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Alger, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Following the successful testing of the 25 kWe Space Power Demonstrator (SPD) engine in 1985, a Stirling Space Engine (SSE) technology advancement program was initiated. The program`s objective was to advance free-piston Stirling engine/alternator technology sufficiently so that a Stirling engine system may become a viable candidate for space power applications. Evolution of the SSE technology is planned to occur at three different engine heater temperature levels: 650, 1050, and 1300 K. These temperatures define three phases of technology development with the first phase involving the 650 K SPD engine. Technology development of the 650 K engine and preliminary design of the 1050 K engine will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Linear moving magnet motor/generator for Stirling engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtrikman, S.; Urieli, I.

    Free piston Stirling cycle machines have many inherent advantages, however suffer from the difficulties of extracting power output and controllability of the free displacer, which is usually driven by gas pressure forces. Modern rare earth samarium cobalt magnets allow the use of moving magnet linear electrical devices. This paper discusses the development and testing of moving magnet devices designed specifically for use with Stirling engines, both for generating electricity and for driving the displacer piston. The generator was used as an output stage of a free piston Stirling engine, and is capable of delivering a power of 500 watts at an estimated efficiency of about 90%. The motor was used to drive the displacer of the same Stirling engine. It was found to be completely controllable in amplitude, phase, and mean position. The relative merits of moving magnet linear motor/generators are discussed.

  4. The Stirling Engine: A Wave of the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This video describes the Stirling engine, an external combustion engine which creates heat energy to power the motor, and can use many types of fuel. It can be used for both stationary and propulsion purposes and has advantages of better fuel economy and cleaner exhaust than internal combustion engines. The engine is shown being road tested at Langley Air Force Base.

  5. A Stirling engine for use with lower quality fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Christopher J.

    There is increasing interest in using renewable fuels from biomass or alternative fuels such as municipal waste to reduce the need for fossil based fuels. Due to the lower heating values and higher levels of impurities, small scale electricity generation is more problematic. Currently, there are not many technologically mature options for small scale electricity generation using lower quality fuels. Even though there are few manufacturers of Stirling engines, the history of their development for two centuries offers significant guidance in developing a viable small scale generator set using lower quality fuels. The history, development, and modeling of Stirling engines were reviewed to identify possible model and engine configurations. A Stirling engine model based on the finite volume, ideal adiabatic model was developed. Flow dissipation losses are shown to need correcting as they increase significantly at low mean engine pressure and high engine speed. The complete engine including external components was developed. A simple yet effective method of evaluating the external heat transfer to the Stirling engine was created that can be used with any second order Stirling engine model. A derivative of the General Motors Ground Power Unit 3 was designed. By significantly increasing heater, cooler and regenerator size at the expense of increased dead volume, and adding a combustion gas recirculation, a generator set with good efficiency was designed.

  6. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-06

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  7. Design of a preprototype Stirling Laboratory Research Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.; Mcdougal, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given for the design and fabrication of a first generation, preprototype Stirling Laboratory Research Engine. The engine represents the first step in providing a research tool to be used to support the development of a broad range of analytical modeling and experimental efforts, and to evaluate new approaches to the design of components for Stirling engines. The test engine is a horizontally-opposed, two-piston, single-acting machine with a dual crankshaft drive mechanism. The preprototype engine is rated at 10 kW and was designed for maximum modularity. The long term objective of the project is to provide a proven design of a standardized test engine, which can be commercially produced, for national research on Stirling cycle machines.

  8. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  9. Materials for a Stirling engine heater head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, J. E.; Lehmann, G. A.; Emigh, S. G.

    1990-01-01

    Work done on the 25-kW advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) terrestrial solar program in establishing criteria and selecting materials for the engine heater head and heater tubes is described. Various mechanisms contributing to incompatibility between materials are identified and discussed. Large thermal gradients, coupled with requirements for long life (60,000 h at temperature) and a large number of heatup and cooldown cycles (20,000) drive the design from a structural standpoint. The pressurized cylinder is checked for creep rupture, localized yielding, reverse plasticity, creep and fatigue damage, and creep ratcheting, in addition to the basic requirements for bust and proof pressure. In general, creep rupture and creep and fatigue interaction are the dominant factors in the design. A wide range of materials for the heater head and tubes was evaluated. Factors involved in the assessment were strength and effect on engine efficiency, reliability, and cost. A preliminary selection of Inconel 713LC for the heater head is based on acceptable structural properties but driven mainly by low cost. The criteria for failure, the structural analysis, and the material characteristics with basis for selection are discussed.

  10. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program. RESD summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The design of reference Stirling engine system as well as the engine auxiliaries and controls is described. Manufacturing costs in production quantity are also presented. Engine system performance predictions are discussed and vehicle integration is developed, along with projected fuel economy levels.

  11. Baseline performance of the GPU 3 Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, L. G.; Tew, R. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A 10 horsepower single-cylinder rhombic-drive Stirling engine was converted to a research configuration to obtain data for validation of Stirling computer simulations. The engine was originally built by General Motors Research Laboratories for the U.S. Army in 1965 as part of a 3 kW engine-generator set, designated the GHU 3 (Ground Power Unit). This report presents test results for a range of heater gas temperatures, mean compression-space pressures, and engine speeds with both helium and hydrogen as the working fluids. Also shown are initial data comparisons with computer simulation predictions.

  12. Development free-piston Stirling test-bed engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dochat, G. R.; Vitale, N. G.; Moynihan, T. M.

    The free-piston Stirling Technology Demonstrator Engine (TDE) designed and instrumented to provide data to aid in understanding free-piston Stirling engine operation and performance, is described. It is noted that the system includes instrumentation to measure the internal thermodynamic operation and to permit calculation of system power flows. Near-term testing of the engine will assess three mechanisms for engine loss. It is pointed out that recent testing has demonstrated that the power and efficiency are strong functions of heater head temperature. A maximum power output of 1,800 watts and a thermodynamic efficiency of 30% have been demonstrated at 450 C and 40 bar.

  13. Evaluation of potential military applications of stirling engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelrich, Ivan C.; Riddell, Frederick R.

    1988-07-01

    This paper reports on the potential military applications of the Stirling engine. In the applications considered here, the major advantages cited for the Stirling engine are multifuel capability, efficiency, and low noise levels. These potential advantages are small compared to current diesels. Diesels are already able to burn broadcut fuels, have high efficiency, and can be adequately muffled. Their major disadvantages are size, weight, and cost. These disadvantages are only severe in vehicular and mobile power applications where the competition is open-cycle internal combustion engines (diesel, spark-ignition, or turbine). In underwater and space power applications where closed-cycle engines are a necessity, the use of Stirling engines shows more promise.

  14. Micro-cogeneration units based on Stirling engine for heating and their real operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čierny, Jaroslav; Patsch, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This article was deal with micro-cogeneration units based on Stirling engine. We watched problematic of real working Stirling engine. The article also contain hookup of unit constructed at University of Zilina.

  15. Stirling engine research at national and university laboratories in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Hutchinson, R.A.

    1987-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) reviewed research projects that are related to the development of Stirling engines and that are under way at Japanese national laboratories and universities. The research and development focused on component rather than on whole engine development. PNL obtained the information from a literature review and interviews conducted at the laboratories and universities. The universities have less equipment available and operate with smaller staffs for research than do the laboratories. In particular, the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory and the Aerospace Laboratory conduct high-quality component and fundamental work. Despite having less equipment, some of the researchers at the universities conduct high-quality fundamental research. As is typical in Japan, several of the university professors are very active in consulting and advisory capacities to companies engaged in Stirling engine development, and also with government and association advisory and technical committees. Contacts with these professors and selective examination of their research are good ways to keep abreast of Japanese Stirling developments.

  16. Preliminary test results with a Stirling Laboratory Research Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.; Nguyen, B. D.; Schmit, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed, assembled, and initiated testing of a Stirling Laboratory Research Engine (SLRE). This preprototype engine provides a research tool to support the development of a broad range of analytical modeling and experimental efforts. The SLRE is a horizontally opposed, two-piston, single-acting Stirling engine with a split crankshaft drive mechanism. The paper discusses the preliminary results obtained during engine motoring tests and compares these results with two different analytical prediction models. Comparisons are made between experiment, the classical Schmidt analysis, and the JPL Stirling Cycle Analysis Model (SCAM). SCAM is a computerized one-dimensional, cyclic, compressible flow model of the SLRE and consists of a compilation of individual component subroutines. The formulation and current state of development of the SCAM program is briefly described.

  17. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  18. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-09-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  19. Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dussinger, Peter M.; Lindemuth, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The principal objective of this Phase 2 SBIR program was to develop and demonstrate a practically insoluble coating for nickel-based superalloys for Stirling engine heat pipe applications. Specific technical objectives of the program were: (1) Determine the solubility corrosion rates for Nickel 200, Inconel 718, and Udimet 72OLI in a simulated Stirling engine heat pipe environment, (2) Develop coating processes and techniques for capillary groove and screen wick structures, (3) Evaluate the durability and solubility corrosion rates for capillary groove and screen wick structures coated with an insoluble coating in cylindrical heat pipes operating under Stirling engine conditions, and (4) Design and fabricate a coated full-scale, partial segment of the current Stirling engine heat pipe for the Stirling Space Power Convertor program. The work effort successfully demonstrated a two-step nickel aluminide coating process for groove wick structures and interior wall surfaces in contact with liquid metals; demonstrated a one-step nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures; and developed and demonstrated a two-step aluminum-to-nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures. In addition, the full-scale, partial segment was fabricated and the interior surfaces and wick structures were coated. The heat pipe was charged with sodium, processed, and scheduled to be life tested for up to ten years as a Phase 3 effort.

  20. Solar heat pipe testing of the Stirling thermal motors 4-120 Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, C.E.; Rawlinson, K.S.; Moss, T.A.; Adkins, D.R.; Moreno, J.B.; Gallup, D.R.; Cordeiro, P.G.; Johansson, S.

    1996-07-01

    Stirling-cycle engines have been identified as a promising technology for the conversion of concentrated solar energy into usable electrical power. A 25kW electric system takes advantage of existing Stirling-cycle engines and existing parabolic concentrator designs. In previous work, the concentrated sunlight impinged directly on the heater head tubes of the Stirling Thermal Motors (STM) 4-120 engine. A Sandia-designed felt-metal-wick heat pipe receiver was fitted to the STM 4-120 engine for on-sun testing on Sandia`s Test Bed Solar Concentrator. The heat pipe uses sodium metal as an intermediate two-phase heat transfer fluid. The receiver replaces the directly-illuminated heater head previously tested. The heat pipe receiver provides heat isothermally to the engine, and the heater head tube length is reduced, both resulting in improved engine performance. The receiver also has less thermal losses than the tube receiver. The heat pipe receiver design is based on Sandia`s second-generation felt-wick heat pipe receiver. This paper presents the interface design, and compares the heat pipe/engine test results to those of the directly-illuminated receiver/engine package.

  1. Stirling engines. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning Stirling engine technology. Design, development, performance testing, and applications are discussed, including power generation, cryogenic cooling, solar power applications, and ground and marine vehicles. The citations also examine engine component design and material testing results. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Finite-time thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, O.M.; Ladas, H.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a finite-time thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling engine cycle. A lumped-parameter thermodynamic model is used to describe the dynamic behavior of the Stirling engine. The mathematical formulation of this model is based on mass and energy balances with associated heat transfer rate equations. These governing equations are formulated into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically to obtain the dynamic behavior of the Stirling engine. Close inspection of the governing equations reveals that the time to complete on cycle, {tau} and the engine time constant, {tau}{sub c} always appear together in a dimensionless ratio. This ratio, {tau}/{tau}{sub c}, is defined here as the Finite-Time Parameter, FTP. The effects of FTP upon power output and efficiency, are studied. The results show that there exists an optimum power output for a given engine design, based on engine speed and heat-transfer contact time. The results also provide an engineering evaluation procedure to improve the efficiency and power output of Stirling engines.

  3. Study on heat transfer of heat exchangers in the Stirling engine - Performance of heat exchangers in the test Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzaka, Mitsuo; Iwabuchi, Makio

    1992-11-01

    The heat transfer performance of the actual heat exchangers obtained from the experimental results of the test Stirling engine is presented. The heater for the test engine has 120 heat transfer tubes that consist of a bare-tube part and a fin-tube part. These tubes are located around the combustion chamber and heated by the combustion gas. The cooler is the shell-and-tube-type heat exchanger and is chilled by water. It is shown that the experimental results of heat transfer performance of the heater and cooler of the test Stirling engine are in good agreement with the results calculated by the correlation proposed in our previous heat transfer study under the periodically reversing flow condition. Our correlation is thus confirmed to be applicable to the evaluation of the heat transfer coefficient and the thermal design of the heat exchangers in the Stirling engine.

  4. The method of characteristics applied to Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Since Finkelstein first proposed a method of solving the equations of continuity, momentum and energy in a rigorous fashion, most analysts have concentrated on the nodal method for simulating Stirling engines. Organ has proposed a set of isothermal equations which may be solved by the method of characteristics. A solution method, by Benson, of the full set of equations has been in use for several years for the analysis of diesel engines. This paper discusses the application of the method of characteristics to the simulation of Stirling cycle machines.

  5. Dynamic simulation of kinematic Stirling engines: Coupled and decoupled analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, K.; Lemrani, H.; Stouffs, P.

    1995-12-31

    A coupled analysis modelling method of Stirling engines is presented. The main feature of this modelling method is the use of a software package combining the capabilities of a pre-/post-processor with a differential algebraic equations solver. As a result, modelling is merely a matter of linking appropriate objects from a model library and the outcoming tool is very flexible and powerful. Some simulation results are presented and compared with those obtained from a decoupled analysis. It clearly appears that the main imperfection of the model does not come from the modelling process itself but from their incomplete knowledge of the physics behind the Stirling engine operation.

  6. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program. RESD Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    This is the final report compiling a summary of the information presented and discussed at the May 1983 Automotive Stirling Engine (AES) Reference Engine System Design (RESD) review held at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The design of the engine and its auxiliaries and controls is described. Manufacturing costs in production quantity are also presented. Engine system performance predictions are discussed and vehicle integration is developed, along with projected fuel economy levels.

  7. Selection of stirling engine parameter and modes of joint operation with the Topaz II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, E. Ya.; Ogloblin, B. G.; Shalaev, A. I.

    1996-03-01

    In addition to a high-temperature thermionic conversion cycle, application of a low-temperature machine cycle, such as the Stirling engine, is being considered. To select the optimum mode for joint operation of the Topaz II system and Stirling engine, output electric parameters are obtained as a function of thermal power released in the TFE fuel cores. The hydraulic diagram used for joint operation of the Topaz II and the Stirling engine is considered. Requirements to hydraulic characteristics of the Stirling engine heat exchanges are formulated. Scope of necessary modifications to mount the Stirling Engine on the Topaz II is estimated.

  8. Selection of stirling engine parameter and modes of joint operation with the Topaz II

    SciTech Connect

    Kirillov, E.Y.; Ogloblin, B.G.; Shalaev, A.I.

    1996-03-01

    In addition to a high-temperature thermionic conversion cycle, application of a low-temperature machine cycle, such as the Stirling engine, is being considered. To select the optimum mode for joint operation of the Topaz II system and Stirling engine, output electric parameters are obtained as a function of thermal power released in the TFE fuel cores. The hydraulic diagram used for joint operation of the Topaz II and the Stirling engine is considered. Requirements to hydraulic characteristics of the Stirling engine heat exchanges are formulated. Scope of necessary modifications to mount the Stirling Engine on the Topaz II is estimated. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Stirling engine developments for solar and other renewable energy resources in the 1980's

    SciTech Connect

    Percival, W.H.; Rosenquist, K.

    1982-06-01

    This paper presents Stirling engine developments over the past three years by United Stirling of Sweden, for applications to solar electric power and with other renewable energy resources, such as biomass fuel. The modern Stirling engine is described as well as the new 4 cylinder, double-acting designs from United Stirling. The Dish/Stirling electric power program at JPL/Edwards and Georgia Tech is discussed. Biomass combustion programs are reported, including in-house work and DOE activities. Wood fuel combustion problems are discussed. The potential for the 1980's of the Stirling in the mega-watt size is presented and applications of ceramic technology are explored.

  10. Automotive Stirling engine development program. [fuel economy assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitzner, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    The Ford/DOE automotive Stirling engine development program is directed towards establishing the technological and developmental base that would enable a decision on whether an engineering program should be directed at Stirling engine production. The fuel economy assessment aims to achieve, with a high degree of confidence, the ERDA proposal estimate of 20.6 MPG (gasoline) for a 4500 lb 1WC Stirling engine passenger car. The current M-H fuel economy projection for the 170 HP Stirling engine is 15.7 MPG. The confidence level for this projection is 32%. A confidence level of 29% is projected for a 22.1 MPG estimate. If all of the planned analyses and test work is accomplished at the end of the one year effort, and the projected improvements are substantiated, the confidence levels would rise to 59% for the 20.6 MPG projection and 54% for the 22.1 MPG projection. Progress achieved thus far during the fuel economy assessment is discussed.

  11. Linear harmonic analysis of free-piston Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Griffin, F.P.

    1986-06-01

    The equations that govern the behavior of free-piston Stirling engines are nonlinear differential equations. Traditional solution methods have been time-stepping integrations that can be plagued by numerical instabilities and can use large amounts of computer time. Closed-form analytical solutions are possible if the working gas behaves isothermally or if the nonlinear terms in the governing equations are replaced with accurate approximations. An almost closed-form solution method, called the linear harmonic analysis (LHA), has been developed for free-piston Stirling engine applications by representing all of the periodic variables with harmonic functions. The solution method accounts for the important thermodynamic losses that are coupled together in free-piston engines, yet it is efficient enough for optimization studies. The LHA method was compared with a standard numerical integration method to verify its mathematical accuracy. The LHA and numerical predictions for a sample free-piston Stirling engine configuration differed by <5% for all important parameters. Sensitivity studies using the LHA method have also shown that the thermodynamic loss assumptions used in an analysis can have a significant impact on the predicted dynamic behavior of a free-piston Stirling engine.

  12. Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in Stirling engine modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, Roy C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirling engine computer models with test data have demonstrated that engine thermodynamic losses need better characterization. Various Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and efforts that are underway to characterize these losses are discussed.

  13. Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in stirling engine modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tew, R.C. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirling engine computer models with test data have demonstrated that engine thermodynamic losses need better characterization. Various Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and efforts that are underway to characterize these losses are discussed.

  14. RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine update

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    A free-piston Stirling engine has been under test at the NASA Lewis Research Center test facilities. The tests performed over the past several years on the single cylinder engine were designed to investigate the dynamics of a free-piston Stirling engine. The data are intended to be used primarily for computer code validation. The tests designed to investigate the sensitivity of the engine performance to variations in working space pressure, heater and cooler temperatures, regenerator porosity, power piston mass and displacer dynamics have been completed at Lewis. In addition, some data were recorded with alternate working fluids. A novel resonant balance system for the engine was also tested. This report presents some preliminary test results of the tests performed at the NASA Lewis facility along with an outline of future tests to be run with the engine coupled to a hydraulic output unit. A description of the hydraulic output unit is given.

  15. RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, J. G.

    1985-05-01

    A free piston Stirling engine was tested. The tests performed over the past several years on the single cylinder engine were designed to investigate the dynamics of a free piston Stirling engine. The data are intended to be used primarily for computer code validation. The tests designed to investigate the sensitivity of the engine performance to variations in working space pressure, heater and cooler temperatures, regenerator porosity, power piston mass and displacer dynamics were completed. In addition, some data were recorded with alternate working fluids. A novel resonant balance system for the engine was also tested. Some preliminary test results of the tests performed are presented along with an outline of future tests to be run with the engine coupled to a hydraulic output unit. A description of the hydraulic output unit is given.

  16. RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    A free piston Stirling engine was tested. The tests performed over the past several years on the single cylinder engine were designed to investigate the dynamics of a free piston Stirling engine. The data are intended to be used primarily for computer code validation. The tests designed to investigate the sensitivity of the engine performance to variations in working space pressure, heater and cooler temperatures, regenerator porosity, power piston mass and displacer dynamics were completed. In addition, some data were recorded with alternate working fluids. A novel resonant balance system for the engine was also tested. Some preliminary test results of the tests performed are presented along with an outline of future tests to be run with the engine coupled to a hydraulic output unit. A description of the hydraulic output unit is given.

  17. Kinematic Stirling engine as an energy conversion subsystem for paraboloidal dish solar thermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, J.M.

    1984-04-15

    The potential of a suitably designed and economically manufactured Stirling engine as the energy conversion subsystem of a paraboloidal dish-Stirling solar thermal power module has been estimated. Results obtained by elementary cycle analyses have been shown to match quite well the performance characteristics of an advanced kinematic Stirling engine, the United Stirling P-40, as established by current prototypes of the engine and by a more sophisticated analytic model of its advanced derivative. In addition to performance, brief consideration has been given to other Stirling engine criteria such as durability, reliability, and serviceability. Production costs have not been considered here.

  18. The kinematic Stirling engine as an energy conversion subsystem for paraboloidal dish solar thermal plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of a suitably designed and economically manufactured Stirling engine as the energy conversion subsystem of a paraboloidal dish-Stirling solar thermal power module was estimated. Results obtained by elementary cycle analyses were shown to match quite well the performance characteristics of an advanced kinematic Stirling engine, the United Stirling P-40, as established by current prototypes of the engine and by a more sophisticated analytic model of its advanced derivative. In addition to performance, brief consideration was given to other Stirling engine criteria such as durability, reliability, and serviceability. Production costs were not considered here.

  19. An overview of the Stirling engine heat pump program

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The paper summarizes the recent developments in the Stirling engine-driven heat pump program activities sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) through Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This technology has displayed its ability to meet the thermal performance objectives. Enhance technology options guided by value engineering principles are being pursued toward the development of an economically viable household engine-driven heat pump. 12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Supporting research and technology for automotive Stirling engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The technology advancement topics described are a part of the supporting research and technology (SRT) program conducted to support the major Stirling engine development program. This support focuses on developing alternatives or backups to the engine development in critical areas. These areas are materials, seals control, combustors and system analysis. Specific objectives and planned milestone schedules for future activities as now envisioned are described. These planned SRT activities are related to the timeline of the engine development program that they must support.

  1. The FY1992 survey on commercialization of Stirling engine utilization equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    Problems on commercialization of Stirling engine heat pumps (SEHP) and the solution are studied. The Stirling engine is a small and fixed engine having a 30-40% thermal efficiency and a 1-100 kW output. It is a closed recipro type external combustion engine with non-condensable gas like helium as working fluid. Its theoretical efficiency agrees with that of the Carnot's cycle. This is because the Stirling engine is often called a dream engine. However, the Stirling engine is legally restricted from a viewpoint of ensuring safety because high pressure gas as working fluid is sealed into the Stirling engine. It is feared that this point will be a condition that restricts spread/promotion of the equipment which uses the engine. Therefore, by guidance of MITI and support of organizations/enterprises concerned, a committee was started in 1992FY and studied the safety of the Stirling engine and the related legal systems.

  2. Computer model of catalytic combustion/Stirling engine heater head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, E. K.; Chang, R. L.; Tong, H.

    1981-01-01

    The basic Acurex HET code was modified to analyze specific problems for Stirling engine heater head applications. Specifically, the code can model: an adiabatic catalytic monolith reactor, an externally cooled catalytic cylindrical reactor/flat plate reactor, a coannular tube radiatively cooled reactor, and a monolithic reactor radiating to upstream and downstream heat exchangers.

  3. IECEC '91; Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Boston, MA, Aug. 4-9, 1991. Vol. 5 - Renewable resource systems, Stirling engines and applications, systems and cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on energy conversion engineering are presented. The general topics considered are: developments in nuclear power, energy from waste and biomass, system performance and materials in photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, wind energy systems, Stirling cycle analysis, Stirling cycle power, Stirling component technology, Stirling cooler/heat pump developments, Stirling engine concepts, Stirling engine design and optimization, Stirling engine dynamics and response, Stirling engine solar terrestrial, advanced cogeneration, AMTC, fossil fuel systems and technologies, marine energy.

  4. Test results of applicative 100 W Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, Koichi; Kagawa, Noboru; Takeuchi, Makoto; Yamashita, Iwao; Isshiki, Naotsugu; Hamaguchi, Kazuhiro

    1996-12-31

    A small 100 W displacer-type Stirling engine, Ecoboy-SCM81, has been developed by a committee of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME). The engine contains unique features, including an expansion cylinder which is heated by either combustion gas or direct solar energy. Also, a simple cooling system rejects heat from the working fluid. A displacer piston has both heating and cooling inner tubes for the working fluid which flows to and from outer tubes. The outer tubes for heating were located at the top of the expansion cylinder and the outer tubes for cooling were located in the middle of the cylinder. A regenerator is located in the displacer piston. The components of the engine adopted some new technologies. For instance, a porous type matrix consisting of pressed zigzag stainless steel wires were adopted for the regenerator. The matrix is practical for Stirling engines because it can be made at low cost and the assembling process is simplified.

  5. Solar-powered Stirling engines - Energy converters on earth and in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinwaechter, H.; Kleinwaechter, J.

    The development of the crankshaft Stirling engine has resulted in a machine suitable for energy conversion on earth and in space, using solar energy. The principle of the Stirling engine is discussed, the realization of the engine in a variety of applications is shown. The advantages of the free-piston design of the Stirling engine are addressed, and the engine's use in a receiver antenna for direct reception from satellites is considered.

  6. 40 kW Stirling engine for solid fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsen, H.; Ammundsen, N.; Traerup, J.

    1996-12-31

    The external combustion in a Stirling engine makes it very attractive for utilization of solid fuels in decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Only few projects have concentrated on the development of Stirling engines specifically for biomass. In this project a Stirling engine has been designed primarily for utilization of wood chips. Maximum shaft power is 40 kW corresponding to an electric output of 36 kW. Biomass needs more space in the combustion chamber compared to gas and liquid fuels, and a large heat transfer area is necessary. The design of the new Stirling engine has been adapted to the special demands of combustion of wood chips, resulting in a large engine compared to engines for gas or liquid fuels. The engine has four-cylinders arranged in a square. The design is made as a hermetic unit, where the alternator is built into the pressurized crankcase so that dynamic seals are avoided. Grease lubricated bearings are used in a special designed crank mechanism, which eliminates guiding forces on the pistons Helium is used as working gas at 4 MPa mean pressure. The first test of the 40 kW engine with natural gas as fuel has been made in the laboratory, and the results are in agreement with predicted results from simulation programs. The wood chips combustion system has been tested for some time with very promising results. When the laboratory test of the engine is finished, the test of the complete system will be initiated. The paper describes the engine and results from the test program. Expectations to maintenance and operation problems are also discussed.

  7. A Self-Circulating Heat Exchanger for Use in Stirling and Thermoacoustic-Stirling Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, Scott; Reid, Robert S.

    2005-02-01

    A major technical hurdle to the implementation of large Stirling engines or thermoacoustic engines is the reliability, performance, and manufacturability of the hot heat exchanger that brings high-temperature heat into the engine. Unlike power conversion devices that utilize steady flow, the oscillatory nature of the flow in Stirling and thermoacoustic engines restricts the length of a traditional hot heat exchanger to a peak-to-peak gas displacement, which is usually around 0.2 meters or less. To overcome this restriction, a new hot heat exchanger has been devised that uses a fluid diode in a looped pipe, which is resonantly driven by the oscillating gas pressure in the engine itself, to circulate the engine's working fluid around the loop. Instead of thousands of short, intricately interwoven passages that must be individually sealed, this new design consists of a few pipes that are typically 10 meters long. This revolutionary approach eliminates thousands of hermetic joints, pumps the engine's working fluid to and from a remote heat source without using moving parts, and does so without compromising on heat transfer surface area. Test data on a prototype loop integrated with a 1-kW thermoacoustic engine will be presented.

  8. A self-circulating heat exchanger for use in stirling and thermoacoustic-stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Backhaus, S. N.; Reid, R. S.

    2004-01-01

    A major technical hurdle to the implementation of large Stirling engines or thermoacoustic engines is the reliability, performance, and manufacturability of the hot heat exchanger that brings high-temperature heat into the engine. Unlike power conversion devices that utilize steady flow, the oscillatory nature of the flow in Stirling and thermoacoustic engines restricts the length of a traditional hot heat exchanger to a peak-to-peak gas displacement, which is usually around 0.2 meters or less. To overcome this restriction, a new hot heat exchanger has been devised that uses a fluid diode in a looped pipe, which is resonantly driven by the oscillating gas pressure in the engine itself, to circulate the engine's working fluid around the loop. Instead of thousands of short, intricately interwoven passages that must be individually sealed, this new design consists of a few pipes that are typically 10 meters long. This revolutionary approach eliminates thousands of hermetic joints, pumps the engine's working fluid to and from a remote heat source without using moving parts, and does so without compromising on heat transfer surface area. Test data on a prototype loop integrated with a 1-kW thermoacoustic engine will be presented.

  9. A survey of oscillating flow in Stirling engine heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Terrence W.; Seume, Jorge R.

    1988-01-01

    Similarity parameters for characterizing the effect of flow oscillation on wall shear stress, viscous dissipation, pressure drop and heat transfer rates are proposed. They are based on physical agruments and are derived by normalizing the governing equations. The literature on oscillating duct flows, regenerator and porous media flows is surveyed. The operating characteristics of the heat exchanger of eleven Stirling engines are discribed in terms of the similarity parameters. Previous experimental and analytical results are discussed in terms of these parameters and used to estimate the nature of the oscillating flow under engine operating conditions. The operating points for many of the modern Stirling engines are in or near the laminar to turbulent transition region. In several engines, working fluid does not pass entirely through heat exchangers during a cycle. Questions that need to be addressed by further research are identified.

  10. Operational maintenance data base development for kinematic Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, A.; Smith, G.

    1985-01-01

    In the initial stages of developing the automotive Stirling engine (ASE), data has been accumulated under the program's Quality Assurance Report (QAR) program to identify problem areas encountered during engine operation. This data has been used as the basis for developing design modifications to existing hardware, identifying diagnostic techniques and instrumentation, and providing guidance towards component and system development requirements for future engine designs, such as the Mod II engine currently in the initial design stage. The QAR has proven itself to be an essential part of the ASE Program, and has successfully guided the development of the automotive application of this emerging engine technology.

  11. The United Stirling P40 engine for solar dish concentrator application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortegren, L.; Sjostedt, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    The United Stirling P40 engine is a key component in a solar concentration based energy conversion system, to be demonstrated and tested during 1980-81. The inherent characteristics of modern Stirling engines is reviewed focusing on the baseline P40 double-acting engine. The extent of modifications required for the solar application is reviewed and performance data are predicted. Finally, the potential of an advanced solar Stirling engine is briefly considered.

  12. Design of a new type of rotary Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Abenavoli, R.I.; Dong, W.; Fedele, L.; Sciaboni, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Stirling machine has had wide diffusion only in cold or cryogenic applications (Philips) while the engine, despite big efforts of large Companies (Philips, Westinghouse, General Motors, etc.), never definitively reached the market; today new interest is raised correlated with environmental and energy related considerations. Thus, researchers efforts are addressed towards the design of innovative and more competitive Stirling engine configurations, like the one here proposed. This paper describes the configuration of a new, rotary Stirling engine. In the cold part of the engine, the working fluid is compressed by a rotating element, then it passes through the regenerator from the cold to the hot end, where it absorbs the heat and expands in the high pressure and temperature area. The high pressure working fluid pushes on the rotating element (the so called rotator) and the engine outputs power. In the design, compression and expansion volumes change with the rotation. Two rotators are connected with a set of gears: therefore, the engine transmission system is simplified and dimensions are reduced.

  13. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Niholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) 140-W radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor E3 (ASC-E3) Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth-generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency; quantification of control authority of the controller; disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude; and measurement of the effect of spacecraft direct current (DC) bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  14. How to Overcome Numerical Challenges to Modeling Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Tew, Roy C.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear thermal to electric power conversion carries the promise of longer duration missions and higher scientific data transmission rates back to Earth for a range of missions, including both Mars rovers and deep space missions. A free-piston Stirling convertor is a candidate technology that is considered an efficient and reliable power conversion device for such purposes. While already very efficient, it is believed that better Stirling engines can be developed if the losses inherent in current designs could be better understood. However, they are difficult to instrument and so efforts are underway to simulate a complete Stirling engine numerically. This has only recently been attempted and a review of the methods leading up to and including such computational analysis is presented. And finally it is proposed that the quality and depth of Stirling loss understanding may be improved by utilizing the higher fidelity and efficiency of recently developed numerical methods. One such method, the Ultra HI-FI technique is presented in detail.

  15. Testing of a variable-stroke Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, L. G.; Allen, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Testing of a variable-stroke Stirling engine at NASA Lewis has been completed. In support of the DOE Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems Program, the engine was tested for about 70 hours total with both He and H2 working fluids over a range of pressures and strokes. A direct comparison was made of part-load efficiencies obtained with variable-stroke (VS) and variable-pressure operation. Two failures with the variable-angle swash-plate drive system limited testing to low power levels. These failures are not thought to be caused by problems inherent with the VS concept but do emphasize the need for careful design in the area of the crossheads.

  16. Testing of a variable-stroke Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Allen, David J.

    1986-01-01

    Testing of a variable-stroke Stirling engine at NASA Lewis has been completed. In support of the DOE Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems Program, the engine was tested for about 70 hours total with both He and H2 as working fluids over a range of pressures and strokes. A direct comparison was made of part-load efficiencies obtained with variable-stroke (VS) and variable-pressure operation. Two failures with the variable-angle swash-plate drive system limited testing to low power levels. These failures are not thought to be caused by problems inherent with the VS concept but do emphasize the need for careful design in the area of the crossheads.

  17. Potential impacts of Brayton- and Stirling-cycle engines

    SciTech Connect

    Heft, R.C.

    1980-11-15

    Two engine technologies (Brayton cycle and Stirling cycle) currently being pursued by the US Department of Energy were examined for their potential impacts if they achieved commercial viability. An economic analysis of the expected response of buyers to the attributes of the alternative engines was performed. Hedonic coefficients for vehicle fuel efficiency, performance and size were estimated for domestic cars based upon historical data. The marketplace value of the fuel efficiency enhancement provided by Brayton or Stirling engines was estimated. The effect upon various economic sectors of a large scale change-over from conventional to alternate engines was estimated using an economic input-output analysis. Primary effects were found in fuels refining, non-ferroalloy ores and ferroalloy smelting. Secondary effects were found in mining, transport, and capital financing. Under the assumption of 10 years for plant conversions and 1990 and 1995 as the introduction date for turine and Stirling engines respectively, the comparative fuel savings and present value of the future savings in fuel costs were estimated.

  18. Evaluation of a Stirling engine heater bypass with the NASA Lewis nodal-analysis performance code

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1986-05-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Research Center investigated whether bypassing the P-40 Stirling engine heater during regenerative cooling would improve the engine thermal efficiency. The investigation was accomplished by using the Lewis nodal-analysis Stirling engine computer model. Bypassing the P-40 Stirling engine heater at full power resulted in a rise in the indicated thermal efficiency from 40.6 to 41.0 percent. For the idealized (some losses not included) heater bypass that was analyzed, this benefit is not considered significant.

  19. Evaluation of a Stirling engine heater bypass with the NASA Lewis nodal-analysis performance code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Research Center investigated whether bypassing the P-40 Stirling engine heater during regenerative cooling would improve engine performance. The Lewis nodal-analysis Stirling engine computer simulation was used for this investigation. Results for the heater-bypass concept showed no significant improvement in the indicated thermal efficiency for the P-40 Stirling engine operating at full-power and part-power conditions. Optimizing the heater tube length produced a small increase in the indicated thermal efficiency with the heater-bypass concept.

  20. Stirling engine applications study. Final report Jan-Dec 82

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.L.; Eckard, S.E.; McCarthy, R.; Spera, R.; Antoniak, Z.

    1983-08-01

    A comprehensive survey of the potential applications for gas-fired, stationary Stirling engines was conducted. Engine characteristics were determined from a literature search and personal contacts. Such attributes as multi-fuel capability, low emissions (noise and chemical pollutants), and good part load efficiency were verified. Its thermal efficiency (demonstrated and potential) was found to be approximately equal to the diesel engine. Its potential cost is estimated to exceed that of a diesel engine and long life, reliability, and low maintenance attributes have not yet been established.

  1. NASA/DOE automotive Stirling engine project: Overview 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is reviewed and its technical progress and status are presented. Key technologies in materials, seals, and piston rings are progressing well. Seven first-generation engines, and modifications thereto, have accumulated over 15,000 hr of test time, including 1100hr of in-vehicle testing. Results indicate good progress toward the program goals. The first second-generation engine is now undergoing initial testing. It is expected that the program goal of a 30-percent improvement in fuel economy will be achieved in tests of a second-generation engine in a Celebrity vehicle.

  2. DOE/NASA automotive Stirling engine project - Overview 86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is reviewed and its technical progress and status are presented. Key technologies in materials, seals, and piston rings are progressing well. Seven first-generation engines, and modifications thereto, have accumulated over 15,000 hr of test time, including 1100 hr of in-vehicle testing. Results indicate good progress toward the program goals. The first second-generation engine is now undergoing initial testing. It is expected that the program goal of a 30-percent improvement in fuel economy will be achieved in tests of a second-generation engine in a Celebrity vehicle.

  3. A novel Stirling engine with an elliptic drive

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, H.W.; Herold, K.E.; Holland, H.M.; Beach, E.H.

    1996-12-31

    The concept of the Stirling cycle seems quite simple when presented as a cycle involving two constant temperature and two constant volume processes. The reality of machines that have evolved from the Stirling concept is considerably more complicated. Most real machines employ a drive mechanism that approximates a sinusoidal volume variation for each of the cylinders. This results in an overall volume variation that only poorly approximates the constant volume processes postulated in the classic definition of a Stirling cycle. The difficulties of achieving the piston motions necessary to attain the discontinuous motions of the classic cycle are well known and, as a result, the sinusoidal motions are widely accepted as an inevitable compromise. It is noted that free piston Stirling machines are not constrained in the same manner. However, the discussion here focuses on kinematic drive machines. In the current study, a Rider-type engine with an elliptic drive is modeled with the objective of clarifying the potential of a more ideal volume variation. This drive mechanism is the subject of a US Patent filed with Serial Number 08/360,052 on 20 December 1994.

  4. Performance analysis for second-design space Stirling engine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiwara, Sachio; Fujiwara, Tsutomu; Eguchi, Kunihisa; Nakamura, Yoshihiro

    A hybrid free-piston Stirling research engine, called NALSEM 125, has been tested since 1988 as part of a solar dynamic power technology program. It is a gamma-type Stirling driven linear-alternator machine with helium as a working fluid. The objective of the experimental program is to understand the thermodynamic and dynamic mechanisms of the free piston engine integrated with a magnet-moving alternator. After the first phase engine experiments of NALSEM 125, a second design Stirling engine of NALSEM 125 R has been tested. By using a second-order analytical tool, some design modifications were performed to provide much more stable dynamic operations over a required operating range, as well as to incorporate an electric heater head simulating a hot interface of 12 sodium heat pipes. Describes in this paper are thermodynamic performance data of NALSEM 125R operations, which are also compared with the computational analysis, considering the power losses resulting from pressure drop and gas leakage.

  5. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  6. Oscillating flow loss test results in Stirling engine heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, G.; Howell, S.; Wood, G.; Miller, E.; Gedeon, D.

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented for a test program designed to generate a database of oscillating flow loss information that is applicable to Stirling engine heat exchangers. The tests were performed on heater/cooler tubes of various lengths and entrance/exit configurations, on stacked and sintered screen regenerators of various wire diameters and on Brunswick and Metex random fiber regenerators. The test results were performed over a range of oscillating flow parameters consistent with Stirling engine heat exchanger experience. The tests were performed on the Sunpower oscillating flow loss rig which is based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. In general, the results are presented by comparing the measured oscillating flow losses to the calculated flow losses. The calculated losses are based on the cycle integration of steady flow friction factors and entrance/exit loss coefficients.

  7. A Stirling engine analysis method based upon moving gas nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    A Lagrangian nodal analysis method for Stirling engines (SEs) is described, validated, and applied to a conventional SE and an isothermalized SE (with fins in the hot and cold spaces). The analysis employs a constant-mass gas node (which moves with respect to the solid nodes during each time step) instead of the fixed gas nodes of Eulerian analysis. The isothermalized SE is found to have efficiency only slightly greater than that of a conventional SE.

  8. Failure analysis of a Stirling engine heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas J.; Cairelli, James E.; Khalili, Kaveh

    1989-01-01

    Failure analysis was conducted on a heat pipe from a Stirling Engine test rig which was designed to operate at 1073 K. Premature failure had occurred due to localized overheating at the leading edge of the evaporator fin. It was found that a crack had allowed air to enter the fin and react with the sodium coolant. The origin of the crack was found to be located at the inner surface of the Inconel 600 fin where severe intergranular corrosion had taken place.

  9. DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project Overview 83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is presented. The background and objectives of the project are reviewed. Project activities are described and technical progress and status are presented and assessed. Prospects for achieving the objective 30 percent fuel economy improvement are considered good. The key remaining technology issues are primarily related to life, reliability and cost, such as piston rod seals, and low cost heat exchanges. Previously announced in STAR as N83-27924

  10. DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project overview '83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is presented. The background and objectives of the project are reviewed. Project activities are described and technical progress and status are presented and assessed. Prospects for achieving the objective 30% fuel economy improvement are considered good. The key remaining technology issues are primarily related to life, reliability and cost, such as piston rod seals, and low cost heat exchanges.

  11. Large stationary Stirling engine. Volume 1. conceptual design of Stirling engines for stationary power-generation applications in the 500- to 3000-HP range. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The Conceptual Design is described of Stirling Engines for Stationary Power Application in the 500 to 3000 hp range which was aimed at state-of-the-art stationary Stirling engines for a 1985 hardware demonstration, and an advanced engine design with identification of the supporting R and D efforts required. The main goals of this effort were to obtain reliable cost data for a stationary Stirling engine capable of meeting future needs for total energy/cogeneration systems and to establish a pragmatic and conservative base design for a first-generation hardware. In order to secure a competitive position for this engine in the marketplace, it was clearly recognized that a coal and waste product fired version had to be given primary consideration since a fuel oil or gas fired version would not be cost competitive with a diesel/gas engine. Therefore, the mating of the Stirling engine with an Atmospheric Fluidized Bed (AFB) was a main target.

  12. Testing of the United Stirling 4-95 solar Stirling engine on test bed concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelving, H. G.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives with the testing, test set-ups, component designs, and the results of the testing of the solar Stirling engine in a parabolic dish system are presented. The most important tests are characterization of receivers, full day performance of complete system, cavity and aperture window test including influence from windeffects, control system tests, radiator system tests and special temperature measurements with infrared camera. The influence on performance of flux distribution depnding on concentrator alignment, and the optimum receiver operating criteria when balancing flux and temperatures on cooled receiver surface while avoiding flux on uncooled surfaces are also discussed.

  13. Stirling engine performance optimization with different working fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, J.G.; Marr, W.W.; Heames, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    The design flexibility of Stirling cycle devices is evident from the wide variety of mechanical configurations that have been developed as well as the many differing applications that have been shown to be technically feasible. The choice of working fluid is one option that strongly influences engine design. Hydrogen permits the most compact engine (for a given power output and efficiency) of any gaseous working fluid investigated and has therefore been the choice in Stirling development programs directed at the automotive application where engine size is a major concern. Systems using helium or air are presently under development for applications where size is not as important a consideration. This paper describes calculated characteristics of engines optimized for four working fluids (hydrogen, helium, air and methane). A comparison is given between engines whose exterior dimensions are minimized and with lower rpm, lower pressure engine designs calculated by maximizing the dimensionless parameter known as the Beale number. Design point power and efficiency are the same in the resulting eight conceptual designs but great variation is shown in engine characteristics due both to working fluid differences and to the two different design objectives. 5 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Inhomogeneity of fluid flow in Stirling engine regenerators

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.D. )

    1989-10-01

    The literature relating to inhomogeneity of flow regenerators is briefly reviewed. It is noted that, in contrast to other applications of regenerators, relatively little attention has been paid to the consequences of flow inhomogeneity for thermal regeneration in Stirling cycle machines. The construction of regenerator capsules for a large stationary Stirling engine is described. A test rig is developed to measure the gas velocity profile across the face of the packed regenerator capsules under steady flow conditions. Measured flow profiles for a number of different matrix materials and construction techniques are presented, and it is noted that stacked-mesh regenerator matrices tend to display marked inhomogeneities of flow. The consequences of flow inhomogeneity for flow friction and regenerator effectiveness are analyzed theoretically, and approximate formulae deduced. One method for reducing flow inhomogeneity in stacked-screen matrice

  15. Testing to Characterize the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward; Schreiber, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a high efficiency generator, is being considered for space missions. Lockheed Martin designed and fabricated an engineering unit (EU), the ASRG EU, under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently undergoing extended operation testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. It has also undergone performance tests to characterize generator operation while varying control parameters and system inputs. This paper summarizes and explains test results in the context of designing operating strategies for the generator during a space mission and notes expected differences between the EU performance and future generators.

  16. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  17. Experimental investigation of a thermoacoustic-Stirling refrigerator driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine.

    PubMed

    Luo, E C; Dai, W; Zhang, Y; Ling, H

    2006-12-22

    In this paper, a thermally-driven thermoacoustic refrigerator system without any moving part is reported. This refrigeration system consists of a thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine and a thermoacoustic-Stirling refrigerator; that is, the former is the driving source for the latter. Both the subsystems are designed to operate on traveling-wave mode. In the experiment, it was found that the DC-flows had significant negative effect on the heat engine and the refrigerator. To suppress these DC-flows, two flexible membranes were inserted into the two subsystems and worked very well. Then extensive experiments were made to test the influence of different parameters on refrigeration performance of the whole system. The system has so far achieved a no-load temperature of -65 degrees C, a cooling capacity of about 270 W at -20 degrees C and 405 W at 0 degrees C; in fact, the result showed a good prospect of the refrigeration system in room-temperature cooling such as food refrigeration and air-conditioning. PMID:16979679

  18. Automotive Stirling engine development program - Overview and status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N. P.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of the automotive-Stirling-engine development program being undertaken by DOE and NASA Lewis is reviewed. The program goals and the reference-engine design are explained, and the modifications introduced to improve performance and lower manufacturing costs are discussed and illustrated, including part-power optimization; increased operating temperature (from 720 to 820 C); 45.4-kg weight reduction; elimination of Co and reduction of Cr used; and improved seals, ceramic components, and high-temperature alloys. The test program, some difficulties encountered, and results after 2042 h are summarized.

  19. Dynamics and control of Stirling engines in a 15 kWe solar electric generation concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, R. L.; Bahrami, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of kinematic and free piston Stirling engines in a 15 kWe dish-electric approach for solar thermal electric generation. Initially, the principle of operation of Stirling engines in solar thermal electric generation is discussed. Then, under certain simplifying assumptions, mathematical models describing the dynamic operation of the kinematic and free piston Stirling engines are developed. It is found that the engine dynamics may be approximated by second order models. Control mechanisms for both types of Stirling engines are discussed. An approach based on the modulation of the working fluid mean pressure is presented. It is concluded that this approach offers a fast and effective means of control. The free piston Stirling engine, being a thermally driven mechanical oscillator, presents unique control requirements. These are discussed in this paper.

  20. RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine sensitivity test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Geng, Steven M.; Lorenz, Gary V.

    1986-10-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been testing a 1 kW (1.33 hp) free-piston Stirling engine. The tests performed over the past several years have been on a single cylinder machine known as the RE-1000. The data recorded were to aid in the investigation of the dynamics and thermo-dynamics of the free-piston Stirling engine. The data are intended to be used primarily for computer code validation. NASA reports TM-82999, TM-83407, and TM-87126 give initial results of the engine tests. The tests were designed to investigate the sensitivity of the engine performance to variations on the mean pressure of the working space, the working fluid used, heater and cooler temperatures, regenerator porosity, power piston mass and displacer dynamics. These tests have now been completed. Some of the data collected in the sensitivity tests are presented. In all, 781 data points were recorded. A completed description of the engine and test facility is given. Many of the data can be found in tabular form, and a microfiche containing all of the data points can be requested from the NASA Lewis.

  1. Some considerations of the design of displacers for Ringbom Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Fauvel, O.R.; Kentfield, J.A.C.; Walker, G.

    1984-08-01

    The Ringbom Stirling engine is a hybrid of the kinematic Stirling engine having shaft output power and variable speed and of the free piston engine in which the components are driven by changes in working space pressure. Experiments with Ringbom Stirling engines have led to the suspicion that the 'weak link' of the engine is the free displacer. This paper examines some of the factors which must be addressed in the design of displacers for these engines with reference to the thermal, pressure, and dynamical considerations.

  2. Thermal lag test engines evaluated and compared to equivalent Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Tailer, P.L.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal lag engines run both free piston and with pistons kinematically linked. Free piston, a thermal lag engine may be the simplest of all piston engines as it is valveless and has only one moving part, the piston. Horizontal and vertical thermal lag engines with substantially identical cooled pistons and cylinders are tested and evaluated, particularly as to power density. The horizontal engine has an elongated, small diameter heated chamber and the vertical engine has a large diameter flat heated chamber. Both heated chambers may be altered in volume to maximize engine power at optimum compression ratios. The power density of unpressurized thermal lag engines is compared to that of early commercial Stirling cycle unpressurized air engines. The comparison indicates the potential for applying well-known modern Stirling technology to thermal lag engines.

  3. Reliability study of Stirling engines for solar dish/heat engine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, R.E.; Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the reliability of existing and improved Stirling engine concepts for dispersed solar dish-electric applications in the 25-50 kWe range. Five current kinematic Stirling engine designs have the capability to meet or exceed the 32% efficiency goal of the DOE Solar Thermal Program. A review of historical Stirling engine data illustrated that the three major reliability issues with kinematic Stirling engines are the piston-rod seals, engine hot parts (i.e., heater head, regenerator and cylinders) and power control/drive system. The most significant reliability issue associated with achieving the 50,000 hour operating life goal involves piston-rod seals. A specific kinematic engine concept that appears to have the potential for meeting the 50,000 hour operating lifetime requirement of solar power systems is the STM4-120 engine. This engine has a pressurized crankcase to reduce piston-rod seal problems, an indirect heat pipe hot-end section to smooth out temperature gradients in the heater tubes, and a variable angle swashplate for power control.

  4. Loss terms in free-piston Stirling-engine models. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    Various models for free piston Stirling engines are reviewed. Initial models were developed primarily for design purposes and to predict operating parameters, especially efficiency. More recently, however, such models have been used to predict engine stability. Free piston Stirling engines have no kinematic constraints and stability may not only be sensitive to the load, but also to various nonlinear loss and spring constraints. The present understanding is reviewed of various loss mechanisms for free piston Stirling engines and how they have been incorporated into engine models is discussed.

  5. Design study of a kinematic Stirling engine for dispered solar electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The concept evaluation shows that the four cylinder double acting U type Stirling engine with annular regenerators is the most suitable engine type for the 15 kW solar application with respect to design, performance and cost. Results show that near term performance for a metallic Stirling engine is 42% efficiency. Further improved components show an impact on efficiency of the future metallic engine to 45%. Increase of heater temperature, through the introduction of ceramic components, contribute the greatest amount to achieve high efficiency goals. Future ceramic Stirling engines for solar applications show an efficiency of around 50%.

  6. Automotive Stirling Engine Mod 1 Design Review, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The auxiliaries and the control system for the ASE MOD I: (1) provide the required fuel and air flows for a well controlled combustion process, generating heat to the Stirling cycle; (2) provide a driver acceptable method for controlling the power output of the engine; (3) provide adequate lubrication and cooling water circulation; (4) generate the electric energy required for engine and vehicle operation; (5) provide a driver acceptable method for starting, stopping and monitoring the engine; and (6) provide a guard system, that protects the engine at component or system malfunction. The control principles and the way the different components and sub-systems interact are described as well as the different auxiliaries, the air fuel system, the power control systems and the electronics. The arrangement and location of auxiliaries and other major components are also examined.

  7. Fast Whole-Engine Stirling Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Tew, Roy C.; Demko, Rikako

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discusses the simulation approach to whole-engine for physical consistency, REV regenerator modeling, grid layering for smoothness, and quality, conjugate heat transfer method adjustment, high-speed low cost parallel cluster, and debugging.

  8. Control of Stirling engine. Simplified, compressible model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikov, P. I.; Sokołowski, J.; Żochowski, A.

    2016-06-01

    A one-dimensional free boundary problem on a motion of a heavy piston in a tube filled with viscous gas is considered. The system of governing equations and boundary conditions is derived. The obtained system of differential equations can be regarded as a mathematical model of an exterior combustion engine. The existence of a weak solution to this model is proved. The problem of maximization of the total work of the engine is considered.

  9. Integral finned heater and cooler for stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, John A.

    1984-01-01

    A piston and cylinder for a Stirling engine and the like having top and bottom meshing or nesting finned conical surfaces to provide large surface areas in close proximity to the working gas for good thermal (addition and subtraction of heat) exchange to the working gas and elimination of the usual heater and cooler dead volume. The piston fins at the hot end of the cylinder are perforated to permit the gas to pass into the piston interior and through a regenerator contained therein.

  10. Overview of the 1985 NASA Lewis Research Center SP-100 free-piston Stirling engine activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaby, J.

    1985-01-01

    This effort is keyed on the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of a 25 kWe Stirling space-power technology-feasibility demonstrator engine. Another facet of the SP-100 project covers the status of a 9000-hr endurance test conducted on a 2 kWe free-piston Stirling/linear alternator system employing hydrostatic gas bearings. Dynamic balancing of the RE-1000 engine (a 1 kWe free-piston Stirling engine) using a passive dynamic absorber will be discussed along with the results of a parametric study showing the relationships of Stirling power converter specific weight and efficiency as functions of Stirling engine heater to cooler temperature ratio. Planned tests will be described covering a hydrodynamic gas bearing concept for potential SP-100 application.