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Sample records for atr experiment description

  1. Neutronics analysis of the DHCE experiment in ATR-ITV

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.; Tsai, H.

    1997-08-01

    The preliminary analysis of the DHCE experiments in the ITV and ATR was performed and its was concluded that such a vehicle is suitable for this kind of experiment. It is recommended to place an extra filter material in the thermocouple sleeve (such as B-10), to improve the helium to dpa ratio profile during irradiation. Also, it was concluded that a preliminary estimation of period of time for replacement of the external filter would be around 5 dps`s.

  2. EVALUATION OF LVDTS FOR USE IN ATR IRRADIATION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

    2009-04-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. Such materials can experience significant dimensional changes during high temperature irradiation. Currently, these changes are determined by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a defined period of time in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The time and labor to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and may disturb the phenomena of interest. To address these issues, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) recently initiated efforts to evaluate candidate linear variable differential transducers (LVDTs) for use during high temperature irradiation experiments in typical ATR test locations. Two nuclear grade LVDTs are under consideration – a smaller diameter design qualified for temperatures up to 350 °C and a larger design with capabilities to 500 °C. Calibration and long duration performance evaluations are underway for temperatures up to 600 ºC. This paper presents results from these evaluations, which will ultimately lead to recommendations for an improved design for use in the ATR.

  3. Thermal Analysis of Irradiation Experiments in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Murray

    2012-09-01

    Reactor material testing in the INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) involves modeling and simulation of each experiment to accurately determine the irradiation temperature. This paper describes thermal analysis of capsule experiments using gas gap temperature control and provides data on recent material tests that validate the modeling results. Static capsule experiments and lead-out capsule experiments are discussed. The source of temperature variation in capsule experiments and ways to mitigate these variations are also explained. Two examples of instrumented lead-out capsule experiments, TMIST-1 and UCSB-2, are presented. A comparison of measured and calculated temperatures is used to validate the thermal models and to ascertain the accuracy of the calculated temperature.

  4. Status of ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low-activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Chung, H.; Smith, D.L.

    1997-04-01

    The ATR-A1 irradiation experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was a collaborative U.S./Japan effort to study at low temperatures the effects of neutron damage on vanadium alloys. The experiment also contained a limited quantity of low-activation ferritic steel specimens from Japan as part of the collaboration agreement. The irradiation was completed on May 5, 1996, as planned, after achieving an estimated neutron damage of 4.7 dpa in vanadium. The capsule has since been kept in the ATR water canal for the required radioactivity cool-down. Planning is underway for disassembly of the capsule and test specimen retrieval.

  5. Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Facility 10CFR830 Safety Basis Related to Facility Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tomberlin, Terry Alan

    2002-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), a DOE Category A reactor, was designed to provide an irradiation test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. The ATR Safety Analysis Report, determined by DOE to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, provides versatility in types of experiments that may be conducted. This paper addresses two general types of experiments in the ATR facility and how safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore this type of experiment is addressed with more detail in the safety basis. This allows individual safety analyses for these experiments to be more routine and repetitive. The second type of experiment is less defined and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, individual safety analyses for the second type of experiment tend to be more unique from experiment to experiment. Experiments are also discussed relative to "major modifications" and DOE-STD-1027-92. Application of the USQ process to ATR experiments is also discussed.

  6. Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Facility 10CFR830 Safety Basis Related to Facility Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tomberlin, T.A.

    2002-06-19

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), a DOE Category A reactor, was designed to provide an irradiation test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. The ATR Safety Analysis Report, determined by DOE to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, provides versatility in types of experiments that may be conducted. This paper addresses two general types of experiments in the ATR facility and how safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore this type of experiment is addressed with more detail in the safety basis. This allows individual safety analyses for these experiments to be more routine and repetitive. The second type of experiment is less defined and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, individual safety analyses for the second type of experiment tend to be more unique from experiment to experiment. Experiments are also discussed relative to ''major modifications'' and DOE-STD-1027-92. Application of the USQ process to ATR experiments is also discussed.

  7. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.Y.

    1993-08-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  8. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Teresa Y. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm.

  9. Status of ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low-activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.

    1996-10-01

    The ATR-A1 irradiation experiment was a collaborative U.S./Japan effort to study at low temperature the effects of neutron damage on vanadium alloys. The experiment also contained a limited quantity of low-activation ferritic steel specimens from Japan as part of the collaboration agreement. The irradiation started in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) on November 30, 1995, and ended as planned on May 5, 1996. Total exposure was 132.9 effective full power days (EFPDs) and estimated neutron damage in the vanadium was 4.7 dpa. The vehicle has been discharged from the ATR core and is scheduled to be disassembled in the next reporting period.

  10. ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tasi, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Hins, A.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    To study the mechanical properties of vanadium alloys under neutron irradiation at low temperatures, an experiment was designed and constructed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment contained Charpy, tensile, compact tension, TEM, and creep specimens of vanadium alloys. It also contained limited low-activation ferritic steel specimens as part of the collaborative agreement with Monbusho of Japan. The design irradiation temperatures for the vanadium alloy specimens in the experiment are {approx}200 and 300{degrees}C, achieved with passive gap-gap sizing and fill gas blending. To mitigate vanadium-to-chromium transmutation from the thermal neutron flux, the test specimens are contained inside gadolinium flux filters. All specimens are lithium-bonded. The irradiation started in Cycle 108A (December 3, 1995) and is expected to have a duration of three ATR cycles and a peak influence of 4.4 dpa.

  11. Competitive sorption of carbonate and arsenic to hematite: combined ATR-FTIR and batch experiments.

    PubMed

    Brechbühl, Yves; Christl, Iso; Elzinga, Evert J; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2012-07-01

    The competitive sorption of carbonate and arsenic to hematite was investigated in closed-system batch experiments. The experimental conditions covered a pH range of 3-7, arsenate concentrations of 3-300 μM, and arsenite concentrations of 3-200 μM. Dissolved carbonate concentrations were varied by fixing the CO(2) partial pressure at 0.39 (atmospheric), 10, or 100 hPa. Sorption data were modeled with a one-site three plane model considering carbonate and arsenate surface complexes derived from ATR-FTIR spectroscopy analyses. Macroscopic sorption data revealed that in the pH range 3-7, carbonate was a weak competitor for both arsenite and arsenate. The competitive effect of carbonate increased with increasing CO(2) partial pressure and decreasing arsenic concentrations. For arsenate, sorption was reduced by carbonate only at slightly acidic to neutral pH values, whereas arsenite sorption was decreased across the entire pH range. ATR-FTIR spectra indicated the predominant formation of bidentate binuclear inner-sphere surface complexes for both sorbed arsenate and sorbed carbonate. Surface complexation modeling based on the dominant arsenate and carbonate surface complexes indicated by ATR-FTIR and assuming inner-sphere complexation of arsenite successfully described the macroscopic sorption data. Our results imply that in natural arsenic-contaminated systems where iron oxide minerals are important sorbents, dissolved carbonate may increase aqueous arsenite concentrations, but will affect dissolved arsenate concentrations only at neutral to alkaline pH and at very high CO(2) partial pressures. PMID:22494686

  12. Spacelab Mission 3 experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. K. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab 3 mission is the first operational flight of Spacelab aboard the shuttle transportation system. The primary objectives of this mission are to conduct application, science, and technology experimentation that requires the low gravity environment of Earth orbit and an extended duration, stable vehicle attitude with emphasis on materials processing. This document provides descriptions of the experiments to be performed during the Spacelab 3 mission.

  13. Solar mesosphere explorer: Experiment description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) satellite experiments will provide a comprehensive study of atmospheric ozone and the processes which form and destroy it. Five instruments to be carried on the spacecraft will measure the ozone density and altitude distribution, monitor the incoming solar radiation, and measure other atmospheric constituents which affect ozone. The investigative approach concept, methods and procedures, preflight studies, and orbits and mission lifetime are presented. Descriptions of the instruments are also presented.

  14. Model Experiments and Model Descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose; Sze, N. D.; Vohralik, Peter; Randeniya, Lakshman; Plumb, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements Workshop (M&M II) is the continuation of the effort previously started in the first Workshop (M&M I, Prather and Remsberg [1993]) held in 1992. As originally stated, the aim of M&M is to provide a foundation for establishing the credibility of stratospheric models used in environmental assessments of the ozone response to chlorofluorocarbons, aircraft emissions, and other climate-chemistry interactions. To accomplish this, a set of measurements of the present day atmosphere was selected. The intent was that successful simulations of the set of measurements should become the prerequisite for the acceptance of these models as having a reliable prediction for future ozone behavior. This section is divided into two: model experiment and model descriptions. In the model experiment, participant were given the charge to design a number of experiments that would use observations to test whether models are using the correct mechanisms to simulate the distributions of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. The purpose is closely tied to the needs to reduce the uncertainties in the model predicted responses of stratospheric ozone to perturbations. The specifications for the experiments were sent out to the modeling community in June 1997. Twenty eight modeling groups responded to the requests for input. The first part of this section discusses the different modeling group, along with the experiments performed. Part two of this section, gives brief descriptions of each model as provided by the individual modeling groups.

  15. Microstructural examination of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-09-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for four heats of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}200 and 300 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment or composition.

  16. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  17. Tensile and impact properties of vanadium-base alloys irradiated at low temperatures in the ATR-A1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Nowicki, L.J.; Billone, M.C.; Chung, H.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1998-03-01

    Subsize tensile and Charpy specimens made from several V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys were irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment to study the effects of low-temperature irradiation on mechanical properties. These specimens were contained in lithium-bonded subcapsules and irradiated at temperatures between {approx}200 and 300 C. Peak neutron damage was {approx}4.7 dpa. Postirradiation testing of these specimens has begun. Preliminary results from a limited number of specimens indicate a significant loss of work-hardening capability and dynamic toughness due to the irradiation. These results are consistent with data from previous low-temperature neutron irradiation experiments on these alloys.

  18. Measuring Heterogeneous Reaction Rates with ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy to Evaluate Chemical Fates in an Atmospheric Environment: A Physical Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jason E.; Zeng, Guang; Maron, Marta K.; Mach, Mindy; Dwebi, Iman; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an undergraduate laboratory experiment to measure heterogeneous liquid/gas reaction kinetics (ozone-oleic acid and ozone-phenothrin) using a flow reactor coupled to an attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometer. The experiment is specially designed for an upper-level undergraduate Physical…

  19. Monitoring the distribution of surfactants in the stratum corneum by combined ATR-FTIR and tape-stripping experiments.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Holper, Evelyn; Baurecht, Dieter; Valenta, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Combined ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and tape-stripping experiments in vitro on porcine ear skin were used to investigate the spatial distribution of different surfactants in the stratum corneum (SC). To reveal a possible connection between the size of the formed micelles and skin penetration, dynamic light-scattering measurements of the aqueous surfactant solutions were also taken. Compared to an alkyl polyglycoside and sucrose laurate, a deeper skin penetration of the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) und sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) could be related to a smaller size of the formed micelles. Beside the differences in spatial distribution, a link between the physical presence of anionic surfactants in the SC and a decrease of skin hydration was found. Furthermore, the incorporation of SDS and SLES into the SC, even after a brief, consumer-orientated washing procedure with commercially available hair shampoos, was confirmed. PMID:25612540

  20. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part II--A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment on Surface Adsorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Sarah C.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. The use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in organic and inorganic chemistry laboratory courses as well as in undergraduate research was presented…

  1. PUREX new substation ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.E.

    1997-05-12

    This document is the acceptance test report (ATR) for the New PUREX Main and Minisubstations. It covers the factory and vendor acceptance and commissioning test reports. Reports are presented for the Main 5 kV substation building, the building fire system, switchgear, and vacuum breaker; the minisubstation control building and switch gear; commissioning test; electrical system and loads inspection; electrical utilities transformer and cable; and relay setting changes based on operational experience.

  2. Safety Assurance for ATR Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the world’s premiere test reactor for performing high fluence, large volume, irradiation test programs. The ATR has many capabilities and a wide variety of tests are performed in this truly one of a kind reactor, including isotope production, simple self-contained static capsule experiments, instrumented/controlled experiments, and loop testing under pressurized water conditions. Along with the five pressurized water loops, ATR may also have gas (temperature controlled) lead experiments, fuel boosted fast flux experiments, and static sealed capsules all in the core at the same time. In addition, any or all of these tests may contain fuel or moderating materials that can affect reactivity levels in the ATR core. Therefore the safety analyses required to ensure safe operation of each experiment as well as the reactor itself are complex. Each test has to be evaluated against stringent reactor control safety criteria, as well as the effects it could have on adjacent tests and the reactor as well as the consequences of those effects. The safety analyses of each experiment are summarized in a document entitled the Experiment Safety Assurance Package (ESAP). The ESAP references and employs the results of the reactor physics, thermal, hydraulic, stress, seismic, vibration, and all other analyses necessary to ensure the experiment can be irradiated safely in the ATR. The requirements for reactivity worth, chemistry compatibilities, pressure limitations, material issues, etc. are all specified in the Technical Safety Requirements and the Upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report (UFSAR) for the ATR. This paper discusses the ESAP process, types of analyses, types of safety requirements and the approvals necessary to ensure an experiment can be safely irradiated in the ATR.

  3. Analysis of the DHCE experiment in the position A10 of the ATR reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.; Tsai, H.

    1997-08-01

    Calculations were performed to assess the possibility of performing DHCE experiments in mixed spectrum fission reactors. Calculated values of key parameters were compared with limit values for each quantity. The values calculated were: He-4 production from the {sup 6}Li(n,t){sup 4}He reaction, tritium leakage, required tritium concentration in lithium, initial tritium charge per capsule, and helium to dpa ratio after 10 dpa of irradiation.

  4. Project Description Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative AFC-2A and AFC-2B Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    AFCI AFC-2A and AFC-2B Experiments Project Executi

    2007-03-01

    The proposed AFC-2A and AFC-2B irradiation experiments are a continuation of the AFC-1 fuel test series currently in progress in the ATR. This document discusses the experiments and the planned activities that will take place.

  5. Fabrication Report for the AFC-2A and AFC-2B Capsule Irradiations in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy A. Hyde

    2007-10-01

    This document provides a general narrative description of the AFC-2A and 2B fuel fabrication processes for the AFC 2A and AFC 2B fuel irradiation experiments fabricated at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR).

  6. Spacelab mission 1 experiment descriptions, third edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, P. D. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Experiments and facilities selected for flight on the first Spacelab mission are described. Chosen from responses to the Announcement of Opportunity for the Spacelab 1 mission, the experiments cover five broad areas of investigation: atmospheric physics and Earth observations; space plasma physics; astronomy and solar physics; material sciences and technology; and life sciences. The name of the principal investigator and country is listed for each experiment.

  7. Description of the Joint Damping Experiment (JDX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkman, Steven L.; Redd, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective is to develop a small-scale shuttle flight experiment which allows researchers to: (1) characterize the influence of gravity and joint gaps on a small-scale truss model, and (2) evaluate the applicability of low-g aircraft test results for predicting on-orbit behavior. The experiment consists of a three-bay truss and associated hardware for truss excitation and measurement of oscillations. Other aspects of the investigation are presented in viewgraph form.

  8. Kindergartners Having Microcomputer Experiences: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sydney L.

    Five-year-old children's activity choices were examined in an early childhood classroom setting designed to foster interactive microcomputer activities. It was hypothesized that engaging and sustaining the children's active involvement with interactive computer experiences would be very difficult, due to their limited academic skills. Further, it…

  9. The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment - Instrument description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M. S.; Purcell, W. R.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Hillis, D. A.; Jung, G. V.; Cameron, R. A.

    1993-06-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory satellite uses four actively shielded NaI (Tl)-CsI(Na) phoswich detectors to provide gamma-ray line and continuum detection capability in the 0.05-10 MeV energy range. The instrument includes secondary capabilities for gamma-ray and neutron detection between 10 and 250 MeV. The detectors have 3.8 deg x 11.04 deg (FWHM) fields of view defined by tungsten collimators. Each detector has an independent, single-axis orientation system which permits offset pointing from the spacecraft Z-axis for background measurements and multitarget observations. The instrument, and its calibration and performance, are described.

  10. The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment - Instrument description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M. S.; Purcell, W. R.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Hillis, D. A.; Jung, G. V.; Cameron, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory satellite uses four actively shielded NaI (Tl)-CsI(Na) phoswich detectors to provide gamma-ray line and continuum detection capability in the 0.05-10 MeV energy range. The instrument includes secondary capabilities for gamma-ray and neutron detection between 10 and 250 MeV. The detectors have 3.8 deg x 11.04 deg (FWHM) fields of view defined by tungsten collimators. Each detector has an independent, single-axis orientation system which permits offset pointing from the spacecraft Z-axis for background measurements and multitarget observations. The instrument, and its calibration and performance, are described.

  11. Statistical description of sediment transport experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancey, Christophe; Böhm, Tobias; Jodeau, Magali; Frey, Philippe

    2006-07-01

    A longstanding problem in the study of sediment transport in gravel-bed rivers is related to the physical mechanisms governing bed resistance and particle motion. To study this problem, we investigated the motion of coarse spherical glass beads entrained by a steady shallow turbulent water flow down a steep two-dimensional channel with a mobile bed. This experimental facility is the simplest representation of sediment transport on the laboratory scale, with the tremendous advantages that boundary conditions are perfectly controlled and a wealth of information can be obtained using imaging techniques. Flows were filmed from the side by a high-speed camera. Using image processing software made it possible to determine the flow characteristics such as particle trajectories, their state of motion (rest, rolling, or saltating motion), and flow depth. In accordance with earlier investigations, we observed that over short time periods, sediment transport appeared as a very intermittent process. To interpret these results, we revisited Einstein’s theory on sediment and derived the statistical properties (probability distribution and autocorrelation function) of the key variables such as the solid discharge and the number of moving particles. Analyzing the autocorrelation functions and the probability distributions of our measurements revealed the existence of long-range correlations. For instance, whereas theory predicts a Binomial distribution for the number of moving particles, experiments demonstrated that a negative binomial distribution best fit our data, which emphasized the crucial role played by wide fluctuations. These frequent wide fluctuations stemmed particle entrainment and motion being collective phenomena rather than individual processes, contrary to what is assumed in most theoretical models.

  12. Vanadium irradiation at ATR - neutronics aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    Calculations were performed to estimate damage and transmutation rates in vanadium irradiated in the ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) located in Idaho. The main focuses of the study are to evaluate the transmutation of vanadium to chromium and to explore ways to design the irradiation experiment to avoid excessive transmutation. It was found that the A-hole of ATR produces damage rate of {approximately} 0.2%/dpa of vanadium to chromium. A thermal neutron filter can be incorporated into the design to reduce the vanadium-to-chromium transmutation rate to low levels. A filter 1-2 mm thick of gadolinium or hafnium can be used.

  13. Overview of the ATR Power Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, D.; Soukas, A.; Toldo, F.; Lambiase, B.

    1997-05-01

    The AGS to RHIC transfer Line (ATR) transports a variety of beams from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) which gets its input from the Booster Synchrotron. In turn, the Booster receives input beams from either a Tandem Van de Graaff (heavy ions) or a Linac(protons). The AGS extracts beam bunches, up to a rate of 30 Hertz, to the ATR which will eventually feed the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) starting with the sextant test in January of 1996. The ATR is made up of the upgraded U line and the new W, X and Y lines. A test in 1995 transported beam to the end of the W line. During normal operation, a pulsed switching magnet at the end of the W line will bend the beam into the X line or the Y line so that the two rings in RHIC are filled with counter rotating beams. The ATR line is comprised of 80 power supplies (PS's), 17 of which are upgraded AGS PS's. The remaining 63 PS's were newly purchased. These PS's range from bipolar 600 watt linear type trim magnet PS's to 1 Megawatt, thyristor, dipole PS's. Results of the commissioning runs will be presented, as well as descriptions of regulation, filtering, and analog and digital controls.

  14. Overview of the ATR power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, D.; Soukas, A.; Toldo, F.; Lambiase, R.F.

    1997-07-01

    The AGS to RHIC transfer line (ATR) transports a variety of beams from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) which gets its input from the Booster Synchrotron. In turn, the Booster receives input beams from either a Tandem Van de Graaff (heavy ions) or a Linac (protons). The AGS extracts beam bunches, up to a rate of 30 Hertz, to the ATR which feeds the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) starting with the sextant test in January of 1997. The ATR is made up of the upgraded U line and the new W, X, and Y lines. A test in 1995 transported beam to the end of the W line. During normal operation, a pulsed switching magnet at the end of the W line will bend the beam into the X line or the Y line so that the two storage rings in RHIC are filled with counter rotating beams. The ATR line is comprised of 80 power supplies (PS`s), 17 of which are upgraded AGS PS`s. The remaining 63 PS`s were newly purchased. These PS`s range from bipolar 600 watt linear type trim magnet PS`s to 1 Megawatt, thyristor, dipole PS`s. Results of the commissioning runs will be presented, as well as descriptions of regulation, filtering, and analog and digital controls.

  15. As-Run Thermal Analysis of the GTL-1 Experiment Irradiated in the ATR South Flux Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Donna P. Guillen

    2011-05-01

    The GTL-1 experiment was conducted to assess corrosion the performance of the proposed Boosted Fast Flux Loop booster fuel at heat flux levels {approx}30% above the design operating condition. Sixteen miniplates fabricated from 25% enriched, high-density U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel with 6061 aluminum cladding were subjected to peak beginning of cycle (BOC) heat fluxes ranging from 411 W/cm2 to 593 W/cm2. Miniplates fabricated with three different fuel variations (without fines, annealed, and with standard powder) performed equally well, with negligible irradiation-induced swelling and a normal fission density gradient. Both the standard and the modified prefilm procedures produced hydroxide films that adequately protected the miniplates from failure. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux for an as-run cycle average effective south lobe power of 25.4 MW(t). Results of the thermal analysis are given at four times during the cycle: BOC at 0 effective full power days (EFPD), middle of cycle (MOC) at 18 EFPD, MOC at 36 EFPD, and end of cycle at 48.9 EFPD. The highest temperatures and heat fluxes occur at the BOC and decrease in a linear manner throughout the cycle. Miniplate heat flux levels and fuel, cladding, hydroxide, and coolant-hydroxide interface temperatures were calculated using the average measured hydroxide thickness on each miniplate. The hydroxide layers are the largest on miniplates nearest to the core midplane, where heat flux and temperature are highest. The hydroxide layer thickness averages 20.4 {mu}m on the six hottest miniplates (B3, B4, C1, C2, C3, and C4). This tends to exacerbate the heating of these miniplates, since a thicker hydroxide layer reduces the heat transfer from the fuel to the coolant. These six hottest miniplates have the following thermal characteristics at BOC: (1) Peak fuel centerline temperature >300 C; (2) Peak cladding temperature >200 C; (3) Peak hydroxide temperature >190 C; (4

  16. Quantum theory as the most robust description of reproducible experiments

    SciTech Connect

    De Raedt, Hans; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Michielsen, Kristel

    2014-08-15

    It is shown that the basic equations of quantum theory can be obtained from a straightforward application of logical inference to experiments for which there is uncertainty about individual events and for which the frequencies of the observed events are robust with respect to small changes in the conditions under which the experiments are carried out. - Highlights: • It is shown that logical inference, that is, inductive reasoning, provides a rational explanation for the success of quantum theory. • The Schrödinger equation is obtained through logical inference applied to robust experiments. • The singlet and triplet states follow from logical inference applied to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment. • Robustness also leads to the quantum theoretical description of the Stern-Gerlach experiment.

  17. The 30/20 GHz flight experiment system, phase 2. Volume 2: Experiment system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L.; Kawamoto, Y.; Ribarich, J. J.; Scope, J. R.; Forman, B. J.; Bergman, S. G.; Reisenfeld, S.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed technical description of the 30/20 GHz flight experiment system is presented. The overall communication system is described with performance analyses, communication operations, and experiment plans. Hardware descriptions of the payload are given with the tradeoff studies that led to the final design. The spacecraft bus which carries the payload is discussed and its interface with the launch vehicle system is described. Finally, the hardwares and the operations of the terrestrial segment are presented.

  18. Microwave remote sensing of snow experiment description and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator); Stiles, W. H.; Hanson, B. C.

    1977-01-01

    The active and passive microwave responses to snow were investigated at a site near Steamboat Springs, Colorado during the February and March winter months. The microwave equipment was mounted atop truck-mounted booms. Data were acquired at numerous frequencies, polarizations, and angles of incidence for a variety of snow conditions. The experiment description, the characteristics of the microwave and ground truth instruments, and the results of a preliminary analysis of a small portion of the total data volume acquired in Colorado are documented.

  19. Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) functional description and interface document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, R. C.; Shank, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    This document presents a functional description of the Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) and of interfaces between FEDS and external hardware and software. FEDS is a modification of the Automated Orbit Determination System (AODS). FEDS has been developed to support a ground demonstration of microprocessor-based onboard orbit determination. This document provides an overview of the structure and logic of FEDS and details the various operational procedures to build and execute FEDS. It also documents a microprocessor interface between FEDS and a TDRSS user transponder and describes a software simulator of the interface used in the development and system testing of FEDS.

  20. Quantum theory as the most robust description of reproducible experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Raedt, Hans; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Michielsen, Kristel

    2014-08-01

    It is shown that the basic equations of quantum theory can be obtained from a straightforward application of logical inference to experiments for which there is uncertainty about individual events and for which the frequencies of the observed events are robust with respect to small changes in the conditions under which the experiments are carried out. There is no quantum world. There is only an abstract physical description. It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about nature [45]. Physics is to be regarded not so much as the study of something a priori given, but rather as the development of methods of ordering and surveying human experience. In this respect our task must be to account for such experience in a manner independent of individual subjective judgment and therefore objective in the sense that it can be unambiguously communicated in ordinary human language [46]. The physical content of quantum mechanics is exhausted by its power to formulate statistical laws governing observations under conditions specified in plain language [46]. The first two sentences of the first quote may be read as a suggestion to dispose of, in Mermin's words [47], the "bad habit" to take mathematical abstractions as the reality of the events (in the everyday sense of the word) that we experience through our senses. Although widely circulated, these sentences are reported by Petersen [45] and there is doubt that Bohr actually used this wording [48]. The last two sentences of the first quote and the second quote suggest that we should try to describe human experiences (confined to the realm of scientific inquiry) in a manner and language which is unambiguous and independent of the individual subjective judgment. Of course, the latter should not be construed to imply that the observed phenomena are independent of the choices made by the individual(s) in performing the scientific experiment [49].The third quote

  1. ATR National Scientific User Facility 2009 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Allen; Mitchell K. Meyer; Frances Marshall; Mary Catherine Thelen; Jeff Benson

    2010-11-01

    This report describes activities of the ATR NSUF from FY-2008 through FY-2009 and includes information on partner facilities, calls for proposals, users week and education programs. The report also contains project information on university research projects that were awarded by ATR NSUF in the fiscal years 2008 & 2009. This research is university-proposed researcher under a user facility agreement. All intellectual property from these experiments belongs to the university per the user agreement.

  2. HEATR project: ATR algorithm parallelization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deardorf, Catherine E.

    1998-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) Embedded Application for Target Recognition (HEATR) is a project funded by the High Performance Computing Modernization Office through the Common HPC Software Support Initiative (CHSSI). The goal of CHSSI is to produce portable, parallel, multi-purpose, freely distributable, support software to exploit emerging parallel computing technologies and enable application of scalable HPC's for various critical DoD applications. Specifically, the CHSSI goal for HEATR is to provide portable, parallel versions of several existing ATR detection and classification algorithms to the ATR-user community to achieve near real-time capability. The HEATR project will create parallel versions of existing automatic target recognition (ATR) detection and classification algorithms and generate reusable code that will support porting and software development process for ATR HPC software. The HEATR Team has selected detection/classification algorithms from both the model- based and training-based (template-based) arena in order to consider the parallelization requirements for detection/classification algorithms across ATR technology. This would allow the Team to assess the impact that parallelization would have on detection/classification performance across ATR technology. A field demo is included in this project. Finally, any parallel tools produced to support the project will be refined and returned to the ATR user community along with the parallel ATR algorithms. This paper will review: (1) HPCMP structure as it relates to HEATR, (2) Overall structure of the HEATR project, (3) Preliminary results for the first algorithm Alpha Test, (4) CHSSI requirements for HEATR, and (5) Project management issues and lessons learned.

  3. Quantum theory as the most robust description of reproducible experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Raedt, Hans; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Michielsen, Kristel

    2014-08-01

    It is shown that the basic equations of quantum theory can be obtained from a straightforward application of logical inference to experiments for which there is uncertainty about individual events and for which the frequencies of the observed events are robust with respect to small changes in the conditions under which the experiments are carried out. There is no quantum world. There is only an abstract physical description. It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about nature [45]. Physics is to be regarded not so much as the study of something a priori given, but rather as the development of methods of ordering and surveying human experience. In this respect our task must be to account for such experience in a manner independent of individual subjective judgment and therefore objective in the sense that it can be unambiguously communicated in ordinary human language [46]. The physical content of quantum mechanics is exhausted by its power to formulate statistical laws governing observations under conditions specified in plain language [46]. The first two sentences of the first quote may be read as a suggestion to dispose of, in Mermin's words [47], the "bad habit" to take mathematical abstractions as the reality of the events (in the everyday sense of the word) that we experience through our senses. Although widely circulated, these sentences are reported by Petersen [45] and there is doubt that Bohr actually used this wording [48]. The last two sentences of the first quote and the second quote suggest that we should try to describe human experiences (confined to the realm of scientific inquiry) in a manner and language which is unambiguous and independent of the individual subjective judgment. Of course, the latter should not be construed to imply that the observed phenomena are independent of the choices made by the individual(s) in performing the scientific experiment [49].The third quote

  4. Problem set guidelines to facilitate ATR research, development, and performance assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerkamp, Lori A.; Wild, Thomas J.; Meredith, Donna; Morrison, S. A.; Mossing, John C.; Avent, Randy K.; Bergman, Annette; Bruckheim, Arthur; Castanon, David A.; Corbett, Francis J.; Hugo, Douglas; Hummel, Robert A.; Irvine, John M.; Merle, Bruce; Otto, Louis; Reynolds, Robert; Sadowski, Charles; Schachter, Bruce J.; Simonson, Katherine M.; Smit, Gene; Walters, Clarence P.

    2002-07-01

    In November of 2000, the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Science and Technology Sensor Systems (DUSD (S&T/SS)) chartered the ATR Working Group (ATRWG) to develop guidelines for sanctioned Problem Sets. Such Problem Sets are intended for development and test of ATR algorithms and contain comprehensive documentation of the data in them. A problem set provides a consistent basis to examine ATR performance and growth. Problem Sets will, in general, serve multiple purposes. First, they will enable informed decisions by government agencies sponsoring ATR development and transition. Problem Sets standardize the testing and evaluation process, resulting in consistent assessment of ATR performance. Second, they will measure and guide ATR development progress within this standardized framework. Finally, they quantify the state of the art for the community. Problem Sets provide clearly defined operating condition coverage. This encourages ATR developers to consider these critical challenges and allows evaluators to assess over them. Thus the widely distributed development and self-test portions, along with a disciplined methodology documented within the Problem Set, permit ATR developers to address critical issues and describe their accomplishments, while the sequestered portion permits government assessment of state-of-the-art and of transition readiness. This paper discusses the elements of an ATR problem set as a package of data and information that presents a standardized ATR challenge relevant to one or more scenarios. The package includes training and test data containing targets and clutter, truth information, required experiments, and a standardized analytical methodology to assess performance.

  5. Experimenting with Impacts in a Conceptual Physics or Descriptive Astronomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    What follows is a description of the procedure for and results of a simple experiment on the formation of impact craters designed for the laboratory portions of lower mathematical-level general education science courses such as conceptual physics or descriptive astronomy. The experiment provides necessary experience with data collection and…

  6. An informative confidence metric for ATR.

    SciTech Connect

    Bow, Wallace Johnston Jr.; Richards, John Alfred; Bray, Brian Kenworthy

    2003-03-01

    Automatic or assisted target recognition (ATR) is an important application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Most ATR researchers have focused on the core problem of declaration-that is, detection and identification of targets of interest within a SAR image. For ATR declarations to be of maximum value to an image analyst, however, it is essential that each declaration be accompanied by a reliability estimate or confidence metric. Unfortunately, the need for a clear and informative confidence metric for ATR has generally been overlooked or ignored. We propose a framework and methodology for evaluating the confidence in an ATR system's declarations and competing target hypotheses. Our proposed confidence metric is intuitive, informative, and applicable to a broad class of ATRs. We demonstrate that seemingly similar ATRs may differ fundamentally in the ability-or inability-to identify targets with high confidence.

  7. FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Eric Bonebrake

    2010-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the ATR Critical (ATRC) facilities lack real-time methods for detecting thermal neutron flux and fission reaction rates for irradiation capsules. Direct measurements of the actual power deposited into a test are now possible without resorting to complicated correction factors. In addition, it is possible to directly measure minor actinide fission reaction rates and to provide time-dependent monitoring of the fission reaction rate or fast/thermal flux during transient testing. A joint Idaho State University /Idaho National Laboratory ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project was recently initiated to evaluate new real-time state-of-the-art in-pile flux detection sensors. Initially, the project is comparing the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA), specially developed commercial SPNDs, and back-to-back fission (BTB) chambers developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). As discussed in this paper, specialized fixturing and software was developed by INL to facilitate these joint ISU/INL evaluations. Calculations were performed by ISU to assess the performance of and reduce uncertainties in flux detection sensors and compare data obtained from these sensors with existing integral methods employed at the ATRC. Ultimately, project results will be used to select the detector that can provide the best online regional ATRC power measurement. It is anticipated that project results may offer the potential to increase the ATRC’s current power limit and its ability to perform low-level irradiation experiments. In addition, results from this effort will provide insights about the viability of using these detectors in the ATR. Hence, this effort complements current activities to improve ATR software tools, computational

  8. ATR task and training requirements analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gertman, D.I.; Blackman, H.S.; Gilmore, W.E. II; French, D.L.

    1983-05-01

    Task analysis techniques were used to assist in identifying improvements needed in the training curriculum for selected positions at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Six positions were examined - Experiment Power Reactor Operator, Experiment (EPRO-Ex); Experiment Power Reactor Operator, Console (EPRO-Co); Senior Reactor Engineer (SRE); Assistant Shift Supervisor (AS); Shift Supervisor (SS); and Process Control Operator (PCO). A complete position task listing and a core of tasks defined in terms of (a) level of difficulty to perform, (b) severity of consequence if performed improperly, and (c) associated error probability were identified for each position. The systems, academic, and administrative knowledge needed by job incumbents to perform each task was noted. Strategies for teaching the knowledge associated with these tasks are presented.

  9. Extended experience benefits spatial mental model development with route but not survey descriptions.

    PubMed

    Brunyé, Tad T; Taylor, Holly A

    2008-02-01

    Spatial descriptions symbolically represent environmental information through language and are written in two primary perspectives: survey, analogous to viewing a map, and route, analogous to navigation. Readers of survey or route descriptions form abstracted perspective flexible representations of the described environment, or spatial mental models. The present two experiments investigated the maintenance of perspective in spatial mental models as a function of description perspective and experience (operationalized through repetition), and as reflected in self-paced reading times. Experiment 1 involved studying survey and route descriptions either once or three times, then completing map drawing and true/false statement verification. Results demonstrated that spatial mental models are readily formed with survey descriptions, but require relatively more experience with route descriptions; further, some limited evidence suggests perspective dependence in spatial mental models, even following extended experience. Experiment 2 measured self-paced reading during three successive description presentations. Average reading times over the three presentations reduced more for survey relative to route descriptions, and there was no evidence for perspective specificity in resulting spatial mental models. This supports Experiment 1 findings demonstrating the relatively time-consuming nature of acquiring spatial mental models from route, but not survey descriptions. Results are discussed with regard to developmental, discourse processing, and spatial mental model theory. PMID:17723221

  10. Descriptions of Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The experiments for all the Space Processing Applications Rocket experiments, including those flown on previous Space Processing flights as well as those under development for future flights are described. The experiment objective, rationale, approach, and results or anticipated results are summarized.

  11. ATR CONTRIBUTES TO CELL CYCLE ARREST AND SURVIVAL AFTER CISPLATIN BUT NOT OXALIPLATIN1

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kriste A.; Lilly, Kia K.; Reynolds, Evelyn A.; Sullivan, William P.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Cliby, William A.

    2009-01-01

    The DNA cross-linking agents cisplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in the treatment of human cancer. Lesions produced by these agents are widely known to activate the G1 and G2 cell cycle checkpoints. Less is known about the role of the intra-S phase checkpoint in the response to these agents. In the present study, two different cell lines expressing a dominant negative kinase-dead (kd) version of the ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related) kinase in an inducible fashion were examined for their responses to these two platinating agents and a variety of other DNA cross-linking drugs. Expression of the kdATR allele markedly sensitized the cells to cisplatin, but not oxaliplatin, as assessed by inhibition of colony formation, induction of apoptosis, and cell cycle analysis. Similar differences in survival were noted for melphalan (ATR-dependent) and 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4HC) (ATR-independent). Further experiments demonstrated that ATR function is not necessary for removal of Pt-DNA adducts. The predominant difference between the responses to the two platinum drugs was presence of a drug-specific ATR-dependent S phase arrest after cisplatin but not oxaliplatin. These results indicate that involvement of ATR in the response to DNA cross-linking agents is lesion specific. This observation might need to be taken into account in the development and use of ATR or Chk1 inhibitors. PMID:19372558

  12. Gradient Heating Facility. Experiment cartridges. Description and general specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breton, J.

    1982-01-01

    Specifications that define experiment cartridges that are compatible with the furnace of the gradient heating facility on board the Spacelab are presented. They establish a standard cartridge design independent of the type of experiment to be conducted. By using them, experimenters can design, construct, and test the hot section of the cartridge, known as the high temperature nacelle.

  13. Description of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jeffrey P.; Rallo, Rosemary A.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility for the study of control laws for large flexible spacecraft is described. The facility fulfills the requirements of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) design challenge for a laboratory experiment, which will allow slew maneuvers and pointing operations. The structural apparatus is described in detail sufficient for modelling purposes. The sensor and actuator types and characteristics are described so that identification and control algorithms may be designed. The control implementation computer and real-time subroutines are also described.

  14. Description of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jeffrey P.; Rallo, Rosemary A.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility for the study of control laws for large flexible spacecraft is described. The facility fulfills the requirements of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) design challenge for laboratory experiments, which will allow slew maneuvers and pointing operations. The structural apparatus is described in detail sufficient for modelling purposes. The sensor and actuator types and characteristics are described so that identification and control algorithms may be designed. The control implementation computer and real-time subroutines are also described.

  15. The Plasma Interaction Experiment (PIX) description and test program. [electrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignaczak, L. R.; Haley, F. A.; Domino, E. J.; Culp, D. H.; Shaker, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The plasma interaction experiment (PIX) is a battery powered preprogrammed auxiliary payload on the LANDSAT-C launch. This experiment is part of a larger program to investigate space plasma interactions with spacecraft surfaces and components. The varying plasma densities encountered during available telemetry coverage periods are deemed sufficient to determine first order interactions between the space plasma environment and the biased experimental surfaces. The specific objectives of the PIX flight experiment are to measure the plasma coupling current and the negative voltage breakdown characteristics of a solar array segment and a gold plated steel disk. Measurements will be made over a range of surface voltages up to plus or minus kilovolt. The orbital environment will provide a range of plasma densities. The experimental surfaces will be voltage biased in a preprogrammed step sequence to optimize the data returned for each plasma region and for the available telemetry coverage.

  16. School Leader Succession: A Description of Transitional Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative case study describes the transitional experiences (first 4 1/2 months) of four school leaders. The "life cycle" of leaders is often short, necessitating job changes with resulting transitions, when new leaders must simultaneously learn their positions and make changes to improve schools. Using previous leadership…

  17. VIGILANTE: system description and first experiment approach and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suddarth, Steven C.; Brenner, Michael P.; Udomkesmalee, Suraphol; Liebe, Carl C.; Padgett, Curtis W.; Vo, Hung; Arvil, Larry

    1998-09-01

    The VIGILANTE project is a planned vision system capable of tracking and recognizing targets in real time, on a small airborne platform. The project consists of two parts, (1) the Viewing Imager/Gimballed Instrumentation Laboratory (VIGIL), which is an infrared and visible sensor platform with appropriate optics and (2) the Analog Neural Three-dimensional processing Experiment (ANTE), a massive parallel, neural based, high-speed processor. The VIGIL senors are mounted on a helicopter. VIGIL consists of an Optical Bench containing a visible camera, a Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) camera and a two axes gyro stabilized gimbaled mirror. The helicopter is also equipped with Global Position System (GPS) and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) for attitude and position determination and two video links for ground based image collection. Finally, a jet powered, radio controlled VIGILANTE Target Vehicle (VTV) has been manufactured and equipped with GPS. In the first stages of the project, the VIGIL system is mounted in a Hughes 500 helicopter and is used to acquire image sequences of the VTV for training and testing of the ANTE image recognition processor. Based on GPS and IMU input, the gimbal is pointed toward the VTV and acquires images. This paper describes the VIGIL system in detail. It discusses the overall approach for the first flight experiment, the results of the experiment and the follow-on experiments that demonstrate real-time target recognition and tracking.

  18. Towards violation of Born's rule: description of a simple experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2011-03-28

    Recently a new model with hidden variables of the wave type was elaborated, so called prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). Roughly speaking PCSFT is a classical signal theory applied to a special class of signals - 'quantum systems'. PCSFT reproduces successfully all probabilistic predictions of QM, including correlations for entangled systems. This model peacefully coexists with all known no-go theorems, including Bell's theorem. In our approach QM is an approximate model. All probabilistic predictions of QM are only (quite good) approximations of 'real physical averages'. The latter are averages with respect to fluctuations of prequantum fields. In particular, Born's rule is only an approximate rule. More precise experiments should demonstrate its violation. We present a simple experiment which has to produce statistical data violating Born's rule. Since the PCSFT-presentation of this experiment may be difficult for experimenters, we reformulate consequences of PCSFT in terms of the conventional wave function. In general, deviation from Born's rule is rather small. We found an experiment amplifying this deviation. We start with a toy example. Then we present a more realistic example based on Gaussian states with very small dispersion.

  19. High School Teachers' Experiences with Suicidal Students: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedenthal, Stacey; Breslin, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Teachers are widely considered key gatekeepers to mental health services for students at risk for suicide. Using data from 120 teachers at two Denver-area high schools, this study investigated teachers' experiences with suicidal students. Analyses revealed that the majority of teachers (58.8%) reported that at least one student had disclosed…

  20. Short description of mathematical support programs for space experiments in the Interkosmos program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elyasberg, P. Y.

    1979-01-01

    A synopsis of programs of mathematical support designed at the Institute for Cosmic Research of the USSR Academy of Sciences for cosmic experiments being conducted in the Interkosmos Program is presented. A short description of the appropriate algorithm is given.

  1. Molecular Pathways: Targeting ATR in Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Karnitz, Larry M; Zou, Lee

    2015-11-01

    The human ATR gene encodes a kinase that is activated by DNA damage and replication stress as a central transducer of a checkpoint signaling pathway. Once activated, ATR phosphorylates multiple substrates, including the kinase Chk1, to regulate cell-cycle progression, replication fork stability, and DNA repair. These events promote cell survival during replication stress and in cells with DNA damage. Accordingly, there has been the tantalizing possibility that ATR inhibitors would be therapeutically useful, especially if they were more effective in tumor versus normal cells. Indeed, multiple studies have demonstrated that alterations that promote tumorigenesis, such as defects in the ATM-p53 pathway, constitutive oncogene activation, and acquisition of the alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway, render tumor cells sensitive to ATR inhibitor monotherapy and/or increase the synergy between ATR inhibitors and genotoxic chemotherapies. Now, nearly two decades after the discovery of ATR, two highly selective and potent ATR inhibitors, AZD6738 and VX-970, are in early-phase clinical trials either as monotherapies or paired with a variety of genotoxic chemotherapies. These trials will generate important insights into the effects of ATR inhibition in humans and the potential role of inhibiting this kinase in the treatment of human malignancies. PMID:26362996

  2. ACTS Aeronautical Terminal Experiment System Description and Link Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Philip; Raquet, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Nakamura, Dan

    1996-01-01

    During the summer of 1994, the performance of an experimental mobile satellite communication system was demonstrated to industry and government representatives by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The system was based on the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) and consisted of a K-/Ka-band active monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phased array antenna system, ACTS mobile terminal (AMT) and link evaluation terminal (LET). A LeRC research aircraft, Learjet model 25, was outfitted with the active MMIC phased array antenna system and AMT and served as the experimental 20/30 Ghz aeronautical terminal. The LET at LeRC in Cleveland, OH, was interfaced with portions of fixed-AMT equipment and together provided the gateway station functions including ACTS interface and public service telephone network (PSTN) interface. The ACTS was operated in its microwave switch matrix (MSM) mode with a spot beam for the Learjet and another spot beam dedicated to the LET. The Learjet was flown over several major cities across the US and demonstrated the feasibility of a full-duplex compressed voice links for an aeronautical terminal through the 20/30 Ghz ACTS channel. This paper presents a technical description of the system including the MMIC phased array antenna system, AMT, Learjet, LET, and ACTS. The array antenna system consists of a 30 Ghz transmit array (LeRc/Texas Instruments) and two 20 Ghz receive arrays (USAF Rome Lab., Boeing, and Martin Marietta), each one very small with sufficient performance for a satellite voice link. The AMT consists of 2.4/4.8/9.6 Kbps voice coder/decoder, modem, PSTN interface and RF/IF converters. Link analysis is presented and compared to the actual performance data collected during the demonstration flights.

  3. ACTS aeronautical terminal experiment: System description and link analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Philip; Raquet, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Nakamura, Dan

    1995-01-01

    During the summer of 1994, the performance of an experimental mobile satellite communication system was demonstrated to the industry and government representatives by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The system was based on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) and consisted of an K-/Ka-band active MMIC phased array antenna system, ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) and Link Evaluation Terminal (LET). A LeRC research aircraft, Learjet Model 25, was outfitted with the active MMIC phased array antenna system and AMT and served as the experimental 20/30 Ghz aeronautical terminal. The LET at LeRC in Cleveland, OH was interfaced with portions of fixed-AMT equipment and together provided the gateway station functions including ACTS satellite interface and Public Service Telephone Network (PSTN) interface. The ACTS was operated in its Microwave Switch Matrix (MSM) mode with a spot beam for the Learjet and another spot beam dedicated to the LET. The Learjet was flown over several major cities across the US and demonstrated the feasibility of full-duplex compressed voice link for an aeronautical terminal through the 20/30 Ghz ACTS satellite channel. This paper will present a technical description of the system including the MMIC phased array antenna system, AMT, Learjet, LET and ACTS satellite. The array antenna system consists of a 30 Ghz transmit array (LeRC/Texas Instruments) and two 20 Ghz receive arrays (USAF Rome Lab/Boeing and Martin Marietta), each one very small with sufficient performance for satellite voice link. The AMT consists of 2.4/4.8/9.6 Kbps voice coder/decoder, modem, PSTN interface and RF/IF converters. Link analysis will be presented and compared to the actual performance data collected during the demonstration flights.

  4. Geometerial description for a proposed aeroassist flight experiment vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatwood, F. M.; Dejarnette, F. J.; Hamilton, H. H., II

    1986-01-01

    One geometry currently under consideration for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle is composed of several segments of simple general conics: an ellipsoidal nose tangent to an elliptical cone and a base skirt with the base plane raked relative to the body axis. An analytic representation for the body coordinates and first and second partial derivatives of this configuration has been developed. Equations are given which define the body radius and partial derivatives for a prescribed axial and circumferential position on the vehicle. The results for a sample case are tabulated and presented graphically.

  5. Space experiments with particle accelerators (SEPAC): Description of instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W. W. L.; Roberts, W. T.; Reasoner, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Baker, B. B.; Burch, J. L.; Gibson, W. C.; Black, R. K.; Tomlinson, W. M.; Bounds, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    SEPAC (Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators) flew on Spacelab 1 (SL 1) in November and December 1983. SEPAC is a joint U.S.-Japan investigation of the interaction of electron, plasma, and neutral beams with the ionosphere, atmosphere and magnetosphere. It is scheduled to fly again on Atlas 1 in August 1990. On SL 1, SEPAC used an electron accelerator, a plasma accelerator, and neutral gas source as active elements and an array of diagnostics to investigate the interactions. For Atlas 1, the plasma accelerator will be replaced by a plasma contactor and charge collection devices to improve vehicle charging meutralization. This paper describes the SEPAC instrumentation in detail for the SL 1 and Atlas 1 flights and includes a bibliography of SEPAC papers.

  6. A theoretical description of elastic pillar substrates in biophysical experiments.

    PubMed

    Mohrdieck, Camilla; Wanner, Alexander; Roos, Wouter; Roth, Alexander; Sackmann, Erich; Spatz, Joachim P; Arzt, Eduard

    2005-08-12

    Arrays of elastic pillars are used in biophysical experiments as sensors for traction forces. The evaluation of the forces can be complicated if they are coupled to the pillar displacements over large distances. This is the case if many of the pillars are interconnected by elastic linkages as, for example, in fiber networks that are grown on top of pillars. To calculate the traction forces in such a network, we developed a set of nonlinear inhomogeneous equations relating the forces in the linking elements to the resulting pillar deflections. We chose a homogeneous, activated two-dimensional network of cytoskeletal actin filaments to illustrate that a pillar substrate is generally not a force sensor but a force-gradient sensor. In homogeneous networks the forces acting along the filaments can be approximated by analyzing only pillar deflections in the edge zones of the substrate and by integration over the corresponding force gradients. PMID:16082672

  7. The reversed description-experience gap: Disentangling sources of presentation format effects in risky choice.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Hilbig, Benjamin E; Henninger, Felix; Fiedler, Susann

    2016-04-01

    Previous literature has suggested that risky choice patterns in general--and probability weighting in particular--are strikingly different in experience-based as compared with description-based formats. In 2 reanalyses and 3 new experiments, we investigate differences between experience-based and description-based decisions using a parametric approach based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). Once controlling for sampling biases, we consistently find a reversal of the typical description-experience gap, that is, a reduced sensitivity to probabilities and increased overweighting of small probabilities in decisions from experience as compared with decisions from descriptions. This finding supports the hypothesis that regression to the mean effects in probability estimation are a crucial source of differences between both presentation formats. Further analyses identified task specific information asymmetry prevalent in gambles involving certainty as a third source of differences. We present a novel conceptualization of multiple independent sources of bias that contribute to the description-experience gap, namely sampling biases and task specific information asymmetry on the one hand, and regression to the mean effects in probability estimation on the other hand. PMID:26974209

  8. Description and Analysis of Core Samples: The Lunar Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Allton, Judith H.

    1997-01-01

    Although no samples yet have been returned from a comet, extensive experience from sampling another solar system body, the Moon, does exist. While, in overall structure, composition, and physical properties the Moon bears little resemblance to what is expected for a comet, sampling the Moon has provided some basic lessons in how to do things which may be equally applicable to cometary samples. In particular, an extensive series of core samples has been taken on the Moon, and coring is the best way to sample a comet in three dimensions. Data from cores taken at 24 Apollo collection stations and 3 Luna sites have been used to provide insight into the evolution of the lunar regolith. It is now well understood that this regolith is very complex and reflects gardening (stirring of grains by micrometeorites), erosion (from impacts and solar wind sputtering), maturation (exposure on the bare lunar surface to solar winds ions and micrometeorite impacts) and comminution of coarse grains into finer grains, blanket deposition of coarse-grained layers, and other processes. All of these processes have been documented in cores. While a cometary regolith should not be expected to parallel in detail the lunar regolith, it is possible that the upper part of a cometary regolith may include textural, mineralogical, and chemical features which reflect the original accretion of the comet, including a form of gardening. Differences in relative velocities and gravitational attraction no doubt made this accretionary gardening qualitatively much different than the lunar version. Furthermore, at least some comets, depending on their orbits, have been subjected to impacts of the uppermost surface by small projectiles at some time in their history. Consequently, a more recent post-accretional gardening may have occurred. Finally, for comets which approach the sun, large scale erosion may have occurred driven by gas loss. The uppermost material of these comets may reflect some of the features

  9. Experimenting with impacts in a conceptual physics or descriptive astronomy laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2016-07-01

    What follows is a description of the procedure for and results of a simple experiment on the formation of impact craters designed for the laboratory portions of lower mathematical-level general education science courses such as conceptual physics or descriptive astronomy. The experiment provides necessary experience with data collection and analysis as well as practice with quantitative skills such as measurement and calculation in a manner that does not exceed the mathematical scope of the courses while, due to its hands-on nature and interesting topic, remaining engaging.

  10. The Effect of Time Pressure on Risky Financial Decisions from Description and Decisions from Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wegier, Pete; Spaniol, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Time pressure has been found to impact decision making in various ways, but studies on the effects time pressure in risky financial gambles have been largely limited to description-based decision tasks and to the gain domain. We present two experiments that investigated the effect of time pressure on decisions from description and decisions from experience, across both gain and loss domains. In description-based choice, time pressure decreased risk seeking for losses, whereas for gains there was a trend in the opposite direction. In experience-based choice, no impact of time pressure was observed on risk-taking, suggesting that time constraints may not alter attitudes towards risk when outcomes are learned through experience. PMID:25885034

  11. The experience-description gap and the role of the inter decision interval.

    PubMed

    Teoderescu, Kinneret; Amir, Michal; Erev, Ido

    2013-01-01

    Previous research highlights four distinct contributors to the experience-description gap (the observation that people exhibit oversensitivity to rare events in decisions from description and the opposite bias in decisions from experience). These contributors include the nature of small samples, the mere presentation effect, the belief that the environment is dynamic, and overgeneralization from decisions based on estimated risks. This chapter reviews this research and highlights the role of a fifth contributor to the experience-description gap. Three new experiments demonstrate that long deliberation before the decisions increases the weighting of rare events. The increase, however, is not large. People tend to underweight rare events in decisions from experience even after a forced deliberation period of 7.8s. This pattern was documented in pure decisions from experience and when the subjects could rely on both description and experience. In addition, the results show that the existence of inter decisions delay does not increase the weighting of rare events when the subjects are asked to perform a distraction task during the delay. Distraction reduces the weighting of rare events. PMID:23317828

  12. Radar derived spatial statistics of summer rain. Volume 1: Experiment description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, I.; Arnold, A.; Goldhirsh, J.; Konrad, T. G.; Vann, W. L.; Dobson, E. B.; Rowland, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was performed at Wallops Island, Virginia, to obtain a statistical description of summer rainstorms. Its purpose was to obtain information needed for design of earth and space communications systems in which precipitation in the earth's atmosphere scatters or attenuates the radio signal. Rainstorms were monitored with the high resolution SPANDAR radar and the 3-dimensional structures of the storms were recorded on digital tape. The equipment, the experiment, and tabulated data obtained during the experiment are described.

  13. LWRS ATR Irradiation Testing Readiness Status

    SciTech Connect

    Kristine Barrett

    2012-09-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors. The LWRS Program is divided into four R&D Pathways: (1) Materials Aging and Degradation; (2) Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels; (3) Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control Systems; and (4) Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization. This report describes an irradiation testing readiness analysis in preparation of LWRS experiments for irradiation testing at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) under Pathway (2). The focus of the Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuels Pathway is to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental performance of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding in nuclear power plants during both nominal and off-nominal conditions. This information will be applied in the design and development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels with improved safety, cladding integrity, and improved nuclear fuel cycle economics

  14. From Roots to Blossoms: A Description of the Shared Teaching Experiences of Jamaican Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayne, Hope Antoinette

    2012-01-01

    The study explored teaching and teacher education in the postcolonial context, Jamaica, based on arguments that Jamaica's education system and teacher training is constructed on its colonial past and the heavy reliance on knowledge from the West. It provided a rich description of the shared teaching experiences of teacher educators in Jamaica,…

  15. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycle 154B

    SciTech Connect

    Binh Pham; Jeff Einerson

    2014-01-01

    This report provides the data qualification status of Advanced Gas Reactor-2 (AGR-2) fuel irradiation experimental data from Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 154B as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This is the last cycle of AGR-2 irradiation, as the test train was pulled from the ATR core during the outage portion of ATR Cycle 155A. The AGR-2 data streams addressed in this report include thermocouple (TC) temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rates including new Fission Product Monitoring (FPM) downstream flows from Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) detectors, pressure, and moisture content), and FPMS data (release rates and release-to-birth rate ratios [R/Bs]) for each of the six capsules in the AGR-2 experiment. The final data qualification status for these data streams is determined by a Data Review Committee (DRC) comprised of AGR technical leads, Sitewide Quality Assurance (QA), and NDMAS analysts. The Data Review Committee reviewed the data acquisition process, considered whether the data met the requirements for data collection as specified in QA-approved Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) data collection plans, examined the results of NDMAS data testing and statistical analyses, and confirmed the qualification status of the data as given in this report.

  16. The Skylab Student Project. [high school winners selection and experiments description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, H. B.

    1973-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) undertook in 1971 a cooperative effort which brought high school students of the Nation into the mainstream of Skylab research through the Skylab Student Project. This paper presents the background, objectives and scope of the project, experiment selection procedures, as well as experiment descriptions and status. The paper includes observations on student caliber and inclinations and implications of some developments for the benefit of future researchers.

  17. 76 FR 47520 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Model ATR42 and ATR72 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... continued.airworthiness@atr.fr ; Internet http://www.aerochain.com . You may review copies of the referenced... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Transport R gional Model ATR42 and ATR72 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),...

  18. Cascaded automatic target recognition (Cascaded ATR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Bradley

    2010-04-01

    The global war on terror has plunged US and coalition forces into a battle space requiring the continuous adaptation of tactics and technologies to cope with an elusive enemy. As a result, technologies that enhance the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) mission making the warfighter more effective are experiencing increased interest. In this paper we show how a new generation of smart cameras built around foveated sensing makes possible a powerful ISR technique termed Cascaded ATR. Foveated sensing is an innovative optical concept in which a single aperture captures two distinct fields of view. In Cascaded ATR, foveated sensing is used to provide a coarse resolution, persistent surveillance, wide field of view (WFOV) detector to accomplish detection level perception. At the same time, within the foveated sensor, these detection locations are passed as a cue to a steerable, high fidelity, narrow field of view (NFOV) detector to perform recognition level perception. Two new ISR mission scenarios, utilizing Cascaded ATR, are proposed.

  19. The description-experience gap in risky choice in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Heilbronner, Sarah R; Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2016-04-01

    Risk attitudes in humans depend on the format used to present the gamble: we are more risk-averse for common gambles in the gains domain whose properties are described to us verbally than for those whose properties we learned about solely through experience. This difference, which constitutes part of the description-experience gap, is important, because it highlights the role of knowledge acquisition in decision-making. The reasons for the gap remain obscure, but could depend upon uniquely human cognitive abilities, such as those associated with language. Thus, the gap may or may not extend to nonhuman animals. For this study, rhesus monkeys performed a novel task in which the properties of some gambles were explicitly cued (described), whereas others were learned through previous choices (experienced). Our monkeys displayed a description-experience gap. Overall, monkeys were more risk-seeking for experienced than for described gambles. This difference was observed for a range of gamble probabilities (from 20% to 80% likelihood of payoff), indicating that it is not limited to low probability events. These results suggest that the description-experience gap does not depend on uniquely human cognitive abilities, such as those associated with language, and support the idea that epistemic influences on risk attitudes are evolutionarily ancient. PMID:26286883

  20. AFC-1 Fuel Rodlet Fission Power Deposition Validation in ATR

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; M. A. Lillo; D. J. Utterbeck

    2008-11-01

    One of the viable options of long-term geological disposal of the nuclear power reactors generated spent fuel is to extract plutonium, the minor actinides (MA) and potentially long-lived fission products from the spent fuel and transmute them into short-lived or stable radionuclides in an appropriate reactor for the reduction of the radiological toxicity of the nuclear waste stream. An important component of that technology will be a non-fertile / low-fertile actinide transmutation fuel form containing the plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes to be transmuted. Such advanced fuel forms, especially ones enriched in the long-life minor actinide (LLMA) elements (i.e., Np, Am, Cm), have minimal irradiation performance data available from which to establish a transmutation fuel form design. Recognizing these needs, an Advanced Fuel Cycle test series-1 (AFC-1) irradiation test on a variety of candidate fuel forms is now being conducted in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The first advanced fuel experiment (AFC-1) has been finalized and the test assembly analyzed for insertion and irradiation in ATR. The ATR core consists of a serpentine and rotationally symmetric fuel assembly about the z-axis of the core center. The plan view of the ATR core configuration is shown in Fig. 5, in Ref. 1. A cadmium filter with a 0.178 cm (0.045") thickness and 121.5 cm (48") in length, is currently used in the actinide-fuel capsule design for the East Flux Trap (EFT) position in ATR, to depress the linear heat generation rate (LHGR) lower than the project’s 330 W/cm limit for the experimental fuel rodlets. The LHGR is proportional to the fission power deposited in the fuel rodlets from the neutron fissions. The fraction of the fission power generated from the neutron fission reactions deposited in the fuel rodlet is an important parameter for test assembly thermal analysis, which will be validated in this summary.

  1. Quantum theory as a description of robust experiments: Derivation of the Pauli equation

    SciTech Connect

    De Raedt, Hans; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Donker, Hylke C.; Michielsen, Kristel

    2015-08-15

    It is shown that the Pauli equation and the concept of spin naturally emerge from logical inference applied to experiments on a charged particle under the conditions that (i) space is homogeneous (ii) the observed events are logically independent, and (iii) the observed frequency distributions are robust with respect to small changes in the conditions under which the experiment is carried out. The derivation does not take recourse to concepts of quantum theory and is based on the same principles which have already been shown to lead to e.g. the Schrödinger equation and the probability distributions of pairs of particles in the singlet or triplet state. Application to Stern–Gerlach experiments with chargeless, magnetic particles, provides additional support for the thesis that quantum theory follows from logical inference applied to a well-defined class of experiments. - Highlights: • The Pauli equation is obtained through logical inference applied to robust experiments on a charged particle. • The concept of spin appears as an inference resulting from the treatment of two-valued data. • The same reasoning yields the quantum theoretical description of neutral magnetic particles. • Logical inference provides a framework to establish a bridge between objective knowledge gathered through experiments and their description in terms of concepts.

  2. Ames Heat Pipe Experiment (AHPE) experiment description document. [performance testing in a vacuum environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    A gas-controlled variable-conductance heat pipe was qualified for flight aboard orbiting astronomical observatory (OAO3). Experiments were conducted to determine the performance and reliability of the pipe in the vacuum environment of space, and to demonstrate in a specific engineering application its effectiveness in providing temperature stability for spacecraft equipment which experiences varying electronic duty cycles and changing thermal boundary conditions. System design and hardware are discussed in detail.

  3. Focusing and matching properties of the ATR transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Fischer, W.; Kewisch, J.; MacKay, W.W.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Tepikian, S.; Wei, J.

    1997-07-01

    The AGS to RHIC (AtR) beam transfer line has been constructed and will be used to transfer beam bunches from the AGS machine into the RHIC machine which is presently under construction at BNL. The original design of the AtR line has been modified. This article will present the optics of the various sections of the existing AtR beam line, as well as the matching capabilities of the AtR line to the RHIC machine.

  4. MIR-ATR sensor for process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geörg, Daniel; Schalk, Robert; Methner, Frank-Jürgen; Beuermann, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance (MIR-ATR) sensor has been developed for chemical reaction monitoring. The optical setup of the compact and low-priced sensor consists of an IR emitter as light source, a zinc selenide (ZnSe) ATR prism as boundary to the process, and four thermopile detectors, each equipped with an optical bandpass filter. The practical applicability was tested during esterification of ethanol and formic acid to ethyl formate and water as a model reaction with subsequent distillation. For reference analysis, a Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectrometer with diamond ATR module was applied. On-line measurements using the MIR-ATR sensor and the FT-MIR spectrometer were performed in a bypass loop. The sensor was calibrated by multiple linear regression in order to link the measured absorbance in the four optical channels to the analyte concentrations. The analytical potential of the MIR-ATR sensor was demonstrated by simultaneous real-time monitoring of all four chemical substances involved in the esterification and distillation process. The temporal courses of the sensor signals are in accordance with the concentration values achieved by the commercial FT-MIR spectrometer. The standard error of prediction for ethanol, formic acid, ethyl formate, and water were 0.38 mol L  -  1, 0.48 mol L  -  1, 0.38 mol L  -  1, and 1.12 mol L  -  1, respectively. A procedure based on MIR spectra is presented to simulate the response characteristics of the sensor if the transmission ranges of the filters are varied. Using this tool analyte specific bandpass filters for a particular chemical reaction can be identified. By exchanging the optical filters, the sensor can be adapted to a wide range of processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and beverage industries.

  5. A depolarization and attenuation experiment using the CTS satellite. Volume 1: Experiment description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostian, C. W.; Holt, S. B., Jr.; Kauffman, S. R.; Manus, E. A.; Marshall, R. E.; Stutzman, W. L.; Wiley, P. H.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment for measuring precipitation attenuation and depolarization on the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) 11.7 GHz downlink is described. Attenuation and depolarization of the signal received from the spacecraft is monitored on a 24 hour basis. Data is correlated with ground weather conditions. Theoretical models for millimeter wave propagation through rain are refined for maximum agreement with observed data. Techniques are developed for predicting and mimimizing the effects of rain scatter and depolarization on future satellite communication systems.

  6. The distribution of atrazine (ATR) and ATR metabolites in the Wistar rat following gestational/lactational exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gestational/lactational exposure to ATR is reported to alter reproductive/developmental function, yet our understanding of the transfer of ATR and/or its metabolites from the dam to the fetus/offspring is limited. Previously we examined the lactational transfer of CI4-ATR, but sp...

  7. Structural elucidation and functional characterization of the Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis effector protein ATR13.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, Lauriebeth; Pelton, Jeffery; Schoeffler, Allyn; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Berger, James; Wemmer, David E; Staskawicz, Brian

    2011-12-01

    The oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) is the causal agent of downy mildew on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and has been adapted as a model system to investigate pathogen virulence strategies and plant disease resistance mechanisms. Recognition of Hpa infection occurs when plant resistance proteins (R-genes) detect the presence or activity of pathogen-derived protein effectors delivered to the plant host. This study examines the Hpa effector ATR13 Emco5 and its recognition by RPP13-Nd, the cognate R-gene that triggers programmed cell death (HR) in the presence of recognized ATR13 variants. Herein, we use NMR to solve the backbone structure of ATR13 Emco5, revealing both a helical domain and a disordered internal loop. Additionally, we use site-directed and random mutagenesis to identify several amino acid residues involved in the recognition response conferred by RPP13-Nd. Using our structure as a scaffold, we map these residues to one of two surface-exposed patches of residues under diversifying selection. Exploring possible roles of the disordered region within the ATR13 structure, we perform domain swapping experiments and identify a peptide sequence involved in nucleolar localization. We conclude that ATR13 is a highly dynamic protein with no clear structural homologues that contains two surface-exposed patches of polymorphism, only one of which is involved in RPP13-Nd recognition specificity. PMID:22194684

  8. The orphaning experience: descriptions from Ugandan youth who have lost parents to HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Harms, Sheila; Jack, Susan; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Kizza, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has continued to pose significant challenges to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Millions of African children and youth have lost parents to HIV/AIDS leaving a generation of orphans to be cared for within extended family systems and communities. The experiences of youth who have lost parents to the HIV/AIDS epidemic provide an important ingress into this complex, evolving, multi-dimensional phenomenon. A fundamental qualitative descriptive study was conducted to develop a culturally relevant and comprehensive description of the experiences of orphanhood from the perspectives of Ugandan youth. A purposeful sample of 13 youth who had lost one or both parents to HIV/AIDS and who were affiliated with a non-governmental organization providing support to orphans were interviewed. Youth orphaned by HIV/AIDS described the experience of orphanhood beginning with parental illness, not death. Several losses were associated with the death of a parent including lost social capitol, educational opportunities and monetary assets. Unique findings revealed that youth experienced culturally specific stigma and conflict which was distinctly related to their HIV/AIDS orphan status. Exploitation within extended cultural family systems was also reported. Results from this study suggest that there is a pressing need to identify and provide culturally appropriate services for these Ugandan youth prior to and after the loss of a parent(s). PMID:20205893

  9. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 2.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Le Novère, Nicolas; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines. This document presents Level 1 Version 2 of the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), a computer-readable format for encoding simulation and analysis experiments to apply to computational models. SED-ML files are encoded in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and can be used in conjunction with any XML-based model encoding format, such as CellML or SBML. A SED-ML file includes details of which models to use, how to modify them prior to executing a simulation, which simulation and analysis procedures to apply, which results to extract and how to present them. Level 1 Version 2 extends the format by allowing the encoding of repeated and chained procedures. PMID:26528560

  10. Function of the ATR N-terminal domain revealed by an ATM/ATR chimera

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xinping; Zhao Runxiang; Glick, Gloria G.; Cortez, David . E-mail: david.cortez@vanderbilt.edu

    2007-05-01

    The ATM and ATR kinases function at the apex of checkpoint signaling pathways. These kinases share significant sequence similarity, phosphorylate many of the same substrates, and have overlapping roles in initiating cell cycle checkpoints. However, they sense DNA damage through distinct mechanisms. ATR primarily senses single stranded DNA (ssDNA) through its interaction with ATRIP, and ATM senses double strand breaks through its interaction with Nbs1. We determined that the N-terminus of ATR contains a domain that binds ATRIP. Attaching this domain to ATM allowed the fusion protein (ATM*) to bind ATRIP and associate with RPA-coated ssDNA. ATM* also gained the ability to localize efficiently to stalled replication forks as well as double strand breaks. Despite having normal kinase activity when tested in vitro and being phosphorylated on S1981 in vivo, ATM* is defective in checkpoint signaling and does not complement cellular deficiencies in either ATM or ATR. These data indicate that the N-terminus of ATR is sufficient to bind ATRIP and to promote localization to sites of replication stress.

  11. Experiences of Patients Living With Heart Failure: A Descriptive Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Seah, Alvin Chuen Wei; Tan, Khoon Kiat; Huang Gan, Juvena Chew; Wang, Wenru

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences, needs, and coping strategies of patients living with heart failure in Singapore. A descriptive qualitative design was used. A purposive sample of 15 informants was recruited from two cardiology wards of a tertiary public hospital in Singapore. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a semistructured interview guideline that was developed based on a review of the literature and a pilot study. Content analysis was adopted to analyze the data, and four main categories were identified: perceived causes, manifestations, and prognosis; enduring emotions; managing the condition; and needs from health care professionals. The informants were overwhelmed with the experience of living with heart failure due to the disruptive and uncertain nature of the condition. This study offers health care professionals practical and useful suggestions when providing holistic care for patients with heart failure. PMID:25724928

  12. ATR promotes cilia signalling: links to developmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Stiff, Tom; Casar Tena, Teresa; O'Driscoll, Mark; Jeggo, Penny A; Philipp, Melanie

    2016-04-15

    Mutations in ATR(ataxia telangiectasia and RAD3-related) cause Seckel syndrome (ATR-SS), a microcephalic primordial dwarfism disorder. Hitherto, the clinical manifestation of ATR deficiency has been attributed to its canonical role in DNA damage response signalling following replication fork stalling/collapse. Here, we show that ATR regulates cilia-dependent signalling in a manner that can be uncoupled from its function during replication. ATR-depleted or patient-derived ATR-SS cells form cilia of slightly reduced length but are dramatically impaired in cilia-dependent signalling functions, including growth factor and Sonic hedgehog signalling. To better understand the developmental impact of ATR loss of function, we also used zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish embryos depleted of Atr resembled ATR-SS morphology, showed a modest but statistically significant reduction in cilia length and other morphological features indicative of cilia dysfunction. Additionally, they displayed defects in left-right asymmetry including ambiguous expression of southpaw, incorrectly looped hearts and randomized localization of internal organs including the pancreas, features typically conferred by cilia dysfunction. Our findings reveal a novel role for ATR in cilia signalling distinct from its canonical function during replication and strengthen emerging links between cilia function and development. PMID:26908596

  13. ATR promotes cilia signalling: links to developmental impacts

    PubMed Central

    Stiff, Tom; Casar Tena, Teresa; O'Driscoll, Mark; Jeggo, Penny A.; Philipp, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and RAD3-related) cause Seckel syndrome (ATR-SS), a microcephalic primordial dwarfism disorder. Hitherto, the clinical manifestation of ATR deficiency has been attributed to its canonical role in DNA damage response signalling following replication fork stalling/collapse. Here, we show that ATR regulates cilia-dependent signalling in a manner that can be uncoupled from its function during replication. ATR-depleted or patient-derived ATR-SS cells form cilia of slightly reduced length but are dramatically impaired in cilia-dependent signalling functions, including growth factor and Sonic hedgehog signalling. To better understand the developmental impact of ATR loss of function, we also used zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish embryos depleted of Atr resembled ATR-SS morphology, showed a modest but statistically significant reduction in cilia length and other morphological features indicative of cilia dysfunction. Additionally, they displayed defects in left-right asymmetry including ambiguous expression of southpaw, incorrectly looped hearts and randomized localization of internal organs including the pancreas, features typically conferred by cilia dysfunction. Our findings reveal a novel role for ATR in cilia signalling distinct from its canonical function during replication and strengthen emerging links between cilia function and development. PMID:26908596

  14. 75 FR 8476 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Model ATR42 and ATR72 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ..., amendment 39-16159 (75 FR 221, January 5, 2010), on December 28, 2009. That AD applies to certain portable...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have... Transport R gional Model ATR42 and ATR72 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),...

  15. Detailed description of a long-term low-level waste degradation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Caron, F.; Torok, J.; Haas, M.K.; Manni, G.

    1997-12-31

    This work gives a detailed description of the important aspects of a long-term Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) degradation experiment, performed at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). This experiment utilized actual LLRW. The wastes consist of unconditioned compacted refuse (paper, mop heads, paper towels, used clothing, etc.), which represents the bulk of the waste volume intended for near-surface disposal at CRL. Waste material was collected and compacted to make a total of 11 bales for this experiment. Each bale was then placed and sealed in separate steel containers which were connected to sampling lines. After a dry monitoring period, water was added to promote leaching and decomposition of the wastes. The leachate sampled had a composition similar to landfill leachates. Some applications of this experiment, used to support the safety case of near-surface disposal, are briefly discussed in this paper, e.g., the production of colloidal material, the nature and role of dissolved organics of microbial origin, etc.

  16. A descriptive phenomenology study of newcomers’ experience of maternity care services: Chinese women’s perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternity health care available in Canada is based on the needs of women born in Canada and often lacks the flexibility to meet the needs of immigrant women. The purpose of this study was to explore immigrant Chinese women’s experiences in accessing maternity care, the utilization of maternity health services, and the obstacles they perceived in Canada. Methods This descriptive phenomenology study used in-depth semi-structured interviews to examine immigrant Chinese women’s experiences. Fifteen participants were recruited from the Chinese community in Toronto, Canada by using purposive sampling. The interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim into written Chinese. The transcripts were analyzed using Colaizzi’s (1978) phenomenological method. Results Six themes were extracted from the interviews: (1) preference for linguistically and culturally competent healthcare providers, with obstetricians over midwives, (2) strategies to deal with the inconvenience of the Canadian healthcare system (3) multiple resources to obtain pregnancy information, (4) the merits of the Canadian healthcare system, (5) the need for culturally sensitive care, and (6) the emergence of alternative supports and the use of private services. Conclusions The findings provide new knowledge and understanding of immigrant Chinese women’s experiences in accessing maternity health services within a large metropolitan Canadian city. Participants described two unique experiences within the themes: preference for linguistically and culturally competent healthcare providers, with obstetricians over midwives, and the emergence of alternative supports and the use of private services. Few studies of immigrant maternity service access have identified these experiences which may be linked to cultural difference. Further investigation with women from different cultural backgrounds is needed to develop a comprehensive understanding of immigrant women’s experiences with

  17. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Replacement of ATR Primary Coolant Pumps and Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-05-01

    and having the PCPs also function as ECPs will require significant safety basis changes requiring DOE approval. 2. Evaluation Criteria #4 (Use of new technology). The use of VFD and VFD “pump catcher” technology for the PCPs is not currently in use and has not been previously formally reviewed/approved by DOE for ATR. It is noted that VFD technology has several decades of commercial use and experience. However, the ATR probabilistic risk assessment will have to be updated, reflecting the changes for supplying ECP flows including VFD reliability, to confirm that the proposed activity maintains or reduces the CDF for the ATR. 3. Evaluation Criteria #5 (Create the need for new or revised safety SSCs). It is expected that the proposed activity will result in a revised list of safety-related SSCs. Specifically, as currently proposed, the existing ECPs will be deleted from the list. The PCPs and their associated components, picking up the ECP function, will be classified as safety-related active Seismic Category I.

  18. Description of the Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) ground-based experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.

    1991-01-01

    A description of the Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) ground-based experiment is presented. The LGMSS provides five degrees of freedom control of a cylindrical suspended element which is levitated above a floor-mounted array of air core electromagnets. The uncontrolled degree of freedom is rotation about the long axis of the cylinder (roll). Levitation and control forces are produced on a permanent magnet core which is embedded in the cylinder. The cylinder also contains light emitting diodes (LEDs), assorted electrons, and a power supply. The LEDs provide active targets for an optical position measurement system which is being developed in-house at the Langley Research Center. The optical position measurement system will provide six degrees of freedom position information for the LGMSS control system.

  19. Utilizing feedback in adaptive SAR ATR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsfield, Owen; Blacknell, David

    2009-05-01

    Existing SAR ATR systems are usually trained off-line with samples of target imagery or CAD models, prior to conducting a mission. If the training data is not representative of mission conditions, then poor performance may result. In addition, it is difficult to acquire suitable training data for the many target types of interest. The Adaptive SAR ATR Problem Set (AdaptSAPS) program provides a MATLAB framework and image database for developing systems that adapt to mission conditions, meaning less reliance on accurate training data. A key function of an adaptive system is the ability to utilise truth feedback to improve performance, and it is this feature which AdaptSAPS is intended to exploit. This paper presents a new method for SAR ATR that does not use training data, based on supervised learning. This is achieved by using feature-based classification, and several new shadow features have been developed for this purpose. These features allow discrimination of vehicles from clutter, and classification of vehicles into two classes: targets, comprising military combat types, and non-targets, comprising bulldozers and trucks. The performance of the system is assessed using three baseline missions provided with AdaptSAPS, as well as three additional missions. All performance metrics indicate a distinct learning trend over the course of a mission, with most third and fourth quartile performance levels exceeding 85% correct classification. It has been demonstrated that these performance levels can be maintained even when truth feedback rates are reduced by up to 55% over the course of a mission.

  20. Advanced miniature processing handware for ATR applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Thakoor, Anikumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Optoelectronic Neural Object Recognition System (HONORS), is disclosed, comprising two major building blocks: (1) an advanced grayscale optical correlator (OC) and (2) a massively parallel three-dimensional neural-processor. The optical correlator, with its inherent advantages in parallel processing and shift invariance, is used for target of interest (TOI) detection and segmentation. The three-dimensional neural-processor, with its robust neural learning capability, is used for target classification and identification. The hybrid optoelectronic neural object recognition system, with its powerful combination of optical processing and neural networks, enables real-time, large frame, automatic target recognition (ATR).

  1. The two-phase extended evaluation in microgravity (TEEM) flight experiment: Description and overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller

    1997-01-01

    The future missions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) may include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms or stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Current thermal control technology, using single-phase liquid coolant loops, is not a viable option for some of these future missions due to the associated power system weight and size penalty. Two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow thermal control systems can offer significant advantages over single-phase thermal systems in reducing the required power system mass and size. The Two-Phase Extended Evaluation in Microgravity (TEEM) Flight Experiment is currently being developed by NASA, and the Department of Defense (DOD) Space Test Program (STP) and the United States Air Force (USAF) Phillips Laboratory, with the cooperation of university researchers, to demonstrate operations of a closed-loop, two-phase system in a relevant mission environment. TEEM will also provide fully developed, two-phase flow data for zero-g conditions. This paper presents a description of the flight experiment, and a summary of the science of interest to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  2. NASA Controller Acceptability Study 1(CAS-1) Experiment Description and Initial Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, James P.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Munoz, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the Controller Acceptability Study 1 (CAS-1) experiment that was conducted by NASA Langley Research Center personnel from January through March 2014 and presents partial CAS-1 results. CAS-1 employed 14 air traffic controller volunteers as research subjects to assess the viability of simulated future unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) operating alongside manned aircraft in moderate-density, moderate-complexity Class E airspace. These simulated UAS were equipped with a prototype pilot-in-the-loop (PITL) Detect and Avoid (DAA) system, specifically the Self-Separation (SS) function of such a system based on Stratway+ software to replace the see-and-avoid capabilities of manned aircraft pilots. A quantitative CAS-1 objective was to determine horizontal miss distance (HMD) values for SS encounters that were most acceptable to air traffic controllers, specifically HMD values that were assessed as neither unsafely small nor disruptively large. HMD values between 0.5 and 3.0 nautical miles (nmi) were assessed for a wide array of encounter geometries between UAS and manned aircraft. The paper includes brief introductory material about DAA systems and their SS functions, followed by descriptions of the CAS-1 simulation environment, prototype PITL SS capability, and experiment design, and concludes with presentation and discussion of partial CAS-1 data and results.

  3. Description of International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment first flight (ICE-FIRST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szewczyk, N. J.; Tillman, J.; Conley, C. A.; Granger, L.; Segalat, L.; Higashitani, A.; Honda, S.; Honda, Y.; Kagawa, H.; Adachi, R.; Higashibata, A.; Fujimoto, N.; Kuriyama, K.; Ishioka, N.; Fukui, K.; Baillie, D.; Rose, A.; Gasset, G.; Eche, B.; Chaput, D.; Viso, M.

    2008-09-01

    Traveling, living and working in space is now a reality. The number of people and length of time in space is increasing. With new horizons for exploration it becomes more important to fully understand and provide countermeasures to the effects of the space environment on the human body. In addition, space provides a unique laboratory to study how life and physiologic functions adapt from the cellular level to that of the entire organism. Caenorhabditis elegans is a genetic model organism used to study physiology on Earth. Here we provide a description of the rationale, design, methods, and space culture validation of the ICE-FIRST payload, which engaged C. elegans researchers from four nations. Here we also show C. elegans growth and development proceeds essentially normally in a chemically defined liquid medium on board the International Space Station (10.9 day round trip). By setting flight constraints first and bringing together established C. elegans researchers second, we were able to use minimal stowage space to successfully return a total of 53 independent samples, each containing more than a hundred individual animals, to investigators within one year of experiment concept. We believe that in the future, bringing together individuals with knowledge of flight experiment operations, flight hardware, space biology, and genetic model organisms should yield similarly successful payloads.

  4. Description of International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment first flight (ICE-FIRST)

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, N.J.; Tillman, J.; Conley, C.A.; Granger, L.; Segalat, L.; Higashitani, A.; Honda, S.; Honda, Y.; Kagawa, H.; Adachi, R.; Higashibata, A.; Fujimoto, N.; Kuriyama, K.; Ishioka, N.; Fukui, K.; Baillie, D.; Rose, A.; Gasset, G.; Eche, B.; Chaput, D.; Viso, M.

    2008-01-01

    Traveling, living and working in space is now a reality. The number of people and length of time in space is increasing. With new horizons for exploration it becomes more important to fully understand and provide countermeasures to the effects of the space environment on the human body. In addition, space provides a unique laboratory to study how life and physiologic functions adapt from the cellular level to that of the entire organism. Caenorhabditis elegans is a genetic model organism used to study physiology on Earth. Here we provide a description of the rationale, design, methods, and space culture validation of the ICE-FIRST payload, which engaged C. elegans researchers from four nations. Here we also show C. elegans growth and development proceeds essentially normally in a chemically defined liquid medium on board the International Space Station (10.9 day round trip). By setting flight constraints first and bringing together established C. elegans researchers second, we were able to use minimal stowage space to successfully return a total of 53 independent samples, each containing more than a hundred individual animals, to investigators within one year of experiment concept. We believe that in the future, bringing together individuals with knowledge of flight experiment operations, flight hardware, space biology, and genetic model organisms should yield similarly successful payloads. PMID:22146801

  5. Towards universal enrichment nanocoating for IR-ATR waveguides.

    PubMed

    Giammarco, James; Zdyrko, Bogdan; Petit, Laeticia; Musgraves, J David; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anu; Kimerling, Lionel; Richardson, Kathleen; Luzinov, Igor

    2011-08-28

    Polymer multilayered nanocoating capable of concentrating various chemical substances at IR-ATR waveguide surfaces is described. The coating affinity to an analyte played a pivotal role in sensitivity enhancement of the IR-ATR measurements, since the unmodified waveguide did not show any analyte detection. PMID:21734984

  6. Signal processing and statistical descriptive reanalysis of steady state chute-flow experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    truong, hoan; eckert, nicolas; keylock, chris; naaim, mohamed; bellot, hervé

    2014-05-01

    An accurate knowledge of snow rheology is needed for the mitigation against avalanche hazard. Indeed snow avalanches have a significant impact on the livelihoods and economies of alpine communities. To do so, 60 small-scale in-situ flow experiments were performed with various slopes, temperatures and flow depths. The investigation of these data previously seemed to show the dense flow of dry snow may be composed of two layers; a sheared basal layer made of single snow grains and a less sheared upper layer made of large aggregates. These outcomes were mainly based on the mean velocity profile of the flow and on interpretation in terms of rheological behavior of granular materials and snow microstructure [Pierre G. Rognon et al., 2007]. Here, the main objective remains the same, but the rheological and physical viewpoints are put aside to extract as much information contained in the data as possible various using signal processing methods and descriptive statistics methods as the maximum overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT), transfer entropy (TE) and maximum cross-correlation (MCC). Specifically, we aim at the improving the velocity estimations as function of the depth particularly the velocity fluctuations around the mean profile to better document the behavior of dense dry snow flows during a steady and uniform chute regime. The data are composed of pairs of voltage signals (right and left), which makes that the velocity is known indirectly only. The MCC method is classically used to determine the time lag between both signals. Previously, the MCC method that showed the mean velocity profile may be fitted by a simple bilinear function [Pierre G. Rognon et al., 2007], but no interesting temporal dynamics could be highlighted. Hence, a new process method was developed to provide velocity series with much better temporal resolution. The process is mainly made of a MODWT-based denoising method and the choice of window size for correlation. The results prove to be

  7. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Renae

    2014-11-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014 Highlights Rory Kennedy and Sarah Robertson attended the American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting and Nuclear Technology Expo in Anaheim, California, Nov. 10-13. ATR NSUF exhibited at the technology expo where hundreds of meeting participants had an opportunity to learn more about ATR NSUF. Dr. Kennedy briefed the Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO) on the workings of the ATR NSUF. • Rory Kennedy, James Cole and Dan Ogden participated in a reactor instrumentation discussion with Jean-Francois Villard and Christopher Destouches of CEA and several members of the INL staff. • ATR NSUF received approval from the NE-20 office to start planning the annual Users Meeting. The meeting will be held at INL, June 22-25. • Mike Worley, director of the Office of Innovative Nuclear Research (NE-42), visited INL Nov. 4-5. Milestones Completed • Recommendations for the Summer Rapid Turnaround Experiment awards were submitted to DOE-HQ Nov. 12 (Level 2 milestone due Nov. 30). Major Accomplishments/Activities • The University of California, Santa Barbara 2 experiment was unloaded from the GE-2000 at HFEF. The experiment specimen packs will be removed and shipped to ORNL for PIE. • The Terrani experiment, one of three FY 2014 new awards, was completed utilizing the Advanced Photon Source MRCAT beamline. The experiment investigated the chemical state of Ag and Pd in SiC shell of irradiated TRISO particles via X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Upcoming Meetings/Events • The ATR NSUF program review meeting will be held Dec. 9-10 at L’Enfant Plaza. In addition to NSUF staff and users, NE-4, NE-5 and NE-7 representatives will attend the meeting. Awarded Research Projects Boise State University Rapid Turnaround Experiments (14-485 and 14-486) Nanoindentation and TEM work on the T91, HT9, HCM12A and 9Cr ODS specimens has been completed at

  8. ATR FTIR Mapping of Leather Fiber Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondi, G.; Grünewald, T.; Petutschnigg, A.; Schnabel, T.

    2015-01-01

    Leather fiber panels are very promising materials for many applications, not only for the easy availability of the constituents but also for their outstanding fi re-retardant properties. These innovative composite panels can be an excellent material for building insulation, and in recent times, the interest of industries in this composite board has considerably arisen. For this reason the discrimination of the components in the leather fiber panels is becoming fundamental in order to ensure their homogeneous properties. A method to characterize the surface of these materials is then required. An ATR FTIR mapping system for the leather fiber panels has been performed with a Perkin-Elmer microscope coupled with a Frontier FTIR spectrometer. The system has successfully allowed transforming the optical image to a chemical one. This technique can be considered as a right tool for routine controls of the surface quality, especially when the leather shavings cannot be optically distinguished.

  9. The Influence of Visual Experience on the Ability to Form Spatial Mental Models Based on Route and Survey Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Zuidhoek, Sander; Postma, Albert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold: the first objective is to evaluate the importance of visual experience for the ability to form a spatial representation (spatial mental model) of fairly elaborate spatial descriptions. Secondly, we examine whether blind people exhibit the same preferences (i.e. level of performance on spatial tasks) as…

  10. Nurses' Learning Experiences with the Kinaesthetics Care Concept Training in a Nursing Home: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fringer, André; Huth, Martina; Hantikainen, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    In geriatric care, movement support skills of nurses are often limited, resulting in unnecessary functional decline of older adult residents and physical strain of nurses. Kinaesthetics training aims to improve movement competences of nurses and residents. The aim of this qualitative descriptive study is to describe nursing teams' experience with…

  11. Twenty Careers and Classroom Experiences for Teaching Science. Includes: Job Descriptions, Teaching Suggestions and Answers, Work Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ondrake, Greg

    Part 1 of this teacher's guide contains job descriptions, teaching suggestions/answers, and worksheets for twenty careers and classroom experiences which are designed to be used in teaching science. The following twenty careers are covered: meteorologist, geologist, musical instrument maker/repairman, opthalmologist, astronomer, paint chemist,…

  12. ATR inhibition rewires cellular signaling networks induced by replication stress.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Sebastian A; Oehler, Hannah; Voigt, Andrea; Dalic, Denis; Freiwald, Anja; Serve, Hubert; Beli, Petra

    2016-02-01

    The slowing down or stalling of replication forks is commonly known as replication stress and arises from multiple causes such as DNA lesions, nucleotide depletion, RNA-DNA hybrids, and oncogene activation. The ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase (ATR) plays an essential role in the cellular response to replication stress and inhibition of ATR has emerged as therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancers that exhibit high levels of replication stress. However, the cellular signaling induced by replication stress and the substrate spectrum of ATR has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we employed quantitative MS-based proteomics to define the cellular signaling after nucleotide depletion-induced replication stress and replication fork collapse following ATR inhibition. We demonstrate that replication stress results in increased phosphorylation of a subset of proteins, many of which are involved in RNA splicing and transcription and have previously not been associated with the cellular replication stress response. Furthermore, our data reveal the ATR-dependent phosphorylation following replication stress and discover novel putative ATR target sites on MCM6, TOPBP1, RAD51AP1, and PSMD4. We establish that ATR inhibition rewires cellular signaling networks induced by replication stress and leads to the activation of the ATM-driven double-strand break repair signaling. PMID:26572502

  13. AGR-3/4 Final Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 151A through 155B-1

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Binh T.

    2015-03-01

    This report provides the qualification status of experimental data for the entire Advanced Gas Reactor 3/4 (AGR 3/4) fuel irradiation. AGR-3/4 is the third in a series of planned irradiation experiments conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification Program, which supports development of the advanced reactor technology under the INL ART Technology Development Office (TDO). The main objective of AGR-3/4 irradiation is to provide a known source of fission products for subsequent transport through compact matrix and structural graphite materials due to the presence of designed-to-fail fuel particles. Full power irradiation of the AGR 3/4 test began on December 14, 2011 (ATR Cycle 151A), and was completed on April 12, 2014 (end of ATR Cycle 155B) after 369.1 effective full power days of irradiation. The AGR-3/4 test was in the reactor core for eight of the ten ATR cycles between 151A and 155B. During the unplanned outage cycle, 153A, the experiment was removed from the ATR northeast flux trap (NEFT) location and stored in the ATR canal. This was to prevent overheating of fuel compacts due to higher than normal ATR power during the subsequent Powered Axial Locator Mechanism cycle, 153B. The AGR 3/4 test was inserted back into the ATR NEFT location during the outage of ATR Cycle 154A on April 26, 2013. Therefore, the AGR-3/4 irradiation data received during these 2 cycles (153A and 153B) are irrelevant and their qualification status isnot included in this report. Additionally, during ATR Cycle 152A the ATR core ran at low power for a short enough duration that the irradiation data are not used for physics and thermal calculations. However, the qualification status of irradiation data for this cycle is still covered in this report. As a result, this report includes data from 8 ATR Cycles: 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 154A, 154B, 155A, and 155B, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and

  14. Un cours fonctionnel a distance: Description d'une experience (A Functional Course at a Distance: A Description of an Experiment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carton, F. M.

    This paper describes an on-going experiment about training adult (Latin American engineers about to come to France) beginners in oral expression. The first goal is to acquire the communicative means necessary to cope with four top priority situations and then master the communicative functions involved in understanding and making oneself…

  15. RELAP5 Model Description and Validation for the BR2 Loss-of-Flow Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, J. R.; Dionne, B.; Van den Branden, G.; Sikik, E.; Koonen, E.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a description of the RELAP5 model, the calibration method used to obtain the minor loss coefficients from the available hydraulic data and the LOFA simulation results compared to the 1963 experimental tests for HEU fuel.

  16. ATR-mediated regulation of nuclear and cellular plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kidiyoor, Gururaj Rao; Kumar, Amit; Foiani, Marco

    2016-08-01

    ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3-related) is a member of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) family, amongst six other vertebrate proteins known so far. ATR is indispensable for cell survival and its essential role is in sensing DNA damage and initiating appropriate repair responses. In this review we highlight emerging and recent observations connecting ATR to alternative roles in controlling the nuclear envelope, nucleolus, centrosome and other organelles in response to both internal and external stress conditions. We propose that ATR functions control cell plasticity by sensing structural deformations of different cellular components, including DNA and initiating appropriate repair responses, most of which are yet to be understood completely. PMID:27283761

  17. Infrared ATR: a probe for cellular activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, Jerilyn A.; Martin, Laura E.; Alam, M. Kathleen; Haaland, David M.; Garrison, Kristen; Lyons, C. Richard; Hjelle, Brian

    2002-02-01

    We employ infrared spectroscopy (IR) with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) as a sampling technique to monitor live and dried RAW cells (a murine macrophage cell line) during activation with g-interferon and lipopolysaccharide. By comparing the spectra of activated cells at various time points to the spectra of healthy control cells, we identify spectral bands associated with nucleic acids that are markers for the cell activation process. These spectral changes are slight and can be complicated with the normal metabolic changes that occur within cells. We will discuss the use of data pretreatment strategies to accurately correct for the contribution of the buffer to the live cell spectra. We find the standard background correction method inadequate for concentrated solutions of cells. Data presented shows the severe effect incorrect background subtraction has on the cell spectra. We report a more accurate correction for phosphate buffer spectral contribution using an interactive subtraction of the buffer spectrum. We will show classification of dried control and activated macrophage cell spectra using partial-least squares analysis with multiplicative scatter correction.

  18. Achieving safety/risk goals for less ATR backup power upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment for internal fire and flood events defined a relatively high risk for a total loss of electric power possibly leading to core damage. Backup power sources were disabled due to fire and flooding in the diesel generator area with propagation of the flooding to a common switchgear room. The ATR risk assessment was employed to define options for relocation of backup power system components to achieve needed risk reduction while minimizing costs. The risk evaluations were performed using sensitivity studies and importance measures. The risk-based evaluations of relocation options for backup power systems saved over $3 million from what might have been otherwise considered {open_quotes}necessary{close_quotes} for safety/risk improvement. The ATR experience shows that the advantages of a good risk assessment are to define risk significance, risk specifics, and risk solutions which enable risk goals to be achieved at the lowest cost.

  19. Structure-Based Drug Design of Novel, Potent, and Selective Azabenzimidazoles (ABI) as ATR Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Compound 13 was discovered through morphing of the ATR biochemical HTS hit 1. The ABI series was potent and selective for ATR. Incorporation of a 6-azaindole afforded a marked increase in cellular potency but was associated with poor PK and hERG ion channel inhibition. DMPK experiments established that CYP P450 and AO metabolism in conjunction with Pgp and BCRP efflux were major causative mechanisms for the observed PK. The series also harbored the CYP3A4 TDI liability driven by the presence of both a morpholine and an indole moiety. Incorporation of an adjacent fluorine or nitrogen into the 6-azaindole addressed many of the various medicinal chemistry issues encountered. PMID:25589928

  20. ATR-IR spectroscopy as applied to nucleic acid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanyugin, Andriy V.; Samijlenko, Svitlana P.; Martynenko, Olena I.; Hovorun, Dmytro M.

    2005-07-01

    For the first time the ATR technique was applied to obtain IR absorption spectra of DNA and RNA dry films. There was worked out procedure of the nucleic acid removal from germanium plate, which obviously was a main obstacle to application of ATR-IR spectroscopy to nucleic acids. This technique of IR spectroscopy was applied to confirmation of RNA tropism of aurin tricarboxylic acid observed by molecular biological methods.

  1. Recent applications of ATR FTIR spectroscopy and imaging to proteins.

    PubMed

    Glassford, Stefanie E; Byrne, Bernadette; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2013-12-01

    Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a label-free, non-destructive analytical technique that can be used extensively to study a wide variety of different molecules in a range of different conditions. The aim of this review is to discuss and highlight the recent advances in the applications of ATR FTIR spectroscopic imaging to proteins. It briefly covers the basic principles of ATR FTIR spectroscopy and ATR FTIR spectroscopic imaging as well as their advantages to the study of proteins compared to other techniques and other forms of FTIR spectroscopy. It will then go on to examine the advances that have been made within the field over the last several years, particularly the use of ATR FTIR spectroscopy for the understanding and development of protein interaction with surfaces. Additionally, the growing potential of Surface Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy (SEIRAS) within this area of applications will be discussed. The review includes the applications of ATR FTIR imaging to protein crystallisation and for high-throughput studies, highlighting the future potential of the technology within the field of protein structural studies and beyond. PMID:23928299

  2. Singer Perceptions of Collegiate Mid-Level Choral Experiences: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Marci L.; Dakon, Jacob M.

    2016-01-01

    In this descriptive study, researchers surveyed choristers (N = 630) from 16 mid-level collegiate choirs nationwide to investigate their perceptions and behaviors as they related to the strategies used by directors to facilitate ensemble identity. Also investigated were the factors affecting choristers' dedication to choir and their intentions…

  3. Assessment of COTS IR image simulation tools for ATR development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Heiko; Stahl, Christoph; Bjerkeli, Frode; Skaaren-Fystro, Paal

    2005-05-01

    Following the tendency of increased use of imaging sensors in military aircraft, future fighter pilots will need onboard artificial intelligence e.g. ATR for aiding them in image interpretation and target designation. The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) in Germany has developed an advanced method for automatic target recognition (ATR) which is based on adaptive neural networks. This ATR method can assist the crew of military aircraft like the Eurofighter in sensor image monitoring and thereby reduce the workload in the cockpit and increase the mission efficiency. The EADS ATR approach can be adapted for imagery of visual, infrared and SAR sensors because of the training-based classifiers of the ATR method. For the optimal adaptation of these classifiers they have to be trained with appropriate and sufficient image data. The training images must show the target objects from different aspect angles, ranges, environmental conditions, etc. Incomplete training sets lead to a degradation of classifier performance. Additionally, ground truth information i.e. scenario conditions like class type and position of targets is necessary for the optimal adaptation of the ATR method. In Summer 2003, EADS started a cooperation with Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace (KDA) from Norway. The EADS/KDA approach is to provide additional image data sets for training-based ATR through IR image simulation. The joint study aims to investigate the benefits of enhancing incomplete training sets for classifier adaptation by simulated synthetic imagery. EADS/KDA identified the requirements of a commercial-off-the-shelf IR simulation tool capable of delivering appropriate synthetic imagery for ATR development. A market study of available IR simulation tools and suppliers was performed. After that the most promising tool was benchmarked according to several criteria e.g. thermal emission model, sensor model, targets model, non-radiometric image features etc., resulting in a

  4. Descriptions of experiments selected for the Space Transportation System (STS) materials processing in space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Summaries are presented for the first group of materials processing experiments planned for a shuttle mission. Outlined are the objectives, the approach, the rationale for the use of space, and the anticipated results for each experiment.

  5. Cancer Cells with Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Do Not Display a General Hypersensitivity to ATR Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Deeg, Katharina I; Chung, Inn; Bauer, Caroline; Rippe, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Telomere maintenance is a hallmark of cancer as it provides cancer cells with cellular immortality. A significant fraction of tumors uses the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to elongate their telomeres and to gain an unlimited proliferation potential. Since the ALT pathway is unique to cancer cells, it represents a potentially valuable, currently unexploited target for anti-cancer therapies. Recently, it was proposed that ALT renders cells hypersensitive to ataxia telangiectasia- and RAD3-related (ATR) protein inhibitors (Flynn et al., Science 347, 273). Here, we measured the response of various ALT- or telomerase-positive cell lines to the ATR inhibitor VE-821. In addition, we compared the effect of the inhibitor on cell viability in isogenic cell lines, in which ALT was active or suppressed. In these experiments, a general ATR inhibitor sensitivity of cells with ALT could not be confirmed. We rather propose that the observed variations in sensitivity reflect differences between cell lines that are unrelated to ALT. PMID:27602331

  6. Cancer Cells with Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Do Not Display a General Hypersensitivity to ATR Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Deeg, Katharina I.; Chung, Inn; Bauer, Caroline; Rippe, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Telomere maintenance is a hallmark of cancer as it provides cancer cells with cellular immortality. A significant fraction of tumors uses the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to elongate their telomeres and to gain an unlimited proliferation potential. Since the ALT pathway is unique to cancer cells, it represents a potentially valuable, currently unexploited target for anti-cancer therapies. Recently, it was proposed that ALT renders cells hypersensitive to ataxia telangiectasia- and RAD3-related (ATR) protein inhibitors (Flynn et al., Science 347, 273). Here, we measured the response of various ALT- or telomerase-positive cell lines to the ATR inhibitor VE-821. In addition, we compared the effect of the inhibitor on cell viability in isogenic cell lines, in which ALT was active or suppressed. In these experiments, a general ATR inhibitor sensitivity of cells with ALT could not be confirmed. We rather propose that the observed variations in sensitivity reflect differences between cell lines that are unrelated to ALT. PMID:27602331

  7. Comparing distances in mental images constructed from visual experience or verbal descriptions: the impact of survey versus route perspective.

    PubMed

    Péruch, Patrick; Chabanne, Vanessa; Nesa, Marie-Pascale; Thinus-Blanc, Catherine; Denis, Michel

    2006-11-01

    Mental images constructed after visual examination of a spatial configuration or after processing a verbal description of that configuration have been shown to share similar properties, in particular the capacity to preserve metric information contained in the configuration represented. In the present study, we investigated the properties of mental images constructed under learning conditions resulting from the combination of a visual or a verbal mode of acquisition and a survey or route perspective. Participants memorized a virtual environment (a garden containing six objects) under one of four learning conditions: (a) viewing a map of the garden (visual-survey); (b) viewing a video presentation of a journey along the path around the garden (visual-route); (c) listening to a verbal description of the map of the garden (verbal-survey); and (d) listening to a verbal description of the journey around the garden (verbal-route). The participants were then invited to compare the distances separating objects in the garden mentally. Experiment 1, where the pairs of distances to be compared had a common starting point, revealed that the frequency of correct responses was higher, and response times were shorter when participants had learned about the environment visually rather than by a verbal description. The conditions involving a survey perspective resulted in a higher frequency of correct responses and shorter response times than those involving a route perspective. Lastly, a symbolic distance effect was obtained in the first three conditions, in that the greater the difference between the two distances being compared, the higher the frequency of correct responses, and the shorter the response times. Experiment 2, where the pairs of distances had different starting points, replicated these results, although longer response times revealed that the comparison process was more costly. Taken together, these findings support the view that mental spatial representations

  8. Description of an Experiment Investigating Term Relationships as Interpreted by Humans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinoff, Morris; And Others

    An experiment is reported in which 78 subjects examined synonymic and generic-specific relationships among 513 terms compiled from subject indexes of programming textbooks and manuals. Terms were assigned in groups of 20 so that given decisions for terms could be compared for three subjects. The experiment suggested such methodological…

  9. Homeostatic regulation of meiotic DSB formation by ATM/ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Tim J.; Wardell, Kayleigh; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J.

    2014-11-15

    Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and RAD3-related (ATR) are widely known as being central players in the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR), mounting responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) respectively. The DDR signalling cascade couples cell cycle control to damage-sensing and repair processes in order to prevent untimely cell cycle progression while damage still persists [1]. Both ATM/ATR are, however, also emerging as essential factors in the process of meiosis; a specialised cell cycle programme responsible for the formation of haploid gametes via two sequential nuclear divisions. Central to achieving accurate meiotic chromosome segregation is the introduction of numerous DSBs spread across the genome by the evolutionarily conserved enzyme, Spo11. This review seeks to explore and address how cells utilise ATM/ATR pathways to regulate Spo11-DSB formation, establish DSB homeostasis and ensure meiosis is completed unperturbed.

  10. ATR NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC USER FACILITY INSTRUMENTATION ENHANCEMENT EFFORTS

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2009-04-01

    A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to enhance instrumentation techniques available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing ‘real-time’ measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to offer increased fidelity data and reduced post-test examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing several new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users improved in-pile instrumentation.

  11. DSN radio science system description and requirements. [for satellite radio astronomy experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The data system created to collect the functions performed by the Deep Space Network in support of spacecraft radio science experiments is described. Some of the major functional requirements presently being considered for the system are delineated.

  12. The Effects of Liking Norms and Descriptive Norms on Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jason M.; Liu, Jinyu; Robinson, Eric L.; Aveyard, Paul; Herman, C. Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that social norm messages can be used to promote the selection of fruit and vegetables in low habitual consumers of these foods but it is unclear whether this effect is sustained over time. It is also unclear whether information about others' liking for a food (liking norm) could have the same effect. Using a 2 × 5 × 2 experimental design we investigated the effects of exposure to various messages on later intake from a food buffet and whether any effects were sustained 24 h after exposure in both low and high consumers of vegetables. There were three factors: delay (immediate food selection vs. food selection 24 h after exposure), message type (liking norm, descriptive norm, health message, vegetable variety condition, and neutral control message), and habitual consumption (low vs. high). The buffet consisted of three raw vegetables, three energy-dense foods, and two dips. For vegetables and non-vegetables there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay. There was a significant message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for vegetable consumption; however, follow up tests did not yield any significant effects. Examining each food individually, there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay, for any of the foods; however, there was a message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for broccoli. Consumption of broccoli in the health message and descriptive norm conditions did not differ from the control neutral condition. However, habitually low consumers of vegetables increased their consumption of broccoli in the vegetable variety and liking norm conditions relative to habitual low vegetable consumers in the neutral control condition (p < 0.05). Further, investigation of the effects of the liking norm and vegetable variety condition on vegetable intake is warranted. This trial is listed as NCT02618174 at clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:27065913

  13. Neutron irradiation of V-Cr-Ti alloys in the BOR-60 fast reactor: Description of the fusion-1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Tsai, H.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    The FUSION-1 irradiation capsule was inserted in Row 5 of the BOR-60 fast reactor in June 1995. The capsule contains a collaborative RF/U.S. experiment to investigate the irradiation performance of V-Cr-Ti alloys in the temperature range 310 to 350{degrees}C. This report describes the capsule layout, specimen fabrication history, and the detailed test matrix for the U.S. specimens. A description of the operating history and neutronics will be presented in the next semiannual report.

  14. Robust SAR ATR via set-valued classifiers: new results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, John R.; Mahler, Ronald P. S.; Ravichandran, Ravi B.; Mehra, Raman K.; Musick, Stanton H.

    2003-08-01

    "Robust identification" in SAR ATR refers to the problem of determining target identity despite the confounding effects of "extended operating conditions" (EOCs). EOC"s are statistically uncharacterizable SAR intensity-signature variations caused by mud, dents, turret articulations, etc. This paper describes a robust ATR approach based on the idea of (1) hedging against EOCs by attaching "random error bars" (random intervals) to each value of the image likelihood function; (2) constructing a "generalized likelihood function" from them; and (3) using a set-valued, MLE-like approach to robustly estimate target type. We compare three such classifiers, showing that they outperform conventional approaches under EOC conditions.

  15. Design and implementation of an embedded software system for ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuehuan; Li, Shiyong

    2011-11-01

    This paper has designed and realized a coarse-grained, unbalanced, modularized parallel embedded software system for ATR. According to the characteristics of ATR algorithms, some control modules such as system monitoring, task assignment and hierarchical algorithm modules are realized in our system. There are different design principles for different modules. The task assignment module combines different modules into clusters based on mutually exclusive modules, and assigns them to different processors. The principle of combination is the minimum variance of load on different processors. The system satisfies the requirement of real-time performance due to this reasonable strategy for task assignment, with the flexibility and scalability significantly improved.

  16. ATR spectra on boundary with mixture containing organic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelokov, R. V.; Yatsishen, V. V.

    2005-02-01

    The problem of not destroying diagnostics and dosing of radiation at laser therapy is one of important in medicine. Therefore the purpose of our work is development of method ATR for diagnostics and researches in biomedicine. In this work as objects of consideration were: a mixture of nicotine with water, a mixture of an ascorbic acid with water and surface lesions of an eye cornea by a herpes virus. Results of our consideration are the ATR spectra defined at different concentration of organic substances and virions.

  17. The thermal plasma experiment Retarding Potential and Energy Selecting Analyzer (RPEA). Description of the experiment and first quick look results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumbs, A.

    1981-12-01

    A rocket-borne experiment which studies ionospheric electron temperature, near thermal electron fluxes, plasma density and ion temperature is described. The experiment consists of two retarding potential analyzers (RPA) with an electrostatic particle deflector for electron measurements and a magnetic one for ion measurements. With these additions, measurement of electron and ion temperatures is not influenced by high energetic fluxes, and differential flux measurements are superior to integral ones. Electron and ion measurements do not disturb each other. Despite these modifications the basic simplicity of the RPA is maintained. The two RPEA sensors are mounted on booms and measure continuously. Results indicate that electron temperatures are anisotropic, indicating that polar plasma cannot always be described by a temperature.

  18. A testbed for architecture and fidelity trade studies in the Bayesian decision-level fusion of ATR products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Kyle J.; Ross, Timothy D.

    2007-04-01

    Decision-level fusion is an appealing extension to automatic/assisted target recognition (ATR) as it is a low-bandwidth technique bolstered by a strong theoretical foundation that requires no modification of the source algorithms. Despite the relative simplicity of decision-level fusion, there are many options for fusion application and fusion algorithm specifications. This paper describes a tool that allows trade studies and optimizations across these many options, by feeding an actual fusion algorithm via models of the system environment. Models and fusion algorithms can be specified and then exercised many times, with accumulated results used to compute performance metrics such as probability of correct identification. Performance differences between the best of the contributing sources and the fused result constitute examples of "gain." The tool, constructed as part of the Fusion for Identifying Targets Experiment (FITE) within the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Sensors Directorate ATR Thrust, finds its main use in examining the relationships among conditions affecting the target, prior information, fusion algorithm complexity, and fusion gain. ATR as an unsolved problem provides the main challenges to fusion in its high cost and relative scarcity of training data, its variability in application, the inability to produce truly random samples, and its sensitivity to context. This paper summarizes the mathematics underlying decision-level fusion in the ATR domain and describes a MATLAB-based architecture for exploring the trade space thus defined. Specific dimensions within this trade space are delineated, providing the raw material necessary to define experiments suitable for multi-look and multi-sensor ATR systems.

  19. The Plasma Interaction Experiment /PIX/ - Description and flight qualification test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignaczak, L. R.; Haley, F. A.; Domino, E. J.; Culp, D. H.; Shaker, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Plasma Interaction Experiment (PIX) is a battery powered preprogrammed auxiliary payload on the Landsat-C launch. This experiment is part of a larger program to investigate space plasma interactions with spacecraft surfaces and components. The varying plasma densities encountered during available telemetry coverage periods are deemed sufficient to determine first order interactions between the space plasma environment and the biased experimental surfaces. The specific objectives of the PIX flight experiment are to measure the plasma coupling current and the negative voltage breakdown characteristics of a solar array segment and a gold plated steel disk. Measurements will be made over a range of surface voltages up to plus or minus 1 kilovolt. The orbital environment will provide a range of plasma densities. The experimental surfaces will be voltage-biased in a preprogrammed step sequence to optimize the data returned for each plasma region and for the available telemetry coverage.

  20. Description of and preliminary tests results for the Joint Damping Experiment (JDX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, Jeffrey G.; Folkman, Steven L.

    1995-01-01

    An effort is currently underway to develop an experiment titled joint Damping E_periment (JDX) to fly on the Space Shuttle as Get Away Special Payload G-726. This project is funded by NASA's IN-Space Technology Experiments Program and is scheduled to fly in July 1995 on STS-69. JDX will measure the influence of gravity on the structural damping of a three bay truss having clearance fit pinned joints. Structural damping is an important parameter in the dynamics of space structures. Future space structures will require more precise knowledge of structural damping than is currently available. The mission objectives are to develop a small-scale shuttle flight experiment that allows researchers to: (1) characterize the influence of gravity and joint gaps on structural damping and dynamic behavior of a small-scale truss model, and (2) evaluate the applicability of low-g aircraft test results for predicting on-orbit behavior. Completing the above objectives will allow a better understanding and/or prediction of structural damping occurring in a pin jointed truss. Predicting damping in joints is quite difficult. One of the important variables influencing joint damping is gravity. Previous work has shown that gravity loads can influence damping in a pin jointed truss structure. Flying this experiment as a GAS payload will allow testing in a microgravity environment. The on-orbit data (in micro-gravity) will be compared with ground test results. These data will be used to help develop improved models to predict damping due to pinned joints. Ground and low-g aircraft testing of this experiment has been completed. This paper describes the experiment and presents results of both ground and low-g aircraft tests which demonstrate that damping of the truss is dramatically influenced by gravity.

  1. A Model for Teaching Ethical Meta-Principles: A Descriptive Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Irma S.; Rivas, Olivia; Mancillas, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    As students, educators, outreach and community service experts enter their distinct professional worlds, each will be compelled to make a wide variety of decisions. The shaping of peoples' ethical beliefs occurs through personal experiences as well as family, culture, religion and peer pressure. In order for these students, educators, outreach and…

  2. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY: DESCRIPTION AND SUMMARY OF DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2010-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory performed air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics code (CFD). An isothermal stratified flow experiment was designed and set to understand stratified flow phenomena in the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) and to provide experimental data for validating computer codes. The isothermal experiment focused on three flow characteristics unique in the VHTR air-ingress accident: stratified flow in the horizontal pipe, stratified flow expansion at the pipe and vessel junction, and stratified flow around supporting structures. Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids and water was used as light fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between heavy and light fluids is generated even for very small density differences. The code was validated by conducting blind CFD simulations and comparing the results to the experimental data. A grid sensitivity study was also performed based on the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for modeling confidence. As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  3. Statistical description of a structured clay soil using dye infiltration experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spatial variability of preferential pathways in a field soil with native grasses and after a sorghum crop, as visualized through dye infiltration experiments, was studied by applying configuration entropy and correlation functions. After dye infiltration into a 3m x 3m plots located on a soil cl...

  4. The School Counselors Description of Their Experiences of Emotional Exhaustion: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Telina F.

    2013-01-01

    Burnout is a topic that brings about much debate. Although the literature on burnout has examined its significance to educators and mental health professionals, little school counselor research has focused on the field of school counseling and the individual experiences of school counselors. School counselors are unique participants within the…

  5. A Descriptive Analysis of the Experience Based Training and Development Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Todd

    This article describes and analyzes the field of experience-based training and development (EBTD) in an attempt to determine its scope, goals, activities, participants, providers, and philosophical bases. EBTD is a process that uses hands-on challenge or adventure, usually in the outdoors, combined with review and feedback, to improve work place…

  6. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  7. ATR mediates a checkpoint at the nuclear envelope in response to mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Mazzanti, Michele; Mistrik, Martin; Kosar, Martin; Beznoussenko, Galina V; Mironov, Alexandre A; Garrè, Massimiliano; Parazzoli, Dario; Shivashankar, G V; Scita, Giorgio; Bartek, Jiri; Foiani, Marco

    2014-07-31

    ATR controls chromosome integrity and chromatin dynamics. We have previously shown that yeast Mec1/ATR promotes chromatin detachment from the nuclear envelope to counteract aberrant topological transitions during DNA replication. Here, we provide evidence that ATR activity at the nuclear envelope responds to mechanical stress. Human ATR associates with the nuclear envelope during S phase and prophase, and both osmotic stress and mechanical stretching relocalize ATR to nuclear membranes throughout the cell cycle. The ATR-mediated mechanical response occurs within the range of physiological forces, is reversible, and is independent of DNA damage signaling. ATR-defective cells exhibit aberrant chromatin condensation and nuclear envelope breakdown. We propose that mechanical forces derived from chromosome dynamics and torsional stress on nuclear membranes activate ATR to modulate nuclear envelope plasticity and chromatin association to the nuclear envelope, thus enabling cells to cope with the mechanical strain imposed by these molecular processes. PMID:25083873

  8. Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE): Unified Stability System (USS). Description and Users' Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozendaal, Rodger A.; Behbehani, Roxanna

    1990-01-01

    NASA initiated the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE) to establish a boundary layer transition database for laminar flow wing design. For this experiment, full-span upper surface gloves were fitted to a variable sweep F-14 aircraft. The development of an improved laminar boundary layer stability analysis system called the Unified Stability System (USS) is documented and results of its use on the VSTFE flight data are shown. The USS consists of eight computer codes. The theoretical background of the system is described, as is the input, output, and usage hints. The USS is capable of analyzing boundary layer stability over a wide range of disturbance frequencies and orientations, making it possible to use different philosophies in calculating the growth of disturbances on sweptwings.

  9. A Brief Description of the Two Primate Experiments to Be Carried Out on SL-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsea, L.

    1985-01-01

    Two primate experiments to be carried on Spacelab 4 are discussed. One of these investigates thermoregulation of primates during altered gravity. In previous ground-based tests, primate heat distribution was shown to change during centrifugation (a way of subjecting subjects to higher-than-Earth gravity), the inner body cooling off and the skin temperature rising. The adaptive and homeostatic mechanisms triggered by spaceflight are studied. Ways in which to correct any undesirable shifts in the homeostatic capabilities of the thermoregulatory control system are addressed. The other experiment involving primates addressess the changes in fluid distribution and electrolyte content of blood that occur in spaceflight. During previous space missions, fluid shifts from the legs to the chest and head have been noted. Ground-based studies have shown decreases in blood potassium levels and increases in potassium excretion.

  10. Experiment on the Vernov satellite: Transient energetic processes in the Earth's atmosphere and magnetosphere. Part I: Description of the experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Svertilov, S. I.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Garipov, G. K.; Barinova, V. O.; Bogomolov, A. V.; Veden'kin, N. N.; Golovanov, I. A.; Iyudin, A. F.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Klimov, P. A.; Kovtyukh, A. S.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Morozov, O. V.; Myagkova, I. N.; Petrov, V. L.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Rozhkov, G. V.; Sigaeva, E. A.; Khrenov, B. A.; Yashin, I. V.; Klimov, S. I.; Vavilov, D. I.; Grushin, V. A.; Grechko, T. V.; Khartov, V. V.; Kudryashov, V. A.; Bortnikov, S. V.; Mzhel'skiy, P. V.; Papkov, A. P.; Krasnopeev, S. V.; Krug, V. V.; Korepanov, V. E.; Belyaev, S.; Demidov, A.; Ferenz, Ch.; Bodnar, L.; Szegedi, P.; Rotkel, H.; Moravskiy, M.; Park, Il; Jeon, Jin-A.; Kim, Ji-In; Lee, Jik

    2016-07-01

    The program of physical studies on the Vernov satellite launched on July 8, 2014 into a polar (640 × 830 km) solar-synchronous orbit with an inclination of 98.4° is presented. We described the complex of scientific equipment on this satellite in detail, including multidirectional gamma-ray detectors, electron spectrometers, red and ultra-violet detectors, and wave probes. The experiment on the Vernov satellite is mainly aimed at a comprehensive study of the processes of generation of transient phenomena in the optical and gamma-ray ranges in the Earth's atmosphere (such as high-altitude breakdown on runaway relativistic electrons), the study of the action on the atmosphere of electrons precipitated from the radiation belts, and low- and high-frequency electromagnetic waves of both space and atmospheric origin.

  11. USE OF SILICON CARBIDE MONITORS IN ATR IRRADIATION TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Davis; B. Chase; T. Unruh; D. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

    2012-07-01

    In April 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to advance US leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development and help address the nation's energy security needs. In support of this new program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced temperature sensors for irradiation testing. Although most efforts emphasize sensors capable of providing real-time data, selected tasks have been completed to enhance sensors provided in irradiation locations where instrumentation leads cannot be included, such as drop-in capsule and Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) or 'rabbit' locations. For example, silicon carbide (SiC) monitors are now available to detect peak irradiation temperatures between 200°C and 800°C. Using a resistance measurement approach, specialized equipment installed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) and specialized procedures were developed to ensure that accurate peak irradiation temperature measurements are inferred from SiC monitors irradiated at the ATR. Comparison examinations were completed by INL to demonstrate this capability, and several programs currently rely on SiC monitors for peak temperature detection. This paper discusses the use of SiC monitors at the ATR, the process used to evaluate them at the HTTL, and presents representative measurements taken using SiC monitors.

  12. ATR inhibition preferentially targets homologous recombination-deficient tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Krajewska, M; Fehrmann, R S N; Schoonen, P M; Labib, S; de Vries, E G E; Franke, L; van Vugt, M A T M

    2015-06-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is required for faithful repair of double-strand DNA breaks. Defects in HR repair cause severe genomic instability and challenge cellular viability. Paradoxically, various cancers are HR defective and have apparently acquired characteristics to survive genomic instability. We aimed to identify these characteristics to uncover therapeutic targets for HR-deficient cancers. Cytogenetic analysis of 1143 ovarian cancers showed that the degree of genomic instability was correlated to amplification of replication checkpoint genes ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase (ATR) and CHEK1. To test whether genomic instability leads to increased reliance on replication checkpoint signaling, we inactivated Rad51 to model HR-related genomic instability. Rad51 inactivation caused defective HR repair and induced aberrant replication dynamics. Notably, inhibition of Rad51 led to increased ATR/checkpoint kinase-1 (Chk1)-mediated replication stress signaling. Importantly, inhibition of ATR or Chk1 preferentially killed HR-deficient cancer cells. Combined, our data show that defective HR caused by Rad51 inhibition results in differential sensitivity for ATR and Chk1 inhibitors, implicating replication checkpoint kinases as potential drug targets for HR-defective cancers. PMID:25174396

  13. Description and status of NASA-LeRC/DOE photovoltaic applications systems experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratajczak, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    In its role of supporting the DOE Photovoltaic Program, the NASA-Lewis Research Center has designed, fabricated and installed 16 geographically dispersed photovoltaic systems. These systems are powering a refrigerator, highway warning sign, forest lookout towers, remote weather stations, a water chiller at a visitor center, and insect survey traps. Each of these systems is described in terms of load requirements, solar array and battery size, and instrumentation and controls. Operational experience is described and present status is given for each system. The P/V power systems have proven to be highly reliable with almost no problems with modules and very few problems overall

  14. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of InternationalExperience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for andexperiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in fiveelectricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordicmarket, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objectivein undertaking this review of international experience was to identifyspecific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads toeffectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hopethat this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S.and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments areneeded to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in allwholesale electricity markets.

  15. Numerical and graphical description of the information matrix in calibration experiments for state-space models.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, M E; Ayesa, E

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a mathematical tool for local identifiability analysis that can easily be applied to high-order state-space nonlinear systems and implemented in simulators with a discrete-time approach. The methodology is based on the recursive numerical evaluation of a reduced information matrix during the simulation of a calibration experiment and in the setting-up of a group of information parameters based on geometric interpretations of this matrix. As an example of application, the proposed methodology has been used in the study of an OUR batch test from the point of view of ASM No. 1 calibration. PMID:11487118

  16. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems... Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an ATRS system shall be used with roof bolting machines...

  17. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems... Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an ATRS system shall be used with roof bolting machines...

  18. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems... Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an ATRS system shall be used with roof bolting machines...

  19. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems... Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an ATRS system shall be used with roof bolting machines...

  20. 30 CFR 75.209 - Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems... Automated Temporary Roof Support (ATRS) systems. (a) Except in anthracite mines and as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an ATRS system shall be used with roof bolting machines...

  1. Validation of HELIOS for ATR Core Follow Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Bays, Samuel E.; Swain, Emily T.; Crawford, Douglas S.; Nigg, David W.

    2015-03-01

    This work summarizes the validation analyses for the HELIOS code to support core design and safety assurance calculations of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Past and current core safety assurance is performed by the PDQ-7 diffusion code; a state of the art reactor physics simulation tool from the nuclear industry’s earlier days. Over the past twenty years, improvements in computational speed have enabled the use of modern neutron transport methodologies to replace the role of diffusion theory for simulation of complex systems, such as the ATR. More exact methodologies have enabled a paradigm-shift away from highly tuned codes that force compliance with a bounding safety envelope, and towards codes regularly validated against routine measurements. To validate HELIOS, the 16 ATR operational cycles from late-2009 to present were modeled. The computed power distribution was compared against data collected by the ATR’s on-line power surveillance system. It was found that the ATR’s lobe-powers could be determined with ±10% accuracy. Also, the ATR’s cold startup shim configuration for each of these 16 cycles was estimated and compared against the reported critical position from the reactor log-book. HELIOS successfully predicted criticality within the tolerance set by the ATR startup procedure for 13 out of the 16 cycles. This is compared to 12 times for PDQ (without empirical adjustment). These findings, as well as other insights discussed in this report, suggest that HELIOS is highly suited for replacing PDQ for core safety assurance of the ATR. Furthermore, a modern verification and validation framework has been established that allows reactor and fuel performance data to be computed with a known degree of accuracy and stated uncertainty.

  2. GPS Water Vapor Tomography: Description and First Results of The Escompte Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, O.; Doerflinger, E.; Masson, F.; Walpersdorf, A.; van-Baelen, J.; Tarniewicz, J.; Troller, M.; Somieski, A.; Geiger, A.; Bürki, B.

    A dense network of 16 dual frequency GPS receivers has been operated for two weeks during June 2001 within a 20 km x 20 km area around Marseille, France, as part of the ESCOMPTE field campaign (http://medias.obs-mip.fr/escompte). The goal of the GPS experiment was to provide GPS data allowing for tomographic inversions and their validation within a well-documented observing period (the ESCOMPTE cam- paign). Tomographic inversion will be achieved with the AWATOS software of the GGL group of ETHZ. Simultaneous water vapor radiometer, solar spectrometer, Ra- man lidar and radiosonde data will be used for comparison and validation. Data from research aircrafts and atmospheric models are also expected. With this data set, key issues in GPS tomography can be investigated such as the impact of additional con- straints provided, e.g., by Raman lidar, on the vertical resolution of retrieved water vapor fields. In this poster we will mainly highlight the motivation and issues and de- scribe the field experiment. Some first results of water vapor retrievals from GPS and the other sensing techniques will also be presented.

  3. The patient experience of a Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC): a qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Rebecca; Grech, Carol; Fielder, Andrea; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina; Cummings, Melita; Esterman, Adrian

    2014-07-19

    Abstract Aim: To investigate the patient experience of PICC insertion, the significance of arm choice and the impact of the device on activities of daily living. Background: Arm choice for PICC insertion is often determined by PICC nurses with little input from consumers. There are few studies that have investigated the patient experience of living with a PICC and none that have examined the impact of arm choice from the consumer's perspective. Method: Participants were recruited in a hospital whilst they waited for PICC insertion. A purposeful sampling approach was used to select participants based on diagnosis types. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted November 2012-August 2013. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings: Ten participants were interviewed. Four themes were identified: (i) apprehension/ adaptation/ acceptance, (ii) impact of treatment, (iii) asking questions (trusting doctors) and (iv) freedom. Although initially apprehensive, participants adapted to the PICC and came to accept that the device allowed convenient access for treatment. This allowed them the freedom to receive treatment at home. The use of the dominant or non-dominant arm for PICC insertion had marginal impact on activities of daily living for participants. Auxiliary factors such as the infusion pump had a significant impact for those who received outpatient treatment. For those participants who did not understand the procedure, many did not seek clarification and trusted medical and nursing staff to make decisions for them. Conclusion: Nurses should involve consumers in clinical decision-making and provide individualised information and support that facilitates adaptation for patients living with a PICC. PMID:25041163

  4. Testing a discrete choice experiment including duration to value health states for large descriptive systems: Addressing design and sampling issues

    PubMed Central

    Bansback, Nick; Hole, Arne Risa; Mulhern, Brendan; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-01-01

    There is interest in the use of discrete choice experiments that include a duration attribute (DCETTO) to generate health utility values, but questions remain on its feasibility in large health state descriptive systems. This study examines the stability of DCETTO to estimate health utility values from the five-level EQ-5D, an instrument with depicts 3125 different health states. Between January and March 2011, we administered 120 DCETTO tasks based on the five-level EQ-5D to a total of 1799 respondents in the UK (each completed 15 DCETTO tasks on-line). We compared models across different sample sizes and different total numbers of observations. We found the DCETTO coefficients were generally consistent, with high agreement between individual ordinal preferences and aggregate cardinal values. Keeping the DCE design and the total number of observations fixed, subsamples consisting of 10 tasks per respondent with an intermediate sized sample, and 15 tasks with a smaller sample provide similar results in comparison to the whole sample model. In conclusion, we find that the DCETTO is a feasible method for developing values for larger descriptive systems such as EQ-5D-5L, and find evidence supporting important design features for future valuation studies that use the DCETTO. PMID:24908173

  5. US experiments flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Volume 1: Mission description, experiments K-7-01 - K-7-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Cosmos 2044 was launched on September 15, 1989, containing radiation dosimetry experiments and a biological payload including two young male rhesus monkeys, ten adult male Wistar rats, insects, amphibians, protozoa, cell cultures, worms, plants and fish. The biosatellite was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in the Soviet Union for a mission duration of 14 days, as planned. The major research objectives were: (1) Study adaptive response mechanisms of mammals during flight; (2) Study physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular, motor system and brain function in primates during early and later adaptation phases; (3) Study the tissue regeneration processes of mammals; (4) Study the development of single-celled organisms, cell cultures and embryos in microgravity; (5) Study radiation characteristics during the mission and investigate doses, fluxes and spectra of cosmic radiation for various types of shielding. American and Soviet specialists jointly conducted 29 experiments on this mission including extensive preflight and post flight studies with rhesus monkeys, and tissue processing and cell culturing post flight. Biosamples and data were subsequently transferred to the United States. The U.S. responsibilities for this flight included development of flight and ground-based hardware, the preparation of rat tissue sample procedures, the verification testing of hardware and experiment procedures, and the post flight analysis of biospecimens and data for the joint experiments. The U.S. investigations included four primate experiments, 24 rat experiments, and one radiation dosimetry experiment. Three scientists investigated tissue repair during flight for a subgroup of rats injured preflight by surgical intervention. A description of the Cosmos 2044 mission is presented in this report including preflight, on-orbit and post flight activities. The flight and ground-based bioinstrumentation which was developed by the U.S. and U.S.S.R. is also described, along with

  6. Integrate knowledge acquisition with target recognition through closed-loop ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ssu-Hsin; McLaughlin, Pat; Zatezalo, Aleksandar; Hsiao, Kai-yuh; Boskovic, Jovan

    2015-05-01

    Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithm performance is highly dependent on the sensing conditions under which the input data is collected. Open-loop fly-bys often produce poor results due to less than ideal measurement conditions. In addition, ATR algorithms must be extremely complicated to handle the diverse range of inputs with a resulting reduction in overall performance and increase in complexity. Our approach, closed-loop ATR (CL-ATR), focuses on improving the quality of information input to the ATR algorithms by optimizing motion, sensor settings and team (vehicle-vehicle-human) collaboration to dramatically improve classification accuracy. By managing the data collection guided by predicted ATR performance gain, we increase the information content of the data and thus dramatically improve ATR performance with existing ATR algorithms. CL-ATR has two major functions; first, an ATR utility function, which represents the performance sensitivity of ATR produced classification labels as a function of parameters that correlate to vehicle/sensor states. This utility function is developed off-line and is often available from the original ATR study as a confusion matrix, or it can be derived through simulation without direct access to the inner working of the ATR algorithm. The utility function is inserted into our CLATR framework to autonomously control the vehicle/sensor. Second, an on-board planner maps the utility function into vehicle position and sensor collection plans. Because we only require the utility function on-board, we can activate any ATR algorithm onto a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform no matter how complex. This pairing of ATR performance profiles with vehicle/sensor controls creates a unique and powerful active perception behavior.

  7. Description and field performance of the Walker Branch throughfall displacement experiment: 1993--1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Todd, D.E.; Huston, M.A.; Joslin, J.D.; Croker, J.L.; Auge, R.M.

    1998-04-01

    The authors are conducting a large-scale manipulative field experiment in an upland oak forest on the Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee to identify important ecosystem responses that might result from future precipitation changes. The manipulation of soil water content is being implemented by a gravity-driven transfer of throughfall from one 6400-m{sup 2} treatment plot to another. Throughfall is intercepted in {approx}1850 subcanopy troughs suspended above the forest floor of the dry plot and transferred by gravity flow across an ambient plot for subsequent distribution onto the wet treatment plot. Soil water content is being monitored at two depths with time domain reflectometers at 310 sampling locations across the site. The experimental system is able to produce statistically significant differences in soil water content in years having both dry and wet conditions. Maximum soil water content differentials between wet and dry plots in the 0- to 0.35-m horizon were 8 to 10% during summers with abundant precipitation and 3 to 5% during drought periods. Treatment impacts on soil water potential were restricted to the surface soil layer. Comparisons of pre- and post-installation soil and litter temperature measurements showed the ability of the experimental design to produce changes in soil water content and water potential without creating large artifacts in the forest understory environment.

  8. CSU FIRE 2 cirrus field experiment: Description of field deployment phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, S.; Beck, G.; Cornwall, C.; Davis, J.; Hein, P.; Lappen, C.; Song, R.; Withrow, J.; Wood, D.; Alvarez, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Colorado State University (CSU) surface observing systems are described. These systems were deployed at the Parsons, Kansas site during the FIRE 2 Cirrus Special Observing Period (SOP) from 13 Nov. - 7 Dec. 1991. The geographical coordinates of the site containing most of the CSU instrumentation are 37 deg. 18 min N. latitude and 96 deg. 30 min. W. longitude; site elevation was 269 meters. In addition, one surface meteorological and broadband flux observing site was maintained at the Tri City Airport which is approximately 18 miles due west of Parsons (37 deg. 20 min. N. latitude, 95 deg. 30 min. 30 sec. W. longitude). A map of the locations of the CSU deployment sites is presented. At the main Parsons site, the instrumentation was located directly adjacent to and north of a lake. Under most cirrus observing conditions, when the wing had a significant southernly component, the lake was upwind of the observing site. The measurements and observations collected during the experiment are listed. These measurements may be grouped into five categories: surface meteorology; infrared spectral and broadband measurements; solar spectral and broadband measurements; upper air measurements; and cloud measurements. A summary of observations collected at the Parsons site during the SOP are presented. The wind profiler, laser ceilometer, surface meteorology and surface broadband radiation instrumentation were operated on a continuous basis. All other systems were operated on an 'on demand' basis when cloud conditions merited the collection of data.

  9. A descriptive model of the molten salt reactor experiment after shutdown: Review of FY 1995 progress

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.F.; Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    During FY 1995 considerable progress was made toward gaining a better understanding of the chemistry and transport processes that continue to govern the behavior of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE). As measurements in the MSRE proceed, laboratory studies continue, and better analyses are available, our understanding of the state of the MSRE and the best path toward remediation improves. Because of the immediate concern about the deposit in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), laboratory studies in the past year focused on carbon-fluorine chemistry. Secondary efforts were directed toward investigation of gas generation from MSRE salts by both radiolytic and nonradiolytic pathways. In addition to the laboratory studies, field measurements at the MSRE provided the basis for estimating the inventory of uranium and fluorine in the ACB. Analysis of both temperature and radiation measurements provided independent and consistent estimates of about 2.6 kg of uranium deposited in the top of the ACB. Further analysis efforts included a refinement in the estimates of the fuel- salt source term, the deposited decay energy, and the projected rate of radiolytic gas generation. This report also provides the background material necessary to explain new developments and to review areas of particular interest. The detailed history of the MSRE is extensively documented and is cited where appropriate. This work is also intended to update and complement the more recent MSRE assessment reports.

  10. Process description language: an experiment in robust programming for manufacturing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, Natalie R.; Creak, G. Alan

    1998-10-01

    Maintaining stable, robust, and consistent software is difficult in face of the increasing rate of change of customers' preferences, materials, manufacturing techniques, computer equipment, and other characteristic features of manufacturing systems. It is argued that software is commonly difficult to keep up to date because many of the implications of these changing features on software details are obscure. A possible solution is to use a software generation system in which the transformation of system properties into system software is made explicit. The proposed generation system stores the system properties, such as machine properties, product properties and information on manufacturing techniques, in databases. As a result this information, on which system control is based, can also be made available to other programs. In particular, artificial intelligence programs such as fault diagnosis programs, can benefit from using the same information as the control system, rather than a separate database which must be developed and maintained separately to ensure consistency. Experience in developing a simplified model of such a system is presented.

  11. The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX): Description and Early Pilot Survey Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, G. J.; Gebhardt, K.; Komatsu, E.; Drory, N.; MacQueen, P. J.; Adams, J.; Blanc, G. A.; Koehler, R.; Rafal, M.; Roth, M. M.; Kelz, A.; Gronwall, C.; Ciardullo, R.; Schneider, D. P.

    2008-10-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will outfit the 10 m HET with a new wide field and an array of 150 integral-field spectrographs to survey a 420 deg^2 area in the north Galactic cap. Each fiber-coupled unit spectrograph will cover 350-550 nm, simultaneously. This instrument, called VIRUS, will produce ˜34,000 spectra per exposure, and will open up the emission-line universe to large surveys for the first time. The survey will detect 0.8 million Lyman-alpha emitting (LAE) galaxies with 1.9

  12. Robust SAR ATR by hedging against uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, John R.; Mahler, Ronald P. S.; Ravichandran, Ravi B.; Huff, Melvyn; Musick, Stanton

    2002-07-01

    For the past two years in this conference, we have described techniques for robust identification of motionless ground targets using single-frame Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. By robust identification, we mean the problem of determining target ID despite the existence of confounding statistically uncharacterizable signature variations. Such variations can be caused by effects such as mud, dents, attachment of nonstandard equipment, nonstandard attachment of standard equipment, turret articulations, etc. When faced with such variations, optimal approaches can often behave badly-e.g., by mis-identifying a target type with high confidence. A basic element of our approach has been to hedge against unknowable uncertainties in the sensor likelihood function by specifying a random error bar (random interval) for each value of the likelihood function corresponding to any given value of the input data. Int his paper, we will summarize our recent results. This will include a description of the fuzzy maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator. The fuzzy MAP estiamte is essentially the set of conventional MAP estimates that are plausible, given the assumed uncertainty in the problem. Despite its name, the fuzzy MAP is derived rigorously from first probabilistic principles based on random interval theory.

  13. Root discrimination of closely related crop and weed species using FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Meinen, Catharina; Rauber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Root discrimination of species is a pre-condition for studying belowground competition processes between crop and weed species. In this experiment, we tested Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT MIR)-attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to discriminate roots of closely related crop and weed species grown in the greenhouse: maize/barnyard grass, barley/wild oat, wheat/blackgrass (Poaceae), and sugar beet/common lambsquarters (Chenopodiaceae). Fresh (moist) and dried root segments as well as ground roots were analyzed by FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy. Root absorption spectra showed species specific peak distribution and peak height. A clear separation according to species was not possible with fresh root segments. Dried root segments (including root basis, middle section, and root tip) of maize/barnyard grass and sugar beet/common lambsquarters formed completely separated species clusters. Wheat and blackgrass separated in species specific clusters when root tips were removed from cluster analysis. A clear separation of dried root segments according to species was not possible in the case of barley and wild oat. Cluster analyses of ground roots revealed a 100% separation of all tested crop and weed species combinations. Spectra grouped in Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae clusters. Within the Poaceae cluster, C3 and C4 species differed significantly in heterogeneity. Thus, root spectra reflected the degree of kinship. To quantify species proportion in root mixtures, a two- and a three-species model for species quantification in root mixtures of maize, barnyard grass, and wild oat was calculated. The models showed low standard errors of prediction (RMSEP) and high residual predictive deviation values in an external test set validation. Hence, FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy seems to be a promising tool for root research even between closely related plant species. PMID:26483799

  14. Kinetics of phosphate adsorption on goethite: comparing batch adsorption and ATR-IR measurements.

    PubMed

    Luengo, Carina; Brigante, Maximiliano; Antelo, Juan; Avena, Marcelo

    2006-08-15

    The adsorption kinetics of phosphate on goethite has been studied by batch adsorption experiments and by in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy at different pH, initial phosphate concentrations and stirring rates. Batch adsorption results are very similar to those reported by several authors, and show a rather fast initial adsorption taking place in a few minutes followed by a slower process taking place in days or weeks. The adsorption kinetics could be also monitored by integrating the phosphate signals obtained in ATR-IR experiments, and a very good agreement between both techniques was found. At pH 4.5 two surface complexes, the bidentate nonprotonated (FeO)(2)PO(2) and the bidentate protonated (FeO)(2)(OH)PO complexes, are formed at the surface. There are small changes in the relative concentrations of these species as the reaction proceeds, and they seem to evolve in time rather independently. At pH 7.5 and 9 the dominating surface species is (FeO)(2)PO(2), which is accompanied by an extra unidentified species at low concentration. They also seem to evolve independently as the reaction proceeds. The results are consistent with a mechanism that involve a fast adsorption followed by a slow diffusion into pores, and are not consistent with surface precipitation of iron phosphate. PMID:16643942

  15. Focusing, imaging, and ATR for the Gotcha 2008 wide angle SAR collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianelli, Christopher D.; Xu, Luzhou

    2013-05-01

    The following work discusses IAA's approach to tackling the wide angle, circular spotlight, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) problem from the 2008 Gotcha wide angle SAR data set, which is publicly released, with unlimited distribution. This data set comes with a MATLAB image formation routine and attendant graphical user inter- face (GUI). We begin by introducing a simple approach to focusing the collected phase history data that utilizes point targets (quadrahedral targets) present in the scene. Two SAR imaging algorithms are then presented, namely, the data-independent backprojection (BP) algorithm and the data-adaptive sparse learning via itera- tive minimization (SLIM) algorithm. These imaging approaches are compared using the 2008 Gotcha wide angle SAR data to perform both a clutter discrimination experiment, as well as an automatic target recognition (ATR) experiment. The ATR system is composed of a target pose and target center estimation preprocessing system, and includes a novel target feature for the final classification stage. Empirical results obtained by applying the focusing approach and imaging algorithms to the 2008 Gotcha wide angle SAR data set are presented and described. The results presented highlight the benefit of applying the SLIM algorithm over its data-independent counterpart, as well as the utility of the novel target feature.

  16. The SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) Ligase PIAS3 Primes ATR for Checkpoint Activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Shyi; Zou, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of genomic stability relies on the concerted action of DNA repair and DNA damage signaling pathways. The PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family of SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) ligases has been implicated in DNA repair, but whether it plays a role in DNA damage signaling is still unclear. Here, we show that the PIAS3 SUMO ligase is important for activation of the ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related)-regulated DNA damage signaling pathway. PIAS3 is the only member of the PIAS family that is indispensable for ATR activation. In response to different types of DNA damage and replication stress, PIAS3 plays multiple roles in ATR activation. In cells treated with camptothecin (CPT), PIAS3 contributes to formation of DNA double-stranded breaks. In UV (ultraviolet light)- or HU (hydroxyurea)-treated cells, PIAS3 is required for efficient ATR autophosphorylation, one of the earliest events during ATR activation. Although PIAS3 is dispensable for ATRIP (ATR-interacting protein) SUMOylation and the ATR-ATRIP interaction, it is required for maintaining the basal kinase activity of ATR prior to DNA damage. In the absence of PIAS3, ATR fails to display normal kinase activity after DNA damage, which accompanies with reduced phosphorylation of ATR substrates. Together, these results suggest that PIAS3 primes ATR for checkpoint activation by sustaining its basal kinase activity, revealing a new function of the PIAS family in DNA damage signaling. PMID:26565033

  17. Differential Processing of Low and High LET Radiation Induced DNA Damage: Investigation of Switch from ATM to ATR Signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    majority of RPA-coated ssDNA is generally present only during DNA replication, ATR activation in G1 and G2-phase might still require formation of RPA-coated ssDNA, probably initiated by the MRN-CtIP complex and then extended by the Exo1- or BLM-dependent mechanisms at the sites of DSBs. Evidence accumulates that activation of ATM and ATR are oppositely regulated by the length of single stranded overhangs generated at the break sites by processes mentioned above and these stretches of single stranded overhangs hold the clue for ATM to ATR switch at broken DNA ends. We irradiated 82-6hTERT human fibroblast cells with low LET gamma-rays and high LET Fe and Si particles. Preliminary results with cells exposed to 1Gy gamma-rays show that the kinetics of pChk2-pT68 foci formation is comparable to that of gamma-H2AX although they appear to recede quicker. The number and intensity of observed foci reaches a maximum at 30 min and 60 min post IR for Chk2-pT68 and gamma-H2AX foci respectively and all Chk2-pT68 foci colocalize with gamma-H2AX foci. The kinetics of Chk1-pS345 and ATRIP are being determined. Results of Chk2-pT68 foci kinetics was also corroborated by western blot experiments, although phosphorylation was detected as early as 10 min and started receding 30 min post IR with 2Gy of gamma-rays. On the other hand, level of ATR-pS428 reached its maximum between 60 and 120 min and was maintained until the last measured time point of 4 hours post IR as determined by western blotting. Experiments performed with high LET Fe and Si particles will be reported.

  18. Analyzing the ATR-mediated checkpoint using Xenopus egg extracts

    PubMed Central

    Lupardus, Patrick J.; Van, Christopher; Cimprich, Karlene A.

    2009-01-01

    Our knowledge of cell cycle events such as DNA replication and mitosis has been advanced significantly through the use of Xenopus egg extracts as a model system. More recently, Xenopus extracts have been used to investigate the cellular mechanisms that ensure accurate and complete duplication of the genome, processes otherwise known as the DNA damage and replication checkpoints. Here we describe several Xenopus extract methods that have advanced the study of the ATR-mediated checkpoints. These include a protocol for the preparation of nucleoplasmic extract (NPE), which is a soluble extract system useful for studying nuclear events such as DNA replication and checkpoints. In addition, we describe several key assays for studying checkpoint activation as well as methods for using small DNA structures to activate ATR. PMID:17189864

  19. Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) Recently Installed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR)

    SciTech Connect

    A. Joseph Palmer; Gerry L. McCormick; Shannon J. Corrigan

    2010-06-01

    a Readiness Assessment in November 2009. The HSIS is a key component of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) operated by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC and is available to a wide variety of university researchers for nuclear fuels and materials experiments as well as medical isotope research and production.

  20. Comparison of HEU and LEU Fuel Neutron Spectrum for ATR Fuel Element and ATR Flux-Trap Positions

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2008-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power and high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the high total core power and high neutron flux, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. An optimized low-enriched uranium (LEU) (U-10Mo) core conversion case, which can meet the project requirements, has been selected. However, LEU contains a significant quantity of high density U-238 (80.3 wt.%), which will harden the neutron spectrum in the core region. Based on the reference ATR HEU and the optimized LEU full core plate-by-plate (PBP) models, the present work investigates and compares the neutron spectra differences in the fuel element (FE), Northeast flux trap (NEFT), Southeast flux trap (SEFT), and East flux trap (EFT) positions. A detailed PBP MCNP ATR core model was developed and validated for fuel cycle burnup comparison analysis. The current ATR core with HEU U 235 enrichment of 93.0wt.% was used as the reference model. Each HEU fuel element contains 19 fuel plates with a fuel meat thickness of 0.508 mm (20 mil). In this work, an optimized LEU (U-10Mo) core conversion case with a nominal fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm (13 mil) and the U-235 enrichment of 19.7 wt.% was used to calculate the impact of the neutron spectrum in FE and FT positions. MCNP-calculated results show that the neutron spectrum in the LEU FE is slightly harder than in the HEU FE, as expected. However, when neutrons transport through water coolant and beryllium (Be), the neutrons are thermalized to an equilibrium neutron spectrum as a function of water volume fraction in the investigated FT positions. As a result, the neutron spectrum differences of the HEU and LEU in the NEFT, SEFT, and EFT are negligible. To demonstrate that the LEU core fuel cycle performance can meet the

  1. Recent ATR and fusion algorithm improvements for multiband sonar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aridgides, Tom; Fernández, Manuel

    2009-05-01

    An improved automatic target recognition processing string has been developed. The overall processing string consists of pre-processing, subimage adaptive clutter filtering, normalization, detection, data regularization, feature extraction, optimal subset feature selection, feature orthogonalization and classification processing blocks. The objects that are classified by the 3 distinct ATR strings are fused using the classification confidence values and their expansions as features, and using "summing" or log-likelihood-ratio-test (LLRT) based fusion rules. The utility of the overall processing strings and their fusion was demonstrated with new high-resolution three-frequency band sonar imagery. The ATR processing strings were individually tuned to the corresponding three-frequency band data, making use of the new processing improvement, data regularization; this improvement entails computing the input data mean, clipping the data to a multiple of its mean and scaling it, prior to feature extraction and resulted in a 3:1 reduction in false alarms. Two significant fusion algorithm improvements were made. First, a nonlinear exponential Box-Cox expansion (consisting of raising data to a to-be-determined power) feature LLRT fusion algorithm was developed. Second, a repeated application of a subset Box-Cox feature selection / feature orthogonalization / LLRT fusion block was utilized. It was shown that cascaded Box-Cox feature LLRT fusion of the ATR processing strings outperforms baseline "summing" and single-stage Box-Cox feature LLRT algorithms, yielding significant improvements over the best single ATR processing string results, and providing the capability to correctly call the majority of targets while maintaining a very low false alarm rate.

  2. A SAR ATR algorithm based on coherent change detection

    SciTech Connect

    Harmony, D.W.

    2000-12-01

    This report discusses an automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery that is based on coherent change detection techniques. The algorithm relies on templates created from training data to identify targets. Objects are identified or rejected as targets by comparing their SAR signatures with templates using the same complex correlation scheme developed for coherent change detection. Preliminary results are presented in addition to future recommendations.

  3. Clipping service: ATR-based SAR image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodkey, David L.; Welby, Stephen P.; Hostetler, Larry D.

    1996-06-01

    Future wide area surveillance systems such as the Tier II+ and Tier III- unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will be gathering cast amounts of high resolution SAR data for transmission to ground stations and subsequent analysis by image interpreters to provide critical and timely information to field commanders. This extremely high data rate presents two problems. First, wide bandwidth data link channels which would be needed to transmit this high data rate presents two problems. First, wide bandwidth data link channels which would be needed to transmit this imagery to a ground station are both expensive and difficult to obtain. Second, the volume of data which is generated by the system will quickly saturate any human-based analysis system without some degree of computer assistance. The ARPA sponsored clipping service program seeks to apply automatic target recognition (ATR) technology to perform 'intelligent' data compression on this imagery in a way which will provide a product on the ground that preserves essential information for further processing either by the military analyst or by a ground-based ATR system. An ATR system on board the UAV would examine the imagery data stream in real time determining regions of interest. Imagery from those regions would be transmitted to the ground in a manner which preserved most or all of the information contained in the original image. The remainder of the imagery would be transmitted to the ground with lesser fidelity. This paper presents system analysis deriving the operational requirements for the clipping service system and examines candidate architectures.

  4. Simulator of IRST system with ATR embedded functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzi, B.; Fossati, E.; Barani, G.; Santini, N.; Ondini, A.; Colombi, G.; Quaranta, C.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a soft-real time simulator for IRST (InfraRed Search and Track) systems with ATR (Automatic Target Recognition) embedded functions to test airborne applications performance. The IR camera model includes detector, optics, available Field-of-Regard, etc., and it is integrated with the motion platform local stabilization system to consider all factors impacting IR images. The atmosphere contributions are taken into account by means of a link to ModTran computer program. Sensor simulation allows derivation and assessment of IR Figures of Merit (NEI, NETD, SNR...). IR signatures of targets derive both from data collected in specific trial campaigns and from laboratory built models. The simulation of the scan procedure takes into account different policies (ground points paths or defined angular volume) and different platform motion strategies (continuous or step steering scan). The scan process includes Kalman technique to face unexpected variations of aircraft motion. Track and ATR processors are simulated and run consistently on the output of the sensor model. The simulator functions are developed in MatLab and SIMULINK and then exported in C code to be integrated in soft real-time environment. The use of this simulator supports the definition and design of the IRST systems especially for the evaluation of the most demanding operative requirements. An application of this simulator is for the NEURON UCAV (Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle) technological demonstrator, which accommodates on board both IRST and ATR tasks.

  5. Clamping the Mec1/ATR checkpoint kinase into action.

    PubMed

    Majka, Jerzy; Burgers, Peter M J

    2007-05-15

    The yeast checkpoint protein kinase Mec1, the ortholog of human ATR, is the essential upstream regulator of the cell cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage and to stalling of DNA replication forks. The activity of Mec1/ATR is not directly regulated by the DNA substrates that signal checkpoint activation. Rather the signal appears to be transduced to Mec1 by factors that interact with the signaling DNA substrates. One of these factors, the DNA damage checkpoint clamp Rad17-Mec3-Ddc1 (human 9-1-1) is loaded onto gapped DNA resulting from the partial repair of DNA damage, and the Ddc1 subunit of this complex activates Mec1. In vertebrate cells, the TopBP1 protein (Cut5 in S. pombe and Dpb11 in S. cervisiae) that is also required for establishment of the replication fork, functions during replication fork dysfunction to activate ATR. Both mechanisms of activation generally upregulate the kinase activity towards all downstream targets. PMID:17495536

  6. ATR pathway inhibition is synthetically lethal in cancer cells with ERCC1 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mohni, Kareem N.; Kavanaugh, Gina M.; Cortez, David

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage response kinase ATR and its effector kinase CHEK1 are required for cancer cells to survive oncogene-induced replication stress. ATR inhibitors exhibit synthetic lethal interactions with deficiencies in the DNA damage response enzymes ATM and XRCC1 and with overexpression of the cell cycle kinase Cyclin E. Here we report a systematic screen to identify synthetic lethal interactions with ATR-pathway targeted drugs, rationalized by their predicted therapeutic utility in the oncology clinic. We found that reduced function in the ATR pathway itself provided the strongest synthetic lethal interaction. In addition, we found that loss of the structure specific-endonuclease ERCC1-XPF (ERCC4) is synthetic lethal with ATR pathway inhibitors. ERCC1-deficient cells exhibited elevated levels of DNA damage, which was increased further by ATR inhibition. When treated with ATR or CHEK1 inhibitors, ERCC1-deficient cells arrested in S phase and failed to complete cell cycle transit even after drug removal. Notably, triple-negative breast cancer cells and non-small cell lung cancer cells depleted of ERCC1 exhibited increased sensitivity to ATR-pathway targeted drugs. Overall, we concluded that ATR pathway-targeted drugs may offer particular utility in cancers with reduced ATR pathway function or reduced levels of ERCC4 activity. PMID:24662920

  7. ATR-101 disrupts mitochondrial functions in adrenocortical carcinoma cells and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yunhui; Kerppola, Raili Emilia; Kerppola, Tom Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) generally has poor prognosis. Existing treatments provide limited benefit for most patients with locally advanced or metastatic tumors. We investigated the mechanisms for the cytotoxicity, xenograft suppression, and adrenalytic activity of ATR-101 (PD132301-02), a prospective agent for ACC treatment. Oral administration of ATR-101 inhibited the establishment and impeded the growth of ACC-derived H295R cell xenografts in mice. ATR-101 induced H295R cell apoptosis in culture and in xenografts. ATR-101 caused mitochondrial hyperpolarization, reactive oxygen release, and ATP depletion within hours after exposure, followed by cytochrome c release, caspase-3/7 activation, and membrane permeabilization. The increase in mitochondrial membrane potential occurred concurrently with the decrease in cellular ATP levels. When combined with ATR-101, lipophilic free radical scavengers suppressed the reactive oxygen release, and glycolytic precursors prevented the ATP depletion, abrogating ATR-101 cytotoxicity. ATR-101 directly inhibited F1F0-ATPase activity and suppressed ATP synthesis in mitochondrial fractions. ATR-101 administration to guinea pigs caused oxidized lipofuscin accumulation in thezona fasciculatalayer of the adrenal cortex, implicating reactive oxygen release in the adrenalytic effect of ATR-101. These results support the development of ATR-101 and other adrenalytic compounds for the treatment of ACC. PMID:26843528

  8. ATR pathway inhibition is synthetically lethal in cancer cells with ERCC1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mohni, Kareem N; Kavanaugh, Gina M; Cortez, David

    2014-05-15

    The DNA damage response kinase ATR and its effector kinase CHEK1 are required for cancer cells to survive oncogene-induced replication stress. ATR inhibitors exhibit synthetic lethal interactions, with deficiencies in the DNA damage response enzymes ATM and XRCC1 and with overexpression of the cell cycle kinase cyclin E. Here, we report a systematic screen to identify synthetic lethal interactions with ATR pathway-targeted drugs, rationalized by their predicted therapeutic utility in the oncology clinic. We found that reduced function in the ATR pathway itself provided the strongest synthetic lethal interaction. In addition, we found that loss of the structure-specific endonuclease ERCC1-XPF (ERCC4) is synthetic lethal with ATR pathway inhibitors. ERCC1-deficient cells exhibited elevated levels of DNA damage, which was increased further by ATR inhibition. When treated with ATR or CHEK1 inhibitors, ERCC1-deficient cells were arrested in S-phase and failed to complete cell-cycle transit even after drug removal. Notably, triple-negative breast cancer cells and non-small cell lung cancer cells depleted of ERCC1 exhibited increased sensitivity to ATR pathway-targeted drugs. Overall, we concluded that ATR pathway-targeted drugs may offer particular utility in cancers with reduced ATR pathway function or reduced levels of ERCC4 activity. PMID:24662920

  9. Time-Domain Ab Initio Analysis of Excitation Dynamics in a Quantum Dot/Polymer Hybrid: Atomistic Description Rationalizes Experiment.

    PubMed

    Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic polymer/quantum dot (QD) solar cells are an attractive alternative to the traditional cells. The original, simple models postulate that one-dimensional polymers have continuous energy levels, while zero-dimensional QDs exhibit atom-like electronic structure. A realistic, atomistic viewpoint provides an alternative description. Electronic states in polymers are molecule-like: finite in size and discrete in energy. QDs are composed of many atoms and have high, bulk-like densities of states. We employ ab initio time-domain simulation to model the experimentally observed ultrafast photoinduced dynamics in a QD/polymer hybrid and show that an atomistic description is essential for understanding the time-resolved experimental data. Both electron and hole transfers across the interface exhibit subpicosecond time scales. The interfacial processes are fast due to strong electronic donor-acceptor, as evidenced by the densities of the photoexcited states which are delocalized between the donor and the acceptor. The nonadiabatic charge-phonon coupling is also strong, especially in the polymer, resulting in rapid energy losses. The electron transfer from the polymer is notably faster than the hole transfer from the QD, due to a significantly higher density of acceptor states. The stronger molecule-like electronic and charge-phonon coupling in the polymer rationalizes why the electron-hole recombination inside the polymer is several orders of magnitude faster than in the QD. As a result, experiments exhibit multiple transfer times for the long-lived hole inside the QD, ranging from subpicoseconds to nanoseconds. In contrast, transfer of the short-lived electron inside the polymer does not occur beyond the first picosecond. The energy lost by the hole on its transit into the polymer is accommodated by polymer's high-frequency vibrations. The energy lost by the electron injected into the QD is accommodated primarily by much lower-frequency collective and

  10. Drugging ATR: progress in the development of specific inhibitors for the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Foote, Kevin M; Lau, Alan; Nissink, J Willem M

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we review the ATR inhibitor field from initial pharmacological tools to first-generation clinical candidates with the potential to bring benefit to cancer patients. ATR is a critical part of the cell DNA-damage response. Over the past decade or more, compounds with weak ATR potency and low specificity have been used as tools in early studies to elucidate ATR pharmacology. More recently highly potent, selective and in vivo active ATR inhibitors have been developed enabling detailed preclinical in vitro and in vivo target assessment to be made. The published studies reveal the potential of ATR inhibitors for use as monotherapy or in combination with DNA-damaging agents. To date, VX-970 and AZD6738, have entered clinical assessment. PMID:26061106

  11. Safety Assurance for Irradiating Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Tomberlin; S. B. Grover

    2004-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), was specifically designed to provide a high neutron flux test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. This paper addresses the safety assurance process for two general types of experiments conducted in the ATR facility and how the safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore, this type of experiment is addressed in more detail in the ATR safety basis. This allows the individual safety analysis for this type of experiment to be more standardized. The second type of experiment is defined in more general terms in the ATR safety basis and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, the individual safety analysis for the second type of experiment tends to be more unique and is tailored to each experiment.

  12. Analysis of the ATR fuel element swaging process

    SciTech Connect

    Richins, W.D.; Miller, G.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a detailed evaluation of the swaging process used to connect fuel plates to side plates in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel elements. The swaging is a mechanical process that begins with fitting a fuel plate into grooves in the side plates. Once a fuel plate is positioned, a lip on each of two side plate grooves is pressed into the fuel plate using swaging wheels to form the joints. Each connection must have a specified strength (measured in terms, of a pullout force capacity) to assure that these joints do not fail during reactor operation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the swaging process and associated procedural controls, and to provide recommendations to assure that the manufacturing process produces swaged connections that meet the minimum strength requirement. The current fuel element manufacturer, Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) of Lynchburg, Virginia, follows established procedures that include quality inspections and process controls in swaging these connections. The procedures have been approved by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies and are designed to assure repeatability of the process and structural integrity of each joint. Prior to July 1994, ATR fuel elements were placed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (AGNAIL), Test Reactor Area (TRA) for application of Boehmite (an aluminum oxide) film and for checking structural integrity before placement of the elements into the ATR. The results presented in this report demonstrate that the pullout strength of the swaged connections is assured by the current manufacturing process (with several recommended enhancements) without the need for- testing each element in the HTF.

  13. Requirement of ATR for maintenance of intestinal stem cells in aging Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2015-01-01

    The stem cell genomic stability forms the basis for robust tissue homeostasis, particularly in high-turnover tissues. For the genomic stability, DNA damage response (DDR) is essential. This study was focused on the role of two major DDR-related factors, ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR) kinases, in the maintenance of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the adult Drosophila midgut. We explored the role of ATM and ATR, utilizing immunostaining with an anti-pS/TQ antibody as an indicator of ATM/ATR activation, γ-irradiation as a DNA damage inducer, and the UAS/GAL4 system for cell type-specific knockdown of ATM, ATR, or both during adulthood. The results showed that the pS/TQ signals got stronger with age and after oxidative stress. The pS/TQ signals were found to be more dependent on ATR rather than on ATM in ISCs/enteroblasts (EBs). Furthermore, an ISC/EB-specific knockdown of ATR, ATM, or both decreased the number of ISCs and oxidative stress-induced ISC proliferation. The phenotypic changes that were caused by the ATR knockdown were more pronounced than those caused by the ATM knockdown; however, our data indicate that ATR and ATM are both needed for ISC maintenance and proliferation; ATR seems to play a bigger role than does ATM. PMID:26000719

  14. A Description of the Full Particle Orbit Following SPIRAL Code for Simulating Fast-ion Experiments in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.J.; Budny, R.V.; Bortolon, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Fu, G.Y.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Nazikian, R.; Valeo, E.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2012-07-27

    The numerical methods used in the full particle-orbit following SPIRAL code are described and a number of physics studies performed with the code are presented to illustrate its capabilities. The SPIRAL code is a test-particle code and is a powerful numerical tool to interpret and plan fast-ion experiments in Tokamaks. Gyro-orbit effects are important for fast ions in low-field machines such as NSTX and to a lesser extent in DIII-D. A number of physics studies are interlaced between the description of the code to illustrate its capabilities. Results on heat loads generated by a localized error-field on the DIII-D wall are compared to measurements. The enhanced Triton losses caused by the same localized error-field are calculated and compared to measured neutron signals. MHD activity such as tearing modes and Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs) have a profound effect on the fast-ion content of Tokamak plasmas and SPIRAL can calculate the effects of MHD activity on the confined and lost fast-ion population as illustrated for a burst of TAE activity in NSTX. The interaction between Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating and fast ions depends solely on the gyro-motion of the fast ions and is captured exactly in the SPIRAL code. A calculation of ICRF absorption on beam ions in ITER is presented. The effects of high harmonic fast wave heating on the beam-ion slowing-down distribution in NSTX is also studied.

  15. Across North America Tracer Experiment (ANATEX). Volume 1. Description, ground-level sampling at primary sites, and meteorology. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Draxler, R.R.; Heffter, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Contents include: experimental design; the ground-level air-sampling system; description and design of perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) analysis system; PFT sampler data management; PFT data quality assurance; meteorology.

  16. Neutron spectrum studies in the ATR (Advanced Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.; Putnam, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been and currently is used to provide irradiation fields to study the effects of intense radiation on samples of reactor materials. These samples include fuel, cladding, control and structural materials. The ATR is also used to irradiate target materials for the production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications as well as for scientific research. Routine monitoring of the thermal'' and fast'' neutron levels have been conducted during every operational cycle since its startup in 1970. The routine neutron dosimetry has been primarily accomplished using the {sup 59}Co(n,{gamma}){sup 60}Co reaction for thermal'' neutrons and the {sup 58}Ni(n,p) {sup 58}Co reaction for fast'' neutrons as described in ASTM standard methods E261, E262, and E264. Neutron spectrum studies have now been conducted in the epithermal and fast neutron energy ranges for the various capsule irradiation test facilities and the routine neutron monitoring locations. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Open source tools for ATR development and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, James M.; Dilsavor, Ronald L.; Stubbles, James; Mossing, John C.

    2002-07-01

    Early in almost every engineering project, a decision must be made about tools; should I buy off-the-shelf tools or should I develop my own. Either choice can involve significant cost and risk. Off-the-shelf tools may be readily available, but they can be expensive to purchase and to maintain licenses, and may not be flexible enough to satisfy all project requirements. On the other hand, developing new tools permits great flexibility, but it can be time- (and budget-) consuming, and the end product still may not work as intended. Open source software has the advantages of both approaches without many of the pitfalls. This paper examines the concept of open source software, including its history, unique culture, and informal yet closely followed conventions. These characteristics influence the quality and quantity of software available, and ultimately its suitability for serious ATR development work. We give an example where Python, an open source scripting language, and OpenEV, a viewing and analysis tool for geospatial data, have been incorporated into ATR performance evaluation projects. While this case highlights the successful use of open source tools, we also offer important insight into risks associated with this approach.

  18. 78 FR 58967 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... 21 62 21; fax +33 (0) 5 62 21 67 18; email continued.airworthiness@atr.fr ; Internet http://www... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will...)5 62 21 69 41; email: techdesk@atr.fr . ] (1) If the inspection was done on or after the...

  19. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part I--Fundamentals and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. Several examples of the use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in different undergraduate chemistry laboratory courses are presented here. These…

  20. Safety significance of ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) passive safety response attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety posture of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: (1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, (2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and (3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond for most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) model ands results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR Level 1 PRA because of the diversity and redundancy of the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system). 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Drosophila ATM and ATR checkpoint kinases control partially redundant pathways for telomere maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xiaolin; Srikanta, Deepa; Fanti, Laura; Pimpinelli, Sergio; Badugu, RamaKrishna; Kellum, Rebecca; Rong, Yikang S.

    2005-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) checkpoint kinases play distinct, but partially overlapping, roles in DNA damage response. Yet their interrelated function has not been defined for telomere maintenance. We discover in Drosophila that the two proteins control partially redundant pathways for telomere protection: the loss of ATM leads to the fusion of some telomeres, whereas the loss of both ATM and ATR renders all telomeres susceptible to fusion. The ATM-controlled pathway includes the Mre11 and Nijmegen breakage syndrome complex but not the Chk2 kinase, whereas the ATR-regulated pathway includes its partner ATR-interacting protein but not the Chk1 kinase. This finding suggests that ATM and ATR regulate different molecular events at the telomeres compared with the sites of DNA damage. This compensatory relationship between ATM and ATR is remarkably similar to that observed in yeast despite the fact that the biochemistry of telomere elongation is completely different in the two model systems. We provide evidence suggesting that both the loading of telomere capping proteins and normal telomeric silencing requires ATM and ATR in Drosophila and propose that ATM and ATR protect telomere integrity by safeguarding chromatin architecture that favors the loading of telomere-elongating, capping, and silencing proteins. PMID:16203987

  2. Primary microcephaly, impaired DNA replication, and genomic instability caused by compound heterozygous ATR mutations.

    PubMed

    Mokrani-Benhelli, Houda; Gaillard, Laetitia; Biasutto, Patricia; Le Guen, Tangui; Touzot, Fabien; Vasquez, Nadia; Komatsu, Jun; Conseiller, Emmanuel; Pïcard, Capucine; Gluckman, Eliane; Francannet, Christine; Fischer, Alain; Durandy, Anne; Soulier, Jean; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Revy, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) kinases are two key regulators of DNA-damage responses (DDR) that are mainly activated in response to DNA double-strand breaks and single-stranded DNA damages, respectively. Seckel syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by a microcephaly and a markedly reduced body size, has been associated with defective ATR-dependent DNA damage signaling. However, the only human genetic ATR defect reported so far is a hypomorphic splicing mutation identified in five related individuals with Seckel syndrome. Here, we report the first case of primary microcephaly with compound heterozygous mutations in ATR: a 540 kb genomic deletion on one allele and a missense mutation leading to splice dysregulation on the other, which ultimately lead to a sharp decrease in ATR expression. DNA combing technology revealed a profound spontaneous alteration of several DNA replication parameters in patient's cells and FISH analyses highlighted the genomic instability caused by ATR deficiency. Collectively, our results emphasize the crucial role for ATR in the control of DNA replication, and reinforce the complementary and nonredundant contributions of ATM and ATR in human cells to face DNA damages and warrant genome integrity. PMID:23111928

  3. ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Pauklin, Siim . E-mail: spauklin@ut.ee; Kristjuhan, Arnold; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar

    2005-08-26

    Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, {beta}-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53.

  4. Beyond Sentiment: A Descriptive Case Study of Elementary School Teachers' Experiences Selecting Children's Literature for Read-Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyd, Stacy M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how and why elementary teachers select books for the read-aloud. A phenomenological approach was used to conduct a fourteen week descriptive study. Three participants were purposefully selected to provide an in-depth examination of teachers' book selection processes. Data was collected through observations,…

  5. Descriptions of Personal Experiences: Effects on Students' Learning and Behavioral Intentions toward Peers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saecker, Lee B.; Skinner, Amy L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Rowland, Emily; Kirk, Emily

    2010-01-01

    High-school students were shown an educational video designed to dispel 12 common myths regarding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by describing each myth and then presenting accurate information. The experimental group viewed a video that was supplemented by the speaker acknowledging that he had ADHD and providing descriptions of…

  6. Home Literacy Experiences and Early Childhood Disability: A Descriptive Study Using the National Household Education Surveys (NHES) Program Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breit-Smith, Allison; Cabell, Sonia Q.; Justice, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present article illustrates how the National Household Education Surveys (NHES; U.S. Department of Education, 2009) database might be used to address questions of relevance to researchers who are concerned with literacy development among young children. Following a general description of the NHES database, a study is provided that…

  7. Corrosion inhibitor film formation studied by ATR-FTIR

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.; Jovancicevic, V.

    1999-11-01

    The development of an inhibitor film is essential for the effective performance of a corrosion inhibitor. The use of attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) allows the development of inhibitor films on iron oxides to be monitored. For two distinct corrosion inhibitor chemistries, oleic imidazoline and phosphate ester, the film formation and corrosion processes are monitored on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in a powdered form (a model surface). Additional data following on the physical and chemical properties are obtained using XPS and SEM techniques, which allows for a more complete characterization of the model inhibitor/oxide system. By the proper choice of system and measurement techniques, the complex phenomenon of corrosion inhibition may be analyzed directly.

  8. Deep convolutional neural networks for ATR from SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, David A. E.

    2015-05-01

    Deep architectures for classification and representation learning have recently attracted significant attention within academia and industry, with many impressive results across a diverse collection of problem sets. In this work we consider the specific application of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the MSTAR public release data set. The classification performance achieved using a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) on this data set was found to be competitive with existing methods considered to be state-of-the-art. Unlike most existing algorithms, this approach can learn discriminative feature sets directly from training data instead of requiring pre-specification or pre-selection by a human designer. We show how this property can be exploited to efficiently adapt an existing classifier to recognise a previously unseen target and discuss potential practical applications.

  9. Wurfelspiel-based training data methods for ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, James K.

    2004-09-01

    A data object is constructed from a P by M Wurfelspiel matrix W by choosing an entry from each column to construct a sequence A0A1"AM-1. Each of the PM possibilities are designed to correspond to the same category according to some chosen measure. This matrix could encode many types of data. (1) Musical fragments, all of which evoke sadness; each column entry is a 4 beat sequence with a chosen A0A1A2 thus 16 beats long (W is P by 3). (2) Paintings, all of which evoke happiness; each column entry is a layer and a given A0A1A2 is a painting constructed using these layers (W is P by 3). (3) abstract feature vectors corresponding to action potentials evoked from a biological cell's exposure to a toxin. The action potential is divided into four relevant regions and each column entry represents the feature vector of a region. A given A0A1A2 is then an abstraction of the excitable cell's output (W is P by 4). (4) abstract feature vectors corresponding to an object such as a face or vehicle. The object is divided into four categories each assigned an abstract feature vector with the resulting concatenation an abstract representation of the object (W is P by 4). All of the examples above correspond to one particular measure (sad music, happy paintings, an introduced toxin, an object to recognize)and hence, when a Wurfelspiel matrix is constructed, relevant training information for recognition is encoded that can be used in many algorithms. The focus of this paper is on the application of these ideas to automatic target recognition (ATR). In addition, we discuss a larger biologically based model of temporal cortex polymodal sensor fusion which can use the feature vectors extracted from the ATR Wurfelspiel data.

  10. Investigating the dimension of time: findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of temporality or time within music therapy.

    PubMed

    Daveson, Barbara; O'Callaghan, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Many references to time or temporality are located within music therapy literature, however little research has been completed regarding this phenomenon. Findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of time within the context of music therapy are presented here. The study was informed by the constructivist-interpretive paradigm and a grounded-descriptive statement finding resulted. A 2-staged research methodology was used, comprising a deductive-inductive content analysis of information from the public domain, followed by data-mining of information from a minimum of 160 clients and analysis of data from at least 43 of these 160 clients. Information regarding memory experiences, the duration of music therapy effects, recall and retrieval, and experiences of time are identified. Implications for practice are emphasized, in particular the following is stressed (a) the importance of time orientation and temporal connectedness in relation to identity development, (b) temporal strategies within music experience to assist integration, recall, and retrieval of information, and (c) the importance of and the elements involved in time modification. New explanations for music therapy phenomena are shared, and areas for research highlighted. Benefits of using time dynamically to aid therapeutic process are proposed, and it is concluded that temporal experience within the context of music therapy is important in relation to both practice and research. PMID:21866712

  11. Tokamak Physics EXperiment (TPX): Toroidal field magnet design, development and manufacture. SDRL 15, System design description. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-22

    This System Design Description, prepared in accordance with the TPX Project Management Plan provides a summary or TF Magnet System design features at the conclusion of Phase I, Preliminary Design and Manufacturing Research. The document includes the analytical and experimental bases for the design, and plans for implementation in final design, manufacturing, test, and magnet integration into the tokamak. Requirements for operation and maintenance are outlined, and references to sources of additional information are provided.

  12. Cancer-Specific Synthetic Lethality between ATR and CHK1 Kinase Activities.

    PubMed

    Sanjiv, Kumar; Hagenkort, Anna; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Koolmeister, Tobias; Reaper, Philip M; Mortusewicz, Oliver; Jacques, Sylvain A; Kuiper, Raoul V; Schultz, Niklas; Scobie, Martin; Charlton, Peter A; Pollard, John R; Berglund, Ulrika Warpman; Altun, Mikael; Helleday, Thomas

    2016-01-12

    ATR and CHK1 maintain cancer cell survival under replication stress and inhibitors of both kinases are currently undergoing clinical trials. As ATR activity is increased after CHK1 inhibition, we hypothesized that this may indicate an increased reliance on ATR for survival. Indeed, we observe that replication stress induced by the CHK1 inhibitor AZD7762 results in replication catastrophe and apoptosis, when combined with the ATR inhibitor VE-821 specifically in cancer cells. Combined treatment with ATR and CHK1 inhibitors leads to replication fork arrest, ssDNA accumulation, replication collapse, and synergistic cell death in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of CDK reversed replication stress and synthetic lethality, demonstrating that regulation of origin firing by ATR and CHK1 explains the synthetic lethality. In conclusion, this study exemplifies cancer-specific synthetic lethality between two proteins in the same pathway and raises the prospect of combining ATR and CHK1 inhibitors as promising cancer therapy. PMID:26748709

  13. RNF4 and PLK1 are required for replication fork collapse in ATR-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Ragland, Ryan L; Patel, Sima; Rivard, Rebecca S; Smith, Kevin; Peters, Ashley A; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin; Brown, Eric J

    2013-10-15

    The ATR-CHK1 axis stabilizes stalled replication forks and prevents their collapse into DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that fork collapse in Atr-deleted cells is mediated through the combined effects the sumo targeted E3-ubiquitin ligase RNF4 and activation of the AURKA-PLK1 pathway. As indicated previously, Atr-deleted cells exhibited a decreased ability to restart DNA replication following fork stalling in comparison with control cells. However, suppression of RNF4, AURKA, or PLK1 returned the reinitiation of replication in Atr-deleted cells to near wild-type levels. In RNF4-depleted cells, this rescue directly correlated with the persistence of sumoylation of chromatin-bound factors. Notably, RNF4 repression substantially suppressed the accumulation of DSBs in ATR-deficient cells, and this decrease in breaks was enhanced by concomitant inhibition of PLK1. DSBs resulting from ATR inhibition were also observed to be dependent on the endonuclease scaffold protein SLX4, suggesting that RNF4 and PLK1 either help activate the SLX4 complex or make DNA replication fork structures accessible for subsequent SLX4-dependent cleavage. Thus, replication fork collapse following ATR inhibition is a multistep process that disrupts replisome function and permits cleavage of the replication fork. PMID:24142876

  14. The experiences of patients and relatives/significant others of overcrowding in accident and emergency in Ireland: a qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Michael; Corry, Margarita

    2007-10-01

    Overcrowding in Accident and Emergency Departments (A&E) in Ireland has reached crisis proportions since the dawning of the new millennium. Although this phenomenon is not unique to Ireland and many authors have suggested causes and management strategies to deal with these crises, little appears to have been written regarding the experiences of patients or their families waiting in the A&E. The aim of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe the experiences of patients and/or their relatives/significant others who had spent 12 h or more in A&E awaiting admission to hospital. Four patients and three relatives/significant others volunteered to participate in the study. Participants described the A&E departments as resembling a disaster zone or a hospital scene from a third world country. Descriptions portrayed an environment that was overcrowded, dirty and lacking in resources. Participants were generally positive in their attitudes towards the care they received, but some descriptions appeared to suggest that the quality of care was not always ideal. Recommendations from participants included reduced waiting times with a maximum of 6 h from admission to transfer or discharge; better communications systems with perhaps a liaison person who could advise them about the expected duration of stay in A&E and what was happening regarding their care; and better privacy and security within the departments. PMID:17920270

  15. Preliminary Assessment of ATR-C Capabilities to Provide Integral Benchmark Data for Key Structural/Matrix Materials that May be Used for Nuclear Data Testing and Analytical Methods Validation

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify some suggested types of experiments that can be performed in the Advanced Test Reactor Critical (ATR-C) facility. A fundamental computational investigation is provided to demonstrate possible integration of experimental activities in the ATR-C with the development of benchmark experiments. Criticality benchmarks performed in the ATR-C could provide integral data for key matrix and structural materials used in nuclear systems. Results would then be utilized in the improvement of nuclear data libraries and as a means for analytical methods validation. It is proposed that experiments consisting of well-characterized quantities of materials be placed in the Northwest flux trap position of the ATR-C. The reactivity worth of the material could be determined and computationally analyzed through comprehensive benchmark activities including uncertainty analyses. Experiments were modeled in the available benchmark model of the ATR using MCNP5 with the ENDF/B-VII.0 cross section library. A single bar (9.5 cm long, 0.5 cm wide, and 121.92 cm high) of each material could provide sufficient reactivity difference in the core geometry for computational modeling and analysis. However, to provide increased opportunity for the validation of computational models, additional bars of material placed in the flux trap would increase the effective reactivity up to a limit of 1$ insertion. For simplicity in assembly manufacture, approximately four bars of material could provide a means for additional experimental benchmark configurations, except in the case of strong neutron absorbers and many materials providing positive reactivity. Future tasks include the cost analysis and development of the experimental assemblies, including means for the characterization of the neutron flux and spectral indices. Oscillation techniques may also serve to provide additional means for experimentation and validation of computational methods and acquisition of

  16. Status Report on the Fabrication of Fuel Cladding Chemical Interaction Test Articles for ATR Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Howard, Richard H.

    2015-09-28

    FeCrAl alloys are a promising new class of alloys for light water reactor (LWR) applications due to their superior oxidation and corrosion resistance in high temperature environments. The current R&D efforts have focused on the alloy composition and processing routes to generate nuclear grade FeCrAl alloys with optimized properties for enhanced accident tolerance while maintaining properties needed for normal operation conditions. Therefore, the composition and processing routes must be optimized to maintain the high temperature steam oxidation (typically achieved by increasing the Cr and Al content) while still exhibiting properties conducive to normal operation in a LWR (such as radiation tolerance where reducing Cr content is favorable). Within this balancing act is the addition of understanding the influence on composition and processing routes on the FeCrAl alloys for fuel-cladding chemical interactions (FCCI). Currently, limited knowledge exists on FCCI for the FeCrAl-UO2 clad-fuel system. To overcome the knowledge gaps on the FCCI for the FeCrAl-UO2 clad-fuel system a series of fueled irradiation tests have been developed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) housed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The first series of tests has already been reported. These tests used miniaturized 17x17 PWR fuel geometry rodlets of second-generation FeCrAl alloys fueled with industrial Westinghouse UO2 fuel. These rodlets were encapsulated within a stainless steel housing.To provide high fidelity experiments and more robust testing, a new series of rodlets have been developed deemed the Accident Tolerant Fuel Experiment #1 Oak Ridge National Laboratory FCCI test (ATF-1 ORNL FCCI). The main driving factor, which is discussed in detail, was to provide a radiation environment where prototypical fuel-clad interface temperatures are met while still maintaining constant contact between industrial fuel and the candidate cladding alloys

  17. A Phenomenological Study of the Guided Movement from Literal to Metaphorical Descriptions of a Past Meaningful Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Mei-Yan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to elicit the subjective experience of and personal meaning found in the process of first using literal expressions and then creating metaphors to describe a past meaningful experience. Six coresearchers in the field of psychology were selected for a one-time, 90- to 120-minute, one-on-one interview…

  18. Science Laboratory Experiences of High School Students across One State in the U.S.: Descriptive Research from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd; Bohn, Chad

    2008-01-01

    The National Research Council's (NRC, 2005) publication "America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science" provided the impetus for this study. In the NRC report, the experiences of high school students nationally are described along with recommendations for improving and supporting these experiences. Since the NRC report was published…

  19. The Use of Descriptive Words and Metaphor in Patient and Carer Experience of Palliative Day Care: Secondary Analysis of a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, J; Grose, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: An independent evaluation of changes to the delivery of Palliative Day Services was carried out during 2006-2007 using interviews with service users. The analysis found that the words and metaphors employed by users of services emphasized their emotional response to the changes, and helped to explain their depth of feeling about their experiences, warranting further investigation. Aim: To conduct a secondary analysis on interview data collected for the Day Services Evaluation Study in order to understand how patients and their carers use descriptive words and metaphor when talking about their experiences of palliative day services. Methods: Interview transcripts from 40 patients and 8 carers were subjected to secondary thematic analysis. These were read individually and coded where metaphor or descriptive words had been used to emphasize the effect of the illness and the experiences of the Day Services. Findings: Examples of the metaphorical expressions and words used described the service as a ‘secure rock in a changing world’; transition was felt as ‘sadness’, a ‘betrayal’, with feelings that the changes were ‘bitter and twisted;’ and left ‘a black hole’. Post transition the mood had changed to acceptance ‘When life throws lemons at you, you make lemonade’. Conclusions: The metaphors and descriptive words used act as what we describe as ‘emotional intensifiers’ which provide a measure of the impact of the effect of illness, the effect of the day services on users and carers and the intensity of feeling during the time of transition. PMID:19587796

  20. 3D ladar ATR based on recognition by parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, Erik; Douglas, Joel; Ettinger, Gil

    2003-09-01

    LADAR imaging is unique in its potential to accurately measure the 3D surface geometry of targets. We exploit this 3D geometry to perform automatic target recognition on targets in the domain of military and civilian ground vehicles. Here we present a robust model based 3D LADAR ATR system which efficiently searches through target hypothesis space by reasoning hierarchically from vehicle parts up to identification of a whole vehicle with specific pose and articulation state. The LADAR data consists of one or more 3D point clouds generated by laser returns from ground vehicles viewed from multiple sensor locations. The key to this approach is an automated 3D registration process to precisely align and match multiple data views to model based predictions of observed LADAR data. We accomplish this registration using robust 3D surface alignment techniques which we have also used successfully in 3D medical image analysis applications. The registration routine seeks to minimize a robust 3D surface distance metric to recover the best six-degree-of-freedom pose and fit. We process the observed LADAR data by first extracting salient parts, matching these parts to model based predictions and hierarchically constructing and testing increasingly detailed hypotheses about the identity of the observed target. This cycle of prediction, extraction, and matching efficiently partitions the target hypothesis space based on the distinctive anatomy of the target models and achieves effective recognition by progressing logically from a target's constituent parts up to its complete pose and articulation state.

  1. Adaptive SAR ATR problem set (AdaptSAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Angela R.; Fitzgerald, Donna; Ross, Timothy D.

    2004-09-01

    A strong and growing interest in systems that adapt to changing circumstances was evident in panel discussions at the "Algorithms for SAR Imagery" Conference of the AeroSense Symposium in April 2003, with DARPA, Air Force, industry and academia participation. As a result, Conference Co-Chair Mr. Ed Zelnio suggested producing a dynamic model to create problem sets suitable for adaptive system research and development. Such a problem set provides a framework for the overall problem, including organization of operating conditions, performance measures and specific test cases. It is hoped that this AdaptSAPS framework will help provide the community with a more concrete base for discussing adaptation in SAR imagery exploitation. AdaptSAPS Version 1.0 was produced by the AFRL COMPASE and SDMS organizations and posted on 5 August 2003. AdaptSAPS consists of over a dozen MatLab programs that allow the user to create "missions" with SAR data of varying complexities and then present that test data one image at a time, first as unexploited imagery and then later with the exploitation results that an ATR could use for adaptation in an operational environment. AdaptSAPS keeps track of performance results and reports performance measures. This paper describes AdaptSAPS - its application process and possible improvements as a problem set.

  2. Hydrogen-Deuterium exchange monitored by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poe, Brent; Del Vecchio, Alessandro; Cestelli Guidi, Mariangela

    2016-04-01

    Measuring the extent of isotopic exchange is a common means for the determination of self-diffusion coefficients in any type of medium (gas, liquid, amorphous solid, crystalline solid). For rapidly diffusing species such as hydrogen in condensed phases, real time methods involving vibrational spectroscopy can be used by taking advantage of the large relative mass difference between 1H and 2H, resulting in large differences in the band positions of their vibrational modes. We demonstrate rapid isotopic exchange between D2O liquid and H2O vapor using ATR (attenuated total reflectance) in a FTIR spectrometer. Over the course of a few minutes several spectra were acquired of a D2O droplet mounted on a diamond crystal. The progressive exchange reaction between the liquid phase and H2O from the atmosphere was monitored by measuring the decreasing absorbance of the D-O-D bending and O-D stretching bands and the increasing absorbance of the D-O-H and H-O-H bending and O-H stretching bands as functions of time. Our results offer some intriguing insights into the structural characteristics of water as inferred by this exchange process.

  3. Irradiation Test Plan for the ATR National Scientific User Facility - University of Wisconsin Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heather J. MacLean; Kumar Sridharan; Timothy A. Hyde

    2008-06-01

    The performance of advanced nuclear systems critically relies on the performance of the materials used for cladding, duct, and other structural components. In many proposed advanced systems, the reactor design pushes the temperature and the total radiation dose higher than typically seen in a light water reactor. Understanding the stability of these materials under radiation is critical. There are a large number of materials or material systems that have been developed for greater high temperature or high dose performance for which little or no information on radiation response exists. The goal of this experiment is to provide initial data on the radiation response of these materials. The objective of the UW experiment is to irradiate materials of interest for advanced reactor applications at a variety of temperatures (nominally 300°C, 400°C, 500°C, and 700°C) and total dose accumulations (nominally 3 dpa and 6 dpa). Insertion of this irradiation test is proposed for September 2008 (ATR Cycle 143A).

  4. MOX and MOX with 237Np/241Am Inert Fission Gas Generation Comparison in ATR

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; M. Robel; W. J. Carmack; D. J. Utterbeck

    2006-06-01

    The treatment of spent fuel produced in nuclear power generation is one of the most important issues to both the nuclear community and the general public. One of the viable options to long-term geological disposal of spent fuel is to extract plutonium, minor actinides (MA), and potentially long-lived fission products from the spent fuel and transmute them into short-lived or stable radionuclides in currently operating light-water reactors (LWR), thus reducing the radiological toxicity of the nuclear waste stream. One of the challenges is to demonstrate that the burnup-dependent characteristic differences between Reactor-Grade Mixed Oxide (RG-MOX) fuel and RG-MOX fuel with MA Np-237 and Am 241 are minimal, particularly, the inert gas generation rate, such that the commercial MOX fuel experience base is applicable. Under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), developmental fuel specimens in experimental assembly LWR-2 are being tested in the northwest (NW) I-24 irradiation position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment uses MOX fuel test hardware, and contains capsules with MOX fuel consisting of mixed oxide manufactured fuel using reactor grade plutonium (RG-Pu) and mixed oxide manufactured fuel using RG-Pu with added Np/Am. This study will compare the fuel neutronics depletion characteristics of Case-1 RG-MOX and Case-2 RG-MOX with Np/Am.

  5. Neutron dosimetry and damage calculations for the ATR-A1 irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T.

    1998-09-01

    Neutron fluence measurements and radiation damage calculations are reported for the collaborative US/Japan ATR-A1 irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The maximum total neutron fluence at midplane was 9.4 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (5.5 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} above 0.1 MeV), resulting in about 4.6 dpa in vanadium.

  6. 78 FR 42898 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain ATR-GIE Avions de Transport R[eacute]gional Model ATR72-101, - 201, -102, -202, -211, -212, and -212A airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of airplane incidents and accidents that have occurred because of low-level fuel tank situations and fuel starvation that resulted in engine flameouts. This proposed AD would......

  7. 78 FR 65183 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain ATR--GIE Avions de Transport R[eacute]gional Model ATR72-101, -201, - 102, -202, -211, -212, and -212A airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of airplane incidents and accidents that have occurred because of low-level fuel tank situations and fuel starvation that resulted in engine flameouts. This AD requires installing a fuel......

  8. Drought description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    What constitutes a comprehensive description of drought, a description forming a basis for answering why a drought occurred is outlined. The description entails two aspects that are "naturally" coupled, named physical and economic, and treats the set of hydrologic measures of droughts in terms of their multivariate distribution, rather than in terms of a collection of the marginal distributions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Cancer-Specific Synthetic Lethality between ATR and CHK1 Kinase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sanjiv, Kumar; Hagenkort, Anna; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Koolmeister, Tobias; Reaper, Philip M.; Mortusewicz, Oliver; Jacques, Sylvain A.; Kuiper, Raoul V.; Schultz, Niklas; Scobie, Martin; Charlton, Peter A.; Pollard, John R.; Berglund, Ulrika Warpman; Altun, Mikael; Helleday, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Summary ATR and CHK1 maintain cancer cell survival under replication stress and inhibitors of both kinases are currently undergoing clinical trials. As ATR activity is increased after CHK1 inhibition, we hypothesized that this may indicate an increased reliance on ATR for survival. Indeed, we observe that replication stress induced by the CHK1 inhibitor AZD7762 results in replication catastrophe and apoptosis, when combined with the ATR inhibitor VE-821 specifically in cancer cells. Combined treatment with ATR and CHK1 inhibitors leads to replication fork arrest, ssDNA accumulation, replication collapse, and synergistic cell death in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of CDK reversed replication stress and synthetic lethality, demonstrating that regulation of origin firing by ATR and CHK1 explains the synthetic lethality. In conclusion, this study exemplifies cancer-specific synthetic lethality between two proteins in the same pathway and raises the prospect of combining ATR and CHK1 inhibitors as promising cancer therapy. PMID:26748709

  10. Roles of ATR1 paralogs YMR279c and YOR378w in boron stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Uluisik, Irem; Gulculer, Gulce Sila; Karakaya, Huseyin C.; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} ATR1 paralog YMR279c plays role in boron detoxification. {yields} YMR279c overexpression lowers cytoplasmic boron levels. {yields} ATR1 paralog YOR378w has no roles in boron stress response. -- Abstract: Boron is a necessary nutrient for plants and animals, however excess of it causes toxicity. Previously, Atr1 and Arabidopsis Bor1 homolog were identified as the boron efflux pump in yeast, which lower the cytosolic boron concentration and help cells to survive in the presence of toxic amount of boron. In this study, we analyzed ATR1 paralogs, YMR279c and YOR378w, to understand whether they participate in boron stress tolerance in yeast. Even though these genes share homology with ATR1, neither their deletion rendered cells boron sensitive nor their expression was significantly upregulated by boron treatment. However, expression of YMR279, but not YOR378w, from the constitutive GAPDH promoter on a high copy plasmid provided remarkable boron resistance by decreasing intracellular boron levels. Thus our results suggest the presence of a third boron exporter, YMR279c, which functions similar to ATR1 and provides boron resistance in yeast.

  11. Achilles Tendon Reflex (ATR) in response to short exposures of microgravity and hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujii, M.; Jaweed, M.

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that latency and amplitude of the Achilles tendon reflex (ATR) are reduced after exposure to microgravity for 28 days. The objective of this study was to quantitatively measure the latency of ATR during brief (20 sec) exposure to microgravity in KC-135 parabolic flights. Methods: The ATR was elicited in ten men during parabolic flight with the ankle held neutrally, planarflexed, and dorsiflexed. During flight, the ATR was elicited during the zero G and 1.8 G phases. Postflight testing was performed flying back to the airfield. Latencies to onset of the ATR were calculated and analyses of variance were performed to determine the effect of gravity and ankle position on latency. Result: The mean latencies for zero-G, 1.8-G and postflight with the ankle in the neutral position were 32.7 plus or minus 0.5 ms, and 33.1 plus or minus 0.7 ms respectively, which were not significantly different. There was a trend toward prolongation of latencies postflight. The mean latency for those who were motion sick was 32.1 plus or minus 0.1 ms compared to 34.0 plus or minus 0.3 ms for those who were not sick. Conclusions: These studies indicate that neither the level of gravity nor ankle position significantly affected the latency of the ATR.

  12. Coordinated regulation of XPA stability by ATR and HERC2 during nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Lee, T-H; Park, J-M; Leem, S-H; Kang, T-H

    2014-01-01

    ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) is an essential regulator of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) mechanism. For NER activation, ATR phosphorylates XPA, the rate-limiting factor in the NER pathway. However, the role of XPA phosphorylation at serine 196 by ATR has been elusive. Here we show that ATR-mediated XPA phosphorylation enhances XPA stability by inhibiting HERC2-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. We analyzed stabilization of XPA with substitutions of Ser 196 either to aspartate (S196D), a phosphomimetic mutation, or to alanine (S196A), a phosphodeficient mutation. Upon ultraviolet damage, ATR facilitated HERC2 dissociation from the XPA complex to induce XPA stabilization. However, this regulation was abrogated in S196A-complemented XPA-deficient cells due to persistent association of HERC2 with this XPA complex, resulting in enhanced ubiquitination of S196A. Conversely, the S196D substitution showed delayed degradation kinetics compared with the wild-type and less binding with HERC2, resulting in reduced ubiquitination of S196D. We also found that XPA phosphorylation enhanced the chromatin retention of XPA, the interaction with its binding partners following DNA damage. Taken together, our study presents a novel control mechanism in the NER pathway by regulating the steady-state level of XPA through posttranslational modifications by which ATR-mediated phosphorylation induces XPA stabilization by antagonizing HERC2-catalyzed XPA ubiquitination. PMID:23178497

  13. AGR-3/4 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 154A, and 154B

    SciTech Connect

    Binh T. Pham

    2014-02-01

    This data report provides the qualification status of Advanced Gas Reactor-3/4 (AGR-3/4) fuel irradiation experimental data from Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycles 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 154A, and 154B, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). Of these cycles, ATR Cycle 152A is a low power cycle that occurred when the ATR core was briefly at low power. The irradiation data are not used for physics and thermal calculation, but the qualification status of these cycle data is still covered in this report. On the other hand, during ATR Cycles 153A (unplanned Outage cycle) and 153B (Power Axial Locator Mechanism [PALM] cycle), the AGR-3/4 was pulled out from the ATR core and stored in the canal to avoid being overheated. Therefore, qualification of the AGR-3/4 irradiation data from these 2 cycles was excluded in this report. By the end of ATR Cycle 154B, AGR-3/4 was irradiated for a total of 264.1 effective full power days. The AGR-3/4 data streams addressed in this report include thermocouple (TC) temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rates, pressure, and moisture content), and Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) data (release rates and release-to-birth rate ratios [R/Bs]) for each of the twelve capsules in the AGR-3/4 experiment. The final data qualification status for these data streams is determined by a Data Review Committee (DRC) composed of AGR technical leads, Sitewide Quality Assurance (QA), and NDMAS analysts. The DRC convened on February 12, 2014, reviewed the data acquisition process, and considered whether the data met the requirements for data collection as specified in QA-approved Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) data collection plans. The DRC also examined the results of NDMAS data testing and statistical analyses, and confirmed the qualification status of the data as given in this report.

  14. Ontology Language to Support Description of Experiment Control System Semantics, Collaborative Knowledge-Base Design and Ontology Reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Vardan Gyurjyan, D Abbott, G Heyes, E Jastrzembski, B Moffit, C Timmer, E Wolin

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we discuss the control domain specific ontology that is built on top of the domain-neutral Resource Definition Framework (RDF). Specifically, we will discuss the relevant set of ontology concepts along with the relationships among them in order to describe experiment control components and generic event-based state machines. Control Oriented Ontology Language (COOL) is a meta-data modeling language that provides generic means for representation of physics experiment control processes and components, and their relationships, rules and axioms. It provides a semantic reference frame that is useful for automating the communication of information for configuration, deployment and operation. COOL has been successfully used to develop a complete and dynamic knowledge-base for experiment control systems, developed using the AFECS framework.

  15. Progress Report on Disassembly and Post-Irradiation Experiments for UCSB ATR-2 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, Randy K; Odette, G. R.; Robertson, Janet Pawel; Yamamoto, T

    2015-09-01

    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water reactor (LWR) represents the first line of defense against a release of radiation in case of an accident. Thus, regulations that govern the operation of commercial nuclear power plants require conservative margins of fracture toughness, both during normal operation and under accident scenarios. In the unirradiated condition, the RPV has sufficient fracture toughness such that failure is implausible under any postulated condition, including pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in pressurized water reactors (PWR). In the irradiated condition, however, the fracture toughness of the RPV may be severely degraded, with the degree of toughness loss dependent on the radiation sensitivity of the materials. As stated in previous progress reports, the available embrittlement predictive models, e.g. [1], and our present understanding of radiation damage are not fully quantitative, and do not treat all potentially significant variables and issues, particularly considering extension of operation to 80y.

  16. Prevalence of Sexually Abusive Experiences in Childhood and Adolescence among a Community Sample of Latinas: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Camacho, Lizeth

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, severity, and circumstances of self-reported sexually coercive and abusive experiences in childhood and adolescence in a community sample of Latina women (N = 204) ages 18 to 34 years. Results from structured phone interviews indicated that 35% of the women reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse, 31% of…

  17. Late High School Dropouts: Characteristics, Experiences, and Changes Across Cohorts. Descriptive Analysis Report. NCES 2009-307

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Ben; Glennie, Elizabeth; Ingels, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents information about selected characteristics and experiences of high school sophomores in 2002 who subsequently dropped out of school. It also presents comparative data about late high school dropouts in the years 1982, 1992, and 2004. Three data sources provide the information for the report: the High School and Beyond…

  18. Students' with Disabilities Experience and Description of Integrating into an Academic Community in Higher Education: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Terresa Shavawn

    2012-01-01

    Using a qualitative design, this study offers an understanding of the lived experience of students with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), learning disability (LD), or traumatic brain injuries (TBI) who are integrating into an academic community within a higher education institution located in the southern United States. Additionally,…

  19. Untangling the ATR-CHEK1 network for prognostication, prediction and therapeutic target validation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M A; Middleton, Fiona K; Arora, Arvind; Agarwal, Devika; Chen, Tao; Moseley, Paul M; Perry, Christina; Doherty, Rachel; Chan, Stephen; Green, Andrew R; Rakha, Emad; Ball, Graham; Ellis, Ian O; Curtin, Nicola J; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2015-03-01

    ATR-CHEK1 signalling is critical for genomic stability. ATR-CHEK1 signalling may be deregulated in breast cancer and have prognostic, predictive and therapeutic significance. We investigated ATR, CHEK1 and phosphorylated CHEK1 (Ser345) protein (pCHEK1) levels in 1712 breast cancers. ATR and CHEK1 mRNA expression was evaluated in 1950 breast cancers. Pre-clinically, biological consequences of ATR gene knock down or ATR inhibition by the small molecule inhibitor (VE-821) were investigated in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines and in non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF10A). High ATR and high cytoplasmic pCHEK1 levels were significantly associated with higher tumour stage, higher mitotic index, pleomorphism and lymphovascular invasion. In univariate analyses, high ATR and high cytoplasmic pCHEK1 levels were associated with poor breast cancer specific survival (BCSS). In multivariate analysis, high ATR level remains an independent predictor of adverse outcome. At the mRNA level, high CHEK1 remains associated with aggressive phenotypes including lymph node positivity, high grade, Her-2 overexpression, triple negative, aggressive molecular phenotypes and adverse BCSS. Pre-clinically, CHEK1 phosphorylation at serine(345) following replication stress was impaired in ATR knock down and in VE-821 treated breast cancer cells. Doxycycline inducible knockdown of ATR suppressed growth, which was restored when ATR was re-expressed. Similarly, VE-821 treatment resulted in a dose dependent suppression of cancer cell growth and survival (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) but was less toxic in non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF10A). We provide evidence that ATR and CHEK1 are promising biomarkers and rational drug targets for personalized therapy in breast cancer. PMID:25468710

  20. A job description for the effective self-management of a long-term condition: experiences of living with difficult asthma.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Maureen; Rickards, Emma

    2013-04-01

    This paper concerns a study exploring the salience of a 'job description' for the effective self-management of a long-term condition to the experiences of a group of women living with difficult asthma. This is a life-threatening disease. It has been claimed that sufferers are a marginalised, misunderstood, mistreated and vulnerable group. The method involved secondary analysis of focus group data. The job description has been developed as a tool to enable nurses to facilitate and support effective self-management. This study was designed to examine the application of this tool to a particular case. Long-term conditions are a growing feature of the developed world and are strongly implicated in health inequalities. They are more prevalent in socially and economically disadvantaged populations and therefore add further burden to already vulnerable people. Effective self-management is critical to adapting and adjusting to the experience of a long-term condition and nurses have a responsibility to promote this process. PMID:23721390

  1. ATR National Scientific User Facility 2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Julie A.; Robertson, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    This is the 2013 Annual Report for the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility. This report includes information on university-run research projects along with a description of the program and the capabilities offered researchers.

  2. Self-consistent description of the core and boundary plasma in the high-field ignition experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, R.; Zagórski, R.

    2000-03-01

    A model has been developed which is capable to describe in a self-consistent way plasma dynamics in the center and edge region of fusion reactor. The core plasma is treated in the frame of 1D radial transport model whereas a 1D analytical model along magnetic field lines for plasma and impurity transport outside the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS) is applied. The model has been used to investigate operation regimes of the high-field IGNITOR experiment.

  3. Description and development of the means of a model experiment for load balancing in distributed computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagiyev, A. E.; Sherstnyova, A. I.; Botygin, I. A.; Galanova, N. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The results of the statistical model experiments research of various load balancing algorithms in distributed computing systems are presented. Software tools were developed. These tools, which allow to create a virtual infrastructure of distributed computing system in accordance with the intended objective of the research focused on multi-agent and multithreaded data processing were developed. A diagram of the control processing of requests from the terminal devices, providing an effective dynamic horizontal scaling of computing power at peak loads, is proposed.

  4. Automatic TLI recognition system. Part 1: System description

    SciTech Connect

    Partin, J.K.; Lassahn, G.D.; Davidson, J.R.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system uses image data fusion and gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. This volume gives a general description of the ATR system.

  5. Quantitative monitoring of membrane permeation via in-situ ATR FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckingham, Bryan; Miller, Daniel

    Ion conducting membranes are of interest for various energy applications including fuel cells and artificial photosynthesis systems. Within the context of artificial photosynthesis, membranes are desired that facilitate the ion transport necessary to feed the electrochemical reactions while meeting various additional selectivity and permeability demands depending on the CO2 reduction products. Herein, we demonstrate the use of in-situ ATR FT-IR spectroscopy to quantitatively resolve the concentration of single and multicomponent mixtures of various CO2 reduction products including methanol, formate and acetate. We then apply this methodology to the in-situ monitoring of the permeation of single and multicomponent mixtures across commercially available membranes. Membrane permeabilities and selectivities calculated from the single component time-resolved concentration curves are compared to the multicomponent permeation experiments. This material is based upon work performed at the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub, supported through the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Award Number DE-SC000493.

  6. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly ReportJanuary 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Renae

    2015-01-01

    Highlights; Mike Worley and Shane Johnson visited INL Jan. 22 for an NSUF strategy discussion; Rory Kennedy attended a NSLS-2 Beamline Advisory Team meeting at Brookhaven; Provided a final cost estimate to the NSUF Program Office in support of the NEET/NSUF proposal, “Metal-ceramic and metal-metal composites for extreme radiation and temperature environment: An in situ interface stability and mechanical behavior study by high energy x-ray diffraction with a synchrotron probe.”; Assisted in the development of conceptual designs and performed a preliminary thermal hydraulic analysis for two NEET/NSUF proposals. The challenge for both experiments is to provide high (>1000 C and up to 1600 C)) specimen temperatures in a small space (0.5" diameter ATR Outboard A-position) without overheating the coolant. Several designs were analyzed and found to be feasible, although detailed design and analysis will be required after the projects are awarded; and A single USU TEM specimen is packaged and awaiting shipment from MFC to CAES. Once at CAES, SEM, TEM and LEAP analysis will be performed. Professor Ban has requested additional sub-samples to be made to take back to his laboratory at USU for thermal diffusivity studies.

  7. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Ogden

    2014-10-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014 Highlights • Rory Kennedy, Dan Ogden and Brenden Heidrich traveled to Germantown October 6-7, for a review of the Infrastructure Management mission with Shane Johnson, Mike Worley, Bradley Williams and Alison Hahn from NE-4 and Mary McCune from NE-3. Heidrich briefed the group on the project progress from July to October 2014 as well as the planned path forward for FY15. • Jim Cole gave two invited university seminars at Ohio State University and University of Florida, providing an overview of NSUF including available capabilities and the process for accessing facilities through the peer reviewed proposal process. • Jim Cole and Rory Kennedy co-chaired the NuMat meeting with Todd Allen. The meeting, sponsored by Elsevier publishing, was held in Clearwater, Florida, and is considered one of the premier nuclear fuels and materials conferences. Over 340 delegates attended with 160 oral and over 200 posters presented over 4 days. • Thirty-one pre-applications were submitted for NSUF access through the NE-4 Combined Innovative Nuclear Research Funding Opportunity Announcement. • Fourteen proposals were received for the NSUF Rapid Turnaround Experiment Summer 2014 call. Proposal evaluations are underway. • John Jackson and Rory Kennedy attended the Nuclear Fuels Industry Research meeting. Jackson presented an overview of ongoing NSUF industry research.

  8. Mechanical behavior and microstructural evolution of vanadium alloys irradiated in ATR-A1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, K.-i.; Matsui, H.; Tsai, H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-12-01

    An irradiation experiment has been done in the ATR-A1 to investigate irradiation behavior of vanadium alloys in the low temperature regime from 200°C to 300°C with damage levels of 3 to 4 dpa. In creep measurements, creep tubes of V-3Fe-4Ti-0.1Si with inner pressures up to 165 MPa did not rupture during irradiation. The effective strain rate of creep was below 0.2% dpa-1 and it showed the same tendency as V-4Cr-4Ti alloys. In Charpy impact tests, all specimens of V-4Cr-4Ti-0.1Si and V-3Fe-4Ti-0.1Si showed brittle behavior at room temperature and the DBTT increased to 60-150°C. The fracture surface showed cleavage. Tensile tests conducted both at room temperature and at the irradiation temperature showed significant irradiation hardening and brittle responses. TEM showed that high densities of tiny defect clusters were formed in V-Cr-Ti and V-Fe-Ti alloys. Precipitates could not be seen in specimens irradiated below 300°C, however, fine defect clusters are considered to be the origin of brittle behavior in V-Cr-Ti alloys irradiated at low temperatures.

  9. Self-consistent description of the core and boundary plasma in the high-field ignition experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, R.; Zagórski, R.

    2001-03-01

    A model has been developed which is capable to describe in a self-consistent way plasma dynamics in the center and edge regions of fusion reactor. The core plasma is treated in the frame of 1-D radial transport model whereas a 1-D analytical model along magnetic field lines for plasma and impurity transport outside the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS) is applied. The model is suitable to fast scans of the parameter space of the tokamak type reactor and has been used to investigate operation regimes of the high-field IGNITOR experiment.

  10. ‘Is Going through Clinical Test a Headache?’ An HRV Study and Descriptive Report of Subjective Experience of Undergoing EEG Testing

    PubMed Central

    Kathrotia, Rajesh; Singh, Yogesh; Goel, Arun; Patil, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    To explore the heart rate variability (HRV) changes and subjective perception of undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). We conducted a study on 35 healthy male volunteers. The intervention consisted of placing 23 disc-type EEG electrodes of 5-7 mm diameter with long flexible lead according to international 10-20 system for the duration of 30 min, in a sitting position, on the scalp. The outcome measures were time and frequency domain parameters of HRV analysis and descriptive report of subjective experiences on a 3-point Likert scale. The perception of undergoing EEG ranged from pleasant to uneasy. For 13 (37%) participants it was soothing and relaxing, for 11 (31.5%) it was neutral and for the rest 11 (31.5%) it was uneasy and restrictive in nature. However, HRV analysis of the pre and post EEG, showed no statistically significant difference. In our study, the mixed subjective experience of undergoing EEG may be due to individual variation in the perception of the intervention. No difference in HRV parameters may be because of 2 possibilities. The first possibility is varied experiences of procedure with temporal progression. Same participants may have experienced 2 opposite extremes of experiences over and over again, which may have cancelled out sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. The second possibility may be that no stress is generated during clinical test. PMID:27536017