Sample records for atrial myxoma case

  1. A Giant Left Atrial Myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Zaher, Medhat F.; Bajaj, Sharad; Habib, Mirette; Doss, Emile; Habib, Michael; Bikkina, Mahesh; Hoyek, Wissam N.

    2014-01-01

    Atrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors. Patients with left atrial myxomas generally present with mechanical obstruction of blood flow, systemic embolization, and constitutional symptoms. We present a case of an unusually large left atrial myxoma discovered incidentally in a patient with longstanding dyspnea being managed as bronchial asthma. PMID:25587285

  2. Atrial myxoma with coexistent coronary artery disease: A report of two cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nand K. Kejriwal; Jeremy Tan; Ravi R. Ullal; John M. Alvarez

    2003-01-01

    The age at presentation and the symptoms of atrial myxomas and coronary artery disease can be similar. At times, the two lesions coexist. Operative strategy needs to be carefully planned when combined surgical treatment is contemplated. In the present paper, two cases of concomitant atrial myxoma and atherosclerotic coronary artery disease are reported. The first patient had a left atrial

  3. Atrial myxoma related myocardial infarction: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Al Zahrani, Ibrahim Mohammed; Alraqtan, Abdulaziz; Rezk, Ahmed; Almasswary, Adel; Bella, Abdelhaleem

    2014-01-01

    Atrial myxomas are the commonest primary cardiac tumors and usually affect the left atrium. Patients with atrial myxomas present with intracardiac obstruction, embolization to the pulmonary and systemic circulation, or constitutional symptoms. The coronary arteries’ involvement in myxomatous embolization, although rare, has been described to cause acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We report a case of atrial myxoma associated MI and present the clinical and echocardiographic features of this presentation followed by review of the English literature for the association of atrial myxomas and acute myocardial infarctions (AMI). PMID:24954990

  4. [Left atrial myxoma in a patient with heart failure after myocardial infarction - a case report].

    PubMed

    Detko-Barczy?ska, Joanna; Dabrowski, Rafa?; Kraska, Alicja; Szwed, Hanna

    2008-06-01

    A case of a 54-year-old male patient with left atrial myxoma, coronary heart disease, heart failure and multiple cardiovascular risk factors is described. The patient did not present typical symptoms of myxoma. Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac myxoma as well as the importance of echocardiographic examination in every patient with decompensated chronic heart failure are discussed. PMID:18626835

  5. Atrial myxoma with livedoid macules as its sole cutaneous manifestation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro H Navarro; Francisco P Bravo; Gustavo G Beltran

    1995-01-01

    We report the second case of atrial myxoma associated with livedoid macules representing an embolic phenomenon. This case of atrial myxoma was of the sporadic type with no associated syndrome (such as the LAMB or NAME syndrome or Carney complex). A skin biopsy specimen from fading livedoid macules on the extremities showed a myxoid embolus inside dermal vessels, a diagnostic

  6. The diagnostic challenge of left atrial myxoma. Importance of echocardiographic screening.

    PubMed

    Berning, J; Egeblad, H; Lauridsen, P; Wennevold, A

    1979-01-01

    Left atrial myxomas are extremely difficult to diagnose since their variable manifestations mimic a host of clinical entities more commonly seen, e.g. mitral stenosis, endocarditis, rheumatic fever, cardiomyopathy or mesenchymosis. At the same time, early diagnosis followed by prompt surgical removal are mandatory to prevent mutilating or lethal complications of the tumor. Six cases of left atrial myxoma were diagnosed in our hospital during 2 1/2 years. We present the case histories, diagnostic procedures and surgical findings, consolidating the unique role of echocardiography in detecting left atrial myxomas. We propose the use of echocardiography as a screening examination for atrial myxomas in the following settings: suspected mitral obstructive disease, suspected endocarditis with negative blood cultures, peripheral embolism or thrombosis in young patients, unexplained cardiac failure and mesenchymosis with uncharacteristic presentation. PMID:484252

  7. Fragmentation of a right atrial myxoma presenting as a pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Idir, M; Oysel, N; Guibaud, J P; Labouyrie, E; Roudaut, R

    2000-01-01

    We report here a tricky case of right atrial myxoma with a pulmonary localization mimicking pulmonary thromboembolism. The diagnosis on imaging investigation was delayed because of its atypical appearance. This case report emphasizes the leading role of transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography in the management of this condition. In autopsy series, the incidence of primary tumors of the heart is evaluated at 0.0017% to 0.19%.(1) Nearly half of them are myxoma.(1, 2) Myxoma are more frequently observed in adults and are commonly localized in the left atrium. Signs and symptoms are comparable to those arising in other cardiovascular and systemic conditions, including variable cardiac murmur, uneasiness, blackout, systemic embolism, cardiac insufficiency, lasting fever, or sudden death.(3) Rare cases of pulmonary embolism have been described. We report here an atypical case of right atrial myxoma with a pulmonary localization mimicking pulmonary embolus. PMID:10625833

  8. Calcified left atrial myxoma with floppy mitral valve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G P Sharratt; M L Grover; J L Monro

    1979-01-01

    A heavily calcified left atrial myxoma in a man aged 53 was diagnosed from the plain chest x-ray film and confirmed by echocardiography. There was also moderate mitral regurgitation caused by a floppy mitral valve. Before a systemic embolus is considered to have arisen from a floppy mitral valve, echocardiography must be performed.

  9. Complex coronary artery anatomy in a patient with prolapsing left atrial myxoma.

    PubMed

    Andreou, A Y; Iakovou, I; Dimopoulos, A K; Karatasakis, G; Anastasiou, P; Vasiliadis, I; Pavlides, G

    2012-05-01

    The case of an asymptomatic patient with prolapsing left atrial myxoma, in whom preoperative coronary angiography revealed a rare coronary artery anatomy in the absence of atherosclerotic obstructive disease, is presented. There was a type IV dual left anterior descending (LAD) artery with intraseptal course of the right aortic sinus-connected (long) LAD artery and an ectopic left circumflex artery originating from the right aortic sinus and having a retroaortic course. The patient underwent successful surgical excision of the mass which was confirmed by histology to be cardiac myxoma. This particular coronary artery anatomy has only been described once, and this is the first reported case of its combination with cardiac myxoma. This report highlights the importance of differentiating between the possible courses of such ectopic coronary arteries. The angiographic signs which enabled differentiation of the intraseptal course of the long LAD artery from the malignant interarterial course with which it is frequently confused are presented. PMID:21947023

  10. Right atrial myxoma mistaken for recurrent pulmonary thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, D; Lamont, D

    1997-01-01

    A 69 year old man was admitted for investigation of right sided pleuritic chest pain and dyspnoea, both of which began suddenly four days before admission. Acute pulmonary embolism was diagnosed. Six months after discharge while on warfarin he died. Necropsy found a 50 mm diameter myxoid tumour arising on the right atrial side of the interatrial septum. This lesion may have been discovered earlier by echocardiography although there were no clear indications for this investigation. Presentation was that of recurrent pulmonary embolism with no obvious source or cause of thrombosis. Patients who are thought to have idiopathic pulmonary embolism should undergo early echocardiography to exclude the rare but treatable diseases of the right heart that may be responsible?? Keywords: atrial myxoma PMID:9415015

  11. Maxillary myxoma: A case report and review.

    PubMed

    Connor, Matthew P; Neilson, Michael; Schmalbach, Cecelia E

    2015-06-01

    An odontogenic myxoma is a rare, benign tumor that is found almost exclusively in the facial bones, usually the mandible. The diagnosis poses a challenge because its features overlap with those of other benign and malignant neoplasms. We present an unusual case of odontogenic myxoma that involved the maxilla, and we review the clinical, radiographic, and histologic characteristics of this case. Even though it is benign, odontogenic myxoma can be locally invasive and cause significant morbidity. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice, but it can be challenging because of the tumor's indistinct margins. PMID:26053984

  12. Multiple cerebral mycotic aneurysms due to left atrial myxoma: are there any pitfalls for the cardiac surgeon?

    PubMed

    Baikoussis, Nikolaos G; Siminelakis, Stavros N; Kotsanti, Angeliki; Achenbach, Kerstin; Argyropoulou, Maria; Goudevenos, John

    2011-01-01

    Acute cerebral embolism or cerebral aneurysm formation as a consequence of left atrial myxomas has been well documented, but the formation of multiple cerebral aneurysms resulting from atrial myxoma is a very rare neurological complication. We present the case of a 72-year-old-woman with a cardiac myxoma who suffered multiple cerebral mycotic aneurysms. After experiencing both vertigo and a sudden collapse accompanied by loss of consciousness, she underwent cerebral computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations, which revealed multiple cerebral mycotic aneurysms of various dimensions and a large cyst, as a result of a previous haemorrhage. Embolisation was performed in large aneurysms of the circle of Willis but not in the one located in the periphery, and re-examination for a cardiac intervention a month later was indicated. The risk of cerebral haemorrhage was considered high; thus she was not operated on. Conservative treatment followed. Two years after the first diagnosis the patient remains healthy, suggesting that in such cases we should also consider conservative treatment. According to the literature, the risk is high when aneurysms are large, multiple and intractable. We propose that cerebral CT or MRI scan should be performed before operation in all patients with a cardiac myxoma, especially in those with left cardiac chamber localisation. PMID:21940297

  13. An unusual presentation of atrial myxoma with haematuria and proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Charles; Karamadoukis, Lazarus

    2011-01-01

    Myxomas are uncommon primary cardiac tumours, usually affecting the left atrium. We describe an unusual presentation of cardiac myxoma with asymptomatic proteinuria and haematuria. Surgical excision of the tumour resulted in complete resolution of the urinary abnormalities. The production of antiendothelial cell antibodies and interleukin-6 by cardiac myxomas may be relevant as these substances have been implicated with the development of renal injury and proteinuria. PMID:25984131

  14. Left atrial myxoma with versus without cerebral embolism: length of symptoms, morphologic characteristics, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Guo, Guojun; Xu, Li; Lei, Lei; Wei, Xiang; Pan, Youmin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the embolic sequelae of left atrial myxomas and their influence on diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Seventy-eight patients were retrospectively investigated. According to their symptoms and neurologic-imaging findings, these patients were classified into 2 groups: embolism (15 patients, 19%) and nonembolism (63 patients, 81%). The time from the first onset of symptoms to diagnosis (that is, the duration of symptoms) was significantly longer in the embolism group than in the nonembolism group (105 ± 190 vs 23 ± 18 d; P <0.01). The myxomas were divided into 2 types on the basis of clinicopathologic findings: type 1, with an irregular or villous surface and a soft consistency, and type 2, with a smooth surface and a compact consistency. There were 42 patients with type 1 myxoma and 36 with type 2. Type 1 myxoma was more frequently found in the embolism group (12 patients, 29%) than was type 2 myxoma (3 patients, 8%). The difference was significant (P=0.04). There were 2 perioperative deaths in the nonembolism group. No recurrence of cardiac myxoma or death was recorded in either group during follow-up. In the embolism group, neurologic symptoms were relieved by surgery, and no subsequent neurologic event was reported. Because surgical resection is highly effective in left atrial myxoma, we should strive for early diagnosis in order to shorten the duration of symptoms and to avoid worse neurologic damage in patients in whom an embolic event is the initial manifestation. PMID:25593521

  15. Nerve Sheath Myxoma: Report of A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Amoolya; C, Vijaya; VK, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    Nerve sheath myxoma defined by Harkin and Reed is an uncommon benign neoplasm with nerve sheath like features. It has several cytological and histological differential diagnoses. One such lesion is neurothekeoma, which can be differentiated using immunohistochemistry. In most of the previous reports nerve sheath myxoma and neurothekeoma were considered synonymous and were often confused for one another. This case report separates the two using immunohistochemistry. Also, the cytological features of nerve sheath myxoma are not well documented in the past. This case report attempts to display the cyto-morphology of nerve sheath myxoma. We report a rare case of nerve sheath myxoma diagnosed on cytological features confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in a 32-year-old lady who presented with an asymptomatic nodule over the left cervical area and discuss its cyto-histological mimics. PMID:26023558

  16. Giant left atrial myxoma mimicking severe mitral valve stenosis and severe pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mouine, Najat N; Asfalou, Ilyass I; Raissouni, Maha M; Benyass, Aatif A; Zbir, El Mehdi E

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma is the most common primary tumor of the heart and can arise in any of the cardiac chambers. This paper reports A 50 -year-old woman without medical history and any cardiovascular risk factors was hospitalized for exertional dyspnea and palpitations from three months and signifiant weight loss. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed a giant left atrial myxoma mobile confined to the left atrium in systole, in diastole the tumor was seen prolapsing across the mitral valve into the left ventricle and partially obstructing it and causing severe functional mitral stenosis with a mean gradient of 21,3 mmHg. Severe pulmonary hypertension was confirmed by Doppler PAPs =137 mmHg. The patient was scheduled for cardiac surgery with good outcome. PMID:23601991

  17. Giant left atrial myxoma mimicking severe mitral valve stenosis and severe pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma is the most common primary tumor of the heart and can arise in any of the cardiac chambers. This paper reports A 50 -year-old woman without medical history and any cardiovascular risk factors was hospitalized for exertional dyspnea and palpitations from three months and signifiant weight loss. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed a giant left atrial myxoma mobile confined to the left atrium in systole, in diastole the tumor was seen prolapsing across the mitral valve into the left ventricle and partially obstructing it and causing severe functional mitral stenosis with a mean gradient of 21,3 mmHg. Severe pulmonary hypertension was confirmed by Doppler PAPs =137 mmHg. The patient was scheduled for cardiac surgery with good outcome. PMID:23601991

  18. Left Atrial Intramural Hematoma after Removal of Atrial Myxoma: Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in the Differential Diagnosis of Intra-Cardiac Mass

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee-Sun; Park, Eun-Ah; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Jin; Sohn, Dae-Won

    2014-01-01

    Left atrial (LA) dissection is a rare entity, which is, in most cases, observed after valvular intervention. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is considered to be a modality of choice in the diagnosis of LA dissection. However, LA dissection might be missed clinically in the absence of significant hemodynamic changes, and moreover physicians are occasionally reluctant to perform TEE due to its semi-invasiveness. Recently, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has been introduced as a modality to perform different roles to existing imaging modalities, such as echocardiography. Given that CMR can provide information on tissue characteristics, it may give incremental information to TEE. We here present a rare case of LA dissection following LA myxoma removal, where CMR can make a correct diagnosis and guide management strategy. PMID:25580195

  19. Microemboli monitoring by trans-cranial doppler in patient with acute cardioemboliogenic stroke due to atrial myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Telman, Gregory; Mesica, Orit; Kouperberg, Efim; Cohen, Oved; Bolotin, Gil; Agmon, Yoram

    2010-01-01

    This is the first reported attempt to examine the emboliogenic potential of cardiac myxoma in patients with acute stroke through the monitoring of microembolic signals (MES) by transcranial doppler. A 43-year old woman was brought to the emergency department because of acute onset of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and left hemiplegia. A CT scan of the brain demonstrated a large acute infraction in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and another smaller one in the territory of the posterior cerebral artery on the same side. Trans-cranial doppler (TCD) microemboli monitoring did not reveal MES. Transesophagial echocardiography (TEE) identified a 5 cm left atrial mass, which was highly suspected to be an atrial myxoma attached to the interatrial septum and prolapsed through the mitral valve. After the TEE results were obtained, another TCD monitoring was performed. Again, there were no MES found in either of the MCAs. Our findings showed the absence of MES on two consecutive TCD examinations, suggesting a spontaneous occurrence, rather than the permanent presence, of embolization, even in the most acute phase of stroke. Thus, the tendency of myxomas to spontaneously produce multiple emboli emphasizes the need for the surgical excision of myxomas. PMID:21577341

  20. Pathology Case Study: Multiple Myxomas and Thyroid Cancer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Virji, Mohamed

    This is a endocrine pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 36-year-old white female has multiple myxomas and thyroid cancer. Visitors are given examination and laboratory data and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

  1. Odontogenic Myxoma of the Maxilla- A Rare case Report

    PubMed Central

    Subramaiam, Ramkumar; Narasimhan, Malathi; Giri, Veda; Kumar, Santhosh

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an uncommon, benign, locally invasive, non-metastasizing neoplasm arising from the odontogenic ectomesenchyme that usually occurs in the tooth bearing areas of the jaws. These lesions arouse special interest as they pose high diagnostic challenge. Here, we present a rare case of OM of the maxilla in an 18-year-old male. The clinical, radiographic and histopathological features of the lesion are discussed in this paper.

  2. [Heart myxoma. Surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Miralles, A; Bracamonte, L; Rábago, G; Bors, V; Petrie, J; Pavie, A; Gandjbakhch, I; Cabrol, C

    1989-12-01

    We reviewed all the patients who underwent surgical excision of cardiac myxomas at La Pitié during the last fifteen years. Fifty-one cases were found (32 female and 19 male) aging from 16 to 75 years (mean 51). Congestive heart failure was the primary symptom present in 28 patients. Thirteen patients presented peripheral embolization, four with syncope and 11 with tachyarrhythmias. The diagnosis was made either by echocardiography or angiography. All of them had correct preoperative diagnoses, and no tumors were found incidentally at operation. Forty-six myxomas were localized in the left atrium, four in the right atrium and one in the right ventricle. All the patients underwent open-heart operation and myxomas were successfully removed with excision of a portion of normal atrial septum or wall. Path reconstruction of the atrial septum was required thirty-six times. Mortality after surgical excision is very low. Only one death (1.96%) occurred as a result of a postoperative low output syndrome. Late recurrences have been reported in other series, but no recurrences were diagnosed in our patients up to the present. Although the recurrence rate is low, long-term clinical and echocardiographic follow-up is recommended. PMID:2623302

  3. Odontogenic Myxoma of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Venkata suneel; Venkata Sarath, P.; Anumula, Lavanya; Mundlapudi, Sridhar; Tanikonda, Rambabu

    2012-01-01

    Odontogenic myxomas are benign but locally aggressive neoplasms found almost exclusively in the jaws and arise only occasionally in other bones. We present a rare case of odontogenic myxoma occurring in the mandible of a 19-year-old male patient with a brief review of clinical and radiological features, and diagnostic and operative dilemmas in managing the same. PMID:22830060

  4. Odontogenic Myxoma of Maxilla in an Atypical Location: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ghalayani, P; Jahanshahi, GR; Mohagheghiyan, HR

    2013-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma is a rare and locally invasive benign neoplasm found exclusively in jaws. It presents local invasiveness and tendency to recurrence. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the odontogenic myxoma is classified as an odontogenic tumor of ectomesenchymal origin. The odontogenic myxoma is a rare entity found in both jaws while the mandible is involved more commonly than the maxilla. We present a kind of odontogenic myxoma in a 24-year old male that was found in an unusual location. PMID:24724116

  5. Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla: A review discussion with two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Limdiwala, Piyush; Shah, Jigna

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare entity of slowly growing benign neoplasm of ectomesenchymal origin, comprising of 3–6% of all odontogenic tumors that histologically presenting spindle-shaped, stellate and round cells within loosely arranged myxomatous tissue stroma. OM originates from the dental papilla, follicle or periodontal ligament with an exclusive location in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws, association with missing or unerupted teeth. Clinically and radiographically the reported incidence and demographic information of this tumor has wide variability. Most common clinical variant is associated with the impacted tooth and shows local invasion with destruction of adjacent structures and displacement of teeth. Radiographically, common manifestations are multilocular radiolucent areas with well-defined borders and typical soap bubble or tennis racket appearances. This paper presents two rare case reports of OM of maxilla along with review discussion. PMID:25684930

  6. [Intracardiac myxoma: surgical treatment with trans-septal approach].

    PubMed

    Miralles, A; Bracamonte, L; Rabago, G; Pavie, A; Bors, V; Gandjbakhch, I; Cabrol, C

    1990-10-01

    In the last 15 years, fifty-two cases of cardiac myxoma underwent surgical excision at La Pitié Hospital-Paris. They were 19 male and 32 female aging from 16 to 75 years (mean 15 +/- 10). Symptoms were congestive heart failure (55%), constitutional syndrome (35%), peripheral embolization (25%) and syncopal episodes (7%). Echocardiographic diagnosis was done in almost all cases. 47 tumors were found in the left atrium, 4 in the right and 1 in the right ventricule. Transeptal approach was used in most of the patients and myxomas were totally removed including a part of atrial septum, requiring patch reconstruction in 35 patients. Postoperative mortality was very low (1.9%). No complications nor recurrences have been reported in the long-term follow-up. PMID:2074173

  7. NASA's First Atrial Fibrillation Case - Deke Slayton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about heart dysrhythmia have been present since the earliest days of the US manned space program. While information about an astronaut's health is general kept private, one of the original seven American astronaut's health status was played out in a very public forum. Donald "Deke" Slayton was removed from the second manned space flight when it was discovered he had idiopathic atrial fibrillation. Referencing the original medical documents, details of how this was discovered and managed from the medical perspective will be reviewed. This is NASA's first heart dysrhythmia case in an astronaut and it proves quite interesting when placed in historic perspective.

  8. Echocardiographic diagnosis of left atrial thrombus - a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas B. Graboys; Laurence J. Sloss; Ira S. Ockene

    1977-01-01

    We report a case of mitral stenosis with echocardiographic findings we consider diagnostic of left atrial thrombus. Scanning of the ultrasound beam from the left ventricular basalward to the left atrium (LA) demonstrates a consistent group of strong echoes within the LA and extending into the mitral orifice. Massive left atrial thrombosis was confirmed at operation.

  9. Spindle cell sarcoma of the left atrium: an extremely rare and challenging tumour often masquerading as left atrial myxoma.

    PubMed

    Kholaif, Naji; O'Neill, Blair J

    2015-01-01

    Spindle-cell sarcoma of the left atrium is an extremely rare diagnosis, with only 4 cases reported in the literature worldwide. We report on a 42-year-old man, who presented to the emergency department with dyspnea and decreased exercise tolerance. A computed tomography chest scan showed a large mass in the left atrium. Echocardiography demonstrated a significant gradient across the mitral valve. The patient had the mass excised in the operating room. He did well postoperatively. Eight months later, a repeat cardiac magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a recurrence. Right pneumonectomy was performed to ensure margins were clear. Although he has done well after surgery, his prognosis remains guarded. PMID:25547565

  10. Thirteen years follow-up of heart myxoma operated patients: what is the appropriate surgical technique?

    PubMed Central

    Siminelakis, Stavros; Kakourou, Alexandra; Batistatou, Alexandra; Sismanidis, Stelios; Ntoulia, Alexandra; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Syminelaki, Theodora; Apostolakis, Eleftherios; Tsiouda, Theodora; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Mpakas, Andreas; Beleveslis, Thomas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac myxoma is a benign neoplasm that represents the most prevalent primary tumor of the heart. If not treated with the right surgical technique recurrence occurs. Aim of our study is to present our surgical approach and the histology of the tumors resected. Methods All patients, except for one, underwent extracorporeal circulation and mild hypothermia, right atrial or both atrial incision and excision of the fossa ovalis, followed by prosthetic patch suturing. All specimens were submitted for microscopic evaluation (haematoxylin-eosin). We contacted personally each patient and asked them to complete a standardized questionnaire, concerning their peri-operative characteristics. Results Six cases were “active” myxomas, 3 were “mildly active” and 3 were “inactive”. “Normal differentiation” was seen in 6, “medium” in 1 and “poor” in 5 cases. In our series there were no recurrences recorded during the follow-up period. Conclusions The ideal approach, according to our experience is right atrial or both atrial incision as described by Shumacker and King, with excision of the fossa ovalis and the surrounding tissues and closure with a pericardial patch. Such a technique provides an excellent long-term survival in these patients. PMID:24672697

  11. Prognostic prediction of troponins in cardiac myxoma: case study with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Objective It was supposed that troponins in cardiac myxoma patients might be in a same fashion as in the conditions without myocardial injury. In order to verify this hypothesis, troponins in cardiac myxoma patients were discussed by presenting a comprehensive retrieval of the literature with incorporating the information of a recent patient. Methods Postoperative detections of troponin I, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide revealed elevated troponin I and CK-MB and normal N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Postoperative troponin I and CK-MB shared a same trend, reaching a peak value at postoperative hour 2, gradually decreased on postoperative day 1, and reached a plateau on postoperative days 7 and 13. A significant correlation could be noted between the postoperative values of the two indicators (Y=0.0714X + 0.6425, r2=0.9111, r=0.9545, P=0.0116). No significant linear correlation between troponin I and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were found. Literature review of troponins in cardiac myxoma patients revealed the uncomplicated patients had a normal or only slightly elevated troponin before open heart surgery. However, the complicated patients (with cerebral or cardiac events) showed a normal preoperative troponin in 3 (23.1%) and an elevated troponin in 10 (76.9%) patients (?2=7.54, P=0.0169, Fisher's exact test). The overall quantitative result of troponin I was 2.45±2.53 µg/L, and that of troponin T was 3.10±4.29 mg/L, respectively. Conclusion Troponins are not necessarily elevated in patients with a cardiac myxoma without coronary syndrome. By contrast, patients with a cardiac myxoma with an elevated troponin may herald the presence of an associated coronary event. An old cerebral infarct does not necessarily cause an elevation of troponin or B-type natriuretic peptide, or new neurological events, but might lead to a delayed awakening.

  12. Right atrial invasion by metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma with direct connection to liver.

    PubMed

    Nomani, Ali Zohair; Toori, Kaleem Ullah

    2014-05-01

    Common causes of right sided intra-cardiac atrial masses include primary cardiac tumors (atrial myxoma), atrial thrombus, tumor thrombus with hepatocellular or other thoracoabdominal cancers and metastatic lesions. Invasion of atria by gastrointestinal tumors is rare and that with esophageal ones seldom observed. Esophageal cancers rather present with dysphagia, odynophagia or systemic symptoms. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, esophageal tumors usually spread early in their course. Typical sites of spread include liver, gut, mediastinum, lungs and draining lymph nodes. We report a case of metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma presenting with direct extension of metastatic tumor thrombus from liver to right atrium via inferior vena cava. PMID:24906258

  13. Odontogenic myxoma of the maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Kaymakci, Mustafa; Yazici, Selçuk

    2011-01-01

    Myxomas are mostly seen in the 2th and 3rd decades. They rarely occur in childhood and maxillofacial region is rarely involved. The recurrence incidence is high. We report this unusual case occurring in a 9-year-old girl in the maxillofacial region and recurrence four months after initial treatment. PMID:24765377

  14. Stroke of a cardiac myxoma origin

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min; Humuruola, Gulimila

    2015-01-01

    Objective The clinical features of cardiac myxoma stroke have not been sufficiently described. Debates remain concerning the options and timing of treatment and the clinical outcomes are unknown. This article aims to highlight the pertinent aspects of this rare condition. Methods Data source of the present study came from a comprehensive literature collection of cardiac myxoma stroke in PubMed, Google search engine and Highwire Press for the year range 2000-2014. Results Young adults, female predominance, single cerebral vessel (mostly the middle cerebral artery), multiple territory involvements and solitary left atrial myxoma constituted the outstanding characteristics of this patient setting. The most common affected cerebral vessel (the middle cerebral artery) and areas (the basal ganglion, cerebellum and parietal and temporal regions) corresponded well to the common manifestations of this patient setting, such as conscious alteration, ataxia, hemiparesis and hemiplegia, aphasia and dysarthria. Initial computed tomography scan carried a higher false negative rate for the diagnosis of cerebral infarction than magnetic resonance imaging did. A delayed surgical resection of cardiac myxoma was associated with an increased risk of potential consequences in particular otherwise arterial embolism. The mortality rate of this patient population was 15.3%. Conclusion Cardiac myxoma stroke is rare. Often does it affect young females. For an improved diagnostic accuracy, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and echocardiography are imperative for young stroke patients in identifying the cerebral infarct and determining the stroke of a cardiac origin. Immediate thrombolytic therapy may completely resolve the cerebral stroke and improve the neurologic function of the patients. An early surgical resection of cardiac myxoma is recommended in patients with not large territory cerebral infarct.

  15. Ablation of swallowing-induced atrial tachycardia affects heart rate variability: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Rintaro; Fukamizu, Seiji; Ishikawa, Tae; Hayashi, Takekuni; Komiyama, Kota; Tanabe, Yasuhiro; Tejima, Tamotsu; Kobayashi, Yoichi; Sakurada, Harumizu

    2014-05-01

    A 47-year-old man underwent slow pathway ablation for slow-fast atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia. Following the procedure, he felt palpitations while swallowing, and swallowing-induced atrial tachycardia was diagnosed. Swallowing-induced atrial tachycardia arose from the right atrium-superior vena cava junction and was cured by catheter ablation. After the procedure, the patient's heart rate variability changed significantly, indicating suppression of parasympathetic nerve activity. In this case, swallowing-induced atrial tachycardia was related to the vagal nerve reflex. Analysis of heart rate variability may be helpful in elucidating the mechanism of swallowing-induced atrial tachycardia. PMID:23893269

  16. Surgical and prosthetic management of maxillary odontogenic myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Haroon; Bashir, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxomas are uncommon tumors of comprising of 3% of all the tumors of odontogenic origin. They usually occur during the second and third decades of life and are more commonly seen in females. The current case report sheds light upon the surgical treatment of a myxoma of odontogenic origin in posterior maxilla of a young female patient. Prosthodontic rehabilitation stages are also briefly described following complete healing of the lesion after surgery. PMID:26038664

  17. A novel approach for a novel combination: a trans-septal biopsy of left atrial mass in recurrent phyllodes tumour.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Colette E; Gardner, Roy S; Connelly, Derek T

    2009-01-01

    A 69-year-old female with a previous hemisternectomy for recurrent phyllodes tumour was referred for echocardiography because of progressive dyspnoea, orthopnea, and a diastolic mitral rumble on auscultation. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a large left atrial mass. Although a diagnosis of myxoma was likely, there was concern that this was a cardiac metastasis. A tissue diagnosis was mandatory before further thoracic surgery could be considered. This was obtained via a trans-septal puncture using transoesophageal echocardiographic guidance. Histology confirmed a diagnosis of myxoma, and our patient underwent successful surgery. This case highlights the importance of obtaining accurate tissue diagnosis and of excluding metastatic disease in patients with a cardiac mass and a history of tumour, prior to deciding whether surgical excision is warranted. PMID:18676966

  18. Cardiac myxoma with oncocytic change--cardiac oncocytoma?

    PubMed

    Puskarz-Thomas, Skye; Dettrick, Andrew; Pohlner, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of an incidental cardiac myxoma that was remarkable for the presence of extensive oncocytic change, a feature that has not be reported previously. The oncocytes most likely represent part of a spectrum of degenerative changes present in the tumor, but the possibility that they are neoplastic is also discussed. PMID:22104003

  19. [Unexpected atrial fibrillation when monitoring in operating room. Case of the trimester].

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    A real case reported to the SENSAR database of incidents is presented. In a patient scheduled for nose fracture repair surgery an unexpected atrial fibrillation was found when monitored in the operating room. The operation was not delayed. After induction of general anaesthesia heart rate suddenly increased and hemodinamic situation was impaired. Cardioversion was required. Two electric countershocks were given but sinus rhythm was not restored. Heart rate was controlled with amiodarone infusion. Optimal defibrillation characteristics are described in these cases. Increased risk of thromboembolism (1-2%) following cardioversion is present even if atrial thrombi are ruled out. The mainstay therapies of are rhythm and rate control and prevention of thromboembolic complications. We describe recommendations on the management of these critical situations with emphasis in learning through the creation of protocols and training practice in simulation. PMID:24287084

  20. Sonographic appearance of an intramuscular myxoma of the pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk Jung

    2014-10-01

    Intramuscular myxomas are benign soft tissue tumors that usually involve skeletal muscle of the extremities; occurrence in the chest wall is extremely rare. We describe a case of intramuscular myxoma in the pectoralis major muscle of a 55-year-old woman. The patient presented with a palpable lump in her right breast. Mammography showed a circumscribed, oval, hyperdense mass within the pectoralis muscle. Ultrasonography showed a circumscribed, oval, complex mass within the pectoralis muscle. PMID:24633968

  1. The first case of atrial fibrillation-related graft kidney infarction following acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Native renal infarction is uncommon in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF)-related thromboembolism. Graft infarction is also rare, with such cases mostly occurring in the main graft artery postoperatively. To date, there have been no studies of AF-related graft kidney infarction. We herein describe the first case of AF-related graft kidney infarction. The clinical manifestations of this condition mimic and follow those of acute pyelonephritis; therefore, these diseases should be differentially diagnosed as early as possible using lactic dehydrogenase testing and computed tomography. Aggressive treatment with intravascular thrombolysis should be administered, even when the diagnosis is delayed, in order to restore a viable renal function. PMID:24694493

  2. Acute Pancreatitis Complicated by Massive Inferior Vena Cava and Right Atrial Thrombosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kangeui; Ko, Jung-In; Park, Taejin

    2015-07-01

    Venous thrombosis is a relatively common complication of acute pancreatitis. A 58-year-old man came to our emergency department with abdominal pain. Pancreatitis complicated with a huge thrombosis through inferior vena cava (IVC) to right atrium and left renal vein was diagnosed. Gabexate and enoxaparin were administered for pancreatitis and thrombosis. Surgical removal of thrombosis was considered but was not possible because of poor general condition. Despite conservative management, the patient expired. We believe this is the first case of pancreatitis complicated by right atrial thrombosis. PMID:25765632

  3. Pathology Case Sstudy: A 59-Year-Old Female with a Right Atrial Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schubert, Eric

    This is a cardiovascular pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 59-year-old black female has diffuse large cell lymphoma (i.e. right atrial mass). Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  4. The Coincidence of Fetal Magnetocardiography and Direct Electrocardiography in a Case of Fetal Atrial Flutter due to Intracardiac Tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takayoshi Hosono; Takeshi Kanagawa; Yoshihide Chiba; Akihiko Kandori; Keiji Tsukada

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the coincidence of fetal magnetocardiography (FMCG) and fetal direct electrocardiography (FDECG) in a case of fetal atrial flutter (AF). Methods: FMCG and FDECG using a fetal scalp electrode were recorded in the case of fetal AF at 41 weeks’ gestation. Results: FMCG revealed fetal AF with 2:1 atrioventricular block, which was also documented by FDECG using a

  5. Molecular Basis of Cardiac Myxomas

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Pooja; Luk, Adriana; Rao, Vivek; Butany, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare, and of these, primary cardiac tumors are even rarer. Metastatic cardiac tumors are about 100 times more common than the primary tumors. About 90% of primary cardiac tumors are benign, and of these the most common are cardiac myxomas. Approximately 12% of primary cardiac tumors are completely asymptomatic while others present with one or more signs and symptoms of the classical triad of hemodynamic changes due to intracardiac obstruction, embolism and nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Echocardiography is highly sensitive and specific in detecting cardiac tumors. Other helpful investigations are chest X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scan. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary cardiac tumors and is usually associated with a good prognosis. This review article will focus on the general features of benign cardiac tumors with an emphasis on cardiac myxomas and their molecular basis. PMID:24447924

  6. Tulip deformity with cera atrial septal defect devices: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Vikas

    2015-02-01

    Device closure of secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is the treatment of choice when anatomy is favourable. Amplatzer device has remained the gold standard for closure of ASD. Cobra deformity is a well-reported problem with devices. Recently, Tulip deformity has been reported in a single case. We report a series of cases where we noted Tulip deformity along with inability to retract the device in the sheath in Cera Lifetech devices. This resulted in prolongation of procedure, excessive fluoroscopic exposure and additional interventional procedures not usually anticipated in ASD device closure. We believe that the problem is due to the stiffness of the device resulting in its inability to be retracted into the sheath. We also report a unique way of retrieving the device. PMID:25179458

  7. Double trouble--a case report of mobile right atrial thrombus in the setting of acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Lohrmann, Graham M; Peters, Ferande; van Riet, Sonja; Essop, Mohammed R

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a 51 year-old woman who, six weeks post hysterectomy, developed an acute on chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. On transthoracic echocardiography a mobile right atrial thrombus was detected at the entry of the coronary sinus into the right atrium. A 64 slice spiral CT angiogram confirmed the left sided superior vena cava and bilateral extensive thrombus in the proximal pulmonary arteries. Bilateral pulmonary endarterectomy, removal of atrial thrombus and ligation of the persistent left superior vena cava was performed which markedly improved the haemodynamic and functional status of the patient. The presence of right atrial thrombus in the setting of acute pulmonary embolism presents a unique therapeutic challenge which needs to be individualised based on a number of concomitant clinical factors. PMID:24998796

  8. Assessment of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty by atrial pacing and thallium-201 myocardial imaging: a case report

    SciTech Connect

    Stratmann, H.G.; Seuc, C.A.; Mark, A.L.; Walter, K.E.; Kennedy, H.L.

    1986-08-01

    Combined atrial pacing and thallium-201 scintigraphy were performed in a man with multiple coronary artery lesions unable to perform exercise stress testing. Severe angina and ischemic ST depression in the inferior and anterior ECG leads occurred at a peak double product of 22,400 beats-mm Hg/min; thallium-201 scintigraphy showed reversible perfusion defects of the inferior, posterior, and septal segments. After angiographically successful angioplasty of a 95% right coronary artery lesion, repeat atrial pacing/thallium-201 scintigraphy (peak double product 27,750 beats-mm Hg/min) produced mild angina no ST depression in the inferior leads, and a normal thallium-201 scan. This case illustrates the value of the atrial pacing/thallium-201 stress test for evaluating the need for, and results of, coronary angioplasty in patients unable to perform exercise stress testing.

  9. Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic evidence of atrial dissociation.

    PubMed

    Scollan, Katherine; Bulmer, Barret J; Heaney, Allison M

    2008-06-01

    A 4-year-old Boxer dog with a history of ventricular premature contractions was evaluated for anorexia. An electrocardiogram revealed atrial dissociation and an echocardiogram supported simultaneous mechanical atrial systole with the ectopic atrial electrical activity. This case and the supporting images provide further credence to the existence of atrial dissociation. PMID:18502713

  10. The Right Ventricular Myxoma Which Attached to the Tricuspid Valve: Sliding Tricuspid Valvuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seong Ho; Shim, Man-Shik; Kim, Wook Sung

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of an extremely large right ventricular myxoma involving the ventricular side of the tricuspid valve. The tumor was excised along with the entire posterior leaflet and part of the anterior leaflet. The tricuspid valve was repaired by sliding valvuloplasty combined with ring annuloplasty.

  11. The Business Case for Quality Improvement: Oral Anticoagulation for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Adam J.; Berlowitz, Dan R.; Ash, Arlene S.; Ozonoff, Al; Hylek, Elaine M.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential to save money within a short time frame provides a more compelling “business case” for quality improvement (QI) than merely demonstrating cost-effectiveness. Our objective was to demonstrate the potential for cost savings from improved control in patients anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods and Results Our population consisted of 67,077 real Veterans Health Administration (VA) patients anticoagulated for AF between 10/1/2006-9/30/2008. We simulated the number of adverse events, and their associated costs and utilities, both before and after various degrees of improvement in percent time in therapeutic range (TTR). The simulation had a two-year time horizon and costs were calculated from the perspective of the payer. In the base-case analysis, improving TTR by 5% prevented 1,114 adverse events, including 662 deaths; it gained 863 QALYs and saved $15.9 million compared to the status quo, not accounting for the cost of the QI program. Improving TTR by 10% prevented 2,087 events, gained 1,606 QALYs, and saved $29.7 million. In sensitivity analyses, costs were most sensitive to the estimated risk of stroke and the expected stroke reduction from improved TTR. Utilities were most sensitive to the estimated risk of death and the expected mortality benefit from improved TTR. Conclusions A QI program to improve anticoagulation control would likely be cost-saving for the payer, even if it were only modestly effective in improving control, and even without considering the value of improved health. This study demonstrates how to make a business case for a QI initiative. PMID:21712521

  12. Histoplasma capsulatum endocarditis: multicenter case series with review of current diagnostic techniques and treatment.

    PubMed

    Riddell, James; Kauffman, Carol A; Smith, Jeannina A; Assi, Maha; Blue, Sky; Buitrago, Martha I; Deresinski, Stan; Wright, Patty W; Drevets, Douglas A; Norris, Steven A; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Carson, Paul J; Vergidis, Paschalis; Carpenter, John; Seidenfeld, Steven M; Wheat, L Joseph

    2014-07-01

    Infective endocarditis is an uncommon manifestation of infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. The diagnosis is frequently missed, and outcomes historically have been poor. We present 14 cases of Histoplasma endocarditis seen in the last decade at medical centers throughout the United States. All patients were men, and 10 of the 14 had an infected prosthetic aortic valve. One patient had an infected left atrial myxoma. Symptoms were present a median of 7 weeks before the diagnosis was established. Blood cultures yielded H. capsulatum in only 6 (43%) patients. Histoplasma antigen was present in urine and/or serum in all but 3 of the patients and provided the first clue to the diagnosis of histoplasmosis for several patients. Antibody testing was positive for H. capsulatum in 6 of 8 patients in whom the test was performed. Eleven patients underwent surgery for valve replacement or myxoma removal. Large, friable vegetations were noted at surgery in most patients, confirming the preoperative transesophageal echocardiography findings. Histopathologic examination of valve tissue and the myxoma revealed granulomatous inflammation and large numbers of organisms in most specimens. Four of the excised valves and the atrial myxoma showed a mixture of both yeast and hyphal forms on histopathology. A lipid formulation of amphotericin B, administered for a median of 29 days, was the initial therapy in 11 of the 14 patients. This was followed by oral itraconazole therapy, in all but 2 patients. The length of itraconazole suppressive therapy ranged from 11 months to lifelong administration. Three patients (21%) died within 3 months of the date of diagnosis. All 3 deaths were in patients who had received either no or minimal (1 day and 1 week) amphotericin B. PMID:25181311

  13. Unusually located left ventricular outflow myxoma: a brief review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Mustafa; Cakici, Musa; Ercisli, Murat; Polat, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Among all myxomas, left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) myxomas are very rare. This article reports an LVOT myxoma in a 67-year-old woman presenting with palpitations and weight loss. Surgical excision of the LVOT myxoma was performed. PMID:23761565

  14. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy masquerading as infiltrative restrictive cardiomyopathy and refractory congestive failure-resolution with catheter ablation of atrial flutter - A case report.

    PubMed

    Kalavakolanu, Sharada Sivaram

    2015-07-01

    We report a case of a young male presenting as Restrictive cardiomyopathy, refractory heart failure and syncope due to typical right atrial flutter complicating hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Successful catheter ablation of the flutter promptly ameliorated the congestive failure with resolution of restrictive physiology. PMID:26136635

  15. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy masquerading as infiltrative restrictive cardiomyopathy and refractory congestive failure-resolution with catheter ablation of atrial flutter – A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kalavakolanu, Sharada Sivaram

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a young male presenting as Restrictive cardiomyopathy, refractory heart failure and syncope due to typical right atrial flutter complicating hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Successful catheter ablation of the flutter promptly ameliorated the congestive failure with resolution of restrictive physiology.

  16. Persistent Isolated Right Atrial Standstill Associated With Left Atrial Tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Jorat, Mohammad Vahid; Nikoo, Mohammad Hosein; Yousefi, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Atrial standstill is a rare condition, characterized by absence of atrial electrical and mechanical activity evident in surface electrocardiography echocardiography, or fluoroscopy, which is associated with unresponsiveness of atria to maximal output electrical stimulation. This condition can be present with thromboembolic complication, low cardiac output, and sometimes palpitation. Case Presentation: Here we presented a woman with right atrial stand still and left atrial tachycardia. It was confirmed by electrocardiogram, echocardiography, and intracardiac electrogram in basal state and during maximal output electrical stimulation. We treated her by implanting pacemaker to control bradycardia, oral calcium channel blocker to control palpitation episodes, and anticoagulation. Conclusions: Atrial standstill can be present partially that can be localized in one atrium and is associated with tachycardia in the other atrium. PMID:25785252

  17. Importance of Close Follow-Up in the Fetus with Premature Atrial Contractions Accompanied by Atrial Septal Aneurysm: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yozgat, Yilmaz; Kilic, Ayhan; Karadeniz, Cem; Ozdemir, Rahmi; Doksoz, Onder; Mese, Timur; Unal, Nurettin

    2013-01-01

    Rhythms that derive from parts of atria other than the sinus node are called premature atrial contractions (PACs). Vast majority of fetal PACs are idiopathic. Fetal PACs usually have a good prognosis and disappear spontaneously during pregnancy or after delivery. Development of fetal tachycardia or fetal bradycardia is rarely reported during follow-up of fetuses diagnosed with PACs. To the best of our knowledge, coexistence of tachycardia and bradycardia leading to hemodynamic impairment has not yet been reported. We present a fetus diagnosed with PACs and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) on the 23rd week of gestation proceeding to fetal bradycardia and fetal tachycardia and consequently hemodynamic impairment. We suggest closer follow-up of fetuses with PACs accompanied by ASA. PMID:24455349

  18. Atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger A. Marinchak; Peter R. Kowey; Seth J. Rials; David Bharucha

    2000-01-01

    Opinion statement  Atrial fibrillation will present the most significant arrhythmia management challenge for clinicians in the new millennium,\\u000a particularly as the percentage of elderly patients and longevity increase worldwide. The clinical manifestations of the arrhythmia\\u000a are wide ranging: paroxysmal to permanent modes of occurrence and asymptomatic to severely symptomatic presentations. Perhaps\\u000a most important, the major risks of atrial fibrillation are stroke

  19. [Atrial defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Heisel, A; Jung, J; Buob, A; Siaplaouras, S

    2000-01-01

    The promising results achieved with low-energy, internal atrial cardioversion have stimulated the development of an implantable atrial defibrillator. Initial clinical experience with the Metrix system in a group of highly selected patients with refractory atrial fibrillation (AF) suggests that atrial defibrillation can be performed effectively and safely by using a stand-alone device. The extension of this therapy will depend on the results of further prospective studies comparing this new therapeutic option with other new non-pharmacological methods to treat AF. Internal atrial cardioversion is feasible at low energies with current endocardial transvenous lead configurations primarily designed for ventricular defibrillation. As AF is a frequent arrhythmia in implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients, the capability for atrial defibrillation has recently been incorporated in a newly designed dual chamber defibrillator (Jewel AF system). Initial clinical experience with this device that combines both detection and treatment in the atrium as well as in the ventricle indicates a significant improvement in the management of patients with both supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. PMID:11151773

  20. Establishment and characterization of a bovine rectal myxoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Aditya P; Tiwari, Ashok K; Ravi Kumar, G; Chaturvedi, U; Veer Singh, Lakshya; Saxena, Shikha; Palia, S K; Jadon, N S; Singh, R; Singh, K P; Brahmaprakash, B S; Maiti, S K; Das, A K

    2015-02-01

    A new bovine cell line was developed from tumor biopsy material of rectum obtained from clinical case of 7 years old cattle with tumor mass obliterating the rectal opening. Histopathology of tumor revealed scattered stellate cells arranged singly or in clusters in loose mucinous ground substance, simulating myxoma. The cells obtained from tumor mass have been cultured for more than 36 months in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The population doubling time of this cell line was about 20.64 h. The cytogenetic analysis revealed several chromosomal abnormalities with bizarre karyotype. The origin of the cell line was confirmed by PCR amplification of 1086 bp fragment of 16s rRNA using bovine species specific primers. The new cell line would act as in vitro model to study many aspect of cancer biology such as tumor development, differentiation and therapeutics regimen to combat cancer. PMID:25441618

  1. Simplified method for esophagus protection during radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation - prospective study of 704 cases

    PubMed Central

    Mateos, José Carlos Pachón; Mateos, Enrique I Pachón; Peña, Tomas G Santillana; Lobo, Tasso Julio; Mateos, Juán Carlos Pachón; Vargas, Remy Nelson A; Pachón, Carlos Thiene C; Acosta, Juán Carlos Zerpa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although rare, the atrioesophageal fistula is one of the most feared complications in radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation due to the high risk of mortality. Objective This is a prospective controlled study, performed during regular radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, to test whether esophageal displacement by handling the transesophageal echocardiography transducer could be used for esophageal protection. Methods Seven hundred and four patients (158 F/546M [22.4%/77.6%]; 52.8±14 [17-84] years old), with mean EF of 0.66±0.8 and drug-refractory atrial fibrillation were submitted to hybrid radiofrequency catheter ablation (conventional pulmonary vein isolation plus AF-Nests and background tachycardia ablation) with displacement of the esophagus as far as possible from the radiofrequency target by transesophageal echocardiography transducer handling. The esophageal luminal temperature was monitored without and with displacement in 25 patients. Results The mean esophageal displacement was 4 to 9.1cm (5.9±0.8 cm). In 680 of the 704 patients (96.6%), it was enough to allow complete and safe radiofrequency delivery (30W/40ºC/irrigated catheter or 50W/60ºC/8 mm catheter) without esophagus overlapping. The mean esophageal luminal temperature changes with versus without esophageal displacement were 0.11±0.13ºC versus 1.1±0.4ºC respectively, P<0.01. The radiofrequency had to be halted in 68% of the patients without esophageal displacement because of esophageal luminal temperature increase. There was no incidence of atrioesophageal fistula suspected or confirmed. Only two superficial bleeding caused by transesophageal echocardiography transducer insertion were observed. Conclusion Mechanical esophageal displacement by transesophageal echocardiography transducer during radiofrequency catheter ablation was able to prevent a rise in esophageal luminal temperature, helping to avoid esophageal thermal lesion. In most cases, the esophageal displacement was sufficient to allow safe radiofrequency application without esophagus overlapping, being a convenient alternative in reducing the risk of atrioesophageal fistula.

  2. Etiological pattern of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, K S A; Siddiqui, M N I

    2002-07-01

    An attempt to find out the causes of atrial fibrillation was made in this study; although this does not represent total picture of whole population as the number of cases was limited and taken from a particular area for a limited period. Among the causes in our country, rheumatic mitral valvular disease topped the list followed by rheumatic multiple valvular disease IHD, HHD; lone atrial fibrillation came in the aetiology sequentially. This information is valuable in regard to management as rheumatic heart disease, the prime cause of atrial fibrillation in our country. PMID:12395678

  3. Risk Factors for Embolism in Cardiac Myxoma: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Deng-ke; Zhang, Yu-feng; Liang, Yin; Ye, Shi-xing; Wang, Chong; Kang, Bo; Wang, Zhi-nong

    2015-01-01

    Background Myxomas are the most common primary heart tumors and are closely associated with embolic events. Cardiac myxomas typically arise from the interatrial septum at the border of the fossa ovalis in the left atrium. Any other location is considered atypical. Embolism, one of the complications of myxoma, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for embolism in patients with cardiac myxoma. Material/Methods In this retrospective study, a cohort of 162 patients with cardiac myxomas was surgically treated between January 1998 and June 2014 at 3 cardiac centers in China. Preoperative data, including platelet count, sex, age, and the tumor (size, location, surface, and attachment), were compared between embolic and non-embolic groups of patients. Results No significant differences in vascular risk factors were seen between the 2 groups. However, the percentage of higher platelet count (>300×109/L) and mean platelet volume in the embolic group were significantly higher than in the non-embolic group (P=0.0356, and 0.0113, respectively). Irregular surface and atypical location of the myxomas were also independently associated with increased risk of embolic complications. Conclusions Tumor location, macroscopic appearance, mean platelet volume, and high platelet count are strong risk factors for embolic events in patients with cardiac myxomas. PMID:25900256

  4. Atrial natriuretic peptide and aldosterone synthase gene in essential hypertension: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sudhir; Saluja, Daman; Narang, Rajiv; Bhatia, Jagriti; Srivastava, Kamna

    2015-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and their candidate genes are principally involved in regulation of blood pressure through salt-water homeostasis. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) are the important RAAS mediators, play a major role in hypertension through regulation of cardiorenal homeostasis and water-electrolytes balance, respectively. Present study reports the expression of ANP and CYP11B2 gene at mRNA and proteins levels in patients with essential hypertension in North Indian subjects. Gene expression at mRNA and protein levels was carried out by Real time PCR and Western blot, respectively. We found a significant down regulation in the ANP gene expression at mRNA (85%) and protein (72.6%) levels and significant increase in the CYP11B2 protein expression in patients as compared to controls. A significant increase in Serum creatinine (14.6%), Sodium (1.15%) and decrease in the Blood urea (8.18%) and Potassium (2.32%) levels were also observed among the patients group having higher expression (based on median delta-CT value) in comparison to the lower expression of CYP11B2 gene. Our results suggest that the down-regulation of ANP gene expression at mRNA and protein levels and up-regulated CYP11B2 protein expression levels may be correlated with the essential hypertension and could serve as circulating prognostic biomarkers for essential hypertension. PMID:25917967

  5. Aligning health care policy with evidence-based medicine: the case for funding direct oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Stone, James A; Earl, Karen M; O'Neill, Blair J; Sharma, Mukul; Huynh, Thao; Leblanc, Kori; Ward, Richard; Teal, Philip A; Cox, Jafna L

    2014-10-01

    Misalignment between evidence-informed clinical care guideline recommendations and reimbursement policy has created care gaps that lead to suboptimal outcomes for patients denied access to guideline-based therapies. The purpose of this article is to make the case for addressing this growing access barrier to optimal care. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) is discussed as an example. Stroke is an extremely costly disease, imposing a significant human, societal, and economic burden. Stroke in the setting of AF carries an 80% probability of death or disability. Although two-thirds of these strokes are preventable with appropriate anticoagulation, this has historically been underprescribed and poorly managed. National and international guidelines endorse the direct oral anticoagulants as first-line therapy for this indication. However, no Canadian province has provided these agents with an unrestricted listing. These decisions appear to be founded on silo-based cost assessment-the drug costs rather than the total system costs-and thus overlook several important cost-drivers in stroke. The discordance between best scientific evidence and public policy requires health care providers to use a potentially suboptimal therapy in contravention of guideline recommendations. It represents a significant obstacle for knowledge translation efforts that aim to increase the appropriate anticoagulation of Canadians with AF. As health care professionals, we have a responsibility to our patients to engage with policy-makers in addressing and resolving this barrier to optimal patient care. PMID:25262864

  6. Characterization of left atrial appendage Doppler flow in atrial fibrillation and flutter by Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Grimm, R A; Chandra, S; Klein, A L; Stewart, W J; Black, I W; Kidwell, G A; Thomas, J D

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize left atrial appendage mechanical function in atrial fibrillation and flutter by Fourier analysis to analyze frequency and regularity of flow. Left atrial appendage function is central to a patient's risk for thromboembolism. Although the function of the appendage can be analyzed by Doppler echocardiography in sinus rhythm, its mechanical function in atrial fibrillation and flutter has not been well characterized. This lack of adequate definition is caused by the complexity and temporal variability of the Doppler flow profiles. We assessed left atrial appendage function in 21 cases of atrial fibrillation (n - 11) and flutter (n = 10) and five in sinus rhythm with transesophageal Doppler echocardiography. Doppler profiles were examined by Fourier analysis, and the power spectra compared and analyzed between patients with atrial fibrillation and flutter. Left atrial appendage Doppler flow in atrial fibrillation produced Fourier spectra over a narrow band of frequencies with a peak frequency of 6.2 +/- 1.0 Hz, significantly higher than in atrial flutter (3.9 +/- 0.6 Hz, p < 0.00001). Additionally, a significant difference in subharmonic modulation (spectral power below the peak frequency) was observed between atrial appendage flow in atrial fibrillation and flutter, because 37% +/- 16% of the total spectral power was achieved before the dominant frequency in atrial fibrillation compared with 20% +/- 14% in atrial flutter (p = 0.02). Conversely, patients in sinus rhythm exhibited broad-banded Fourier spectra with most of the power in discrete frequency spikes at harmonics above the fundamental frequency with very little subharmonic modulation (1% +/- 0.05%). Left atrial appendage function in atrial fibrillation and flutter can be well characterized by Fourier analysis of Doppler flow. Atrial fibrillation has higher dominant frequencies and greater subharmonic modulation compared with flutter. Moreover, atrial fibrillation demonstrated quasiperiodic contraction patterns typically found in chaotic systems. Fourier analysis of left atrial appendage contraction patterns may therefore have significant promise in providing insights into mechanisms of atrial fibrillation and thromboembolism. PMID:8701889

  7. Meta-analysis of Cohort and Case-Control Studies of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Huxley, Rachel R.; Filion, Kristian B.; Konety, Suma; Alonso, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most clinically diagnosed cardiac disturbances but little is known about its risk factors. Previous epidemiological studies have reported on the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and subsequent risk of AF with inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of published studies to reliably determine the direction and magnitude of any association between DM and AF. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. PUBMED and EMBASE were searched to identify prospective cohort and case-control studies that had reported on the association between DM and other measures of glucose homeostasis with incident AF by April 2010. Studies conducted in primarily high-risk populations and participants in randomized controlled trials were excluded. Seven prospective cohort studies and four case-control studies with information on 108,703 cases of AF among 1,686,097 individuals contributed to this analysis. The summary estimate indicated that individuals with DM had an approximate 40% greater risk of AF compared with unaffected individuals: RR 1.39 (95% Confidence Intervals: 1.10 – 1.75; p for heterogeneity <0.001). After correcting for publication bias the RR was XXXXXXX. Studies that had adjusted for multiple risk factors reported a smaller effect estimate compared with age-adjusted studies: RR 1.24 (95% Confidence Intervals: 1.06 – 1.44) versus 1.70 (1.29 – 2.22); p for heterogeneity = 0.053. The population attributable fraction of AF due to DM was 2.5% (95% CI: 0.1 – 3.9%). In conclusion, DM is associated with an increased risk of subsequent AF but the mechanisms that may underpin the relation between DM and AF remain speculative. PMID:21529739

  8. Meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Rachel R; Filion, Kristian B; Konety, Suma; Alonso, Alvaro

    2011-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is 1 of the most clinically diagnosed cardiac disturbances but little is known about its risk factors. Previous epidemiologic studies have reported on the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and subsequent risk of AF, with inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of published studies to reliably determine the direction and magnitude of any association between DM and AF. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed and EMBASE were searched to identify prospective cohort and case-control studies that had reported on the association between DM and other measurements of glucose homeostasis with incident AF by April 2010. Studies conducted in primarily high-risk populations and participants in randomized controlled trials were excluded. Seven prospective cohort studies and 4 case-control studies with information on 108,703 cases of AF in 1,686,097 subjects contributed to this analysis. The summary estimate indicated that patients with DM had an approximate 40% greater risk of AF compared to unaffected patients (relative risk [RR] 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10 to 1.75, p for heterogeneity <0.001). After correcting for publication bias, the RR was 1.34 (1.07 to 1.68). Studies that had adjusted for multiple risk factors reported a smaller effect estimate compared to age-adjusted studies (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.44, vs 1.70, 1.29 to 2.22, p for heterogeneity = 0.053). The population-attributable fraction of AF owing to DM was 2.5% (95% CI 0.1 to 3.9). In conclusion, DM is associated with an increased risk of subsequent AF but the mechanisms that may underpin the relation between DM and AF remain speculative. PMID:21529739

  9. Recurrent cardiac myxoma in a 25 year old male: a DNA study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We present a 25 year old Caucasian male patient with multiple recurrences of cardiac myxomas after surgical removal of the original tumor. His mother was operated on for right ventricular myxoma. The genetic analyses disclosed an aneuploid DNA content by flow cytometry analysis. The familial form of the cardiac myxomas must be distinguished from Carney complex syndrome. A long- term echocardiographic follow up is recommended to patients and their first degree relatives with cardiac myxomas. PMID:23618320

  10. Oncolytic myxoma virus: the path to clinic.

    PubMed

    Chan, Winnie M; Rahman, Masmudur M; McFadden, Grant

    2013-09-01

    Many common neoplasms are still noncurative with current standards of cancer therapy. More therapeutic modalities need to be developed to significantly prolong the lives of patients and eventually cure a wider spectrum of cancers. Oncolytic virotherapy is one of the promising new additions to clinical cancer therapeutics. Successful oncolytic virotherapy in the clinic will be those strategies that best combine tumor cell oncolysis with enhanced immune responses against tumor antigens. The current candidate oncolytic viruses all share the common property that they are relatively nonpathogenic to humans, yet they have the ability to replicate selectively in human cancer cells and induce cancer regression by direct oncolysis and/or induction of improved anti-tumor immune responses. Many candidate oncolytic viruses are in various stages of clinical and preclinical development. One such preclinical candidate is myxoma virus (MYXV), a member of the Poxviridae family that, in its natural setting, exhibits a very restricted host range and is only pathogenic to European rabbits. Despite its narrow host range in nature, MYXV has been shown to productively infect various classes of human cancer cells. Several preclinical in vivo modeling studies have demonstrated that MYXV is an attractive and safe candidate oncolytic virus, and hence, MYXV is currently being developed as a potential therapeutic for several cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, glioblastoma, ovarian cancer, melanoma, and hematologic malignancies. This review highlights the preclinical cancer models that have shown the most promise for translation of MYXV into human clinical trials. PMID:23726825

  11. Atrial Fibrillation During an Exploration Class Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipsett, Mark; Hamilton, Douglas; Lemery, Jay; Polk, James

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a possible scenario of an astronaut having Atrial Fibrillation during a Mars Mission. In the case review the presentation asks several questions about the alternatives for treatment, medications and the ramifications of the decisions.

  12. Novel Association between Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation in a Case-Cohort Study: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Huxley, Rachel R.; Lopez, Faye L.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Eckfeldt, John H.; Couper, David; Leiendecker-Foster, Catherine; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Chen, Lin Yee; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested that biomarkers of extracellular matrix remodelling are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), but no prospective data have yet been published. Hence, we examine whether plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their inhibitors are related to increased risk of incident AF. Methods We used a case-cohort design in the context of the prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. From 13718 eligible men and women free from AF in 1990-92, we selected a stratified random sample of 500 individuals without and 580 with incident AF over a mean follow-up of 11.8 years. Using a weighted proportional hazards regression model, the relationships between MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, TIMP-2 and C-terminal propeptide of collagen type-I with incident AF were examined after adjusting for confounders. Results In models adjusted for age, sex and race, all biomarkers were associated with AF, but only the relationship between plasma MMP-9 remained significant in the fully-adjusted model: each one standard deviation increase in MMP-9 was associated with 27% (95% Confidence Interval: 7% to 50%) increase in risk of AF with no evidence of an interaction with race or sex. Individuals with above mean levels of MMP-9 were more likely to be male, white and current smokers. Conclusions The findings suggest that elevated levels of MMP-9 are independently associated with increased risk of AF. However, given the lack of specificity of MMP-9 to atrial tissue, it remains to be determined whether the observed relationship reflects the impact of atrial fibrosis or more generalized fibrosis on risk of incident AF. PMID:23554968

  13. Significance of intravascular and intracardiac movement of the cardiac catheter in ventriculo-atrial shunts (Review of 655 cases)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ahyai

    1979-01-01

    Summary Proper placement of ventriculo-atrial shunts can be complicated by three phenomena:1.Movement of the cardiac catheter mtravascularly into the internal jugular vein as noted on chest X-ray.2.Movement of the cardiac catheter during intraoperative X-ray leading to blurring and hence problems in accurate localization.3.No sign on X-ray of the catheter tip or even of the catheter itself despite previous X-ray visualization

  14. Atrial fibrillation associated with central nervous symptoms and colic in a horse: A case of equine cardiomyopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Wijnberg; J. H. van der Kolk; E. van Garderen; G. J. Binkhorst

    1998-01-01

    A 18?year?old Dutch Warmblood mare was referred for colic. Upon arrival, lethargy, blindness, head pressing, ataxia, and circling were the main clinical signs. On rectal examination a hard mass and oedema around the cranial mesenteric artery were palpated. Plasma liver enzyme activities and the ammonia level were elevated. Atrial fibrillation with a pulse frequency of 36–52 beats per minute was

  15. Embolic Risk in Atrial Fibrillation that Arises from Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Traube, Elie; Coplan, Neil L.

    2011-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac complication of hyperthyroidism, occurs in an estimated 10% to 25% of overtly hyperthyroid patients. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation increases with age in the general population and in thyrotoxic patients. Other risk factors for atrial fibrillation in thyrotoxic patients include male sex, ischemic or valvular heart disease, and congestive heart failure. The incidence of arterial embolism or stroke in thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation is less clear. There are many reports of arterial thromboembolism associated with hyperthyroidism, including cases of young adults without coexisting risk factors other than thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation. The use of anticoagulative agents to prevent thromboembolic sequelae of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation is controversial: national organizations provide conflicting recommendations in their practice guidelines. Herein, we review the medical literature and examine the evidence behind the recommendations in order to determine the best approach to thromboembolic prophylaxis in patients who have atrial fibrillation that is associated with hyperthyroidism. PMID:21720457

  16. Host-specificity of myxoma virus: Pathogenesis of South American and North American strains of myxoma virus in two North American lagomorph species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Silvers; D. Barnard; F. Knowlton; B. Inglis; A. Labudovic; M. K. Holland; P. A. Janssens; B. H. van Leeuwen; P. J. Kerr

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of South American and North American myxoma viruses was examined in two species of North American lagomorphs, Sylvilagus nuttallii (mountain cottontail) and Sylvilagus audubonii (desert cottontail) both of which have been shown to have the potential to transmit the South American type of myxoma virus. Following infection with the South American strain (Lausanne, Lu), S. nuttallii developed both

  17. [Giant aneurysm of the inter-atrial septum].

    PubMed

    Akoudad, H; Cherti, M; Chaouki, S; Ztot, S; Haddour, L; el Mrabet, I; el Khadiri, A; Benmimoun, E G; Arharbi, A

    1999-01-01

    We report the case of a large atrial septal aneurysm and a review of the literature. Atrial septal aneurysm is found in 1-8% of normal subjects. Its prevalence is higher among patients with ischemic stroke. Transesophageal echocardiography is an optimal tool for the diagnosis of atrial septal aneurysm. The clinical course may be complicated by arterial embolism, but mechanical complications may also occur, as in this case. Due to the lack of general agreement, treatment options should be discussed on an individual basis for patients with atrial septal aneurysm. PMID:10093663

  18. Partial trisomy 3p and partial monosomy 11q associated with atrial septal defect, cleft palate, and developmental delay: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tan, E-C; Lim, E; Cham, B; Knight, L; Ng, I

    2011-01-01

    Unbalanced translocation involving both chromosome 3p duplication and 11q deletion in the same patient is extremely rare; only 1 live-born case was reported previously. This karyotype was also detected during prenatal diagnosis of 2 different pregnancies in a Taiwanese family which were both terminated. In all 3 cases, only standard karyotyping was done to detect the abnormal karyotypes. Here, we report a 4-year-old boy with cleft palate, atrial septal defect, and hypotonia with gross and fine motor delay. Oligonucleotide-based array comparative genomic hybridization showed copy number gain from 3pter to 3p24.2 (approximately 24.5 Mb) and copy number loss from 11q25 to 11qter (approximately 5.8 Mb). This de novo unbalanced translocation event involving a terminal 3p duplication and a terminal 11q deletion provides candidate genes for further investigation of dosage effect leading to the patient's multiple phenotypic abnormalities. Genotype-phenotype correlation is difficult to make in this case due to the large number of genes involved. However, the description of such cases together with precise gene-level mapping of chromosomal breakpoints will add to further refinement of candidate genes to be investigated for terminal imbalances in 3p and 11q when more similar cases are reported. PMID:21654159

  19. Treatment of an 8-mm Myxoma Using Acellular Corneal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyung Sup; Wee, Sung Wook

    2014-01-01

    A myxoma is a benign tumor found in the heart and in various soft tissues; however, a corneal myxoma is rare. A mucinous mass of unknown etiology was observed on the left cornea of a 32-year-old male patient. We performed deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using acellular corneal tissue and concurrent amniotic membrane transplantation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed vacuolation of the parenchyma and myxoid change in the corneal tissue that occurred in the anterior half of the corneal parenchyma. We identified a myxoid stroma by Alcian blue staining and observed collagen fibers with denatured stroma by Masson trichrome staining. The patient's visual acuity improved from light perception to 20 / 200, and the intraocular pressure remained within the normal range for one year after surgery. The transplanted cornea survived successfully with well-maintained transparency, and recurrence was not observed one year after surgery. PMID:24505204

  20. Delayed left atrial wall dissection after mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Idir, M; Deville, C; Roudaut, R

    2000-04-01

    We report two unusual cases of left atrial wall dissection creating a left atrial pseudoaneurysm associated with regurgitation a few months after mitral valve replacement. We emphasize the important role of transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis. The two patients successfully underwent surgery. PMID:10978990

  1. Atrial fibrillation: Catheter ablation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aman Chugh; Fred Morady

    2006-01-01

    Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) has evolved dramatically over the last several years. The initial efforts in the catheter-based management of AF targeted the atrial substrate in an effort to mimic the maze procedure. After the pulmonary veins (PV) were shown to be critical in the initiation and perpetuation of AF, the focus then shifted to a trigger approach

  2. Neural mechanisms of atrial arrhythmias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Shen; Eue-Keun Choi; Alex Y. Tan; Shien-Fong Lin; Michael C. Fishbein; Lan S. Chen; Peng-Sheng Chen

    2011-01-01

    The past 5 years have seen great advances in the knowledge of neural mechanisms of atrial arrhythmogenesis. Direct autonomic nerve recordings demonstrate that simultaneous sympathovagal discharges and intrinsic cardiac nerve activities are common triggers of paroxysmal atrial tachycardia and atrial fibrillation. While activity of the autonomous nervous system (ANS) is crucial in triggering paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, a high incidence of

  3. Echocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular-right atrial communication (Gerbode-type defect) in an adult with chronic renal failure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Serpil; Sade, Elif; Bozbas, Huseyin; Pirat, Bahar; Yildirir, Aylin; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

    2008-03-01

    Left ventricular-right atrial communication, known as a Gerbode-type defect, is a rare form of ventricular septal defect. It is usually congenital, but rarely acquired. Clinical presentation is associated with the volume of the shunt. Transthoracic echocardiography is the most useful diagnostic method. We present a 63-year-old man with chronic renal failure and left ventricular-right atrial shunt. PMID:17223611

  4. Neuroanatomical correlates of atrial fibrillation: a longitudinal MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Saed, Aveen; Tasneem, Nudrat; Adil, Malik M

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose To determine baseline volume and rate of volume change of whole brain, hippocampus, and entorhinal cortex in patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods We analyzed clinical and neuroimaging data collected as part of Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative in the United States and Canada. Patients with atrial fibrillation were identified based on baseline clinical/cognitive assessments, and age and gender-matched controls without atrial fibrillations were selected (1:1 ratio). All participants underwent 1.5 T structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at specified intervals (6 or 12 months) for 2–3 years. Results A total of 33 persons with atrial fibrillation were included. There was no difference in whole brain and ventricular volumes at baseline MRI between cases and controls. There was significantly lower entorhinal cortex volume on right (p = 0.01) and left (p = 0.01) sides in patients with atrial fibrillation. There was significantly lower volume for middle temporal lobes on right (p = 0.04) and left (p = 0.001) sides. The rate of progression of atrophy in entorhinal cortex and middle temporal lobes was not different between patients with atrial fibrillation and controls. Conclusions The association of atrial fibrillation with volume loss in entorhinal cortex and middle temporal lobes may provide new insights into pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. PMID:25566337

  5. Targeting Human Medulloblastoma: Oncolytic Virotherapy with Myxoma Virus Is Enhanced by Rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Lun, Xue Qing; Zhou, Hongyuan; Alain, Tommy; Sun, Beichen; Wang, Limei; Barrett, John W.; Stanford, Marianne M.; McFadden, Grant; Bell, John; Senger, Donna L.; Forsyth, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown previously the oncolytic potential of myxoma virus in a murine xenograft model of human glioma. Here, we show that myxoma virus used alone or in combination with rapamycin is effective and safe when used in experimental models of medulloblastoma in vitro and in vivo. Nine of 10 medulloblastoma cell lines tested were susceptible to lethal myxoma virus infection, and pretreatment of cells with rapamycin increased the extent of in vitro oncolysis. Intratumoral injection of live myxoma virus when compared with control inactivated virus prolonged survival in D341 and Daoy orthotopic human medulloblastoma xenograft mouse models [D341 median survival: 21 versus 12.5 days; P = 0.0008; Daoy median survival: not reached (three of five mice apparently “cured” after 223 days) versus 75 days; P = 0.0021]. Rapamycin increased the extent of viral oncolysis, “curing” most Daoy tumor-bearing mice and reducing or eliminating spinal cord and ventricle metastases. Rapamycin enhanced tumor-specific myxoma virus replication in vivo and prolonged survival of D341 tumor-bearing mice (median survival of mice treated with live virus (LV) and rapamycin, versus LV alone, versus rapamycin alone, versus inactivated virus: 25 days versus 19, 13, and 11 days, respectively; P < 0.0001). Rapamycin increased the levels of constitutively activated Akt in Daoy and D341 cells, which may explain its ability to enhance myxoma virus oncolysis. These observations suggest that myxoma virus may be an effective oncolytic agent against medulloblastoma and that combination therapy with signaling inhibitors that modulate activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway will further enhance the oncolytic potential of myxoma virus. PMID:17875723

  6. Atrial Arrhythmias in Astronauts - Summary of a NASA Summit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Yael R.; Watkins, Sharmila D.; Polk, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Problem Definition: To evaluate NASA s current standards and practices related to atrial arrhythmias in astronauts, Space Medicine s Advanced Projects Section at the Johnson Space Center was tasked with organizing a summit to discuss the approach to atrial arrhythmias in the astronaut cohort. Since 1959, 11 cases of atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, or supraventricular tachycardia have been recorded among active corps crewmembers. Most of the cases were paroxysmal, although a few were sustained. While most of the affected crewmembers were asymptomatic, those slated for long-duration space flight underwent radiofrequency ablation treatment to prevent further episodes of the arrhythmia. The summit was convened to solicit expert opinion on screening, diagnosis, and treatment options, to identify gaps in knowledge, and to propose relevant research initiatives. Summit Meeting Objectives: The Atrial Arrhythmia Summit brought together a panel of six cardiologists, including nationally and internationally renowned leaders in cardiac electrophysiology, exercise physiology, and space flight cardiovascular physiology. The primary objectives of the summit discussions were to evaluate cases of atrial arrhythmia in the astronaut population, to understand the factors that may predispose an individual to this condition, to understand NASA s current capabilities for screening, diagnosis, and treatment, to discuss the risks associated with treatment of crewmembers assigned to long-duration missions or extravehicular activities, and to discuss recommendations for prevention or management of future cases. Summary of Recommendations: The summit panel s recommendations were grouped into seven categories: Epidemiology, Screening, Standards and Selection, Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation Manifesting Preflight, Atrial Fibrillation during Flight, Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation, and Future Research

  7. The role of mast cell tryptases in cardiac myxoma: Histogenesis and development of a challenging tumor

    PubMed Central

    DONATO, GIUSEPPE; CONFORTI, FRANCESCO; CAMASTRA, CATERINA; AMMENDOLA, MICHELE; DONATO, ANNALIDIA; RENZULLI, ATTILIO

    2014-01-01

    A number of available studies have focused on the role of mastocytes and their angiogenic factors, such as tryptase expression, in cancer growth as a major research objective. Cardiac myxoma is a rare neoplasia and is the most common primary tumor of the heart. The cellular elements of cardiac myxoma have an endothelial phenotype; however, its histogenesis remains unclear. Currently, no available studies have correlated the pathological characteristics of cardiac myxomas, such as cell differentiation and vascularization, with the angiogenic factors of mast cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of mast cell tryptases on the development of cardiac myxomas and examine the histogenesis of tumoral cells. A series of 10 cardiac myxomas were examined by immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of tryptase-positive mast cells. Statistical analysis of our data demonstrated that angiogenesis and the development of pseudovascular structures were correlated with the number of tryptase-positive mast cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that cardiac myxoma cells are endothelial precursors which are able to generate mature vascular structures. Further morphological and immunophenotypic analyses of tumoral cells may corroborate such a hypothesis. PMID:24959280

  8. Embolic risk in atrial fibrillation that arises from hyperthyroidism: review of the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Traube, Elie; Coplan, Neil L

    2011-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac complication of hyperthyroidism, occurs in an estimated 10% to 25% of overtly hyperthyroid patients. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation increases with age in the general population and in thyrotoxic patients. Other risk factors for atrial fibrillation in thyrotoxic patients include male sex, ischemic or valvular heart disease, and congestive heart failure. The incidence of arterial embolism or stroke in thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation is less clear. There are many reports of arterial thromboembolism associated with hyperthyroidism, including cases of young adults without coexisting risk factors other than thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation. The use of anticoagulative agents to prevent thromboembolic sequelae of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation is controversial: National organizations provide conflicting recommendations in their practice guidelines. Herein, we review the medical literature and examine the evidence behind the recommendations in order to determine the best approach to thromboembolic prophylaxis in patients who have atrial fibrillation that is associated with hyperthyroidism. PMID:21720457

  9. Distribution of atrial electrogram types during atrial fibrillation: Effect of rapid atrial pacing and intercaval junction ablation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huagui Li; John Hare; Kashef Mughal; David Krum; Michael Biehl; Sanjay Deshpande; Anwer Dhala; Zalmen Blanck; Jasbir Sra; Mohammad Jazayeri; Masood Akhtar

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the anatomic distribution types and possible determinant of atrial electrogram types during atrial fibrillation.Background. Different types of atrial electrograms during atrial fibrillation have been observed and classified, but their anatomic distribution patterns, determinants and potential usefulness in guiding future catheter ablation are unknown.Methods. Two animal models of atrial fibrillation were used: the sterile pericarditis model (n

  10. Ogilvie's Syndrome following Cardioversion for Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Al-Halawani, Moh'd; Savaille, Juanito; Thawabi, Mohammad; Abdeen, Yazan; Miller, Richard A; Fedida, Andre A

    2014-01-01

    Acute colonic pseudoobstruction, also known as Ogilvie's syndrome, is characterized by distension of the colon in the absence of a mechanical obstruction as evident by abdominal radiography. This syndrome is usually treated conservatively; however, medical or surgical therapies can be employed in refractory cases. Ogilvie's syndrome has been reported following cardiac events, such as myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiac bypass surgeries. We report the first case of Ogilvie's syndrome following synchronized electric cardioversion for atrial fibrillation. PMID:25214851

  11. Atrial natriuretic factor secretion: a role for atrial systolic ejection force?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Geny; F. Piquard; M. Follenius; H. Petit; F. Levy; E. Epailly; J. G. Kretz; B. Eisenmann; P. Haberey

    1996-01-01

    The increase in plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic factor in heart transplant patients has not been fully elucidated. Besides an eventual pressure or volume overload leading to passive atrial distension, the atrial tension developed during atrial systole, or atrial ejection force, which may be increased by the transplantation procedure, is an important determinant of atrial natriuretic factor release. We therefore

  12. Electrophysiologic Characteristics of a Dilated Atrium in Patients with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation and Atrial Flutter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Jen Chen; Shih-Ann Chen; Ching-Tai Tai; Wen-Chung Yu; An-Ning Feng; Yu-An Ding; Mau-Song Chang

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the difference of atrial electrophysiologic characteristics between a normal and dilated atrium and compared them among patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and flutter. Twenty-seven patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and 28 patients with paroxysmal atrial flutter were divided into four subgroups, according to the presence of a normal atrium or bilateral atrial enlargement. Thirty patients without atrial

  13. Late bacterial endocarditis of an Amplatzer atrial septal device.

    PubMed

    Aruni, Bhavith; Sharifian, Ali; Eryazici, Paula; Herrera, Cesar J

    2013-01-01

    A 59-year-old male with an secundum atrial septal defect status post repair with an Amplatzer occluder in 2001 was admitted with sepsis and MRSA bacteremia. Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) showed presence of an overlying mobile echogenic structure on the left atrial surface of the device suggestive of a vegetation/infected thrombus. This is only the 3rd case description of late endocarditis involving the Amplatzer ASD closure device in an adult. PMID:23993007

  14. Left atrial enlargement in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N; Imataka, K; Seki, A; Fujii, J

    1982-09-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether the left atrium is dilated in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or not. Left atrial dimension (LAD) on M-mode echocardiogram was (1) 23.3 +/- 0.7 mm (mean +/- S.E.) in 24 normal subjects, (2) 30.5 +/- 0.7 mm in 58 patients without atrial fibrillation who had hypertension and/or ischemic heart disease, (3) 35.5 +/- 0.9 mm in 27 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation of whom 23 had non-rheumatic cardiovascular diseases and 4 had idiopathic atrial fibrillation, (4) 40.5 +/- 1.1 mm in 38 patients with persistent atrial fibrillation of whom 30 had nonrheumatic cardiovascular diseases and 8 had idiopathic atrial fibrillation, and (5) 53.3 +/- 2.0 mm in 17 patients with persistent atrial fibrillation who had rheumatic heart disease. LAD showed a stepwise and significant increase from the first to the fifth group. LAD of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was not related to either the number or duration of paroxysms. These results indicate that the left atrium is slightly dilated in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. PMID:7176076

  15. Host-specificity of myxoma virus: Pathogenesis of South American and North American strains of myxoma virus in two North American lagomorph species.

    PubMed

    Silvers, L; Barnard, D; Knowlton, F; Inglis, B; Labudovic, A; Holland, M K; Janssens, P A; van Leeuwen, B H; Kerr, P J

    2010-03-24

    The pathogenesis of South American and North American myxoma viruses was examined in two species of North American lagomorphs, Sylvilagus nuttallii (mountain cottontail) and Sylvilagus audubonii (desert cottontail) both of which have been shown to have the potential to transmit the South American type of myxoma virus. Following infection with the South American strain (Lausanne, Lu), S. nuttallii developed both a local lesion and secondary lesions on the skin. They did not develop the classical myxomatosis seen in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The infection at the inoculation site did not resolve during the 20-day time course of the trial and contained transmissible virus titres at all times. In contrast, S. audubonii infected with Lu had very few signs of disseminated infection and partially controlled virus replication at the inoculation site. The prototype Californian strain of myxoma virus (MSW) was able to replicate at the inoculation site of both species but did not induce clinical signs of a disseminated infection. In S. audubonii, there was a rapid response to MSW characterised by a massive T lymphocyte infiltration of the inoculation site by day 5. MSW did not reach transmissible titres at the inoculation site in either species. This might explain why the Californian myxoma virus has not expanded its host-range in North America. PMID:19836172

  16. Treatment of atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhay Bajpai; Irina Savelieva; A. John Camm

    Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common, sustained rhythm disturbance. The prevalence of AF is increasing as people live longer. Common conditions such as hypertension and ischaemic heart disease play an important role in the development of AF. The presence of AF is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from stroke and heart failure, particularly in patients with structural

  17. Endovascular Repair of Supra-Celiac and Abdominal Aortic Pseudo Aneurysms Concomitant with a Right Atrial Mass in a Patient with Behçet’s Disease: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim; Abbasi, Kyomars; Shirzad, Mahmood; Anvari, Maryam Sotoudeh; Shahrzad, Maryam; Molavi, Behnam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Behcet’s disease is a rare immune mediated systemic vasculitis which besides it’s more frequent involvement of eyes and skin, sometimes present with aortic pseudo aneurysm and more rarely cardiac inflammatory masses.A 51-year-old patient with Behçet’s Disease presented with two symptomatic aortic pseudoaneurysms concomitant with a right atrial mass. Computed tomography (CT) revealed one supra-celiac and another infrarenal aortic pseudoaneurysms. Echocardiography showed a large mobile mass in the right atrium. Both pseudoaneurysms were successfully excluded simultaneously via endovascular approach with Zenith stent-grafts, and the atrial mass was surgically removed 10 days later. Post-implant CT showed successful exclusion of both pseudo-aneurysms, patency of all relevant arteries, and patient is now asymptomatic and has returned to normal lifestyle. Multiple pseudoaneurysms concomitant with a right atrial mass can be an initial manifestation of Behçet’s disease. Endovascular repair can be a good treatment option for the pseudoaneurysms. PMID:25870643

  18. [Atrial defibrillator: dream or reality?].

    PubMed

    Lévy, S

    1994-09-01

    The experience acquired with the use of automatic ventricular cardiovertor-defibrillator led to the idea of developing an atrial device capable of automatically detecting and reducing atrial fibrillation. The large group of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation not responding to pharmacological therapy makes this a particularly relevant question. The first problem is to define the need of this type of device. There is only one group of patients with resistant and/or poorly tolerated paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in whom non-pharmacological therapy is considered, for example ablation of the AV node with implantation of a pacemaker or surgery. The second problem concerns the technical feasibility of an atrial defibrillator with the difficulty related to the detection of the arrhythmia and atrial defibrillation. The recognition of atrial fibrillation may be envisaged from endocavitary signals with satisfactory specificity and sensitivity. The problems related to atrial defibrillation with low energy shocks have not yet been solved clinically, although experimental studies have given promising results. The possible dangers are dominated by a pro-arrhythmic effect and the risk of ventricular fibrillation, but they could be avoided by synchronizing the atrial shock with ventricular activation based on results also obtained in the animal. Before the dream becomes reality, trials are necessary to develop a safe and effective automatic device. Intermediary stages of evaluation of such a device could include a device activated by the physician. PMID:7786128

  19. Atrial fibrillation: antiarrhythmic therapy.

    PubMed

    Psotka, Mitchell A; Lee, Byron K

    2014-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic cost. Although the benefit of anticoagulation has been well described, control of the underlying rhythm disturbance can be achieved in various ways. Numerous therapeutic options exist and continue to be developed; however, the single best strategy has not been elucidated, and rate or rhythm controlling strategies may both be undertaken. The selection of particular agents to successfully achieve these strategies takes into account patient preference and comorbidity, as well as the efficacy and side effect profiles of the possible medications. This review discusses the evidence behind the various agents typically used to treat atrial fibrillation as well as provides a framework on which to make clinical decisions while initiating and continuing therapy. PMID:25234389

  20. Ablation of atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo B. Saad; Nassir F. Marrouche; Andrea Natale

    2002-01-01

    Associated with significant morbidity and mortality, atrial fibrillation is one of the most common cardiac rhythm disorders.\\u000a Cure of this arrhythmia has been elusive over the years, despite development of different antiarrhythmic drugs and advances\\u000a in the understanding of its pathophysiology. Initial experience with catheter ablation procedures based on the creation of\\u000a linear lesions in both atria has been disappointing,

  1. Cryoablation of atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan P. Piccini; James P. Daubert

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a significant burden to the public health. AF is associated with increased morbidity and mortality,\\u000a including an increased risk of heart failure, stroke, cognitive impairment, and diminished quality of life. Catheter ablation\\u000a is an effective therapy for recurrent, symptomatic, drug-refractory AF. To date, radiofrequency ablation has been the most\\u000a common catheter-based method of pulmonary vein isolation;

  2. Wavebreaks and selftermination of spiral waves in a model of human atrial tissue

    E-print Network

    Biktashev, Vadim N.

    Wavebreaks and self­termination of spiral waves in a model of human atrial tissue Irina V dynamics in the computational model of human atrial tissue with the Courtemanche­ Ramirez­Nattel local ``fatigue'' by rapid stimulation of the model tissue for a long time. In all cases the spiral wave has

  3. Wavebreaks and self-termination of spiral waves in a model of human atrial tissue

    E-print Network

    Biktashev, Vadim N.

    Wavebreaks and self-termination of spiral waves in a model of human atrial tissue Irina V dynamics in the computational model of human atrial tissue with the Courtemanche- Ramirez-Nattel local "fatigue" by rapid stimulation of the model tissue for a long time. In all cases the spiral wave has finite

  4. The hypoplastic left heart syndrome with intact atrial septum: atrial morphology, pulmonary vascular histopathology and outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Rychik; Jonathan J Rome; Margaret H Collins; William M DeCampli; Thomas L Spray

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVESThe purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and intact atrial septum and to evaluate the relationship of atrial morphology, left atrial decompression pathway and lung histopathology to outcome.BACKGROUNDIn the hypoplastic left heart syndrome, severe restriction at the atrial level results in marked systemic hypoxemia after birth. Infants with intact atrial

  5. The spatial dispersion of atrial refractoriness and atrial fibrillation vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Roithinger, F X; Karch, M R; Steiner, P R; SippensGroenewegen, A; Lesh, M D

    1999-12-01

    The local dispersion of conduction and refractoriness has been considered essential for induction of atrial arrhythmias. This study sought to determine whether a difference of refractoriness and vulnerability for induction of atrial fibrillation between trabeculated and smooth as well as high and low right atrium may contribute to initiation of atrial fibrillation in dogs. In 14 healthy mongrel dogs weighing 22.4 +/- 1 kg, closed-chest endocardial programmed stimulation was performed from four distinct right atrial sites. Atrial refractory periods and vulnerability for induction of atrial fibrillation or premature atrial complexes were determined during a basic cycle length of 400 and 300 ms and an increasing pacing current strength. For a pacing cycle length of 300 ms, atrial refractory periods were longer on the smooth, as compared to the trabeculated right atrium (102 +/- 25 vs. 97 +/- 17 ms, p < 0.05), whereas for a pacing cycle length of 400 ms, there was no significant difference. The duration of the vulnerability zone for induction of atrial fibrillation was longer on the smooth right atrium, for a cycle length of both 400 ms (40 +/- 30 vs. 31 +/- 22 ms; p < 0.05) and 300 ms (33 +/- 25 vs. 23 +/- 21 ms; p < 0. 01). When comparing high and low right atrium, refractory periods were longer on the the low right atrium, for a cycle length of both 400 ms (111 +/- 23 vs. 94 +/- 24 ms; p < 0.01) and 300 ms (104 +/- 20 vs. 96 +/- 23 ms; p < 0.01). For a pacing cycle length of 300 ms, the duration of the atrial fibrillation vulnerability zone was longer for the high, as compared to the low right atrium (34 +/- 22 vs. 22 +/- 22, p < 0.01). Seven dogs with easily inducible episodes of atrial fibrillation demonstrated significantly shorter refractory periods as compared to 7 non-vulnerable dogs, regardless of pacing site and current strength. In conclusion, significant differences in refractoriness and vulnerability for induction of atrial fibrillation can be observed in the area of the crista terminalis in healthy dogs. Thus, local anatomic factors may play a role in the initiation of atrial fibrillation. PMID:10525245

  6. Nonpharmacologic strategies for treating atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lüderitz, B; Pfeiffer, D; Tebbenjohanns, J; Jung, W

    1996-01-25

    Nonpharmacologic tools to treat atrial fibrillation (AF) are direct current cardioversion, radiofrequency (RF) current catheter ablation, antiarrhythmic surgery, pacing, and atrial defibrillation. In patients with sustained AF, when no cause can be found for AF or when the associated disease is mild, an attempt should be made to restore sinus rhythm. Electrical cardioversion by synchronized direct current shock can be attempted when drugs have failed and is the first choice in acutely ill patients. Virtually all patients should be anticoagulated. Temporary pacing should be available in patients with evidence of previous bradycardia. Although efficacy may be improved in patients pretreated with antiarrhythmic drugs, there is a considerable risk of adverse events. In AF and sinus node dysfunction, both pacing and antiarrhythmic drugs may be necessary. Pacing should be atrial or dual chamber, since ventricular pacing provokes AF. Failure to control the ventricular rate in AF can be treated by RF: atrioventricular (AV) node ablation, ablation of accessory pathways in preexcitation syndrome with AF, modulation of AV node, or ablation of AF. Antiarrhythmic surgery is a major procedure and may be the therapy of last resort in AF: the so-called corridor procedure isolates the fibrillating atria from a strip of tissue connecting the sinus and AV nodes. The maze procedure attempts to abolish AF by channeling the atrial activation between a series of incisions. In patients with chronic AF, internal cardioversion should be attempted if conventional transthoracic electrical cardioversion is ineffective. Several studies demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of internal atrial defibrillation in selected patients with recent onset, as well as with chronic, AF. An implantable atrial defibrillator--as a stand-alone device or as part of a whole heart cardioverter--might be an option in the future. Nonpharmacologic tools play only a minor role in the management of paroxysmal and chronic AF. If symptoms persist despite pharmacologic therapy and other causes of persisting symptoms are excluded, consideration should be given to cardiac pacing, RF catheter treatment, or surgery. in some cases nonpharmacologic therapy of the AV node must be followed by implantation of a permanent pacemaker (due to complete AV block) and anticoagulation (due to persistence of underlying AF. PMID:8607391

  7. 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in initial assessment and diagnosis of right atrial angiosarcoma with widespread visceral metastases: A rare case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Avani; Simon, Shelley; Elangovan, Indirani

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac angiosarcoma is the most common primary cardiac sarcoma in adults. Primary cardiac tumors are rare and have nonspecific clinical presentation, thus making its diagnosis challenging. Clinically, patients present with advanced disease demonstrating metastatic disease at initial presentation itself. It commonly metastasizes to lung, liver, brain, and bone; however metastases to lymph nodes, adrenal glands, spleen and skin has also been seen. We describe a case of right atrial angiosarcoma with extensive visceral metastases involving brain, lungs, liver, pancreas, kidney, and lymph nodes, demonstrated on contrast-enhanced 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET-CT). To the best of our knowledge metastases to pancreas and kidney have not been reported so far in the literature. With our report, we emphasize on the initial use of FDG PET-CT in workup of cardiac angiosarcoma for accurate staging and prognostication of this disease. PMID:25589807

  8. Restrictive tunnel patent foramen ovale and left atrial hypertension in single-ventricle physiology: implications for stent placement across the atrial septum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Edward; Sobczyk, Walter L; Yang, Song; Mascio, Christopher; Austin, Erle H; Recto, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Our objective is to describe our approach to the management of patients with single-ventricle physiology and restrictive tunnel patent foramen ovale (TPFO) with unfavorable atrial septal morphology. We describe a series of five patients with single-ventricle physiology and restrictive TPFO and our experience with radiofrequency perforation (RFP), static balloon atrial septostomy (BAS), and stent implantation to create an alternative pathway for left atrial decompression. Between July 4, 2006, and July 10, 2007, five patients with single-ventricle physiology and restrictive TPFO were brought to the cardiac catheterization laboratory for decompression of a hypertensive left atrium. Four of five patients underwent RFP followed by static BAS and stent implantation across the newly created atrial communication. One patient had a stent placed across an existing TPFO. Unfortunately, stable stent position was not achieved in this case, and the patient required open atrial septectomy. In patients with single-ventricle physiology and a restrictive TPFO associated with left atrial hypertension, stent placement across the existing defect can result in unstable stent position. Using a RFP wire to create a new defect in the septum primum allows stable stent deployment across the atrial septum and achieves left atrial decompression. PMID:18685803

  9. Myxoma Virus Oncolysis of Primary and Metastatic B16F10 Mouse Tumors In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianne M Stanford; Mae Shaban; John W Barrett; Steven J Werden; Philippe-Alexandre Gilbert; Joe Bondy-Denomy; Lisa MacKenzie; Kevin C Graham; Ann F Chambers; Grant McFadden

    2008-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MV) is a rabbit-specific poxvirus, whose unexpected tropism to human cancer cells has led to studies exploring its potential use in oncolytic therapy. MV infects a wide range of human cancer cells in vitro, in a manner intricately linked to the cellular activation of Akt kinase. MV has also been successfully used for treating human glioma xenografts in

  10. Myxoma Virus and the Leporipoxviruses: An Evolutionary Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Peter J.; Liu, June; Cattadori, Isabella; Ghedin, Elodie; Read, Andrew F.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) is the type species of the Leporipoxviruses, a genus of Chordopoxvirinae, double stranded DNA viruses, whose members infect leporids and squirrels, inducing cutaneous fibromas from which virus is mechanically transmitted by biting arthropods. However, in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), MYXV causes the lethal disease myxomatosis. The release of MYXV as a biological control for the wild European rabbit population in Australia, initiated one of the great experiments in evolution. The subsequent coevolution of MYXV and rabbits is a classic example of natural selection acting on virulence as a pathogen adapts to a novel host species. Slightly attenuated mutants of the progenitor virus were more readily transmitted by the mosquito vector because the infected rabbit survived longer, while highly attenuated viruses could be controlled by the rabbit immune response. As a consequence, moderately attenuated viruses came to dominate. This evolution of the virus was accompanied by selection for genetic resistance in the wild rabbit population, which may have created an ongoing co-evolutionary dynamic between resistance and virulence for efficient transmission. This natural experiment was repeated on a continental scale with the release of a separate strain of MYXV in France and its subsequent spread throughout Europe. The selection of attenuated strains of virus and resistant rabbits mirrored the experience in Australia in a very different environment, albeit with somewhat different rates. Genome sequencing of the progenitor virus and the early radiation, as well as those from the 1990s in Australia and Europe, has shown that although MYXV evolved at high rates there was no conserved route to attenuation or back to virulence. In contrast, it seems that these relatively large viral genomes have the flexibility for multiple pathways that converge on a similar phenotype. PMID:25757062

  11. Right atrium thrombosis in nonvalvular permanent atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia in adults, and it is described as a relationship between it and right atrium thrombosis. A case of a 76–year–old man who presented with severe recent-onset dyspnea and several co–morbidities, such as permanent atrial fibrillation, with no anticoagulant therapy is reported here. Echocardiography showed a massive thrombus in right atrium, without any clinical or echographic signs of peripheral veins thrombosis. This article is also a review of the cases from literature. PMID:22514566

  12. Right atrial septal pouch--a potential nidus for thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wayangankar, Siddharth A; Patel, Jigar; Latif, Faisal; Sivaram, Chittur

    2012-01-01

    During embryological development, an incomplete fusion of septum primum (SP) and septum secundum (SS) occurring cranially results in an inverted pouch-like structure with its base opening into the right atrium. This has been recently termed as right atrial septal pouch (RASP). Whether this pouch predisposes to intracardiac thrombosis by creating a milieu of localized stasis is unknown. Although some case reports have alluded to thromboembolic potential of left atrial septal pouch with similar origin, there has been no description regarding RASP acting as a thrombogenic nidus. We present a case of thrombus in the RASP with sequential imaging. PMID:21988226

  13. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. I. Natural occurrence of myxomatosis.

    PubMed

    Merchant, J C; Kerr, P J; Simms, N G; Robinson, A J

    2003-02-01

    A survey of rabbit populations in the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia, was carried out to establish the pattern of occurrence of myxomatosis in preparation for a deliberate release of myxoma virus. Myxomatosis was first detected in December and cases were found on most sites through to May. The serological profiles of rabbit populations suggested that their susceptibility to myxoma virus was generally low in winter and highest in spring and summer reflecting the presence of increasing numbers of susceptible young rabbits. This was consistent with the pattern of rabbit breeding, as determined from the distribution of births and reproductive activity in females and males, which occurred maximally in spring and early summer. The serology and age structure of rabbit populations on sites suggested that some rabbit populations can escape an annual myxomatosis epizootic. Although fleas were present on rabbits throughout the year and therefore not considered to be a limiting factor in the spread of myxomatosis, their numbers peaked at times coincident with peak rabbit breeding. It was concluded that mid to late spring was an optimal time for a deliberate release. PMID:12613753

  14. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. I. Natural occurrence of myxomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, J. C.; Kerr, P. J.; Simms, N. G.; Robinson, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of rabbit populations in the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia, was carried out to establish the pattern of occurrence of myxomatosis in preparation for a deliberate release of myxoma virus. Myxomatosis was first detected in December and cases were found on most sites through to May. The serological profiles of rabbit populations suggested that their susceptibility to myxoma virus was generally low in winter and highest in spring and summer reflecting the presence of increasing numbers of susceptible young rabbits. This was consistent with the pattern of rabbit breeding, as determined from the distribution of births and reproductive activity in females and males, which occurred maximally in spring and early summer. The serology and age structure of rabbit populations on sites suggested that some rabbit populations can escape an annual myxomatosis epizootic. Although fleas were present on rabbits throughout the year and therefore not considered to be a limiting factor in the spread of myxomatosis, their numbers peaked at times coincident with peak rabbit breeding. It was concluded that mid to late spring was an optimal time for a deliberate release. PMID:12613753

  15. Atrial Fibrillation During an Exploration Class Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipset, Mark A.; Lemery, Jay; Polk, J. D.; Hamilton, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A long-duration exploration class mission is fraught with numerous medical contingency plans. Herein, we explore the challenges of symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) occurring during an exploration class mission. The actions and resources required to ameliorate the situation, including the availability of appropriate pharmaceuticals, monitoring devices, treatment modalities, and communication protocols will be investigated. Challenges of Atrial Fibrillation during an Exploration Mission: Numerous etiologies are responsible for the initiation of AF. On Earth, we have the time and medical resources to evaluate and determine the causative situation for most cases of AF and initiate therapy accordingly. During a long-duration exploration class mission resources will be severely restricted. How is one to determine if new onset AF is due to recent myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, fluid overload, thyrotoxicosis, cardiac structural abnormalities, or CO poisoning? Which pharmaceutical therapy should be initiated and what potential side effects can be expected? Should anti-coagulation therapy be initiated? How would one monitor the therapeutic treatment of AF in microgravity? What training would medical officers require, and which communication strategies should be developed to enable the best, safest therapeutic options for treatment of AF during a long-duration exploration class mission? Summary: These questions will be investigated with expert opinion on disease elucidation, efficient pharmacology, therapeutic monitoring, telecommunication strategies, and mission cost parameters with emphasis on atrial fibrillation being just one illustration of the tremendous challenges that face a long-duration exploration mission. The limited crew training time, medical hardware, and drugs manifested to deal with such an event predicate that aggressive primary and secondary prevention strategies be developed to protect a multibillion-dollar asset like the International Space Station or a mission to the Moon or Mars. Learning Objectives: The audience will become familiar with the risks and challenges inherent to developing a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation during a long-term exploration class mission.

  16. Star in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, K M; Tharakan, J A; Krishnamanohar, S R

    2004-01-01

    In a 50 year old woman, transthoracic echocardiography showed a left atrial mass. Transoesophageal echocardiography delineated its attachment. Additionally, cystic spaces were seen arranged concentrically in the shape of a star in the centre of the tumour. Surgical excision followed. Histopathological examination confirmed myxoma with areas of haemorrhage and necrosis. This case highlights the acoustic property of myxomas in a rare and beautiful manner and emphasises the superior transoesophageal imaging of myxomas. PMID:15084571

  17. Syndrome of diminished vasodilator reserve of the coronary microcirculation (microvascular angina or syndrome X): Diagnosis by combined atrial pacing and thallium 201 imaging--a case report

    SciTech Connect

    Magarian, G.J.; Palac, R.; Reinhart, S. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Portland, OR (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Patients with angina-like chest pain without evidence of epicardial coronary artery disease or coronary arterial vasospasm are becoming increasingly recognized. These are often related to noncardiac causes including esophageal, musculoskeletal, and hyperventilatory or panic states. However, recently a subgroup of such patients are being recognized as having true myocardial ischemia and chest pain on the basis of diminished coronary microvascular vasodilatory reserve (microvascular ischemia or Syndrome X). The authors describe such a patient who was found to have replication of anginal pain associated with a reversible ischemic defect on thallium 201 imaging during atrial pacing, suggesting ischemia in this myocardial segment. Resolution of angina and ST segment electrocardiographic changes of ischemia occurred with cessation of pacing. We believe this is the first report of a patient with this form of myocardial ischemia diagnosed by this method and should be considered in patients with anginal chest pain after significant coronary artery disease and coronary vasospasm have been excluded.

  18. Mixoma de átrio direito com prolapso para o ventrículo direito

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Glauco; LOBO FILHO; Dadson Leandro de Sá SALES; Allison Emídio; Pinheiro Pereira; Maria Cláudia LEITÃO

    We report on a rare case of a 67-year-old woman with a right atrial myxoma prolapsing into the right ventricle in the diastolic phase. These tumors comprise approximately 18% of all cardiac myxomas, which occur in 0.0017% of collected autopsy series.

  19. Frequency and implications of resetting and entrainment with right atrial stimulation in atrial flutter.

    PubMed

    Arenal, A; Almendral, J; San Román, D; Delcan, J L; Josephson, M E

    1992-11-15

    Thirty-three patients (24 with typical and 9 with atypical flutter-wave morphology) were studied to evaluate the incidence and implications of resetting and entrainment of atrial flutter with right atrial stimulation. Resetting with single extrastimulus was present in 23 cases (group A) and absent in 10 (group B). Most cases of reset flutter were typical (20 of 23). Fixed fusion indicative of entrainment was observed in all 29 cases with pacing trains. Groups A and B did not differ significantly in flutter cycle length (230 +/- 20 vs 223 +/- 19 ms), atrial functional refractory period (165 +/- 18 vs 167 +/- 22 ms) or longest paced cycle length producing entrainment (213 +/- 19 vs 210 +/- 19 ms). In contrast, the return cycle after the longest paced cycle length producing entrainment was significantly shorter in group A (228 +/- 27 vs 284 +/- 56 ms; p = 0.001). The return cycle in group A was virtually identical to the flutter cycle length, whereas in group B it was greater (p = 0.002 compared with group A). Resetting was more frequent in typical than atypical flutter (20 of 24 vs 3 of 9; p = 0.01). Both typical and atypical flutter can be transiently entrained by right atrial pacing. Lack of resetting and longer return cycle, suggesting a longer conduction time between the reentrant circuit and the stimulation site, were mostly observed in atypical flutter. The data suggest a different location for both types of flutter, and may have implications for ablation techniques. A more cautious approach, with more extensive mapping, appears appropriate for ablation attempts of atypical flutter. PMID:1442580

  20. Facts about Atrial Septal Defect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Media Policy Makers Facts about Atrial Septal Defect Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... this image. Close Information For... Media Policy Makers Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  1. If I Had - Atrial Fibrillation

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... were badly overactive, it might precipitate atrial fibrillation, drug ingestion or acute illness of multiple other varieties, ... like Sotalol or Amiodarone or occasionally other antiarrhythmic drugs. The downside of antiarrhythmic drugs is that they ...

  2. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rate is slowed. View this table: In this window In a new window Table. Symptoms of Atrial Fibrillation Previous Section Next ... procedures ( Figure 1 ): View larger version: In this window In a new window Download as PowerPoint Slide ...

  3. Atrial Fibrillation Surgery - Maze Procedure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the atrium to contract irregularly. (Click on an illustration to enlarge it.) FIGURE A FIGURE B ATRIAL ... node to the AV node. (Click on the illustration to enlarge it.) The arrangement of incisions on ...

  4. Focal Left Atrial Tachycardia in a Patient with Left Ventricular Noncompaction

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shailendra; Parihar, Gulam; Rao, Rohit; Goyal, Vishal

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a rare disease caused by intrauterine failure of the myocardium to compact. The major clinical manifestations of LVNC include heart failure, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, thromboembolic event, and sudden deaths. Atrial arrhythmia usually seen is atrial fibrillation. We report a rare case of focal left atrial tachycardia in an 18-year-old patient who presented for evaluation of persistent tachycardia. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed severe systolic dysfunction and evidence of noncompaction of the left ventricle. A detailed review of ECG revealed the possibility of ectopic atrial tachycardia, most likely originating from the left side. Electrophysiology study showed sustained atrial tachycardia originating on the ridge anterior to the left sided pulmonary veins. A successful radiofrequency catheter ablation was performed at this site without any complications. PMID:23762071

  5. Atrial fibrillation and pneumothorax after transthoracic needle lung biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Alexander; Southern, Iain; Nicol, Edward

    2012-01-01

    An obese 65-year-old male smoker with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed an iatrogenic pneumothorax with pulmonary haemorrhage during an elective transthoracic needle biopsy of a pulmonary lesion. Successful re-inflation was achieved with a chest drain which was then removed before transfer to the medical ward. He later developed persistent atrial fibrillation with breathlessness and haemoptysis. He was treated empirically for a pulmonary embolus, which was subsequently ruled out with CT pulmonary angiogram. Serial chest radiographs demonstrated recurrence of his pneumothorax and a chest drain was re-inserted. His atrial fibrillation was erroneously managed as supraventricular tachycardia, which was resistant to vagal manoeuvres and adenosine but later responded to intravenous amiodarone before a further relapse. Upon successful management of the pneumothorax, his atrial fibrillation terminated. This case highlighted the persistent and serious nature of complications posttransthoracic needle biopsy. PMID:22665868

  6. Unusual consequence of a fetal atrial septal aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sun, Heather Y; Fripp, Raymond R; Printz, Beth F

    2015-06-01

    We describe the case of a significant fetal atrial septal aneurysm causing left ventricular inflow obstruction. Serial fetal echocardiograms demonstrated potential left heart hypoplasia. The fetal cardiologist guided the perinatal team to electively deliver the infant early and modify the course of developing hypoplastic left heart. PMID:26185630

  7. Unusual consequence of a fetal atrial septal aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Heather Y; Fripp, Raymond R; Printz, Beth F

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We describe the case of a significant fetal atrial septal aneurysm causing left ventricular inflow obstruction. Serial fetal echocardiograms demonstrated potential left heart hypoplasia. The fetal cardiologist guided the perinatal team to electively deliver the infant early and modify the course of developing hypoplastic left heart. PMID:26185630

  8. Congenital left atrial appendage aneurysm associated with a systemic embolism.

    PubMed

    Tidake, Abhay; Gangurde, Pranil; Mahajan, Ajay

    2015-03-01

    A 20 year-old woman presented with systemic embolisation. On subsequent investigation, she was diagnosed with a congenital left atrial appendage aneurysm. Few case reports are reported in the literature. This cardiac malformation presents a diagnostic challenge in patients with cardiomegaly. PMID:24854482

  9. Oxidative Stress Markers Are Associated with Persistent Atrial Fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Neuman; Heather L. Bloom; Irfan Shukrullah; Lyndsey A. Darrow; David Kleinbaum; Dean P. Jones; Samuel C. Dudley

    2007-01-01

    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with myocardial oxidative stress, and antioxidant agents have demonstrated antiarrhythmic benefit in humans. We compared serum markers of oxidation and associ- ated inflammation in individuals with or without AF. Methods: Serum markers of oxidative stress and inflam- mation were compared in a cross-sectional, case-control design study of 40 male individuals, with or without

  10. [Atrial fibrillation: healing by focal high frequency catheter ablation?].

    PubMed

    Kalusche, D; Arentz, T; Haïssaguerre, M

    2000-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing substantial morbidity and probably increasing the risk of death. Most commonly, it is divided into a paroxysmal form, when--by definition--episodes end spontaneously, or a persistent one that lasts and requires a medical or electrical intervention for its termination. It might be called permanent, when no further attempts seem to be indicated for its elimination. Until recently, therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing cardiac embolism and at restoring and maintaining sinus rhythm by antiarrhythmic drugs. Long-term efficacy of the latter approach is poor, since less than 50% of patients can be maintained in stable sinus rhythm when periods of more than 1 year are considered. Can atrial fibrillation be cured? More than ten years ago Cox and coworkers demonstrated that the surgical compartimentation of both atria (MAZE procedure) is able to abolish atrial fibrillation in up to 90% of patients with chronic paroxysmal and also persistent atrial fibrillation. However, all studies trying to imitate the MAZE procedure by electrophysiological catheter-based techniques applying radiofrequency energy to produce transmural linear lesions were either not successful or showed a non-acceptable complication rate, especially a high rate of cerebrovascular accidents. The rationale behind the principle of compartimentation of the atria is the reduction of the critical atrial muscle mass necessary to facilitate fibrillation of the atria. A different approach aiming especially at the problem of paroxysmal atial fibrillation is based on the observation that there might be a "focal trigger" responsible for the initiation of the atrial tachyarrhythmia and that by eliminating this focal trigger atrial fibrillation can be avoided. This hypothesis was first verified in patients by Haïssaguerre et al., in fact experimental creation of "focal atrial fibrillation" was presented by Moe and Abildskov more than 30 years ago. During the last 3 years the concept of curing paroxysmal atrial fibrillation by applying focal radiofrequency lesions was supported by the results of several groups in more than 200 patients: 60 to 85% of patients can be cured, but in almost half of the cases more than one procedure is necessary. Most interestingly--and this is a finding of all investigators--more than 90% of the triggering ectopic foci are located in the pulmonary veins or in the pulmonary vein/left atrial junction. This concept is also supported by surgical experience from performing pulmonary vein isolations during open heart surgery. Most recently, the concept of eliminating the trigger was extended and applied to patients with established persistent atrial fibrillation. Until now, it has not been well established how many patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation are "good candidates" for a focal RF ablation procedure, nor is the risk of the procedure well defined. Besides the necessity of performing a transseptal catheterization there is the risk of cardiac embolism and pulmonary vein stenosis. The endpoint of the procedure is also not well defined: instead of trying to eliminate the "trigger" located in a pulmonary vein, it might be safer to isolate the "arrhythmogenic vein". This however, is a difficult task with current catheter technologies. It can be expected that new catheter designs for mapping and ablation and--maybe--the use of alternative energy sources--e.g., ultrasound, microwave--will make the procedure easier and applicable to more patients with drug refractory atrial fibrillation. PMID:11201030

  11. Acute Left Atrial Thrombus Formation on Resected Residual Cribriform Septum after Atrial Septal Defect Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hemati, Naser; Poormotaabed, Alireza; Dabiri, Samsam; Sabzi, Feridoun

    2015-01-01

    Acute left atrial thrombosis at the site of the resection of the primary cribriform septum is an exceedingly rare and important complication after atrial septal defect (ASD) closure with a pericardial or synthetic patch. This case report presents a mobile thrombus noted on the left atrium at the raw surface site of a resected cribriform primary septum that was not caught in the suture line with the pericardial patch for the closure of the ASD in a 30-year-old woman with an uncomplicated ASD surgery. The patient had no symptoms in the postoperative period, and routine postoperative transesophageal echocardiography revealed a large pedunculated and mobile mass (thrombosis) at the left atrial side of the interatrial septum at the level of the implanted pericardial patch. The thrombus was successfully treated with surgery. The patient had an uneventful recovery in the postoperative period and was discharged from the hospital 15 days after admission. One-year follow-up showed no evidence of clot recurrence in the left or right atrium.

  12. Cryoballoon Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Jason G; Dubuc, Marc; Guerra, Peter G; Macle, Laurent; Rivard, Lena; Roy, Denis; Talajic, Mario; Thibault, Bernard; Khairy, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Focal point-by-point radiofrequency catheter ablation has shown considerable success in the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. However, it is not without limitations. Recent clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that cryothermal ablation using a balloon catheter (Artic Front©, Medtronic CryoCath LP) provides an effective alternative strategy to treating atrial fibrillation. The objective of this article is to review efficacy and safety data surrounding cryoballoon ablation for paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation. In addition, a practical step-by-step approach to cryoballoon ablation is presented, while highlighting relevant literature regarding: 1) the rationale for adjunctive imaging, 2) selection of an appropriate cryoballoon size, 3) predictors of efficacy, 4) advanced trouble-shooting techniques, and 5) strategies to reduce procedural complications, such as phrenic nerve palsy. PMID:22557842

  13. Surgical options in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Bedeir, Kareem

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is not benign and its prevalence is increasing. The two main goals in management of atrial fibrillation are to optimize hemodynamics through rate or rhythm control and to prevent systemic thrombo-embolism. To date, these two goals are still sub-optimally achieved, raising the need for alternative methods and strategies both pharmacologically and through interventions. In this review, we discuss surgical strategies of achieving both goals with insights on the evolution and potential future of these strategies. PMID:25713738

  14. [Panic disorder and atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Olazabal Eizaguirre, N; Chavez, R; González-Torres, M A; Gaviria, M

    2013-10-01

    This paper studies the relationship between atrial fibrillation and panic disorder. There are often doubts on the differential diagnosis in emergency services and general medical settings. Panic disorder prevalence rates have been found to be high in patients suffering from atrial fibrillation. Various studies have observed that patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders frequently have higher cardiovascular disease rates compared to the general population. Usually, patients suffering from panic disorder exhibit somatic complaints suggesting coronary disease, such as chest pain or palpitations. The aim is to make the correct diagnosis and treatment for these different illnesses, and to decrease the costs due to misdiagnosis. PMID:24011716

  15. Scarcity of atrial fibrillation in a traditional African population: a community-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In western societies, atrial fibrillation is an increasingly common finding among the elderly. Established risk factors of atrial fibrillation include obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Atrial fibrillation has almost exclusively been studied in western populations where these risk factors are widely present. Therefore, we studied the epidemiology of atrial fibrillation in a traditional African community. Methods In rural Ghana, among 924 individuals aged 50 years and older, we recorded electrocardiograms to detect atrial fibrillation. As established risk factors, we documented waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), capillary glucose level, blood pressure, and electrocardiographic myocardial infarction. In addition, we determined circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL6), a proinflammatory cytokine, and C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation. We compared the risk factors with reference data from the USA. Results Atrial fibrillation was detected in only three cases, equalling 0.3% (95% CI 0.1–1.0%). Waist circumference, BMI, and capillary glucose levels were very low. Hypertension and myocardial infarction were uncommon. Circulating levels of IL6 were similar, but those of CRP were lower compared with the USA. Conclusion Atrial fibrillation is very scarce in this traditional African community. Its low prevalence compared with western societies can be explained by the rareness of its established risk factors, which are closely related to lifestyle, and by possible unmeasured differences in other risk factors or genetic factors. PMID:25037974

  16. Nodal vessels disease as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saud Al-Shanafey; Linda Dodds; Don Langille; Idris Ali; Harry Henteleff; Rebecca Dobson

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Atrial ischaemia due to diseased atrioventricular (AV) and sinoatrial (SA) arteries has been proposed as a cause of AF post-CABG. We examined if the presence of diseased nodal arteries was a significant predictor of the development of AF post-CABG. Methods: 100 consecutive cases (AF post-CABG) were compared

  17. Nodal vessels disease as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft surgeryq

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saud Al-Shanafey; Linda Dodds; Don Langille; Idris Ali; Harry Henteleff; Rebecca Dobson

    Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Atrial ischaemia due to diseased atrioventricular (AV) and sinoatrial (SA) arteries has been proposed as a cause of AF post-CABG. We examined if the presence of diseased nodal arteries was a significant predictor of the development of AF post-CABG. Methods: 100 consecutive cases (AF post-CABG) were compared

  18. Atrial fibrillation subtypes classification using the General Fourier-family Transform.

    PubMed

    Ortigosa, Nuria; Cano, Óscar; Ayala, Guillermo; Galbis, Antonio; Fernández, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation patients can be classified into paroxysmal, persistent and permanent attending to the temporal pattern of this arrhythmia. The surface electrocardiogram hides this differentiation. A classification method to discriminate between the different subtypes of atrial fibrillation by using short segments of electrocardiograms recordings is presented. We will process the electrocardiograms (ECGs) using time-frequency techniques with a global accuracy of 80%. Real cases are evaluated showing promising results for an implementation in a semiautomated diagnostic system. PMID:24378383

  19. Amiodarone for refractory atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Gold; Charles I. Haffajee; George Charos; Kathy Sloan; Stephen P. Baker; Joseph S. Alpert

    1986-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a difficult arrhythmia to manage with antiarrhythmic agents. Amiodarone is highly effective in restoring and maintaining normal sinus rhythm in patients with AF. However, the mechanism and predictors of efficacy for amiodarone in treating AF have not been adequately addressed. Various measures of success or failure of amiodarone therapy were examined in 68 patients who had

  20. Neural mechanisms of atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung-Wook; Shen, Mark J.; Lin, Shien-Fong; Fishbein, Michael C.; Chen, Lan S.; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review The autonomic nerve system is a potentially potent modulator of the initiation and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF). This review will briefly summarize the neural mechanisms of AF. Recent findings Complex interactions exist between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on the atrial electrophysiologic properties. Direct autonomic recordings in canine models demonstrated simultaneous sympathovagal discharges are the most common triggers of paroxysmal atrial tachycardia and paroxysmal AF. Also, intrinsic cardiac autonomic nerve can serve as a sole triggering factor for the initiation of AF. Modulation of autonomic nervous system (ANS) by electrical stimulation has been tried as a treatment strategy clinically and experimentally. Recent studies showed that autonomic nervous system modulation can suppress the stellate ganglion nerve activity and reduce the incidence of paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias in ambulatory dogs. Summary The autonomic nerve system influences the initiation and perpetuation of AF. Scientific advances toward a better understanding of the complex interrelationships of the various components of the ANS will hopefully lead to improvement of treatments for this common arrhythmia. PMID:22139702

  1. Serum cholesterol levels and postoperative atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Post-operative atrial fibrillation is an important complication after coronary bypass surgery. As inflammation and oxidative stress were makedly encountered in the etiology, high cholesterol was also defined to provoke atrial fibrillation. In this present study, the relationship between postoperative atrial fibrillation and preoperative serum lipid levels were evaluated. Methods A total of 100 patients, who were operated at the department of Cardiovascular Surgery of our hospital were included to the study analysis. Patients, who had preoperative atrial fibrillation, thyroid dysfunction, or left atrial dilatation (above 4.5 cm) were excluded from the study. Patients were divided into two groups with postoperative atrial fibrillation development (Group I n?=?36), and without atrial fibrillation development (Group II n?=?64). Preoperative routine blood analyses, ECG, echocardiography were evaluated. Patients were followed for atrial fibrillation development for one month starting from the intensive care unit at the postoperative period. Serum lipid profiles and thyroid function were measured. For homogenization of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress, treatments other than statins, betablockers, calcium channel blockers, aspirin, ACE inhibitors, and ARB were stopped for 10 days. Atrial fibrillation for at least ?5 minutes in the intensive care unit was accepted as postoperative atrial fibrillation. Results Demographic data were similiar between groups (p?>?0.05). There was no difference in TC levels between groups, whereas LDL-C levels were statistically lower in patients developing post-operative atrial fibrillation (106.67?±?28.36 vs 118.75?±?27.75; P?atrial fibrillation development. High levels of LDL-C in the preoperative period could be predictor of atrial fibrillation development in the post operative period. PMID:24712763

  2. CT imaging for left atrial appendage closure: a review and pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Tevfik Fehmi; Panikker, Sandeep; Markides, Vias; Foran, John P; Padley, Simon; Rubens, Michael B; Wong, Tom; Nicol, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Cardioembolic stroke is an important complication of atrial fibrillation. The thrombus responsible for this arises from the left atrial appendage (LAA) in >90% of cases, providing the rationale for device-based LAA closure as a means of thromboprophylaxis. Although oral anticoagulant therapy remains the mainstay for reducing the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, an increasing number of patients, particularly those ineligible for conventional pharmacotherapy, are being offered percutaneous left atrial appendage closure. Cardiovascular CT can provide important information to assess the suitability of patients for LAA interventions and guide device selection and approach. The high spatial resolution and multiplanar capability of contemporary contrast-enhanced gated multidetector cardiovascular CT render it an ideal modality for noninvasively evaluating patients before intervention and assessing patients after intervention both for complications and procedural outcome. PMID:25819192

  3. Atrial septal pacing to prevent atrial fibrillation in patients with sinus node dysfunction: Results of a randomized controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Sylvain Hermida; MacIej Kubala; François-Xavier Lescure; Jean Delonca; Jérome Clerc; Akli Otmani; Geneviève Jarry; Jean-Luc Rey

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundIn order to assess the preventive effects of right atrial septal pacing on atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with sinus node dysfunction, we conducted a prospective randomized controlled study in patients requiring atrial pacing.

  4. Spatial correlation analysis of atrial activation patterns during sustained atrial fibrillation in conscious goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. T. Hoekstra; C. G. H. Diks; M. A. Allessie; J. DeGoede

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study we applied both linear and nonlinear spatial correlation measures to charac- terize epicardial activation patterns of sustained atrial fibrillation in instrumented conscious goats. It was investigated if nonlinearity was involved in the spatial coupling of atrial regions and to what extent fibrillation was organized in the experimental model of sustained atrial fibrillation (AF) in instrumented goats.

  5. Validation of a left atrial lesion pattern for intraoperative ablation of atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C Kress; David Krum; Valeri Chekanov; John Hare; Nicole Michaud; Masood Akhtar; Jasbir Sra

    2002-01-01

    Background. Evidence that atrial fibrillation may begin in early stages from triggers or reentry circuits primarily in the left atrium suggests that the entire Maze 3 lesion pattern may be unnecessary. In the present study we describe a new left atrial lesion pattern for intraoperative linear ablation of chronic atrial fibrillation.Methods. Endocardial radiofrequency ablation was performed on 12 dogs with

  6. Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) ... ???? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (???) Atrial Fibrillation ???? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF ...

  7. Prevention of EBV lymphoma development by oncolytic myxoma virus in a murine xenograft model of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Manbok; Rahman, Masmudur M; Cogle, Christopher R; McFadden, Grant

    2015-07-10

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with a variety of epithelial and hematologic malignancies, including B-, T- and NK cell-lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease (HD), post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs), nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinomas, smooth muscle tumors, and HIV-associated lymphomas. Currently, treatment options for EBV-associated malignancies are limited. We have previously shown that myxoma virus specifically targets various human solid tumors and leukemia cells in a variety of animal models, while sparing normal human or murine tissues. Since transplant recipients of bone marrow or solid organs often develop EBV-associated post-transplant LPDs and lymphoma, myxoma virus may be of utility to prevent EBV-associated malignancies in immunocompromised transplant patients where treatment options are frequently limited. In this report, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of myxoma virus purging as a prophylactic strategy for preventing post-transplant EBV-transformed human lymphomas, using a highly immunosuppressed mouse xenotransplantation model. This provides support for developing myxoma virus as a potential oncolytic therapy for preventing EBV-associated LPDs following transplantation of bone marrow or solid organ allografts. PMID:25843801

  8. Oral Anticoagulation in Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Julia G; Garcha, Gurkaran S; Lakkis, Nasser

    2014-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation affects approximately 5 million patients in the United States. The rate of stroke in adults with atrial fibrillation depending on their risk factors varies between 1-20% annually. Anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin has been the mainstay therapy but it is cumbersome and requires close follow-up. Since 2010, three new oral anticoagulants have received Food and Drug Administration approval for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. This review summarizes data from three landmark trials: RE-LY, ROCKET-AF, and ARISTOTLE. In addition, issues relating to cost, reversal, drug interactions, and perioperative discontinuation are discussed. Compared to Warfarin, Dabigatran 150mg twice daily lowered the primary outcome of stroke/systemic embolism by 34% (number needed to treat/yr 169) and had similar incidence of major bleeding. Rivaroxaban demonstrated non inferiority compared to the warfarin group for the primary outcome of stroke and systemic embolism and major bleeding. Apixaban showed a relative risk reduction for the primary outcome of 21% (number needed to treat300), and lowered major bleeding down by 31% (number needed to treat/yr 104). Apixaban also showed a mortality benefit compared to warfarin (3.52 vs. 3.94%/year, p 0.047). All 3 oral anticoagulants lowered rates of intracranial hemorrhage. The use of Rivaroxaban and Apixaban has been projected to reduce medical costs when compared to warfarin, and Dabigatran is projected to have similar costs. All the 3 oral anticoagulants have robust randomized controlled trials supporting their comparability to warfarin therapy for stroke prevention in non valvular atrial fibrillation, with Apixaban showing superiority in incidence of strokes, major bleeding, and mortality. PMID:25277117

  9. Oxidative Stress and Atrial Fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali A. Sovari; Samuel C. Dudley

    \\u000a The pathological processes involved in initiation and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF) are still unclear. AF is associated\\u000a with systemic and cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation. Many risk factors for AF, such as aging and diabetes, are associated\\u000a with an increased level of reactive oxygen species. In addition, oxidative stress has been shown at both cellular and tissue\\u000a levels to

  10. Lung Infarction due to Pulmonary Vein Stenosis after Ablation Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation Misdiagnosed as Organizing Pneumonia: Sequential Changes on CT in Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Mi-ri; Cho, Jong Ho; Um, Sang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis is a complication of ablation therapy for arrhythmias. We report two cases with chronic lung parenchymal abnormalities showing no improvement and waxing and waning features, which were initially diagnosed as nonspecific pneumonias, and finally confirmed as PV stenosis. When a patient presents for nonspecific respiratory symptoms without evidence of infection after ablation therapy and image findings show chronic and repetitive parenchymal abnormalities confined in localized portion, the possibility of PV stenosis should be considered.

  11. Value of the atrial signal-averaged electrocardiogram in identifying patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Opolski, G; Stanis?awska, J; S?omka, K; Kraska, T

    1991-03-01

    Atrial signal-averaged electrocardiogram was compared between 25 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and 20 healthy persons without atrial arrhythmias (control). The duration time of the high frequency (50-250 Hz) P wave was significantly (P less than 0.01) prolonged in the groups of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation compared with the control group (116 +/- 16.4 versus 92 +/- 8.1 msec). The diagnostic value of the duration of the high frequency P wave for identifying patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was 104 msec. Using this criterion, a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 90% were achieved. Our observation has shown that the atrial signal-averaged electrocardiogram is a useful technique for identifying patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. PMID:2055672

  12. Factor V Leiden and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: The AnTicoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan S. Go; Guy L. Reed; Elaine M. Hylek; Kathleen A. Phillips; Lin Liu; Lori E. Henault; Joe V. Selby; Daniel E. Singer

    2003-01-01

    Background: Atrial fibrillation is a major cause of cardioembolic stroke. Since atrial and venous pressures are similar, genetic variants that promote venous thromboembolism may increase the risk of atrial thrombi and subsequent stroke in atrial fibrillation.

  13. Detector electrode introduced by mediastinoscopy for atrial triggered cardiac pacing. A follow-up of electrode function in 82 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Carlene, E; Ericsson, M; Levander-Lindgren, M; Pehrsson, K

    1977-01-01

    An atrial detector electrode was introduced by mediastinoscopy in 82 patients requiring permanent cardiac pacing. There were no complications. An adequate P wave was recorded in 80 patients. During the following week, the P wave became ineffective in 5 patients; angina occurred in 2 and atrial arrhythmias in 2. Atrially triggered ventricular pacing established in 73 patients and was followed in 71 patients for a period of 1 to 113 months. In 17 cases, it had to be terminated because of an ineffective or unstable P wave,in 6 cases because of atrial arrhythmias, and in 4 cases because of advanced age and recurrent infections. The method is technically simple and place little stress on the patient. Images PMID:588383

  14. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: A Swedish, Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Petter K.; Carlsson, Axel C.; Leander, Karin; de Faire, Ulf; Hellenius, Mai-Lis; Gigante, Bruna

    2015-01-01

    Aim We aimed to investigate whether different measures of obesity could similarly predict atrial fibrillation, and whether the atrial fibrillation risk associated with obesity is dependent on presence of metabolic syndrome. Material and Methods We performed our study in a population-based longitudinal cardiovascular study, comprising 1 924 men and 2 097 women, aged 60 years, from Stockholm. Body mass index, waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter and components of metabolic syndrome (systolic- and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) were recorded at baseline. Participants were classified by their body mass index (normal weight, overweight or obese), waist circumference (normal, semi-elevated or elevated), and according to presence of metabolic syndrome. Atrial fibrillation risk was estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for common atrial fibrillation risk factors, expressed as HR and 95% CI. Results During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years, 285 incident atrial fibrillation cases were recorded. One standard deviation increment of each obesity measure was associated with increased atrial fibrillation risk as: body mass index 1.25 (1.12 – 1.40), waist circumference 1.35 (1.19 – 1.54) and sagittal abdominal diameter 1.28 (1.14 – 1.44). Compared to normal weight subjects without metabolic syndrome, increased atrial fibrillation risk was noted for overweight subjects with metabolic syndrome, 1.67 (1.16 – 2.41), obese subjects without metabolic syndrome, 1.75 (1.11 – 2.74) and obese subjects with metabolic syndrome, 1.92 (1.34 – 2.74). Compared to subjects with normal waist circumference without metabolic syndrome, subjects with elevated waist circumference and metabolic syndrome suffered increased atrial fibrillation risk, 2.03 (1.44 – 2.87). Conclusions Body mass index, waist circumference and sagittal abdominal diameter could similarly predict atrial fibrillation. Obesity was associated with an increased atrial fibrillation risk regardless of metabolic syndrome, whereas overweight and elevated waist circumference was associated with increased atrial fibrillation risk only if metabolic syndrome was present. PMID:25978738

  15. Dynamics of AV coupling during human atrial fibrillation: role of atrial rate.

    PubMed

    Masè, M; Marini, M; Disertori, M; Ravelli, F

    2015-07-01

    The causal relationship between atrial and ventricular activities during human atrial fibrillation (AF) is poorly understood. This study analyzed the effects of an increase in atrial rate on the link between atrial and ventricular activities during AF. Atrial and ventricular time series were determined in 14 patients during the spontaneous acceleration of the atrial rhythm at AF onset. The dynamic relationship between atrial and ventricular activities was quantified in terms of atrioventricular (AV) coupling by AV synchrogram analysis. The technique identified n:m coupling patterns (n atrial beats in m ventricular cycles), quantifying their percentage, maximal length, and conduction ratio (= m/n). Simulations with a difference-equation AV model were performed to correlate the observed dynamics to specific atrial/nodal properties. The atrial rate increase significantly affected AV coupling and ventricular response during AF. The shortening of atrial intervals from 185 ± 32 to 165 ± 24 ms (P < 0.001) determined transitions toward AV patterns with progressively decreasing m/n ratios (from conduction ratio = 0.34 ± 0.09 to 0.29 ± 0.08, P < 0.01), lower occurrence (from percentage of coupled beats = 27.1 ± 8.0 to 21.8 ± 6.9%, P < 0.05), and higher instability (from maximal length = 3.9 ± 1.5 to 2.8 ± 0.7 s, P < 0.01). Advanced levels of AV block and coupling instability at higher atrial rates were associated with increased ventricular interval variability (from 123 ± 52 to 133 ± 55 ms, P < 0.05). AV pattern transitions and coupling instability in patients were predicted, assuming the filtering of high-rate irregular atrial beats by the slow recovery of nodal excitability. These results support the role of atrial rate in determining AV coupling and ventricular response and may have implications for rate control in AF. PMID:25910809

  16. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide during Early Human Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Semmekrot; J.-P. Guignard

    1991-01-01

    The present review summarizes current and new knowledge on the role of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) during early human development. The significance of plasma ANP concentrations in relation to atrial size and ductus flow in preterm and full-term infants is emphasized. Evidence from the literature suggesting the importance of ANP in pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is explored. New information

  17. Lone Atrial Fibrillation and Sports Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Furlanello; Giuseppe Inama; Claudio Pedrinazzi; Luigi Ambroggi; Riccardo Cappato

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFl) are two of the most frequent causes of prolonged palpitations [1]–[8] in young competitive athletes, even including those per forming sport activities at an elite level. Specifically, these\\u000a arrhythmias can occur frequently during training and competitions or in the post-exercise recovery period, but rarely at rest.

  18. Risk of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial flutter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karlheinz Seidl; Bernd Hauer; Nicola G Schwick; Dietmar Zellner; Ralf Zahn; Jochen Senges

    1998-01-01

    Based on multiple studies, clear, guided anticoagulation therapy is recommended for patients with atrial fibrillation. The value of anticoagulation therapy in patients with atrial flutter, however, is less well established. Little is known about the incidence of thromboembolism in patients with atrial flutter. We evaluated the risk of thromboembolism in 191 consecutive unselected patients referred for treatment of atrial flutter.

  19. Minimally Invasive Surgical Therapies for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yoshitsugu; Kiaii, Bob; Chu, Michael W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with significant risks of thromboembolism, stroke, congestive heart failure, and death. There have been major advances in the management of atrial fibrillation including pharmacologic therapies, antithrombotic therapies, and ablation techniques. Surgery for atrial fibrillation, including both concomitant and stand-alone interventions, is an effective therapy to restore sinus rhythm. Minimally invasive surgical ablation is an emerging field that aims for the superior results of the traditional Cox-Maze procedure through a less invasive operation with lower morbidity, quicker recovery, and improved patient satisfaction. These novel techniques utilize endoscopic or minithoracotomy approaches with various energy sources to achieve electrical isolation of the pulmonary veins in addition to other ablation lines. We review advancements in minimally invasive techniques for atrial fibrillation surgery, including management of the left atrial appendage. PMID:22666609

  20. The Effects of Percutaneous Mitral Balloon Valvuloplasty on the Left Atrial Appendage Function in Patients With Sinus Rhythm and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Aslanabadi, Naser; Jafaripour, Iraj; Toufan, Mehrnoush; Sohrabi, Bahram; Separham, Ahmad; Madadi, Reza; Feazpour, Hossein; Asgharzadeh, Yosef; Ahmadi, Mostafa; Safaiyan, Abdolrasol; Ghafari, Samad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Mitral stenosis (MS) causes structural and functional abnormalities of the left atrium (LA) and left atrial appendage (LAA), and studies show that LAA performance improves within a short time after percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC). This study aimed to investigate the effects of PTMC on left atrial function by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Methods: We enrolled 56 patients with severe mitral stenosis (valve area less than 1.5 CM2). All participants underwent mitral valvuloplasty; they also underwent transesophageal echocardiography before and at least one month after PTMC. Results: Underlying heart rhythm was sinus rhythm (SR) in 28 patients and atrial fibrillation (AF) in remainder 28 cases. There was no significant change in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end diastolic dimension (LVEDD), or the left ventricular end systolic dimension (LVESD) before and after PTMC in both groups. However, both groups showed a significant decrease in the left atrial volume index (LAVI) following PTMC (P=0.032 in SR and P=0.015 in AF group). LAA ejection fraction (LAAEF) and the LAA emptying velocity (LAAEV) were improved significantly after PTMC in both groups with SR and AF (P<0.001 for both). Conclusion: Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy improves left atrial appendage function in patients with mitral stenosis irrespective of the underlying heart rhythm. PMID:25859314

  1. Bystander cavo-tricuspid isthmus activation during post-incisional intra-atrial reentrant tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Tritto, M; De, Ponti R; Zardini, M; Spadacini, G; Salerno-Uriarte, J A

    2002-01-01

    We describe a case of post-incisional atrial tachycardia resembling typical atrial flutter on the surface ECG. Typical atrial flutter reentry was ruled out by the results of activation and entrainment mapping. Nevertheless, overdrive pacing from the lateral edge of the cavo-tricuspid isthmus produced tachycardia entrainment with concealed fusion associated with post-pacing and stimulus-to-P wave onset intervals exactly matching the tachycardia cycle length duration and the electrogram-to-P wave onset interval, respectively. Therefore, that site was firstly severed by sequential radiofrequency pulses. However, a transformation of the tachycardia P wave morphology and endocardial activation sequence, not associated with tachycardia termination or cycle length modification occurred. After additional mapping manoeuvres, a relatively small reentrant circuit was identified in the low and mid aspect of the lateral right atrium with the critical isthmus located between the lower border of a cannulation atriotomy and the crista terminalis, close to the inferior vena cava orifice. A single radiofrequency pulse at that site terminated the tachycardia. Both the electrocardiographic pattern and the endocardial mapping data obtained in our case might be explained by a split of the reentrant wavefront into a secondary wavelet which freely propagated through the cavo-tricuspid isthmus without completing the peritricuspid loop. In conclusion, bystander cavo-tricuspid isthmus activation during atrial tachycardia may simulate a typical atrial flutter pattern on the surface ECG. Further studies should evaluate the prevalence of this propagation pattern in post-incisional atrial reentry and atypical atrial flutters, and identify its implications for ablation strategy. PMID:11846322

  2. Advances in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Darge, Alicia; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Germano, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is an increasingly common and costly medical problem.1–3 Given the disappointing efficacy and side effects associated with pharmacological therapy for AF, new treatment options are needed. Over the last decade, advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of AF, coupled with iterative improvements in catheter ablation techniques, have spurred the evolution of catheter ablation for AF from an experimental procedure to an increasingly important treatment option.4 This paper will review recent advances in the approaches and outcomes of AF ablation. PMID:19411729

  3. Ablating Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Successfully

    PubMed Central

    Krummen, David E.; Narayan, Sanjiv M.

    2012-01-01

    The ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) poses many challenges compared to ablation for paroxysmal AF, including greater procedural complexity, longer procedural time, unclear endpoints, increased patient comorbidity with a greater risk of procedural complications, and lower success rate. Nevertheless, using a combination of patient selection, careful procedural planning of both ablation strategy and endpoints, and by setting realistic patient expectations, successful ablation may be achieved. Further improvements will come from continued technical advances as well as from greater mechanistic understanding of persistent AF, including the physiologically-targeted ablation of localized rotors and focal sources that have recently been shown to maintain human AF. PMID:22828755

  4. What is the relationship of atrial flutter and fibrillation?

    PubMed

    Roithinger, F X; Lesh, M D

    1999-04-01

    Animal models and human studies of atrial activation mapping and entrainment have considerably enhanced our understanding of the anatomical substrate for atrial flutter and created the basis for a definite cure with radiofrequency catheter ablation. As atrial flutter has now become a curable arrhythmia, emphasis is shifting to understand the most common arrhythmia: atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, from clinical observation, it is apparent that there is a relationship between atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter in patients with atrial arrhythmias. Techniques that have informed our understanding of the anatomical basis of atrial flutter may also be useful in understanding the relationship between atrial fibrillation and flutter, including animal models, clinical endocardial mapping, and intracardiac anatomical imaging. Thus, atrial anatomy and its relationship to electrophysiological findings, and the role of partial or complete conduction barriers around which reentry can and cannot occur, may be of importance for atrial fibrillation as well. Ultimately, the relationship between atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter may inform our understanding of the mechanisms of atrial fibrillation itself, and help to develop new approaches to device, catheter-based, and pharmacological therapy for atrial fibrillation. PMID:10234718

  5. Atrial fibrillation associated with chocolate intake abuse and chronic salbutamol inhalation abuse.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; La Rosa, Felice Carmelo; La Rocca, Roberto

    2010-11-19

    The use of substances as the substrate for atrial fibrillation is not frequently recognized. Chocolate is derived from the roasted seeds of the plant theobroma cacao and its components are the methylxanthine alkaloids theobromine and caffeine. Caffeine is a methylxanthine whose primary biological effect is the competitive antagonism of the adenosine receptor. Normal consumption of caffeine was not associated with risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter. Sympathomimetic effects, due to circulating catecholamines cause the cardiac manifestations of caffeine overdose toxicity, produce tachyarrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.The commonly used doses of inhaled or nebulized salbutamol induced no acute myocardial ischaemia, arrhythmias or changes in heart rate variability in patients with coronary artery disease and clinically stable asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Two-week salbutamol treatment shifts the cardiovascular autonomic regulation to a new level characterized by greater sympathetic responsiveness and slight beta2-receptor tolerance. We present a case of atrial fibrillation associated with chocolate intake abuse in a 19-year-old Italian woman with chronic salbutamol inhalation abuse. This case focuses attention on chocolate intake abuse associated with chronic salbutamol abuse as the substrate for atrial fibrillation. PMID:19171401

  6. Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects leads to normalisation of atrial and ventricular volumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen SL Teo; Benjamin K Dundon; Payman Molaee; Kerry F Williams; Angelo Carbone; Michael A Brown; Matthew I Worthley; Patrick J Disney; Prashanthan Sanders; Stephen G Worthley

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs) should potentially reduce right heart volumes by removing left-to-right shunting. Due to ventricular interdependence, this may be associated with impaired left ventricular filling and potentially function. Furthermore, atrial changes post-ASD closure have been poorly understood and may be important for understanding risk of atrial arrhythmia post-ASD closure. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is

  7. Atrial Fibrillation in Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Lubitz, Steven A.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Ellinor, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure are morbid conditions that share common risk factors and frequently coexist. Each condition predisposes to the other, and the concomitant presence of the two identifies individuals at increased risk for mortality. Recent data have emerged which help elucidate the complex genetic and non-genetic pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the development of atrial fibrillation in individuals with congestive heart failure. Clinical trial results offer insights into the noninvasive prevention and management of these conditions, though the emergence of newer technologies, such as catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation, have yet to be studied extensively in patients with congestive heart failure. PMID:20347787

  8. The diagnostic accuracy of the MyDiagnostick to detect atrial fibrillation in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is very common in people aged 65 or older. This condition increases the risk of death, congestive heart failure and thromboembolic conditions. Many patients with atrial fibrillation are asymptomatic and a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is often the first clinical presentation. Guidelines concerning the prevention of CVA recommend monitoring the heart rate in patients aged 65 or older. Recently, the MyDiagnostick (Applied Biomedical Systems BV, Maastricht, The Netherlands) was introduced as a new screening tool which might serve as an alternative for the less accurate pulse palpation. This study was designed to explore the diagnostic accuracy of the MyDiagnostick for the detection of atrial fibrillation. Methods A phase II diagnostic accuracy study in a convenience sample of 191 subjects recruited in primary care. The majority of participants were patients with a known history of atrial fibrillation (n?=?161). Readings of the MyDiagnostick were compared with electrocardiographic recordings. Sensitivity and specificity and their 95% confidence interval were calculated using 2x2 tables. Results A prevalence of 54% for an atrial fibrillation rhythm was found in the study population at the moment of the study. A combination of three measurements with the MyDiagnostick for each patient showed a sensitivity of 94% (95% CI 87 – 98) and a specificity of 93% (95% CI 85 – 97). Conclusion The MyDiagnostick is an easy-to-use device that showed a good diagnostic accuracy with a high sensitivity and specificity for atrial fibrillation in a convenience sample in primary care. Future research is needed to determine the place of the MyDiagnostick in possible screening or case-finding strategies for atrial fibrillation. PMID:24913608

  9. Serp2, an Inhibitor of the Interleukin1b-Converting Enzyme, Is Critical in the Pathobiology of Myxoma Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FREDERIQUE MESSUD-PETIT; JACQUELINE GELFI; MAXENCE DELVERDIER; MARIE-FRANCE AMARDEILH; ROBERT PY; GERD SUTTER; STEPHANE BERTAGNOLI

    1998-01-01

    Recently, myxoma virus was shown to encode an additional member of the serpin superfamily. The viral gene, called serp2, was cloned, and the Serp2 protein was shown to specifically bind to interleukin-1b (IL- 1b)-converting enzyme (ICE), thus inhibiting the cleavage of pro-IL-1b by the protease (F. Petit, S. Bertagnoli, J. Gelfi, F. Fassy, C. Boucraut-Baralon, and A. Milon, J. Virol.

  10. [Cardiac rehabilitation in patients with atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Schlitt, Axel; Kamke, Wolfram; Guha, Manju; Haberecht, Olaf; Völler, Heinz

    2015-06-01

    The course of cardiac rehabilitation is often altered due to episodes of paroxysmal, predominantly postoperative atrial fibrillation. In symptomatic patients, a TEE-guided cardioversion - preferential DC shock - is indicated. In patients with persistent?/?permanent atrial fibrillation, a heart rate up to 110?/?min and 170?/?min at rest and during physical activity should, respectively, be tolerated. Therefore, training should not be quitted by heart rate but rather by load. The antithrombotic management is in addition a great task in treating patients with atrial fibrillation. With the exception of patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc-Score?Atrial fibrillation has little impact on social aspects, whereas the underlying heart disease and drug treatment (oral anticoagulation) has an important impact. PMID:26115137

  11. Why Atrial Fibrillation (AF or AFib) Matters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart, signaling the tissue to contract. The sinoatrial (SA) node starts the contraction in the top of ... the sino-atrial node. In healthy adults, the SA node fires off between 60-100 heartbeats per ...

  12. Medical emergencies: atrial fibrillation and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, K; Ball, J

    2013-01-01

    In this, the first of two article on medical emergencies, we discuss the definitions, epidemiology, pathophysiology, acute and chronic management of atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial necrosis in the peri-operative and intensive care settings. PMID:23210559

  13. Mazabraud’s syndrome: a new case and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmine Zoccali; Giuseppe Teori; Umberto Prencipe; Fabio Erba

    2009-01-01

    The association between muscular myxomas and fibrous dysplasia is a rare condition known as Mazabraud’s syndrome, as reported\\u000a by Henschen (Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 21:93–97, 1926) and Mazabraud A and Girard (Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic 24(9–10):652–659, 1957).\\u000a We report a case of a 32-year-old woman with multiple myxomas in her right thigh and monomelic fibrous dysplasia. A review\\u000a of the

  14. Abnormalities of left atrial function after cardioversion: an atrial strain rate study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, L; Mckay, T; Byth, K; Marwick, T H

    2007-01-01

    Background and objectives The role of atrial myocardial dysfunction after cardioversion is unclear. In a comparison of patients after successful cardioversion from chronic atrial fibrillation (CAF) and normal controls, we sought to determine whether Doppler?derived atrial strain rate (A?sr) could be used to measure global left atrial function and whether A?sr was reduced in patients with CAF. Methods A?sr was measured from the basal septal, lateral, inferior and anterior atrial walls from the apical four?chamber and two?chamber views in 37 patients with CAF who had been cardioverted to sinus rhythm and followed up for 6?months, and in a cohort of 37 healthy people. Conventional measures of atrial function included peak transmitral A?wave velocity, A?wave velocity time integral, atrial fraction and the left atrial ejection fraction. Doppler tissue imaging was used to estimate atrial contraction velocity (A? velocity). In addition to amplitude parameters, the time to peak A?sr was measured from aortic valve closure. Results Immediately after cardioversion, A?sr in the CAF cohort (baseline) was significantly lower than in controls (mean (SD) ?0.53 (0.31) v ?1.6 (0.75)?s?1; p<0.001); the A?sr correlated with A? velocity (r?=?0.63; p<0.001) in patients. Atrial function improved over time, with maximal change observed in the initial 4?weeks after cardioversion. The time to peak A?sr was increased in the CAF group compared with controls (0.55 (0.15) v 0.46 (0.12)?s), but this failed to normalise over time. Conclusion A?sr is a descriptor of atrial function, which is reduced after cardioversion from CAF and subsequently recovers. PMID:16818487

  15. Applying non-linear dynamics to atrial appendage flow data to understand and characterize atrial arrhythmia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Shalabh; Grimm, Richard A.; Katz, Richard; Thomas, James D.

    1996-06-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand and characterize left atrial appendage flow in atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation and flutter are the most common cardiac arrhythmias affecting 15% of the older population. The pulsed Doppler velocity profile data was recorded from the left atrial appendage of patients using transesophageal echocardiography. The data was analyzed using Fourier analysis and nonlinear dynamical tools. Fourier analysis showed that appendage mechanical frequency (ff) for patients in sinus rhythm was always lower (around 1 Hz) than that in atrial fibrillation (5 to 8 Hz). Among patients with atrial fibrillation spectral power below ff was significantly different suggesting variability within this group of patients. Results that suggested the presence of nonlinear dynamics were: a) the existence of two arbitrary peak frequencies f1, f2, and other peak frequencies as linear combinations thereof (mf1±nf2), and b) the similarity between the spectrum of patient data and that obtained using the Lorenz equation. Nonlinear analysis tools, including Phase plots and differential radial plots, were also generated from the velocity data using a delay of 10. In the phase plots, some patients displayed a torus-like structure, while others had a more random-like pattern. In the differential radial plots, the first set of patients (with torus-like phase plots) showed fewer values crossing an arbitrary threshold of 10 than did the second set (8 vs. 27 in one typical example). Furthermore, the outcome of cardioversion was different for these two set of patients. In conclusion, Fourier analysis helped to a) differentiate between sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation, b) understand the characteristics of the wide range of atrial fibrillation patients, and c) provide hints that atrial fibrillation could be a nonlinear process. Nonlinear dynamical tools helped to further characterize and sub-classify atrial fibrillation. These insights into atrial fibrillation could, eventually, lead to improved risk stratification of patients with regard to stroke risk and long term outcome.

  16. Acute fever and seizure in a patient with recent atrial fibrillation ablation.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Alice Gallo; Patel, Pratik A; Mahal, Elizabeth; Kramer, Christopher L; Diaz Soto, Juan C; Moua, Teng

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for treatment of atrial fibrillation may present critically ill with complications of atrial esophageal fistula, commonly manifesting as neurologic deficits and septicemia difficult to distinguish from other acute etiologies without a high index of suspicion. The temporal variability in fistula formation and symptom presentation, along with their nonspecific features, makes diagnosis often a late finding with historically high morbidity and mortality. We present a patient admitted to a medical intensive care unit with status epilepticus and recurrent positive blood cultures for organisms commonly associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Chest computed tomography (CT) without contrast, transthoracic echocardiography, and initial neurologic imaging were unhelpful. A diagnosis was ultimately made by upper endoscopy of the esophagus after hematemesis with suspicion for GI bleed, at which point surgical intervention was attempted but without success. This case reviews the clinical features of atrial esophageal fistula formation and its initial diagnosis and management. PMID:26021546

  17. Asymptomatic hypoxia in a young pregnant lady--unusual presentation of atrial septal defect.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Suresh; Butt, Mehmood; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2010-08-20

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) accounts for approximately a third of all congenital heart disease in adults. It is rarely diagnosed and less likely to cause any symptoms during infancy, but approximately more than half become symptomatic around their fifth decade. In clinical setting it commonly presents as exertional dyspnoea, atrial arrhythmias, right heart failure and is rarely related to the thromboembolic complications due to paradoxical embolism. ASD is usually well tolerated in pregnancy with low risk of miscarriages, stillbirth, preterm delivery and perinatal mortality. We report an interesting case of undiagnosed large ostium secundum atrial septal defect in a young pregnant lady presented as 'asymptomatic hypoxia'. All pregnant women with hypoxia either pre or post-partum should be investigated to rule out any undiagnosed intra cardiac shunts to minimise maternal and foetal complications. PMID:19157590

  18. Prospective randomized comparison of left atrial and biatrial radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangang Wang; Xu Meng; Hui Li; Yongqiang Cui; Jie Han; Chunlei Xu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare, in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF), the efficacy and safety of left atrial ablation with that of a biatrial procedure and to assess the risk factors for late failure of sinus rhythm restoration. Methods: Between January 2004 and January 2007, 299 consecutive patients underwent the radiofrequency ablation procedure for AF

  19. Modification of the maze procedure for atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Cox; John P. Boineau; Richard B. Schuessler; Robert D. B. Jaquiss; Demetrios G. Lappas

    1995-01-01

    The original maze procedure that was described for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation was followed by an unacceptable incidence of two problems: (1) the frequent inability to generate an appropriate sinus tachycardia in response to maximal exercise and (2) occasional left atrial dysfunction. In an effort to overcome these problems, we modified the original technique (maze I) twice.

  20. Modification of the maze procedure for atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Cox; Robert D. B. Jaquiss; Richard B. Schuessler; John P. Boineau

    1995-01-01

    The operative technique of the maze III procedure for the treatment of patients with medically refractory atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation is described in a sequential fashion. The accompanying diagrams of the procedure are illustrated from the view of the operating surgeon. (J THORAC CARDIOVASC SURG 1995;110:485-95)

  1. Recurrent Patterns of Atrial Depolarization During Atrial Fibrillation Assessed by Recurrence Plot Quantification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Censi; V. Barbaro; P. Bartolini; G. Calcagnini; A. Michelucci; G. F. Gensini; S. Cerutti

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of organization of atrial activation processes during atrial fibrillation (AF) by assessing whether the activation sequences are wholly random or are governed by deterministic mechanisms. We performed both linear and nonlinear analyses based on the cross correlation function (CCF) and recurrence plot quantification (RPQ), respectively. Recurrence plots were quantified by

  2. Effective prevention of atrial fibrillation by continuous atrial overdrive pacing after coronary artery bypass surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Blommaert; Manuel Gonzalez; Joseph Mucumbitsi; Olivier Gurné; Patrick Evrard; Michel Buche; Yves Louagie; Philippe Eucher; Jacques Jamart; Etienne Installé; Luc De Roy

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESThe present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a specific algorithm with continuous atrial dynamic overdrive pacing to prevent atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.BACKGROUNDAtrial fibrillation occurs in 30% to 40% of patients after cardiac surgery with a peak incidence on the second day. It still represents a challenge for postoperative prevention and treatment

  3. Left atrial thrombus as an early consequence of blunt chest trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I R Mahy; A Al-Mohammad; R I Cargill

    1998-01-01

    Thromboembolism is rarely considered in discussions of the complications of blunt chest trauma. The few cases of thromboembolism that have been reported in this setting have occurred in association with significant myocardial damage. A previously fit 23 year old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit following a road traffic accident. A day later, left atrial thrombus was demonstrated

  4. Reduced Penetrance, Variable Expressivity, and Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Atrial Septal Defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Woodrow Benson; Angela Sharkey; Diane Fatkin; Peter Lang; Craig T. Basson; Barbara McDonough; Arnold W. Strauss; J. G. Seidman; Christine E. Seidman

    Background—Secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital heart malformation that occurs as an isolated anomaly in 10% of individuals with congenital heart disease. Although some embryological pathways have been elucidated, the molecular etiologies of ASD are not fully understood. Most cases of ASD are isolated, but some individuals with ASD have a family history of this defect or

  5. Outcomes after ablation for typical atrial flutter (from the Loire Valley Atrial Fibrillation Project).

    PubMed

    Clementy, Nicolas; Desprets, Laurent; Pierre, Bertrand; Lallemand, Bénédicte; Simeon, Edouard; Brunet-Bernard, Anne; Babuty, Dominique; Fauchier, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Similar predisposing factors are found in most types of atrial arrhythmias. The incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) among patients with atrial flutter is high, suggesting similar outcomes in patients with those arrhythmias. We sought to investigate the long-term outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with AF and/or atrial flutter with contemporary management using radiofrequency ablation. In an academic institution, we retrospectively examined the clinical course of 8,962 consecutive patients admitted to our department with a diagnosis of AF and/or atrial flutter. After a median follow-up of 934 ± 1,134 days, 1,155 deaths and 715 stroke and/thromboembolic (TE) events were recorded. Patients with atrial flutter undergoing cavotricuspid isthmus ablation (n = 875, 37% with a history of AF) had a better survival rate than other patients (hazard ratio [HR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25 to 0.49, p <0.0001). Using Cox proportional hazards model and propensity score model, after adjustment for main other confounders, ablation for atrial flutter was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.84, p = 0.006) and stroke and/or TE events (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.92, p = 0.02). After ablation, there was no significant difference in the risk of TE between patients with a history of AF and those with atrial flutter alone (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.67, p = 0.59). In conclusion, in patients with atrial tachyarrhythmias, those with atrial flutter with contemporary management who undergo cavotricuspid isthmus radiofrequency ablation independently have a lower risk of stroke and/or TE events and death of any cause, whether a history of AF is present or not. PMID:25200340

  6. Association of GGCX gene polymorphism with warfarin dose in atrial fibrillation population in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of ?-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) rs2592551 polymorphism on warfarin dose in atrial fibrillation patients in Xinjiang region. Methods Polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing methods were used to detect the rs2592551 genotype in 269 atrial fibrillation patients with warfarin administration. The effects of different genotypes on warfarin dose were statistically analyzed. Results The rs2592551 polymorphism detection results were 136 cases of wild-type homozygous CC genotype (50.56%), 115 cases of heterozygous CT genotype (42.75%), 18 cases of homozygous TT genotype (6.69%). The allele frequency C was 71.93%, T was 28.07%. The stable warfarin dose average was 2.86?±?0.61 mg/d in patients with CC genotype, 3.59?±?0.93 mg/d in patients with CT genotype and 4.06?±?0.88 mg/d in patients with TT genotype. The warfarin dose in different genotypes were compared, there was statistically significant difference between CC and TT, CC and CT (P <0. 05), but the TT and CT showed no significant difference (P?>?0.05). Conclusion In atrial fibrillation population in Xinjiang, patients with CT and TT genotypes in GGCX gene rs259251 loci required for significantly higher warfarin dose than those with CC genotype. Therefore, rs2592551 polymorphism may one of the factors affecting the warfarin dose in patients with atrial fibrillation. PMID:24148610

  7. Common Atrial Fibrillation Risk Alleles at 4q25 Predict Recurrence after Catheter-based Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, M. Benjamin; Muhammad, Raafia; Parvez, Babar; White, Brenda W.; Streur, Megan; Song, Yanna; Stubblefield, Tanya; Kucera, Gayle; Blair, Marcia; Rytlewski, Jason; Parvathaneni, Sunthosh; Nagarakanti, Rangadham; Saavedra, Pablo; Ellis, Christopher; Whalen, S. Patrick; Roden, Dan M; Darbar, Dawood

    2012-01-01

    Background Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at chromosome 4q25 (rs2200733, rs10033464) are associated with both lone and typical AF. Risk alleles at 4q25 have recently been shown to predict recurrence of AF after ablation in a population of predominately lone AF, but lone AF represents only 5–30% of AF cases. Objective To test the hypothesis that 4q25 AF risk alleles can predict response to AF ablation in the majority of AF cases. Methods Patients enrolled in the Vanderbilt AF Registry underwent 378 catheter-based AF ablations (median age 60 years, 71% male, 89% typical AF) between 2004 and 2011. The primary endpoint was time to recurrence of any non-sinus atrial tachyarrhythmia (atrial tachycardia, atrial flutter, or AF; [AT/AF]). Results Two-hundred AT/AF recurrences (53%) were observed. In multivariable analysis, the rs2200733 risk allele predicted a 24% shorter recurrence-free time (survival time ratio 0.76 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6–0.95, P=0.016) compared with wild-type. The heterozygous haplotype demonstrated a 21% shorter recurrence-free time (survival time ratio = 0.79, 95% CI 0.62–0.99) and the homozygous risk allele carriers a 39% shorter recurrence-free time (survival time ratio = 0.61, 95% CI 0.37–1.0) (P=0.037). Conclusion Risk alleles at the 4q25 loci predict impaired clinical response to AF ablation in a population of predominately typical AF patients. Our findings suggest the rs2200733 polymorphism may hold promise as an as an objectively measured patient characteristic that can used as a clinical tool for selection of patients for AF ablation. PMID:23178686

  8. Results of radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial flutter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie A. Saxon; Jonathan M. Kalman; Jeffrey E. Olgin; Melvin M. Scheinman; Randall J. Lee; Michael D. Lesh

    1996-01-01

    RF catheter ablation for symptomatic typical atrial flutter is associated with a high procedural success rate, but a second RF procedure may be required in up to one third of subjects, particularly those with right atrial enlargement. In those subjects with both established AF and flutter, RF ablation for atrial flutter may decrease the recurrence rate of AF. However, patients

  9. Potential role of 'hybrid therapy' for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lesh, M D; Kalman, J M; Roithinger, F X; Karch, M R

    1997-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia in clinical practice. Several new non-pharmacological technologies are emerging which may offer hope for effective therapy and quality of life improvement of patients with atrial fibrillation. While both catheter-based atrial segmentation and implanted atrial defibrillators have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation, both are also associated with the potential for significant limitations. Catheter ablation with the goal of curing atrial fibrillation may be a lengthy procedure and if left atrial lesions are required there is the potential for complications. As regards implanted atrial defibrillators an important question is whether many patients will tolerate the discomfort associated with energy levels required to restore sinus rhythm. The concept of 'hybrid therapy' is that in a given patient a combination of modalities might be used so as to achieve a synergistic effect, with each technology improving the efficacy of the other. For example, the presence of a more 'organized' pattern of fibrillation implies a lower defibrillation threshold. Data in a canine model of atrial fibrillation suggests that linear lesions in the right atrium alone may organize the atrial fibrillation in both atria and in so doing lower the atrial defibrillation threshold. Hybrid therapy may also employ drugs and pacing in combination with ablative lesions and an implanted atrial defibrillator. PMID:9704361

  10. The association between job strain and atrial fibrillation in Swedish men

    PubMed Central

    Torén, Kjell; Schiöler, Linus; Söderberg, Mia; Giang, Kok Wai; Rosengren, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether psychosocial stress defined as high strain based on the job demand–control model increases risk for atrial fibrillation. Methods The present study comprised 6035 men born between 1915 and 1925 and free from previous coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and stroke at baseline (1974–1977). Work-related psychosocial stress was measured using a job-exposure matrix for the job demand–control model based on occupation at baseline. The participants were followed from baseline examination until death, hospital discharge or 75?years of age, using the Swedish national register on cause of death and the Swedish hospital discharge register for any registration for atrial fibrillation, resulting in the identification of 436 cases. Data were analysed with Cox regression models with atrial fibrillation as the outcome using high strain as the explanatory variable adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes and socioeconomic status. Results There was an increased risk for atrial fibrillation in relation to high strain (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.003 to 1.75). When the four categories of the job-strain model were included and low strain was used as reference, the risk for high strain decreased (HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.82). Conclusions Exposure to occupational psychosocial stress defined as high strain may be associated with increased risk for atrial fibrillation. The observed increase in risk is small and residual confounding may also be present. PMID:25523937

  11. Myxoma virus suppresses proliferation of activated T lymphocytes yet permits oncolytic virus transfer to cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Villa, Nancy Y; Wasserfall, Clive H; Meacham, Amy M; Wise, Elizabeth; Chan, Winnie; Wingard, John R; McFadden, Grant; Cogle, Christopher R

    2015-06-11

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) can be curative for certain hematologic malignancies, but the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major limitation for wider application. Ideally, strategies to improve allo-HCT would involve suppression of T lymphocytes that drive GVHD while sparing those that mediate graft-versus-malignancy (GVM). Recently, using a xenograft model, we serendipitously discovered that myxoma virus (MYXV) prevented GVHD while permitting GVM. In this study, we show that MYXV binds to resting, primary human T lymphocytes but will only proceed into active virus infection after the T cells receive activation signals. MYXV-infected T lymphocytes exhibited impaired proliferation after activation with reduced expression of interferon-?, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and soluble IL-2R?, but did not affect expression of IL-4 and IL-10. MYXV suppressed T-cell proliferation in 2 patterns (full vs partial) depending on the donor. In terms of GVM, we show that MYXV-infected activated human T lymphocytes effectively deliver live oncolytic virus to human multiple myeloma cells, thus augmenting GVM by transfer of active oncolytic virus to residual cancer cells. Given this dual capacity of reducing GVHD plus increasing the antineoplastic effectiveness of GVM, ex vivo virotherapy with MYXV may be a promising clinical adjunct to allo-HCT regimens. PMID:25904246

  12. In vitro permissivity of bovine cells for wild-type and vaccinal myxoma virus strains

    PubMed Central

    Pignolet, Béatrice; Duteyrat, Jean-Luc; Allemandou, Aude; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Foucras, Gilles; Bertagnoli, Stéphane

    2007-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV), a leporide-specific poxvirus, represents an attractive candidate for the generation of safe, non-replicative vaccine vector for non-host species. However, there is very little information concerning infection of non-laboratory animals species cells with MYXV. In this study, we investigated interactions between bovine cells and respectively a wild type strain (T1) and a vaccinal strain (SG33) of MYXV. We showed that bovine KOP-R, BT and MDBK cell lines do not support MYXV production. Electron microscopy observations of BT-infected cells revealed the low efficiency of viral entry and the production of defective virions. In addition, infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) occurred at a very low level, even following non-specific activation, and was always abortive. We did not observe significant differences between the wild type strain and the vaccinal strain of MYXV, indicating that SG33 could be used for new bovine vaccination strategies. PMID:17900332

  13. Myxoma virus suppresses proliferation of activated T lymphocytes yet permits oncolytic virus transfer to cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Nancy Y.; Wasserfall, Clive H.; Meacham, Amy M.; Wise, Elizabeth; Chan, Winnie; Wingard, John R.; McFadden, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) can be curative for certain hematologic malignancies, but the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major limitation for wider application. Ideally, strategies to improve allo-HCT would involve suppression of T lymphocytes that drive GVHD while sparing those that mediate graft-versus-malignancy (GVM). Recently, using a xenograft model, we serendipitously discovered that myxoma virus (MYXV) prevented GVHD while permitting GVM. In this study, we show that MYXV binds to resting, primary human T lymphocytes but will only proceed into active virus infection after the T cells receive activation signals. MYXV-infected T lymphocytes exhibited impaired proliferation after activation with reduced expression of interferon-?, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and soluble IL-2R?, but did not affect expression of IL-4 and IL-10. MYXV suppressed T-cell proliferation in 2 patterns (full vs partial) depending on the donor. In terms of GVM, we show that MYXV-infected activated human T lymphocytes effectively deliver live oncolytic virus to human multiple myeloma cells, thus augmenting GVM by transfer of active oncolytic virus to residual cancer cells. Given this dual capacity of reducing GVHD plus increasing the antineoplastic effectiveness of GVM, ex vivo virotherapy with MYXV may be a promising clinical adjunct to allo-HCT regimens. PMID:25904246

  14. Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Transcatheter Occlusion to Prevent Stroke in High-Risk Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Early Clinical Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horst Sievert; Michael D. Lesh; Thomas Trepels; Heyder Omran; Antonio Bartorelli; Paola Della Bella; Toshiko Nakai; Mark Reisman; Carlo DiMario; Peter Block; Paul Kramer; Dirk Fleschenberg; Ulrike Krumsdorf; Detlef Scherer

    Background—Thromboembolism due to atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent cause of stroke. More than 90% of thrombi in AF form in the left atrial appendage (LAA). Obliteration of the appendage may prevent embolic complications. Methods and Results—We evaluated the feasibility and safety of implanting a novel device for percutaneous left atrial appendage transcatheter occlusion (PLAATO). LAA occlusion using the PLAATO

  15. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial tachyarrhythmias after an atrial switch operation in a patient with univentricular heart combined with transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Ban, Ji-Eun; Park, Sang-Weon; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    A 31-year-old patient previously underwent a Mustard operation presented with palpitations. Atrial tachycardia and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were documented on the surface electrocardiogram. Under the guidance of a three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping system, ablation of the isolated left-sided pulmonary vein and a cavo-tricuspid isthmus-dependent intra-atrial macro re-entry circuit eliminated atrial tachycardia and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation without the recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmia. PMID:25275370

  16. Single lead atrial synchronous ventricular pacing: a dream come true.

    PubMed

    Antonioli, G E

    1994-09-01

    Single lead, atrial synchronous pacing systems were developed in the late 1970s. Clinical experience has demonstrated the need to position the "floating" atrial electrode in the mid-to-high right atrium and the need for a specially designed pulse generator (with very high atrial sensitivity) to provide a high quality and amplitude atrial electrogram for consistent sensing. A 12-year experience with different electrode configurations, from the first unipolar designed in 1980 to the most recent atrial bipolar electrodes, has confirmed the validity of the original concept and the long-term reliability of the single lead atrial synchronous pacing system, which can reliably produce long-term atrial sensing and ventricular stimulation in the presence of normal sinoatrial function. PMID:7991425

  17. An improved method for echographic detection of left atrial enlargement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, O. R.; Harrison, D. C.; Popp, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Echographic dimensions of the aortic root and left atrium were compared in 170 patients in order to assess dilation of the left atrium with reference to the relatively nondistensible fibrous aortic root. In 50 patients without cause for left atrial or aortic enlargement, the ratio of left atrial/aortic root dimensions was 0.87 to 1.11. In 80 patients with known cause for left atrial enlargement, the left atrial/aortic root ratio was greater than or equal to 1.17. In 40 patients with isolated valve disease, dilation of both the aortic root and the left atrium resulted in a left atrial/aortic root dimension ratio less than 1.17 in some patients. Despite this consideration, the comparison of left atrial and aortic root dimension appears to be as specific as, and more sensitive than, previously proposed methods for the evaluation of left atrial enlargement.

  18. Management and prognosis of atrial fibrillation in the diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Pallisgaard, Jannik Langtved; Lindhardt, Tommi Bo; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Hansen, Morten Lock; Carlson, Nicholas; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2015-06-01

    The global burden of atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is considerable, and prevalence rates are increasing. Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation; however, diabetes also influences the management and prognosis of atrial fibrillation. In the following article, the authors describe the association between diabetes and atrial fibrillation; specifically, the significance of diabetes on the risk of atrial fibrillation, ischemic stroke and bleeding complications associated with anticoagulation. In addition, the authors evaluate the risks and outcomes of heart failure and the success rates of both ablation and cardioversion in atrial fibrillation patients with diabetes. Finally, this article describes the association of HbA1c levels with the management and prognosis of atrial fibrillation patients. PMID:26000562

  19. Antithrombotic Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    You, John J.; Singer, Daniel E.; Howard, Patricia A.; Lane, Deirdre A.; Eckman, Mark H.; Fang, Margaret C.; Hylek, Elaine M.; Schulman, Sam; Go, Alan S.; Hughes, Michael; Spencer, Frederick A.; Manning, Warren J.; Halperin, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The risk of stroke varies considerably across different groups of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Antithrombotic prophylaxis for stroke is associated with an increased risk of bleeding. We provide recommendations for antithrombotic treatment based on net clinical benefit for patients with AF at varying levels of stroke risk and in a number of common clinical scenarios. Methods: We used the methods described in the Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines article of this supplement. Results: For patients with nonrheumatic AF, including those with paroxysmal AF, who are (1) at low risk of stroke (eg, CHADS2 [congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ? 75 years, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack] score of 0), we suggest no therapy rather than antithrombotic therapy, and for patients choosing antithrombotic therapy, we suggest aspirin rather than oral anticoagulation or combination therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel; (2) at intermediate risk of stroke (eg, CHADS2 score of 1), we recommend oral anticoagulation rather than no therapy, and we suggest oral anticoagulation rather than aspirin or combination therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel; and (3) at high risk of stroke (eg, CHADS2 score of ? 2), we recommend oral anticoagulation rather than no therapy, aspirin, or combination therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. Where we recommend or suggest in favor of oral anticoagulation, we suggest dabigatran 150 mg bid rather than adjusted-dose vitamin K antagonist therapy. Conclusions: Oral anticoagulation is the optimal choice of antithrombotic therapy for patients with AF at high risk of stroke (CHADS2 score of ? 2). At lower levels of stroke risk, antithrombotic treatment decisions will require a more individualized approach. PMID:22315271

  20. Left atrial appendage closure for thromboembolism prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation: advances and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Bin; Liu, Yu; Huang, He; Jiang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent cause of stroke. More than 90% of thrombi were found in the left atrial appendage (LAA) in non-valvular AF. Transcatheter LAA closure has been developed as a novel approach to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with AF over the last decade. In this article, we review the recent advances and propose the possible challenges regarding the LAA closure for thromboembolism prevention in patients with AF. PMID:25713737

  1. Spatiotemporal blind source separation approach to atrial activity estimation in atrial tachyarrhythmias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Castells; J. J. Rieta; J. Millet; V. Zarzoso

    2005-01-01

    The analysis and characterization of atrial tachyarrhythmias requires, in a previous step, the extraction of the atrial activity (AA) free from ventricular activity and other artefacts. This contribution adopts the blind source separation (BSS) approach to AA estimation from multilead electrocardiograms (ECGs). Previously proposed BSS methods for AA extraction-e.g., independent component analysis (ICA)-exploit only the spatial diversity introduced by the

  2. Adjusted Left Atrial Emptying Fraction as a Predictor of Procedural Outcome after Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sung Il; Kim, Sun Won; Choi, Cheol Ung; Kim, Jin Won; Yong, Hwan Seok; Kim, Eung Ju; Rha, Seung-Woon; Park, Chang Gyu; Seo, Hong Seog; Oh, Dong Joo; Lim, Hong Euy

    2015-01-01

    Structural remodeling of the left atrium is a risk factor for recurrent arrhythmia after catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation; however, data are sparse regarding the role of functional left atrial remodeling in predicting procedural outcomes. We evaluated whether left atrial transport function could be used to predict recurrent atrial fibrillation. From July 2008 through August 2010, we enrolled 202 consecutive patients who underwent catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (paroxysmal=120, persistent=82). Left atrial volumes (LAVs) were measured by means of multislice computed tomography at every 10% of the R-R interval, and measurements were adjusted for body surface area to yield the LAV index (LAVI) at baseline. The left atrial emptying fraction (LAEF) was calculated according to LAV differences. During the mean follow-up period of 10 ± 4 months after a single ablation procedure, atrial fibrillation recurred in 59 patients (paroxysmal=19, persistent=40). Multivariate analysis revealed that persistent atrial fibrillation, early mitral inflow velocity, LAVImax, LAVImin, LAEF, LAVImax/LAEF, and LAVImin/LAEF were all independent predictors of atrial fibrillation, but the best predictor was LAVImin/LAEF (?=1.329, P=0.001). The cutoff value was 1.61 (mL/m2)/%, and the sensitivity and specificity were 74.6% and 62.2%, respectively (area under the curve=0.761). Our study shows that adjusted left atrial emptying fraction with use of multislice computed tomography might be a useful, noninvasive method to select patients for ablation. PMID:26175632

  3. Polysplenia syndrome: a review of the relationship with viscero-atrial situs and the spectrum of extra-cardiac anomalies.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Ahmed M; Batouty, Nihal M; Zaky, Mona M; Eladalany, Mohamed A; Elmokadem, Ali H

    2013-10-01

    Polysplenia syndrome is classified as one of the situs ambiguous or heterotaxy syndromes and is classically termed left isomerism or bilateral left-sidedness. However, polysplenia is a controversial and complex entity with no fixed pathognomonic features but rather a broad spectrum of abnormalities. In many published case series, polysplenia was neither associated with viscero-atrial heterotaxy nor with duplication of left-sided structures. The relationship between polysplenia and viscero-atrial situs is not clear. Several recent case reports describe the association of polysplenia with situs inversus totalis or with pancreatic; venous and other anomalies or with several types of malignancy. This article provides the reader with a review of the literature as well as our own experience aiming at better understanding of the polysplenia syndrome, its relationship with viscero-atrial situs and the spectrum of associated extra-cardiac anomalies. PMID:23508931

  4. Effects of atrial pacing site on atrial and atrioventricular nodal function.

    PubMed Central

    Leon FA, y; Denes, P; Wu, D; Pietras, R J; Rosen, K M

    1975-01-01

    The effects of the site used for atrial pacing on atrial and atrioventricular nodal conduction were assesed in 16 patients. In 13 patients, three atrial pacing sites were used: high right atrium, low lateral right atrium, and midcoronary sinus. Two recording sites were used: low septal right atrium, including His electrogram, and high right atrium. Stimulus (S) to high right atrium interval was longest with coronary sinus pacing (76 plus or minus 7 ms) (P less than 0.001), and shortes with high right atrial pacing (41 plus or minus 3 ms) (P less than 0.05). There was no significant difference in stimulus to low septal right atrium from all three pacing sites. Atrial functional and effective refractory periods were not significantly different. Mean low septal right atrium to His was significantly shorter from the coronary sinus (93 plus or minus 8 ms) (P less than 0.001), as compared to high right atrium (139 plus or minus 16 ms), and low lateral right atrium (129 plus or minus 13 ms) pacing. AV nodal functional and effective refractory periods, and the paced rate producing AV nodal Wenckebach were not significantly different when comparing the three sites. Left atrial appendage and high right atrium were similarly compared in three additional patients, and no significant differences were found in conduction times and refractory periods. PMID:1148055

  5. Digital resolution enhancement of intracardiac excitation maps during atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Keryn B; Thompson, Nathaniel C; Spector, Peter S; Kalifa, Jérôme; Bates, Jason H T

    2015-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is often successfully treated by catheter ablation. Those cases of AF that do not readily succumb to ablation therapy would benefit from improved methods for mapping the complex spatial patterns of tissue activation that typify recalcitrant AF. To this end, the purpose of our study was to investigate the use of numerical deconvolution to improve the spatial resolution of activation maps provided by 2-D arrays of intra-cardiac recording electrodes. We simulated tissue activation patterns and their corresponding electric potential maps using a computational model of cardiac electrophysiology, and sampled the maps over a grid of locations to generate a mapping data set. Following cubic spline interpolation, followed by edge-extension and windowing, we deconvolved the data and compared the results to the model current density fields. We performed a similar analysis on voltage-sensitive dye maps obtained in isolated sheep hearts. For both the synthetic data and the voltage-sensitive dye maps, we found that deconvolution led to visually improved map resolution for arrays of 10 × 10 up to 30 × 30 electrodes placed within a few mm of the atrial surface when the activation patterns included 3-4 features that spanned the recording area. Root mean square error was also reduced by deconvolution. Deconvolution of arrays of intracardiac potentials, preceded by appropriate interpolation and edge processing, leads to potentially useful improvements in map resolution that may allow more effective assessment of the spatiotemporal dynamics of tissue excitation during AF. PMID:25022983

  6. Virotherapy Using Myxoma Virus Prevents Lethal Graft-versus-Host Disease following Xeno-Transplantation with Primary Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Bartee; Amy Meacham; Elizabeth Wise; Christopher R. Cogle; Grant McFadden

    2012-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a potentially lethal clinical complication arising from the transfer of alloreactive T lymphocytes into immunocompromised recipients. Despite conventional methods of T cell depletion, GVHD remains a major challenge in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Here, we demonstrate a novel method of preventing GVHD by ex vivo treatment of primary human hematopoietic cell sources with myxoma virus, a

  7. High Familial Risk of Atrial Fibrillation/Atrial Flutter in Multiplex Families: A Nationwide Family Study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Zöller, Bengt; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the heritability of atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter (AF/AFl) has been determined, the familial risk in multiplex families is unclear. The main aim of this nationwide study was to determine the familial risk of AF/AFl in multiplex families. Methods and Results We examined the familial risk of AF/AFl in the entire Swedish population. We linked Multigeneration Register data on individuals aged 0 to 76 years with Hospital Discharge Register data for 1987–2008 and Outpatient Register data for 2001–2008 to compare AF/AFl risk among relatives of all 300 586 individuals with AF/AFl with that among relatives of unaffected individuals. We used conditional logistic regression to investigate differences in exposure between cases and controls. Parents (odds ratio [OR] 1.95 [95% CI 1.89 to 2.00]) and siblings (OR=3.08 [3.00 to 3.16]) of cases had higher odds of AF/AFl than did parents and siblings of controls. AF/AFl ORs were increased in both sexes. For 2% of cases, both parents had AF/AFl, compared with only 0.7% of controls (OR=3.60 [3.30 to 3.92]). Moreover, 3% of cases had ?2 siblings with AF/AFl, compared with 1% of controls (OR=5.72 [5.28 to 6.19]). In premature cases (diagnosed at age <50 years), the ORs were 5.04 (4.36 to 5.82) and 8.51 (6.49 to 11.15) for AF/AFl in both parents and AF/AFl in ?2 siblings, respectively. The overall spouse OR was 1.16 (1.13 to 1.19). Conclusions Family history of AF/AFl increases the odds of AF/AFl in first?degree relatives. High familial risks were observed in multiplex families. PMID:23525409

  8. What is meant by a "controlled" ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation?

    PubMed Central

    Rawles, J M

    1990-01-01

    Reduction of a rapid ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation results in a longer diastolic filling period and a higher left ventricular stroke volume but this is offset by reduced contractility and fewer beats per minute; the net effect on cardiac output is uncertain. Sequences of stroke distances were measured by Doppler ultrasound in 60 resting patients with atrial fibrillation to determine the relation between ventricular rate and linear cardiac output. The slope of the cardiac output/ventricular rate relation was positive in all 20 patients with a ventricular rate less than 90 beats per minute and negative in 16 (40%) of 40 patients with a ventricular rate greater than 90 beats per minute. In atrial fibrillation the ventricular rate can be regarded as "controlled" when the cardiac output/ventricular rate slope is positive and "uncontrolled" when the slope is negative--that is when reduction of ventricular rate would lead to increased cardiac output. As so defined, ventricular rate at rest was controlled in every patient when the ventricular rate was less than 90, controlled in 44 (73%) patients when the ventricular rate was 90-140 beats per minute, and uncontrolled in every case when it was greater than 140 beats per minute. Achieving a target ventricular rate of 90 beats per minute in patients with atrial fibrillation at rest would result in control with the least compromise of cardiac output. PMID:2183858

  9. Treating brain tumor–initiating cells using a combination of myxoma virus and rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Zemp, Franz J.; Lun, Xueqing; McKenzie, Brienne A.; Zhou, Hongyuan; Maxwell, Lori; Sun, Beichen; Kelly, John J.P.; Stechishin, Owen; Luchman, Artee; Weiss, Samuel; Cairncross, J. Gregory; Hamilton, Mark G.; Rabinovich, Brian A.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Mohamed, Mohamed R.; Smallwood, Sherin; Senger, Donna L.; Bell, John; McFadden, Grant; Forsyth, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Intratumoral heterogeneity in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) poses a significant barrier to therapy in certain subpopulation such as the tumor-initiating cell population, being shown to be refractory to conventional therapies. Oncolytic virotherapy has the potential to target multiple compartments within the tumor and thus circumvent some of the barriers facing conventional therapies. In this study, we investigate the oncolytic potential of myxoma virus (MYXV) alone and in combination with rapamycin in vitro and in vivo using human brain tumor–initiating cells (BTICs). Methods We cultured fresh GBM specimens as neurospheres and assayed their growth characteristics in vivo. We then tested the susceptibility of BTICs to MYXV infection with or without rapamycin in vitro and assessed viral biodistribution/survival in vivo in orthotopic xenografts. Results The cultured neurospheres were found to retain stem cell markers in vivo, and they closely resembled human infiltrative GBM. In this study we determined that (i) all patient-derived BTICs tested, including those resistant to temozolomide, were susceptible to MYXV replication and killing in vitro; (ii) MYXV replicated within BTICs in vivo, and intratumoral administration of MYXV significantly prolonged survival of BTIC-bearing mice; (iii) combination therapy with MYXV and rapamycin improved antitumor activity, even in mice bearing “advanced” BTIC tumors; (iv) MYXV treatment decreased expression of stem cell markers in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions Our study suggests that MYXV in combination with rapamycin infects and kills both the BTICs and the differentiated compartments of GBM and may be an effective treatment even in TMZ-resistant patients. PMID:23585629

  10. Modulation of the Myxoma Virus Plaque Phenotype by Vaccinia Virus Protein F11

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Chad R.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) produces large plaques consisting of a rapidly expanding ring of infected cells surrounding a lytic core, whereas myxoma virus (MYXV) produces small plaques that resemble a focus of transformed cells. This is odd, because bioinformatics suggests that MYXV carries homologs of nearly all of the genes regulating Orthopoxvirus attachment, entry, and exit. So why does MYXV produce foci? One notable difference is that MYXV-infected cells produce few of the actin microfilaments that promote VACV exit and spread. This suggested that although MYXV carries homologs of the required genes (A33R, A34R, A36R, and B5R), they are dysfunctional. To test this, we produced MYXV recombinants expressing these genes, but we could not enhance actin projectile formation even in cells expressing all four VACV proteins. Another notable difference between these viruses is that MYXV lacks a homolog of the F11L gene. F11 inhibits the RhoA-mDia signaling that maintains the integrity of the cortical actin layer. We constructed an MYXV strain encoding F11L and observed that, unlike wild-type MYXV, the recombinant virus disrupted actin stress fibers and produced plaques up to 4-fold larger than those of controls, and these plaques expanded ?6-fold faster. These viruses also grew to higher titers in multistep growth conditions, produced higher levels of actin projectiles, and promoted infected cell movement, although neither process was to the extent of that observed in VACV-infected cells. Thus, one reason for why MYXV produces small plaques is that it cannot spread via actin filaments, although the reason for this deficiency remains obscure. A second reason is that leporipoxviruses lack vaccinia's capacity to disrupt cortical actin. PMID:22514354

  11. Cellular factors promoting resistance to effective treatment of glioma with oncolytic myxoma virus.

    PubMed

    Zemp, Franz J; McKenzie, Brienne A; Lun, Xueqing; Reilly, Karlyne M; McFadden, Grant; Yong, V Wee; Forsyth, Peter A

    2014-12-15

    Oncolytic virus therapy is being evaluated in clinical trials for human glioma. While it is widely assumed that the immune response of the patient to the virus infection limits the utility of the therapy, investigations into the specific cell type(s) involved in this response have been performed using nonspecific pharmacologic inhibitors or allogeneic models with compromised immunity. To identify the immune cells that participate in clearing an oncolytic infection in glioma, we used flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to immunophenotype an orthotopic glioma model in immunocompetent mice after Myxoma virus (MYXV) administration. These studies revealed a large resident microglia and macrophage population in untreated tumors, and robust monocyte, T-, and NK cell infiltration 3 days after MYXV infection. To determine the role on the clinical utility of MYXV therapy for glioma, we used a combination of knockout mouse strains and specific immunocyte ablation techniques. Collectively, our experiments identify an important role for tumor-resident myeloid cells and overlapping roles for recruited NK and T cells in the clearance and efficacy of oncolytic MYXV from gliomas. Using a cyclophosphamide regimen to achieve lymphoablation prior and during MYXV treatment, we prevented treatment-induced peripheral immunocyte recruitment and, surprisingly, largely ablated the tumor-resident macrophage population. Virotherapy of cyclophosphamide-treated animals resulted in sustained viral infection within the glioma as well as a substantial survival advantage. This study demonstrates that resistance to MYXV virotherapy in syngeneic glioma models involves a multifaceted cellular immune response that can be overcome with cyclophosphamide-mediated lymphoablation. PMID:25336188

  12. Prevalence of oral anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomay, Eduardo; Polli, Ismael; Borges, Anibal Pires; Kalil, Carlos; Arroque, André; Kohler, Ilmar; Danzmann, Luiz Cláudio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with poor outcomes, including stroke. The ability of anticoagulation therapy to reduce the risk of stroke has been well established; however, the prevalence of anticoagulation therapy use in the Public Health System is unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate both the prevalence of anticoagulation therapy among patients with atrial fibrillation and the indications for the treatment. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we included consecutive patients who had atrial fibrillation documented by an electrocardiogram performed between September 2011 and March 2012 at a university hospital of the Public Health System. The variables analyzed included the risk of a thromboembolic event and/or bleeding, the use of antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy, the location where the electrocardiogram report was initially reviewed and the specialty of the physician who initially reviewed it. RESULTS: We included 162 patients (mean age 68.9 years, 56% men). Hypertension (90.1%), heart failure (53.4%) and stroke (38.9%) were the most prevalent diseases found. Only 50.6% of the patients knew that they had atrial fibrillation. Regarding the use of therapy, only 37.6% of patients classified as high risk according to the CHADS2 scores and 35.5% according to the CHA2DS2VASc used oral anticoagulation. A presumptive diagnosis of heart failure and the fact that the electrocardiogram was evaluated by a cardiologist were the only independent predictors of the use of anticoagulants. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a low prevalence of oral anticoagulation therapy among patients with atrial fibrillation and an indication for stroke prophylaxis for the use of this therapy, including among those with high CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores. PMID:25318093

  13. Is dabigatran efficacy enough to prevent stroke in atrial fibrillation patient with high CHADS2 score during peri-procedural catheter radiofrequency ablation? A case report with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiang-Min; Chen, Fu-Kun; Liang, Zhuo; Li, Jian; Lin, Kun; Guo, Jian-Ping; Shan, Zhao-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of thromboembolic (TE) events including stroke and transient ischemic attacks, catheter radiofrequency ablation (CA) has been demonstrated to effectively eliminate AF in majority of patients. During the peri-procedural CA of AF, dabigatran, a reversible direct thrombin inhibitor, has been proved as safe and efficacy as warfarin in the prevention of thromboembolic complication. However, for patients with CHADS2 score ?3, sometimes dabigatran may not be an ideal substitute of warfarin. The current study presents delayed stroke occurred in a middle-aged AF patient with high CHADS2 score who had undergone successful CA of AF being on dabigatran, trans esophageal echocardiogram (TEE) detected a clot in the left atrium appendage (LAA) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) indicated stroke of left basal ganglia, therefore anticoagulant was switched to warfarin with well controlled international normalization ratio (INR) ranging from 2.0-3.0 and the patient eventually recovered without any TE events during the subsequent follow-up.

  14. Exclusion of Thrombocytopenia as a Contraindication for Invasive Radiofrequency Ablation in a Patient with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation by Using Magnesium Anticoagulation Instead of EDTA: Another Case of Anticoagulant-Induced Pseudo-Thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Kohlschein, Peter; Bänsch, Dietmar; Dreißiger, Katrin; Schuff-Werner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia might be an exclusion criterion for invasive radiofrequency catheter ablation; therefore it is necessary to differentiate between pseudo-thrombocytopenia and a low platelet count due to other etiologies.A 69-year-old female presented to the cardiology department with recurrent atrial fibrillation that was resistant to conventional drug treatment. The initial laboratory findings were within the normal ranges, except for low platelet counts that occurred without a specific bleeding history. The reason for thrombocytopenia was anticoagulant-induced in vitro aggregation of platelets in the presence of EDTA as well as in citrated blood samples. As recently communicated, magnesium anticoagulated blood samples prevent platelet aggregation in individuals with anticoagulant-associated pseudo-thrombocytopenia. Although its aggregation-inhibiting effect is known from previous clinical observations, magnesium sulphate has not been introduced as an anticoagulant in analytical medicine.Based on our observations, blood anticoagulated with magnesium sulphate is recommended to verify low routine platelet counts before final clinical decisions are made. PMID:26115150

  15. Pulmonary vein edema in a patient undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery and concomitant radiofrequency ablation for chronic atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Amit D; Wokhlu, Nina; Anderson, Mark; Shindler, Daniel

    2006-09-01

    The syndrome of pulmonary vein stenosis characterized by pulmonary hypertension, dyspnea on exertion, and right heart failure, is a well-described complication of percutaneous ablation approaches, but has not been described with surgical approaches. We describe the case of a patient who developed localized edema at the pulmonary vein-left atrial junction after undergoing intraoperative radiofrequency ablation for chronic atrial fibrillation as part of CABG for severe triple vessel disease. The pulmonary vein edema resolved within 10 months suggesting that it may be a clinically silent and self-resolving phenomenon. PMID:16970719

  16. Atrial and venous thrombosis secondary to septic arthritis of the sacroiliac joint in a child with hereditary protein C deficiency.

    PubMed

    Letts, M; Lalonde, F; Davidson, D; Hosking, M; Halton, J

    1999-01-01

    Septic arthritis and osteomyelitis in children is seldom accompanied by calf vein thrombosis and rarely by atrial thrombosis. We report the case of an 11-year, 5-month-old boy with septic arthritis and osteomyelitis of the sacroiliac region who developed deep venous thrombosis, in addition to life-threatening right atrial thrombosis. After an intensive hematologic investigation, a hereditary protein C deficiency was revealed. The association of venous thrombosis with septic arthritis or osteomyelitis should raise the possibility of the presence of protein C deficiency. PMID:10088680

  17. Inter-Subject Variability in Human Atrial Action Potential in Sinus Rhythm versus Chronic Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Carlos; Bueno-Orovio, Alfonso; Wettwer, Erich; Loose, Simone; Simon, Jana; Ravens, Ursula; Pueyo, Esther; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2014-01-01

    Aims Human atrial electrophysiology exhibits high inter-subject variability in both sinus rhythm (SR) and chronic atrial fibrillation (cAF) patients. Variability is however rarely investigated in experimental and theoretical electrophysiological studies, thus hampering the understanding of its underlying causes but also its implications in explaining differences in the response to disease and treatment. In our study, we aim at investigating the ability of populations of human atrial cell models to capture the inter-subject variability in action potential (AP) recorded in 363 patients both under SR and cAF conditions. Methods and Results Human AP recordings in atrial trabeculae (n?=?469) from SR and cAF patients were used to calibrate populations of computational SR and cAF atrial AP models. Three populations of over 2000 sampled models were generated, based on three different human atrial AP models. Experimental calibration selected populations of AP models yielding AP with morphology and duration in range with experimental recordings. Populations using the three original models can mimic variability in experimental AP in both SR and cAF, with median conductance values in SR for most ionic currents deviating less than 30% from their original peak values. All cAF populations show similar variations in GK1, GKur and Gto, consistent with AF-related remodeling as reported in experiments. In all SR and cAF model populations, inter-subject variability in IK1 and INaK underlies variability in APD90, variability in IKur, ICaL and INaK modulates variability in APD50 and combined variability in Ito and IKur determines variability in APD20. The large variability in human atrial AP triangulation is mostly determined by IK1 and either INaK or INaCa depending on the model. Conclusion Experimentally-calibrated human atrial AP models populations mimic AP variability in SR and cAF patient recordings, and identify potential ionic determinants of inter-subject variability in human atrial AP duration and morphology in SR versus cAF. PMID:25157495

  18. Cardiorespiratory interactions in patients with atrial flutter.

    PubMed

    Masè, Michela; Disertori, Marcello; Ravelli, Flavia

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is generally known as the autonomically mediated modulation of the sinus node pacemaker frequency in synchrony with respiration. Cardiorespiratory interactions have been largely investigated during sinus rhythm, whereas little is known about interactions during reentrant arrhythmias. In this study, cardiorespiratory interactions at the atrial and ventricular level were investigated during atrial flutter (AFL), a supraventricular arrhythmia based on a reentry, by using cross-spectral analysis and computer modeling. The coherence and phase between respiration and atrial (gamma(AA)(2), phi(AA)) and ventricular (gamma(RR)(2), phi(RR)) interval series were estimated in 20 patients with typical AFL (68.0 +/- 8.8 yr) and some degree of atrioventricular (AV) conduction block. In all patients, atrial intervals displayed oscillations strongly coupled and in phase with respiration (gamma(AA)(2)= 0.97 +/- 0.05, phi(AA) = 0.71 +/- 0.31 rad), corresponding to a paradoxical lengthening of intervals during inspiration. The modulation pattern was frequency independent, with in-phase oscillations and short time delays (0.40 +/- 0.15 s) for respiratory frequencies in the range 0.1-0.4 Hz. Ventricular patterns were affected by AV conduction type. In patients with fixed AV conduction, ventricular intervals displayed oscillations strongly coupled (gamma(RR)(2)= 0.97 +/- 0.03) and in phase with respiration (phi(RR) = 1.08 +/- 0.80 rad). Differently, in patients with variable AV conduction, respiratory oscillations were secondary to Wencheback rhythmicity, resulting in a decreased level of coupling (gamma(RR)(2)= 0.50 +/- 0.21). Simulations with a simplified model of AV conduction showed ventricular patterns to originate from the combination of a respiratory modulated atrial input with the functional properties of the AV node. The paradoxical frequency-independent modulation pattern of atrial interval, the short time delays, and the complexity of ventricular rhythm characterize respiratory arrhythmia during AFL and distinguish it from normal RSA. These peculiar features can be explained by assuming a direct mechanical action of respiration on AFL reentrant circuit. PMID:19023018

  19. The effect of angiotensin receptor blockers for preventing atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristian Wachtell; Richard B. Devereux; Paulette A. Lyle

    2007-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice, and causes significant burden to\\u000a patients and health care systems. Clinicians treat existing atrial fibrillation with anticoagulation and\\/or drugs that utilize\\u000a either a rate or rhythm control strategy. It remains unclear how best to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in\\u000a this population. Prevention of atrial fibrillation using angiotensin

  20. Extreme variation in the atrial septation of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    de Bakker, Desiderius M; Wilkinson, Mark; Jensen, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    Caecilians (order Gymnophiona) are elongate, limbless, snake-like amphibians that are the sister-group (closest relatives) of all other recent amphibians (frogs and salamanders). Little is known of their cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, but one nearly century old study suggests that Hypogeophis (family Indotyphlidae), commonly relied upon as a representative caecilian species, has atrial septation in the frontal plane and more than one septum. In contrast, in other vertebrates there generally is one atrial septum in the sagittal plane. We studied the adult heart of Idiocranium (also Indotyphlidae) using immunohistochemistry and confirm that the interatrial septum is close to the frontal plane. Additionally, a parallel right atrial septum divides three-fourths of the right atrial cavity of this species. Idiocranium embryos in the Hill collection reveal that atrial septation initiates in the sagittal plane as in other tetrapods. Late developmental stages, however, see a left-ward shift of visceral organs and a concordant rotation of the atria that reorients the atrial septa towards the frontal plane. The gross anatomies of species from six other caecilian families reveal that (i) the right atrial septum developed early in caecilian evolution (only absent in Rhinatrematidae) and that (ii) rotation of the atria evolved later and its degree varies between families. In most vertebrates a prominent atrial trabeculation associates with the sinuatrial valve, the so-called septum spurium, and the right atrial septum seems homologous to this trabeculation but much more developed. The right atrial septum does not appear to be a consequence of body elongation because it is absent in some caecilians and in snakes. The interatrial septum of caecilians shares multiple characters with the atrial septum of lungfishes, salamanders and the embryonic septum primum of amniotes. In conclusion, atrial septation in caecilians is based on evolutionarily conserved structures but possibly exhibits greater variation than in any other vertebrate order. PMID:25400089

  1. Randomized Study Comparing Combined Pulmonary Vein-Left Atrial Junction Disconnection and Cavotricuspid Isthmus Ablation Versus Pulmonary Vein-Left Atrial Junction Disconnection Alone in Patients Presenting With Typical Atrial Flutter and Atrial Fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oussama Wazni; Nassir F. Marrouche; David O. Martin; A. Marc Gillinov; Walid Saliba; Eduardo Saad; Allan Klein; Mandeep Bhargava; Dianna Bash; Robert Schweikert; Demet Erciyes; Ahmad Abdul-Karim; Johannes Brachman; Jens Gunther; Ennio Pisano; Domenico Potenza; Raffaele Fanelli; Andrea Natale

    2010-01-01

    Background—Atrial flutter (AFL) and atrial fibrillation (AF) frequently coexist in the same patient. Recently it has been demonstrated that the triggers for both AF and AFL may originate in the pulmonary veins (PVs). We hypothesized that in patients with both AF and typical AFL, pulmonary vein-left atrial junction (PV-LAJ) disconnection may eliminate both arrhythmias. Methods and Results—Consecutive patients with documented

  2. Radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation during mitral valve surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Kress; Jasbir Sra; David Krum; Anil Goel; Jennifer Campbell; Jeff Fox

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-three patients underwent endocardial radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) during mitral valve procedures with a previously described left atrial lesion pattern. A temperature-controlled 7-coil surgical probe delivered 60-second lesions at 80°C. The left atrial appendage was oversewn after ablation. Ages ranged from 28 to 88 years. Nineteen patients had chronic AF that was present for over 1 year in

  3. Secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) from fish atrial and ventricular myocytes in tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, R L; Westenfelder, C

    1989-01-01

    Primary cultures of atrial and ventricular myocytes (approx. 1 x 10(5) cells/culture) were prepared from adult teleost fish Gila atraria and maintained for 10 days. Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ir-ANP) from fish atrial and ventricular cells was 3.9 and 2.8 ng/culture respectively, values not significantly different. Atriocytes from rat and mouse secreted comparable amounts of ANP which were not significantly different from atrial fish cultures (5.2 and 4.3 ng/culture). In contrast, their ventricular myocytes secreted only small quantities of ANP (0.8 and 0.3 ng/culture). When analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, the media of both fish atrial and ventricular myocytes contained a peptide which exhibited properties similar to authentic human ANP (Ser 99-Tyr 126), suggesting a significant degree of sequence homology between fish and mammalian ANP. Fish ventricular cells, unlike normal mammalian ventricular cells, secrete substantial quantities of immunoreactive-ANP. PMID:2521685

  4. The role of left atrial receptors in the diuretic response to left atrial distension

    PubMed Central

    Ledsome, J. R.; Linden, R. J.

    1968-01-01

    1. The diuretic response to distension of the whole left atrium caused by obstruction of the mitral orifice has been compared with the effects of distension (by means of small balloons) of the left pulmonary vein/left atrial junctions. 2. Distension of the pulmonary vein/atrial junctions caused an increase in heart rate and a diuresis similar to but smaller than that caused by mitral obstruction. 3. Section of both ansae subclaviae prevented the increase in heart rate produced by distension of the pulmonary vein/left atrial junctions but had little effect on the diuretic response either to pulmonary vein distension or to mitral obstruction. 4. A diuretic response to mitral obstruction could be demonstrated after all nerves from the lungs had been cut but not after the vagus nerves had been cut at levels likely to interrupt the majority of afferent fibres from left atrial receptors. 5. The results support the view that stimulation of left atrial receptors is a major factor in the production of a diuretic response to mitral obstruction. PMID:5698283

  5. The outcome and indications of the Cox maze III procedure for chronic atrial fibrillation with mitral valve disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumitaka Isobe; Yasunaru Kawashima

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy of the Cox maze III procedure for chronic atrial fibrillation associated with mitral valve disease is unclear, and so was evaluated in this study. Methods: In 30 patients, we applied the maze III procedure (cut and suture), except for one modification in the case of a left posterior sinus node artery. After dividing the patients into sinus

  6. Characteristics, Treatment and Outcome of Ischemic Stroke with Atrial Fibrillation in a Chinese Hospital-Based Stroke Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sen Lin; Bo Wu; Zi-Long Hao; Fan-Yi Kong; Wen-Dan Tao; De-Ren Wang; Sha He; Ming Liu

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on characteristics, treatment, functional outcome and case fatality of ischemic stroke with atrial fibrillation (AF) in China. Methods: For this study, first-ever ischemic stroke patients who were admitted within 1 month of stroke onset during the period of March 2002 through December 2008 were included. Data on ischemic stroke patients were collected which included: demographics,

  7. Unexpected low prevalence of atrial fibrillation in cryptogenic ischemic stroke: a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fanny Dion; Denis Saudeau; Isabelle Bonnaud; Patrick Friocourt; Armel Bonneau; Philippe Poret; Bruno Giraudeau; Sandra Régina; Laurent Fauchier; Dominique Babuty

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Ischemic stroke is a frequent pathology with high rate of recurrence and significant morbidity and mortality. There are several\\u000a causes of stroke, affecting prognosis, outcomes, and management, but in many cases, the etiology remains undetermined. We\\u000a hypothesized that atrial fibrillation was involved in this pathology but underdiagnosed by standard methods. The aim of the\\u000a study was to determine the incidence

  8. Inflammation and atrial remodeling after a mountain marathon.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, M; Zueger, T; De Marchi, S; Rimoldi, S F; Brugger, N; Steiner, R; Stettler, C; Nuoffer, J-M; Seiler, C; Ith, M

    2014-06-01

    Endurance athletes have an increased risk of atrial fibrillation. We performed a longitudinal study on elite runners of the 2010 Jungfrau Marathon, a Swiss mountain marathon, to determine acute effects of long-distance running on the atrial myocardium. Ten healthy male athletes were included and examined 9 to 1 week prior to the race, immediately after, and 1, 5, and 8 days after the race. Mean age was 34.9 ± 4.2 years, and maximum oxygen consumption was 66.8 ± 5.8 mL/kg*min. Mean race time was 243.9 ± 17.7 min. Electrocardiographic-determined signal-averaged P-wave duration (SAPWD) increased significantly after the race and returned to baseline levels during follow-up (128.7 ± 10.9 vs. 137.6 ± 9.8 vs. 131.5 ± 8.6 ms; P < 0.001). Left and right atrial volumes showed no significant differences over time, and there were no correlations of atrial volumes and SAPWD. Prolongation of the SAPWD was accompanied by a transient increase in levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, proinflammatory cytokines, total leucocytes, neutrophil granulocytes, pro atrial natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin. In conclusion, marathon running was associated with a transient conduction delay in the atria, acute inflammation and increased atrial wall tension. This may reflect exercise-induced atrial myocardial edema and may contribute to atrial remodeling over time, generating a substrate for atrial arrhythmias. PMID:23253265

  9. Importance of Refractoriness Heterogeneity in the Enhanced Vulnerability to Atrial Fibrillation Induction Caused by Tachycardia-Induced Atrial Electrical Remodeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir Fareh; Christine Villemaire

    Background—Rapid atrial activation causes electrical remodeling that promotes the occurrence and the maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although remodeling has been shown to alter electrophysiological variables, the spatial uniformity of these changes is unknown. Methods and Results—Dogs subjected to rapid atrial pacing (400 bpm) for 24 hours (n 512) were compared with sham-operated dogs (instrumented but not paced, n512). Epicardial

  10. [Innovative techniques in atrial fibrillation therapy].

    PubMed

    Metzner, A; Wissner, E; Fink, T; Ouyang, F; Kuck, K-H

    2015-02-01

    Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is the established cornerstone in most catheter-based ablation treatment strategies for atrial fibrillation (AF); however, it is still a challenge to create contiguous, transmural and permanent ablation lesions using radiofrequency current in combination with three-dimensional mapping systems. To overcome these limitations, innovative spiral mapping and ablation catheters as well as balloon-based ablation catheters incorporating alternative energy sources, such as cryoenergy and laser were developed and evaluated and have proved their potential for safe and clinically effective PVI. In addition, novel ablation strategies, such as identification and ablation of AF-inducing foci and/or AF-perpetuating rotors using either endocardial or epicardial mapping systems were introduced and are currently under clinical evaluation. The identification and modulation of atrial ganglionic plexi (GP) and, therefore, of the autonomous nervous system is another additive ablation approach which requires further clinical evaluation. PMID:25585587

  11. Myxoma Virus Expressing a Fusion Protein of Interleukin-15 (IL15) and IL15 Receptor Alpha Has Enhanced Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tosic, Vesna; Thomas, Diana L.; Kranz, David M.; Liu, Jia; McFadden, Grant; Shisler, Joanna L.; MacNeill, Amy L.; Roy, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Myxoma virus, a rabbit poxvirus, can efficiently infect various types of mouse and human cancer cells. It is a strict rabbit-specific pathogen, and is thought to be safe as a therapeutic agent in all non-rabbit hosts tested including mice and humans. Interleukin-15 (IL15) is an immuno-modulatory cytokine with significant potential for stimulating anti-tumor T lymphocytes and NK cells. Co-expression of IL15 with the ? subunit of IL15 receptor (IL15R?) greatly enhances IL15 stability and bioavailability. Therefore, we engineered a new recombinant myxoma virus (vMyx-IL15R?-tdTr), which expresses an IL15R?-IL15 fusion protein plus tdTomato red fluorescent reporter protein. Permissive rabbit kidney epithelial (RK-13) cells infected with vMyx-IL15R?-tdTr expressed and secreted the IL15R?-IL15 fusion protein. Functional activity was confirmed by demonstrating that the secreted fusion protein stimulated proliferation of cytokine-dependent CTLL-2 cells. Multi-step growth curves showed that murine melanoma (B16-F10 and B16.SIY) cell lines were permissive to vMyx-IL15R?-tdTr infection. In vivo experiments in RAG1-/- mice showed that subcutaneous B16-F10 tumors treated with vMyx-IL15R?-tdTr exhibited attenuated tumor growth and a significant survival benefit for the treated group compared to the PBS control and the control viruses (vMyx-IL15-tdTr and vMyx-tdTr). Immunohistological analysis of the subcutaneous tumors showed dramatically increased infiltration of NK cells in vMyx-IL15R?-tdTr treated tumors compared to the controls. In vivo experiments with immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice revealed a strong infiltrate of both NK cells and CD8+ T cells in response to vMyx-IL15R?-tdTr, and prolonged survival. We conclude that delivery of IL15R?-IL15 in a myxoma virus vector stimulates both innate and adaptive components of the immune system. PMID:25329832

  12. Radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Lauren; Kranzburg, Adeline; Saumell, Amy; Gregory, Tanya; Reich, Suzanne

    2015-05-01

    Antiarrhythmic drugs are the first-line treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF); as a result, catheter ablation usually is not considered until a patient is experiencing symptomatic AF refractory to at least one antiarrhythmic medication or is intolerant to medical therapy. For these patients, catheter ablation is shown to be more effective than medical therapy for controlling AF. This article reviews catheter ablation and its indications. PMID:25909541

  13. Device-based therapies for atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory K. Bruce; Paul A. Friedman

    2005-01-01

    Optional statement  Ablation of the atrioventricular conduction system and pacemaker implantation is the preferred procedure for patients with\\u000a atrial fibrillation (AF) in whom a rate control strategy has been selected but in whom rate-controlling medications are intolerable\\u000a or ineffective. Selection of standard right ventricular (RV) pacing versus biventricular pacing is individualized, based on\\u000a the degree and etiology of left ventricular dysfunction.

  14. Atrial Vectorcardiogram in Mitral Valve Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Burch; T. D. Giles

    1973-01-01

    Atrial vectorcardiograms (P sSPACE-loops) were recorded at high gain from 19 adult patients with mitral valve disease and enlargement of the left atrium using the equilateral tetrahedral reference frame. The P sSPACE-loops of the patients with mitral valve disease differed from P sSPACE-loops of 39 normal subjects in that (1) they were more distorted and contained a large number of

  15. Imaging in percutaneous ablation for atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ružica Maksimovi?; Thorsten Dill; Arsen D. Risti?; Petar M. Seferovi?

    2006-01-01

    Percutaneous ablation for electrical disconnection of the arrhythmogenic foci using various forms of energy has become a well-established\\u000a technique for treating atrial fibrillation (AF). Success rate in preventing recurrence of AF episodes is high although associated\\u000a with a significant incidence of pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis and other rare complications. Clinical workup of AF patients\\u000a includes imaging before and after ablative

  16. Spontaneous Closure of Atrial Septal Defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Helgason; G. Jonsdottir

    1999-01-01

    .   Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are found more frequently in the pediatric population than in adults, and improved diagnostic\\u000a techniques with echocardiography (2DE) and Doppler facilitate diagnosis so that repair is possible at an optimal time. The\\u000a purpose of our investigation was to study the size of ASDs at diagnosis, how size changes during follow-up, and to explore\\u000a the relationship

  17. Predictors of Atrial Septal Defect Occluder Dislodgement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Chieh; Fang, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Chien-Fu; Lin, Ying-Jui; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Fang, Hsiu-Yu

    2015-07-13

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence atrial septal occluder dislodgement in adults and children.From June 2003 to June 2013, a total of 213 patients (115 adults and 98 children) diagnosed with secundum atrial septal defects (ASD) underwent transcatheter closure of their defects with an atrial septal occluder (ASO) in our hospital. The ASO was implanted under transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) guidance. Ten patients suffered from ASO dislodgement, and the other 203 patients comprised the successful group. We compared the preprocedural data related to general demographics, defects, margins, and minor post-implantation complications between the two groups with the goal of identifying the factors that affected ASO dislodgement.Univariate logistic regression analyses identified a high Qp/Qs value, the Qp/Qs ratio > 3.13, ASO size, ASO size greater than 32 mm, ASO size/BSA ratio > 15.13 and IAS erosion, floppiness or aneurysm formation as factors with significant predictive value. Multivariate analysis revealed that a Qp/Qs ratio > 3.13, and interatrial septum (IAS) erosion, floppiness and aneurysm formation post-implantation were independent predictors of ASO dislodgement (P = 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively) in both adults and children.Percutaneous device closure of ASDs is safe and effective in the current era. The Qp/Qs ratio > 3.13 and IAS erosion, floppiness or aneurysm formation post-implantation might be predictors of ASO dislodgement in adults and children. PMID:26118595

  18. Right atrial thrombi: Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Beregi, Jean-Paul; Aumegeat, Valerie [CHRU de Lille, Service de Radiologie Vasculaire, Hopital Cardiologique (France); Loubeyre, Christophe [CHRU de Lille, Service des Soins Intensifs, Hopital Cardiologique (France); Coullet, Jean-Michel [CHRU de Lille, Service de Radiologie Vasculaire, Hopital Cardiologique (France); Asseman, Philippe [CHRU de Lille, Service des Soins Intensifs, Hopital Cardiologique (France); Debacker-Steckelorom, Caroline [CHRU de Lille, Service de Radiologie Vasculaire, Hopital Cardiologique (France); Bauchart, Jean-Jacques [CHRU de Lille, Service des Soins Intensifs, Hopital Cardiologique (France); Liu Pengcheng [CHRU de Lille, Service de Radiologie Vasculaire, Hopital Cardiologique (France); Thery, Claude [CHRU de Lille, Service des Soins Intensifs, Hopital Cardiologique (France)

    1997-03-15

    The current therapeutic options for right atrial thrombi-surgical embolectomy and thrombolysis- are associated with high mortality and such patients often have contraindications to these therapeutic options. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endovascular right atrial embolectomy. Two patients with contraindications to thrombolysis and surgery were treated by a femoral approach. A catheter was placed in the right atrium, under fluoroscopic control, and a basket device was used to trap the thrombus. The location and extent of the thrombus was established before the procedure by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and the procedure was performed with TEE and fluoroscopy. Thrombi were withdrawn in the basket into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and a filter was inserted by a jugular approach and positioned in the IVC, just above the thrombi. The basket was removed leaving the thrombus below the filter. One patient died immediately after the procedure. In conclusion, endovascular extraction of right atrial thrombi may represent a potential therapeutic alternative, particularly in patients with contraindications to thrombolysis and surgery.

  19. Focal Atrial Tachycardia Surrounding the Anterior Septum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zulu; Ouyang, Jinge; Liang, Yanchun; Jin, Zhiqing; Yang, Guitang; Liang, Ming; Li, Shibei; Yu, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background— Focal atrial tachycardias (ATs) surrounding the anterior atrial septum (AAS) have been successfully ablated from the right atrial septum (RAS), the aortic cusps, and the aortic mitral junction. However, the strategy for mapping and ablation of AAS-ATs has not been well defined. Methods and Results— Of 227 consecutive patients with AT, 47 (20.7%; mean age, 56.3±11.6 years) with AAS-ATs were studied; among them, initial ablation was successful at RAS in only 5 of 14 patients and at noncoronary cusp (NCC) in 28 of 33 patients. In 45 of the 47 patients, the 46 of 48 AAS-ATs were eliminated at RAS in 8 patients, NCC in 35 patients (earliest activation time at NCC was later than that at RAS by 5–10 ms in 6 patients), and aortic mitral junction in 3 patients (all with negative P wave in lead aVL and positive P wave in the inferior leads), including 1 patient whose 2 ATs were eliminated separately from the NCC and the aortic mitral junction. Conclusions— Most of the ATs surrounding the AAS can be eliminated from within the NCC, which is usually the preferential ablation site. Ablation at the RAS and aortic mitral junction should be considered when supported by P-wave morphologies on surface ECG and results of activation mapping and ablation. PMID:25908691

  20. TGF-?1 and TIMP-4 regulate atrial fibrosis in atrial fibrillation secondary to rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Huang, Zi-Yang; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Li, Cui-Ping; Meng, Xian-Liang; Zhang, Yun-Jiao; Su, Feng; Ma, Nan

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the involvement of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 4 (TIMP-4) in influencing the severity of atrial fibrosis in rheumatic heart disease (RHD) patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The degree of myocardial fibrosis was evaluated using Masson staining. The expression levels of TGF-?1, TIMP-4, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), type I collagen, and type III collagen were estimated by Western blot analysis. Additionally, TGF-?1 and TIMP-4 mRNA levels were quantified by qRT-PCR. The effect of TGF-?1 stimulation on TIMP-4 expression was assessed by in vitro stimulation of freshly isolated human atrial fibroblasts with recombinant human TGF-?1, followed by Western blot analysis to detect changes in TIMP-4 levels. Masson stain revealed that the left atrial diameter and collagen volume fraction were obviously increased in AF patients, compared to sinus rhythm (SR) controls (both P < 0.05). Western blot analysis showed significantly elevated levels of the AF markers MMP-2, type I collagen, and type III collagen in the AF group, in comparison to the SR controls (all P < 0.05). In the AF group, TGF-?1 expression was relatively higher, while TIMP-4 expression was apparently lower than the SR group (all P < 0.05). TIMP-4 expression level showed a negative association with TGF-?1 expression level (r = -0.98, P < 0.01) and TGF-?1 stimulation of atrial fibroblasts led to a sharp decrease in TIMP-4 protein level. Increased TGF-?1 expression and decreased TIMP-4 expression correlated with atrial fibrosis and ECM changes in the atria of RHD patients with AF. Notably, TGF-?1 suppressed TIMP-4 expression, suggesting that selective TGF-?1 inhibitors may be useful therapeutic agents. PMID:25971370

  1. Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects leads to normalisation of atrial and ventricular volumes

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Karen SL; Dundon, Benjamin K; Molaee, Payman; Williams, Kerry F; Carbone, Angelo; Brown, Michael A; Worthley, Matthew I; Disney, Patrick J; Sanders, Prashanthan; Worthley, Stephen G

    2008-01-01

    Background Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs) should potentially reduce right heart volumes by removing left-to-right shunting. Due to ventricular interdependence, this may be associated with impaired left ventricular filling and potentially function. Furthermore, atrial changes post-ASD closure have been poorly understood and may be important for understanding risk of atrial arrhythmia post-ASD closure. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is an accurate and reproducible imaging modality for the assessment of cardiac function and volumes. We assessed cardiac volumes pre- and post-percutaneous ASD closure using CMR. Methods Consecutive patients (n = 23) underwent CMR pre- and 6 months post-ASD closure. Steady state free precession cine CMR was performed using contiguous slices in both short and long axis views through the ASD. Data was collected for assessment of left and right atrial, ventricular end diastolic volumes (EDV) and end systolic volumes (ESV). Data is presented as mean ± SD, volumes as mL, and paired t-testing performed between groups. Statistical significance was taken as p < 0.05. Results There was a significant reduction in right ventricular volumes at 6 months post-ASD closure (RVEDV: 208.7 ± 76.7 vs. 140.6 ± 60.4 mL, p < 0.0001) and RVEF was significantly increased (RVEF 35.5 ± 15.5 vs. 42.0 ± 15.2%, p = 0.025). There was a significant increase in the left ventricular volumes (LVEDV 84.8 ± 32.3 vs. 106.3 ± 38.1 mL, p = 0.003 and LVESV 37.4 ± 20.9 vs. 46.8 ± 18.5 mL, p = 0.016). However, there was no significant difference in LVEF and LV mass post-ASD closure. There was a significant reduction in right atrial volumes at 6 months post-ASD closure (pre-closure 110.5 ± 55.7 vs. post-closure 90.7 ± 69.3 mL, p = 0.019). Although there was a trend to a decrease in left atrial volumes post-ASD closure, this was not statistically significant (84.5 ± 34.8 mL to 81.8 ± 44.2 mL, p = NS). Conclusion ASD closure leads to normalisation of ventricular volumes and also a reduction in right atrial volume. Further follow-up is required to assess how this predicts outcomes such as risk of atrial arrhythmias after such procedures. PMID:19040763

  2. The Connexin40A96S mutation from a patient with atrial fibrillation causes decreased atrial conduction velocities and sustained episodes of induced atrial fibrillation in mice.

    PubMed

    Lübkemeier, Indra; Andrié, René; Lickfett, Lars; Bosen, Felicitas; Stöckigt, Florian; Dobrowolski, Radoslaw; Draffehn, Astrid M; Fregeac, Julien; Schultze, Joachim L; Bukauskas, Feliksas F; Schrickel, Jan Wilko; Willecke, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia and a major cause of stroke. In the mammalian heart the gap junction proteins connexin40 (Cx40) and connexin43 (Cx43) are strongly expressed in the atrial myocardium mediating effective propagation of electrical impulses. Different heterozygous mutations in the coding region for Cx40 were identified in patients with AF. We have generated transgenic Cx40A96S mice harboring one of these mutations, the loss-of-function Cx40A96S mutation, as a model for atrial fibrillation. Cx40A96S mice were characterized by immunochemical and electrophysiological analyses. Significantly reduced atrial conduction velocities and strongly prolonged episodes of atrial fibrillation were found after induction in Cx40A96S mice. Analyses of the gating properties of Cx40A96S channels in cultured HeLa cells also revealed significantly lower junctional conductance and enhanced sensitivity voltage gating of Cx40A96S in comparison to Cx40 wild-type gap junctions. This is caused by reduced open probabilities of Cx40A96S gap junction channels, while single channel conductance remained the same. Similar to the corresponding patient, heterozygous Cx40A96S mice revealed normal expression levels and localization of the Cx40 protein. We conclude that heterozygous Cx40A96S mice exhibit prolonged episodes of induced atrial fibrillation and severely reduced atrial conduction velocities similar to the corresponding human patient. PMID:24060583

  3. Demonstration of the mechanism of transient entrainment and interruption of ventricular tachycardia with rapid atrial pacing.

    PubMed

    Waldo, A L; Henthorn, R W; Plumb, V J; MacLean, W A

    1984-02-01

    An unusual case is presented in which ventricular tachycardia at a rate of 141 beats/min was transiently entrained by rapid atrial pacing at rates of 150, 155 and 160 beats/min, and was interrupted by rapid atrial pacing at a rate of 165 beats/min. During each period of transient entrainment, constant ventricular fusion beats were present except for the last entrained beat, and progressive ventricular fusion (different fusion QRS complexes) was demonstrated when comparing QRS complex configurations during transient entrainment at each pacing rate. Interruption of the ventricular tachycardia was associated with localized conduction block to the right ventricular recording site, followed by activation of that site from a different direction and with a shorter conduction time by the subsequent pacing impulse. These data clearly distinguish transient entrainment of a tachycardia from overdrive suppression of a tachycardia, and strongly suggest that reentry was the underlying mechanism of the ventricular tachycardia. PMID:6693629

  4. Method for recording electrical activity of the sinoatrial node and automatic atrial foci during cardiac catheterization in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Hariman, R J; Krongrad, E; Boxer, R A; Weiss, M B; Steeg, C N; Hoffman, B F

    1980-04-01

    A method for recording electrical activity of the sinoatrial (S-A) node and automatic atrial foci in human subjects is described. To record S-A nodal electrograms, an electrode catheter was inserted percutaneously into the femoral vein and advanced under fluoroscopic control to the superior vena caval-right atrial junction. The distal terminal of the catheter was placed in the area of the S-A node and the proximal terminal on the free right atrial wall or in the right atrial lumen. Polarity was reversed from the conventional electrocardiographic recording; high amplification (about 100 microV/cm) and selective filters (0.1 to 20 hertz) were used. S-A nodal electrograms recorded with this method in human subjects were similar to electrograms obtained previously from the dog and rabbit and revealed negatively directed diastolic and upstroke slopes preceding the P wave of the electrocardiogram. Sinoatrial conduction time measured from the S-A nodal electrograms in 15 cases was 34.9 +/- 2.1 ms(mean +/- standard error of the mean) for a sinus cycle length of 736.4 +/- 38.6 ms. The coronary sinus electrograms in a patient with coronary sinus rhythm were recorded by the same technique except that the distal terminal of the catheter was placed at the coronary sinus ostium. A negatively directed diastolic slope preceding the P wave was consistently recorded. This method for recording electrograms of the S-A node and ectopic automatic atrial foci should prove useful in (1) assessment of both normal and abnormal S-A nodal function, (2) direct determination of conduction time from the S-A nodal pacemaker to the atrium, and (3) localization of automatic atrial foci. PMID:7361668

  5. A First Degree Family History in Lone Atrial Fibrillation Patients

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Gregory M; Smith, Lisa M; Vittinghoff, Eric; Tseng, Zian H; Badhwar, Nitish; Lee, Byron K; Lee, Randall J; Scheinman, Melvin M; Olgin, Jeffrey E

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) may be due to an inherited trait, particularly in lone AF patients. A family history of AF in lone AF patients has not previously been compared to those with AF and established risk factors (non-lone AF). OBJECTIVE To compare the frequency of having a first-degree relative with AF in lone and non-lone AF patients. METHODS We performed a case control study of consecutive subjects presenting to a single electrophysiology laboratory. A convenience sample of subjects with no known arrhythmias was also enrolled. RESULTS 429 subjects were enrolled: 136 with AF (54 with lone AF), 84 with atrial flutter, 158 with other supraventricular arrhythmias, and 51 with no known arrhythmias. Significantly more subjects with AF reported a first degree family history of AF than the remainder of the cohort (25% versus 5%, p<0.001). In multivariable analysis adjusting for potential confounders, AF patients had a 6 fold greater odds of having a family member with AF (95% CI 2.93–12.7, p<0.001). Lone AF patients had a first degree family member with AF substantially more often than those with non-lone AF (41% versus 14%, p<0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, lone AF patients remained significantly more likely than other AF patients to have a first degree relative with AF (OR 7.2, 95% CI 2.1–24.7, p=0.002). CONCLUSION Lone AF patients have a first degree family member with AF substantially more often than other AF patients. This suggests that an inherited trait may be particularly important in this subgroup of patients. PMID:18468961

  6. Alternative energy sources for atrial ablation: judging the new technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph J. Damiano

    2010-01-01

    n 1987 Dr James Cox introduced a new operation for treating atrial fibrillation. The Maze procedure cre- ated several incisions throughout both the left and right atria. These incisions were designed to block the multiple macroreentrant circuits felt to be responsible for atrial fibrillation. Over the years Dr Cox and his group had developed a successful paradigm for introducing opera-

  7. Atrial Natriuretic Factor in the Heart of the Human Embryo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terje H. Larsen

    1990-01-01

    The presence of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) has been demonstrated in striated myocytes of the human embryonic heart as well as in the adult heart, by immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The post-conceptional age of the embryos ranged from 8 to 9 weeks. At this early stage of development, shortly after the appearance of atrial granules in humans, ANF was localized

  8. Outcome of atrial fibrillation after mitral valve repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean F. Obadia; Mazen el Farra; Olivier H. Bastien; Michel Lièvre; Yvan Martelloni; Jean F. Chassignolle

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic factors for return to sinus rhythm after mitral valve repair. Method: One hundred ninety-one patients underwent surgery for mitral valve repair, including 142 procedures for valve repair only (74%). The patients with preoperative atrial fibrillation (50.5%) were older, clinically more symptomatic, and had a greater degree of left atrial

  9. Effect of Dronedarone on Cardiovascular Events in Atrial Fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan H. Hohnloser; Harry J. G. M. Crijns; Martin van Eickels; Christophe Gaudin; Richard L. Page; Christian Torp-Pedersen; Stuart J. Connolly; J. W. Goethe

    2010-01-01

    Background Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic drug that is being developed for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods We conducted a multicenter trial to evaluate the use of dronedarone in 4628 patients with atrial fibrillation who had additional risk factors for death. Patients were ran- domly assigned to receive dronedarone, 400 mg twice a day, or placebo. The

  10. Internal Atrial and Ventricular Defibrillation During Electrophysiology Procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred M. Kusumoto

    2005-01-01

    Over the last twenty years internal defibrillation has evolved from an experimental technique into an important adjunctive procedure in the electrophysiology laboratory. Internal deflbrillation is used for treating persistent atrial fibrillation and refractory ventricular arrhythmias. Atrial defibrillation can be performed with several electrode configurations but generally shocks from 1 to 50 joules are delivered between electrodes placed in the coronary

  11. Gastroparesis as a Complication of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Tolga; Golcuk, Sukriye; Guler, Tumer E; Yalin, K?vanç; Erden, Ismail

    2015-07-01

    Percutaneous catheter ablation is a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic drug-resistant atrial fibrillation (AF). Gastroparesis is a little known complication of AF ablation. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of gastroparesis in the patients who underwent catheter ablation for AF by cryoballoon (CB) or radiofrequency (RF) and to define risk factors for gastroparesis. In all, 104 patients were treated with pulmonary vein (PV) isolation with 2 different technologies: CB in 58 patients (group 1) and open-irrigated tip RF catheter in 46 patients (group 2). Gastroparesis was seen in 7 cases (6 cases in group 1 and 1 case in group 2, respectively). The complaints related with gastroparesis began during the procedure in 4 of 6 patients of group 1. The other 3 patients admitted to our outpatient clinic with similar complaints within 72 to 96 hours after the procedure. For gastroparesis cases of group 1, mean minimal CB temperature on inferior PVs was lower and left atrium diameter was smaller. Management was conservative, and the patients have no residual symptoms at 6-month follow-up. The only patient still demonstrating residual symptoms during follow-up was in group 2. Although, clinically manifest gastroparesis is quite common with CB ablation, the process is generally reversible. However, damage may not be as reversible with RF ablation. In conclusion, during cryoablation, lower temperatures on inferior PVs and small left atrium size may be associated with increased risk of gastroparesis, and fluoroscopic guidance may be useful to avoid this complication. PMID:25933733

  12. Discrimination of atrial fibrillation from regular rhythms by spatial precision of activation direction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam T. Schoenwald; Alan V. Sahakian; Steven Swiryn

    1995-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that atrial fibrillation (AFib) can be discriminated from regular atrial rhythms by the variation in local activation direction. Human endocardial atrial recordings of AFib, sinus rhythm, atrial flutter, and supraventricular tachycardia were collected, and the direction of each activation was calculated using methods previously described. Each recording was divided into segments containing 100 activations, and

  13. Electrophysiologic control of ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation using automatic left vagal control of atrioventricular conduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Scott Waninger

    1998-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac disorder, primarily of the elderly, that now affects over one million Americans. In this condition, the normal coordinated contraction of the atrial muscle is disturbed and atrial pumping ceases. The normal synchronized electrical depolarizations and repolarizations of atrial myocardial cells are replaced by random cell depolarizations and repolarizations which generate a high-frequency electrical

  14. Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence Predictors after Conversion to Sinus Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    MILITARU, C.; DONOIU, I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to identify predictors of atrial fibrillation recurrence after conversion to sinus rhythm. Material/Methods: We included 100 patients with a history of documented atrial fibrillation in the last 12 months that were assessed by transthoracic echocardiography, 12-lead electrocardiogram and signal averaged electrocardiogram of the P wave. Follow-up was 7.3 ± 2.2 months. Results: Atrial fibrillation recurrence was documented in 27 patients. It was more frequent in patients with longer duration of previous atrial fibrillation episode, with increased left atrium size and left ventricular mass, and it was correlated with the filtered P wave duration and Integral of the P wave. Conclusions: Signal averaged ECG of the P wave, left atrium size and left ventricular mass determined by echocardiography could be helpful in predicting the risk of atrial fibrillation recurrence after conversion. PMID:25646147

  15. Atrial fibrillation and gastroesophageal reflux disease: From the cardiologist perspective

    PubMed Central

    Floria, Mariana; Drug, Vasile Liviu

    2015-01-01

    We have read with interest the paper by Roman C. and colleagues discussing the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease and atrial fibrillation. The review is presenting the available evidence for the common pathogenic mechanisms. However, from a cardiologist perspective, some available data were not highlighted in the review, cardiovascular involvement in gastroesophageal reflux is less assessed. Hypertension, obesity or diabetes mellitus are substrate for left atrial remodeling that initiate and sustained atrial fibrillation development. One of the pathophysiologic mechanisms in atrial fibrillation is the presence of a trigger. Gastroesophageal reflux could be only a trigger for this arrhythmia. We believe that atrial fibrillation should be considered as possible extraesophageal syndrome in the gastroesophageal reflux classification. PMID:25780320

  16. Atrial Arrhythmias in Astronauts. Summary of a NASA Summit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Yael; Watkins, Sharmila; Polk, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the findings of a panel of heart experts brought together to study if atrial arrhythmias more prevalent in astronauts, and potential risk factors that may predispose astronauts to atrial arrhythmias. The objective of the panel was to solicit expert opinion on screening, diagnosis, and treatment options, identify gaps in knowledge, and propose relevant research initiatives. While Atrial Arrhythmias occur in approximately the same percents in astronauts as in the general population, they seem to occur at younger ages in astronauts. Several reasons for this predisposition were given: gender, hypertension, endurance training, and triggering events. Potential Space Flight-Related Risk factors that may play a role in precipitating lone atrial fibrillation were reviewed. There appears to be no evidence that any variable of the space flight environment increases the likelihood of developing atrial arrhythmias during space flight.

  17. Catheter-ablative techniques for the treatment of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Guerra, P G; Lesh, M D

    1999-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most commonly encountered arrhythmia in clinical practice and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Pharmacologic therapy, although useful for rate control, has proven much less effective in the long term maintenance of sinus rhythm. The utility of implantable atrial defibrillators or pacing to prevent atrial fibrillation remains largely untested. This article describes four catheter-based therapies for atrial fibrillation: His ablation, atrioventricular nodal modification, the Maze procedure, and the ablation of pulmonary vein foci which initiate the arrhythmia. Whereas the first two procedures are largely palliative and recommended for patients with symptomatic, drug-refractory atrial fibrillation, the latter two offer the potential for a curative intervention. PMID:10980834

  18. Co-Regulation of NF-?B and Inflammasome-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Myxoma Virus Pyrin Domain-Containing Protein M013

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masmudur M. Rahman; Mohamed R. Mohamed; Manbok Kim; Sherin Smallwood; Grant McFadden

    2009-01-01

    NF-?B and inflammasomes both play central roles in orchestrating anti-pathogen responses by rapidly inducing a variety of early-response cytokines and chemokines following infection. Myxoma virus (MYXV), a pathogenic poxvirus of rabbits, encodes a member of the cellular pyrin domain (PYD) superfamily, called M013. The viral M013 protein was previously shown to bind host ASC-1 protein and inhibit the cellular inflammasome

  19. Immunohistochemical localization of atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) in human atrial and ventricular myocardiocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yamada; Y. Saito; M. Mukoyama; K. Nakao; H. Yasue; T. Ban; H. Imura; Y. Sano

    1988-01-01

    To date, there have been few immunohistochemical investigations of atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) in human cardiac tissue, especially the ventricles. In this study, myocardial tissue was obtained from two sources: the bilateral atria and ventricles at autopsy; and biopsy tissues from the right auricle and left ventricle of a patient with myocardial infarction undergoing surgery. These tissues were examined by

  20. Effect of renal sympathetic denervation on atrial substrate remodeling in ambulatory canines with prolonged atrial pacing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xule; Zhao, Qingyan; Huang, He; Tang, Yanhong; Xiao, Jinping; Dai, Zixuan; Yu, Shengbo; Huang, Congxin

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) could suppress atrial fibrillation (AF) in canines with short-time rapid right atrial pacing (RAP). However, the role of renal denervation on atrial remodeling is unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the long-term effect of RSD on the atrial remodeling during prolonged RAP. Twenty mongrel dogs were implanted with a high-frequency cardiac pacemaker with a transvenous lead inserted into the right atrial appendage. The dogs were divided into three groups: a sham-operated group (n?=?6), the chronic RAP (CRAP) group (n?=?7), and the CRAP+RSD group (n?=?7). In the CRAP+RSD group, a pacemaker was implanted 6 weeks after RSD was performed bilaterally for recovery. RAP was maintained for 5 weeks in CRAP group and CRAP+RSD group. The plasma levels of Angiotensin II and aldosterone were significantly increased in CRAP group compared with sham-operated group, but the increasing trend was inhibited in CRAP+RSD group compared with CRAP group (P<0.05). Similarly, RSD suppressed the increasing trend that prolonged RAP produced in the left atrial levels of ANP, TNF-? and IL-6. Compared with the sham-operated group, the CRAP group had significantly increased levels of caspase-3, bax and Cx40 whereas the level of Bcl-2 decreased (P<0.05). RSD markedly reduced the upregulation of caspase-3, bax and Cx40 and the downregulation of Bcl-2 expression compared with the CRAP group (P<0.05). Picric acid-sirius red staining study suggested that RSD could markedly alleviate the lesion degree of cardic fibrosis induced by CRAP (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry results showed that the densities of TH- and GAP43- positive nerves were significantly elevated in the CRAP group compared with the sham-operated group, while RSD operation signicantly inhibited the these changes produced by CRAP. These findings suggest that renal denervation could suppress the atrial remodeling after prolonged RAP in ambulatory canines. PMID:23724069

  1. Disrupted calcium release as a mechanism for atrial alternans associated with human atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kelly C; Bayer, Jason D; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2014-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, but our knowledge of the arrhythmogenic substrate is incomplete. Alternans, the beat-to-beat alternation in the shape of cardiac electrical signals, typically occurs at fast heart rates and leads to arrhythmia. However, atrial alternans have been observed at slower pacing rates in AF patients than in controls, suggesting that increased vulnerability to arrhythmia in AF patients may be due to the proarrythmic influence of alternans at these slower rates. As such, alternans may present a useful therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of AF, but the mechanism underlying alternans occurrence in AF patients at heart rates near rest is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine how cellular changes that occur in human AF affect the appearance of alternans at heart rates near rest. To achieve this, we developed a computational model of human atrial tissue incorporating electrophysiological remodeling associated with chronic AF (cAF) and performed parameter sensitivity analysis of ionic model parameters to determine which cellular changes led to alternans. Of the 20 parameters tested, only decreasing the ryanodine receptor (RyR) inactivation rate constant (kiCa) produced action potential duration (APD) alternans seen clinically at slower pacing rates. Using single-cell clamps of voltage, fluxes, and state variables, we determined that alternans onset was Ca2+-driven rather than voltage-driven and occurred as a result of decreased RyR inactivation which led to increased steepness of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release slope. Iterated map analysis revealed that because SR Ca2+ uptake efficiency was much higher in control atrial cells than in cAF cells, drastic reductions in kiCa were required to produce alternans at comparable pacing rates in control atrial cells. These findings suggest that RyR kinetics may play a critical role in altered Ca2+ homeostasis which drives proarrhythmic APD alternans in patients with AF. PMID:25501557

  2. Tertatolol potentiates exercise-induced atrial natriuretic peptide release by increasing atrial diameter in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Berlin, I; Deray, G; Lechat, P; Maistre, G; Landault, C; Chermat, V; Brouard, R; Ressayre, C; Puech, A J

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the contribution of atrial distension and/or adrenergic mechanisms in the regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion, plasma immunoreactive ANP, norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and left atrial diameter were measured at rest, during, and after graded upright standardised bicycle exercise in 8 healthy male subjects after single-dose administration of placebo, tertatolol (5 mg), prazosin (1 mg), or combination of tertatolol (5 mg) and prazosin (1 mg). Systolic and diastolic left atrial diameters were measured before, during, and just after exercise by bidimensional echocardiography. Exercise raised plasma ANP concentrations. This rise was greater on tertatolol alone and tertatolol and prazosin than on placebo or prazosin alone: mean area under the plasma ANP concentration curve increased by 35% on tertatolol alone, 45% on tertatolol and prazosin when compared with placebo (p < 0.01), and by 82 and 94%, respectively, when compared with prazosin alone (p < 0.01). The rise in plasma ANP was greater during the postexercise period: 80% for tertatolol alone, 67% for tertatolol and prazosin when compared with placebo (p < 0.01) and 133 and 115%, respectively, when compared with prazosin alone (p < 0.01). The rise in plasma ANP was accompanied by an increase in both systolic and diastolic atrial diameters which was significantly greater on tertatolol alone and on the tertatolol and prazosin combination than on placebo or prazosin alone (p < 0.001). Beta-blockade alone did not affect plasma catecholamine concentrations but exercise-induced increase in plasma NE was significantly potentiated by prazosin and the prazosin and tertatolol combination, and that of plasma E by the prazosin and tertatolol combination.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7903211

  3. Disrupted Calcium Release as a Mechanism for Atrial Alternans Associated with Human Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kelly C.; Bayer, Jason D.; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, but our knowledge of the arrhythmogenic substrate is incomplete. Alternans, the beat-to-beat alternation in the shape of cardiac electrical signals, typically occurs at fast heart rates and leads to arrhythmia. However, atrial alternans have been observed at slower pacing rates in AF patients than in controls, suggesting that increased vulnerability to arrhythmia in AF patients may be due to the proarrythmic influence of alternans at these slower rates. As such, alternans may present a useful therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of AF, but the mechanism underlying alternans occurrence in AF patients at heart rates near rest is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine how cellular changes that occur in human AF affect the appearance of alternans at heart rates near rest. To achieve this, we developed a computational model of human atrial tissue incorporating electrophysiological remodeling associated with chronic AF (cAF) and performed parameter sensitivity analysis of ionic model parameters to determine which cellular changes led to alternans. Of the 20 parameters tested, only decreasing the ryanodine receptor (RyR) inactivation rate constant (kiCa) produced action potential duration (APD) alternans seen clinically at slower pacing rates. Using single-cell clamps of voltage, fluxes, and state variables, we determined that alternans onset was Ca2+-driven rather than voltage-driven and occurred as a result of decreased RyR inactivation which led to increased steepness of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release slope. Iterated map analysis revealed that because SR Ca2+ uptake efficiency was much higher in control atrial cells than in cAF cells, drastic reductions in kiCa were required to produce alternans at comparable pacing rates in control atrial cells. These findings suggest that RyR kinetics may play a critical role in altered Ca2+ homeostasis which drives proarrhythmic APD alternans in patients with AF. PMID:25501557

  4. Atrial flutter. Electrocardiographic, vectorcardiographic and echocardiographic correlation.

    PubMed

    Zoneraich, O; Zoneraich, S; Rhee, J J; Jordan, D

    1978-09-01

    The duration, contour, and amplitude of atrial flutter wave (f) was studied by electrocardiogram (ECG) and vectorcardiogram (VCG) in 32 patients and was related to the size of the left atrium (LA) measured by the echocardiogram (E). The following ECG parameters were analyzed: (1) the duration of left atrial depolarization, i.e., LA wave; (2) the amplitude of LA wave; (3) the surface area of LA wave; (4) maximum amplitude (A) of f in Leads 2 and V1. There was good correlation between LA size and the duration of depolarization and surface area (p less than 0.01), but the maximum amplitude of the f wave in Leads 2 and V1 failed to predict LA size. The post-conversion sinus P wave showed abnormal LA depolarization time (P greater than 0.12 sec.) in 62 per cent of patients with enlarged left atrium (ELA) and in 43 per cent of patients with normal size LA (NLA). The VCG of the flutter wave revealed two patterns, (1) an eliptical smooth fsE loop in 63 per cent of patients with NLA, and (2) distorted fsE loop in 67 per cent of patients with ELA. Both VCG patterns were subdivided in two subgroups according to the number and location of conduction delays. The VCG of post-conversion P wave confirmed conduction delays in both groups. We conclude that both the size of the left atrium and conduction delays play a basic role in the duration and contour of left atrial wave. PMID:685804

  5. Minimally invasive surgery for atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Suwalski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affecting nearly 2% of the general population worldwide. Minimally invasive surgical ablation remains one of the most dynamically evolving fields of modern cardiac surgery. While there are more than a dozen issues driving this development, two seem to play the most important role: first, there is lack of evidence supporting percutaneous catheter based approach to treat patients with persistent and long-standing persistent AF. Paucity of this data offers surgical community unparalleled opportunity to challenge guidelines and change indications for surgical intervention. Large, multicenter prospective clinical studies are therefore of utmost importance, as well as honest, clear data reporting. Second, a collaborative methodology started a long-awaited debate on a Heart Team approach to AF, similar to the debate on coronary artery disease and transcatheter valves. Appropriate patient selection and tailored treatment options will most certainly result in better outcomes and patient satisfaction, coupled with appropriate use of always-limited institutional resources. The aim of this review, unlike other reviews of minimally invasive surgical ablation, is to present medical professionals with two distinctly different, approaches. The first one is purely surgical, Standalone surgical isolation of the pulmonary veins using bipolar energy source with concomitant amputation of the left atrial appendage—a method of choice in one of the most important clinical trials on AF—The Atrial Fibrillation Catheter Ablation Versus Surgical Ablation Treatment (FAST) Trial. The second one represents the most complex approach to this problem: a multidisciplinary, combined effort of a cardiac surgeon and electrophysiologist. The Convergent Procedure, which includes both endocardial and epicardial unipolar ablation bonds together minimally invasive endoscopic surgery with electroanatomical mapping, to deliver best of the two worlds. One goal remains: to help those in urgent need for everlasting relief. PMID:24251031

  6. Atrial overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 improves the canine rapid atrial pacing-induced structural and electrical remodeling : Fan, ACE2 improves atrial substrate remodeling.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jinqi; Zou, Lili; Cui, Kun; Woo, Kamsang; Du, Huaan; Chen, Shaojie; Ling, Zhiyu; Zhang, Quanjun; Zhang, Bo; Lan, Xianbin; Su, Li; Zrenner, Bernhard; Yin, Yuehui

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether atrial overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) by homogeneous transmural atrial gene transfer can reverse atrial remodeling and its mechanisms in a canine atrial-pacing model. Twenty-eight mongrel dogs were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated, AF-control, gene therapy with adenovirus-enhanced green fluorescent protein (Ad-EGFP) and gene therapy with Ad-ACE2 (Ad-ACE2) (n = 7 per subgroup). AF was induced in all dogs except the Sham-operated group by rapid atrial pacing at 450 beats/min for 2 weeks. Ad-EGFP and Ad-ACE2 group then received epicardial gene painting. Three weeks after gene transfer, all animals except the Sham group underwent rapid atrial pacing for another 3 weeks and then invasive electrophysiological, histological and molecular studies. The Ad-ACE2 group showed an increased ACE2 and Angiotensin-(1-7) expression, and decreased Angiotensin II expression in comparison with Ad-EGFP and AF-control group. ACE2 overexpression attenuated rapid atrial pacing-induced increase in activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) levels, and decrease in MAPK phosphatase 1(MKP-1) level, resulting in attenuation of atrial fibrosis collagen protein markers and transforming growth factor-?1. Additionally, ACE2 overexpression also modulated the tachypacing-induced up-regulation of connexin 40, down-regulation of connexin 43 and Kv4.2, and significantly decreased the inducibility and duration of AF. ACE2 overexpression could shift the renin-angiotensin system balance towards the protective axis, attenuate cardiac fibrosis remodeling associated with up-regulation of MKP-1 and reduction of MAPKs activities, modulate tachypacing-induced ion channels and connexin remodeling, and subsequently reduce the inducibility and duration of AF. PMID:26143546

  7. Cor Triatriatum Sinister Identified after New Onset Atrial Fibrillation in an Elderly Man

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda, Ignacio A.; Morcos, Peter; Castellanos, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    A 73-year-old man with new onset atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response underwent transthoracic echocardiography that revealed an echogenic linear structure along the left atrium, suggestive of cor triatriatum sinister (CTS). CTS was confirmed with transesophageal echocardiography which demonstrated a proximal accessory atrium receiving pulmonary venous flow separated from a distal true atrium by a fibromuscular membrane with a large fenestration allowing flow between the chambers. In CTS, the left atrium is divided into proximal and distal chambers by a fenestrated fibromuscular septum. This cardiac anomaly accounts for 0.1% of cases of congenital heart disease and rarely presents in adults. CTS is primarily diagnosed with echocardiography and is associated with left atrial enlargement and development of atrial fibrillation. Treatment options depend on size of the communication between proximal and distal chambers, the gradient across the membrane, and the position of pulmonary veins. In some instances, surgical resection of the membrane that divides the left atrium is warranted. PMID:25614746

  8. Alternate methods for the determination of atrial capture threshold utilizing the telemetered intracardiac electrogram.

    PubMed

    Feuer, J M; Florio, J; Shandling, A H

    1990-10-01

    Periodic determination of pacemaker capture threshold is important to ensure appropriate pacemaker function. During dual chamber pacing, it is sometimes difficult to identify evidence of atrial depolarization on surface electrocardiography (ECG), and this can interfere with the ability to ascertain atrial capture. We describe new methods for determining atrial capture threshold using a standard telemetered endocardial atrial electrogram (AEGM). For the first method, the atrial output is decremented until loss of atrial capture is demonstrated by the appearance of native P wave activity on the AEGM. The atrial capture threshold can then be accurately determined as the point at which a stepwise increase in atrial output results in extinction of the native P wave activity. The second method uses the direct visualization of the AEGM recorded between the ring electrode and pacemaker generator during unipolar (lead tip electrode) pacing. This requires the presence of a bipolar lead. Using this method of recording, it is possible to identify a signal after the atrial stimulus artifact during atrial capture, which disappears with loss of capture. This signal is consistent with a paced "evoked atrial potential" and allows verification of atrial capture. After validating the methods in two sets of test patients with clearly identifiable atrial depolarization on surface ECG, one method was successfully applied to a patient in whom atrial depolarization could not be reliably ascertained on surface ECG. These methods promise to be useful in selected patients in whom confirmation of atrial capture would otherwise be difficult. PMID:1701540

  9. Craniofrontonasal Syndrome: Atrial Septal Defect With a Novel EFNB1 Gene Mutation.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Manisha; Pradhan, Gaurav; Wieland, Ilse; Kapoor, Seema

    2015-03-01

    Craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS; OMIM # 304110) is a rare X-linked disorder with greater severity in heterozygous females than in hemizygous males. CFNS is characterized by coronal craniosynostosis, frontal bossing, severe hypertelorism, craniofacial asymmetry, downslant palpebral fissure, broad nasal root, bifid nasal tip, grooved fingernails, curly wiry hair, and abnormalities of the thoracic skeleton. There are very few cases describing association of CFNS with heart defects. We discuss a very rare feature: atrial septal defect in a molecularly confirmed case of CFNS. PMID:24919122

  10. Comparison of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and atrial remodeling in marathon versus non-marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Matthias; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Wilhelm, Ilca; Saner, Hugo

    2012-04-01

    Long-term endurance sports are associated with atrial remodeling and an increased risk for atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter. Pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) is a marker of atrial wall tension and elevated in patients with AF. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that atrial remodeling would be perpetuated by repetitive episodes of atrial stretching during strenuous competitions, reflected by elevated levels of pro-ANP. A cross-sectional study was performed on nonelite runners scheduled to participate in the 2010 Grand Prix of Bern, a 10-mile race. Four hundred ninety-two marathon and nonmarathon runners applied for participation, 70 were randomly selected, and 56 entered the final analysis. Subjects were stratified according to former marathon participations: a control group (nonmarathon runners, n = 22), group 1 (1 to 4 marathons, n = 16), and group 2 (?5 marathons, n = 18). Results were adjusted for age, training years, and average weekly endurance training hours. The mean age was 42 ± 7 years. Compared to the control group, marathon runners in groups 1 and 2 had larger left atria (25 ± 6 vs 30 ± 6 vs 34 ± 7 ml/m(2), p = 0.002) and larger right atria (27 ± 7 vs 31 ± 8 vs 35 ± 5 ml/m(2), p = 0.024). Pro-ANP levels at baseline were higher in marathon runners (1.04 ± 0.38 vs 1.42 ± 0.74 vs 1.67 ± 0.69 nmol/L, p = 0.006). Pro-ANP increased significantly in all groups after the race. In multiple linear regression analysis, marathon participation was an independent predictor of left atrial (? = 0.427, p <0.001) and right atrial (? = 0.395, p = 0.006) remodeling. In conclusion, marathon running was associated with progressive left and right atrial remodeling, possibly induced by repetitive episodes of atrial stretching. The altered left and right atrial substrate may facilitate atrial arrhythmias. PMID:22221947

  11. Late Sodium Current in Human Atrial Cardiomyocytes from Patients in Sinus Rhythm and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Poulet, Claire; Wettwer, Erich; Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas; Fabritz, Larissa; Matschke, Klaus; Knaut, Michael; Ravens, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Slowly inactivating Na+ channels conducting “late” Na+ current (INa,late) contribute to ventricular arrhythmogenesis under pathological conditions. INa,late was also reported to play a role in chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). The objective of this study was to investigate INa,late in human right atrial cardiomyocytes as a putative drug target for treatment of AF. To activate Na+ channels, cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice which exhibit INa,late (?KPQ), and right atrial cardiomyocytes from patients in sinus rhythm (SR) and AF were voltage clamped at room temperature by 250-ms long test pulses to -30 mV from a holding potential of -80 mV with a 100-ms pre-pulse to -110 mV (protocol I). INa,late at -30 mV was not discernible as deviation from the extrapolated straight line IV-curve between -110 mV and -80 mV in human atrial cells. Therefore, tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10 ?M) was used to define persistent inward current after 250 ms at -30 mV as INa,late. TTX-sensitive current was 0.27±0.06 pA/pF in ventricular cardiomyocytes from ?KPQ mice, and amounted to 0.04±0.01 pA/pF and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in SR and AF human atrial cardiomyocytes, respectively. With protocol II (holding potential -120 mV, pre-pulse to -80 mV) TTX-sensitive INa,late was always larger than with protocol I. Ranolazine (30 ?M) reduced INa,late by 0.02±0.02 pA/pF in SR and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in AF cells. At physiological temperature (37°C), however, INa,late became insignificant. Plateau phase and upstroke velocity of action potentials (APs) recorded with sharp microelectrodes in intact human trabeculae were more sensitive to ranolazine in AF than in SR preparations. Sodium channel subunits expression measured with qPCR was high for SCN5A with no difference between SR and AF. Expression of SCN8A and SCN10A was low in general, and lower in AF than in SR. In conclusion, We confirm for the first time a TTX-sensitive current (INa,late) in right atrial cardiomyocytes from SR and AF patients at room temperature, but not at physiological temperature. While our study provides evidence for the presence of INa,late in human atria, the potential of such current as a target for the treatment of AF remains to be demonstrated. PMID:26121051

  12. Mitochondrial oxidative stress promotes atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenjun; Santulli, Gaetano; Reiken, Steven R; Yuan, Qi; Osborne, Brent W; Chen, Bi-Xing; Marks, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Indeed, the prevalence of AF increases with age as does oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms linking redox state to AF are not well understood. In this study we identify a link between oxidative stress and aberrant intracellular Ca(2+) release via the type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) that promotes AF. We show that RyR2 are oxidized in the atria of patients with chronic AF compared with individuals in sinus rhythm. To dissect the molecular mechanism linking RyR2 oxidation to AF we used two murine models harboring RyR2 mutations that cause intracellular Ca(2+) leak. Mice with intracellular Ca(2+) leak exhibited increased atrial RyR2 oxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and AF susceptibility. Both genetic inhibition of mitochondrial ROS production and pharmacological treatment of RyR2 leakage prevented AF. Collectively, our results indicate that alterations of RyR2 and mitochondrial ROS generation form a vicious cycle in the development of AF. Targeting this previously unrecognized mechanism could be useful in developing effective interventions to prevent and treat AF. PMID:26169582

  13. Current Hot Potatoes in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Roten, Laurent; Derval, Nicolas; Pascale, Patrizio; Scherr, Daniel; Komatsu, Yuki; Shah, Ashok; Ramoul, Khaled; Denis, Arnaud; Sacher, Frédéric; Hocini, Mélèze; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation has evolved to the treatment of choice for patients with drug-resistant and symptomatic AF. Pulmonary vein isolation at the ostial or antral level usually is sufficient for treatment of true paroxysmal AF. For persistent AF ablation, drivers and perpetuators outside of the pulmonary veins are responsible for AF maintenance and have to be targeted to achieve satisfying arrhythmia-free success rate. Both complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE) ablation and linear ablation are added to pulmonary vein isolation for persistent AF ablation. Nevertheless, ablation failure and necessity of repeat ablations are still frequent, especially after persistent AF ablation. Pulmonary vein reconduction is the main reason for arrhythmia recurrence after paroxysmal and to a lesser extent after persistent AF ablation. Failure of persistent AF ablation mostly is a consequence of inadequate trigger ablation, substrate modification or incompletely ablated or reconducting linear lesions. In this review we will discuss these points responsible for AF recurrence after ablation and review current possibilities on how to overcome these limitations. PMID:22920482

  14. Mitochondrial oxidative stress promotes atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wenjun; Santulli, Gaetano; Reiken, Steven R.; Yuan, Qi; Osborne, Brent W.; Chen, Bi-Xing; Marks, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Indeed, the prevalence of AF increases with age as does oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms linking redox state to AF are not well understood. In this study we identify a link between oxidative stress and aberrant intracellular Ca2+ release via the type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) that promotes AF. We show that RyR2 are oxidized in the atria of patients with chronic AF compared with individuals in sinus rhythm. To dissect the molecular mechanism linking RyR2 oxidation to AF we used two murine models harboring RyR2 mutations that cause intracellular Ca2+ leak. Mice with intracellular Ca2+ leak exhibited increased atrial RyR2 oxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and AF susceptibility. Both genetic inhibition of mitochondrial ROS production and pharmacological treatment of RyR2 leakage prevented AF. Collectively, our results indicate that alterations of RyR2 and mitochondrial ROS generation form a vicious cycle in the development of AF. Targeting this previously unrecognized mechanism could be useful in developing effective interventions to prevent and treat AF. PMID:26169582

  15. Left atrial ultrastructure in mitral valvular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Thiedemann, K. U.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1977-01-01

    Light microscopic and ultrastructural observations were made on left atrial tissues obtained from 14 patients at the time of operation for correction of mitral valvular disease. Cardiac muscle cells varied in size but most frequently were hypertrophied. In fibrotic areas, present in all left atria, the muscle cells tended to be isolated from adjacent cells and exhibited degenerative changes of varying severity. These changes consisted or proliferation of Z-band material and cytoskeletal filaments, myofibrillar loss, proliferation of elements of free and extended junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum, variations in size and number of mitochondria, occurrence of abnormal mitochondria, dissociation of intercellular junctions, formation of spherical microparticles, and accumulation of lysosomal degradation products. Hypertrophy was considered to lead to cellular degeneration, with decrease or loss of contractile function. Atrial fibrillation was associated with severe cellular degeneration. The severity of degeneration was greater in patients with mitral regurgitation, with or without associated mitral stenosis, than in patients with pure mitral stenosis. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figures 29-30 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figures 15-16 PMID:145805

  16. [Progress of anticoagulation therapy in atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Hernández Olmedo, Miguel; Suárez Fernández, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation is currently a very prevalent disease and it represents one of the most common causes of disabling stroke. Antithrombotic therapies have reduced the incidence of this complication although they pose many limitations and difficulties. As a result, a large number of high risk patients do not receive an appropriate treatment. In recent years, four new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) with relevant advantages in comparison to vitaminK antagonists have been released. Four large phaseiii clinical trials have demonstrated that NOAC are at least as safe and efficacious as warfarin in stroke prevention in non-valve atrial fibrillation patients with moderate-high thrombotic risk, being their main advantage the reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. The arrival of these drugs has caused great expectations in the management of these patients but also new doubts. Lacking data in some subgroups of frail patients, the absence of specific antidotes available and specially their high cost represent nowadays the main limitations for their generalization. PMID:25192579

  17. Entrainment of circus movement tachycardia utilizing an accessory pathway with long retrograde conduction times during ventricular and atrial stimulation.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, A; Portillo, B; Mejias, J; Leon-Portillo, N; Saoudi, N C; Zaman, L

    1985-12-01

    An unusual case is presented in which a circus movement tachycardia incorporating an accessory pathway with long retrograde conduction time was transiently entrained. Overdrive high right atrial stimulation produced entrainment without atrial fusion since collision of anterograde and retrograde impulses took place within the accessory pathway. Tachycardia termination occurred when, at a faster pacing rate, an atrial impulse that collided in the accessory pathway was blocked at the atrioventricular (AV) node. In contrast, the entrainment seen during right ventricular apical stimulation was characterized by the occurrence of both fusion and collision within the ventricles. The tachycardia was terminated when a pure paced impulse that collided in the normal pathway was blocked in a retrograde direction in the accessory pathway. These data indicate that: 1) transient entrainment of this arrhythmia (circus movement tachycardia) can be identified by the classical criteria used to diagnose it, provided that fusion and collision occur within the ventricles; and 2) the accessory pathway is the weak link for tachycardia termination only during ventricular pacing since the AV node is the weak link during atrial stimulation. PMID:4067125

  18. Mechanical modulation of atrial flutter cycle length.

    PubMed

    Ravelli, Flavia; Masè, Michela; Disertori, Marcello

    2008-01-01

    Although atrial flutter (AFL) is considered a highly regular rhythm, small fluctuations in cycle length have been described. The mechanisms responsible for these interval oscillations have been investigated by recent studies in humans which have shown that cyclic variations in atrial volume and pressure following ventricular contraction may account for the spontaneous variability of AFL. Other studies have shown that variations in the dimensions of the atria, caused by hemodynamical alterations due to imposed manoeuvres, directly modify the rate of AFL. All this evidence has led to the development of the mechano-electrical feedback (MEF) hypothesis, which assumes that changes in atrial volume directly affect AFL cycle length variability by modifying the conduction properties of the circulating impulse in the atrium. In the present study, we re-examined the variability pattern of typical AFL by spectral analysis aiming to support the MEF hypothesis for AFL cycle length variability. In a study population of 30 patients with typical AFL, we observed that AFL cycle length presented a spontaneous beat-to-beat variability, composed of two oscillations: a main oscillation at the frequency of ventricular contraction (1.70+/-0.48 Hz, spectral power: 15.4+/-17.6 ms2) and a second oscillation at the frequency of respiration (0.32+/-0.07 Hz, spectral power: 2.9+/-2.6 ms2). Both ventricular and respiratory oscillations persisted after pharmacologic autonomic blockade (ventricular spectral power: 17.7+/-14.7 ms2 (before block) vs 20.2+/-18.3 ms2 (after block), p=NS; respiratory spectral power: 6.0+/-3.8 ms2 (before block) vs 5.0+/-3.4 ms2 (after block), p=NS), suggesting a non-neurally mediated underlying mechanism. Contrary to respiratory modulation of heart rate during sinus rhythm, respiratory AFL cycle length oscillations displayed a reverse pattern, with longer cycle lengths during inspiration and shorter during expiration (AA insp=223.2+/-28.6 ms vs AA exp=221.1+/-28.2 ms, p<0.0005), which was consistent with a mechanical modulation of AFL reentry. The use of spectral analysis techniques applied to ventricular interval series and combined with computer simulations of atrioventricular conduction showed that the respiratory oscillation of atrial cycle length determined an oscillation in ventricular intervals with longer intervals during inspiration and shorter during expiration (VV insp=639.9+/-186.0 ms vs VV exp=634.8+/-182.9 ms, p<0.05). Ventricular interval oscillations resulted amplified by a factor 1.8 with respect to corresponding atrial cycle length oscillations. Thus, the mechanical fluctuations in AFL cycle length, although of small amplitude, might become clinically relevant through a magnified effect on ventricular variability. PMID:18359063

  19. Transseptal fine needle aspiration of a large left atrial tumour.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Wing; Ruygrok, Peter; Sutton, Timothy; Ding, Patricia; van Vliet, Chris; Occleshaw, Christopher; Smith, Warren

    2010-07-01

    The diagnosis of cardiac tumours is often based on images without tissue diagnosis or tissue obtained at surgery. Percutaneous myocardial biopsy via a transvenous approach has been described in literatures but this technique is not feasible with left atrial tumours. We report a patient presenting with heart failure and left atrial tumour. The diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasm was established pre-operatively via successful transseptal fine needle aspiration of cells from a left atrial tumour. We believe this technique worth consideration to aid pre-surgery diagnosis. PMID:19656723

  20. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of atrial fibrillation: a population-based follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Krijthe, Bouwe P; Heeringa, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Stricker, Bruno H

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the risk of atrial fibrillation in a prospective community-based follow-up study of elderly individuals with uniform case assessment and data on potential confounders. Design Data came from the population-based follow-up study, the Rotterdam Study. Participants The study comprised 8423 participants without atrial fibrillation at baseline. Main outcome measures Atrial fibrillation was ascertained from ECG assessments as well as medical records. Use of NSAIDs was obtained from automated prescription records by linkage with participating pharmacies. We used Cox proportional hazards models to study the association between NSAID drug use and atrial fibrillation. Use of NSAIDs was included in the model as a time-varying variable. Results At baseline, the mean age of the study population was 68.5?years (SD: 8.7) and 58% were women. During a mean follow-up of 12.9?years, 857 participants developed atrial fibrillation. Current use of NSAIDs was associated with increased risk compared with never-use (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.88). Also, recent use (within 30?days after discontinuation of NSAIDs) was associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with never-use (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.51) adjusted for age, sex and several potential confounders. Conclusions In this study, use of NSAIDs was associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms behind this association. PMID:24713211

  1. Contrast-enhanced tissue Doppler imaging of the left atrial appendage is a new quantitative measure of spontaneous echocardiographic contrast in atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erwan Donal; John A. Sallach; R. Daniel Murray; Jeanne K. Drinko; Susan E. Jasper; James D. Thomas; Allan L. Klein

    Aims Although left atrial appendage spontaneous echo contrast (LAASEC) is a marker of increased thromboembolic risk in atrial fibrillation, it has previously only been evaluated qualitatively. We sought to determine if an intravenous contrast echocardiographic agent combined with tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of the LAA could accurately quantify LAA-SEC in patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods and results We prospectively identified

  2. Feasibility of atrial fibrillation detection and use of a preceding synchronization interval as a criterion for shock delivery in humans with atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasbir S. Sra; Cheryl Maglio; Anwer Dhala; Zalmen Blanck; Michael Biehl; Sanjay Deshpande; Edward T. Keelan; Mohammad R. Jazayeri; Masood Akhtar

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed the feasibility of detecting atrial fibrillation (AF) and delivery of appropriately timed R wave shocks using an implantable atrial defibrillator.Background. For atrial defibrillation therapy to be feasible in an implantable form, AF must be detected in a specific fashion, and the risk of ventricular proarrhythmia should be minimized.Methods. Eleven patients with AF underwent testing with an

  3. Cellular mechanism of angiotensin II-induced atrial natriuretic peptide release in rat right atrial tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayet Soualmia; Françoise Masson; Christiane Barthelémy; Geneviè Maistre; Alain Carayon

    1996-01-01

    This study presents an investigation of the mechanism of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release in superfused sliced right atria of rats. Ang II (0.1 ?M) enhanced ANP release by 49 %. This phenomenon was significantly blocked by (Sara1-Ileu8) Ang II (1 ?M) and losartan (0.1 ?M). The use of neomycin (100 ?M), a phospholipase-C inhibitor completely

  4. Clinical observation of atrial threshold monitoring algorithm: a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    She, Jianqing; Zhou, Jing; Hu, Zhan; Xia, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the atrial capture management in an atrial threshold monitoring algorithm. By calculating the enabling rate of the atrial threshold monitoring algorithm and comparing atrial thresholds measured automatically and manually, we evaluate its safety, reliability and applicability in clinical practice. Methods and results: Data were collected at implant, start of atrial threshold monitoring, visits scheduled 1 month, 2 months and 4 months thereafter, and upon notification of adverse events. Atrial threshold monitoring algorithm was enabled in 94 patients, while in 38 not, indicating an enabling rate of 71.2%. Causes of the unsuccessful attempts to enable automatic atrial threshold include tachycardia (2, 5.3%), and atrial safety margin not met (36, 94.7%). A total of 88 pairs of atrial thresholds measured automatically and manually were gained. The auto threshold was 0.528 ± 0.270 V, and the manual threshold was 0.580 ± 0.223 V. There is a strict correlation between the automatic measurements and those conducted manually by the physician with a P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed during the 1-month, 2-month and 4-month follow-up. Conclusion: Atrial threshold monitoring algorithm is safe, reliable and applicable over time. Atrial threshold monitoring tested atrial threshold was demonstrated to be clinically equivalent to the manual atrial threshold test. The addition of atrial threshold monitoring will benefit the patients by reducing energy cost and enhancing pacemaker safety. PMID:26131207

  5. Fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and thromboembolism: mechanistic links and clinical inferences.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, Benjamin J; Copeland-Halperin, Robert S; Halperin, Jonathan L

    2015-05-26

    The association of atrial fibrillation (AF) with ischemic stroke has long been recognized; yet, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this relationship are incompletely understood. Clinical schemas, such as the CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ? 75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65 to 74 years, sex category) score, incompletely account for thromboembolic risk, and emerging evidence suggests that stroke can occur in patients with AF even after sinus rhythm is restored. Atrial fibrosis correlates with both the persistence and burden of AF, and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is gaining utility for detection and quantification of the fibrotic substrate, but methodological challenges limit its use. Factors related to evolution of the thrombogenic fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy support the view that AF is a marker of stroke risk regardless of whether or not the arrhythmia is sustained. Antithrombotic therapy should be guided by a comprehensive assessment of intrinsic risk rather than the presence or absence of AF at a given time. PMID:25998669

  6. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. III. Release, persistence and rate of spread of an identifiable strain of myxoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, J. C.; Kerr, P. J.; Simms, N. G.; Hood, G. M.; Pech, R. P.; Robinson, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    An identifiable strain of myxoma virus was introduced into four local populations of wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus on the southern tablelands of New South Wales (NSW) and its spread in the presence of other field strains was monitored for 6 months. The main vector in this region was considered to be the European rabbit flea Spilopsyllis cuniculi. Each population of rabbits was of a high density and living in groups of warrens covering areas from 59 to 87 hectares. Rabbits occupying centrally located warrens were inoculated with the virus in late September or early October (spring) and the subsequent appearance of myxomatosis across the sites monitored by trapping, shooting and visual observations. Samples, taken from rabbits with myxomatosis, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that allowed identification of the introduced strain. On all four sites the introduced virus spread from the inoculated rabbits in the centrally located warrens to rabbits in surrounding warrens. On Sites 1 and 3, this spread continued across the entire site persisting for at least 118 and 174 days respectively. On Sites 2 and 4, the virus was detected for 78 and 62 days respectively and the subsequent inability to detect the introduced virus correlated with the appearance of an unrelated field strain. Using three different methods of calculation, rates of spread ranged from 3.7 to 17.8 m d(-1). PMID:12613755

  7. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. III. Release, persistence and rate of spread of an identifiable strain of myxoma virus.

    PubMed

    Merchant, J C; Kerr, P J; Simms, N G; Hood, G M; Pech, R P; Robinson, A J

    2003-02-01

    An identifiable strain of myxoma virus was introduced into four local populations of wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus on the southern tablelands of New South Wales (NSW) and its spread in the presence of other field strains was monitored for 6 months. The main vector in this region was considered to be the European rabbit flea Spilopsyllis cuniculi. Each population of rabbits was of a high density and living in groups of warrens covering areas from 59 to 87 hectares. Rabbits occupying centrally located warrens were inoculated with the virus in late September or early October (spring) and the subsequent appearance of myxomatosis across the sites monitored by trapping, shooting and visual observations. Samples, taken from rabbits with myxomatosis, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that allowed identification of the introduced strain. On all four sites the introduced virus spread from the inoculated rabbits in the centrally located warrens to rabbits in surrounding warrens. On Sites 1 and 3, this spread continued across the entire site persisting for at least 118 and 174 days respectively. On Sites 2 and 4, the virus was detected for 78 and 62 days respectively and the subsequent inability to detect the introduced virus correlated with the appearance of an unrelated field strain. Using three different methods of calculation, rates of spread ranged from 3.7 to 17.8 m d(-1). PMID:12613755

  8. Echocardiographically guided balloon atrial septostomy during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy A. O'Connor; Gregory J. Downing; Lesley L. Ewing; Rengasamy Gowdamarajan

    1993-01-01

    Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in infants with congenital heart disease is becoming more frequent. We present the first reported use of balloon atrial septostomy during ECMO support and describe possible complications of such procedures unique to ECMO therapy.

  9. A Contemporary Review on the Genetic Basis of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, and affected individuals suffer from increased rates of heart failure, stroke, and death. Despite the enormous clinical burden that it exerts on patients and health care systems, contemporary treatment strategies have only modest efficacy that likely stems from our limited understanding of its underlying pathophysiology. Epidemiological studies have provided unequivocal evidence that the arrhythmia has a substantial heritable component. Subsequent investigations into the genetics underlying atrial fibrillation have suggested that there is considerable interindividual variability in the pathophysiology characterizing the arrhythmia. This heterogeneity may partly account for the poor treatment efficacy of current therapies. Subdividing atrial fibrillation into mechanistic subtypes on the basis of genotype illustrates the heterogeneous nature of the arrhythmia and may ultimately help guide treatment strategies. A pharmacogenetic approach to the management of atrial fibrillation may lead to dramatic improvements in treatment efficacy and improved patient outcomes PMID:24932358

  10. Mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias: focus on atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Rosen, M R

    2001-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of morbidity in the aging population. Initially preponderant in men over age 60, it ultimately becomes a disease of women, in part perhaps because of their greater longevity. The subject of AF is an extremely complex one, as described in this article. The author deals with atrial size and atrial pressure, atrial structure, and electrophysiologic correlates of chronic AF in human subjects. He also discusses pacing-induced models of AF and ionic determinants of pacing-induced AF. He emphasizes the changes that occur in the atrium as a result of rapid rate and/or fibrillation and the interdependence of AF and changes in myocardial structure. PMID:11605354

  11. Multifocal atrial tachycardia: a toxic effect of theophylline.

    PubMed

    Levine, J H; Michael, J R; Guarnieri, T

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen patients with multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT) who were taking theophylline were identified over 6 months. After theophylline was discontinued the atrial rate fell and MAT resolved in all sixteen patients. Five patients were challenged with intravenous aminophylline to investigate the role of theophylline in the genesis of MAT. MAT with a rapid ventricular response occurred in all five even though metabolic and respiratory variables did not change. MAT returned on challenge in three patients in whom serum theophylline levels were within the generally accepted therapeutic range (10-20 mg/l). In individual patients, theophylline had a dose-related effect on the atrial rate and the amount of ectopic atrial activity. Thus, theophylline may commonly precipitate MAT and treatment with the drug should be carefully considered in patients with respiratory insufficiency and MAT. PMID:2856947

  12. A Functional Polymorphism C-509T in TGF?-1 Promoter Contributes to Susceptibility and Prognosis of Lone Atrial Fibrillation in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yijiang; Wang, Dongjin

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) is an important mediator of atrial fibrosis and atrial fibrillation (AF). But the involved genetic mechanism is unknown. Herein, the TGF-?1 C-509T polymorphism (rs1800469) was genotyped in a case-control study of 840 patients and 845 controls in Chinese population to explore the association between the polymorphism and susceptibility and prognosis of lone AF. As a result, the CT and/or TT genotypes had an increased lone AF risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR)?=?1.50 for CT, OR?=?3.72 for TT, and OR?=?2.15 for CT/TT], compared with the TGF-?1CC genotype. Moreover, patients carrying CT/TT genotypes showed a higher possibility of AF recurrence after catheter ablation, compared with patients carrying CC genotype. In a genotype-phenotype correlation analysis using 24 normal left atrial appendage samples, increasing gradients of atrial TGF-?1 expression levels positively correlated with atrial collagen volume fraction were identified in samples with CC, CT and TT genotypes. The in vitro luciferase assays also showed a higher luciferase activity of the -509T allele than that of the -509C allele. In conclusion, the TGF-?1 C-509T polymorphism is involved in the etiology of lone AF and thus may be a marker for genetic susceptibility to lone AF and predicting prognosis after catheter ablation in Chinese populations. Therefore, we provide new information about treatment strategies and our understanding of TGF-?1 in AF. PMID:25402477

  13. Intraperitoneal atrial natriuretic peptide increases peritoneal fluid and solute removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Wang; Hui-Hong Cheng; Olof Heimbürger; Chi Chen; Jonas Bergström; Bengt Lindholm

    2001-01-01

    Intraperitoneal atrial natriuretic peptide increases peritoneal fluid and solute removal.BackgroundAtrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a hormone with well-known diuretic and vasodilating properties. Recently it was reported that ANP could increase the peritoneal fluid formation and increase peritoneal solute clearance. This study investigated the effect of ANP on peritoneal fluid and solute transport characteristics.MethodsEighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three

  14. Medical Management of Atrial Fibrillation - Which Medications Should be Considered?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Carlson; Steve Hsu

    Atrial fibrillation is the most frequently encountered sus - tained cardiac arrhythmia affecting some 2.3 million adults in the United States. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation increases dramatically in the presence of structural heart disease and with advancing age. Specifically, studies indicate the prevalence to be 0.1% among adults younger than 55 and up to 9.0% in persons aged 80

  15. The German Competence Network on Atrial Fibrillation (AFNET)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günter Breithardt; Dobromir Dobrev; Nicolas Doll; Andreas Goette; Boris Hoffmann; Paulus Kirchhof; Ilka Köster; Karl-Heinz Kuck; Angelika Leute; Thomas Meinertz; Michael Näbauer; Michael Oeff; Ursula Ravens; Andreas Schuchert; Claudia Sprenger; Gerhard Steinbeck; Stephan Willems

    2008-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   The German Competence Network on Atrial Fibrillation (AFNET) is an interdisciplinary national research network funded by the\\u000a Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) since 2003. The AFNET aims at improving treatment of atrial fibrillation\\u000a (AF), the most frequent sustained arrhythmia of the heart. The AFNET has established a nationwide patient registry on manifestation,\\u000a diagnostics, and therapy of AF

  16. Antiarrhythmic surgery for treatment of atrial fibrillation--new concepts.

    PubMed

    Hindricks, G; Mohr, F W; Autschbach, R; Kottkamp, H

    1999-08-01

    Curative treatment of atrial fibrillation is one of the main challenges of todays electrophysiology. The ideal treatment strategy should be effective, safe, and easy to apply to allow a widespread use. In addition, curative treatment should not only aim on the restoration of sinus rhythm but also restore mechanical atrial function to improve hemodynamics thereby avoiding anticoagulation. With respect to percutaneous catheter ablation no treatment concept with proven efficiency to cure chronic permanent atrial fibrillation is currently available. Surgical techniques such as the Corridor operation and the left atrial isolation procedure have been shown to effectively store sinus rhythm but these procedures do not restore biatrial transport function. Cox's Maze procedure is highly effective, however, it is an extensive and very time consuming technique which precludes the widespread application of this operation. Thus, new intraoperative treatment concepts are currently under intense clinical investigation. Most new concepts aim on the application of contiguous radiofrequency-induced lesion lines in the atria. Some of the new treatment strategies are based on the replacement of the surgical incisions of the Maze procedure using inrtraoperative radiofrequency coagulation thereby preventing functional determined reentrant circuits. Other new concepts aim on the induction of contiguous atrial lesion lines to eliminate anatomical determined atrial reentrant circuits. The main advantage of these new concepts when compared to the Maze procedure is a significantly shorter treatment time of approximately 20 minutes. In addition, some treatment strategies can also be applied in conjunction with minimally invasive cardiac surgery. The initial results reported with application of new treatment concepts indicate that approximately 60-80% of patients operated on can be cured from atrial fibrillation. Randomised studies with these new treatment strategies are necessary to validate the results and to outline which treatment concept may prove superior to others. Based on the progress made, it can be expected that intraoperative ablation of chronic permanent atrial fibrillation will become an important curative treatment strategy. PMID:10520770

  17. [Anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation: new therapeutic alternatives].

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan M

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental treatment of atrial fibrillation is based on maintenance of sinus rhythm or control of ventricular rate and preventing arterial thromboembolism. Warfarin has been the anti-thrombotic agent of choice for the last 50 years. However multiple interactions with other drugs and certain types of food and vegetables with high Vitamin K content complicate its use. It also requires multiple blood tests to adjust the dose in order to reach adequate and stable anticoagulation. Three new, di-fferent anti thrombotic agents are described. They are as or more effective than Warfarin with decreased incidence of hemorrhagic events. Dabigratan is a direct antithrombotic inhibitor, Rivaroxaban and Apixaban inhibits factor Xa. Their use will probably depend on their cost effectiveness in the population at risk for thromboembolic events. PMID:23763229

  18. The role of rotors in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Vijay; Narayan, Sanjiv M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant advances in our understanding of atrial fibrillation (AF) mechanisms in the last 15 years, ablation outcomes remain suboptimal. A potential reason is that many ablation techniques focus on anatomic, rather than patient-specific functional targets for ablation. Panoramic contact mapping, incorporating phase analysis, repolarization and conduction dynamics, and oscillations in AF rate, overcomes many prior difficulties with mapping AF. This approach provides evidence that the mechanisms sustaining human AF are deterministic, largely due to stable electrical rotors and focal sources in either atrium. Ablation of such sources (Focal Impulse and Rotor Modulation: FIRM ablation) has been shown to improve ablation outcome compared with conventional ablation alone; independent laboratories directly targeting stable rotors have shown similar results. Clinical trials examining the role of stand-alone FIRM ablation are in progress. Looking forward, translating insights from patient-specific mapping to evidence-based guidelines and clinical practice is the next challenge in improving patient outcomes in AF management. PMID:25713729

  19. Reflex effects on the heart of stimulating left atrial receptors

    PubMed Central

    Furnival, C. M.; Linden, R. J.; Snow, H. M.

    1971-01-01

    1. Stimulation of left atrial receptors, by distension of the pulmonary vein/left atrial junctions, is known to cause a reflex increase in heart rate; the efferent pathway is known to be solely in the sympathetic nerves. 2. In expectation of a concomitant positive inotropic response the effect of stimulating the left atrial receptors on the inotropic state of the left ventricle was studied, using as a known sensitive index of inotropic changes the maximal rate of rise of pressure in the left ventricle (dP/dt max). 3. Stimulation of left atrial receptors resulted in an increase in heart rate but there were no significant concomitant changes in dP/dt max. 4. It is concluded that activity in this discrete efferent pathway does not include an inotropic effect on the left ventricle and therefore the reflex involves only those sympathetic nerves which innervate the sinu-atrial node. 5. The possible function of atrial receptors in the regulation of heart volumes is discussed. PMID:5124571

  20. Cardiac adrenergic control and atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Workman, Antony J

    2010-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, and it causes substantial mortality. The autonomic nervous system, and particularly the adrenergic/cholinergic balance, has a profound influence on the occurrence of AF. Adrenergic stimulation from catecholamines can cause AF in patients. In human atrium, catecholamines can affect each of the electrophysiological mechanisms of AF initiation and/or maintenance. Catecholamines may produce membrane potential oscillations characteristic of afterdepolarisations, by increasing Ca2+ current, [Ca2+]i and consequent Na+-Ca2+ exchange, and may also enhance automaticity. Catecholamines might affect reentry, by altering excitability or conduction, rather than action potential terminal repolarisation or refractory period. However, which arrhythmia mechanisms predominate is unclear, and likely depends on cardiac pathology and adrenergic tone. Heart failure (HF), a major cause of AF, causes adrenergic activation and adaptational changes, remodelling, of atrial electrophysiology, Ca2+ homeostasis and adrenergic responses. Chronic AF also remodels these, but differently to HF. Myocardial infarction, and AF, cause neural remodelling that also may promote AF. ?-adrenoceptor antagonists (?-blockers) are used in the treatment of AF, mainly to control the ventricular rate, by slowing AV conduction. ?-blockers also reduce the incidence of AF, particularly in HF or after cardiac surgery, when adrenergic tone is high. Furthermore, the chronic treatment of patients with ?-blockers remodels the atria, with a potentially anti-arrhythmic increase in the refractory period. Therefore, the suppression of AF by ?-blocker treatment may involve an attenuation of arrhythmic activity that is caused by increased [Ca2+]i, coupled with effects of adaptation to the treatment. An improved understanding of the involvement of the adrenergic system and its control in basic mechanisms of AF under differing cardiac pathologies might lead to better treatments. PMID:19960186

  1. Investigation of atrial vulnerability by analysis of the sinus node EG from atrial fibrillation models using a phase synchronization method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Wu, Zhong; Yang, Cuiwei; Shao, Jun; Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Abbott, Derek

    2012-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) can result in life-threatening arrhythmia, and a clinically convenient means for detecting vulnerability remains elusive. We investigated atrial vulnerability by analyzing the sinus electrogram (EG) from AF animal models using a phase synchronization method. Using acetylcholine (ACh)-induced acute canine AF models (n= 4), a total of 128 electrical leads were attached to the surface of the anterior and posterior atria, and the pulmonary veins to form an electrocardiological mapping system. ACh was injected at varying concentrations with ladder-type adjustments. Sinus EGs and induced AF EGs that pertain to specific ACh concentrations were recorded.We hypothesize that the atrial vulnerability may be correlated with the Shannon entropy (SE) of the phase difference matrix that is extracted from the sinus EG. Our research suggests that the combination of SE with the synchronization method enables the sinus node EG to be analyzed and used to estimate atrial vulnerability. PMID:22907956

  2. Multiple Biomarkers and Atrial Fibrillation in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Wild, Philipp S.; Wilde, Sandra; Ojeda, Francisco M.; Schulz, Andreas; Zeller, Tanja; Sinning, Christoph R.; Kunde, Jan; Lackner, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Different biological pathways have been related to atrial fibrillation (AF). Novel biomarkers capturing inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurohumoral activation have not been investigated comprehensively in AF. Methods and Results In the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (n?=?5000), mean age 56±11 years, 51% males, we measured ten biomarkers representing inflammation (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen), cardiac and vascular function (midregional pro adrenomedullin [MR-proADM], midregional pro atrial natriuretic peptide [MR-proANP], N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [Nt-proBNP], sensitive troponin I ultra [TnI ultra], copeptin, and C-terminal pro endothelin-1), and oxidative stress (glutathioneperoxidase-1, myeloperoxidase) in relation to manifest AF (n?=?161 cases). Individuals with AF were older, mean age 64.9±8.3, and more often males, 71.4%. In Bonferroni-adjusted multivariable regression analyses strongest associations per standard deviation increase in biomarker concentrations were observed for the natriuretic peptides Nt-proBNP (odds ratio [OR] 2.89, 99.5% confidence interval [CI] 2.14–3.90; P<0.0001), MR-proANP (OR 2.45, 99.5% CI 1.91–3.14; P<0.0001), the vascular function marker MR-proADM (OR 1.54, 99.5% CI 1.20–1.99; P<0.0001), TnI ultra (OR 1.50, 99.5% CI 1.19–1.90; P<0.0001) and. fibrinogen (OR 1.44, 99.5% CI 1.19–1.75; P<0.0001). Based on a model comprising known clinical risk factors for AF, all biomarkers combined resulted in a net reclassification improvement of 0.665 (99.3% CI 0.441–0.888) and an integrated discrimination improvement of >13%. Conclusions In conclusion, in our large, population-based study, we identified novel biomarkers reflecting vascular function, MR-proADM, inflammation, and myocardial damage, TnI ultra, as related to AF; the strong association of natriuretic peptides was confirmed. Prospective studies need to examine whether risk prediction of AF can be enhanced beyond clinical risk factors using these biomarkers. PMID:25401728

  3. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging assessment of regional and global left atrial function before and after catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Nori; Gilbert Raff; Vikesh Gupta; Ralph Gentry; Judith Boura; David E. Haines

    2009-01-01

    Background  Ablation of the left atrium and pulmonary veins antrum (PVAI) can be an effective treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). However,\\u000a there is discrepancy in the literature regarding the effect extensive ablation has on left atrial (LA) function. We sought\\u000a to evaluate the effect that AF ablation procedures has on global and regional wall motion as assessed by cardiovascular magnetic\\u000a resonance

  4. Freedom From Atrial Tachyarrhythmias After Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation. A Randomized Comparison Between 2 Current Ablation Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin R. Karch; Bernhard Zrenner; Isabel Deisenhofer

    2005-01-01

    Background—Data on the comparative value of the circumferential pulmonary vein and the segmental pulmonary vein ablation for interventional treatment of atrial fibrillation are limited. We hypothesized that the circumferential pulmonary vein ablation approach was superior to the segmental pulmonary vein ablation approach. Methods and Results—One hundred patients with highly symptomatic atrial fibrillation were randomly assigned to undergo either circumferential (n50)

  5. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and blood pressure during chronic salt loading in spontaneously hypertensive rats with right atrial appendectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gradin; J. Hedner; T. Hedner; B. Persson

    1987-01-01

    Summary Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were subjected to right atrial appendectomy (ATRX) or sham operated. Five days after this procedure the rats were put on tap water or 1.5% NaCl as drinking water for 1 week. The blood pressure (carotid artery), 24 hours urinary sodium and kalium excretion, plasma levels of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ir-ANP) and the rise in

  6. Role of nitric oxide on atrial natriuretic peptide release induced by angiotensin II in superfused rat atrial tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayet Soualmia; Christiane Barthélemy; Joelle Eurin; Françoise Masson; Alain Carayon

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) on atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release stimulated by angiotensin II (Ang II) (10?7 M) in superfused sliced rat atrial tissue. The use of NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) at 10?4 M, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase did not modify basal ANP release. In presence of Ang II (10?7 M), we

  7. P-wave morphology during right atrial pacing before and after atrial flutter ablation--a new marker for success.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, M H; Kalman, J M; Barron, H V; Lesh, M D

    1997-05-15

    Fourteen patients with typical atrial flutter underwent pacing from the low lateral right atrium and the proximal coronary sinus in normal sinus rhythm before and after catheter ablation. During low lateral right atrial pacing, a positive change in P-wave morphology in the inferior leads was noted in every patient (n = 12) in whom bidirectional block was achieved; no recurrence was noted in any of these patients. PMID:9165174

  8. Tetralogy of fallot with left superior vena cava and coronary sinus atrial septal defect: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Mallula, Kiran K; Patel, Neil D; Abdulla, Ra-Id; Bokowski, John W

    2015-06-01

    This report describes a rare case of Tetralogy of Fallot with associated left superior vena cava and coronary sinus atrial septal defect. The initial diagnosis was made by echocardiography. The patient underwent complete repair at 2 months of age. Her postoperative course was complicated by low cardiac output requiring ECMO. She was subsequently weaned off of ECMO and discharged home. She continues to do well on serial follow-up. PMID:25762469

  9. Late MitraClip procedure after left atrial appendage occlusion: indication and procedure description.

    PubMed

    Cammalleri, Valeria; Scandura, Salvatore; Tamburino, Corrado; Ussia, Gian Paolo

    2014-02-01

    We report the first human case of percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair using MitraClip System (Abbott Vascular, Abbott Park, IL) in a patient, who previously underwent left atrial appendage closure with PLAATO™ System (ev3. Inc., Plymouth, MN). The procedure was successfully performed using the standard MitraClip technique, in the catheterization laboratory, with transesophageal echocardiographic and fluoroscopic guidance. We showed that a double percutaneous procedure for stroke prevention and mitral regurgitation treatment might be a valid approach in selected patients ineligible for chronic anticoagulation therapy and at high risk for conventional cardiac surgery. PMID:23436381

  10. Presentation of atrial fibrillation following oral dexamethasone treatment in a NF2 patient.

    PubMed

    Hebb, Andrea L O; Imran, Syed Ali; Morris, David P; Bance, Manohar; Walling, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (A-fib) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia which is associated with an increased risk of mortality secondary to stroke and coronary artery disease. Intravenous glucocorticoid therapy (such as dexamethasone and hydrocortisone) is frequently used peri-operatively in patients undergoing cardiac surgery to prevent A-fib. Dexamethasone is also frequently used in patients with single or bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS), to reduce tumor swelling both before and after radiation treatment. We describe a case of A-fib in a 50 year-old female patient with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2), who was prescribed dexamethasone for post-radiation tumor edema. PMID:24888793

  11. Atrial septostomy in cardiogenic shock related to H1N1 infection.

    PubMed

    Dahdouh, Ziad; Roule, Vincent; Lognone, Thérèse; Sabatier, Rémi; Massetti, Massimo; Grollier, Gilles

    2013-03-01

    The circulatory assistance, mainly the extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) restores hemodynamics and serves to limit the myocardial work, in order to avoid left ventricular dilation, high end-diastolic pressures, increased wall stress, subendocardial ischemia and consequently worsening pulmonary congestion and edema. In patients with large myocardial damage, sometimes an additional unloading of the left ventricle is warranted. We report a case of percutaneous blade and balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) as an add-on to the circulatory assistance to unload the left heart in a cardiogenic shock related to H1N1 infection. PMID:23425007

  12. A Butterfly-Shaped Primary Cardiac Lymphoma That Showed Bi-Atrial Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung Sun; Park, Mahn-Won; Kim, Hyoung Doo; Baek, Ju Yeal; Youn, Ho-Joong; Seung, Ki-Bae; Kim, Jae-Hyung

    2012-01-01

    We described here a patient who presented with symptoms of heart failure who was found to have severe bilateral impairment of atrioventricular inflow. Primary cardiac lymphoma (PCL) with extensive involvement of the two atria, pericardium and myocardium is an extremely rare tumor in immunocompetent patients. We report here a case of PCL in an immunocompetent patient with involvement of both atria and the atrial septum. The tumor had a butterfly shape. We could not do surgical excision because of the massive pericardiac invasion. The diagnosis was B-cell lymphoma and this was confirmed by the pericardiac biopsy. PMID:22363383

  13. Atypical abnormal pulmonary vein drainage with atrial septal defect: surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Szychta, Wojciech; Cerin, Gheorghe; Popa, Bogdan Adrian; Felice, Armienti; Lanzillo, Guido; Diena, Marco; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Sinus venosus atrial septal defect (SV-ASD) usually coexists with partial anomalous pulmonary vein connection (PAPVC). It is a difficult diagnosis in transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) due to eccentric position of defects. We present a rare case of atypical anatomical variation in PAPVC, which was never described before. Two right pulmonary veins drained into superior vena cava, which overrode SV-ASD and interatrial septum, a third pulmonary vein into the right atrium. Complete diagnosis could not be set after TTE, nor transesophageal echocardiography, whereas angio-CT was finally conclusive. This diagnostic approach allowed the surgical planning. PMID:25604753

  14. Novel mitral clipping technique overcoming extreme atrial dilatation.

    PubMed

    Tiroch, Klaus; Vorpahl, Marc; Seyfarth, Melchior

    2014-10-01

    The mitral clipping technique is emerging as a promising new treatment option for severe mitral regurgitation. The device was designed and assessed in intermediate risk populations, which is in contrast to the real world, where most patients are deemed to be at very high risk for open heart surgery. The cardiac anatomy of these patients often challenges the freedom grades of the current mitral clip device. In this case presentation, we describe a novel technique overcoming extreme atrial dilation in a patient with severe mitral regurgitation despite previous implantation of two mitral clips. Based on a low/anterior trans-septal puncture, this procedure relied on a counter clock-wise 90° turn of the steerable sheath and alignment of the clip delivery system to the mitral valve, thereby gaining additional longitudinal freedom. This resulted in the successful implantation of two additional clips with achievement of a mild to moderate mitral regurgitation without relevant gradient and dramatic and sustained clinical improvement of the patient. PMID:24167092

  15. Lone atrial fibrillation: electrophysiology, risk factors, catheter ablation and other non-pharmacologic treatments.

    PubMed

    Kanmanthareddy, Arun; Emert, Martin P; Pimentel, Rhea C; Reddy, Yeruva Madhu; Bommana, Sudharani; Atkins, Donita; Tadakamalla, Rachana; Lakkireddy, Thanmay; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation occurring in the absence of cardiovascular disease in individuals younger than 60 years is known as lone atrial fibrillation. Nearly 1-12% of atrial fibrillation is considered to be lone atrial fibrillation. As our understanding of atrial fibrillation grows, we wonder as to whether there is such as thing as "lone" atrial fibrillation? We know that male sex, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, alcohol consumption and endurance sports increase the risk of developing lone atrial fibrillation. Family history of atrial fibrillation increases the risk strongly and there are several recognized mutations that are causative of lone atrial fibrillation. Common triggers for origin of atrial fibrillation are the pulmonary veins. The atrial substrate provides the reentry circuits for perpetuating the arrhythmia. The autonomic nervous system is a key modulator and allows the continuation of the atrial fibrillation. Catheter ablation has been very effective in the treatment of this condition. The ablation procedure involves isolation of the pulmonary veins, antrum, complex fractionated electrograms and other sites. Alternatively surgical techniques can be used to isolate the pulmonary veins and surgical techniques have evolved to minimally invasive procedures and these are as effective as catheter ablation. Early intervention improves the left atrial remodeling and may lead to fewer recurrences. PMID:25175093

  16. Increased Vulnerability to Atrial Fibrillation in Transgenic Mice With Selective Atrial Fibrosis Caused by Overexpression of TGF-?1

    PubMed Central

    Verheule, Sander; Sato, Toshiaki; Everett, Thomas; Engle, Steven K.; Otten, Dan; Rubart-von der Lohe, Michael; Nakajima, Hisako O.; Nakajima, Hidehiro; Field, Loren J.; Olgin, Jeffrey E.

    2007-01-01

    Studies on patients and large animal models suggest the importance of atrial fibrosis in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). To investigate whether increased fibrosis is sufficient to produce a substrate for AF, we have studied cardiac electrophysiology (EP) and inducibility of atrial arrhythmias in MHC-TGFcys33ser transgenic mice (Tx), which have increased fibrosis in the atrium but not in the ventricles. In anesthetized mice, wild-type (Wt) and Tx did not show significant differences in surface ECG parameters. With transesophageal atrial pacing, no significant differences were observed in EP parameters, except for a significant decrease in corrected sinus node recovery time in Tx mice. Burst pacing induced AF in 14 of 29 Tx mice, whereas AF was not induced in Wt littermates (P<0.01). In Langendorff perfused hearts, atrial conduction was studied using a 16-electrode array. Epicardial conduction velocity was significantly decreased in the Tx RA compared with the Wt RA. In the Tx LA, conduction velocity was not significantly different from Wt, but conduction was more heterogeneous. Action potential characteristics recorded with intracellular microelectrodes did not reveal differences between Wt and Tx mice in either atrium. Thus, in this transgenic mouse model, selective atrial fibrosis is sufficient to increase AF inducibility. PMID:15117823

  17. Bisphosphonates and risk of atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Bisphosphonates are the most commonly used drugs for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Although a recent FDA review of the results of clinical trials reported no clear link between bisphosphonates and serious or non-serious atrial fibrillation (AF), some epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between AF and bisphosphonates. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of non-experimental studies to evaluate the risk of AF associated with bisphosphonates. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE using a combination of the Medical Subject Headings and keywords. Our search was limited to English language articles. The pooled estimates of odds ratios (OR) as a measure of effect size were calculated using a random effects model. Results Seven eligible studies with 266,761 patients were identified: three cohort, three case-control, and one self-controlled case series. Bisphosphonate exposure was not associated with an increased risk of AF [pooled multivariate OR 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.16] after adjusting for known risk factors. Moderate heterogeneity was noted (I-squared score = 62.8%). Stratified analyses by study design, cohort versus case-control studies, yielded similar results. Egger's and Begg's tests did not suggest an evidence of publication bias (P = 0.90, 1.00 respectively). No clear asymmetry was observed in the funnel plot analysis. Few studies compared risk between bisphosphonates or by dosing. Conclusions Our study did not find an association between bisphosphonate exposure and AF. This finding is consistent with the FDA's statement. PMID:20170505

  18. Atrial Fibrillation in Decompensated Heart Failure: Associated Factors and In-Hospital Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Fernanda de Souza Nogueira Sardinha; Atié, Jacob; Garcia, Marcelo Iorio; Gripp, Eliza de Almeida; de Sousa, Andréa Silvestre; Feijó, Luiz Augusto; Xavier, Sergio Salles

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies on atrial fibrillation (AF) in decompensated heart failure (DHF) are scarce in Brazil. Objectives To determine AF prevalence, its types and associated factors in patients hospitalized due to DHF; to assess their thromboembolic risk profile and anticoagulation rate; and to assess the impact of AF on in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay. Methods Retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study of incident cases including 659 consecutive hospitalizations due to DHF, from 01/01/2006 to 12/31/2011. The thromboembolic risk was assessed by using CHADSVASc score. On univariate analysis, the chi-square, Student t and Mann Whitney tests were used. On multivariate analysis, logistic regression was used. Results The prevalence of AF was 40%, and the permanent type predominated (73.5%). On multivariate model, AF associated with advanced age (p < 0.0001), non-ischemic etiology (p = 0.02), right ventricular dysfunction (p = 0.03), lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p = 0.02), higher ejection fraction (EF) (p < 0.0001) and enlarged left atrium (LA) (p < 0.0001). The median CHADSVASc score was 4, and 90% of the cases had it ? 2. The anticoagulation rate was 52.8% on admission and 66.8% on discharge, being lower for higher scores. The group with AF had higher in-hospital mortality (11.0% versus 8.1%, p = 0.21) and longer hospital length of stay (20.5 ± 16 versus 16.3 ± 12, p = 0.001). Conclusions Atrial fibrillation is frequent in DHF, the most prevalent type being permanent AF. Atrial fibrillation is associated with more advanced age, non-ischemic etiology, right ventricular dysfunction, lower SBP, higher EF and enlarged LA. Despite the high thromboembolic risk profile, anticoagulation is underutilized. The presence of AF is associated with longer hospital length of stay and high mortality. PMID:25352505

  19. Benefit of Left Atrial Roof Linear Ablation in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: A Prospective, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Arbelo, Elena; Guiu, Esther; Bisbal, Felipe; Ramos, Pablo; Borras, Roger; Andreu, David; Tolosana, José María; Berruezo, Antonio; Brugada, Josep; Mont, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Background Isolation of the pulmonary veins (PVs) for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) is often supplemented with linear lesions within the left atrium (LA). However, there are conflicting data on the effects of creating a roof line (RL) joining the superior PVs in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). Methods and Results A cohort of 120 patients with drug?refractory PAF referred for ablation were prospectively randomized into 2 strategies: (1) PV isolation in combination with RL ablation (LA roof ablation [LARA]?1: 59 patients) or (2) PV isolation (LARA?2: 61 patients). Follow?up was performed at 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure and every 6 months thereafter. After a 3?month blanking period, recurrence was defined as the ocurrence of any atrial tachyarrhythmia lasting ?30 seconds. PV isolation was achieved in 89% and complete RL block in 81%. RF duration, fluoroscopy, and procedural times were slightly, but not significantly, longer in the LARA?1 group. After 15±10 months, there was no difference in the arrhythmia?free survival after a single AF ablation procedure (LARA?1: 59% vs. LARA?2: 56% at 12 months; log rank P=0.77). The achievement of complete RL block did not influence the results. The incidence of LA macroreentrant tachycardias was 5.1% in the LARA?1 group (n=3) versus 8.2% in the LARA?2 (n=5) (P=ns). Univariate analysis only identified AF duration as a covariate associated with arrhythmia recurrence (hazard ratio, 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 1.002 to 1.012]; P<0.01). Conclusion The linear block at the LA roof is not associated with an improved clinical outcome compared with PV isolation alone. Clinical Trial Registration URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01203241. PMID:25193295

  20. Atrial Arrhythmia in Ageing Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Unraveling the Substrate in Hypertension and Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Dennis H.; Shipp, Nicholas J.; Kelly, Darren J.; Thanigaimani, Shivshankar; Neo, Melissa; Kuklik, Pawel; Lim, Han S.; Zhang, Yuan; Drury, Karen; Wong, Christopher X.; Chia, Nicholas H.; Brooks, Anthony G.; Dimitri, Hany; Saint, David A.; Brown, Lindsay; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2013-01-01

    Background Both ageing and hypertension are known risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) although the pathophysiological contribution or interaction of the individual factors remains poorly understood. Here we aim to delineate the arrhythmogenic atrial substrate in mature spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods SHR were studied at 12 and 15 months of age (n?=?8 per group) together with equal numbers of age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto control rats (WKY). Electrophysiologic study was performed on superfused isolated right and left atrial preparations using a custom built high-density multiple-electrode array to determine effective refractory periods (ERP), atrial conduction and atrial arrhythmia inducibility. Tissue specimens were harvested for structural analysis. Results Compared to WKY controls, the SHR demonstrated: Higher systolic blood pressure (p<0.0001), bi-atrial enlargement (p<0.05), bi-ventricular hypertrophy (p<0.05), lower atrial ERP (p?=?0.008), increased atrial conduction heterogeneity (p?=?0.001) and increased atrial interstitial fibrosis (p?=?0.006) & CD68-positive macrophages infiltration (p<0.0001). These changes resulted in higher atrial arrhythmia inducibility (p?=?0.01) and longer induced AF episodes (p?=?0.02) in 15-month old SHR. Ageing contributed to incremental bi-atrial hypertrophy (p<0.01) and atrial conduction heterogeneity (p<0.01) without affecting atrial ERP, fibrosis and arrhythmia inducibility. The limited effect of ageing on the atrial substrate may be secondary to the reduction in CD68-positive macrophages. Conclusions Significant atrial electrical and structural remodeling is evident in the ageing spontaneously hypertensive rat atria. Concomitant hypertension appears to play a greater pathophysiological role than ageing despite their compounding effect on the atrial substrate. Inflammation is pathophysiologically linked to the pro-fibrotic changes in the hypertensive atria. PMID:24013508

  1. Efficacy and safety of dofetilide in patients with atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier E. Banchs; Deborah L. Wolbrette; Soraya M. Samii; Erica D. Penny-Peterson; Parag P. Patel; Sallie K. Young; Mario D. Gonzalez; Gerald V. Naccarelli

    2008-01-01

    Background  Dofetilide, an IKr blocker has been demonstrated to be effective in terminating persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter (AF\\/AFL), and in\\u000a maintaining sinus rhythm after direct current cardioversion (CV). It is not known, however, whether pharmacological conversion\\u000a with dofetilide predicts maintenance of sinus rhythm. In addition, there is limited information comparing the efficacy of\\u000a dofetilide in persistent versus paroxysmal AF\\/AFL.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods

  2. Esophageal perforation during left atrial radiofrequency ablation: Is the risk too high?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Doll; Michael A. Borger; Alexander Fabricius; Susann Stephan; Jan Gummert; Friedrich W. Mohr; Johann Hauss; Hans Kottkamp; Gerd Hindricks

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Intraoperative radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation (IRAAF) is a recently developed procedure being performed in an increasing number of patients. We have performed left atrial IRAAF in 387 patients since August 1998. The purpose of this article is to describe a serious complication of this procedure, namely IRAAF-induced esophageal perforation, in detail to identify possible risk factors.Methods: Left atrial

  3. Radiofrequency modified maze in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing concomitant cardiac surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hauw T. Sie; Willem P. Beukema; Anand R. Ramdat Misier; Arif Elvan; Jacob J. Ennema; Max M. P. Haalebos; Hein J. J. Wellens

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In the majority of patients with chronic atrial fibrillation the arrhythmia will persist after correction of the underlying structural abnormality. The maze procedure is an effective surgical method to eliminate atrial fibrillation and to restore atrial contractility. Methods: In this study we used radiofrequency energy to create lines of conduction block in both atria during cardiac surgery as a

  4. Electrotonic Coupling between Human Atrial Myocytes and Fibroblasts Alters Myocyte Excitability and Repolarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary M. Maleckar; Joseph L. Greenstein; Wayne R. Giles; Natalia A. Trayanova

    2009-01-01

    Atrial fibrosis has been implicated in the development and maintenance of atrial arrhythmias, and is characterized by expansion of the extracellular matrix and an increased number of fibroblasts (Fbs). Electrotonic coupling between atrial myocytes and Fbs may contribute to the formation of an arrhythmogenic substrate. However, the role of these cell-cell interactions in the function of both normal and diseased

  5. Ventricular fibrillation during transesophageal atrial pacing in an infant with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Kugler; David A. Danford; Carl H. Gumbiner

    1991-01-01

    A complication of transesophageal atrial pacing in an infant with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is reported. A newborn infant born with fetal hydrops had recurrent supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) that required repeated successful conversion by transesophageal atrial pacing. Because of secondary left ventricular dysfunction, digoxin was administered. During repeat transesophageal atrial pacing for recurrent SVT, ventricular fibrillation occurred. Although it is unclear

  6. Effects of lisinopril in patients with heart failure and chronic atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten P. Van Den Berg; Harry JGM. Cruns; Dirk J. Van Veldhuisen; Nico Griep; Pieter J. De Kam; K. I. Lie

    1995-01-01

    Although atrial fibrillation is common in patients with heart failure, patients with atrial fibrillation are often excluded from congestive heart failure trials or are not analyzed separately. Consequently, while the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with sinus rhythm is well established, the effect on patients with atrial fibrillation is unknown. The authors hypothesized that these agents might be

  7. Improvement of symptoms in patients with sick sinus syndrome by spontaneous development of stable atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed Central

    Vera, Z; Mason, D T; Awan, N A; Miller, R R; Janzen, D; Tonkon, M J; Vismara, L A

    1977-01-01

    Fifty-six patients with symptomatic chronic sinus bradycardia because of sick sinus syndrome (SSS) were followed for periods from one month to 11 years (average 3-2 years). Eleven developed stable atrial fibrillation persisting for 8 to 61 months; 52 had permanent demand pacemakers implanted before atrial fibrillation commenced. In the 11 patients with atrial fibrillation, 10 had adequate ventricular rate, 8 with rates greater than 100 beats/min requiring digoxin for rate control. The 8 patients with atrial fibrillation with pacemakers remained asymptomatic for 13 to 18 months without requiring reimplantation; battery failure occurred in 2 whose rapid ventricular rates were controlled by digoxin. In the other 6 patients with pacemakers who developed atrial fibrillation, adequate ventricular rates persisted resulting in overdrive suppression. No patient had systemic embolisation. The previous duration of symptomatic sinus bradycardia was longer in patients developing atrial fibrillation (average 5-5 years) compared (P less than 0-01) with patients without atrial fibrillation (1-9 years). Further, premature atrial contractions occurred in all 11 patients before atrial fibrillation in contrast to only 21 of the 45 patients without atrial fibrillation. It is concluded that occurrence of atrial fibrillation in SSS with symptomatic sinus bradycardia provides a natural cure of symptoms caused by bradycardia. These data indicate that permanent ventricular pacing may not be necessary if persistent atrial fibrillation develops in SSS. Images PMID:836729

  8. Identifying Future Research Priorities Using Value of Information Analyses: Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion Devices in Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Micieli, Andrew; Bennell, Maria C.; Pham, Ba’; Krahn, Murray; Singh, Sheldon M.; Wijeysundera, Harindra C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Left atrial appendage occlusion devices are cost effective for stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation when compared with dabigatran or warfarin. We illustrate the use of value?of?information analyses to quantify the degree and consequences of decisional uncertainty and to identify future research priorities. Methods and Results A microsimulation decision?analytic model compared left atrial appendage occlusion devices to dabigatran or warfarin in atrial fibrillation. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis quantified the degree of parameter uncertainty. Expected value of perfect information analyses showed the consequences of this uncertainty. Expected value of partial perfect information analyses were done on sets of input parameters (cost, utilities, and probabilities) to identify the source of the greatest uncertainty. One?way sensitivity analyses identified individual parameters for expected value of partial perfect information analyses. Population expected value of perfect information and expected value of partial perfect information provided an upper bound on the cost of future research. Substantial uncertainty was identified, with left atrial appendage occlusion devices being preferred in only 47% of simulations. The expected value of perfect information was $8542 per patient and $227.3 million at a population level. The expected value of partial perfect information for the set of probability parameters represented the most important source of uncertainty, at $6875. Identified in 1?way sensitivity analyses, the expected value of partial perfect information for the odds ratio for stroke with left atrial appendage occlusion compared with warfarin was calculated at $7312 per patient or $194.5 million at a population level. Conclusion The relative efficacy of stroke reduction with left atrial appendage occlusion devices in relation to warfarin is an important source of uncertainty. Improving estimates of this parameter should be the priority for future research in this area. PMID:25227405

  9. Pre-excited atrial fibrillation triggered by intravenous adenosine: a commonly used drug with potentially life-threatening adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Turley, A J; Murray, S; Thambyrajah, J

    2008-01-01

    Although serious adverse events following adenosine administration are rare, it should only be administered in an environment where continuous ECG monitoring and emergency resuscitation equipment are available. The case report describes the development of pre-excited atrial fibrillation in a 31-year-old woman with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome following the administration of adenosine. She had previously been fit and well and was admitted to the coronary care unit with a 2 h history of regular palpitations. A 12-lead ECG showed a narrow QRS complex tachycardia. Carotid sinus massage was unsuccessful in terminating the tachycardia and the patient subsequently received rapid boluses of intravenous adenosine. The cardiac rhythm degenerated into atrial fibrillation with ventricular pre-excitation following 12 mg adenosine. PMID:18156545

  10. Left atrial appendage: structure, function, and role in thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saady, N; Obel, O; Camm, A

    1999-01-01

    The left atrial appendage (LAA) is derived from the left wall of the primary atrium, which forms during the fourth week of embryonic development. It has developmental, ultrastructural, and physiological characteristics distinct from the left atrium proper. The LAA lies within the confines of the pericardium in close relation to the free wall of the left ventricle and thus its emptying and filling may be significantly affected by left ventricular function. The physiological properties and anatomical relations of the LAA render it ideally suited to function as a decompression chamber during left ventricular systole and during other periods when left atrial pressure is high. These properties include the position of the LAA high in the body of the left atrium; the increased distensibility of the LAA compared with the left atrium proper; the high concentration of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) granules contained within the LAA; and the neuronal configuration of the LAA. Thrombus has a predilection to form in the LAA in patients with atrial fibrillation, mitral valve disease, and other conditions. The pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated; however, relative stasis which occurs in the appendage owing to its shape and the trabeculations within it is thought to play a major role. Obliteration or amputation of the LAA may help to reduce the risk of thromboembolism, but this may result in undesirable physiological sequelae such as reduced atrial compliance and a reduced capacity for ANF secretion in response to pressure and volume overload.?? PMID:10525506

  11. Severe mitral regurgitation due to left atrial aneurysm corrected by endoatrial patch plasty.

    PubMed

    Parachuri, V Rao; Banakal, Sanjaykumar C; Appajaiah, Chiran B

    2009-03-01

    Congenital aneurysm of the body of the left atrium causing severe mitral incompetence is extremely rare. The cause of mitral incompetence has been attributed to a distortion of the mitral annulus by the aneurysm, or to coexisting pathology in the mitral valve apparatus. Surgical techniques to treat this condition include excision of the aneurysm along with mitral valve repair or replacement. Herein is described the case of a 30-year-old man with large aneurysm of the left atrial body and severe mitral regurgitation (MR) treated by endoatrial patch plasty. The mitral incompetence was due to prolapse of the posterior mitral annulus into the neck of the aneurysm. Under cardiopulmonary bypass, the neck of the aneurysm was closed using a Dacron patch. Endoaneurysmorrhaphy with a Dacron patch effectively restored the mitral competence and simultaneously excluded the aneurysm from the left atrium. To further strengthen the posterior mitral annulus, a mitral annuloplasty was added using a rigid Carpentier-Edwards ring. The patient was anticoagulated with warfarin for six weeks after surgery. Transthoracic echocardiography performed at a six-month follow up confirmed the absence of any residual aneurysm or MR. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of left atrial aneurysm with severe MR to be treated in this way. PMID:19455888

  12. Anticoagulants, renal failure and atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Genovesi, Simonetta; Santoro, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is very high and also in this population AF is associated with an increased risk of stroke. Warfarin is the treatment of choice for AF to prevent thromboembolic events, but it has been reported that its use in CRF and hemodialysis (HD) patients is associated with an increased risk of bleeding compared with patients with normal renal function. Moreover, historical studies suggest that warfarin increases the incidence of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in HD patients. However, a clear benefit:risk ratio against warfarin in patients with CRF or ESRD and AF has not been demonstrated. New oral anticoagulants, thrombin or factor Xa inhibitors, are now available. Patients with severe CRF (i.e., glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min) and with ESRD, however, were excluded from the trials that have established their efficacy and safety. The advent of new oral anticoagulants raises the important question if patients with severe CRF and ESRD should be excluded or not from this new therapeutic opportunity. PMID:23163428

  13. Approaching atrial septal defects in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schwerzmann, Markus; Pfammatter, Jean-Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are one of the most frequent congenital cardiac malformations, accounting for about 8-10% of all congenital heart defects. The prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in adults with an ASD is 8-10%. Different clinical PAH scenarios can be encountered. At one end of the spectrum are adults with no or only mild pulmonary vascular disease and a large shunt. These are patients who can safely undergo shunt closure. In the elderly, mild residual pulmonary hypertension after shunt closure is the rule. At the other end of the spectrum are adults with severe, irreversible pulmonary vascular disease, shunt reversal and chronic cyanosis, that is, Eisenmenger syndrome. These are patients who need to be managed medically. The challenge is to properly classify ASD patients with PAH falling in between the two ends of the spectrum as the ones with advanced, but reversible pulmonary vascular disease amenable to repair, versus the ones with progressive pulmonary vascular disease not responding to shunt closure. There are concerns that adults with progressive pulmonary vascular disease have worse outcomes after shunt closure than patients not undergoing shunt closure. Due to the correlation of pulmonary vascular changes and pulmonary hemodynamics, cardiac catheterization is used in the decision-making process. It is important to consider the hemodynamic data in the context of the clinical picture, the defect anatomy and further noninvasive tests when evaluating the option of shunt closure in these patients. PMID:25982879

  14. Preprocedural Imaging for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Wai-ee; Wai, Bryan; Truong, Quynh A.

    2012-01-01

    Various electrophysiological procedures and device implantation has been shown to improve morbidity and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and patients with heart failure (HF). Non-invasive cardiac imaging is used extensively in the pre-procedural patient selection and for procedural guidance. In this review, we will discuss the application of pre-procedural cardiac imaging in patients with AF prior to pulmonary vein and left atrial ablation as well as insertion of left atrial occluder device. We also discuss the role of non-invasive cardiac imaging in the selection of appropriate HF patients for device therapy as well as their use in guiding implantation of biventricular pacemaker for cardiac resynchronization therapy by assessing left ventricular ejection fraction, coronary venous anatomy, mechanical dyssynchrony and myocardial scar. We describe new research associated with pre-procedural imaging in these patient cohorts. PMID:22828754

  15. Assessment of left atrial volume: a focus on echocardiographic methods and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Chee W; Krishnamoorthy, Suresh; Lim, Hoong Sern; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2011-02-01

    Left atrial enlargement is an important predictor of cardiovascular events such as atrial fibrillation, stroke, heart failure and mortality. A number of methods of left atrial size assessment by echocardiography have been reported, from the simple antero-posterior diameter in the parasternal long axis view to the more complex ellipsoid, area-length and Simpson's method of estimating left atrial volume. These different methods of left atrial size assessment, their clinical implications and some common pitfalls are discussed in this review. PMID:20821219

  16. Inflammation and C-reactive protein in atrial fibrillation: cause or effect?

    PubMed

    Galea, Roberto; Cardillo, Maria Teresa; Caroli, Annalisa; Marini, Maria Giulia; Sonnino, Chiara; Narducci, Maria L; Biasucci, Luigi M

    2014-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality rates. The incompletely understood pathogenesis of this cardiac dysrhythmia makes it difficult to improve approaches to primary and secondary prevention. Evidence has accumulated in regard to a relationship between inflammation and atrial fibrillation. Investigators have correlated the dysrhythmia with myocarditis, pericardiotomy, and C-reactive protein levels, suggesting that inflammation causes atrial fibrillation or participates in its onset and continuation. Conversely, other investigators suggest that atrial fibrillation induces an inflammatory response. In this review, we summarize and critically discuss the nature and clinical role of inflammation and C-reactive protein in atrial fibrillation. PMID:25425976

  17. Inflammation and C-Reactive Protein in Atrial Fibrillation: Cause or Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Roberto; Cardillo, Maria Teresa; Caroli, Annalisa; Marini, Maria Giulia; Sonnino, Chiara; Narducci, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality rates. The incompletely understood pathogenesis of this cardiac dysrhythmia makes it difficult to improve approaches to primary and secondary prevention. Evidence has accumulated in regard to a relationship between inflammation and atrial fibrillation. Investigators have correlated the dysrhythmia with myocarditis, pericardiotomy, and C-reactive protein levels, suggesting that inflammation causes atrial fibrillation or participates in its onset and continuation. Conversely, other investigators suggest that atrial fibrillation induces an inflammatory response. In this review, we summarize and critically discuss the nature and clinical role of inflammation and C-reactive protein in atrial fibrillation. PMID:25425976

  18. Esophageal perforation after radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Manouchehri, Namdar; Turner, Simon R; Lockwood, Evan; Sterns, Laurence D; Bédard, Eric Lr

    2014-11-01

    A 69-year-old man underwent left atrial radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation. After 10 minutes, the procedure was terminated due to pericardial tamponade secondary to perforation during mapping. Pericardiocentesis resolved the tamponade. Ablation was completed one week later, and the patient was discharged. Two days later, he presented with odynophagia. Computed tomography demonstrated small bilateral pleural effusions. He was judged to be stable and was discharged again, but returned 2 days later with chest pain. He was found to have esophageal perforation with empyema, which was repaired using a muscle patch and esophageal stenting, successfully treating the lesion with minimal morbidity. PMID:24887888

  19. Interrupting anticoagulation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Yates, Scott W

    2014-12-01

    Three target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs)-dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban-have been approved by the FDA to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation; however, no agents are currently approved to reverse the anticoagulant effects of these TSOACs in cases of active bleeding. This review discusses the benefits and risks of these TSOACs from a clinician's perspective, with a focus on the interruption of treatment for either elective or emergent surgery, monitoring, and reversal of anticoagulation. Available coagulation assays are not ideal for monitoring the effects of TSOACs and do not provide reliable quantitative measurement of their anticoagulant effects. When necessary, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) may provide qualitative information on dabigatran, and prothrombin time (PT) may provide qualitative assessment of the presence of the factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban and apixaban. Current recommendations for reversal of TSOACs are based largely on limited and sometimes conflicting data from in vitro or in vivo animal models, and clinical experience with these recommendations is also limited. Methods that have been investigated for effectiveness for reversal of the pharmacodynamic effects of the TSOACs include dialysis, activated charcoal, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), and recombinant activated factor VII. It is important to note that even within a class of anticoagulant drugs, compounds respond differently to reversal agents; therefore, recommendations for one agent should not be extrapolated to another, even if they are from the same therapeutic class. New antidotes are being explored, including a mouse monoclonal antibody to dabigatran; andexanet alfa, a potential universal factor Xa inhibitor reversal agent; and a synthetic small molecule (PER977) that may be effective for the reversal of factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors. Given the short half-lives of TSOACs, watchful waiting, rather than reversal, may be the best approach in some circumstances. PMID:25516695

  20. Reversible atrial gap junction remodeling during hypoxia/reoxygenation and ischemia: a possible arrhythmogenic substrate for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Severino, Anna; Narducci, Maria L; Pedicino, Daniela; Pazzano, Vincenzo; Giglio, Ada F; Biasucci, Luigi M; Liuzzo, Giovanna; Casella, Michela; Bartoletti, Stefano; Dello Russo, Antonio; Pelargonio, Gemma; Santangeli, Pasquale; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Crea, Filippo

    2012-12-01

    Alteration of cardiomyocyte gap-junctions and component connexins (Cx) has been suggested to contribute to the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), including postoperative AF. We tested different possible stimuli, such as hypoxia and ischemia, influencing Cx43 and Cx40 expression and distribution in cultured atrial cells (HL-1) and reversibility of these processes after reoxygenation. Western-blot analysis and immunostaining using anti-Cx43, anti-Cx40 and anti-zonula occludens polyclonal antibodies were performed. HL-1 cells exposed to hypoxia for 24 and 48 h showed a reduction of Cx43 protein levels by 75% and 90% respectively (p < 0.001). During reoxygenation following 24 h of hypoxia, Cx43 levels increased to reach the basal level within 48 h, while they remained at low level during reoxygenation following 48 h of hypoxia. Furthermore, atrial cardiomyocytes subjected to simulated ischemia (SI) were incubated in normoxic and hypoxic conditions for 3, 6, 9, 12 h. Atrial cardiomyocytes subjected to SI in addition to normoxia showed a progressive reduction of Cx43 levels beginning from 3 h. During SI and hypoxia, atrial Cx43 levels showed an initial decrease after 3 h with a subsequent rescue beginning from 6 h of exposure (p = 0.001). Hypoxia and ischemia per se downregulate Cx43 protein expression in atrial cardiomyocytes, but protein downregulation is reversible, depending on hypoxia duration and the association of the two triggers. These alterations characterize several conditions and might contribute to the generation of an arrhythmogenic substrate leading to AF onset and/or maintenance. PMID:23255671

  1. Best practice for atrial fibrillation patient education.

    PubMed

    Lane, Deirdre A; Barker, Rachel V; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2015-01-01

    Patients' beliefs about their health (and illness), medications and healthcare they receive are important determinants of whether or not they accept recommended treatments; influence their coping responses in relation to their illness; make them adhere to recommended therapy and ultimately affect health outcomes. Incorporation of patients' preferences for therapy should now be considered an integral part of the decision-making process. This gradual shift in health-care practice from paternalistic to shared-decision making, whereby there is a two-way exchange of information between the patient and healthcare provider and both are involved in the treatment decision, requires a reasonable level of understanding and knowledge of the condition and its treatment by the patient. However, patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) often have poor knowledge about their condition and the benefits and risks of AF and AF treatments. Physicians and other healthcare providers may have doubts over a patient's ability to adhere to certain treatment regimens, particularly oral anticoagulation, due in part to the lack of patient knowledge, and this may be an important determinant of whether such treatments are even considered as therapeutic options. Further, patients often hold misconceptions about AF and treatment options, which may act as barriers to their acceptance of the condition and adherence to therapy. This review will summarise the literature on the knowledge of patients about AF and its management, how patients' values and preferences can impact on their treatment choices, the ideal components of patient education, the impact of educational interventions on patients' knowledge and perceptions of AF, and where appropriate highlight specific issues facing lone AF patients. PMID:25175094

  2. Estimation of the cost-effectiveness of apixaban versus vitamin K antagonists in the management of atrial fibrillation in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Mariano Anibal; Caroli, Christian; Giglio, Norberto Damian; Micone, Paula; Aiello, Eleonora; Vulcano, Cristina; Blanco, Julia; Donato, Bonnie; Quevedo, Joaquin Mould

    2015-12-01

    Apixaban, a novel oral anticoagulant which has been approved for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in non-valvular atrial fibrillation, reduces both ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke and produces fewer bleedings than vitamin K antagonist warfarin. These clinical results lead to a decrease in health care resource utilization and, therefore, have a positive impact on health economics of atrial fibrillation. The cost-effectiveness of apixaban has been assessed in a variety of clinical settings and countries. However, data from emergent markets, as is the case of Argentina, are still scarce.We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of apixaban versus warfarin in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in patients suitable for oral anticoagulation in Argentina. A Markov-based model including both costs and effects were used to simulate a cohort of patients with NVAF. Local epidemiological, resource utilization and cost data were used and all inputs were validated by a Delphi Panel of local experts. We adopted the payer's perspective with costs expressed in 2012 US Dollars.The study revealed that apixaban is cost-effective compared with warfarin using a willingness to pay threshold ranging from 1 to 3 per capita Gross Domestic Product (11558 - 34664 USD) with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 786.08 USD per QALY gained. The benefit is primarily a result of the reduction in stroke and bleeding events.The study demonstrates that apixaban is a cost-effective alternative to warfarin in Argentina. PMID:26112219

  3. Usefulness of the brain natriuretic peptide to atrial natriuretic peptide ratio in determining the severity of mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Shimamoto, Ken; Kusumoto, Miyako; Sakai, Rieko; Watanabe, Hirota; Ihara, Syunichi; Koike, Natsuha; Kawana, Masatoshi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were characterized in subjects with mitral regurgitation (MR). METHODS: Sixty-two cases of moderate or severe chronic MR were studied. The blood levels of neurohormonal factors were stratified by the known MR prognostic factors of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, left ventricular end-diastolic diameters, left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVDs), ejection fraction (EF), left atrial diameter and presence of atrial fibrillation (AF). RESULTS: ANP levels were higher in NYHA class II and lower in classes I and III/IV (P=0.0206). BNP levels were higher in NYHA class II than class I (P=0.0355). The BNP/ANP ratio was significantly higher in NYHA classes II and III/IV than in class I (P=0.0007). To differentiate between NYHA classes I/II and III/IV, a cut-off BNP/ANP ratio of 2.97 produced a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 87%. Compared with subjects in sinus rhythm, patients with AF had an enlarged left atrium and lower ANP levels. The BNP/ANP ratio correlated significantly with left atrial diameter, LVDs and EF (r=0.429, P=0.0017; r=0.351, P=0.0117; and r=–0.349, P=0.0122; respectively), and was significantly higher among all the known operative indications for MR tested (LVDs 45 mm or more, EF 60% or less, NYHA class II or greater and AF; P=0.0073, P=0.003, P=0.0102 and P=0.0149, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In chronic MR, levels of ANP and BNP, and the BNP/ANP ratio are potential indicators of disease severity. PMID:17380223

  4. Small Left Atrial Size Complicating Percutaneous Transcatheter Device Closure of Secundum Atrial Septal Defect with Conventional Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hong Ki; Kang, So Yeon; Yu, Jeong Jin; Ko, Jae-Kon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Transcatheter device closure becomes the first option for treating secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), but the conventional method is sometimes unsuccessful even when the defect size indicates the closure to be feasible. To increase the success rate, modified methods have been introduced and used. This study aimed to find predictors for using the modified methods in the device closure of secundum ASDs. Subjects and Methods Between October 2010 and December 2012, 92 patients with ASDs underwent the transcatheter device closure. We analyzed the sizes of the defect, the surrounding rims, and the ratios of the left atrium (LA) dimensions to the device size in the patients who underwent the procedure either using the conventional or modified methods. Results Among the 88 successful cases (95.7%), 22 patients (25%) required modified methods (12 using pulmonary vein and 10 using balloon). The modified method group had the larger size of ASDs and smaller posterosuperior rim. The mean ratios of the LA anteroposterior diameter, width, and length to the device size were all significantly smaller in the modified methods group than in the conventional group (1.20 vs. 1.56, 1.32 vs. 1.71, and 1.61 vs. 2.07, respectively). We found that the risk factors for the modified methods were smaller retroaortic rim, larger ASD, and smaller LA dimension/device size. Conclusion In addition to larger defects and smaller retroaortic rim, the smaller ratios of the LA dimensions to the device size influenced the need for the application of modified methods in the transcatheter device closure of ASDs.

  5. A Rare Silent Killer: Right Atrial Metastasis of Thyroid Hürthle Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hongxiu; Tulpule, Sunil; Alam, Mahmood; Patel, Reema; Sen, Shuvendu; Yousif, Abdalla

    2015-01-01

    Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) is a variant of a follicular carcinoma with a tendency to higher frequency of metastases and a lower survival rate. However, intracavitary cardiac metastases from thyroid HCC are extremely rare. We describe the case of a 57-year-old female with thyroid HCC, 5 years after total thyroidectomy, who presented with dyspnea associated with hypoxia and hypotension. The computed tomography angiogram showed extensive pulmonary embolism and a 6-cm right atrial mass while the lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis studies were negative. This patient received a cardiac thrombectomy using cardiopulmonary bypass support. However, intraoperatively, we found out that the mass was from the mediastinum, directly extending into the heart and clearly unresectable since it effaced at least 1/3 of the right atrial wall. The core biopsy of the mass confirmed that it was metastatic poorly differentiated HCC of thyroidal origin. The patient eventually died of respiratory failure due to a massive pulmonary embolism. For cancer patients with unexplained dyspnea, cardiac metastases should be considered regardless of anticoagulation prophylaxis, especially when there is no deep vein thrombosis in the lower limbs. Early recognition of intracavitary cardiac metastases may help in providing prompt treatment and improving the prognosis.

  6. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy as a Sequela of Elective Direct-Current Cardioversion for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Jonathan S.; Bhusri, Satjit; Guttenplan, Nils; Coplan, Neil L.

    2014-01-01

    In takotsubo cardiomyopathy, the clinical appearance is that of an acute myocardial infarction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, with apical ballooning of the left ventricle. The condition is usually precipitated by a stressful physical or psychological experience. The mechanism is unknown but is thought to be related to catecholamine excess. We present the case of a 67-year-old woman who experienced cardiogenic shock caused by takotsubo cardiomyopathy, immediately after undergoing elective direct-current cardio-version for atrial fibrillation. After a course complicated by left ventricular failure, cardiogenic shock, and ventricular tachycardia, she made a complete clinical and echocardiographic recovery. In addition to this case, we discuss the possible direct effect of cardioversion in takotsubo cardiomyopathy. PMID:24808781

  7. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy as a sequela of elective direct-current cardioversion for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Siegfried, Jonathan S; Bhusri, Satjit; Guttenplan, Nils; Coplan, Neil L

    2014-04-01

    In takotsubo cardiomyopathy, the clinical appearance is that of an acute myocardial infarction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, with apical ballooning of the left ventricle. The condition is usually precipitated by a stressful physical or psychological experience. The mechanism is unknown but is thought to be related to catecholamine excess. We present the case of a 67-year-old woman who experienced cardiogenic shock caused by takotsubo cardiomyopathy, immediately after undergoing elective direct-current cardio-version for atrial fibrillation. After a course complicated by left ventricular failure, cardiogenic shock, and ventricular tachycardia, she made a complete clinical and echocardiographic recovery. In addition to this case, we discuss the possible direct effect of cardioversion in takotsubo cardiomyopathy. PMID:24808781

  8. Clinical Characteristics, Management, and Control of Permanent vs. Nonpermanent Atrial Fibrillation: Insights from the RealiseAF Survey

    PubMed Central

    Murin, Jan; Naditch-Brûlé, Lisa; Brette, Sandrine; Chiang, Chern-En; O’Neill, James; Steg, P. Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation can be categorized into nonpermanent and permanent atrial fibrillation. There is less information on permanent than on nonpermanent atrial fibrillation patients. This analysis aimed to describe the characteristics and current management, including the proportion of patients with successful atrial fibrillation control, of these atrial fibrillation subsets in a large, geographically diverse contemporary sample. Methods and Results Data from RealiseAF, an international, observational, cross-sectional survey of 10,491 patients with atrial fibrillation, were used to characterize permanent atrial fibrillation (N?=?4869) and nonpermanent atrial fibrillation (N?=?5622) patients. Permanent atrial fibrillation patients were older, had a longer time since atrial fibrillation diagnosis, a higher symptom burden, and were more likely to be physically inactive. They also had a higher mean (SD) CHADS2 score (2.2 [1.3] vs. 1.7 [1.3], p<0.001), and a higher frequency of CHADS2 score ?2 (67.3% vs. 53.0%, p<0.001) and comorbidities, most notably heart failure. Physicians indicated using a rate-control strategy in 84.2% of permanent atrial fibrillation patients (vs. 27.5% in nonpermanent atrial fibrillation). Only 50.2% (N?=?2262/4508) of permanent atrial fibrillation patients were controlled. These patients had a longer time since atrial fibrillation diagnosis, a lower symptom burden, less obesity and physical inactivity, less severe heart failure, and fewer hospitalizations for acute heart failure than uncontrolled permanent atrial fibrillation patients, but with more arrhythmic events. The most frequent causes of hospitalization in the last 12 months were acute heart failure and stroke. Conclusion Permanent atrial fibrillation is a high-risk subset of atrial fibrillation, representing half of all atrial fibrillation patients, yet rate control is only achieved in around half. Since control is associated with lower symptom burden and heart failure, adequate rate control is an important target for improving the management of permanent atrial fibrillation patients. PMID:24497948

  9. Study protocol: the DESPATCH study: Delivering stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation - a cluster randomised controlled trial in primary healthcare

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Compelling evidence shows that appropriate use of anticoagulation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation reduces the risk of ischaemic stroke by 67% and all-cause mortality by 26%. Despite this evidence, anticoagulation is substantially underused, resulting in avoidable fatal and disabling strokes. Methods DESPATCH is a cluster randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation and blinded outcome assessment designed to evaluate a multifaceted and tailored implementation strategy for improving the uptake of anticoagulation in primary care. We have recruited general practices in South Western Sydney, Australia, and randomly allocated practices to receive the DESPATCH intervention or evidence-based guidelines (control). The intervention comprises specialist decisional support via written feedback about patient-specific cases, three academic detailing sessions (delivered via telephone), practice resources, and evidence-based information. Data for outcome assessment will be obtained from a blinded, independent medical record audit. Our primary endpoint is the proportion of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients, over 65 years of age, receiving oral anticoagulation at any time during the 12-month posttest period. Discussion Successful translation of evidence into clinical practice can reduce avoidable stroke, death, and disability due to nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. If successful, DESPATCH will inform public policy, providing quality evidence for an effective implementation strategy to improve management of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, to close an important evidence-practice gap. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12608000074392 PMID:21599901

  10. Saudi Atrial Fibrillation Survey: national, observational, cross-sectional survey evaluating atrial fibrillation management and the cardiovascular risk profile of patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Hersi, Ahmad; Abdul-Moneim, Mohammad; Almous'ad, Abdulmohsen; Al-Samadi, Faisal; AlFagih, Ahmed; Sweidan, Raid

    2015-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. The Saudi Atrial Fibrillation Survey registry was designed to provide epidemiological and clinical data on patients with AF. The registry included 400 consecutive patients who met the eligibility criteria. Control of AF at the time of the initial visit was achieved by 211 (52.75%) patients. Cardiovascular risk profile of the patients with AF was smoking 92 (23.5%), hypertension 253 (63.25%), diabetes 192 (48%), and dyslipidemia 173 (44%). Rate control was the most frequent management strategy (in 265 patients, 66.2%) whereas rhythm control was chosen in 48 (12%) patients. Both strategies were attempted in 5 (1.2%) patients. This is the first nationwide registry of patients with AF in Saudi Arabia. Compared to developed countries, our patients with AF are relatively young and have higher rates of diabetes and rheumatic heart disease. Rate control is the main strategy currently used for managing AF. PMID:24687415

  11. T wave alternans during exercise and atrial pacing in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohnloser, S. H.; Klingenheben, T.; Zabel, M.; Li, Y. G.; Albrecht, P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence is accumulating that microvolt T wave alternans (TWA) is a marker of increased risk for ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Initially, atrial pacing was used to elevate heart rate and elicit TWA. More recently, a noninvasive approach has been developed that elevates heart rate using exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 30 consecutive patients with a history of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, the spectral method was used to detect TWA during both atrial pacing and submaximal exercise testing. The concordance rate for the presence or absence of TWA using the two measurement methods was 84%. There was a patient-specific heart rate threshold for the detection of TWA that averaged 100 +/- 14 beats/min during exercise compared with 97 +/- 9 beats/min during right atrial pacing (P = NS). Beyond this threshold, there was a significant and comparable increase in level of TWA with decreasing pacing cycle length and increasing exercise heart rates. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first to demonstrate that microvolt TWA can be assessed reliably and noninvasively during exercise stress. There is a patient-specific heart rate threshold beyond which TWA continues to increase with increasing heart rates. Heart rate thresholds for the onset of TWA measured during atrial pacing and exercise stress were comparable, indicating that heart rate alone appears to be the main factor of determining the onset of TWA during submaximal exercise stress.

  12. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Renal Haemodynamics in Newborn Calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dratwa

    2006-01-01

    Dratwa A.:Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Renal Haemodynamics in Newborn Calves. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 477-483. The study was aimed to provide information on the dynamics of changes in the concentration of ANP in blood plasma of calves during the first seven days of their life and to find any association between blood plasma ANP concentration and effective renal blood

  13. Atrial Natriuretic Factor in Oliguric Acute Renal Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Lewis; Mahmoud M. Salem; Glenn M. Chertow; Lawrence S. Weisberg; Frank McGrew; Thomas C. Marbury; Robin L. Allgren

    2000-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), an endogenous hormone synthesized by the cardiac atria, has been shown to improve renal function in multiple animal models of acute renal failure. In a recent multicenter clinical trial of 504 patients with acute tubular necrosis (oliguric and nonoliguric), ANP decreased the need for dialysis only in the oliguric patients. In the present study, 222 patients

  14. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of atypical atrial flutter in dogs.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Roberto A; Ramera, Lucia; Perego, Manuela; Moretti, Paolo; Spadacini, Giammario

    2014-03-01

    Five dogs were presented to our institution for fatigue caused by an incessant supraventricular tachycardia. In all dogs, an ECG on admission showed a narrow QRS complex tachycardia with a median ventricular cycle length of 220 ms (range 180-360 ms), and a positive atrial depolarization identifiable in the ST segment following the previous QRS complex. There was a 1:1 atrioventricular conduction ratio in all but one dog, which presented with 2:1 atrioventricular block. Electrophysiologic studies identified the underlying arrhythmogenic mechanism as a right atrial macro-reentrant tachycardia with two distinct isthmic areas: right septal (RS) in three dogs and right atrial free wall (RAFW) in two dogs. Linear radiofrequency catheter ablation was performed during tachycardia in all dogs at the identified isthmic area, which acutely blocked the macroreentrant circuit. At 18-month follow-up, 3 dogs (1 with RAFW isthmus and 2 with RS isthmus) showed no recurrence of the arrhythmia on Holter monitoring. One dog with RS isthmus showed recurrence of the supraventricular tachycardia 15 days post-ablation, and 1 dog with RAFW isthmus presented with persistent atrial fibrillation 2 months post-ablation. PMID:24461642

  15. Lung transplantation and atrial septostomy in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Norfolk, Stephanie G; Lederer, David J; Tapson, Victor F

    2013-12-01

    This article summarizes the current literature regarding surgical interventions in pulmonary hypertension, excluding chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The article discusses the use of atrial septostomy in patients meeting criteria as well as single, double, and heart-lung transplantation. PMID:24267309

  16. Atrial Natriuretic Factor as a Marker in Congestive Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-B. Michel; J.-F. Arnal; P. Corvol

    1990-01-01

    Cardiac overload is associated with an overexpression of the atrial natriuretic-f actor (ANF) gene in experimental models and in man. Sites of ANF gene overexpression are the atria but also the ventricular myocardium. This recruitment phenomenon of the ventricle to synthesise and secrete ANF is directly dependent on the increase in stressstretch relationship in each cardiocyte. Therefore, the levels of

  17. THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE CAT MYOCARDIUM: II. Atrial Muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. S. McNutt; DON W. FAWCETT

    1969-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the cells specialized for contraction in the atrium and ventricle of young adult cats are compared . The cells specialized for conduction are not included .In addition to possessing distinctive atrial granules, the cells of the atrium are smaller in diameter (5-6 µ) than ventricular cells (10-12 µ) and have strikingly fewer T tubules . These latter

  18. Hybrid approaches in atrial fibrillation ablation: why, where and who?

    PubMed Central

    Mangrum, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid strategies involving surgical and catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) are rapidly evolving. Hybrid techniques may improve procedural success and minimize risks by combining the strengths and minimizing limitations of either surgical or catheter ablation alone. Further study, including randomized controlled trials, will be necessary to determine the optimal approach to hybrid ablation. PMID:25713731

  19. Managing atrial fibrillation in the elderly: critical appraisal of dronedarone

    PubMed Central

    Trigo, Paula; Fischer, Gregory W

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most commonly seen arrhythmia in the geriatric population and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment of the elderly with atrial fibrillation remains challenging for physicians, because this unique subpopulation is characterized by multiple comorbidities requiring chronic use of numerous medications, which can potentially lead to severe drug interactions. Furthermore, age-related changes in the cardiovascular system as well as other physiological changes result in altered drug pharmacokinetics. Dronedarone is a new drug recently approved for the treatment of arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation and/or atrial flutter. Dronedarone is a benzofuran amiodarone analog which lacks the iodine moiety and contains a methane sulfonyl group that decreases its lipophilicity. These differences in chemical structure are responsible for making dronedarone less toxic than amiodarone which, in turn, results in fewer side effects. Adverse events for dronedarone include gastrointestinal side effects and rash. No dosage adjustments are required for patients with renal impairment. However, the use of dronedarone is contraindicated in the presence of severe hepatic dysfunction. PMID:22291468

  20. [Informed consent for the Maze Procedure for atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yosuke

    2014-09-01

    It is important to explain the benefits and risks of surgery thoroughly to patients and their families. This paper describes the benefits and risks of the Maze procedure for atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of the Maze procedure is the restoration of sinus rhythm from AF, recovery of cardiac function by atrial contraction, and prevention of stroke. The AF cure ratio is 70-90% after the Maze procedure. It was reported that atrial function improves due to atrial contraction after surgery, and the risk of a stroke is reduced to about 2-4 events per 1,000 patients per year after surgery. On the other hand, bleeding is the most common complication after the Maze procedure. The use of alternative surgical ablation devices instead of the cut-and-sew technique decreases the risk of bleeding. Pacemakers are implanted in 5-10% of patients after the Maze procedure due to sick sinus syndrome. In approximately 40% of patients, transient AF occurs during the first month after surgery. However, the addition of the Maze procedure to cardiac surgery for structural heart disease does not increase the surgical risk. PMID:25549435

  1. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Hart, Robert G; Eikelboom, John W; Brimble, K Scott; McMurtry, M Sean; Ingram, Alistair J

    2013-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation and is an independent risk factor for stroke. Warfarin anticoagulation is efficacious for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation patients with moderate CKD (stage III, estimated glomerular filtration rate 30-59 mL/min), but recent observational studies have challenged its value for patients with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. The novel oral anticoagulants (i.e., dabigatran, apixaban, rivaroxaban) all undergo renal metabolism to varying degrees, and hence dosing, efficacy, and safety require special consideration in CKD patients. In randomized trials to date involving 11,169 patients with moderate CKD, the novel oral anticoagulants performed well, with similar efficacy and safety profiles as for non-CKD patients. For atrial fibrillation patients with stage III CKD, the available data are strongest for dabigatran 150 mg twice daily as superior to warfarin for stroke prevention and for apixaban as superior to warfarin regarding reduced major hemorrhage. Renal function should be monitored at least annually in patients receiving a novel oral anticoagulant, and more often in elderly patients and those with underlying CKD or comorbidities who are at special risk for dehydration and deterioration of renal function. Much remains to be learned about the optimal use of the novel oral anticoagulants in CKD patients; additional studies about optimal dosing of the novel oral anticoagulants and frequency of monitoring renal function in CKD patients with atrial fibrillation are needed. Anticoagulation options for hemodialysis patients require testing in randomized trials. PMID:23790601

  2. Mechanisms of atrial natriuretic peptide secretion from the atrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Dietz

    2005-01-01

    Since the discovery of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) more than 20 years ago, numerous studies have focused on the mechanisms regulating ANP secretion. From a physiological standpoint, the most important factor governing ANP secretion is mechanical stretching of the atria, which normally occurs when extracellular fluid volume or blood volume is elevated. In addition, the ability of several vasoconstrictors to

  3. Trials of Pacing to Control Ventricular Rate During Atrial Fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Wood

    2004-01-01

    Pharmacologic therapy to achieve rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation is often difficult and inadequate. For this reason, ventricular pacing strategies have been developed as an alternative to drug therapy to alleviate symptoms due to rapid and irregular ventricular rates. Ventricular pacing in combination with AV junctional ablation provides palliative improvement in a wide range of clinical outcomes. Because

  4. Prediction of Stroke Risk in Atrial Fibrillation, Prevention of Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation, and the Impact of Long-Term Monitoring for Detecting Atrial Fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Thomas; Bruce B. Lerman

    2011-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a large public health problem that affects about 1% of the population in the United States. It\\u000a confers an increased risk for stroke and thromboembolism, but the stroke risk is not equal in all patients. Further refinement\\u000a in stratifying stroke risk in patients with AF will help in properly directing therapy for AF patients while minimizing

  5. Left atrial function in volume versus pressure overloaded left atrium.

    PubMed

    Henein, Michael Y; Holmgren, Anders; Lindqvist, Per

    2015-06-01

    Left atrial (LA) pressure and volume overload both result in cavity enlargement and complications. LA volume has been shown to predict such complications, but it does not reflect myocardial function, which can be accurately assessed using myocardial deformation measurements. We hypothesized that volume overloaded LA have maintained myocardial function compared to pressure overloaded ones. We tested this hypothesis in 44 patient (mean age 62 ± 12 years) with LA volume overload (LAVOL) due to severe mitral regurgitation (MR) with no indirect signs of elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures based on Doppler measured isovolumic relaxation time >60 ms. We compared them with 24 (mean age 64 ± 12 years) patient with LA pressure overload (LAPOL) who proved to have PCWP >15 mmHg on right heart catheterization. Twenty-seven healthy controls (mean age 57 ± 10 years) constituted a control group. Patients with LAVOL had larger LA volumes, higher LV ejection fraction, global LV strain (LVGLS) and transmitral and pulmonary veins flow velocities (p < 0.05) and better LA atrial strain rate (LASR) function compared to LAPOL (p < 0.001). In LAVOL, the LASR during atrial contraction (LASRa) was lower than in controls (p < 0.05) indicating LA mechanical disturbances. LVGLS correlated with peak atrial longitudinal systolic strain in the whole group (r = -0.65, p < 0.001) and less so with LASRa (r = -0.43, p < 0.001) CONCLUSION: Irrespective of a smaller LA volume, LAVOL had less negative effect on LA myocardial function than LAPOL. Thus, monitoring atrial myocardial contraction might be useful in following patients with significant MR. PMID:25759088

  6. Spinal cord stimulation protects against atrial fibrillation induced by tachypacing

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Scott A.; Wong, Brian; Vasquez, Carolina; Rosenberg, Stuart P.; Rooke, Ryan; Kuznekoff, Laura M.; Lader, Joshua M.; Mahoney, Vanessa M.; Budylin, Tatyana; Älvstrand, Marie; Rakowski-Anderson, Tammy; Bharmi, Rupinder; Shah, Riddhi; Fowler, Steven; Holmes, Douglas; Farazi, Taraneh G.; Chinitz, Larry A.; Morley, Gregory E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to modulate atrial electrophysiology and confer protection against ischemia and ventricular arrhythmias in animal models. OBJECTIVE To determine whether SCS reduces the susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF) induced by tachypacing (TP). METHODS In 21 canines, upper thoracic SCS systems and custom cardiac pacing systems were implanted. Right atrial and left atrial effective refractory periods were measured at baseline and after 15 minutes of SCS. Following recovery in a subset of canines, pacemakers were turned on to induce AF by alternately delivering TP and searching for AF. Canines were randomized to no SCS therapy (CTL) or intermittent SCS therapy on the initiation of TP (EARLY) or after 8 weeks of TP (LATE). AF burden (percent AF relative to total sense time) and AF inducibility (percentage of TP periods resulting in AF) were monitored weekly. After 15 weeks, echocar-diography and histology were performed. RESULTS Effective refractory periods increased by 21 ±14 ms (P ±.001) in the left atrium and 29 ±12 ms (P ±.002) in the right atrium after acute SCS. AF burden was reduced for 11 weeks in EARLY compared with CTL (P ±.05) animals. AF inducibility remained lower by week 15 in EARLY compared with CTL animals (32% ±10% vs 91% ±6%; P <.05). AF burden and inducibility were not significantly different between LATE and CTL animals. There were no structural differences among any groups. CONCLUSIONS SCS prolonged atrial effective refractory periods and reduced AF burden and inducibility in a canine AF model induced by TP. These data suggest that SCS may represent a treatment option for AF. PMID:22554859

  7. Atrial Fibrillation Activates Platelets and Coagulation in a Time-Dependent Manner: A Study in Patients With Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Sohara; Shigeru Amitani; Mitsuro Kurose; Kenkichi Miyahara

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. To determine whether atrial fibrillation (AF) alone affects the fibrinocoagulation system, we examined the relation between fibrinocoagulation activity and duration of AF in patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF).Background. Patients with chronic AF are at higher risk for stroke and a hypercoagulative state. It is not clear whether this hypercoagulative state is attributable to AF alone or to the underlying

  8. Comparison of ability to identify left atrial thrombus by three-dimensional tomography versus transesophageal echocardiography in patients with atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wael A. Jaber; Richard D. White; Stacie A. Kuzmiak; Janet M. Boyle; Andrea Natale; Carolyn Apperson-Hansen; James D. Thomas; Craig R. Asher

    2004-01-01

    We sought to determine the potential use of recently introduced cardiac 3-dimensional computed tomography as an alternative to transesophageal echocardiography for examination of the left atrial appendage. Our data suggest that computed tomography is a potential alternative for assessing the anatomy of the left atrial appendage and for detecting thrombi.

  9. La fibrillazione atriale post-operatoria: inquadramento nosologico e opzioni per la terapia e la profilassi Postoperative atrial fibrillation: etiopathogenesis, prevention and therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pasqualina Calisi; Raffaele Griffo

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation: etiopatho- genesis, prevention and therapy. P. Calisi, R. Griffo. Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent complication after cardiac surgery. Its onset leads to a threefold higher risk for stroke compared with patients in sinus rhythm and other adverse events such as thromboembolic events and heart failure. The direct consequence is an increased length of hospital stays with

  10. Long-Term Outcome After Ablation of Right Atrial Tachyarrhythmias After the Surgical Repair of Congenital and Acquired Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Anguera, Ignasi; Dallaglio, Paolo; Macías, Rosa; Jiménez-Candil, Javier; Peinado, Rafael; García-Seara, Javier; Arcocha, Mari Fe; Herreros, Benito; Quesada, Aurelio; Hernández-Madrid, Antonio; Alvarez, Miguel; Filgueiras, David; Matía, Roberto; Cequier, Angel; Sabaté, Xavier

    2015-06-15

    Atrial myopathy, atriotomies, and fibrotic scars are the pathophysiological substrate of lines of conduction block, promoting atrial macroreentry. The aim of this study was to determine the acute and long-term outcome of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for right atrial tachyarrhythmia (AT) in adults after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) and acquired heart disease (AHD) and predictors of these outcomes. Clinical records of adults after surgery for heart disease undergoing RFCA of right-sided AT were analyzed retrospectively. Multivariate analyses identified clinical and procedural factors predicting acute and long-term outcomes. A total of 372 patients (69% men; age 61 ± 15 years) after surgical repair of CHD (n = 111) or AHD (n = 261) were studied. Cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent atrial flutter (CTI-AFL) was observed in 300 patients and non-CTI-AFL in 72 patients. Ablation was successful in 349 cases (94%). During a mean follow-up of 51 ± 30 months, recurrences were observed in 24.5% of patients. Multivariate analysis showed that non-CTI-AFL (hazard ratio [HR] 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 2.9) and CHD (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.9) were independent predictors of long-term recurrences. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.3), surgery for AHD (HR 95% 2.31, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.7), and left atrial dilatation (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.2) were independent predictors of long-term atrial fibrillation. In conclusion, RFCA of right-sided AT after cardiac surgery is associated with high acute success rates and significant long-term recurrences. Non-CTI-dependent AFL and surgery for CHD are at higher risk of recurrence. Atrial fibrillation is common during follow-up, particularly in patients with AHD and enlarged left atrium. PMID:25896151

  11. Long-term Prognosis of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation and Predictors for Progression to Persistnt or Chronic Atrial Fibrillation in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sung II; Chun, Kwang Jin; Park, Seung-Jung; Park, Kyoung-Min; Kim, June Soo

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the long-term prognosis of or predictors for the different clinical types of atrial fibrillation (AF) in Korean populations. The aim of this study was to validate a risk stratification to assess the probability of AF progression from paroxysmal AF (PAF) to persistent AF (PeAF) or permanent AF. A total of 434 patients with PAF were consecutively enrolled (mean age; 71.7 ± 10.7 yr, 60.6% male). PeAF was defined as episodes that are sustained > 7 days and not self-terminating, while permanent AF was defined as an ongoing long-term episode. Atrial arrhythmia during follow-up was defined as atrial premature complex, atrial tachycardia, and atrial flutter. During a mean follow-up of 72.7 ± 58.3 months, 168 patients (38.7%) with PAF progressed to PeAF or permanent AF. The mean annual AF progression was 10.7% per year. In univariate analysis, age at diagnosis, body mass index, atrial arrhythmia during follow-up, left ventricular ejection fraction, concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial diameter (LAD), and severe mitral regurgitation (MR) were significantly associated with AF progression. In multivariate analysis, age at diagnosis (P = 0.009), atrial arrhythmia during follow-up (P = 0.015), LAD (P = 0.002) and MR grade (P = 0.026) were independent risk factors for AF progression. Patients with younger age at diagnosis, atrial arrhythmia during follow-up, larger left atrial chamber size, and severe MR grade are more likely to progress to PeAF or permanent AF, suggesting more intensive medical therapy with close clinical follow-up would be required in those patients. PMID:26130952

  12. Association of coronary to left ventricular microfistulae (vessels of Wearn) with atrial septal defect in an adult without cyanotic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Munem; Roberts, Elved Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Vessels of Wearn are rare findings during coronary angiography in adults. They are known to be associated with forms of cyanotic congenital heart disease in infants but we are not aware of any published cases of association with non-cyanotic left to right shunts in adults. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with angiographically evident vessels of Wearn draining from the left and right coronary arteries into the left ventricle associated with an asymptomatic atrial septal defect. We postulate a developmental phase association between atrial septal maturation and closure of perfusing microchannels from the ventricular cavities to the epicardial coronary arteries on the same spectrum as that which leads to more widespread defects in infants. We also highlight a common medication side effect that might have been mistaken as a manifestation of the congenital anomalies. PMID:26139649

  13. Antiarrhythmic principle of SK channel inhibition in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Skibsbye, Lasse

    2015-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cardiac arrhythmia which affects millions of people in Europe alone. This arrhythmia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and it gets increasingly difficult to treat when allowed to persist for longer periods. Pharmacologically, AF therapy is limited by suboptimal efficacy and the risk of both cardiac and extracardiac side effects. Current antiarrhythmic drugs work by inhibiting several ionic currents in the heart, while new drug development pursues atrial-selectivity by targeting ion currents predominantly present in the atria, with the purpose of reducing the risk of ventricular proarrhythmic effects and other toxicities. Among such targets are the ion channels conducting the acetylcholine activated potassium current (IK,ACh) and the ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKur). During the last decade, another possible atrial specific target has gained attention, which is the small conductance Ca2+ activated K+ (SK) channel that conducts the IKCa current. Recently, our group and others have documented IKCa inhibition to be antiarrhythmic in a number of in vivo and ex vivo animal models both in restoring sinus rhythm and in preventing AF induction, however the exact antiarrhythmic mechanisms have not been elucidated. SK channels have furthermore been reported to be involved in electrical remodeling in patients suffering from AF and heart failure, while their exact function in these diseases remains unknown. In this thesis the aim was to explore the antiarrhythmic mechanisms generated by IKCa inhibition and to study whether SK channels and IKCa is functionally present in human atrial and ventricular tissue. The results presented in this thesis, confirm the antiarrhythmic effects of several SK channel inhibitors and show the presence of selective IKCa current in atrial muscle preparations and isolated cardiomyocytes from cardiac patients, while ventricular IKCa current was not detected. In atrial tissue from patients in chronic AF SK channels along with the detectable IKCa current were downregulated.   In conclusion, the present thesis and the three published papers report evidence for the existence of functional SK channels and IKCa predominantly present in human atria and provide elucidation of the possible antiarrhythmic mechanisms of IKCa inhibition. PMID:26036893

  14. Right-Sided Maze Procedure for Right Atrial Arrhythmias in Congenital Heart Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A Theodoro; Gordon K Danielson; Co-burn J Porter; Carole A Warnes

    1998-01-01

    Background. Atrial fibrillation and flutter, commonly associated with congenital heart anomalies that cause right atrial dilatation, may cause significant morbidity and reduction of quality of life, even after surgical repair of the anomalies.Methods. In an effort to reduce the incidence of atrial tachyarrhythmias after repair of right-sided congenital heart disease, we performed a concomitant right-sided maze procedure.Results. Eighteen patients with

  15. A Three-Dimensional Human Atrial Model with Fiber Orientation. Electrograms and Arrhythmic Activation Patterns Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Tobón, Catalina; Ruiz-Villa, Carlos A.; Heidenreich, Elvio; Romero, Lucia; Hornero, Fernando; Saiz, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The most common sustained cardiac arrhythmias in humans are atrial tachyarrhythmias, mainly atrial fibrillation. Areas of complex fractionated atrial electrograms and high dominant frequency have been proposed as critical regions for maintaining atrial fibrillation; however, there is a paucity of data on the relationship between the characteristics of electrograms and the propagation pattern underlying them. In this study, a realistic 3D computer model of the human atria has been developed to investigate this relationship. The model includes a realistic geometry with fiber orientation, anisotropic conductivity and electrophysiological heterogeneity. We simulated different tachyarrhythmic episodes applying both transient and continuous ectopic activity. Electrograms and their dominant frequency and organization index values were calculated over the entire atrial surface. Our simulations show electrograms with simple potentials, with little or no cycle length variations, narrow frequency peaks and high organization index values during stable and regular activity as the observed in atrial flutter, atrial tachycardia (except in areas of conduction block) and in areas closer to ectopic activity during focal atrial fibrillation. By contrast, cycle length variations and polymorphic electrograms with single, double and fragmented potentials were observed in areas of irregular and unstable activity during atrial fibrillation episodes. Our results also show: 1) electrograms with potentials without negative deflection related to spiral or curved wavefronts that pass over the recording point and move away, 2) potentials with a much greater proportion of positive deflection than negative in areas of wave collisions, 3) double potentials related with wave fragmentations or blocking lines and 4) fragmented electrograms associated with pivot points. Our model is the first human atrial model with realistic fiber orientation used to investigate the relationship between different atrial arrhythmic propagation patterns and the electrograms observed at more than 43000 points on the atrial surface. PMID:23408928

  16. Effective practical management of patients with atrial fibrillation when using new oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jafna L

    2015-06-01

    Practical management of stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) requires physicians to find the optimal balance between maximizing prevention of ischaemic stroke and minimizing the risk of bleeding. Vitamin K antagonists have traditionally been used for stroke prevention in patients with AF; however, they have been associated with increased risk of bleeding, particularly intracranial haemorrhage. New oral anticoagulants (OACs) have shown similar efficacy to the vitamin K antagonist warfarin but with a reduced risk of bleeding, particularly life-threatening bleeding such as intracranial haemorrhage. Decisions about which new OAC therapy to use may be influenced by patient characteristics such as age, renal function, co-medication use, and bleeding risk. This review uses a case-based approach to highlight the practical management issues to be considered by the physician when selecting a new OAC for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular AF. PMID:25850527

  17. Cor Triatriatum Dexter and Atrial Septal Defect in a 43-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Kosevic, Dragana; Milicic, Miroslav; Jovovic, Ljiljana; Stojanovic, Ivan; Micovic, Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Cor triatriatum dexter is a rare congenital heart anomaly in which a membrane divides the right atrium into 2 chambers. We report the case of a 43-year-old woman who had cor triatriatum dexter and a large atrial septal defect. During attempted percutaneous closure, the balloon disrupted the membrane and revealed that the defect had no inferior rim, precluding secure placement of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder. Surgical treatment subsequently proved to be successful. In patients with an incomplete membrane and a septal defect with well-defined rims, percutaneous treatment can be the first choice. In patients who have cor triatriatum dexter and unfavorable anatomic features or concomitant complex heart anomalies, open-heart surgery remains the gold standard for treatment. PMID:25120397

  18. Cor triatriatum dexter and atrial septal defect in a 43-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Petar M; Kosevic, Dragana; Milicic, Miroslav; Jovovic, Ljiljana; Stojanovic, Ivan; Micovic, Slobodan

    2014-08-01

    Cor triatriatum dexter is a rare congenital heart anomaly in which a membrane divides the right atrium into 2 chambers. We report the case of a 43-year-old woman who had cor triatriatum dexter and a large atrial septal defect. During attempted percutaneous closure, the balloon disrupted the membrane and revealed that the defect had no inferior rim, precluding secure placement of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder. Surgical treatment subsequently proved to be successful. In patients with an incomplete membrane and a septal defect with well-defined rims, percutaneous treatment can be the first choice. In patients who have cor triatriatum dexter and unfavorable anatomic features or concomitant complex heart anomalies, open-heart surgery remains the gold standard for treatment. PMID:25120397

  19. Causative role of infection in chronic non-thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension following ventriculo-atrial shunt.

    PubMed

    Amelot, Aymeric; Bouazza, Schaharazad; George, Bernard; Bresson, Damien

    2014-08-01

    A severe complication of ventriculo-atrial (VA) shunt placement for treatment of hydrocephalus is chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We report here a patient with a VA shunt for treatment of hydrocephalus who presented two consecutive episodes of VA shunt-induced infection by Staphylococcus epidermidis and who rapidly developed chronic PH. Extensive radiological investigations and normal ventilation/perfusion lung scan allowed us to rule out CTEPH. To our knowledge, no other case of chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH) related to VA shunt insertion has been reported so far. PH in this patient with VA shunt is clinically distinct from CTEPH and has been caused by VA shunt-induced S. epidermidis infection per se. PMID:24175581

  20. Severe valproic acid intoxication is associated with atrial tachycardia: secondary detoxication by hemoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S; Kuhlmann, M K; Peters, F T; Limbach, H G; Lindinger, A

    2005-01-01

    Valproic acid is an anticonvulsant drug which is associated with serious toxicity including fatal outcome in case of severe intoxication. Secondary detoxication by hemodialysis or hemoperfusion has been employed successfully in valproic acid intoxication. Cardiac arrhythmias have only been described rarely in valproic acid intoxication in humans. We report on a 15 year-old boy with severe valproic acid intoxication (valproic acid plasma level on admission: 1 150 mg/l) who presented with coma, hypernatremia and atrial tachycardia. The patient was successfully treated with hemoperfusion and intensive supportive care without implementation of a specific antiarrhythmic therapy. We conclude that patients with severe valproic acid intoxication may benefit from secondary detoxication. In addition to generally known symptoms valproic acid intoxication may also be associated with cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:15770579

  1. Dronedarone: evidence supporting its therapeutic use in the treatment of atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Renee M; Olshansky, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Dronedarone, a benzofuran derivative with a structure similar to amiodarone, has been developed as a potential therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation. Aim: To review the published evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of dronedarone use in patients with atrial fibrillation. Evidence review: Available evidence suggests that dronedarone 400 mg orally twice daily can lengthen the time to and decrease the overall recurrence of atrial fibrillation compared with placebo. Dronedarone may reduce risk of mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization. Patients with atrial fibrillation receiving dronedarone had improved ventricular rate control compared with patients receiving placebo. Dronedarone is associated with few serious adverse events except, notably, in patients with decompensated heart failure. Place in therapy: Dronedarone may have a role in rate and rhythm control for patients with atrial fibrillation. Dronedarone can reduce unique, but potentially serious, end points in patients with atrial fibrillation. Despite this, the exact role of dronedarone in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation continues to emerge. It remains uncertain if dronedarone should be considered a primary treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation. Dronedarone should not be administered to patients with decompensated heart failure. Conclusion: Dronedarone is a unique drug that may serve a key role to treat patients with atrial fibrillation. PMID:21042542

  2. Iterative method to detect atrial activations and measure cycle length from electrograms during atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jason; Sehgal, Vinod; Ng, Justin K; Gordon, David; Goldberger, Jeffrey J

    2014-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) electrograms are characterized by varying morphologies, amplitudes, and cycle lengths (CLs), presenting a challenge for automated detection of individual activations and the activation rate. In this study, we evaluate an algorithm to detect activations and measure CLs from AF electrograms. This algorithm iteratively adjusts the detection threshold level until the mean CL converges with the median CL to detect all individual activations. A total of 291 AF electrogram recordings from 13 patients (11 male, 58 ± 10 years old) undergoing AF ablation were obtained. Using manual markings by two independent reviewers as the standard, we compared the cycle length iteration algorithm with a fixed threshold algorithm and dominant frequency (DF) for the estimation of CL. At segment lengths of 10 s, when comparing the algorithm detected to the manually detected activation, the undersensing, oversensing, and total discrepancy rates were 2.4%, 4.6%, and 7.0%, respectively, and with absolute differences in mean and median CLs were 7.9 ± 9.6 ms and 5.6 ± 6.8 ms, respectively. These results outperformed DF and fixed threshold-based measurements. This robust method can be used for CL measurements in either real-time and offline settings and may be useful in the mapping of AF. PMID:24216630

  3. Initial Independent Outcomes from Focal Impulse and Rotor Modulation Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation: Multicenter FIRM Registry

    PubMed Central

    MILLER, JOHN M.; KOWAL, ROBERT C.; SWARUP, VIJAY; DAUBERT, JAMES P.; DAOUD, EMILE G.; DAY, JOHN D.; ELLENBOGEN, KENNETH A.; HUMMEL, JOHN D.; BAYKANER, TINA; KRUMMEN, DAVID E.; NARAYAN, SANJIV M.; REDDY, VIVEK Y.; SHIVKUMAR, KALYANAM; STEINBERG, JONATHAN S.; WHEELAN, KEVIN R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The success of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation (AF) may be improved if stable AF sources identified by Focal Impulse and Rotor Mapping (FIRM) are also eliminated. The long-term results of this approach are unclear outside the centers where FIRM was developed; thus, we assessed outcomes of FIRM-guided AF ablation in the first cases at 10 experienced centers. Methods We prospectively enrolled n = 78 consecutive patients (61 ± 10 years) undergoing FIRM guided ablation for persistent (n = 48), longstanding persistent (n = 7), or paroxysmal (n = 23) AF. AF recordings from both atria with a 64-pole basket catheter were analyzed using a novel mapping system (Rhythm View™; Topera Inc., CA, USA). Identified rotors/focal sources were ablated, followed by PVI. Results Each institution recruited a median of 6 patients, each of whom showed 2.3 ± 0.9 AF rotors/focal sources in diverse locations. 25.3% of all sources were right atrial (RA), and 50.0% of patients had ?1 RA source. Ablation of all sources required a total of 16.6 ± 11.7 minutes, followed by PVI. On >1 year follow-up with a 3-month blanking period, 1 patient lost to follow-up (median time to 1st recurrence: 245 days, IQR 145–354), single-procedure freedom from AF was 87.5% (patients without prior ablation; 35/40) and 80.5% (all patients; 62/77) and similar for persistent and paroxysmal AF (P = 0.89). Conclusions Elimination of patient-specific AF rotors/focal sources produced freedom-from-AF of ?80% at 1 year at centers new to FIRM. FIRM-guided ablation has a rapid learning curve, yielding similar results to original FIRM reports in each center’s first cases. PMID:24948520

  4. Left Atrial Enlargement and Reduced Physical Function During Aging

    PubMed Central

    Pellett, Andrew A.; Myers, Leann; Welsch, Michael; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Welsh, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction, often seen with increasing age, is associated with reduced exercise capacity and increased mortality. Mortality rates in older individuals are linked to the development of disability, which may be preceded by functional limitations. The goal of this study was to identify which echocardiographic measures of diastolic function correlate with physical function in older subjects. A total of 36 men and women from the Lou isiana Healthy Aging Study, age 62–101 yr, received a complete echocardiographic exam and performed the 10-item continuous-scale physical-functional performance test (CS-PFP-10). After adjustment for age and gender, left atrial volume index (? = ?0.59; p = .0005) correlated with the total CS-PFP-10 score. Increased left atrial volume index may be a marker of impaired performance of activities of daily living in older individuals. PMID:23238083

  5. Practical management of anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Richard J; Flaker, Greg C; Saxonhouse, Sherry J; Doherty, John U; Birtcher, Kim K; Cuker, Adam; Davidson, Bruce L; Giugliano, Robert P; Granger, Christopher B; Jaffer, Amir K; Mehta, Bella H; Nutescu, Edith; Williams, Kim A

    2015-04-01

    Anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation has become more complex due to the introduction of new anticoagulant agents, the number and kinds of patients requiring therapy, and the interactions of those patients in the matrix of care. The management of anticoagulation has become a "team sport" involving multiple specialties in multiple sites of care. The American College of Cardiology, through the College's Anticoagulation Initiative, convened a roundtable of experts from multiple specialties to discuss topics important to the management of patients requiring anticoagulation and to make expert recommendations on issues such as the initiation and interruption of anticoagulation, quality of anticoagulation care, management of major and minor bleeding, and treatment of special populations. The attendees continued to work toward consensus on these topics, and present the key findings of this roundtable in a state-of- the-art review focusing on the practical aspects of anticoagulation care for the patient with atrial fibrillation. PMID:25835447

  6. Reliability of subcostal TD echocardiography to detect atrial septal defect.

    PubMed

    Gullace, G; Savoia, M T; Knippel, M; Ravizza, P; Ranzi, C

    1982-01-01

    Echocardiography was used in 40 patients with atrial septal defect (ASD), diagnosed by cardiac catheterization. A dilated right ventricle and abnormal interventricular septal motion were observed at M-mode echocardiography in patients with large L-R shunt. The two-dimensional apical four chamber view was reliable to detect the ostium primum type but not the secundum type of ASD. Moreover the presence of false positives reduced the specificity and predictivity of this approach. The two-dimensional subcostal view provided a direct visualization of the interatrial communication (sensitivity, specificity and predictivity = 100%) and whether the defect was in the uppermost, lowermost or midportion of the septum. Subcostal two-dimensional echocardiography is considered valuable and reliable technique to detect atrial septal defect and the type of the defect itself. PMID:7128991

  7. Idiopathic aneurysmal giant right atrial enlargement with thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Khare, Rashi; Chandra, Sharad; Agarwal, Vikas; Dwivedi, Sudhanshu

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy presented to our outpatient department with progressive dyspnoea and palpitations of 6-month duration. Cardiovascular system examination revealed a short ejection systolic murmur at the left lateral heart border. Chest X-ray showed gross cardiomegaly. Two-dimensional ECHO revealed massive aneurysmal right atrial (RA) enlargement, low-pressure tricuspid regurgitation and dysplastic tricuspid valve with compression of the left atrium (LA) and left ventricle (LV). Cardiac CT showed grossly enlarged RA compressing the LA, LV, right pulmonary artery and right upper lobe pulmonary vein. Initially, the patient refused surgery. On follow-up, a thrombus was seen in the giant RA and the patient agreed to and underwent successful surgery. Absence of pericardium was specifically excluded on cardiac MRI and on surgery. Resected atrial tissue showed wall thinning and focal fibrosis establishing idiopathic dilation of the RA. The patient is on regular follow-up. PMID:25540215

  8. Atrial Fibrillation Post Cardiac Surgery Trends Toward Management

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Awad A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Post operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is more common than before due to increased numbers of cardiac surgeries. This in turn is associated with increased incidence of post operative complication, length of hospital stay and subsequent increase the cost of hospitalization. Therefore preventing and/or minimizing atrial fibrillation by pharmacological or nonpharmacological means is a reasonable goal. POAF has also been associated with postoperative delirium and neurocognitive decline. The precise pathophysiology of POAF is unknown, however most of the evidence suggests it is multifactorial. Different risk factors have been reported, and many studies have evaluated the prophylactic effects of different interventions. This review article highlights the incidence, risk factors, and pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment strategies of POAF. PMID:21187998

  9. Virtual Electrophysiological Study of Atrial Fibrillation in Fibrotic Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Kathleen S.; Zahid, Sohail; Vadakkumpadan, Fijoy; Blauer, Joshua; MacLeod, Rob S.; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation failure is related to the presence of atrial fibrosis. However it remains unclear whether this information can be successfully used in predicting the optimal ablation targets for AF termination. We aimed to provide a proof-of-concept that patient-specific virtual electrophysiological study that combines i) atrial structure and fibrosis distribution from clinical MRI and ii) modeling of atrial electrophysiology, could be used to predict: (1) how fibrosis distribution determines the locations from which paced beats degrade into AF; (2) the dynamic behavior of persistent AF rotors; and (3) the optimal ablation targets in each patient. Four MRI-based patient-specific models of fibrotic left atria were generated, ranging in fibrosis amount. Virtual electrophysiological studies were performed in these models, and where AF was inducible, the dynamics of AF were used to determine the ablation locations that render AF non-inducible. In 2 of the 4 models patient-specific models AF was induced; in these models the distance between a given pacing location and the closest fibrotic region determined whether AF was inducible from that particular location, with only the mid-range distances resulting in arrhythmia. Phase singularities of persistent rotors were found to move within restricted regions of tissue, which were independent of the pacing location from which AF was induced. Electrophysiological sensitivity analysis demonstrated that these regions changed little with variations in electrophysiological parameters. Patient-specific distribution of fibrosis was thus found to be a critical component of AF initiation and maintenance. When the restricted regions encompassing the meander of the persistent phase singularities were modeled as ablation lesions, AF could no longer be induced. The study demonstrates that a patient-specific modeling approach to identify non-invasively AF ablation targets prior to the clinical procedure is feasible. PMID:25692857

  10. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity by exogenous atrial natriuretic peptide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia M. Deegan; Mark A. Basinger; Mark M. Jones; Kenneth R. Hande

    1996-01-01

    The ability of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was compared to the protective effect of 3% NaCl. ANP (1 ?\\/kg\\/min), 3% NaCl or peptide buffer vehicle (50 ?l\\/min) were infused for 45 min to conscious unrestrained rats immediately after cisplatin administration (5 mg\\/kg i.V.). Measurements taken 72 h after drug treatment indicated that compared to animals receiving

  11. The neuroendocrine control of atrial natriuretic peptide release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Antunes-Rodrigues; A L V Favaretto; J Gutkowska; S M McCann

    1997-01-01

    In the initial experiments reviewed here, we show that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) plays an important inhibitory role in the control of sodium chloride and water intake since injections of ANP into the third ventricle (3V) caused a reduction in dehydration-induced drinking and also the drinking of salt in salt-depleted rats. Attention was then turned to the possible role of

  12. New treatment options for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Rhee; Richard L. Page

    2005-01-01

    Optional statement  Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia requiring treatment. Its most devastating consequence is thromboembolic\\u000a stroke. Therapy with warfarin is indicated in most patients, as it has been shown conclusively to reduce the risk of stroke.\\u000a Aspirin is an inferior alternative except in certain low-risk patients or for patients with an absolute contraindication to\\u000a warfarin. Guidelines have been

  13. Cox-Maze procedure for atrial fibrillation: Mayo Clinic experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HV Schaff; JA Dearani; RC Daly; TA Orszulak; GK Danielson

    2000-01-01

    The Cox-Maze procedure corrects atrial fibrillation in 90% of patients, and successful operation restores sinus rhythm, thereby reducing risks of thromboembolism and anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage. Symptoms such as palpitation and fatigability also improve with restoration of atrioventricular synchrony. At the Mayo Clinic, 221 Cox-Maze procedures were performed from March 1993 through March 1999. Over 75% of patients had associated cardiac disease

  14. Long-Term Outcome after Stroke due to Atrial Fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinrich P. Mattle

    2003-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. AF is paroxysmal or persistent and becomes permanent when it does not convert to sinus rhythm spontaneously or when attempted cardioversion fails. The prevalence of AF is 0.4% in the general population and increases with age up to 6–8% in octogenarians. In men, the age-adjusted prevalence is generally higher than in

  15. Sex Differences in Atrial Fibrillation and Its Complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Conen; Christine M. Albert

    2010-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in the general population, and several studies predict a significant\\u000a increase in the incidence of AF during the next decades. This review examines gender differences in the AF epidemiology, risk\\u000a factors associated with AF, and gender differences in the presentation, management, and outcome of AF. In every age group,\\u000a AF is less

  16. Posterior left atrial–esophageal relationship throughout the cardiac cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasbir Sra; David Krum; Angela Malloy; Atul Bhatia; Ryan Cooley; Zalmen Blanck; Anwer Dhala; Alfred J. Anderson; Masood Akhtar

    2006-01-01

    Background  Radiofrequency energy delivered throughout the cardiac cycle has the potential to cause thermal injury to the esophagus if the anatomical relationship between the posterior left atrium and the esophagus changes during cardiac motion.Objective  To assess the posterior left atrial–esophageal relationship throughout the cardiac cycle.Methods  In this study, the anatomical relationship between the posterior left atrium and the esophagus was assessed throughout the

  17. Women with atrial fibrillation: Greater risk, less attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annabelle S. Volgman; Marian F. Manankil; Disha Mookherjee; Richard G. Trohman

    2009-01-01

    Background: In 1995, atrial fibrillation (AF) was estimated to affect 2.2 million people in the United States. After the age of 75 years (the median age for onset of AF), ~60% of people with AF are women. Women have a significantly higher risk of AF-related stroke than do men and are more likely to live with stroke-related disability and a

  18. Bisphosphonates and risk of atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seo Young Kim; Min Jung Kim; Suzanne M Cadarette; Daniel H Solomon

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bisphosphonates are the most commonly used drugs for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Although a recent FDA review of the results of clinical trials reported no clear link between bisphosphonates and serious or non-serious atrial fibrillation (AF), some epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between AF and bisphosphonates. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of non-experimental studies to evaluate

  19. Fatal outcome in atrial migration of the tempofilter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Plinio Rossi; Flaminia Marcella Arata; Paola Bonaiuti; Vittorio Pedicini

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To report the risk of fatal atrial migration with the Tempofilter.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Among temporary filters, the high safety profile Tempofilter has been marketed as offering protection for up to 6 weeks.\\u000a We implanted about 60 Tempofilters to prevent pulmonary embolism. The main indications were temporary thromboembolic risk,\\u000a recurrent pulmonary embolism, and contraindication to or failure of anticoagulant therapy. Follow-up

  20. Acute Liver Failure Due to Budd-Chiari Syndrome in the Setting of Cardiac Synovial Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Kelly; Vinayak, Ajeet G.

    2015-01-01

    Primary malignant tumors of the heart, specifically cardiac sarcomas, are rare and mainly diagnosed at autopsy. Acute Budd-Chiari syndrome is a recognized cause of acute liver failure and has been associated with several rare cardiac tumors: atrial myxoma, caval rhabdomyosarcoma, and primary cardiac adenocarcinoma. We present the first case of a fatal, highly differentiated cardiac synovial sarcoma that presented as acute liver failure from Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  1. Radial basis function neural networks applied to efficient QRST cancellation in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Jorge; Rieta, José Joaquín

    2013-02-01

    The most extended noninvasive technique for medical diagnosis and analysis of atrial fibrillation (AF) relies on the surface elctrocardiogram (ECG). In order to take optimal profit of the ECG in the study of AF, it is mandatory to separate the atrial activity (AA) from other cardioelectric signals. Traditionally, template matching and subtraction (TMS) has been the most widely used technique for single-lead ECGs, whereas multi-lead ECGs have been addressed through statistical signal processing techniques, like independent component analysis. In this contribution, a new QRST cancellation method based on a radial basis function (RBF) neural network is proposed. The system is able to provide efficient QRST cancellation and can be applied both to single and multi-lead ECG recordings. The learning algorithm used for training the RBF makes use of a special class of network, known as cosine RBF, by updating selected adjustable parameters to minimize the class-conditional variances at the outputs of the network. The experiments verify that RBFs trained by the proposed learning algorithm are capable of reducing the QRST complex dramatically, a property that is not shared by other methods and conventional feed-forward neural networks. Average Results (mean ± std) for the RBF method in cross-correlation (CC) between original and estimated AA are CC=0.95±0.038 being the mean square error (MSE) for the same signals, MSE=0.311±0.078. Regarding spectral parameters, the dominant amplitude (DA) and the mean power spectral (MP) were DA=1.15±0.18 and MP=0.31±0.07, respectively. In contrast, traditional TMS-based methods yielded, for the best case, CC=0.864±0.041, MSE=0.577±0.097, DA=0.84±0.25 and MP=0.24±0.07. The results prove that the RBF based method is able to obtain a remarkable reduction of ventricular activity and a very accurate preservation of the AA, thus providing high quality dissociation between atrial and ventricular activities in AF recordings. PMID:23228480

  2. Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Is More Prevalent than Persistent Atrial Fibrillation in Acute Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Rizos; A. Wagner; E. Jenetzky; P. A. Ringleb; R. Becker; W. Hacke; R. Veltkamp

    2011-01-01

    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cause of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). More extensive diagnostic effort is required to detect paroxysmal AF (pxAF) than persistent AF (pAF); the prevalence of pxAF in stroke patients is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence of pAF and pxAF in ischemic stroke and TIA patients. Methods: Consecutive patients with acute ischemic

  3. Impact of pulmonary vein isolation on fractionated atrial potentials and ganglionated plexi in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Sairaku, Akinori; Yoshida, Yukihiko; Hirayama, Haruo; Nakano, Yukiko; Kihara, Yasuki

    2014-01-01

    Some patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) acquire long-term freedom from AF by pulmonary vein (PV) isolation alone. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the characteristics of their atrial substrate.We studied 20 patients with persistent AF to examine the distribution of fractionated atrial potentials (FAP) and that of the anatomic sites of ganglionated plexi (GPs) with vagal reflexes elicited by high frequency stimulation (HFS) with the use of the CARTO system before and after the PV isolation.Both the %FAP area defined as a proportion of the FAP area to the total left atrial area (34.3 ± 10.3 to 21.5 ± 10.2%; P < 0.0001) and number of GP sites with vagal reflexes (4.0 [3.0, 5.0] to 2.0 [1.0, 2.8]; P < 0.0001) were markedly decreased after the PV isolation. Seven (35%) patients had AF recurrences, and they had a greater %FAP area after the PV isolation than those without (32.8 [22.1, 37.3] versus 13.8 [10.9, 19.9]%; P = 0.0049). A %FAP area after the PV isolation of > 20% was significantly associated with an AF recurrence (odds ratio 20.0, 95% confidence interval 2.26470.34; P = 0.018). No significant difference was found between the patients with and without AF recurrence in the reduction rate of anatomic sites of GPs with a vagal reflex induced by the HFS.A more marked reduction in the FAP area by the PV isolation was significantly associated with a better outcome in patients with persistent AF. PMID:25310931

  4. Personalized management of atrial fibrillation: Proceedings from the fourth Atrial Fibrillation competence NETwork/European Heart Rhythm Association consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Breithardt, Günter; Aliot, Etienne; Al Khatib, Sana; Apostolakis, Stavros; Auricchio, Angelo; Bailleul, Christophe; Bax, Jeroen; Benninger, Gerlinde; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina; Boersma, Lucas; Boriani, Giuseppe; Brandes, Axel; Brown, Helen; Brueckmann, Martina; Calkins, Hugh; Casadei, Barbara; Clemens, Andreas; Crijns, Harry; Derwand, Roland; Dobrev, Dobromir; Ezekowitz, Michael; Fetsch, Thomas; Gerth, Andrea; Gillis, Anne; Gulizia, Michele; Hack, Guido; Haegeli, Laurent; Hatem, Stephane; Georg Häusler, Karl; Heidbüchel, Hein; Hernandez-Brichis, Jessica; Jais, Pierre; Kappenberger, Lukas; Kautzner, Joseph; Kim, Steven; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lane, Deirdre; Leute, Angelika; Lewalter, Thorsten; Meyer, Ralf; Mont, Lluis; Moses, Gregory; Mueller, Markus; Münzel, Felix; Näbauer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Oeff, Michael; Oto, Ali; Pieske, Burkert; Pisters, Ron; Potpara, Tatjana; Rasmussen, Lars; Ravens, Ursula; Reiffel, James; Richard-Lordereau, Isabelle; Schäfer, Herbert; Schotten, Ulrich; Stegink, Wim; Stein, Kenneth; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Szumowski, Lukasz; Tavazzi, Luigi; Themistoclakis, Sakis; Thomitzek, Karen; Van Gelder, Isabelle C; von Stritzky, Berndt; Vincent, Alphons; Werring, David; Willems, Stephan; Lip, Gregory Y H; Camm, A John

    2013-11-01

    The management of atrial fibrillation (AF) has seen marked changes in past years, with the introduction of new oral anticoagulants, new antiarrhythmic drugs, and the emergence of catheter ablation as a common intervention for rhythm control. Furthermore, new technologies enhance our ability to detect AF. Most clinical management decisions in AF patients can be based on validated parameters that encompass type of presentation, clinical factors, electrocardiogram analysis, and cardiac imaging. Despite these advances, patients with AF are still at increased risk for death, stroke, heart failure, and hospitalizations. During the fourth Atrial Fibrillation competence NETwork/European Heart Rhythm Association (AFNET/EHRA) consensus conference, we identified the following opportunities to personalize management of AF in a better manner with a view to improve outcomes by integrating atrial morphology and damage, brain imaging, information on genetic predisposition, systemic or local inflammation, and markers for cardiac strain. Each of these promising avenues requires validation in the context of existing risk factors in patients. More importantly, a new taxonomy of AF may be needed based on the pathophysiological type of AF to allow personalized management of AF to come to full fruition. Continued translational research efforts are needed to personalize management of this prevalent disease in a better manner. All the efforts are expected to improve the management of patients with AF based on personalized therapy. PMID:23981824

  5. The Cox maze III procedure for atrial fibrillation: long-term efficacy in patients undergoing lone versus concomitant procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil M Prasad; Hersh S Maniar; Cindy J Camillo; Richard B Schuessler; John P Boineau; Thoralf M Sundt; James L Cox; Ralph J Damiano

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundFor the last decade, the Cox maze III procedure has been available for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. It is unknown whether the operation has similar efficacy in patients with lone atrial fibrillation compared with that in patients with atrial fibrillation associated with coronary, valve, or congenital heart disease. This study examined the long-term outcome of patients who underwent this

  6. Performance of stroke risk scores in older people with atrial fibrillation not taking warfarin: comparative cohort study from BAFTA trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F D R Hobbs; A K Roalfe; G Y H Lip; K Fletcher; D A Fitzmaurice; J Mant

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the predictive power of the main existing and recently proposed schemes for stratification of risk of stroke in older patients with atrial fibrillation.Design Comparative cohort study of eight risk stratification scores. Setting Trial of thromboprophylaxis in stroke, the Birmingham Atrial Fibrillation in the Aged (BAFTA) trial.Participants 665 patients aged 75 or over with atrial fibrillation based in

  7. Left Atrial Appendage Volume Increased in More Than Half of Patients with Cryptogenic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Taina, Mikko; Vanninen, Ritva; Hedman, Marja; Jäkälä, Pekka; Kärkkäinen, Satu; Tapiola, Tero; Sipola, Petri

    2013-01-01

    Background Ischemic strokes without a well-defined etiology are labeled as cryptogenic, and account for 30–40% of strokes in stroke registries. The left atrial appendage (LAA) is the most typical origin for intracardiac thrombus formation when associated with atrial fibrillation. Here, we examined whether increased LAA volume detected with cardiac computed tomography (cCT) constitutes a risk factor in cryptogenic stroke patients. Methods This study included 82 stroke/TIA patients (57 males; mean age, 58 years) with a diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke after extensive radiological and cardiological investigations. Cases were classified using the TOAST criteria modified by European Association of Echocardiography recommendations for defining cardiac sources of embolism. Forty age- and gender-matched control subjects without cardiovascular diseases were selected for pair-wise comparisons (21 males; mean age, 54 years). LAA volume adjusted for body surface area was measured three dimensionally by tracing the LAA borders on electrocardiogram-gated CT slices. Results In control subjects, mean LAA volume was 3.4±1.1 mL/m2. Mean+2SD, which was considered the upper limit for normal LAA volume was 5.6 mL/m2. In paired Student t-test between the patient group and matched controls, LAA volume was 67% larger in cryptogenic stroke/TIA patients (5.7±2.0 mL/m2 vs. 3.4±1.1 mL/m2; P<0.001). Forty-five (55%) patients with cryptogenic stroke/TIA had enlarged LAA. Conclusion LAA is significantly enlarged in more than half of patients with cryptogenic stroke/TIA. LAA thrombosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of stroke in patients considered to have cryptogenic stroke after conventional evaluation. PMID:24223960

  8. TNNI3K mutation in familial syndrome of conduction system disease, atrial tachyarrhythmia and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Theis, Jeanne L; Zimmermann, Michael T; Larsen, Brandon T; Rybakova, Inna N; Long, Pamela A; Evans, Jared M; Middha, Sumit; de Andrade, Mariza; Moss, Richard L; Wieben, Eric D; Michels, Virginia V; Olson, Timothy M

    2014-11-01

    Locus mapping has uncovered diverse etiologies for familial atrial fibrillation (AF), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and mixed cardiac phenotype syndromes, yet the molecular basis for these disorders remains idiopathic in most cases. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) provides a powerful new tool for familial disease gene discovery. Here, synergistic application of these genomic strategies identified the pathogenic mutation in a familial syndrome of atrial tachyarrhythmia, conduction system disease (CSD), and DCM vulnerability. Seven members of a three-generation family exhibited the variably expressed phenotype, three of whom manifested CSD and clinically significant arrhythmia in childhood. Genome-wide linkage analysis mapped two equally plausible loci to chromosomes 1p3 and 13q12. Variants from WES of two affected cousins were filtered for rare, predicted-deleterious, positional variants, revealing an unreported heterozygous missense mutation disrupting the highly conserved kinase domain in TNNI3K. The G526D substitution in troponin I interacting kinase, with the most deleterious SIFT and Polyphen2 scores possible, resulted in abnormal peptide aggregation in vitro and in silico docking models predicted altered yet energetically favorable wild-type mutant dimerization. Ventricular tissue from a mutation carrier displayed histopathological hallmarks of DCM and reduced TNNI3K protein staining with unique amorphous nuclear and sarcoplasmic inclusions. In conclusion, mutation of TNNI3K, encoding a heart-specific kinase previously shown to modulate cardiac conduction and myocardial function in mice, underlies a familial syndrome of electrical and myopathic heart disease. The identified substitution causes a TNNI3K aggregation defect and protein deficiency, implicating a dominant-negative loss of function disease mechanism. PMID:24925317

  9. Cost-effectiveness of apixaban vs warfarin for secondary stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Easton, J. Donald; Johnston, S. Claiborne; Kim, Anthony S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cost-effectiveness of apixaban vs warfarin for secondary stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Using standard methods, we created a Markov decision model based on the estimated cost of apixaban and data from the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial and other trials of warfarin therapy for AF. We quantified the cost and quality-adjusted life expectancy resulting from apixaban 5 mg twice daily compared with those from warfarin therapy targeted to an international normalized ratio of 2–3. Our base case population was a cohort of 70-year-old patients with no contraindication to anticoagulation and a history of stroke or TIA from nonvalvular AF. Results: Warfarin therapy resulted in a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 3.91 years at a cost of $378,500. In comparison, treatment with apixaban led to a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 4.19 years at a cost of $381,700. Therefore, apixaban provided a gain of 0.28 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) at an additional cost of $3,200, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $11,400 per QALY. Our findings were robust in univariate sensitivity analyses varying model inputs across plausible ranges. In Monte Carlo analysis, apixaban was cost-effective in 62% of simulations using a threshold of $50,000 per QALY and 81% of simulations using a threshold of $100,000 per QALY. Conclusions: Apixaban appears to be cost-effective relative to warfarin for secondary stroke prevention in patients with AF, assuming that it is introduced at a price similar to that of dabigatran. PMID:22993279

  10. Real-Time MRI Guided Atrial Septal Puncture and Balloon Septostomy in Swine

    E-print Network

    Atalar, Ergin

    Real-Time MRI Guided Atrial Septal Puncture and Balloon Septostomy in Swine Amish N. Raval,1 MD orientation and may enable ASP and balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) in swine. Custom MRI catheters incorporatedMRI-guided transfemoral ASP and BAS were performed in 10 swine in a 1.5T interventional suite. Hemodynamic results were

  11. Outcome of valve repair and the cox maze procedure for mitral regurgitation and associated atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuhiro Handa; Hartzell V. Schaff; James J. Morris; Betty J. Anderson; Stephen L. Kopecky; Maurice Enriquez-Sarano

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to determine whether the Cox maze procedure provides adjunctive benefit in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing mitral valve repair. Methods: We compared the outcome of 39 patients who had the Cox maze procedure plus mitral valve repair between January 1993 and December 1996 (maze group) with that of 58 patients with preoperative atrial fibrillation who had

  12. Impact of the maze procedure on the stroke rate in patients with atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Cox; Niv Ad; Terry Palazzo

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The incidence of stroke associated with atrial fibrillation, even in high-risk patients, can be reduced significantly by adequate anticoagulation. However, anticoagulation does not abolish the stroke rate, and unfortunately only 40% of patients with atrial fibrillation actually receive anticoagulant therapy, even in areas where adequate health care is available. Methods: During the past 11.5 years, we have performed the

  13. Concomitant mitral valve or atrial septal defect surgery and the modified Cox-maze procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Néstor Sandoval; Victor M. Velasco; Hernando Orjuela; Victor Caicedo; Hernando Santos; Fernando Rosas; Juan R. Correa; Iván Melgarejo; Carlos A. Morillo

    1996-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is generally associated with rheumatic valve disease and atrial septal defects (ASD) in young adults. Surgical correction of both disorders fails to convert to sinus rhythm or prevent further episodes of paroxysmal or chronic AF in most patients. The role and efficacy of combining mitral valve surgery or ASD correction with AF surgery in this setting has

  14. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Elevation in Congestive Heart Failure in the Human

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Burnett; P. C. Kao; D. C. Hu; D. W. Heser; D. Heublein; J. P. Granger; T. J. Opgenorth; G. S. Reeder

    1986-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for atrial natriuretic peptide was used to examine the relation between circulating atrial natriuretic peptide and cardiac filling pressure in normal human subjects, in patients with cardiovascular disease and normal cardiac filling pressure, and in patients with cardiovascular disease and elevated cardiac filling pressure with and without congestive heart failure. The present studies establish a normal range

  15. The Registry of the German Competence NETwork on Atrial Fibrillation: patient characteristics and initial management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Nabauer; Andrea Gerth; Tobias Limbourg; Steffen Schneider; Michael Oeff; Paulus Kirchhof; Andreas Goette; Thorsten Lewalter; Ursula Ravens; Thomas Meinertz; Gerhard Steinbeck

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) enrolled in the Central Registry of the German Competence NETwork on Atrial Fibrillation (AFNET) and to assess current medical practice in patients treated at various levels of medical care in Germany.

  16. Feasibility and reference values of left atrial longitudinal strain imaging by two-dimensional speckle tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matteo Cameli; Maria Caputo; Sergio Mondillo; Piercarlo Ballo; Elisabetta Palmerini; Matteo Lisi; Enzo Marino; Maurizio Galderisi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of speckle tracking in the assessment of left atrial (LA) deformation dynamics is not established. We sought to determine the feasibility and reference ranges of LA longitudinal strain indices measured by speckle tracking in a population of normal subjects. METHODS: In 60 healthy individuals, peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) and time to peak longitudinal strain (TPLS) were

  17. Reversed shunting across the ductus arteriosus or atrial septum in utero heralds severe congenital heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Berning; Norman H. Silverman; Maria Villegas; David J. Sahn; Gerard R. Martin; Mary Jo Rice

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. This study was performed to define the significance of Doppler color flow mapping in demonstrating reversal of the direction of the normal physiologic flow across the atrial septum and ductus arteriosus in the human fetus.Background. Reversal of the physiologic shunting across the ductus arteriosus or atrial septum in utero (i.e., left to right) can be readily identified by Doppler

  18. Atrial fibrillation and its association with type 2 diabetes and hypertension in a Swedish community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Ostgren; J. Merlo; L. Rastam; U. Lindblad

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To explore the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes and to identify possible mechanisms for the development of atrial fibrillation. Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the primary health care in Skara, Sweden, and 1739 subjects (798 men, 941 women) were surveyed. Patients were categorized as those with hypertension only

  19. Pharmacologic prophylaxis for atrial fibrillation following cardiac surgery: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioanna Koniari; Efstratios Apostolakis; Christina Rogkakou; Nikolaos G Baikoussis; Dimitrios Dougenis

    2010-01-01

    Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia occurring after cardiac surgery. Its incidence varies depending on type of surgery. Postoperative AF may cause hemodynamic deterioration, predispose to stroke and increase mortality. Effective treatment for prophylaxis of postoperative AF is vital as reduces hospitalization and overall morbidity. Beta - blockers, have been proved to prevent effectively atrial fibrillation following cardiac

  20. Management and outcome of infants and children with right atrial isomerism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sadiq; O. Stümper; J. V. De Giovanni; J. G. Wright; B. Sethia; W. J. Brawn; E. D. Silove

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the current results and outcome of surgery in infants and children with right atrial isomerism and complex congenital heart disease. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. METHODS: 20 consecutive children with right atrial isomerism and complex congenital heart disease underwent surgery over a 6 year period between August 1987 and July 1993. The results and outcome were analysed according

  1. The role of the crista terminalis in atrial flutter and fibrillation: a computer modeling study.

    PubMed

    Ellis, W S; SippensGroenewegen, A; Auslander, D M; Lesh, M D

    2000-07-01

    Although atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Recent studies have determined the role of the crista terminalis in the mechanisms of a simpler arrhythmia, atrial flutter. We hypothesize that as transverse coupling across the crista terminalis increases, the activation pattern that results is less like typical atrial flutter and more like atrial fibrillation. 6480 Van Capelle elements were coupled in an icosahedron, simulating the right atrium. Atrial simulations were created which incorporated no heterogeneity, heterogeneous coupling, heterogeneous effective refractory periods, and both heterogeneous coupling and effective refractory periods. When the entire crista terminalis was uncoupled, typical atrial flutter occurred. When transverse coupling allowed activation to propagate across the crista terminalis, the flutter cycle length decreased (p<0.0001). In addition, when heterogeneity was present, both the coefficient of variation of cycle length and the number of activation wavelets increased (p<0.0001). Thus, a more rapid reentrant circuit in the superior right atrium drove fibrillatory activity in the remainder of the atrium, as predicted by the "mother wavelet hypothesis." While awaiting in vivo validation, our study indicates that transverse coupling along the crista terminalis may play an important role in the development of atrial fibrillation from atrial flutter. PMID:11016412

  2. Use of Electroanatomic Mapping to Delineate Transseptal Atrial Conduction in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz X. Roithinger; Jie Cheng; Arne SippensGroenewegen; Randall J. Lee; Leslie A. Saxon; Melvin M. Scheinman; Michael D. Lesh

    Background—Interaction between wave fronts in the right and left atrium may be important for maintenance of atrial fibrillation, but little is known about electrophysiological properties and preferential routes of transseptal conduction. Methods and Results—Eighteen patients (age 44 612 years) without structural heart disease underwent right atrial electroanatomic mapping during pacing from the distal coronary sinus (CS) or the posterior left

  3. [Electrocardiographic diagnosis and acute treatment of atrial fibrillation and flutter episodes].

    PubMed

    Pastor Fuentes, A; Esteban Paúl, E; Montero, M A; García Baró, B; López Bescós, L

    1996-01-01

    Both atrial flutter and fibrillation are common arrhythmias in the clinical setting. Although we have been aware of them for decades, little has been known until recently about their triggering or maintenance mechanisms. The diagnosis of these arrhythmias lies largely in the electrocardiogram, which shows characteristic features of atrial electrical activity, leading to a correct diagnosis. Usually, some maneuvers such as adenosine infusion, carotidus sinus massage, etc., are required, in order to unmask the atrial activity, that are often obscured by the QRS complex or T wave. Several therapeutic options can be attempted for the acute termination of both atrial flutter and fibrillation episodes. The choice of one or another depends on some extent, on the clinical status of the patient during the arrhythmia, the presence of structural heart disease and the preceding arrhythmic history. Antiarrhythmic drugs are quite efficacious in the acute conversion of atrial fibrillation, but such an effect is not expected in atrial flutter. Drugs that depress AV nodal conduction can be used in both instances, as a therapeutic end-point or as a previous measure to the arrhythmia conversion. Direct current cardioversion is a good and efficacious option for both arrhythmias, however sedation is mandatory which, may be a contraindication in some patients. Rapid atrial pacing is an elegant and reliable method for the acute termination of atrial flutter of the common type, although a transvenous catheter insertion is needed. PMID:8755693

  4. Predictors of Successful Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defect by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Durongpisitkul; N. L. Tang; J. Soongswang; D. Laohaprasitiporn; A. Nanal

    2004-01-01

    The location, size, and rim of an atrial septal defect (ASD) are major determining factors for transcatheter closure. We compared the measurements of ASD size and the characteristics of atrial septal rim using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with those obtained using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Patients with an ASD that met established criteria were selected for evaluation by cardiac MRI

  5. Opportunistic detection of atrial fibrillation in subjects aged 65 years or older in primare care: a randomised clinical trial of efficacy. DOFA-AP study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend using peripheral blood pulse measuring as a screening test for Atrial Fibrillation. However, there is no adequate evidence supporting the efficacy of such procedure in primary care clinical practice. This paper describes a study protocol designed to verify whether early opportunistic screening for Atrial Fibrillation by measuring blood pulse is more effective than regular practice in subjects aged 65 years attending primary care centers. Methods/design An cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Primary Care Centers of the Spanish National Health Service. A total of 269 physicians and nurses will be allocated to one of the two arms of the trial by stratified randomization with a 3:2 ratio (three practitioners will be assigned to the Control Group for every two practitioners assigned to the Experimental Group). As many as 12 870 patients aged 65 years or older and meeting eligibility criteria will be recruited (8 580 will be allocated to the Experimental Group and 4 290 to the Control Group). Randomization and allocation to trial groups will be carried out by a central computer system. The Experimental Group practitioners will conduct an opportunistic case finding for patients with Atrial Fibrillation, while the Control Group practitioners will follow the regular guidelines. The first step will be finding new Atrial Fibrillation cases. A descriptive inferential analysis will be performed (bivariate and multivariate by multilevel logistic regression analysis). Discussion If our hypothesis is confirmed, we expect Primary Care professionals to take a more proactive approach and adopt a new protocol when a patient meeting the established screening criteria is identified. Finally, we expect this measure to be incorporated into Clinical Practice Guidelines. Trial registration The study is registered as NCT01291953 (ClinicalTrials.gob) PMID:23130754

  6. The influence of cardiac autonomic nerve plexus on the electrophysiological properties in canines with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Juan; Lu, Yanmei; Wugeti, Najina; Aikemu, Ainiwaer

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study sought to examine the effect of the cardiac autonomic nerve plexus, which originates from the vagus nerve trunk, on atrial vulnerability. Methods: Dogs in group I (n = 6) underwent ganglionated plexi (GP) sequential ablation following six hours of left atrial appendage rapid atrial pacing (RAP). The monophasic action potential duration at 90% of repolarization (APD90), effective refractory period (ERP), and the atrial fibrillation inducing rate of bilateral atria and pulmonary veins were recorded at baseline, l h, 3 h and 6 h after pacing, as well as after sequential ablation (RAGP + RIGP ablation, LSGP + RIGP ablation). Dogs in group II (n = 6) received vagus nerve stimulation following six hours of left atrial appendage RAP. APD90, ERP and atrial fibrillation inducing rate of bilateral atria and pulmonary veins were recorded at baseline, 1 h, 3 h and 6 h after pacing, as well as after GP sequential ablation (RAGP + RIGP ablation, LSGP + RIGP ablation). Results: In group I, APD90 and ERP progressively shortened and atrial fibrillation inducing rate increased in various sites l h, 3 h and 6 h after RAP (P < 0.05). APD90 and ERP shortened significantly and atrial fibrillation inducing rate was significantly higher in the left atrial appendage and bilateral pulmonary veins than in other sites (P < 0.05). Following GP sequential ablation, APD90, ERP and atrial fibrillation inducing rate were not significantly different from baseline levels (P > 0.05). In group II, APD90 and ERP progressively shortened in various sites over pacing time period, and the atrial fibrillation inducing rate increased l h, 3 h and 6 h after RAP + VNS (P < 0.05). APD90 and ERP shortened significantly and atrial fibrillation inducing rate was significantly higher in the left atrial appendage and right superior/inferior pulmonary veins when compared with other sites (P < 0.05). After GP sequential ablation, APD90, ERP and atrial fibrillation inducing rate were not significantly different from baseline levels (P > 0.05). Compared with group I, APD90 and ERP shortened significantly, while atrial fibrillation inducibility increased significantly at baseline and l h, 3 h, and 6 h after pacing in group II (P < 0.05). After ablation of the four major cardiac GPs, no significant differences were observed in the two groups with respect to APD90, ERP and atrial fibrillation inducing rate (P > 0.05). Conclusion: GP activation, as a result of vagal nerve stimulation, alters MAP90, ERP and atrial fibrillation inducing rate of the atrium and pulmonary veins and promotes the occurrence of RAF in the early stage of atrial fibrillation, resulting in increased atrial vulnerability and triggering the occurrence and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. PMID:26131069

  7. Markers of Thrombin and Platelet Activity in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Correlation With Stroke Among 1531 Participants in the Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation III Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Feinberg; Lesly A. Pearce; Robert G. Hart; Mary Cushman; Elaine S. Cornell; Gregory Y. H. Lip; Edwin G. Bovill

    Background and Purpose—Markers of thrombin generation and platelet activation are often elevated in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, but it is unclear whether such markers usefully predict stroke. Therefore, we undertook the present study to assess the relationship between prothrombin fragment F1.2 (F1.2), b-thromboglobulin (BTG), fibrinogen, and the factor V Leiden mutation with stroke in atrial fibrillation. Methods—Specimens were obtained

  8. Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage for secondary prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation and contraindications to chronic anticoagulant therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stroke accounts for approx. 90% of thromboembolic complications associated with atrial fibrillation. The use of oral anticoagulants is the most effective therapy but is associated with risk of haemorrhagic complications. Aim In this article, we describe a series of patients with atrial fibrillation, cardiogenic stroke history, and contraindications for long-term anticoagulant therapy, in whom an alternative method – percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage – was performed. Material and methods Nine patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke were qualified for percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage (5 men and 4 women, aged 45–78 years). Physical and neurological examinations were conducted in the qualification period, 1–3 days before the intervention, and 1–3 days and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months following percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage. Transoesophageal echocardiography was carried out in the qualification period, 1–3 days before the intervention, and at 1–3 days and 3 and 6 months following the procedure. Results No complications were observed in the perioperative period and during the follow-up period of 16–31 months. Echocardiographic examinations showed that occluders were present in the appropriate positions. Conclusions Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage can be an alternative form of secondary prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation and contraindications for long-term anticoagulant therapy or those who have problems managing drug treatment. Complex clinical assessment performed by a neuro-cardiac team allows safe and efficient invasive treatment. PMID:25848365

  9. Aorta-to-left atrial fistula developing after surgical removal of an atrial septal occlusion device eight years after original implantation.

    PubMed

    Beg, Kisha; Latson, Larry A; Pettersson, Gosta; Wallace, Lee; Qureshi, Athar M

    2015-04-01

    Cardiac erosions may occur in a small percentage of patients after device closure of atrial septal defects. These devices have to be explanted. We report an aorta-to-left atrial fistula after surgical explantation of the device eight years after implant for access to mitral valve repair. The importance of realizing the risk of subclinical cardiac erosion and subsequent fistula development after device removal is discussed. PMID:25870358

  10. Atrial High Rate Episodes Detected by Pacemaker Diagnostics Predict Death and Stroke Report of the Atrial Diagnostics Ancillary Study of the MOde Selection Trial (MOST)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taya V. Glotzer; Anne S. Hellkamp; John Zimmerman; Michael O. Sweeney; Raymond Yee; Roger Marinchak; James Cook; Alexander Paraschos; John Love; Glauco Radoslovich; Kerry L. Lee; Gervasio A. Lamas

    Background—Some current pacing systems can automatically detect and record atrial tachyarrhythmias that may be asymptomatic. We prospectively studied a 312-patient (pt) subgroup of MOST (MOde Selection Trial), a 2010-patient, 6-year randomized trial of DDDR versus VVIR pacing in sinus node dysfunction (SND). The purpose of the study was to correlate atrial high rate events (AHREs) detected by pacemaker diagnostics with

  11. Giant right atrial lipoma mimicking tamponade.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Ahmadali; Ghaffari, Samad; Jodati, Ahmadreza; Shokoohi, Behrouz; Pourafkari, Leili

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac lipomas are rarely encountered. They are mostly asymptomatic and may be discovered incidentally. We describe the case of a 56 year-old man with a presentation similar to tamponade. He had decreased heart sounds, global cardiomegaly, and oligemic lung fields. Echocardiography showed a 110?×?75-mm mass attached to the interatrial septum, almost completely occupying the right atrium. Chest computed tomography showed a large homogeneous low-attenuation mass with thin septa, originating from interatrial septum and filling the right atrium, consistent with lipoma. The patient underwent surgery for resection of the tumor. Pathologic examination was consistent with cardiac lipoma. PMID:24887890

  12. Roles of atrial natriuretic peptide and its therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshihiko

    2010-11-01

    Since the discovery of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), there has been tremendous progress in our understanding of the physiologic and pathophysiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic roles of ANP. The diagnostic application of ANP and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been reviewed by many investigators, and meta-analyses of therapeutic use of BNP were reported from the USA. However, there are few reviews concerning the therapeutic use of ANP in patients with various conditions. Therefore, this review focuses on the recent clinical evidence of ANP in therapeutic use and experimental data that rationally support the therapeutic use of ANP. PMID:20884176

  13. Atrial natriuretic factor as a marker in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Michel, J B; Arnal, J F; Corvol, P

    1990-01-01

    Cardiac overload is associated with an overexpression of the atrial natriuretic-factor (ANF) gene in experimental models and in man. Sites of ANF gene overexpression are the atria but also the ventricular myocardium. This recruitment phenomenon of the ventricle to synthesise and secrete ANF is directly dependent on the increase in stress-stretch relationship in each cardiocyte. Therefore, the levels of plasma ANF and its second messenger, cyclic glycophosphate mutase in plasma and urine appear as markers of congestive heart failure in animal models and in man. Particularly, plasma ANF has been recognized recently as independent prognostic factor in congestive heart failure. PMID:1966565

  14. [Pharmacological versus invasive treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Pytkowski, Marciusz; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Kraska, Alicja; Sterli?ski, Maciej; Kowalik, Ilona; Krzyzanowski, Wojciech; Szwed, Hanna

    2004-06-01

    Aim of this prospective study was to assess quality of life (QoL), left ventricular (LV) function and exercise performance in two groups of patients (pts) with atrial fibrillation (Af) treated with: radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) and antiarrhythmic drugs (AA). Between 1996 and 2000 - 74 patients, 28 women, with drug refractory Af were enrolled by clinical indications for two modes of therapy: RFA and AA. RFA group consisted of 38 pts, 63.7 +/- 11.5 years old: 28 pts with RF AV Node ablation and pacemaker implantation (PI) and 10 pts with AV Node modification or right atrial isthmus RF ablation due to Af conversion to atrial flutter (Aflu) during medical therapy. AA group consisted of 36 pts, aged 59.7 +/- 13.8 years. Patients from RFA group suffered significantly more serious diseases than pts from AA group. No significant (sign.) differences between two groups were found in age, gender, arrhythmia history and number of AA taken. Pts were analyzed before entry, after 3 and 12 months of follow-up (3 mo. FU, 12 mo. FU) with following indices: LV function (Echo: EF & FS), exercise performance (treadmill test), QoL questionnaires, number of hospital admissions connected to arrhythmia or procedures (RFA & PI), number of AA drugs taken in RFA group. RFA group: Two deaths occurred due to end stage respiratory insufficiency (COPD), one pt required reposition of pacemaker lead. AA group: 3 pts required RFA due to uncontrolled Af/Aflu (AV Node ablation with PI - 1 pt, right atrial isthmus ablation - 2 pts). Analysis of two patients groups: LV function: Sign. improvement (EF & FS) in both groups in 12 mo. FU; Exercise performance: no sign. changes in 3 and 12 mo. FU. QoL: Arrhythmia scale: 3 mo. FU sign. reduction in both groups; 12 mo. FU reduction in RFA group only; Anxiety scale: 3 and 12 mo. FU sign. reduction of anxiety level in RFA group; Exercise and activity scales: 3 and 12 mo. FU sign. improvement in RFA group. During 3 and 12 mo. FU sign. less pts from RFA group required hospital admission versus pts from AA group. Sign. reduction in AA was noted in RFA group. Patients with symptomatic Af treated with RFA benefit from this kind of therapy more than patients treated with AA. Quality of life improvement visible in short term observation in patients from RFA group is still present after one year observation. Improvement in LV function is observed after one year in both groups of pts with Af. PMID:15508793

  15. Ablation Technology for the Surgical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Melby, Spencer J.; Schuessler, Richard B.; Damiano, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cox maze procedure for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation has been simplified from its original cut-and-sew technique. Various energy sources now exist which create linear lines of ablation that can be used to replace the original incisions, greatly facilitating the surgical approach. This review article describes the anatomy of the atria that must be considered in choosing a successful energy source. Furthermore the device characteristics, safety profile, mechanism of tissue injury, and ability to create transmural lesions of the various energy sources that have been used in the Cox maze procedure, along with the strengths and weaknesses of each device is discussed. PMID:23995989

  16. Trends in the management of atrial fibrillation: A neurologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hedna, Vishnumurthy Shushrutha; Favilla, Christopher G; Guerrero, Waldo R; Patel, Akhil; Gottipati, Amareshwari; Bidari, Sharathchandra; Beaver, Thomas; Waters, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac embolism, primarily from atrial fibrillation (AF), is implicated in a quarter of all ischemic strokes. In the setting of AF, contraindications to traditional therapies can create a clinical dilemma when choosing an agent for secondary stroke prophylaxis. Newer horizons in the medical and surgical management of AF have helped us choose from a wide variety of available therapies, the best possible management. In this article, we review the current trends in AF management including newer oral anticoagulants as well as surgical devices from a neurologist's view. PMID:23233767

  17. Early detection of occult atrial fibrillation and stroke prevention.

    PubMed

    Keach, Joseph Walker; Bradley, Steven M; Turakhia, Mintu P; Maddox, Thomas M

    2015-07-15

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very common arrhythmia and significantly increases stroke risk. This risk can be mitigated with oral anticoagulation, but AF is often asymptomatic, or occult, preventing timely detection and treatment. Accordingly, occult AF may cause stroke before it is clinically diagnosed. Currently, guidelines for the early detection and treatment of occult AF are limited. This review addresses recent advancements in occult AF detection methods, identification of populations at high risk for occult AF, the treatment of occult AF with oral anticoagulation, as well as ongoing trials that may answer critically important questions regarding occult AF screening. PMID:25935765

  18. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation--pharmacologic strategies.

    PubMed

    Tiyyagura, Satish R; Goldbarg, Seth H; Mehta, Davendra

    2007-01-01

    Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation presents a challenge for many clinicians. A considerable amount of research has gone into creating scoring systems that can accurately predict thromboembolic risk. Patients at low enough risk are best treated with aspirin, whereas higher-risk patients require anticoagulation with warfarin despite its shortcomings. Antithrombotic regimens for moderate-risk patients require careful consideration based on bleeding risk, age, and the ability to undergo frequent serum monitoring. Oral drugs may soon be available to replace warfarin. While this may simplify dosing and monitoring, it will still be necessary to weigh the risks and benefits of therapy. PMID:19126935

  19. Transbaffle Mapping and Ablation for Atrial Tachycardias After Mustard, Senning, or Fontan Operations

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Rafael; Walsh, Edward P.; Alexander, Mark E.; Mah, Douglas Y.; Cecchin, Frank; Abrams, Dominic J.; Triedman, John K.

    2013-01-01

    Background In Fontan and atrial switch patients, transcatheter ablation is limited by difficult access to the pulmonary venous atrium. In recent years, transbaffle access (TBA) has been described, but limited data document its safety and utility. Methods and Results All ablative electrophysiological study cases of this population performed between January 2006 and December 2010 at Boston Children's Hospital were reviewed. Pre?case and follow?up clinical characteristics were documented. Adverse events were classified by severity and attributability to the intervention. We included 118 cases performed in 90 patients. TBA was attempted in 74 cases and was successful in 96%: in 20 via baffle leak or fenestration and in 51 (94%) of 54 using standard or radiofrequency transseptal techniques. There were 10 procedures with adverse events ranked as moderate or more severe. The event rate was similar in both groups (TBA 8% versus non?TBA 9%, P=1), and no events were directly attributable to TBA. There was a trend to higher proportion of cases having a >5?point drop in saturations from baseline in the TBA group versus the non?TBA group in Fontan cases (15% vs 0%, P=0.14). When cases with follow?up >90 and >365 days were analyzed, the median initial arrhythmia score of 5 significantly changed ?3 points in both time periods (P?0.001). Conclusions TBA is feasible in this population; its use was not associated with a higher incidence of adverse events; and changes in clinical scores support its efficacy. Desaturation observed in some patients is of uncertain significance but warrants postablation monitoring and prospective study. PMID:24052498

  20. Tachycardia-induced silencing of subcellular Ca2+ signaling in atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Greiser, Maura; Kerfant, Benoît-Gilles; Williams, George S B; Voigt, Niels; Harks, Erik; Dibb, Katharine M; Giese, Anne; Meszaros, Janos; Verheule, Sander; Ravens, Ursula; Allessie, Maurits A; Gammie, James S; van der Velden, Jolanda; Lederer, W Jonathan; Dobrev, Dobromir; Schotten, Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by sustained high atrial activation rates and arrhythmogenic cellular Ca2+ signaling instability; however, it is not clear how a high atrial rate and Ca2+ instability may be related. Here, we characterized subcellular Ca2+ signaling after 5 days of high atrial rates in a rabbit model. While some changes were similar to those in persistent AF, we identified a distinct pattern of stabilized subcellular Ca2+ signaling. Ca2+ sparks, arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak, and SR Ca2+ content were largely unaltered. Based on computational analysis, these findings were consistent with a higher Ca2+ leak due to PKA-dependent phosphorylation of SR Ca2+ channels (RyR2s), fewer RyR2s, and smaller RyR2 clusters in the SR. We determined that less Ca2+ release per [Ca2+]i transient, increased Ca2+ buffering strength, shortened action potentials, and reduced L-type Ca2+ current contribute to a stunning reduction of intracellular Na+ concentration following rapid atrial pacing. In both patients with AF and in our rabbit model, this silencing led to failed propagation of the [Ca2+]i signal to the myocyte center. We conclude that sustained high atrial rates alone silence Ca2+ signaling and do not produce Ca2+ signaling instability, consistent with an adaptive molecular and cellular response to atrial tachycardia. PMID:25329692

  1. Influence of resting tension on immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide secretion by rat atria superfused in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schiebinger, R.J.; Linden, J.

    1986-07-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide is a potent diuretic hormone secreted by the atria in response to volume expansion. We examined the effect of resting tension on atrial natriuretic peptide secretion by rat atria superfused in vitro. Left atria were hooked between an electrode and force transducer and superfused with medium 199. The atria were studied at a pacing frequency of 0 or 3 Hz. Atrial natriuretic peptide content of the superfusate was measured by radioimmunoassay. In nonpaced and paced atria, increasing resting tension three- to five-fold caused immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide secretion to increase by 35 +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM, n = 6, p less than 0.01) and 30 +/- 3% (n = 4, p less than 0.01), respectively. Lowering resting tension by 50% in nonpaced and paced atria lowered immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide secretion by 30 +/- 3% (n = 7, p less than 0.01) and 24 +/- 3% (n = 6, p less than 0.01), respectively. To exclude the possibility that release of norepinephrine or acetylcholine from endogenous nerve endings was mediating this effect, the atria were superfused with the combination of propranolol 0.1 microM, phentolamine 1.0 microM, and atropine 10 microM. These concentrations of the antagonists were 125-fold or higher than their Kd for binding to their respective receptors. The antagonists did not block the rise in immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide secretion; neither did they inhibit an established rise in immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide secretion induced by increasing the resting tension.

  2. Catheter ablation by low energy DC shocks for successful management of atrial flutter.

    PubMed Central

    O'Núnáin, S; Linker, N J; Sneddon, J F; Debbas, N M; Camm, A J; Ward, D E

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the effects of low energy ablation of the substrate for atrial flutter. DESIGN--Initial retrospective analysis of patients undergoing low energy ablation of the atrioventricular node for refractory atrial flutter (group 1) was followed by a prospective assessment of low energy ablation in the posterio-inferior right atrium for the same condition (group 2). SETTING--Tertiary referral centre for management of cardiac arrhythmias. PATIENTS--Seven men (aged 50-67 years) with refractory atrial flutter. INTERVENTIONS--Multiple (3-10) low energy DC shocks with a cumulative energy of 100-245 J in the region of the atrioventricular node in group 1 and 12-15 low energy DC shocks (cumulative energy 110-235 J) guided by the anatomical landmarks of the triangle of Koch and applied directly to the atrial wall. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Freedom from recurrence of atrial flutter. RESULTS--In group 1 despite initial complete atrioventricular block in three patients, atrioventricular conduction had resumed in all by one month. All four, however, were in sinus rhythm at follow up six to 13 months later. Two of the three patients in group 2 were free of atrial flutter at follow up three to four months after ablation. CONCLUSION--Ablation of the atrial flutter substrate with low energy DC shocks is feasible. Precise electrophysiological mapping is not necessary. Images PMID:1739530

  3. Pheochromocytoma-Induced Atrial Tachycardia Leading to Cardiogenic Shock and Cardiac Arrest: Resolution with Atrioventricular Node Ablation and Pacemaker Placement

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Mandeep; Cunningham, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma should be considered in young patients who have acute cardiac decompensation, even if they have no history of hypertension. Atrioventricular node ablation and pacemaker placement should be considered for stabilizing pheochromocytoma patients with cardiogenic shock due to atrial tachyarrhythmias. A 38-year-old black woman presented with cardiogenic shock (left ventricular ejection fraction, <0.15) that did not respond to the placement of an intra-aortic balloon pump. A TandemHeart® Percutaneous Ventricular Assist Device was inserted emergently. After atrioventricular node ablation and placement of a temporary pacemaker, the TandemHeart was removed. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a pheochromocytoma. After placement of a permanent pacemaker, the patient underwent a right adrenalectomy. This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of pheochromocytoma-induced atrial tachyarrhythmia that led to cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest unresolved by the placement of 2 different ventricular assist devices, but that was completely reversed by radiofrequency ablation of the atrioventricular node and the placement of a temporary pacemaker. We present the patient's clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings, and we review the relevant literature. PMID:25593537

  4. Reactive ?-ketoaldehydes promote protein misfolding and preamyloid oligomer formation in rapidly-activated atrial cells.

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Tatiana N; Yermalitskaya, Liudmila V; Mace, Lisa C; Wells, K Sam; Boutaud, Olivier; Prinsen, Joseph K; Davies, Sean S; Roberts, L Jackson; Dikalov, Sergey I; Glabe, Charles G; Amarnath, Venkataraman; Barnett, Joey V; Murray, Katherine T

    2015-02-01

    Rapid activation causes remodeling of atrial myocytes resembling that which occurs in experimental and human atrial fibrillation (AF). Using this cellular model, we previously observed transcriptional upregulation of proteins implicated in protein misfolding and amyloidosis. For organ-specific amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's disease, preamyloid oligomers (PAOs) are now recognized to be the primary cytotoxic species. In the setting of oxidative stress, highly-reactive lipid-derived mediators known as ?-ketoaldehydes (?-KAs) have been identified that rapidly adduct proteins and cause PAO formation for amyloid ?1-42 implicated in Alzheimer's. We hypothesized that rapid activation of atrial cells triggers oxidative stress with lipid peroxidation and formation of ?-KAs, which then rapidly crosslink proteins to generate PAOs. To investigate this hypothesis, rapidly-paced and control, spontaneously-beating atrial HL-1 cells were probed with a conformation-specific antibody recognizing PAOs. Rapid stimulation of atrial cells caused the generation of cytosolic PAOs along with a myocyte stress response (e.g., transcriptional upregulation of Nppa and Hspa1a), both of which were absent in control, unpaced cells. Rapid activation also caused the formation of superoxide and ?-KA adducts in atriomyocytes, while direct exposure of cells to ?-KAs resulted in PAO production. Increased cytosolic atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and the generation of ANP oligomers with exposure to ?-KAs and rapid atrial HL-1 cell stimulation, strongly suggest a role for ANP in PAO formation. Salicylamine (SA) is a small molecule scavenger of ?-KAs that can protect proteins from modification by these reactive compounds. PAO formation and transcriptional remodeling were inhibited when cells were stimulated in the presence of SA, but not with the antioxidant curcumin, which is incapable of scavenging ?-KAs. These results demonstrate that ?-KAs promote protein misfolding and PAO formation as a component of the atrial cell stress response to rapid activation, and they provide a potential mechanistic link between oxidative stress and atrial cell injury. PMID:25463275

  5. Mortality and atrial fibrillation: is there a causal relationship?

    PubMed

    Levitt, Howard; Coplan, Neil L

    2009-01-01

    Almost all studies show that atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased mortality. What is less certain is whether this association is a straightforward cause-and-effect relationship, or if AF is merely a marker of severity of cardiovascular disease(s) or the aging process. AF can lead to the worsening of left ventricular filling, contribute to loss of atrioventricular synchrony, affect cardiac remodeling, and even cause a tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. AF could be a marker for underlying atherosclerotic disease that itself determines mortality, or the increased oxygen consumption associated with an increasing ventricular rate may lead to ischemia secondary to increased myocardial consumption and precipitate acute coronary syndromes. Although it is generally accepted that the stasis of atrial blood in AF promotes clot formation, studies have shown increases in specific coagulation factors-all of which have the ability to increase morbidity and/or mortality through their elevations. Another possibility is that AF is not the cause of the hypercoagulable state, but is instead a marker of such a state. PMID:19367229

  6. Pharmacologic Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Reduces Human Leg Capillary Filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Vissing, Susanne F.; Lane, Lynda D.; Buckey, Jay C.; Firth, Brian G.; Erdman, William; Hargens, Alan R.; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar

    1995-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is produced and secreted by atrial cells. We measured calf capillary filtration rate with prolonged venous-occlusion plethysmography of supine healthy male subjects during pharmacologic infusion of ANP (48 pmol/kg/min for 15 min; n = 6) and during placebo infusion (n = 7). Results during infusions were compared to prior control measurements. ANP infusion increased plasma (ANP) from 30 +/- 4 to 2,568 +/- 595 pmol/L. Systemic hemoconcentration occurred during ANP infusion: mean hematocrit and plasma colloid osmotic pressure increased 4.6 and 11.3%, respectively, relative to preinfusion baseline values (p less than 0.05). Mean calf filtration, however, was significantly reduced from 0.15 to 0.08 ml/100 ml/min with ANP. Heart rate increased 20% with ANP infusion, whereas blood pressure was unchanged. Calf conductance (blood flow/ arterial pressure) and venous compliance were unaffected by ANP infusion. Placebo infusion had no effect relative to prior baseline control measurements. Although ANP induced systemic capillary filtration, in the calf, filtration was reduced with ANP. Therefore, pharmacologic ANP infusion enhances capillary filtration from the systemic circulation, perhaps at upper body or splanchnic sites or both, while having the opposite effect in the leg.

  7. Pharmacologic Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Reduces Human Leg Capillary Filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Vissing, Susanne F.; Lane, Lynda D.; Buckey, Jay C.; Firth, Brian G.; Erdman, William; Hargens, Alan R.; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar

    1995-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is produced and secreted by atrial cells. We measured calf capillary filtration rate with prolonged venous-occlusion plethys-mography of supine health male subjects during pharmacologic infusion of ANP (48 pmol/kg/min for 15 min; n equals 6) and during placebo infusion (n equals 7). Results during infusions were compared to prior control measurements. ANP infusion increased plasma (ANP) from 30 plus or minus 4 to 2,568 plus or minus 595 pmol/L. Systemic hemoconcentration occurred during ANP infusion; mean hematocrit and plasma colloid osmotic pressure increased 4.6 and 11.3 percent respectively, relative to pre-infusion baseline values (p is less than 0.05). Mean calf filtration, however was significantly reduced from 0.15 to 0.08 ml/100 ml/min with ANP. Heart rate increased 20 percent with ANP infusion, wheras blood pressure was unchanged. Calf conductance (blood flow/arterial pressure) and venous compliance were unaffected by ANP infusion. Placebo infusion had no effect relative to prior baseline control measurements. Although ANP induced systemic capillary filtration, in the calf, filtration was reduced with ANP. Therefore, phamacologic ANP infusion enhances capillary filtration from the systemic circulation, perhaps at upper body or splanchic sites or both, while having the opposite effect in the leg.

  8. Rat atrial responses to Bothrops jararacussu (jararacuçu) snake venom.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Mariana A P; Dias, Lourdes; Rennó, André L; Sousa, Norma C; Smaal, Adriana; da Silva, Delano A; Hyslop, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Envenoming by the pitviper Bothrops jararacussu produces cardiovascular alterations, including coagulopathy, systemic hemorrhage, hypotension, circulatory shock and renal failure. In this work, we examined the activity of this venom in rat isolated right atria. Incubation with venom (0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2mg/ml) caused concentration-dependent muscle contracture that was not reversed by washing. Muscle damage was seen histologically and confirmed by quantification of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) release. Heating and preincubation of venom with p-bromophenacyl bromide (a phospholipase A2 inhibitor) abolished the venom-induced contracture and muscle damage. In contrast, indomethacin, a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, and verapamil, a voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel blocker, did not affect the responses to venom. Preincubation of venom with Bothrops or Bothrops/Crotalus antivenom or the addition of antivenom soon after venom attenuated the venom-induced changes in atrial function and tissue damage. These results indicate that B. jararacussu venom adversely affected rat atrial contractile activity and muscle organization through the action of venom PLA2; these venom-induced alterations were attenuated by antivenom. PMID:24973630

  9. Prospectively quantifying the propensity for atrial fibrillation: a mechanistic formulation.

    PubMed

    Carrick, Richard T; Bates, Oliver R J; Benson, Bryce E; Habel, Nicole; Bates, Jason H T; Spector, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine quantitative relationships between electrophysiologic parameters and the propensity of cardiac tissue to undergo atrial fibrillation. We used a computational model to simulate episodes of fibrillation, which we then characterized in terms of both their duration and the population dynamics of the electrical waves which drove them. Monte Carlo sampling revealed that episode durations followed an exponential decay distribution and wave population sizes followed a normal distribution. Half-lives of reentrant episodes increased exponentially with either increasing tissue area to boundary length ratio (A/BL) or decreasing action potential duration (APD), resistance (R) or capacitance (C). We found that the qualitative form of fibrillatory activity (e.g., multi-wavelet reentry (MWR) vs. rotors) was dependent on the ratio of resistance and capacitance to APD; MWR was reliably produced below a ratio of 0.18. We found that a composite of these electrophysiologic parameters, which we term the fibrillogenicity index (Fb = A/(BL*APD*R*C)), reliably predicted the duration of MWR episodes (r2 = 0.93). Given that some of the quantities comprising Fb are amenable to manipulation (via either pharmacologic treatment or catheter ablation), these findings provide a theoretical basis for the development of titrated therapies of atrial fibrillation. PMID:25768978

  10. Fuzzy decision tree to classify complex fractionated atrial electrograms.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Christopher; Keller, Matthias; Scherr, Daniel; Oesterlein, Tobias; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Schmitt, Claus; Dössel, Olaf; Luik, Armin

    2015-06-01

    Catheter ablation has emerged as an effective treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation (AF) in recent years. During AF, complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAE) can be recorded and are known to be a potential target for ablation. Automatic algorithms have been developed to simplify CFAE detection, but they are often based on a single descriptor or a set of descriptors in combination with sharp decision classifiers. However, these methods do not reflect the progressive transition between CFAE classes. The aim of this study was to develop an automatic classification algorithm, which combines the information of a complete set of descriptors and allows for progressive and transparent decisions. We designed a method to automatically analyze CFAE based on a set of descriptors representing various aspects, such as shape, amplitude and temporal characteristics. A fuzzy decision tree (FDT) was trained and evaluated on 429 predefined electrograms. CFAE were classified into four subgroups with a correct rate of 81±3%. Electrograms with continuous activity were detected with a correct rate of 100%. In addition, a percentage of certainty is given for each electrogram to enable a comprehensive and transparent decision. The proposed FDT is able to classify CFAE with respect to their progressive transition and may allow objective and reproducible CFAE interpretation for clinical use. PMID:25781659

  11. [Atrial fibrillation: anticoagulation or antiaggregation. Is there still a controversy?].

    PubMed

    Bonhorst, D

    1995-04-01

    Unlike what happened regarding rheumatic atrial fibrillation, there was no consensus until few years ago about the indication for antithrombotic therapy in nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. Nevertheless, as it was noticed a high prevalence of stroke in this last situation, several clinical trials were accomplished to clarify the role of those drugs. It was reviewed the five initial big trials, which in spite of having different dimensions, endpoints and design, were remarkably consistent in their results, showing in those patients taking varfarine a 60% reduction in ischemic stroke and systemic embolism. Those results were obtained with an acceptable risk of hemorrhage, which was related to anticoagulation intensity. An European trial showed similar results in secondary prevention, in patients with higher risk, all of them with a previous minor stroke. In some of those trials antiplatelet therapy was also evaluated but only one (SPAF I), showed a significant reduction of stroke with aspirin; the reductions of risk was meanwhile much smaller than with varfarine. As there were a high number of patients with indication for anticoagulants one tried to find thromboembolic risk factors, to identify the population potentially more prone to benefit from that therapy. It was possible in SPAF I trial to find some clinical and echocardiographic risk factors. SPAF II trial directly compare aspirine with varfarine, showing the superiority of the last one but also its greater haemorrhagic risk. That study permitted a better understanding of the indications of those two therapies, according to embolic and haemorrhagic risk of each patient. PMID:7612283

  12. Atrial fibrillation in heart failure: The sword of Damocles revisited

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad A; Ahmed, Fozia; Neyses, Ludwig; Mamas, Mamas A

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) frequently coexist and have emerged as major cardiovascular epidemics. There is growing evidence that AF is an independent prognostic marker in HF and affects patients with both reduced as well as preserved LV systolic function. There has been a general move in clinical practice from a rhythm control to a rate control strategy in HF patients with AF, although recent data suggests that rhythm control strategies may provide better outcomes in selected subgroups of HF patients. Furthermore, various therapeutic modalities including pace and ablate strategies with cardiac resynchronisation or radiofrequency ablation have become increasingly adopted, although their role in the management of AF in patients with HF remains uncertain. This article presents an overview of the multidimensional impact of AF in patients with HF. Relevant literature is highlighted and the effect of various therapeutic modalities on prognosis is discussed. Finally, while novel anticoagulants usher in a new era in thromboprophylaxis, research continues in a variety of new pathways including selective atrial anti-arrhythmic agents and genomic polymorphisms in AF with HF. PMID:23888191

  13. Pathophysiology of idiopathic atrial fibrillation - prognostic and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Weijs, B; Schotten, U; Crijns, H J G M

    2015-01-01

    The term idiopathic or lone atrial fibrillation (AF) is commonly used in the young and apparently healthy individual who suffers from AF. Although there is conflicting evidence concerning prognosis, these patients are at risk to develop (vascular) comorbidities in the years following AF onset. It is conceivable that early stages of vascular disease, undetectable by the routine diagnostics, may contribute to the pathophysiology of "apparently" idiopathic AF. At present, more advanced diagnostics have become available that can be deployed at low threshold in order to detect early stage or yet subclinical cardiovascular disease. In this respect one could raise the question whether idiopathic AF exists at all or that the arrhythmia acts as a harbinger of as yet undetected underlying vascular disease in this specific population. Assuming that idiopathic AF is the final arrhythmic expression of underlying genetic mutations and/or vascular diseases, high priority should be given to trace identifiable predisposing factors or the presence of early stages of underlying disease in order to treat these, or prevent their complications. A more comprehensive quest for potential hidden causes of idiopathic AF creates new therapeutic dilemmas, but also encourages further research regarding pathophysiology and new early treatment opportunities in patients with atrial fibrillation in general. The present review provides more insight regarding diverse pathophysiological mechanisms in the fundamental basis for idiopathic AF, outlines prognostic and treatment implications, and questions the robustness of its definition. PMID:25175085

  14. Evaluation of atrial conduction time at various sites of right atrial pacing and influence on atrioventricular delay optimization by surface electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Strohmer, Bernhard; Pichler, Max; Froemmel, Martin; Migschitz, Mario; Hintringer, Florian

    2004-04-01

    Cardiac function and electrical stability may be improved by programming of optimal AV delay in DDD pacing. This study tested the hypothesis if the global atrial conduction time at various pacing sites can be derived from the surface ECG to achieve an optimal electromechanical timing of the left heart. Data were obtained from 60 patients following dual chamber pacemaker implantation. Right atrial septal pacing was associated with significantly shorter atrial conduction time (P < 0.0005) and P wave duration (P < 0.005), compared to standard right atrial pacing sites at the right atrial appendage or at the right free wall. The last two pacing sites showed no significant difference. In a group of 31 patients with AV block, optimal AV delay was achieved by programming a delay of 100 ms from the end of the paced P wave to peak/nadir of the paced ventricular complex. Optimization of AV delay resulted in a relative increase of echocardiographic stroke volume (SV) (10.9 +/- 13.7%; 95% CI: 5.9-15.9%) when compared to nominal AV delay (170 ms). Optimized AV delay was highly variable (range 130-250 ms; mean 180 +/- 35 ms). The hemodynamic response was characterized by a weak significant relationship between SV increase and optimized AV delay (R2 = 0.196, R = 0.443, P = 0.047). The study validated that septal pacing is advantageous for atrial synchronization compared to conventional right atrial pacing. Tailoring the AV delay with respect to the surface ECG improved systolic function significantly and was superior to nominal AV delay settings in the majority of patients. PMID:15078399

  15. The clinical efficacy of dabigatran etexilate for preventing stroke in atrial fibrillation patients

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Christopher R; Kaiser, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    The use of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for stroke and systemic embolism prevention in the setting of specifically non valvular atrial fibrillation has provided clinicians with a realistic treatment alternative to the traditional dose-adjusted, warfarin-based anticoagulation that is targeted to a therapeutic international normalized ratio range of 2.0–3.0. We discuss the use of dabigatran in the setting of mechanical heart valves, atrial fibrillation or left atrial catheter ablation procedures, reversal of the drug in the setting of adverse bleeding events, and background on the molecular biology and development of this novel treatment for stroke reduction. PMID:23874100

  16. The laboratory evaluation and role of catheter ablation for patients with atrial flutter.

    PubMed

    Olgin, J E; Lesh, M D

    1997-11-01

    The anatomic substrate for atrial flutter has now been recognized, and improved methods for catheter ablation have been developed. Using mapping techniques such as entrainment mapping, recognizing the different types of flutter that can occur, and testing for conduction block with pacing after ablation, long-term cure of atrial flutter can be achieved in most patients with catheter ablation. Not only is catheter ablative cure of atrial flutter the treatment of choice for drug-refractory patients, but also may now be offered as an alternative to drug therapy. PMID:9403168

  17. Prophylactic atrial arrhythmia surgical procedures with congenital heart operations: review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Mavroudis, Constantine; Stulak, John M; Ad, Niv; Siegel, Allison; Giamberti, Alessandro; Harris, Louise; Backer, Carl L; Tsao, Sabrina; Dearani, Joseph A; Weerasena, Nihal; Deal, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    Specific congenital heart anomalies significantly increase the risk for late atrial arrhythmias, raising the question whether prophylactic arrhythmia operations should be incorporated into reparative open heart procedures. Currently no consensus exists regarding standard prophylactic arrhythmia procedures. Questions remain concerning the arrhythmia-specific lesions to perform, energy sources to use, need for atrial appendectomy, and choosing a right, left, or biatrial Maze procedure. These considerations are important because prophylactic arrhythmia procedures are performed without knowing if the patient will actually experience an arrhythmia. This review identifies congenital defects with a risk for the development of atrial arrhythmias and proposes standardizing lesion sets for prophylactic arrhythmia operations. PMID:25442995

  18. Totally endoscopic ablation of left atrium via left chest for lone atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Nan; Ding, Fangbao; Jiang, Zhaolei; Chen, Yin; Hu, Fengqing; Mei, Ju

    2012-01-01

    Surgical treatment is effective and less invasive for lone atrial fibrillation because of the emergence of the endoscopic technology and the adoption of new type of energy. On the basis of these improvements, we developed a new surgical ablation procedure by endoscopy for lone atrial fibrillation. The procedure enrolls only three ports on the left chest wall, which can provide pulmonary vein isolation, resection of the left atrial appendage, ganglionic plexus ablation, and make ablation of left atrium with direct vision. A total of 45 procedures were successfully performed. We reported the technique and result of the procedure. PMID:23274875

  19. Carbon tetrachloride overdosage. A case report.

    PubMed

    Kennaugh, R C

    1975-04-01

    A case is described of a 30-year-old White male who drank 120 ml carbon tetrachloride (CCI4). The patient suffered severe liver damage and oliguria, he developed atrial fibrillation and become confused and irritable. During recovery, his bone marrow became depressed. He was discharged 29 days after admission. PMID:1135699

  20. Acquired Left Atrial-to-Right Ventricular Shunt with Mitral Valve Incompetence

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Srikant; Minhas, Harpreet Singh; Virmani, Sanjula; Mishra, Bana Bihari; Mukherjee, Kaushik; Banerjee, Amit

    2009-01-01

    Acquired left ventricular-to-right atrial communication is encountered periodically. This condition is chiefly attributable to surgical mishaps, trauma, endocarditis, or endomyocardial biopsy. In a few instances, a Gerbode-like defect develops after the repair of an atrioventricular septal defect. Our search of the worldwide medical literature revealed just 1 report of a “mirror” occurrence of a Gerbode-like defect: a shunt between the left atrium and the right ventricle. Herein, we present the case of a 22-year-old woman who had severe mitral valve incompetence accompanying an acquired shunt between the left atrium and the right ventricle—a late sequela of the earlier repair of an atrioventricular septal defect. After surgical correction of the shunt and the associated mitral incompetence, the patient experienced a good outcome. Echocardiographic and intraoperative findings are presented, along with a plausible explanation for the mechanism and presentation of the condition in our patient. To our knowledge, this is only the 2nd report of an acquired shunt between the left atrium and the right ventricle, and the 1st such case to be accompanied by severe mitral valve incompetence. PMID:19436792

  1. Triggered Firing and Atrial Fibrillation in Transgenic Mice With Selective Atrial Fibrosis Induced by Overexpression of TGF-?1

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eue-Keun; Chang, Po-Cheng; Lee, Young-Soo; Lin, Shien-Fong; Zhu, Wuqiang; Maruyama, Mitsunori; Fishbein, Michael C.; Chen, Zhenhui; der Lohe, Michael Rubart-von; Field, Loren J.; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Calcium transient triggered firing (CTTF) is induced by large intracellular calcium (Cai) transient and short action potential duration (APD). We hypothesized that CTTF underlies the mechanisms of early afterdepolarization (EAD) and spontaneous recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) in transgenic (Tx) mice with overexpression of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1). Methods and Results MHC-TGFcys33ser Tx mice develop atrial fibrosis because of elevated levels of TGF-?1. We studied membrane potential and Cai transients of isolated superfused atria from Tx and wild-type (Wt) littermates. Short APD and persistently elevated Cai transients promoted spontaneous repetitive EADs, triggered activity and spontaneous AF after cessation of burst pacing in Tx but not Wt atria (39% vs. 0%, P=0.008). We were able to map optically 4 episodes of spontaneous AF re-initiation. All first and second beats of spontaneous AF originated from the right atrium (4/4, 100%), which is more severely fibrotic than the left atrium. Ryanodine and thapsigargin inhibited spontaneous re-initiation of AF in all 7 Tx atria tested. Western blotting showed no significant changes of calsequestrin or sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2a. Conclusions Spontaneous AF may occur in the Tx atrium because of CTTF, characterized by APD shortening, prolonged Cai transient, EAD and triggered activity. Inhibition of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum suppressed spontaneous AF. Our results indicate that CTTF is an important arrhythmogenic mechanism in TGF-?1 Tx atria. PMID:22447020

  2. Diversity of atrial local Ca2+ signalling: evidence from 2-D confocal imaging in Ca2+-buffered rat atrial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Sun-Hee; Cleemann, Lars; Morad, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Atrial myocytes, lacking t-tubules, have two functionally separate groups of ryanodine receptors (RyRs): those at the periphery colocalized with dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs), and those at the cell interior not associated with DHPRs. We have previously shown that the Ca2+ current (ICa)-gated central Ca2+ release has a fast component that is followed by a slower and delayed rising phase. The mechanisms that regulate the central Ca2+ releases remain poorly understood. The fast central release component is highly resistant to dialysed Ca2+ buffers, while the slower, delayed component is completely suppressed by such exogenous buffers. Here we used dialysis of Ca2+ buffers (EGTA) into voltage-clamped rat atrial myocytes to isolate the fast component of central Ca2+ release and examine its properties using rapid (240 Hz) two-dimensional confocal Ca2+ imaging. We found two populations of rat atrial myocytes with respect to the ratio of central to peripheral Ca2+ release (Rc/p). In one population (‘group 1’, ?60% of cells), Rc/p converged on 0.2, while in another population (‘group 2’, ?40%), Rc/p had a Gaussian distribution with a mean value of 0.625. The fast central release component of group 2 cells appeared to result from in-focus Ca2+ sparks on activation of ICa. In group 1 cells intracellular membranes associated with t-tubular structures were never seen using short exposures to membrane dyes. In most of the group 2 cells, a faint intracellular membrane staining was observed. Quantification of caffeine-releasable Ca2+ pools consistently showed larger central Ca2+ stores in group 2 and larger peripheral stores in group 1 cells. The Rc/p was larger at more positive and negative voltages in group 1 cells. In contrast, in group 2 cells, the Rc/p was constant at all voltages. In group 1 cells the gain of peripheral Ca2+ release sites (?[Ca2+]/ICa) was larger at ?30 than at +20 mV, but significantly dampened at the central sites. On the other hand, the gains of peripheral and central Ca2+ releases in group 2 cells showed no voltage dependence. Surprisingly, the voltage dependence of the fast central release component was bell-shaped and similar to that of ICa in both cell groups. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ or application of Ni2+ (5 mm) suppressed equally ICa and Ca2+ release from the central release sites at +60 mV. Depolarization to +100 mV, where ICa is absent and the Na+–Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) acts in reverse mode, did not trigger the fast central Ca2+ releases in either group, but brief reduction of [Na+]o to levels equivalent to [Na+]i facilitated fast peripheral and central Ca2+ releases in group 2 myocytes, but not in group 1 myocytes. In group 2 cells, long-lasting (> 1 min) exposures to caffeine (10 mm) or ryanodine (20 ?m) significantly suppressed ICa-triggered central and peripheral Ca2+ releases. Our data suggest significant diversity of local Ca2+ signalling in rat atrial myocytes. In one group, ICa-triggered peripheral Ca2+ release propagates into the interior triggering central Ca2+ release with significant delay. In a second group of myocytes ICa triggers a significant number of central sites as rapidly and effectively as the peripheral sites, thereby producing more synchronized Ca2+ releases throughout the myocytes. The possible presence of vestigial t-tubules and larger Ca2+ content of central sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in group 2 cells may be responsible for the rapid and strong activation of central release of Ca2+ in this subset of atrial myocytes. PMID:16020459

  3. Coffin-Siris syndrome with the rarest constellation of congenital cardiac defects: A case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Nemani, Lalita; Barik, Ramachandra; Patnaik, Amar Narayana; Mishra, Ramesh C; Rao, Amaresh M; Kapur, Pragati

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of type-A Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) with a unique constellation of congenital heart defects. A 17-year-old Indian boy was referred to our hospital for central cyanosis with features of right heart failure. The cardiac abnormalities included biventricular outflow tract obstruction, small atrial septal defect (ASD), subaortic ventricular septal defect, drainage of left superior venacava to left atrial appendage, and aortic arch anomaly. Patient underwent successful right ventricular infundibular resection, subaortic membrane resection, closure of atrial and ventricular septal defect, rerouting left superior vena cava to left pulmonary artery and aortic valve replacement. PMID:25298701

  4. Predictors of atrial fibrillation recurrence after cryoballoon ablation

    PubMed Central

    Aksu, Tolga; Baysal, Erkan; Guler, Tümer Erdem; Golcuk, Sukriye Ebru; Erden, ?smail; Ozcan, Kazim Serhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cryoballoon ablation (CA) is a safe and efficient method for pulmonary vein isolation in the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). There are conflicting results about the predictors of AF recurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of hematological indices to predict AF recurrence after CA. Methods A total of 49 patients (mean age 58.3±12.2 years, 51.02% female) with symptomatic paroxysmal AF underwent CA procedure. One hundred and sixty-eight pulmonary veins were used for pulmonary vein isolation with the second-generation cryoballoon. The hematological samples were obtained before and 24 hours after ablation. Results At a mean follow-up of 10.2±2.4 months, the probability of being arrhythmia-free after a single procedure was 86%. Patients with AF recurrence had higher red cell distribution width levels (16.10%±1.44% vs 14.87%±0.48%, P=0.035). The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels were detected in the patients with or without recurrence. Left atrial diameter (46.28±4.30 mm vs 41.02±4.10 mm, P=0.002), duration of AF (6.71±4.57 years vs 3.59±1.72 years, P=0.003), and age (65.01±15.39 years vs 54.29±11.32 years, P=0.033) were the other independent predictors of clinical recurrence after CA. Multiple regression analysis revealed that left atrial diameter was the only independent predictor for AF recurrence (P=0.012). Conclusion In this study of patients with paroxysmal AF undergoing cryoablation, increased preablation red cell distribution width levels, and not C-reactive protein or erythrocyte sedimentation rate, was associated with a higher rate of AF recurrence. Our results support the role of a preablation, proinflammatory, and pro-oxidant environment in the development of AF recurrence after ablation therapy but suggest that other factors are also important. PMID:26170730

  5. Effects of ibutilide on canine cardiac pacing threshold and on induction rates of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-ling; Han, Rong; Guo, Ji-hong; Li, Xiao-ying; Ma, Xian-lin; Wang, Chong-yu

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to observe the effects of ibutilide on canine cardiac pacing threshold and on induction rates of atrial fibrillation. Eighteen mongrel dogs were anesthetized and administrated with ibutilide. The pacing thresholds and induction rates of atrial fibrillation were measured with and without ibutilide (10-min infusion dose was 0.10 mg kg(-1), followed by a maintaining dose of 0.01 mg min(-1) 30 min later). This study found that ibutilide increases pacing thresholds in dogs. Moreover, there were significant differences between pacing thresholds with and without ibutilide (P < 0.05). Further, ibutilide significantly reduces the induction rates of atrial fibrillation (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that pacing voltage changes should be closely monitored in patients taking anti-arrhythmic drugs, who are treated with cardiac stimulation or have undergone pacemaker implantation. We also found that ibutilide is an effective drug in preventing or controlling atrial fibrillation. PMID:22740072

  6. Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure: Technical aspects and prevention of periprocedural complications with the watchman device

    PubMed Central

    Möbius-Winkler, Sven; Majunke, Nicolas; Sandri, Marcus; Mangner, Norman; Linke, Axel; Stone, Gregg W; Dähnert, Ingo; Schuler, Gerhard; Sick, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter closure of the left atrial appendage has been developed as an alternative to chronic oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, and as a primary therapy for patients with contraindications to chronic oral anticoagulation. The promise of this new intervention compared with warfarin has been supported by several, small studies and two pivotal randomized trial with the Watchman Device. The results regarding risk reduction for stroke have been favourable although acute complications were not infrequent. Procedural complications, which are mainly related to transseptal puncture and device implantation, include air embolism, pericardial effusions/tamponade and device embolization. Knowledge of nature, management and prevention of complications should minimize the risk of complications and allow transcatheter left atrial appendage closure to emerge as a therapeutic option for patients with atrial fibrillation at risk for cardioembolic stroke. PMID:25717354

  7. Clinical impact of quantitative left atrial vortex flow analysis in patients with atrial fibrillation: a comparison with invasive left atrial voltage mapping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Myung; Hong, Geu-Ru; Pak, Hui-Nam; Shim, Chi Young; Houle, Helene; Vannan, Mani A; Kim, Minji; Chung, Namsik

    2015-08-01

    Recently, left atrial (LA) vortex flow analysis using contrast transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been shown to be feasible and has demonstrated significant differences in vortex flow morphology and pulsatility between normal subjects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the relationship between LA vortex flow and electrophysiological properties and the clinical significance of LA vortex flow are unknown. The aims of this study were (1) to compare LA vortex flow parameters with LA voltage and (2) to assess the predictive value of LA vortex flow parameters for the recurrence of AF after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Thirty-nine patients with symptomatic non-valvular AF underwent contrast TEE before undergoing RFCA for AF. Quantitative LA vortex flow parameters were analyzed by Omega flow (Siemens Medical Solution, Mountain View, CA, USA). The morphology and pulsatility of LA vortex flow were compared with electrophysiologic parameters that were measured invasively. Hemodynamic, electrophysiological, and vortex flow parameters were compared between patients with and without early recurrence of AF after RFCA. Morphologic parameters, including LA vortex depth, length, width, and sphericity index were not associated with LA voltage or hemodynamic parameters. The relative strength (RS), which represents the pulsatility power of LA, was positively correlated with LA voltage (R = 0.53, p = 0.01) and LA appendage flow velocity (R = 0.73, p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with LA volume index (R = -0.56, p < 0.001). Patients with recurrent AF after RFCA showed significantly lower RS (1.7 ± 0.2 vs 1.9 ± 0.4, p = 0.048) and LA voltage (0.9 ± 0.7 vs 1.7 ± 0.8, p = 0.004) than patients without AF recurrence. In the relatively small LA dimension group (LA volume index ? 33 ml/m(2)), RS was significantly lower (2.1 ± 0.3 vs 1.7 ± 0.1, p = 0.029) in patients with the recurrent AF. Quantitative LA vortex flow analysis, especially RS, correlated well with LA voltage. Decreased pulsatility strength in the LA was associated with recurrent AF. LA vortex may have incremental value in predicting the recurrence of AF. PMID:25951915

  8. Non-Traumatic Spontaneous Spinal Subdural Hematoma in a Patient with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation During Treatment with Rivaroxaban

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Jessica M.; Afanador, Hayley F.; Manjarrez, Efren; Morales, Ximena A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 69 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma Symptoms: Paraplegia Medication: Rivaroxaban Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: General Internal Medicine • Hospital Medicine • Cardiology • Hematology • Neurology Objective: Diagnostic/therapeutic accidents Background: Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma (SSDH) is a rare but disabling condition, accounting for only 4.1% of all intraspinal hematomas. Risk factors include arteriovenous malformations, coagulopathy, therapeutic anticoagulation, underlying neoplasms, or following spinal puncture. Vitamin K antagonists, antiplatelet agents, and heparinoids have been associated with SSDHs in prior reports. To the best of our knowledge, no cases have reported this association with the factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban, and SSDHs. Case Report: We report the case of a 69-year-old Honduran man with a 5-year history of symptomatic palpitations due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation. He was initially refractory to pharmacologic therapy. He underwent cardioversion in February 2014. After cardioversion, he remained asymptomatic on flecainide. He was anticoagulated on rivaroxaban 20 mg daily without incident since early 2013 until presentation in August 2014. He presented with sudden onset of excruciating upper and lower back pain after minimal movement. This was immediately followed by bilateral lower extremity paresis rapidly progressing to paraplegia with bowel and bladder dysfunction over 15 minutes. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an acute spinal subdural hematoma extending from T3 inferiorly to the conus medullaris. Six months after undergoing cervical and lumbar drainage procedures, he has not recovered bowel, bladder, or lower extremity neurologic function. Conclusions: Non-traumatic spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma is a rare neurological emergency that may occur during the use of rivaroxaban in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Physicians should suspect SSDH in patients on rivaroxaban with acute onset of severe back pain and neurologic symptoms to improve the odds of a favorable outcome. PMID:26090890

  9. Long-term survival of chosen atrial-based pacing modalities.

    PubMed

    Irwin, M; Carbol, B; Senaratne, M; Gulamhusein, S

    1996-11-01

    Atrial-based cardiac pacing modalities were chosen in 341 of 684 (50%) patients selected for permanent cardiac pacing at the Grey Nuns Community Health Center between 1989 and 1995. There were 183 males and 158 females. Mean age was 70 years (range 8-97 years). The indications for atrial-based pacing were: advanced atrioventricular (AV) block (n = 166) 49%; sick sinus syndrome (n = 153) 45%; hypersensitive carotid sinus syndrome (n = 11) 3%; neurocardiac syncope (n = 10) 2.9%; and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 1) 0.3%. Forty-eight patients had a known history of paroxysmal atrial arrhythmias. All patients had routine follow-up performed at 24 hours, 7 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, and then 6 biannually. Mean follow-up was 6.5 years (range 1 month to 12 years). Observed survival of the programmed atrial-based modality was compared to the original mode chosen at the time of implantation. Thirty-five of 37 (95%) chosen for AAIR modes remain programmed AAIR. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) chosen for VDDR modes remain programmed VDDR. Two hundred and fifty-five of 280 (91%) chosen for DDD or DDDR modes remain programmed DDDR. Two of 37 (5%) patients originally implanted with AAI pacing systems were upgraded to DDDR mode due to new onset AV block. One of 24 (4%) patients originally implanted with a VDDR pacing system was upgraded to DDDR due to loss of atrial sensing of the single pass lead. Twenty-six of 304 (8.5%) patients originally implanted with DDD/DDDR (n = 25) and VDDR (n = 1) pacing systems were reprogrammed to VVI or VVIR: 16 (62%) due to sustained refractory atrial arrhythmias; 5 (19%) due to atrial lead malfunction; and 5 (19%) due to reasons unrelated to the pacing system. With careful review of the patients' conduction disorder and appropriate selection of pacing modality, the observed survival of long-term atrial-based pacing remains at 92% when compared to the chosen modality at the time of implantation. Atrial-based pacing may be used to reduce the incidence of atrial dysrhythmia with careful programming of the base atrial pacing rates. PMID:8945043

  10. Long-term results of the corridor operation for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed Central

    van Hemel, N. M.; Defauw, J. J.; Kingma, J. H.; Jaarsma, W.; Vermeulen, F. E.; de Bakker, J. M.; Guiraudon, G. M.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the long-term results of the corridor operation in the treatment of symptomatic atrial fibrillation refractory to drug treatment. BACKGROUND--The corridor operation is designed to isolate from the left and right atrium a conduit of atrial tissue connecting the sinus node area with the atrioventricular node region in order to preserve physiological ventricular drive. The excluded atria can fibrillate without affecting the ventricular rhythm. This surgical method offers an alternative treatment when atrial fibrillation becomes refractory to drug treatment. PATIENTS--From 1987 to 1993, 36 patients with drug refractory symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation underwent surgery. The in hospital rhythm was followed thereafter by continuous rhythm monitoring and with epicardial electrograms. After discharge Holter recording and stress testing were regularly carried out to evaluate the sinus node function and to detect arrhythmias; whereas Doppler echocardiography was used to measure atrial contraction and size. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Maintained absence of atrial fibrillation without drug treatment after operation; preservation of normal chronotropic response in the sinus node. RESULTS--The corridor procedure was successful in 31 (86%) of the 36 patients. After a mean (SD) follow up of 41 (16) months 25 (69%) of the 36 patients were free of arrhythmias without taking drugs (mean (SE) actuarial freedom at four years 72 (9)%)). Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation recurred in three patients; paroxysmal atrial flutter (two patients) and atrial tachycardia (one patient) developed in the corridor in three others. Among the 31 patients in whom the operation was successful sinus node function at rest and during exercise remained undisturbed in 26 and 25 patients respectively (mean (SE) actuarial freedom of sinus node dysfunction at four years (81(7)%)). Pacemakers were needed in five (16%) of the 31 patients for insufficient sinus node rhythm at rest only. Doppler echocardiography showed maintenance of right atrial contribution to right ventricle filling in 26 of the 31 patients after operation in contrast to the left atrium, which never showed such contribution. His bundle ablation was performed and a pacemaker implanted in the five patients in whom the corridor operation was unsuccessful. CONCLUSION--These results substantiate the idea of this surgical procedure. Modification of the technique is, however, needed to achieve a reliable isolation between left atrium and corridor, which would make this experimental surgery widely applicable in the treatment of drug refractory atrial fibrillation. Images PMID:8130027

  11. Increased atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA expression in the kidney of diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyi-Jang Shin; Yau-Jiunn Lee; Mian-Shin Tan; Tusty-Jiuan Hsieh; Juei-Hsiung Tsai

    1997-01-01

    Increased atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA expression in the kidney of diabetic rats. To investigate whether renal synthesis of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is influenced in diabetes, we measured renal ANP mRNA levels, urine volume, urinary ANP and sodium excretion rates in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. By using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by Southern blot analysis, we found that

  12. Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits endothelin-1-induced activation of JNK in glomerular mesangial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motohide Isono; Masakazu Haneda; Shiro Maeda; Mariko Omatsu-Kanbe; Ryuichi Kikkawa

    1998-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits endothelin-1-induced activation of JNK in glomerular mesangial cells. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been shown to counteract various actions of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in mesangial cells. We have reported that both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) are activated by ET-1 and ET-1-induced activation of ERK is inhibited by ANP. To further clarify the

  13. Regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors in glomeruli during chronic salt loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Michel; Harald Meyer-Lehnert; Angela Bäcker; Helgard Stelkens; Herbert J Kramer

    1990-01-01

    Regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors in glomeruli during chronic salt loading. The effects of chronic salt loading on atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptor density and affinity were studied in isolated renal glomeruli of male Sprague-Dawley rats, which received 0.9% saline as drinking fluid (NaCl-rats) and a normal rat chow diet for 35 days (N = 12). Animals on a

  14. Increased expression of atrial natriuretic peptide in the kidney of rats with bilateral ureteral obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soo Wan Kim; Jongun Lee; Jong Wook Park; Jung Hee Hong; Hyun Kook; Chan Choi; Ki Chul Choi

    2001-01-01

    Increased expression of atrial natriuretic peptide in the kidney of rats with bilateral ureteral obstruction.BackgroundWhether the postobstructive diuresis can be related to an altered regulation of local atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in the kidney was investigated.MethodsThree groups of rats had both of their ureters obstructed for 48 hours. The kidneys were taken without releasing the obstruction in one group [bilateral

  15. Successful Irrigated-Tip Catheter Ablation of Atrial Flutter Resistant to Conventional Radiofrequency Ablation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Jais; Michel Haissaguerre; Dipen C. Shah; Atsushi Takahashi; Meleze Hocini; Thomas Lavergne; Stephane Lafitte; Alain Le Mouroux; Bruno Fischer; Jacques Clementy

    2010-01-01

    Background—Catheter ablation of typical right atrial flutter is now widely performed. The best end point has been demonstrated to be bidirectional isthmus block. We investigated the use of irrigated-tip catheters in a small subset of patients who failed isthmus ablation with conventional radiofrequency (RF) ablation. Methods and Results—Of 170 patients referred for ablation of common atrial flutter, conventional ablation of

  16. The prognostic impact of successful cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in patients with organic heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kleemann; Torsten Becker; Klaus Dönges; Margit Vater; Bern Gut; Steffen Schneider; Jochen Senges; Karlheinz Seidl

    2007-01-01

    Summary  The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of successful cardioversion (CV) compared to failed CV in patients\\u000a with atrial fibrillation (AF) and organic heart disease. A total of 471 consecutive patients with organic heart disease from\\u000a the prospective single center anticoagulation registry ANTIK who underwent CV of AF or atrial flutter were analyzed. 417 patients\\u000a (89%)

  17. Effects of Low-Intensity Autonomic Nerve Stimulation on Atrial Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Youngjin; Cha, Myung-Jin; Choi, Eue-Keun; Oh, Il-Young

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The cardiac autonomic nervous system is an emerging target for therapeutic control of atrial fibrillation (AF). We evaluated the effects of low-intensity autonomic nerve stimulation (LI-ANS) on atrial electrophysiology, AF vulnerability, and neural remodeling. Subjects and Methods Fourteen dogs were subjected to 3 hours rapid atrial pacing (RAP, 5 Hz) and concomitant high frequency LI-ANS (20 Hz, at voltages 40% below the threshold) as follows: no autonomic stimulation (control, n=3); or right cervical vagus nerve (RVN, n=6), anterior right ganglionated plexi (ARGP, n=3), and superior left ganglionated plexi (SLGP, n=2) stimulation. Programmed and burst atrial pacing were performed at baseline and at the end of each hour to determine atrial effective refractory period (ERP), window of vulnerability (WOV), and inducibility of sustained AF. Results Atrial ERP was significantly shortened by 3 hours RAP (in control group, ?ERP=-47.9±8.9%, p=0.032), and RAP-induced ERP shortening was attenuated by LI-ANS (in LI-ANS group, ?ERP=-15.4±5.9%, p=0.019; vs. control, p=0.035). Neither WOV for AF nor AF inducibility changed significantly during 3 hours RAP with simultaneous LI-ANS. There was no significant difference between the control and LI-ANS group in nerve density and sprouting evaluated by anti-tyrosine hydroxylase and anti-growth associated protein-43 staining. Among the various sites for LI-ANS, the ARGP-stimulation group showed marginally lower ?WOV (p=0.077) and lower nerve sprouting (p=0.065) compared to the RVN-stimulation group. Conclusion Low-intensity autonomic nerve stimulation significantly attenuated the shortening of atrial ERP caused by RAP. ARGP may be a better target for LI-ANS than RVN for the purpose of suppressing atrial remodeling in AF. PMID:25089136

  18. Synergistic Effect of the Combination of Ranolazine and Dronedarone to Suppress Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Burashnikov, Alexander; Sicouri, Serge; Diego, José M. Di; Belardinelli, Luiz; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination of dronedarone and ranolazine in suppression of atrial fibrillation (AF). Background Safe and effective pharmacological management of AF remains one of the greatest unmet medical needs. Methods The electrophysiological effects of dronedarone (10 ?mol/l) and a relatively low concentration of ranolazine (5 ?mol/l) separately and in combination were evaluated in canine isolated coronary-perfused right and left atrial and left ventricular preparations as well as in pulmonary vein preparations. Results Ranolazine caused moderate atrial-selective prolongation of action potential duration and atrial-selective depression of sodium channel–mediated parameters, including maximal rate of rise of the action potential upstroke, leading to the development of atrial-specific post-repolarization refractoriness. Dronedarone caused little or no change in electrophysiological parameters in both atrial and ventricular preparations. The combination of drone-darone and ranolazine caused little change in action potential duration in either chamber but induced potent use-dependent atrial-selective depression of the sodium channel–mediated parameters (maximal rate of rise of the action potential upstroke, diastolic threshold of excitation, and the shortest cycle length permitting a 1:1 response) and considerable post-repolarization refractoriness. Separately, dronedarone or a low concentration of ranolazine prevented the induction of AF in 17% and 29% of preparations, respectively. In combination, the 2 drugs suppressed AF and triggered activity and prevented the induction of AF in 9 of 10 preparations (90%). Conclusions Low concentrations of ranolazine and dronedarone produce relatively weak electrophysiological effects and weak suppression of AF when used separately but when combined exert potent synergistic effects, resulting in atrial-selective depression of sodium channel–dependent parameters and effective suppression of AF. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;56:1216–24) PMID:20883928

  19. Atrial natriuretic factor-a circulating hormone stimulated by volume loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Lang; H. Thölken; D. Ganten; F. C. Luft; H. Ruskoaho; Th. Unger

    1985-01-01

    The cardiocytes of mammalian cardiac atria contain granules very similar to those in endocrine cells1,2. The number of these atrial granules is related directly to salt loading and blood volume3. Furthermore, crude extracts of rat atria and granule preparations have powerful natriuretic and diuretic effects4,5. These effects are mediated by peptides identified previously as atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). The peptides

  20. Use of metoprolol CR\\/XL to maintain sinus rhythm after conversion from persistent atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Kühlkamp; Alexander Schirdewan; Karl Stangl; Michael Homberg; Matthias Ploch; Otto A Beck

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESThe primary objective of the present study was to assess the efficacy of metoprolol CR\\/XL to reduce the risk of relapse after cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm.BACKGROUNDIndirect data from studies with d,l sotalol provide evidence that the beta-blocking effects of the compound are important in maintaining sinus rhythm after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation.METHODSAfter successful conversion to sinus

  1. Non-contact mapping of the human left atrium to guide ablation of focal atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Markides; R. J. Schilling; A. W. C. Chow; P. Kanagaratnam; D. Lamb; N. S. Peters; D. W. Davies

    2000-01-01

    Focal left atrial (LA) tachycardias\\/ectopy (LATs) that may initiate atrial fibrillation (AF) are often difficult to initiate, non-sustained, and may have multiple origins, often in one or more pulmonary veins (PV). Thus, mapping with conventional techniques is often difficult. The authors tested the hypothesis that a non-contact mapping system capable of global simultaneous mapping of >3000 points in the LA,

  2. Holy Grail Deformity of Distal Disc Hubless Atrial Septal Occluders in Pediatric Hearts.

    PubMed

    Baspinar, Osman; Sahin, Derya Aydin; Sulu, Ayse

    2015-07-13

    A special deformity associated with the use of left atrial disc hubless atrial septal occluders has been described in 3 children. This chalice-shaped deformity that occurred during the use of Occlutech and Lifetech septal occluders was given the name "Holy Grail Configuration". Despite being easily reversible, reduction of the metal load on the left atrium has been suggested to have some negative effects. PMID:26104181

  3. Induction of Atrial Fibrillation by Neutrophils Critically Depends on CD11b/CD18 Integrins

    PubMed Central

    Remane, Lisa; Mollenhauer, Martin; Rudolph, Volker; Rudolph, Tanja K.; Andrié, René P.; Stöckigt, Florian; Schrickel, Jan W.; Ravekes, Thorben; Deuschl, Florian; Nickenig, Georg; Willems, Stephan; Baldus, Stephan; Klinke, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent observational clinical and ex-vivo studies suggest that inflammation and in particular leukocyte activation predisposes to atrial fibrillation (AF). However, whether local binding and extravasation of leukocytes into atrial myocardium is an essential prerequisite for the initiation and propagation of AF remains elusive. Here we investigated the role of atrial CD11b/CD18 mediated infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) for the susceptibility to AF. Methods and Results C57bl/6J wildtype (WT) and CD11b/CD18 knock-out (CD11b?/?) mice were treated for 14 days with subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II), a known stimulus for PMN activation. Atria of Ang II-treated WT mice were characterized by increased PMN infiltration assessed in immunohistochemically stained sections. In contrast, atrial sections of CD11b?/? mice lacked a significant increase in PMN infiltration upon Ang II infusion. PMN infiltration was accompanied by profoundly enhanced atrial fibrosis in Ang II treated WT as compared to CD11b?/? mice. Upon in-vivo electrophysiological investigation, Ang II treatment significantly elevated the susceptibility for AF in WT mice if compared to vehicle treated animals given an increased number and increased duration of AF episodes. In contrast, animals deficient of CD11b/CD18 were entirely protected from AF induction. Likewise, epicardial activation mapping revealed decreased electrical conduction velocity in atria of Ang II treated WT mice, which was preserved in CD11b?/? mice. In addition, atrial PMN infiltration was enhanced in atrial appendage sections of patients with persistent AF as compared to patients without AF. Conclusions The current data critically link CD11b-integrin mediated atrial PMN infiltration to the formation of fibrosis, which promotes the initiation and propagation of AF. These findings not only reveal a mechanistic role of leukocytes in AF but also point towards a potential novel avenue of treatment in AF. PMID:24558493

  4. Chronotropic response to exercise in patients with atrial fibrillation: relation to functional state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M P van den Berg; H J Crijns; A T Gosselink; S A van den Broek; H J Hillege; D J van Veldhuisen; K I Lie

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the relation between functional capacity and heart rate response to exercise in patients with atrial fibrillation. SUBJECTS--73 consecutive patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Relation between functional capacity, measured as peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2; ml\\/min\\/kg), and heart rate at all stages of exercise in univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS--Peak VO2 showed no correlation with resting heart

  5. Left ventricular beat to beat performance in atrial fibrillation: dependence on contractility, preload, and afterload

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Muntinga; A. T. M. Gosselink; P. K. Blanksma; P. J. de Kam; E E Van Der Wall; H J G M Crijns

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo assess independent determinants of beat to beat variation in left ventricular performance during atrial fibrillation.DESIGNProspective study.SETTINGUniversity hospital.PATIENTSSeven patients with chronic non-valvar atrial fibrillation.INTERVENTIONSInvasive and non-invasive haemodynamic variables were assessed using a non-imaging computerised nuclear probe, a balloon tipped flow directed catheter, and a non-invasive fingertip blood pressure measurement system linked to a personal computer.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESLeft ventricular ejection fraction,

  6. Functional capacity before and after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A T Gosselink; H J Crijns; M P van den Berg; S A van den Broek; H Hillege; M L Landsman; K I Lie

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the effect of cardioversion on peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) in patients with long-standing atrial fibrillation, to assess the importance of underlying heart disease with respect to the response to exercise, and to relate functional capacity to long-term arrhythmia outcome. DESIGN--Prospective controlled clinical trial. SETTING--Tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS--63 consecutive patients with chronic atrial fibrillation accepted for treatment with

  7. Resistance to Oncolytic Myxoma Virus Therapy in Nf1?/?/Trp53?/? Syngeneic Mouse Glioma Models Is Independent of Anti-Viral Type-I Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Zemp, Franz J.; McKenzie, Brienne A.; Lun, Xueqing; Maxwell, Lori; Reilly, Karlyne M.; McFadden, Grant; Yong, V. Wee; Forsyth, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite promising preclinical studies, oncolytic viral therapy for malignant gliomas has resulted in variable, but underwhelming results in clinical evaluations. Of concern are the low levels of tumour infection and viral replication within the tumour. This discrepancy between the laboratory and the clinic could result from the disparity of xenograft versus syngeneic models in determining in vivo viral infection, replication and treatment efficacy. Here we describe a panel of primary mouse glioma lines derived from Nf1+/?Trp53+/? mice in the C57Bl/6J background for use in the preclinical testing of the oncolytic virus Myxoma (MYXV). These lines show a range of susceptibility to MYXV replication in vitro, but all succumb to viral-mediated cell death. Two of these lines orthotopically grafted produced aggressive gliomas. Intracranial injection of MYXV failed to result in sustained viral replication or treatment efficacy, with minimal tumour infection that was completely resolved by 7 days post-infection. We hypothesized that the stromal production of Type-I interferons (IFN?/?) could explain the resistance seen in these models; however, we found that neither the cell lines in vitro nor the tumours in vivo produce any IFN?/? in response to MYXV infection. To confirm IFN?/? did not play a role in this resistance, we ablated the ability of tumours to respond to IFN?/? via IRF9 knockdown, and generated identical results. Our studies demonstrate that these syngeneic cell lines are relevant preclinical models for testing experimental glioma treatments, and show that IFN?/? is not responsible for the MYXV treatment resistance seen in syngeneic glioma models. PMID:23762429

  8. [Afobasol efficacy in a model of vagotonic atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Stoliaruk, V N; Vititnova, M B; Tsorin, I B; Kryzhanovski?, S A

    2010-01-01

    The new anxiolytic agent afobasol (Russia) was introduced into clinical practice by V. V. Zakusov Research Institute of Pharmacology. When administered to cats with vagotonic atrial fibrillation afobasol (7.5 mg/kg v/v) exhibited anti-arrhythmic activity at least as high as that of class 1 and III anti-arrhythmic agents (etacisin and cardiocyclide respectively) (Vaughan Williams classification). However, duration of its action was much smaller. These experimental findings were confirmed in clinical studies involving patients with severe psychosomatic pathology associated with paroxysmal flutter. It is supposed that afobasol activates cytosolic sigma-1 receptors in cardiomyocytes and may be used to manage psychoasthenic conditions accompanied by cardioneuroses and/or cardiophobias with disturbed rhythmic activity of the heart. PMID:20540357

  9. Atrial Septal Defects – Clinical Manifestations, Echo Assessment, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Seth S; Shapiro, Edward P; Mukherjee, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital abnormality that occurs in the form of ostium secundum, ostium primum, sinus venosus, and rarely, coronary sinus defects. Pathophysiologic consequences of ASDs typically begin in adulthood, and include arrhythmia, paradoxical embolism, cerebral abscess, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular failure. Two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography with Doppler is a central aspect of the evaluation. This noninvasive imaging modality often establishes the diagnosis and provides critical information guiding intervention. A comprehensive echocardiogram includes evaluation of anatomical ASD characteristics, flow direction, associated abnormalities (eg, anomalous pulmonary veins), right ventricular anatomy and function, pulmonary pressures, and the pulmonary/systemic flow ratio. The primary indication for ASD closure is right heart volume overload, whether symptoms are present or not. ASD closure may also be reasonable in other contexts, such as paradoxical embolism. ASD type and local clinical expertise guide choice of a percutaneous versus surgical approach to ASD closure. PMID:25861226

  10. Novel oral anticoagulants in patients undergoing cardioversion for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Briasoulis, Alexandros; Kottam, Anupama; Khan, Mazhar; Afonso, Luis

    2015-08-01

    Recent trials on novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) in patients undergoing cardioversion showed that NOACs are as safe and effective as treatment with vitamin K antagonists in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing electric or pharmacological cardioversion. We conducted an EMBASE and MEDLINE search for studies in which patients undergoing cardioversion were assigned to treatment with NOACs versus VKAs. We identified one prospective randomized study and three post hoc analysis of randomized trials which enrolled 2,788 controls that received NOACs and 1,729 patients that received VKAs. NOACs and VKAs had comparable effects on the rates of stroke/thromboembolism, major bleeding events and all-cause mortality. NOACs are safe and effective alternatives to VKA in patients with AF undergoing cardioversion. PMID:25542262

  11. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of atrial fibrillation in women

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Daniela; Antonucci, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and has become a serious public health problem. Moreover, epidemiological data demonstrate that incidence and prevalence of AF are increasing. Several differences in epidemiological patterns, clinical manifestations, and incidence of stroke have been reported between AF in women and in men, particularly in elderly women. Elderly women have higher blood pressure than men and a higher prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, both independent risk factors for stroke. On the basis of the evidence on the higher stroke risk among AF in women, recently, female sex has been accepted as a risk factor for stroke and adopted to stratify patients, especially if they are not at high risk for stroke. This review focuses on available evidence on sex differences in AF patients, and examines factors contributing to different stroke risk, diagnosis, and prognosis of arrhythmia in women, with the aim to provide an analysis of the available evidence.

  12. Recognising and managing atrial fibrillation in the community.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geraldine; Campbell-Cole, Carolyn

    2014-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and has greater prevalence in the increasing ageing population, with an estimated 10% of those over 80 years having AF. Symptoms associated with AF include palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath and fatigue. Those presenting with these symptoms need to be investigated and the appropriate treatment should be initiated if AF is detected. For those with AF, there is a significant risk of stroke if patients are not adequately anti-coagulated. This article outlines methods for detecting AF in the community and provides an overview of current treatment options, including the newer anti-coagulant agents. The importance of assessing stroke risk and conveying this risk to those with AF is essential. Community health professionals play an important role in monitoring, treating and managing AF within the community setting and supporting and educating the patient in minimising the risk of serious thromboembolic complications such as stroke. PMID:25184894

  13. Service provision and use of anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed Central

    Sudlow, C. M.; Rodgers, H.; Kenny, R. A.; Thomson, R. G.

    1995-01-01

    Several large trials have shown that the risk of stroke in patients with non-valvar atrial fibrillation is reduced by treatment with warfarin. Implementing this research evidence requires not only an understanding of the trials' results and of the changes that they imply for clinicians' treatment decisions but also an appreciation of the organisation, quantity, and quality of services required to support these changes. Understanding of these implications is crucial for developing services that allow changes in practice to produce reductions in stroke incidence while minimising the risks of treatment. This article considers the developments in service provision that will probably be required to support the changes in clinical practice suggested by the trials' results. These services will be provided largely by doctors, and their development has implications for doctors in both primary and secondary care. Images FIG 1 PMID:7663216

  14. Atrial natriuretic peptide in cardiovascular biology and disease (NPPA).

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Wang, Hao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-09-10

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac hormone that regulates salt-water balance and blood pressure by promoting renal sodium and water excretion and stimulating vasodilation. ANP also has an anti-hypertrophic function in the heart, which is independent of its systemic blood pressure-lowering effect. In mice, ANP deficiency causes salt-sensitive hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Recent studies have shown that ANP plays an important role in regulating vascular remodeling and energy metabolism. Variants in the human NPPA gene, encoding the ANP precursor, are associated with hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, heart failure (HF) and obesity. ANP and related peptides are used as biomarkers for heart disease. Recombinant proteins and small molecules that enhance the ANP pathway have been developed to treat patients with HF. In this review, we discuss the role of ANP in cardiovascular biology and disease. PMID:26074089

  15. [Atrial fibrillation and obstructive sleep apnea: a fortuitous association?].

    PubMed

    Leszek, A; Perrier, A; Carballo, S

    2014-10-15

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent arrhythmia and is associated with important morbidity and mortality. It is particularly frequent in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in 3 to 5% of these patients. Numerous studies show an association of these two pathologies, independently of classical cardiovascular risk factors and otherconfounders. A pathophysiological link between repeated apnea and cardiac modifications, inflammation and autonomic nervous system disequilibrium has also been demonstrated. The severity of OSA influences development of AF, and appears to make management more complicated. Success of catheter ablation of AF appears to be inferior in patients with OSA. Whilst more robust studies are required to better define the role of OSA in AF, the existing literature establishes a link between these two entities. PMID:25507891

  16. [Atrial fibrillation and obstructive sleep apnea: a fortuitous association?].

    PubMed

    Leszek, A; Perrier, A; Carballo, S

    2014-10-15

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent arrhythmia and is associated with important morbidity and mortality. It is particularly frequent in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in 3 to 5% of these patients. Numerous studies show an association of these two pathologies, independently of classical cardiovascular risk factors and otherconfounders. A pathophysiological link between repeated apnea and cardiac modifications, inflammation and autonomic nervous system disequilibrium has also been demonstrated. The severity of OSA influences development of AF, and appears to make management more complicated. Success of catheter ablation of AF appears to be inferior in patients with OSA. Whilst more robust studies are required to better define the role of OSA in AF, the existing literature establishes a link between these two entities. PMID:25438374

  17. The role of transcription factors in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mengchen; Liao, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a complex disease that results from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and family-based linkage analysis have found amounts of genetic variants associated with AF. Some of them lie in coding sequences and thus mediate the encoded proteins, some in non-coding regions and influence the expression of adjacent genes. These variants exert influence on the development of cardiovascular system and normal cardiac electrical activity in different levels, and eventually contribute to the occurrence of AF. Among these affected genes, as a crucial means of transcriptional regulation, several transcription factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of AF. In this review, we will focus on the potential role of PITX2, PRRX1, ZHFX3, TBX5, and NKX2.5 in AF. PMID:25713730

  18. The Role of Fibroblasts in Complex Fractionated Electrograms During Persistent/Permanent Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Ashihara, Takashi; Haraguchi, Ryo; Nakazawa, Kazuo; Namba, Tsunetoyo; Ikeda, Takanori; Nakazawa, Yuko; Ozawa, Tomoya; Ito, Makoto; Horie, Minoru; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Electrogram-based catheter ablation, targeting complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAEs), is empirically known to be effective in halting persistent/permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the mechanisms underlying CFAEs and electrogram-based ablation remain unclear. Objective Because atrial fibrosis is associated with persistent/permanent AF, we hypothesized that electrotonic interactions between atrial myocytes and fibroblasts play an important role in CFAE genesis and electrogram-based catheter ablation. Methods and Results We used a human atrial tissue model in heart failure and simulated propagation and spiral wave reentry with and without regionally proliferated fibroblasts. Coupling of fibroblasts to atrial myocytes resulted in shorter action potential duration, slower conduction velocity, and lower excitability. Consequently, heterogeneous fibroblast proliferation in the myocardial sheet resulted in frequent spiral wave breakups, and the bipolar electrograms recorded at the fibroblast proliferation area exhibited CFAEs. The simulations demonstrated that ablation targeting such fibroblast-derived CFAEs terminated AF, resulting from the ablation site transiently pinning the spiral wave and then pushing it out of the fibroblast proliferation area. CFAEs could not be attributed to collagen accumulation alone. Conclusions Fibroblast proliferation in atria might be responsible for the genesis of CFAEs during persistent/ permanent AF. Our findings could contribute to better understanding of the mechanisms underlying CFAE-targeted AF ablation. PMID:22179057

  19. Modified radial v/s biatrial maze for atrial fibrillation in rheumatic valvular heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Sajid A.; Katewa, Ashish; Srivastava, Vivek; Jana, Sujit; Patwardhan, Anil M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is commonest sustained atrial arrhythmia producing high morbidity. Although Cox's Maze III procedure cures AF in majority, reduced atrial transport function (ATF) is a concern. Radial approach with ablation lines radial from sinus node towards atrioventricular annulii and parallel to atrial coronary arteries, has shown better ATF. Methods Single blind open randomized prospective study of 80 patients was undertaken in two groups (40 each) of modified Cox's maze III and modified radial approach, to evaluate conversion to normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and ATF. Patients undergoing surgery for rheumatic valvular heart disease with continuous AF were prospectively randomized. Ablation lines were created with radiofrequency (RF) bipolar coagulation with cryoablation for the isthmal lesions and coronary sinus. Results were compared at 6 months and ATF was evaluated by atrial filling fraction (AFF) and A/E ratio on echocardiography. Results The rate of conversion to NSR in both groups was statistically insignificant by Fisher's exact test (p > 0.05). ATF was better in modified radial approach compared to modified Cox's Maze III (A/E compared by unpaired t test:0.52 ± 0.08 v/s 0.36 ± 0.10; p < 0.05. AFF compared using Mann Whitney U test: median AFF for radial group was 23 v/s 20 for biatrial group; p < 0.05). Discussion In patients with AF undergoing rheumatic valvular surgery, radiofrequency radial approach is as effective as modified Cox's maze III for conversion to NSR with better atrial transport function. PMID:25443604

  20. Mathematical Approaches to Understanding and Imaging Atrial Fibrillation: Significance for Mechanisms and Management

    PubMed Central

    Trayanova, Natalia A

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in humans. The mechanisms that govern AF initiation and persistence are highly complex, of dynamic nature, and involve interactions across multiple temporal and spatial scales in the atria. This articles aims to review the mathematical modeling and computer simulation approaches to understanding AF mechanisms and aiding in its management. Various atrial modeling approaches are presented, with descriptions of the methodological basis and advancements in both lower-dimensional and realistic geometry models. A review of the most significant mechanistic insights made by atrial simulations is provided. The article showcases the contributions that atrial modeling and simulation have made not only to our understanding of the pathophysiology of atrial arrhythmias, but also to the development of AF management approaches. A summary of the future developments envisioned for the field of atrial simulation and modeling is also presented. The review contends that computational models of the atria assembled with data from clinical imaging modalities that incorporate electrophysiological and structural remodeling could become a first line of screening for new AF therapies and approaches, new diagnostic developments, and new methods for arrhythmia prevention. PMID:24763468