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Sample records for att minska transportlogistikens

  1. TV via satellite from AT&T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiely, J.

    1982-04-01

    AT&T's Satellite Television Service, which relays TV feeds by means of the Comstar domestic communications satellite system, is discussed. Advantages include the ability to provide multiple feeds of program and advertising material simultaneously to affiliates, which can help accommodate the trend toward greater program diversity, and the ability to distribute one signal to many points, making their use economically attractive. A proposed radio service from AT&T is also discussed, which could provide radio broadcasters and programmers with a high-quality, versatile means of transmitting radio programs via satellite.

  2. The Arms Trade Treaty (ATT): a public health imperative.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Maria; Mtonga, Robert; Gould, Robert; Christ, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The United Nations adopted an historic international Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) in April 2013. A 1997 meeting of Nobel Peace Prize laureates who called for an International Code of Conduct to address the 'destructive effects of the unregulated arms trade' initiated discussions that led to the Treaty. Public health institutions, including the World Health Organization and the International Committee of the Red Cross, and nongovernmental health groups such as International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, made adoption of the ATT a public health imperative. The poorly regulated $70 billion annual trade in conventional arms fuels conflict, with devastating effects on global health. The ATT aims to 'reduce human suffering'. It prohibits arms' sales if there is knowledge that the arms would be used in the commission of genocide, attacks against civilians, or war crimes. The health community has much to contribute to ensuring ratification and implementation of the ATT. PMID:24257633

  3. The Unilateral, Self-Deregulation of AT&T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloff, Joel H.

    1990-01-01

    The provision of telecommunications products and services in the United States has been dominated by AT&T and the Bell System for more than one hundred years. From the early days of telephones, it was clear that some framework of logic was required to provide "universal" telephone services to the vast majority of American citizens. The concept was known as "natural monopoly", and for the most part, has served us well. We are all aware of statements concerning absolute power corrupting absolutely, and AT&T has not been immune to this law of human nature. Several times during the past century, action has been required by the Federal Government to regulate and constrain AT&T and the Bell System from anti-competitive and predatory actions. These have been called consent decrees, Computer Inquiry II, Computer Inquiry III, and the Modified Final Judgment. The regulations and constraints imposed upon AT&T, with good reason, are now becoming eroded. The perception of a more highly competitive marketplace capable of accommodating an unrestrained AT&T, the impact of uncoordinated national and regional government policies, and unilateral actions by AT&T themselves are bringing us to the edge of an abyss. There are substantial reasons to believe that AT&T will use its considerable might to eliminate its competitors, once free to do so. Must we be doomed to repeat history with still another antitrust case against AT&T some years from now? Logic demands that we learn from the past, and that telecommunications policies be based upon that knowledge.

  4. QCD Prediction of ATT for Small QT Dimuon Production in pp and pp-bar Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Kodaira, Jiro; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2007-06-13

    We present QCD prediction of double-spin asymmetries (ATT) in transversely polarized Drell-Yan process at small transverse momentum QT of dimuon. Resummation of large logarithmic corrections, relevant in small QT region, is performed up to next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy. ATT at RHIC, J-PARC and GSI are studied numerically in the corresponding kinematic regions. We show that the large ATT is obtained for small QT and moderate energies.

  5. Structure of the lambda att sites generated by int-dependent deletions.

    PubMed Central

    Hoess, R H; Landy, A

    1978-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda integrates into the chromosome of its Escherichia coli host by means of a site-specific recombination between a locus on the phage chromosome (phage att site) and a locus on the bacterial chromosome (bacterial att site). The nucleotide sequence of four lambda att sites altered in site-specific recombination has been determined. The int-dependent deletions that generated these att sites have one end point within the phage att site and extend either to the left or to the right. As a result of the new internucleotide bond created by deletion formation, these phage have alterations in the 15-base-pair common core region. The new DNA sequences brought to the att sites by the deletions, designated delta for regions to the left and delta' for regions to the right, do not share any discernible homology with their analogous counterparts in the phage att site arms, P and P', respectively, or with the bacterial att site arms, B and B', respectively. The finding of alterations in the 15-base-pair common core region necessitates a reinterpretation of the genetic properties of these att sites in site-specific recombination. The structure of these sites in relation to their genetic properties can be viewed as being consistent with a model in which the only specificity elements in int-dependent site-specific recombination are the common core region, O, and the phage arms, P and P'. Images PMID:364480

  6. 76 FR 5831 - AT&T; Reynoldsburg, OH; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration AT&T; Reynoldsburg, OH; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding... Adjustment Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of AT&T, Reynoldsburg, Ohio ] (subject... published in the Federal Register on January 3, 2011 (76 FR 182). The workers supply customer care...

  7. 76 FR 27666 - AT&T Services, Inc., Reynoldsburg, OH; Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... February 2, 2011 (76 FR 5831). Workers supply customer care call services. Pursuant to 29 CFR 90.18(c... firm was consolidated into three other AT&T call centers within the United States. Conclusion After... Employment and Training Administration AT&T Services, Inc., Reynoldsburg, OH; Notice of...

  8. Fludarabine, mitoxantrone, dexamethasone (FND) compared with an alternating triple therapy (ATT) regimen in patients with stage IV indolent lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tsimberidou, Apostolia M; McLaughlin, Peter; Younes, Anas; Rodriguez, Maria A; Hagemeister, Fredrick B; Sarris, Andreas; Romaguera, Jorge; Hess, Mark; Smith, Terry L; Yang, Ying; Ayala, Ana; Preti, Alejandro; Lee, Ming-Sheng; Cabanillas, Fernando

    2002-12-15

    Treatment for patients with stage IV indolent lymphoma ranges from watchful waiting to intensive chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. In this trial we compared 2 induction regimens followed by 1 year of interferon maintenance therapy. Fludarabine, mitoxantrone (Novantrone), and dexamethasone (FND) were compared with an alternating triple therapy (ATT) regimen (CHOD-Bleo, ESHAP, and NOPP). Maintenance interferon/dexamethasone was given for 1 year in both treatment arms. Endpoints were comparisons of remission rates, survival, failure-free survival (FFS), molecular response rates, and toxicities. One hundred forty-two patients with previously untreated stage IV indolent lymphoma were evaluable (73 on FND; 69 on ATT). The overall response rates were 97% for FND and 97% for ATT (P =.9). The median follow-up is 5.9 years. The 5-year survival rates were 84% with FND and 82% with ATT (P =.9); the 5-year FFS rates were 41% with FND and 50% with ATT (P =.02). In a multivariate analysis, factors predicting for longer FFS were beta(2)-microglobulin less than 3 mg/L (P =.01) and ATT treatment (P =.03). ATT was associated with a substantially higher rate of grade 3-4 toxicities than FND. In conclusion, both regimens were associated with high rates of response and survival. ATT was associated with substantially longer FFS, but it was more toxic than FND. PMID:12393618

  9. 76 FR 5831 - Amdocs, Inc., Global Support Services, Advertising And Media AT&T Division, New Haven...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Federal Register on November 23, 2010 (75 FR 71461). The negative determination was based on the findings... Employment and Training Administration Amdocs, Inc., Global Support Services, Advertising And Media AT&T...., Global Support Services, Advertising and Media AT&T Division, New Haven, Connecticut (subject firm)....

  10. 76 FR 14697 - Amdocs, Inc., Global Support Services, Advertising and Media AT&T Division, New Haven, CT; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... February 22, 2011 (76 FR 5831). The subject workers are engaged in employment related to the supply of... Employment and Training Administration Amdocs, Inc., Global Support Services, Advertising and Media AT&T..., Advertising and Media AT&T Division, New Haven, Connecticut to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA)....

  11. The Streptomyces Genome Contains Multiple Pseudo-attB Sites for the φC31-Encoded Site-Specific Recombination System

    PubMed Central

    Combes, Patricia; Till, Rob; Bee, Sally; Smith, Margaret C. M.

    2002-01-01

    The integrase from the Streptomyces phage φC31 is a member of the serine recombinase family of site-specific recombinases and is fundamentally different from that of λ or its relatives. Moreover, φC31 int/attP is used widely as an essential component of integration vectors (such as pSET152) employed in the genetic analysis of Streptomyces species. φC31 or integrating plasmids containing int/attP have been shown previously to integrate at a locus, attB, in the chromosome. The DNA sequences of the attB sites of various Streptomyces species revealed nonconserved positions. In particular, the crossover site was narrowed to the sequence 5′TT present in both attP and attB. Strains of Streptomyces coelicolor and S. lividans were constructed with a deletion of the attB site (ΔattB), and pSET152 was introduced into these strains by conjugation. Thus, secondary or pseudo-attB sites were identified by Southern blotting and after rescue of plasmids containing DNA flanking the insertion sites from the chromosome. The sequences of the integration sites had similarity to those of attB. Analysis of the insertions of pSET152 into both attB+ and ΔattB strains indicated that this plasmid can integrate at several loci via independent recombination events within a transconjugant. PMID:12270833

  12. Specific and Independent Recognition of U3 and U5 att Sites by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Integrase In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Takao; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Harada, Shinji

    1998-01-01

    The retroviral attachment (att) sites at viral DNA ends are cis-acting regions essential for proviral integration. To investigate the sequence features of att important for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integration in vivo, we generated a series of 25 att mutants of HIV-1 by mutagenesis of the U3, U5, or both boundaries of att. Our results indicated that the terminal 11 or 12 bp of viral DNA are sufficient for specific recognition by HIV-1 integrase (IN) and suggested that IN might recognize each att site independently in vivo. PMID:9733892

  13. Specificity of prohormone convertase endoproteolysis of progastrin in AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, C J; Sawada, M; Guo, Y J; Finniss, S; Yamada, T

    1995-01-01

    Biologically active peptide hormones are synthesized from larger precursor proteins by a variety of posttranslational processing reactions. Endoproteolytic cleavage at the Lys74-Lys75 dibasic processing site of progastrin is the major determinant for the relative distribution of gastrin heptadecapeptide and tetratriacontapeptide in tissues. Thus, we explored the ability of two prohormone convertases, PC1/PC3 and PC2, to cleave this important site within progastrin. We expressed wild-type human gastrin cDNA and mutant cDNAs in which the Lys74Lys75 site was changed to Lys74Arg75, Arg74Arg75, and Arg74Lys75 residues in AtT-20 cells. Because AtT-20 cells express Pc1/PC3 but not PC2, we also coexpressed a cDNA encoding PC2 in both wild-type and mutant gastrin-producing AtT-20 cells. Wild-type Lys74Lys75 and mutant Arg74Arg75 progastrin processing sites were efficiently cleaved in AtT-20 cells only after coexpression of PC2. Mutant Lys74Arg75 progastrin was readily processed in cells in the presence or absence of PC2 coexpression, but, in contrast, mutant Arg74Lys75 progastrin was inefficiently cleaved regardless of PC2 coexpression. Northern analysis revealed the presence of PC2 but not PC1/ PC3 in canine antral gastrin-producing G cells. These data suggest that PC2 but not PC1/PC3 is responsible for the cleavage of the Lys74Lys75 site in wild-type progastrin. Images PMID:7657815

  14. ATtRACT—a database of RNA-binding proteins and associated motifs

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Girolamo; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Torroja, Carlos; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a crucial role in key cellular processes, including RNA transport, splicing, polyadenylation and stability. Understanding the interaction between RBPs and RNA is key to improve our knowledge of RNA processing, localization and regulation in a global manner. Despite advances in recent years, a unified non-redundant resource that includes information on experimentally validated motifs, RBPs and integrated tools to exploit this information is lacking. Here, we developed a database named ATtRACT (available at http://attract.cnic.es) that compiles information on 370 RBPs and 1583 RBP consensus binding motifs, 192 of which are not present in any other database. To populate ATtRACT we (i) extracted and hand-curated experimentally validated data from CISBP-RNA, SpliceAid–F, RBPDB databases, (ii) integrated and updated the unavailable ASD database and (iii) extracted information from Protein-RNA complexes present in Protein Data Bank database through computational analyses. ATtRACT provides also efficient algorithms to search a specific motif and scan one or more RNA sequences at a time. It also allows discovering de novo motifs enriched in a set of related sequences and compare them with the motifs included in the database. Database URL: http:// attract. cnic. es PMID:27055826

  15. ATtRACT-a database of RNA-binding proteins and associated motifs.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Girolamo; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Torroja, Carlos; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a crucial role in key cellular processes, including RNA transport, splicing, polyadenylation and stability. Understanding the interaction between RBPs and RNA is key to improve our knowledge of RNA processing, localization and regulation in a global manner. Despite advances in recent years, a unified non-redundant resource that includes information on experimentally validated motifs, RBPs and integrated tools to exploit this information is lacking. Here, we developed a database named ATtRACT (available athttp://attract.cnic.es) that compiles information on 370 RBPs and 1583 RBP consensus binding motifs, 192 of which are not present in any other database. To populate ATtRACT we (i) extracted and hand-curated experimentally validated data from CISBP-RNA, SpliceAid-F, RBPDB databases, (ii) integrated and updated the unavailable ASD database and (iii) extracted information from Protein-RNA complexes present in Protein Data Bank database through computational analyses. ATtRACT provides also efficient algorithms to search a specific motif and scan one or more RNA sequences at a time. It also allows discoveringde novomotifs enriched in a set of related sequences and compare them with the motifs included in the database.Database URL:http:// attract. cnic. es. PMID:27055826

  16. Phased Implementation Of At&T PACS At Duke University Medical Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockbridge, Chris; Ravin, Carl E.

    1986-01-01

    "Help me communicate more quickly and more effectively with referring clinicians". This request was the driving force behind the installation of the AT&T CommViewm System at Duke. The CommView System is a type of Digital Image Management System and Picture Archival Communication System whose chief purpose is to deliver interpreted diagnostic images to referring clinicians and attending physicians. The system acquires electronic images from modal-ities in a diagnostic imaging facility, stores these images in computer managed patient files and distributes these on demand over fiber optic cable to Display Consoles. The CommView System was designed at AT&T Bell Labs; it uses fiber optic ribbon cable between buildings fused to multistrand lightguide building cables to distribute images, typically around a medical center or campus at data transfer rates of 40 Mbps. This paper gives the rationale used in designing a start-up network and placing the initial equipment for a field trial of the AT&T CommView System in the Radiology Department of Duke University Medical Center.

  17. "Phased Implementation Of AT&T PACS At Duke University Medical Center"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockbridge, Chris; Ravin, Carl E.

    1986-06-01

    "Help me communicate more quickly and more effectively with referring clinicians". This request was the driving force behind the installation of the AT&T CommView System at Duke. The CommView System is a type of Digital Image Management System and Picture Archival Communication System whose chief purpose is to deliver interpreted diagnostic images to referring clinicians and attending physicians. The system acquires electronic images from modalities in a diagnostic imaging facility, stores these images in computer managed patient files and distributes these on demand over fiber optic cable to Display Consoles. The CommView System was designed at AT&T Bell Labs; it uses fiber optic ribbon cable between buildings fused to multistrand lightguide building cables to distribute images, typically around a medical center or campus at data transfer rates of 40 Mbps. This paper gives the rationale used in designing a start-up network and placing the initial equipment for a field trial of the AT&T CommView System in the Radiology Department of Duke University Medical Center.

  18. Screening of potential pseudo att sites of Streptomyces phage ΦC31 integrase in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhi-peng; Chen, Lu-sheng; Jia, Cai-yan; Zhu, Huan-zhang; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Aim: ΦC31 integrase mediates site-specific recombination between two short sequences, attP and attB, in phage and bacterial genomes, which is a promising tool in gene regulation-based therapy since the zinc finger structure is probably the DNA recognizing domain that can further be engineered. The aim of this study was to screen potential pseudo att sites of ΦC31 integrase in the human genome, and evaluate the risks of its application in human gene therapy. Methods: TFBS (transcription factor binding sites) were found on the basis of reported pseudo att sites using multiple motif-finding tools, including AlignACE, BioProspector, Consensus, MEME, and Weeder. The human genome with the proposed motif was scanned to find the potential pseudo att sites of ΦC31 integrase. Results: The possible recognition motif of ΦC31 integrase was identified, which was composed of two co-occurrence conserved elements that were reverse complement to each other flanking the core sequence TTG. In the human genome, a total of 27924 potential pseudo att sites of ΦC31 integrase were found, which were distributed in each human chromosome with high-risk specificity values in the chromosomes 16, 17, and 19. When the risks of the sites were evaluate more rigorously, 53 hits were discovered, and some of them were just the vital functional genes or regulatory regions, such as ACYP2, AKR1B1, DUSP4, etc. Conclusion: The results provide clues for more comprehensive evaluation of the risks of using ΦC31 integrase in human gene therapy and for drug discovery. PMID:23416928

  19. 78 FR 2600 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ..., pricing of, and demand for best efforts business broadband Internet access services; (3) the... CFR Part 69 Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To Reform Regulation of Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier Rates for Interstate Special...

  20. 76 FR 44036 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger Salamander, AT&T Portable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Salamander, AT&T Portable Generator Storage Facility, Yolo County, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... the construction of a portable generator storage facility located at 26120 County Road 6, Dunnigan, CA... for the California tiger salamander into a new storage facility for portable generators within...

  1. Measuring Attitudes About Intimate Partner Violence Against Women: The ATT-IPV Scale

    PubMed Central

    Yount, Kathryn M.; VanderEnde, Kristin; Zureick-Brown, Sarah; Anh, Hoang Tu; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Minh, Tran Hung

    2014-01-01

    In lower-income settings, women more often than men justify intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet, the role of measurement invariance across gender is unstudied. We developed the ATT-IPV scale to measure attitudes about physical violence against wives in 1,055 married men and women ages 18–50 in My Hao district, Vietnam. Across 10 items about transgressions of the wife, women more often than men agreed that a man had good reason to hit his wife (3 % to 92 %; 0 % to 67 %). In random split-half samples, one-factor exploratory factor analysis (EFA) (N1 = 527) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (N2 = 528) models for nine items with sufficient variability had significant loadings (0.575–0.883; 0.502–0.897) and good fit (RMSEA = 0.068, 0.048; CFI = 0.951, 0.978, TLI = 0.935, 0.970). Three items had significant uniform differential item functioning (DIF) by gender, and adjustment for DIF revealed that measurement noninvariance was partially masking men’s lower propensity than women to justify IPV. A CFA model for the six items without DIF had excellent fit (RMSEA = 0.019, CFI = 0.994, TLI = 0.991) and an attitudinal gender gap similar to the DIF-adjusted nine-item model, suggesting that the six-item scale reliably measures attitudes about IPV across gender. Researchers should validate the scale in urban Vietnam and elsewhere and decompose DIF-adjusted gender attitudinal gaps. PMID:24846070

  2. The silent codon change I507-ATC→ATT contributes to the severity of the ΔF508 CFTR channel dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lazrak, Ahmed; Fu, Lianwu; Bali, Vedrana; Bartoszewski, Rafal; Rab, Andras; Havasi, Viktoria; Keiles, Steve; Kappes, John; Kumar, Ranjit; Lefkowitz, Elliot; Sorscher, Eric J.; Matalon, Sadis; Collawn, James F.; Bebok, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    The most common disease-causing mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is the out-of-frame deletion of 3 nucleotides (CTT). This mutation leads to the loss of phenylalanine-508 (ΔF508) and a silent codon change (SCC) for isoleucine-507 (I507-ATC→ATT). ΔF508 CFTR is misfolded and degraded by endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). We have demonstrated that the I507-ATC→ATT SCC alters ΔF508 CFTR mRNA structure and translation dynamics. By comparing the biochemical and functional properties of the I507-ATT and I507-ATC ΔF508 CFTR, we establish that the I507-ATC→ATT SCC contributes to the cotranslational misfolding, ERAD, and to the functional defects associated with ΔF508 CFTR. We demonstrate that the I507-ATC ΔF508 CFTR is less susceptible to the ER quality-control machinery during translation than the I507-ATT, although 27°C correction is necessary for sufficient cell-surface expression. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings indicate sustained, thermally stable cAMP-activated Cl− transport through I507-ATC and unstable function of the I507-ATT ΔF508 CFTR. Single-channel recordings reveal improved gating properties of the I507-ATC compared to I507-ATT ΔF508 CFTR (NPo=0.45±0.037 vs. NPo=0.09±0.002; P<0.001). Our results signify the role of the I507-ATC→ATT SCC in the ΔF508 CFTR defects and support the importance of synonymous codon choices in determining the function of gene products.—Lazrak, A., Fu, L., Bali, V., Bartoszewski, R., Rab, A., Havasi, V., Keiles, S., Kappes, J., Kumar, R., Lefkowitz, E., Sorscher, E. J., Matalon, S., Collawn, J. F., Bebok, Z. The silent codon change I507-ATC→ATT contributes to the severity of the ΔF508 CFTR. PMID:23907436

  3. Ternary arsenides ATt3As3 (A=K, Rb; Tt=Ge, Sn) with layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatun, Mansura; Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Mar, Arthur

    2016-06-01

    The four ternary arsenides ATt3As3 (A=K, Rb; Tt=Ge, Sn) were obtained by reaction of the elements at 600-650 °C. They adopt an orthorhombic structure (space group Pnma, Z=4, with cell parameters ranging from a=9.9931(11) Å, b=3.7664(4) Å, c=18.607(2) Å for KGe3As3 to a=10.3211(11) Å, b=4.0917(4) Å, c=19.570(2) Å for RbSn3As3) containing corrugated [Tt3As3] layers built from Tt-centred trigonal pyramids and tetrahedra forming five-membered rings decorated with As handles. They can be considered to be Zintl phases with Tt atoms in +4, +3, and +1 oxidation states. Band structure calculations predict that these compounds are semiconductors with narrow band gaps (0.71 eV in KGe3As3, 0.50 eV in KSn3As3).

  4. Retinoic acid receptor-α up-regulates proopiomelanocortin gene expression in AtT20 corticotroph cells.

    PubMed

    Uruno, Akira; Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Kogure, Naotaka; Matsuda, Ken; Parvin, Rehana; Shimizu, Kyoko; Sato, Ikuko; Kudo, Masataka; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Ito, Sadayoshi; Sugawara, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Cushing's disease is a disorder caused by excessive ACTH secretion from a corticotroph tumor of the pituitary gland. Although its standard therapy is a transsphenoidal surgery, innovation of novel medical treatments for the disease is urgently necessary. Retinoic acid (RA) has been reported to suppress adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion in Cushing's disease. However, the role of RA receptor (RAR) in proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene expression remains uncertain. We here examined the involvement of RARα in Pomc regulation using AtT20 corticotroph cells. Surprisingly, a synthetic RARα agonist Am80 increased Pomc mRNA expression, CRH-induced ACTH secretion, and Pomc promoter activity. Small interfering RNA-mediated RARα-knockdown suppressed both basal and Am80-induced Pomc promoter activity. RARα-overexpression dose-dependently increased Pomc promoter activity. Pomc promoter mutation analysis revealed that both Tpit and NeuroD1 binding elements were responsible for the Am80-mediated effect. Am80 increased Tpit expression while RAR antagonist LE540 suppressed the increase. Tpit-overexpression increased Pomc promoter activity. Mammalian two-hybrid assay revealed that Am80 induced NeuroD1-RARα interaction. NeuroD1-overexpression enhanced the Am80-induced Pomc promoter activity, which was suppressed by NeuroD1 truncated mutant-overexpression. RARα thus positively regulates ACTH secretion/Pomc gene expression through interaction with NeuroD1 and Tpit expression increase. The present observation will be useful for the future development of the RA/retinoid-derived therapeutics of the disease. PMID:25132258

  5. Ionic milieu controls the compartment-specific activation of pro-opiomelanocortin processing in AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, W K; Moore, H P

    1995-01-01

    Newly synthesized prohormones and their processing enzymes transit through the same compartments before being packaged into regulated secretory granules. Despite this coordinated intracellular transport, prohormone processing does not occur until late in the secretory pathway. In the mouse pituitary AtT-20 cell line, conversion of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) to mature adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the prohormone convertase PC1. The mechanism by which this proteolytic processing is restricted to late secretory compartments is unknown; PC1 activity could be regulated by compartment-specific activators/inhibitors, or through changes in the ionic milieu that influence its activity. By arresting transport in a semi-intact cell system, we have addressed whether metabolically labeled POMC trapped in early secretory compartments can be induced to undergo conversion if the ionic milieu in these compartments is experimentally manipulated. Prolonged incubation of labeled POMC trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi/trans-Golgi network did not result in processing, thereby supporting the theory that processing is normally a post-Golgi/trans-Golgi network event. However, acidification of these compartments allowed effective processing of POMC to the intermediate and mature forms. The observed processing increased sharply at a pH below 6.0 and required millimolar calcium, regardless of the compartment in which labeled POMC resided. These conditions also resulted in the coordinate conversion of PC1 from the 84/87 kDa into the 74-kDa and 66-kDa forms. We propose that POMC processing is predominantly restricted to acidifying secretory granules, and that a change in pH within these granules is both necessary and sufficient to activate POMC processing. Images PMID:8573786

  6. Inhibition of Ubiquitin-specific Peptidase 8 Suppresses Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Production and Tumorous Corticotroph Cell Growth in AtT20 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Fang-Fang; Li, Yun-Feng; Chen, Yu-Fan; Jiang, Hong; Chen, Xiao; Zheng, Li-Li; Zhao, Yao; Wang, Wei-Qing; Ning, Guang; Bian, Liu-Guan; Sun, Qing-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Two recent whole-exome sequencing researches identifying somatic mutations in the ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) gene in pituitary corticotroph adenomas provide exciting advances in this field. These mutations drive increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and promote adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production. This study was to investigate whether the inhibition of USP8 activity could be a strategy for the treatment of Cushing's disease (CD). Methods: The anticancer effect of USP8 inhibitor was determined by testing cell viability, colony formation, apoptosis, and ACTH secretion. The immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were conducted to explore the signaling pathway by USP8 inhibition. Results: Inhibition of USP8-induced degradation of receptor tyrosine kinases including EGFR, EGFR-2 (ERBB2), and Met leading to a suppression of AtT20 cell growth and ACTH secretion. Moreover, treatment with USP8 inhibitor markedly induced AtT20 cells apoptosis. Conclusions: Inhibition of USP8 activity could be an effective strategy for CD. It might provide a novel pharmacological approach for the treatment of CD. PMID:27569239

  7. Effects of loperamide and other opioid-related substances on the transcriptional regulation of the rat pro-opiomelanocortin gene in AtT20 cells.

    PubMed

    Nomura, A; Iwasaki, Y; Aoki, Y; Yamamori, E; Mutsuga, N; Yoshida, M; Asai, M; Oiso, Y; Saito, H

    2001-08-01

    Although opioid peptides are involved in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, their role in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression at the pituitary level is not known. We therefore examined the effects of opioid receptor agonists, including recently discovered endogenous opioid peptides, on POMC gene expression using the AtT20PL cell line, a subclone of AtT20 in which the rat POMC 5'-promoter-luciferase fusion gene was stably incorporated. The endogenous mu-opioid receptor agonists endomorphin 1 and 2 had no effect on either basal or corticotropin-stimulating-hormone-induced POMC expression. This was also the case with the delta-agonist BUBUC, the kappa-agonist U50488H and the orphan receptor agonist orphanin FQ. In contrast, the synthetic mu-agonist loperamide significantly inhibited basal and yet enhanced cAMP-induced POMC expression. The inhibitory effect of loperamide was mimicked by the calmodulin antagonist W7 and antagonized by the calcium channel blocker nifedipine, whereas neither the inhibitory nor the enhancing effect of loperamide was influenced by the opioid antagonist naloxone. These results suggest that the synthetic mu-agonist loperamide has a modulatory effect on the 5'-promoter activity of the POMC gene. This effect does not seem to be mediated through the classical mu-opioid receptor but rather in part through a calcium/calmodulin-related mechanism. PMID:11474216

  8. Involvement of calyculin A inhibitable protein phosphatases in the cyclic AMP signal transduction pathway of mouse corticotroph tumour (AtT20) cells

    PubMed Central

    Antaraki, A; Ang, K L; Antoni, F A

    1997-01-01

    The role of non-calcineurin protein phosphatases in the cyclic AMP signal transduction pathway was examined in mouse pituitary corticotroph tumour (AtT20) cells. Blockers of protein phosphatases, calyculin A and okadaic acid, were applied in AtT20 cells depleted of rapidly mobilizable pools of intracellular calcium and activated by various cyclic AMP generating agonists. Inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases were present throughout. The accumulation of cyclic AMP was monitored by radioimmunoassay, phosphodiesterase activity in cell homogenates was measured by radiometric assay. Neither calyculin A nor okadaic acid altered basal cyclic AMP levels but cyclic AMP formation induced by 41 amino acid residue corticotrophin releasing-factor (CRF) was strongly inhibited (up to 80%). 1-Norokadaone was inactive. Similar data were also obtained when isoprenaline or pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide1–38 were used as agonists. Pertussis toxin did not modify the inhibition of CRF-induced cyclic AMP production by calyculin A. Pretreatment with calyculin A completely prevented the stimulation of cyclic AMP formation by cholera toxin even in the presence of 0.5 mM isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and 0.1 mM rolipram. Cholera toxin mediated ADP-ribosylation of the 45K and 52K molecular weight Gsα isoforms in membranes from calyculin A-pretreated cells was enhanced to 150–200% when compared with controls. Cholera toxin-induced cyclic AMP was reduced by calyculin A within 10 min when calyculin A was applied after a 90 min pretreatment with cholera toxin. Under these conditions the effect of calyculin A could be blocked by the combination of 0.5 mM IBMX and 0.1 mM rolipram, but not by 0.5 mM IBMX alone. Phosphodiesterase activity in AtT20 cell homogenates showed a significant, 2.7 fold increase after treatment with calyculin A. In control cells phosphodiesterase activity was blocked by 80% in the presence of IBMX (0.5 mM), or IBMX plus

  9. Cathepsin L Plays a Major Role in Cholecystokinin Production in Mouse Brain Cortex and in Pituitary AtT-20 Cells: Protease Gene Knockout and Inhibitor Studies

    PubMed Central

    Beinfeld, Margery C.; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Foulon, Thierry; Cadel, Sandrine; Kitagawa, Kouki; Toneff, Thomas; Reinheckel, Thomas; Peters, Christoph; Hook, Vivian

    2009-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide neurotransmitter whose production requires proteolytic processing of the proCCK precursor to generate active CCK8 neuropeptide in brain. This study demonstrates the significant role of the cysteine protease cathepsin L for CCK8 production. In cathepsin L knockout (KO) mice, CCK8 levels were substantially reduced in brain cortex by an average of 75%. To evaluate the role of cathepsin L in producing CCK in the regulated secretory pathway of neuroendocrine cells, pituitary AtT-20 cells that stably produce CCK were treated with the specific cathepsin L inhibitor, CLIK-148. CLIK-148 inhibitor treatment resulted in decreased amounts of CCK secreted from the regulated secretory pathway of AtT-20 cells. CLIK-148 also reduced cellular levels of CCK9 (Arg-CCK8), consistent with CCK9 as an intermediate product of cathepsin L, shown by the decreased ratio of CCK9/CCK8. The decreased CCK0/CCK8 ratio also suggests a shift in the production to CCK8 over CCK9 during inhibition of cathepsin L. During reduction of the PC1/3 processing enzyme by siRNA, the ratio of CCK9/CCK8 was increased, suggesting a shift to the cathepsin L pathway for production of CCK9. The changes in ratios of CCK9 compared to CCK8 are consistent with dual roles of the cathepsin L protease pathway that includes aminopeptidase B to remove NH2-terminal Arg or Lys, and the PC1/3 protease pathway. These results suggest that cathepsin L functions as a major protease responsible for CCK8 production in mouse brain cortex, and participates with PC1/3 for CCK8 production in pituitary cells. PMID:19589362

  10. Calnuc plays a role in dynamic distribution of Gαi but not Gβ subunits and modulates ACTH secretion in AtT-20 neuroendocrine secretory cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ping; Fischer, Thierry; Lavoie, Christine; Huang, Haining; Farquhar, Marilyn Gist

    2009-01-01

    In AtT-20 cells ACTH secretion is regulated by both Ca2+ and G proteins. We previously demonstrated that calnuc, an EF-hand Ca2+ binding protein which regulates Alzheimer's β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) biogenesis, binds both Ca2+ as well as Gα subunits. Here we investigate calnuc's role in G protein-mediated regulation of ACTH secretion in AtT-20 neuroendocrine secretory cells stably overexpressing calnuc-GFP. Similar to endogenous calnuc, calnuc-GFP is mainly found in the Golgi, on the plasma membrane (PM), and associated with regulated secretion granules (RSG). By deconvolution immunofluorescence, calnuc-GFP partially colocalizes with Gαi1/2 and Gαi3 at the PM and on RSG. Cytosolic calnuc(ΔSS)-CFP with the signal sequence deleted also partially colocalizes with RSG and partially cosediments with Gαi1/2 in fractions enriched in RSG. Overexpression of calnuc-GFP specifically increases the distribution of Gαi1/2 on the PM whereas the distribution of Gβ subunits and synaptobrevin 2 (Vamp 2) is unchanged. Overexpression of calnuc-GFP or cytosolic calnuc(ΔSS)-CFP enhances ACTH secretion two-fold triggered by mastoparan or GTPγS but does not significantly affect glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain secretion along the constitutive pathway or basal secretion of ACTH. Calnuc's facilitating effects on ACTH secretion are decreased after introducing anti-Gαi1/2, Gαi3, Gβ or calnuc IgG into permeabilized cells but not when Gα12 or preimmune IgG is introduced. The results suggest that calnuc binds to Gα subunits on the Golgi and on RSG and that overexpression of calnuc causes redistribution of Gαi subunits to the PM and RSG, indicating that calnuc plays a role in dynamic distribution of only Gα but not Gβ subunits. Thus calnuc may connect G protein signaling and calcium signaling during regulated secretion. PMID:19320978

  11. Predictors and Timing of ATT Initiation among HIV-TB Patients at ART Centers of Karnataka, India: Two Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Suresh; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Rewari, Bharat Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Background In India, TB and HIV co-infection remains as a serious public health problem. From 2006 onwards, the intensified TB-HIV collaborative activities are being jointly implemented by National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) and Revised National TB Control programme (RNTCP) at high HIV burden states. Objectives To determine (a) the predictors of outcome among a cohort of HIV-TB co-infected patients after two years after initiation of ART treatment. (b) prognostic significance of time difference between the initiation of ATT and ART in HIV-TB co-infected patients. Methods Patients registered at sixteen ART centres in Karnataka, from October through December 2009 formed the study cohort and were followed till December 2011. Results A total of 604 HIV-TB patients were registered. Follow-up (a) at the end of one year had shown 63.6% (377)patients with unfavorable TB treatment outcomes (b) at the end of second year, 55.6% (336)patients were alive on ART treatment. The variables male, smear negative TB, CD4 count less than 50cells per cumm and unfavorable TB outcome were significantly associated with unfavorable ART treatment outcome. Conclusions The programmes need to review the existing strategies and strengthen HIV-TB collaborative activities for timely treatment initiation with intensive monitoring of HIV-TB patients on treatment. PMID:26394397

  12. Muscarinic cholinergic ligand binding to intact mouse pituitary tumor cells (AtT-20/D16-16) coupling with two biochemical effectors: adenylate cyclase and phosphatidylinositol turnover.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, K; Vickroy, T W; Watson, M; Roeske, W R; Reisine, T D; Smith, T L; Yamamura, H I

    1986-03-01

    (-)-[3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors on intact mouse pituitary tumor cells (AtT-20/D16-16) was characterized in an attempt to correlate radioligand binding properties with receptor-coupled biochemical responses. Performing rinse time studies for 2 hr produced a remarkably improved ratio of specific/total (+)-[3H]QNB binding (85%). Kinetic experiments yielded association (k+1) and dissociation (k-1) rate constants of 2.2 X 10(8) M-1 min-1 and 6.8 X 10(-3) min-1, respectively. Receptor occupancy curves demonstrated a uniform population of specific, saturable (-)-[3H]QNB binding sites with a Hill coefficient equal to 1.0 and an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) equal to 34 pM under our conditions. Stereoselectivity was observed with the enantiomers (dexetimide and levetimide) of benzetimide (a factor of 4300). Concentrations of carbachol that produced a half-maximal inhibition of cyclic AMP formation and a concentration of carbachol for producing half-maximal stimulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover in the intact cells were 0.45 and 170 microM, respectively. Schild analysis revealed that pirenzepine, a nonclassical muscarinic antagonist, had a 40-fold greater affinity for reversing carbachol-stimulated phosphatidylinositol turnover (inhibition constant or Ki = 7 nM), compared to its antagonism of the carbachol-mediated inhibition of isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP formation (Ki = 280 nM). Interestingly, pirenzepine inhibited (-)-[3H]QNB binding with a Ki value of 72 nM. In contrast, atropine was nearly equipotent (Ki = 0.3-0.5 nM) in binding studies and in both effector systems. PMID:3005550

  13. Chemical Composition of the Aerosol Fine Fraction during African Dust Events as part of the Dust ATtACk Experiment in the Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallejo, Pamela; Formenti, Paola; Desboeufs, Karine; Quiñones, Mariana; Chevaillier, Servanne; Santos, Stephanie; Andrews, Elizabeth; Ogren, John A.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2015-04-01

    We present results on the assessment of aerosols' chemical composition at the atmospheric observatory of Cabezas de San Juan in Fajardo, Puerto Rico, during the summers of 2011 and 2012, where periods in the presence and absence of dust were studied under the framework of the Dust-ATtACk (Dust- Aging and Transport, from Africa to the Caribbean) experiment. Dust events were identified through observation and using air-mass back-trajectories, Saharan Air Layer images, measurements of aerosol optical thickness (AOT), in situ scattering and absorption coefficients, and chemical analyses. Results obtained for intense dust events were characterized by higher concentration of coarse particles, higher scattering and absorption coefficients (up to 100 Mm-1 and 5 Mm-1 at 550 and 530 nm, respectively), higher AOT (from 0.4 to 0.8) values, and higher concentration of elements associated with mineral dust (e.g., Si μ3 g/m3 compared to background concentrations of 0.15 μg/m3, obtained from XRF analysis). Elemental composition of the fine fraction (Dp < 1.8 μm), analyzed by ICP-OES, also yielded higher average concentrations during dust events of, for example, Fe (0.045 μg m-3, vs 0.016 μg m-3 during low or no dust). Detailed results of the submicron fraction composition for the carbonaceous aerosol (total carbon, organic carbon, black carbon), total nitrogen, the water-soluble organic carbon, water-soluble ions, and the elemental composition with their possible sources will be presented at the meeting.

  14. The BlcC (AttM) lactonase of Agrobacterium tumefaciens does not quench the quorum-sensing system that regulates Ti plasmid conjugative transfer.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sharik R; Farrand, Stephen K

    2009-02-01

    The conjugative transfer of Agrobacterium plasmids is controlled by a quorum-sensing system consisting of TraR and its acyl-homoserine lactone (HSL) ligand. The acyl-HSL is essential for the TraR-mediated activation of the Ti plasmid Tra genes. Strains A6 and C58 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens produce a lactonase, BlcC (AttM), that can degrade the quormone, leading some to conclude that the enzyme quenches the quorum-sensing system. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of the mutation, induction, or mutational derepression of blcC on the accumulation of acyl-HSL and on the conjugative competence of strain C58. The induction of blc resulted in an 8- to 10-fold decrease in levels of extracellular acyl-HSL but in only a twofold decrease in intracellular quormone levels, a measure of the amount of active intracellular TraR. The induction or mutational derepression of blc as well as a null mutation in blcC had no significant effect on the induction of or continued transfer of pTiC58 from donors in any stage of growth, including stationary phase. In matings performed in developing tumors, wild-type C58 transferred the Ti plasmid to recipients, yielding transconjugants by 14 to 21 days following infection. blcC-null donors yielded transconjugants 1 week earlier, but by the following week, transconjugants were recovered at numbers indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Donors mutationally derepressed for blcC yielded transconjugants in planta at numbers 10-fold lower than those for the wild type at weeks 2 and 3, but by week 4, the two donors showed no difference in recoverable transconjugants. We conclude that BlcC has no biologically significant effect on Ti plasmid transfer or its regulatory system. PMID:19011037

  15. Parametric analysis of ATT configurations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a Lockheed parametric analysis of the performance, environmental factors, and economics of an advanced commercial transport envisioned for operation in the post-1985 time period. The design parameters investigated include cruise speeds from Mach 0.85 to Mach 1.0, passenger capacities from 200 to 500, ranges of 2800 to 5500 nautical miles, and noise level criteria. NASA high performance configurations and alternate configurations are operated over domestic and international route structures. Indirect and direct costs and return on investment are determined for approximately 40 candidate aircraft configurations. The candidate configurations are input to an aircraft sizing and performance program which includes a subroutine for noise criteria. Comparisons are made between preferred configurations on the basis of maximum return on investment as a function of payload, range, and design cruise speed.

  16. High performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) - Evidence for the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material and a bismaleimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.; Soucek, M. D.; Chang, A. C.; Partos, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the concept and demonstration of a new versatile synthetic reaction for making a large number of high-performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) were reported. The synthesis shows promise for providing polymers having an attractive combination of easy processability, good toughness, respectable high temperature mechanical performance, and excellent thermo-oxidative stability. The new chemistry involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material with a bismaleimide or benzoquinone. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism, model compound studies were undertaken in solutions as well as in the solid state. The reaction products were purified by flash chromatography and characterized by conventional analytical techniques including NMR, FT-IR, UV-visible, mass spectroscopy, and high pressure liquid chromatography. The results are presented of the model compound studies which strongly support the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated compound and a bismaleimide or benzoquinone.

  17. 78 FR 55103 - Notice of Proposed Exemption involving AT&T Inc. (Together With AT&T Inc.'s Affiliates, AT&T or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... CFR Part 2570, Subpart B (76 FR 66637, 66644, October 27, 2011). Effective December 31, 1978, section... represents that, members of its team,\\12\\ ] consisting of persons who have extensive financial management... valuations will be updated to the Contribution Date. \\12\\ The Independent Fiduciary's team members...

  18. Lorance v. A.T.&T. [12 June 1989].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The US Supreme Court held that employees attacking the adoption of a new seniority system, which had the effect of causing a disparate effect on the employment of men and women, had to bring their suit within 300 days of the adoption of the system. It ruled that the alleged discrimination occurred in the adoption of the system not in the effects of the system and, thus, the 300-day statute of limitations provided for by Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act began running when the system was adopted. The suit was brought by women employees who received demotions under the new system, but would have retained seniority under the old system. PMID:12344150

  19. 78 FR 69878 - AT&T Corporation, a Subsidiary of AT&T Inc., Business Billing Customer Care, Pittsburgh...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... in the Federal Register on July 2, 2013 (78 FR 39776). Workers at the subject firm were engaged in... Philippines. The petitioner also supplied additional information in regard to employment figures at...

  20. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN FRAMEWORK AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS - PROFILES OF AT&T AND ALLIED SIGNAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document offers guidance and practical experience for integrating environmental considerations into product system development. Life cycle design seeks to minimize the environmental burden associated with a product's life cycle from raw materials acquisition through manufact...

  1. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN FRAMEWORK AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS PROFILES OF AT&T AND ALLIED SIGNAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life cycle design seeks to minimize the environmental burden associated with a product life cycle from raw materials acquisition through manufacturing, use, and end-of-life management. ife cycle design emphasizes integrating environmental requirements into the earliest phases of ...

  2. Investing in Quality Child Care: A Report for AT&T.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galinsky, Ellen; Friedman, Dana E.

    More than 50 child care experts were asked (1) What aspects of child care are most likely to ensure high quality? (2) What are the current barriers to achieving quality in child care? and (3) What corporate or labor initiative would make the greatest difference in improving the quality of child care services? Recommendations generated from the…

  3. Performance of repaired defects and attPSM in EUV multilayer masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yunfei; La Fontaine, Bruno; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2002-12-01

    The imaging performance of non-planar topographies in EUV masks for both partially repaired defects and non-planar attenuating phase-shifting masks made with repair treatments are evaluated using rigorous electromagnetic simulation with TEMPEST. Typical topographies produced by treatment techniques in the literature such as removal of top layers and compaction produced by electron-beam heating are considered. Isolated defects on/near the surface repaired by material removal are shown to result in an image intensity within 5% of the clear field value. Deeply buried defects within the multilayer treated by electron-beam heating can be repaired to 3% of the clear field but over repair can result in some degradation. Compaction from a 6.938 nm period to a 6.312 nm period shows a 540° phase-shift and an intensity reduced to about 6% suggesting such a treatment may be used to create attenuated phase-shifting masks for EUV. The quality of the aerial image for such a mask is studied as a function of the lateral transition distance between treated and untreated regions.

  4. NEXT-TO-LEADING ORDER ZCD CORRECTOINS TO ATT FOR SINGLE-INCLUSIVE HADRON PRODUCTION.

    SciTech Connect

    MUKHERJEE, A.; STRATMANN, M.; VOGELSANG, W.

    2005-04-27

    We report on a calculation of the next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the partonic cross sections contributing to single-inclusive high-p{sub T} hadron production in collisions of transversely polarized hadrons. We give some predictions for the double spin asymmetry A{sub TT}{sup {pi}} for the proposed experiments at RHIC and at the GSI.

  5. 78 FR 67053 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Collection Order, 78 FR 2571, January 11, 2013, as implemented by this Report and Order, are not effective... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; clarification and...

  6. 78 FR 24683 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ...This document corrects the effective date of the Report and Order adopted in FCC 12-153 and published in the Federal Register on January 11, 2013. This correction is necessary to comply with the Congressional Review Act (CRA) requirement that a major rule is effective 60 days after publication in the Federal Register or 60 days after receipt by Congress of a report in compliance with the CRA,......

  7. 78 FR 79362 - Request for Comment on Petition Filed by AT&T Services, Inc., Regarding the Provision of Muting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ..., the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) corrects a document published at 78 FR 76096... Rights Office, (202) 418-1264, email: Caitlin.vogus@fcc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Correction In FR... Provision of Muting for Speech-to-Speech Telephone Services; Correction AGENCY: Federal...

  8. 78 FR 76096 - Request for Comment on Petition Filed by AT&T Services, Inc., Regarding the Provision of Muting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... of the requirement contained in the 2013 STS Order, published at 78 FR 49693, August 15, 2013, and... Provision of Muting for Speech-to-Speech Telephone Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... speech-to-speech (STS) users the option to have their voices muting during an STS call. The...

  9. Guide to use the data features of the AT&T 7506, 7507, and 8510T ISDN phones

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Integrated Service digital Network, ISDN, technology is an integral component of Sandia National Laboratories telecommunications infrastructure. ISDN is a fully digital telephone service that allows simultaneous voice and data communication from the same telephone instrument. Almost all ISDN phones in use at Sandia/New Mexico and most ISDN phones at Sandia/California have a built-in module for data communication. This user guide describes the use and operation of ISDN data module and services as they are installed at Sandia.

  10. 78 FR 2571 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... consistent with Commission precedent, we do not include mass market Internet access services (e.g., DSL or... traditionally defined they do not include mass market Internet access services, there is some question as to... broadband Internet access services--even when marketed to small- to medium-sized business customers--are...

  11. 77 FR 57504 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... includes adjacent counties that have a high degree of social and economic integration with the urban core... changes in social and economic integration between outlying areas and the urban core. 27. In the Pricing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL...

  12. Att Tolka Barns Signaler: Gravt utvecklingsstorda flerhandikappade barns lek och kommunikation (To Interpret Childrens' Signals: Play and Communication in Profoundly Mentally Retarded and Multiply Handicapped Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane

    Written in Swedish with an English-language summary, this report describes a study which examined the interaction between mothers or caregivers and their children with profound mental retardation and multiple disabilities, particularly looking at the function of play in communicative interaction. The six children all had five or six handicaps in…

  13. 77 FR 47671 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Department and Production Machining Dept., Seek Careers/ Staffing. 81,705 AT&T Services, Inc., Mesa, AZ June 11, 2011. Global Customer Care-Service Assurance, AT&T, Off-Site Workers at Mesa, AZ. 81,705A AT&T Services, Inc., Saint Louis, MO June 11, 2011. Global Customer Care-Service Assurance, AT&T,...

  14. The phiC31 Recombinase Demonstrates Heritable Passage of Site-specific Genomic Excision in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The large serine resolvase phiC31, from the broad host range Streptomyces temperate phage, catalyzes the recombination of two differing recognition sites known as attP and attB. Minimum length sites have been determined to be 39 bp for the attP and 34 bp for the attB. In this research, the phiC31 ...

  15. Repetitive, marker-free, site-specific integration as a novel tool for multiple chromosomal integration of DNA.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kia Vest; Martinussen, Jan; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Solem, Christian

    2013-06-01

    We present a tool for repetitive, marker-free, site-specific integration in Lactococcus lactis, in which a nonreplicating plasmid vector (pKV6) carrying a phage attachment site (attP) can be integrated into a bacterial attachment site (attB). The novelty of the tool described here is the inclusion of a minimal bacterial attachment site (attB(min)), two mutated loxP sequences (lox66 and lox71) allowing for removal of undesirable vector elements (antibiotic resistance marker), and a counterselection marker (oroP) for selection of loxP recombination on the pKV6 vector. When transformed into L. lactis expressing the phage TP901-1 integrase, pKV6 integrates with high frequency into the chromosome, where it is flanked by attL and attR hybrid attachment sites. After expression of Cre recombinase from a plasmid that is not able to replicate in L. lactis, loxP recombinants can be selected for by using 5-fluoroorotic acid. The introduced attB(min) site can subsequently be used for a second round of integration. To examine if attP recombination was specific to the attB site, integration was performed in strains containing the attB, attL, and attR sites or the attL and attR sites only. Only attP-attB recombination was observed when all three sites were present. In the absence of the attB site, a low frequency of attP-attL recombination was observed. To demonstrate the functionality of the system, the xylose utilization genes (xylABR and xylT) from L. lactis strain KF147 were integrated into the chromosome of L. lactis strain MG1363 in two steps. PMID:23542630

  16. Microbial problems in connection with storage of jet fuel in rock caverns. Methods to inhibit development of corrosive fuel. Mikrobiella problem vid bergrumslagring av jetbraensle. Inhiberingsmetoder foer att foerhindra uppkomst av korrosivt braensle

    SciTech Connect

    Norqvist, A.; Edlund, A.; Roffey

    1986-04-01

    Problems with long-term storage of jet fuel in rock caverns have during the last years been observed. The problems have mainly been concerned with the accumulation of corrosive compounds in the fuel. Studies in laboratory model systems were carried out in order to understand which factors are important in causing the problems. The rate of groundwater leaking in, the oxygen and sulfate concentration in the bedwater, the amount of sediment, and the temperature were shown to be some of the more-important factors. With the aim to find some suitable methods to prevent the problems from arising, studies in model systems were also carried out. Oxygenation of the bedwater or addition of a biodegradable biocide gave positive effects resulting in reduction of microbial activities and no development of corrosive fuel.

  17. The formation of cyclo-addition adducts in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material with a bismaleimide: A model compound study for addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) using metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Soucek, M.D., Pater, R.H.; Ritenour, S.L.

    1993-12-31

    A model compound study using an acetylene-terminated material and a bismaleimide has provided evidence that a diruthenium complex Ru{sub 2}(CO){sub 6}[1,2-({mu}-PPh){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}] and a rhodium complex Rh(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3}Cl can catalyze a Diels-Alder type cycloaddition in which acetylene-terminated material acts as a diene and the bismaleimide is a dieneophile. The molten state reaction of N-(3-ethynylphenyl) phthalimide and N-(4-phenoxyphenyl) maleimide with Ru{sub 2}(CO){sub 6}[{mu}-(PhP){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}] or Rh(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3}Cl heated to 170{degrees}C led to two major products. The spectral data for the first major product is consistent with a 2:1 Diels-Alder adduct formed from two molecules of the acetylene compound and one molecule of the maleimide. The spectral data for the second major product is consistent with a 2:2 Diels-Alder adduct formed from two molecules of each reactant.

  18. 78 FR 23928 - Information Collection(s) Being Submitted for Review and Approval to the Office of Management and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... the extensive amount of data provided in the reports. The Commission has granted AT&T, Verizon, legacy..., columns FC, FD, FE and FI, business line count information. See Petition of AT&T Inc. for Forbearance.... 07-21, 05-342, Memorandum Opinion and Order, 23 FCC Rcd 7302 (2008) (AT&T Cost Assignment...

  19. 76 FR 68186 - Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission; Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... policy proposals. The Commission has granted AT&T, Verizon, legacy Qwest, and other similarly situated carriers conditional forbearance from FCC Report 43- 06. See Petition of AT&T Inc. for Forbearance under 47...-21, 05-342, Memorandum Opinion and Order, 23 FCC Rcd 7302 (2008) (AT&T Cost Assignment...

  20. 78 FR 35055 - Advisory Committee on the Records of Congress; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... and also via AT&T Connect web conference. DATES: June 24, 2013 from 10:00 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. ADDRESSES: Capitol Visitor Center, Congressional Room North or AT&T Connect Web. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...@nara.gov Brandon Hirsch for AT&T Connect, brandon.hirsch@nara.gov SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Agenda...

  1. Optimal Duration of Daily Antituberculosis Therapy before Switching to DOTS Intermittent Therapy to Reduce Mortality in HIV Infected Patients: A Duration-Response Analysis Using Restricted Cubic Splines

    PubMed Central

    Pakam, Raghavakalyan; Midde, Manoranjan; Naik, Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Compared with thrice-weekly intermittent antituberculosis therapy (ATT), the use of daily ATT during the intensive phase has shown improved survival in HIV infected patients with tuberculosis. However, the optimal duration of daily ATT before initiating intermittent ATT is not well known. In this study, we analysed the mortality of HIV-related tuberculosis according to the duration of daily ATT before switching to thrice-weekly ATT in patients who completed at least two months of treatment in an HIV cohort study. Statistical analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard models. To relax the linearity assumption in regression models and to allow for a flexible interpretation of the relationship between duration of daily ATT and mortality, continuous variables were modelled using restricted cubic splines. The study included 520 HIV infected patients with tuberculosis and 8,724.3 person-months of follow-up. The multivariable analysis showed that the mortality risk was inversely correlated with the duration of daily ATT before switching to intermittent therapy during the first 30 days of ATT but, after approximately 30 days of treatment, differences were not statistically significant. The results of this study suggest that daily ATT should be given for at least 30 days before switching to intermittent ATT in HIV infected patients with tuberculosis.

  2. The mechanism of ϕC31 integrase directionality: experimental analysis and computational modelling

    PubMed Central

    Pokhilko, Alexandra; Zhao, Jia; Ebenhöh, Oliver; Smith, Margaret C. M.; Stark, W. Marshall; Colloms, Sean D.

    2016-01-01

    Serine integrases, DNA site-specific recombinases used by bacteriophages for integration and excision of their DNA to and from their host genomes, are increasingly being used as tools for programmed rearrangements of DNA molecules for biotechnology and synthetic biology. A useful feature of serine integrases is the simple regulation and unidirectionality of their reactions. Recombination between the phage attP and host attB sites is promoted by the serine integrase alone, giving recombinant attL and attR sites, whereas the ‘reverse’ reaction (between attL and attR) requires an additional protein, the recombination directionality factor (RDF). Here, we present new experimental data on the kinetics and regulation of recombination reactions mediated by ϕC31 integrase and its RDF, and use these data as the basis for a mathematical model of the reactions. The model accounts for the unidirectionality of the attP × attB and attL × attR reactions by hypothesizing the formation of structurally distinct, kinetically stable integrase–DNA product complexes, dependent on the presence or absence of RDF. The model accounts for all the available experimental data, and predicts how mutations of the proteins or alterations of reaction conditions might increase the conversion efficiency of recombination. PMID:27387286

  3. 75 FR 10324 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Meubles (Wkrs) Malone, NY 02/03/10 02/01/10 73422 AT&T Mobility Svcs, LLC St. Louis, MO 02/03/10 01/28/10... 01/28/10 73435 AT&T Mobility (Wkrs)........ Harrisburg, PA......... 02/03/10 01/28/10 73436 Rexam..., Inc. (Wkrs)...... Rocky Mount, NC........ 02/03/10 01/25/10 73440 AT&T Mobility (Wkrs)...........

  4. Tough, High-Performance, Thermoplastic Addition Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Proctor, K. Mason; Gleason, John; Morgan, Cassandra; Partos, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Series of addition-type thermoplastics (ATT's) exhibit useful properties. Because of their addition curing and linear structure, ATT polymers have toughness, like thermoplastics, and easily processed, like thermosets. Work undertaken to develop chemical reaction forming stable aromatic rings in backbone of ATT polymer, combining high-temperature performance and thermo-oxidative stability with toughness and easy processibility, and minimizing or eliminating necessity for tradeoffs among properties often observed in conventional polymer syntheses.

  5. Characterization of the genetic elements required for site-specific integration of plasmid pSE211 in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Brown, D P; Idler, K B; Katz, L

    1990-04-01

    The 18.1-kilobase plasmid pSE211 integrates into the chromosome of Saccharopolyspora erythraea at a specific attB site. Restriction analysis of the integrated plasmid, pSE211int, and adjacent chromosomal sequences allowed identification of attP, the plasmid attachment site. Nucleotide sequencing of attP, attB, attL, and attR revealed a 57-base-pair sequence common to all sites with no duplications of adjacent plasmid or chromosomal sequences in the integrated state, indicating that integration takes place through conservative, reciprocal strand exchange. An analysis of the sequences indicated the presence of a putative gene for Phe-tRNA at attB which is preserved at attL after integration has occurred. A comparison of the attB site for a number of actinomycete plasmids is presented. Integration at attB was also observed when a 2.4-kilobase segment of pSE211 containing attP and the adjacent plasmid sequence was used to transform a pSE211- host. Nucleotide sequencing of this segment revealed the presence of two complete open reading frames (ORFs) and a segment of a third ORF. The ORF adjacent to attP encodes a putative polypeptide 437 amino acids in length that shows similarity, at its C-terminal domain, to sequences of site-specific recombinases of the integrase family. The adjacent ORF encodes a putative 98-amino-acid basic polypeptide that contains a helix-turn-helix motif at its N terminus which corresponds to domains in the Xis proteins of a number of bacteriophages. A proposal for the function of this polypeptide is presented. The deduced amino acid sequence of the third ORF did not reveal similarities to polypeptide sequences in the current data banks. PMID:2180909

  6. Application of acidic thermal treatment for one- and two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Takashima, M; Tanaka, Y

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of acidic thermal treatment (ATT) was examined in a 106-day continuous experiment, when applied to one- or two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge (4.3% TS). The ATT was performed at 170 °C and pH 5 for 1 hour (sulfuric acid for lowering pH). The one-stage process was mesophilic at 20 days hydraulic retention time (HRT), and incorporated the ATT as pre-treatment. The two-stage process consisted of a thermophilic digester at 5 days HRT and a mesophilic digester at 15 days HRT, and incorporated the ATT as interstage-treatment. On average, VSS reduction was 48.7% for the one-stage control, 65.8% for the one-stage ATT, 52.7% for the two-stage control and 67.6% for the two-stage ATT. Therefore, VSS reduction was increased by 15-17%, when the ATT was combined in both one- and two-stage processes. In addition, the dewaterability of digested sludge was remarkably improved, and phosphate release was enhanced. On the other hand, total methane production did not differ significantly, and color generation was noted in the digested sludge solutions with the ATT. In conclusion, the anaerobic digestion with ATT can be an attractive alternative for sludge reduction, handling, and phosphorus recovery. PMID:21099053

  7. Helical polyurethane-attapulgite nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and study of optical activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhiqiang; Zhou Yuming; Sun Yanqing; Fan Kai; Guo Xingxing; Jiang Xiaolei

    2009-08-15

    Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (BM-ATT) based on R-1,1'-binaphthyl-2',2-diol (R-BINOL) composite was prepared after the surface modification of attapulgite (ATT). BM-ATT was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HTEM) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy. FT-IR and XRD analyses indicate that the helical polyurethane has been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of the modified ATT without destroying the original crystalline structure of ATT. BM-ATT exhibits the rod-like structure by SEM, TEM, and HTEM photographs. BM-ATT displays obvious Cotton effect for some absorbance in VCD spectrum, and its optical activity results from the singlehanded conformation of helical polyurethane. - Graphical Abstract: Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (BM-ATT) based on R-1,1'-binaphthyl-2',2-diol (R-BINOL) nanocomposite was prepared after surface modification of attapulgite (ATT). This rod-like composite is coated by the optically active polyurethane shell on the surfaces.

  8. Theoretical investigation of fluorination effect on the charge carrier transport properties of fused anthra-tetrathiophene and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Chaitanya, Kadali; Ju, Xue-Hai

    2016-03-01

    The crystal structures of known anthra-tetrathiophene (ATT) and its three fluorinated derivatives (ATT1, ATT2 and ATT3) were predicted by the Monte Carlo-simulated annealing method with the embedded electrostatic potential (ESP) charges. The most stable crystal structures were further optimized by the density functional theory with the dispersion energy (DFT-D) method. In addition, the effect of the electron-withdrawing fluorine atoms on the molecular geometry, molecular stacking, electronic and transport properties of title compounds were investigated by the density functional theory and the incoherent charge-hopping model. The calculated results show that the introduction of fluorine atoms does not affect the molecular planarity but decreases the HOMO-LUMO gap, which is beneficial to electron injection and provides more charge carrier stabilization. The improved electron mobility from ATT to ATT3 is attributed to the favorable molecular packing with strong π-π interaction and the short stacking distance. ATT2 and ATT3 exhibit remarkable angular dependence of mobilities and anisotropic behaviors. The band structures reveal that all the paths with larger transfer integrals are along the directions of large dispersions in the valence band (VB) and conduction band (CB). ATT3 has the largest electron mobility (0.48 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1)) among the four compounds, indicating that fluorination is an effective approach to improve electron transport. PMID:26774641

  9. The Development and Design of Engineering Economic Indicator System for Nanotechnology Industry Product Manufacturing: A Case Study of Latvia / Inženierekonomisko Rādītāju Sistēmas Attīstība Un Izveide Nanotehnoloģiju Industrijas Produktu Ražošanai: Latvijas Pieredze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geipele, I.; Staube, T.; Ciemleja, G.; Geipele, S.; Zeltins, N.; Ekmanis, J.

    2015-10-01

    The current scientific paper is developed to continue the research on further commercialisation of the nanotechnology products of manufacturing industries in Latvia. To create the system of engineering economic indicators for multifunctional nanocoating technologies, the scientific indicators and their theoretical justification have been used, the issues from the experts' analysis and survey of the Latvian companies operating in the nanotechnology industry have been summarised. Zinātniskā publikācija ir sagatavota kā turpinājums nanotehnoloģiju industrijas produktu komercializācijas pētījumam Latvijā. Lai izveidotu inženierekonomisko rādītāju sistēmu daudzfunkcionālajām nano-pārklājumu tehnoloģijām tiek izmantoti zinātniskie indikatori, to teorētiskais pamatojums, kā arī Latvijas inovatīvo daudzfunkcionālo materiālu ražotāju aptaujas un ekspertinterviju rezultāti.

  10. 76 FR 68642 - Structure and Practices of the Video Relay Service Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... at 76 FR 67070, October 31, 2011 is effective November 7, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Order; AT&T Services, Inc. Petition for Reconsideration of AT&T, CG Docket No. 10-51; FCC 11-155, published at 76 FR 67070, October 31, 2011. If you have any comments on the burden estimates listed...

  11. 76 FR 50124 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; China Basin, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... of the Third Street Drawbridge across China Basin, mile 0.0, at San Francisco, CA. The deviation is necessary to allow the bridge to be part of the race course for the scheduled AT&T Giant Race event. This... allow running of the AT&T Giant Race event. This temporary deviation has been coordinated with...

  12. Precise excision of plastid DNA by the large serine recombinase Bxb1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To elucidate the precise excision of transgene, tobacco plastid genome was transformed with a vector (pTCH-BxbPB) that contains a stuffer DNA fragment flanked by directly oriented attB and attP recognition sites for the Bxb1 recombinase. The transformed plastid genomes containing the recognition si...

  13. 78 FR 766 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... met. TA-W No. Subject firm Location Impact date 82,100 NXP Semiconductors, Supply San Jose, CA. Chain... Management. 82,064A AT&T Services, Inc., Dublin and Seven September 13, 2011. Information Technology Other Cities, CA. Operations, Global Systems Hosting Application & Service Management. 82,064B AT&T...

  14. A Pilot Study to Assess the Feasibility of Group Exercise and Animal-Assisted Therapy in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, Brandon; Artese, Ashley; Schmitt, Karla; Cormier, Eileen; Panton, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study assessed the feasibility of incorporating animal-assisted therapy teams (ATT) into a 6-week group exercise program for older adults (77 ± 6 years). Fifteen participants were randomly assigned to an exercise with ATT (E+ATT; n = 8) or exercise only (E; n = 7) group. Groups exercised 3x/week for 45 min. Feasibility was assessed by three objectives: (1) ATT will not need extensive preparation beyond their original therapy training; (2) the study will require minimal cost; and (3) ATT must not impair the effectiveness of the exercise program. By the study conclusion, all objectives were met. Time and cost were minimal for ATT, and adherence was 93% and 90% for E+ATT and E, respectively. There were significant improvements in both groups (p ≤ .05) for arm curls, get-up and go, and 6-min walk. The results of this pilot study suggest that it is feasible to incorporate ATT into group exercise programming for older adults. PMID:26439234

  15. Interactive Multimedia Distance Learning (IMDL): The Prototype of the Virtual Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jack M.; Mosher, David N.

    The Interactive Multimedia Distance Learning (IMDL) project evolved from discussions between Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) (New York) and AT&T about how to use the strengths of AT&T's Bell Laboratories and RPI's Anderson Center for Innovation in Undergraduate Education (CIUE) to collaborate on a project in the domain of computers and…

  16. Hemospray in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients on antithrombotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Holster, I L; Kuipers, E J; Tjwa, E T T L

    2013-01-01

    Patients on antithrombotic therapy (ATT) have the highest risk of ongoing bleeding and mortality. Hemospray (Cook Medical, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA) is a novel hemostatic agent for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Initial reports on its use appear promising in terms of initial hemostasis and rebleeding rates. It is unknown whether this also pertains to patients on ATT. The aim of the current study therefore was to evaluate the efficacy of Hemospray in the treatment of UGIB in patients taking ATTs. A total of 16 unselected consecutive patients with UGIB who were treated with Hemospray were analyzed (eight taking ATT for various indications and eight not on ATT). Initial hemostasis was achieved after Hemospray application in 5 /8 patients on ATT (63 %) and in all eight patients not on therapy (P = 0.20). Rebleeding rates were similar in both groups. These preliminary data on the use of Hemospray in the management of UGIB are promising in both patients with and without ATT; however, caution should be exercised for its use in patients on ATT with spurting arterial bleeding. PMID:23208778

  17. Anti-tubercular therapy for intraocular tuberculosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kee, Ae Ra; Gonzalez-Lopez, Julio J; Al-Hity, Aws; Gupta, Bhaskar; Lee, Cecilia S; Gunasekeran, Dinesh Visva; Jayabalan, Nirmal; Grant, Robert; Kon, Onn Min; Gupta, Vishali; Westcott, Mark; Pavesio, Carlos; Agrawal, Rupesh

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular tuberculosis remains a diagnostic and management conundrum for both ophthalmologists and pulmonologists. We analyze the efficacy and safety of anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) in patients with intraocular tuberculosis and factors associated with favorable outcome. Twenty-eight studies are included in this review, with a total of 1,917 patients. Nonrecurrence of inflammation was observed in pooled estimate of 84% of ATT-treated patients (95% CI 79-89). There was minimal difference in the outcome between patients treated with ATT alone (85% successful outcome; 95% CI 25-100) and those with concomitant systemic corticosteroid (82%; 95% CI 73-90). The use of ATT may be of benefit to patients with suspected intraocular tuberculosis; however, this conclusion is limited by the lack of control group analysis and standardized recruitment and treatment protocols. We propose further prospective studies to better establish the efficacy of ATT and ascertain the factors associated with favorable treatment outcomes. PMID:26970263

  18. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of Nectria haematococca Strains with Adhesive and Adhesion-Reduced Macroconidia

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, L.; Kwon, Y. H.; Almond, D. E.; Schached, L. M.; Jones, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    A previous study reported the isolation of two mutants (LE1 and LE2) of the plant pathogenic fungus Nectria haematococca (anamorph, Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae) with macroconidia with reduced ability to adhere (Att-) to zucchini fruits and polystyrene. The adhesion-reduced-phenotype in LE1 and LE2 macroconidia is temperature sensitive and dependent on the concentration of nutrients. Classical genetic analysis of progeny derived from LE1 identified a mutation in a genetic locus, named Att1. The 90-kDa glycoprotein and macroconidial tip mucilage which were previously associated with the development of adhesion competence in Att+ macroconidia are specifically associated with macroconidia; neither is produced on microconidia, which are relatively nonadherent. However, macroconidia of both Att+ and Att- strains produce the 90-kDa glycoprotein and the macroconidial tip mucilage. Images PMID:16349181

  19. Anterior Tibial Translation in Collegiate Athletes with Normal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in anterior tibial translation (ATT) among sports, sex, and leg dominance in collegiate athletes with normal anterior cruciate ligament integrity. Design and Setting: Subjects from various athletic teams were measured for ATT in right and left knees. Subjects: Sixty subjects were measured for ATT with a KT-1000 knee arthrometer. Measurements: Statistical analyses were computed for each sex and included a 2 × 3 × 4 mixed-factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) for anterior cruciate ligament displacement, right and left sides, and force and sport. A 2 × 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare means for sex and force. A 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare sex differences across 3 forces. Results: For males and females, no significant interactions were found among leg, force, and sport for mean ATT, for leg and sport or leg and force, or for translation values between dominant and nondominant legs. Males had a significant interaction for force and sport, and a significant difference was found for side of body, since the right side had less translation than the left side. Females had greater ATT than males at all forces. Conclusions: Sex differences exist for ATT, and differences in ATT exist among sports for both sexes. Differences between the right and left sides of the body should be expected when making comparisons of ligamentous laxity. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 5. PMID:16558565

  20. Cellular pathways controlling integron cassette site folding.

    PubMed

    Loot, Céline; Bikard, David; Rachlin, Anna; Mazel, Didier

    2010-08-01

    By mobilizing small DNA units, integrons have a major function in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among bacteria. The acquisition of gene cassettes occurs by recombination between the attI and attC sites catalysed by the IntI1 integron integrase. These recombination reactions use an unconventional mechanism involving a folded single-stranded attC site. We show that cellular bacterial processes delivering ssDNA, such as conjugation and replication, favour proper folding of the attC site. By developing a very sensitive in vivo assay, we also provide evidence that attC sites can recombine as cruciform structures by extrusion from double-stranded DNA. Moreover, we show an influence of DNA superhelicity on attC site extrusion in vitro and in vivo. We show that the proper folding of the attC site depends on both the propensity to form non-recombinogenic structures and the length of their variable terminal structures. These results draw the network of cell processes that regulate integron recombination. PMID:20628355

  1. Potential confounding effects of benzyl alcohol as a formulation excipient support the elimination of the abnormal toxicity test from pharmacopoeias.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jianxun; Ottaviani, Giorgio; Sun, Kai; Lu, Mingqiu; Wu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Sunfeng; Bopst, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Benzyl alcohol is an excipient used in many drugs as a stabilizer. Depending on the amount present in drug formulations there might be confounding findings in the Abnormal Toxicity Test (ATT). The ATT is utilized as a quality control (QC) release test to detect extraneous contaminants according to national pharmacopoeias. Our study assessed the effects of benzyl alcohol as defined in ATT designs. This study - the first thorough evaluation of the confounding effects of benzyl alcohol on the ATT - was conducted in relation to particular health authority questions and was part of the root-cause analyses resulting from some transient behavioral findings observed in the test. Two strains of mice, CD-1 & Kunming, plus Hartley guinea pigs were administered intraperitoneally (ip), subcutaneously (sc), or intravenously (iv) with benzyl alcohol at dose level defined in the ATT design. In both mice and guinea pigs, only after ip administration, minimal behavioral changes were observed transiently within 2-3 min after administration. Therefore, the presence of benzyl alcohol in the product batch may confound the ATT results. This study provides further evidence to question the validity of the ATT for its intended use. PMID:26449397

  2. Actinophage R4 integrase-based site-specific chromosomal integration of non-replicative closed circular DNA.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takamasa; Nishizawa, Akito; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Asayama, Munehiko; Shirai, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    The actinophage R4 integrase (Sre)-based molecular genetic engineering system was developed for the chromosomal integration of multiple genes in Escherichia coli. A cloned DNA fragment containing two attP sites, green fluorescent protein (gfp) as a first transgene, and an antibiotic resistance gene as a selection marker was self-ligated to generate non-replicative closed circular DNA (nrccDNA) for integration. nrccDNA was introduced into attB-inserted E. coli cells harboring the plasmid expressing Sre by electroporation. The expressed Sre catalyzed site-specific integration between one of the two attP sites on nrccDNA and the attB site on the E. coli chromosome. The integration frequency was affected by the chromosomal location of the target site. A second nrccDNA containing two attB sites, lacZα encoding the alpha fragment of β-galactosidase as a transgene, and another antibiotic resistance gene was integrated into the residual attP site on the gfp-integrated E. coli chromosome via one of the two attB sites according to reiterating site-specific recombination. The integrants clearly exhibited β-galactosidase activity and green fluorescence, suggesting the simultaneous expression of multiple recombinant proteins in E. coli. The results of the present study showed that a step-by-step integration procedure using nrccDNA achieved the chromosomal integration of multiple genes. PMID:26870903

  3. Timing of antiretroviral therapy and TB treatment outcomes in patients with TB-HIV in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Shewade, H. D.; Kyaw, N. T. T.; Oo, M. M.; Aung, T. K.; Aung, S. T.; Oo, H. N.; Win, T.; Harries, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Integrated HIV Care programme, Mandalay, Myanmar. Objectives: To determine time to starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in relation to anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) and its association with TB treatment outcomes in patients co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enrolled from 2011 to 2014. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Results: Of 1708 TB-HIV patients, 1565 (92%) started ATT first and 143 (8%) started ART first. Treatment outcomes were missing for 226 patients and were thus not included. In those starting ATT first, the median time to starting ART was 8.6 weeks. ART was initiated after 8 weeks in 830 (53%) patients. Unsuccessful outcome was found in 7%, with anaemia being an independent predictor. In patients starting ART first, the median time to starting ATT was 21.6 weeks. ATT was initiated within 3 months in 56 (39%) patients. Unsuccessful outcome was found in 12%, and in 20% of those starting ATT within 3 months. Patients with CD4 count <100/mm3 had a four times higher risk of an unsuccessful outcome. Conclusions: Timing of ART in relation to ATT was not an independent risk factor for unsuccessful outcome. Extensive screening for TB with rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests in HIV-infected persons and close monitoring of anaemia and immunosuppression are recommended to further improve TB treatment outcomes among patients with TB-HIV. PMID:27358804

  4. Integration Site of Noninducible Coliphage 186

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Walter H.; Egan, J. Barry

    1972-01-01

    From conjugational data, the attachment site for noninducible coliphage 186 (att186) was located between the origins of Hfr strains KL16 and KL98, and close to the pheA gene in Escherichia coli K-12. P1 transductions indicated that att186 lies at 51 min on the standard genetic map of E. coli, with the order cysC-nalB-att186-pheA. The presence of prophage 186 in the donor destroyed linkage between nalB and pheA, which is taken as evidence for the integration of the 186 prophage between these genes. PMID:4559723

  5. Attracting Water Drops

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

  6. 78 FR 18579 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...: Monongahela Power Company, PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Description: Mon Power submits revisions to PJM ``OATT... Company, PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Description: Mon Power submits revisions to PJM OATT Att H-11A &...

  7. 76 FR 39121 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... devices, and products containing same. The complaint names as respondents Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Korea; Samsung Electronics America Inc. of Ridgefield, New Jersey; AT&T Inc. of Dallas, TX; Best Buy...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1191 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe Area Annual Fireworks Events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fireworks Sponsor San Francisco Giants Baseball Team. Event Description Fireworks display in conjunction with baseball season home games. Date All season home games at AT&T Park. Location 700 feet off of...

  9. NASA Now: The Sun: The Impact of Solar Activity on Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    Meet Mitzi Adams, an astrophysicist studying the sun. Adams has been working as a solar scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., since 1988. She analyzes data in an att...

  10. 75 FR 56976 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... West Ocean Blvd., Suite 4200, Long Beach, CA 90802. ] Fax: (562)980-4047, Att: Amber Morris...: Amber Morris, Southwest Region, NMFS, (562) 980-3231. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The CPS FMP, which...

  11. The life cycles of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage phiLC3 monitored by a quantitative PCR method.

    PubMed

    Lunde, M; Blatny, J M; Kaper, F; Nes, I F; Lillehaug, D

    2000-11-01

    We present here a new and general approach for monitoring the life cycles of temperate bacteriophages which establish lysogeny by inserting their genomes site-specifically into the bacterial host chromosome. The method is based on quantitative amplification of specific DNA sites involved in various cut-and-join events during the life cycles of the phages (i.e. the cos, attP, attB, attL and attR sites) with the use of sequence-specific primers. By comparing the amounts of these specific DNA sites at different intervals, we were able to follow the development of the lytic and lysogenic life cycles of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage phiLC3 after infection of its bacterial host Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris IMN-C18. PMID:11040439

  12. 78 FR 77169 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... 11/25/13 11/20/13 83242 AT&T Services, Inc. (Workers). Dallas, TX 11/25/13 11/22/13 83243 Littelfuse... Steel, A division of Claymont, DE 11/27/13 11/19/13 Evraz Inc. NA (Workers). 83251 AT&T (Workers) Dallas... of Trade Adjustment Assistance, at the address shown below, not later than December 30,...

  13. Cellular Performance Comparison of Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coating and Alkaline-Treated Titanium Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Mei

    2013-01-01

    The influence of biomimetic calcium phosphate coating on osteoblasts behavior in vitro is not well established yet. In this study, we investigated the behavior of osteoblastic rat osteosarcoma 17/2.8 cells (ROS17/2.8) on two groups of biomaterial surfaces: alkaline-treated titanium surface (ATT) and biomimetic calcium phosphate coated ATT (CaP). The cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology on these surfaces were extensively evaluated to reveal the impact of substrate surface on osteoblastic cell responses. It was found that the ROS17/2.8 cells cultured on the ATT surface had higher attachment and proliferation rates compared to those on the CaP surface. Our results also showed that the calcium phosphate coatings generated in this work have an inhibiting effect on osteoblast adhesion and further influenced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast compared to the ATT surface in vitro. Cells on the ATT surface also exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity than on the CaP surface after two weeks of culture. Immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the cells adhered and spread faster on the ATT surface than on the CaP surface. These results collectively suggested that substrate surface properties directly influence cell adhesion on different biomaterials, which would result in further influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:24455730

  14. Cerebral Perfusion Measurements in Elderly with Hypertension Using Arterial Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Mutsaerts, H. J. M. M.; van Dalen, J. W.; Heijtel, D. F. R.; Groot, P. F. C.; Majoie, C. B. L. M.; Petersen, E. T.; Richard, E.; Nederveen, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The current study assesses the feasibility and value of crushed cerebral blood flow (CBFcrushed) and arterial transit time (ATT) estimations for large clinical imaging studies in elderly with hypertension. Material and Methods Two pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) scans with (CBFcrushed) and without flow crushers (CBFnon-crushed) were performed in 186 elderly with hypertension, from which CBF and ATT maps were calculated. Standard flow territory maps were subdivided into proximal, intermediate and distal flow territories, based on the measured ATT. The coefficient of variation (CV) and physiological correlations with age and gender were compared between the three perfusion parameters. Results There was no difference in CV between CBFcrushed and CBFnon-crushed (15–24%, p>0.4) but the CV of ATT (4–9%) was much smaller. The total gray matter correlations with age and gender were most significant with ATT (p = .016 and p<.001 respectively), in between for CBFcrushed (p = .206 and p = .019) and least significant for CBFnon-crushed (p = .236 and p = .100). Conclusion These data show the feasibility and added value of combined measurements of both crushed CBF and ATT for group analyses in elderly with hypertension. The obtained flow territories provide knowledge on vascular anatomy of elderly with hypertension and can be used in future studies to investigate regional vascular effects. PMID:26241897

  15. Identification and analysis of integrons and cassette arrays in bacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Cury, Jean; Jové, Thomas; Touchon, Marie; Néron, Bertrand; Rocha, Eduardo Pc

    2016-06-01

    Integrons recombine gene arrays and favor the spread of antibiotic resistance. Their broader roles in bacterial adaptation remain mysterious, partly due to lack of computational tools. We made a program - IntegronFinder - to identify integrons with high accuracy and sensitivity. IntegronFinder is available as a standalone program and as a web application. It searches for attC sites using covariance models, for integron-integrases using HMM profiles, and for other features (promoters, attI site) using pattern matching. We searched for integrons, integron-integrases lacking attC sites, and clusters of attC sites lacking a neighboring integron-integrase in bacterial genomes. All these elements are especially frequent in genomes of intermediate size. They are missing in some key phyla, such as α-Proteobacteria, which might reflect selection against cell lineages that acquire integrons. The similarity between attC sites is proportional to the number of cassettes in the integron, and is particularly low in clusters of attC sites lacking integron-integrases. The latter are unexpectedly abundant in genomes lacking integron-integrases or their remains, and have a large novel pool of cassettes lacking homologs in the databases. They might represent an evolutionary step between the acquisition of genes within integrons and their stabilization in the new genome. PMID:27130947

  16. Identification and analysis of integrons and cassette arrays in bacterial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Jean; Jové, Thomas; Touchon, Marie; Néron, Bertrand; Rocha, Eduardo PC

    2016-01-01

    Integrons recombine gene arrays and favor the spread of antibiotic resistance. Their broader roles in bacterial adaptation remain mysterious, partly due to lack of computational tools. We made a program – IntegronFinder – to identify integrons with high accuracy and sensitivity. IntegronFinder is available as a standalone program and as a web application. It searches for attC sites using covariance models, for integron-integrases using HMM profiles, and for other features (promoters, attI site) using pattern matching. We searched for integrons, integron-integrases lacking attC sites, and clusters of attC sites lacking a neighboring integron-integrase in bacterial genomes. All these elements are especially frequent in genomes of intermediate size. They are missing in some key phyla, such as α-Proteobacteria, which might reflect selection against cell lineages that acquire integrons. The similarity between attC sites is proportional to the number of cassettes in the integron, and is particularly low in clusters of attC sites lacking integron-integrases. The latter are unexpectedly abundant in genomes lacking integron-integrases or their remains, and have a large novel pool of cassettes lacking homologs in the databases. They might represent an evolutionary step between the acquisition of genes within integrons and their stabilization in the new genome. PMID:27130947

  17. Advanced Technology Training System on Motor-Operated Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederholt, Bradley J.; Widjaja, T. Kiki; Yasutake, Joseph Y.; Isoda, Hachiro

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes how features from the field of Intelligent Tutoring Systems are applied to the Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) Advanced Technology Training System (ATTS). The MOV ATTS is a training system developed at Galaxy Scientific Corporation for the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan and the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. The MOV ATTS combines traditional computer-based training approaches with system simulation, integrated expert systems, and student and expert modeling. The primary goal of the MOV ATTS is to reduce human errors that occur during MOV overhaul and repair. The MOV ATTS addresses this goal by providing basic operational information of the MOV, simulating MOV operation, providing troubleshooting practice of MOV failures, and tailoring this training to the needs of each individual student. The MOV ATTS integrates multiple expert models (functional and procedural) to provide advice and feedback to students. The integration also provides expert model validation support to developers. Student modeling is supported by two separate student models: one model registers and updates the student's current knowledge of basic MOV information, while another model logs the student's actions and errors during troubleshooting exercises. These two models are used to provide tailored feedback to the student during the MOV course.

  18. Treatment paradox in musculo-skeletal tuberculosis in an immunocompetent adult male; a case report from a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Chaskar, Priyanka; Rana, Geetika; Anuradha; Duggal, Nandini; Arora, Jyoti

    2015-04-01

    Paradoxical reactions like immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) as seen with patients on retroviral treatment in HIV infection, have also been identified in HIV sero-negative patients with extra pulmonary tuberculosis especially lymph-node tuberculosis. Musculo-skeletal tuberculosis presenting as a cold abscess of the anterior chest wall is a rare entity which poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. A 35-year-old immunocompetent male came with complains of painless lump on right side of his chest over 9th and 10th intercostal space which gradually increased and extended upto 11th rib area. Clinically, diagnosis of cold abscess was made and anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) was started. Despite of being on ATT for 3 weeks, patient developed pain and signs of inflammation. Fluid was aspirated and sent for biochemical and microbiological investigations. The aspirated fluid was positive for acid fast bacilli by ZN stain and grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture, sensitive to first line ATT. Pyogenic and fungal culture was negative. This case presented as an anterior chest wall cold abscess which deteriorated on initiation of first line ATT, thus creating a suspicion of resistance to ATT which was cleared on ATT susceptibility testing. Hence, this case underlines the possibility of treatment paradoxes seen in immunocompetent musculo-skeletal tuberculosis. PMID:26046019

  19. Enhanced correlation between quantitative ultrasound and structural and mechanical properties of bone using combined transmission-reflection measurement

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liangjun; Lin, Wei; Qin, Yi-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is capable of predicting the principal structural orientation of trabecular bone; this orientation is highly correlated with the mechanical strength of trabecular bone. Irregular shape of bone, however, would increase variation in such a prediction, especially under human in vivo measurement. This study was designed to combine transmission and reflection modes of QUS measurement to improve the prediction for the structural and mechanical properties of trabecular bone. QUS, mechanical testing, and micro computed tomography (μCT) scanning were performed on 24 trabecular bone cubes harvested from a bovine distal femur to obtain the mechanical and structural parameters. Transmission and reflection modes of QUS measurement in the transverse and frontal planes were performed in a confined 60° angle range with 5° increment. The QUS parameters, attenuation (ATT) and velocity (UV), obtained from transmission mode, were normalized to the specimen thickness acquired from reflection mode. Analysis of covariance showed that the combined transmission-reflection modes improved prediction for the structural and Young's modulus of bone in comparison to the traditional QUS measurement performed only in the medial-lateral orientation. In the transverse plane, significant improvement between QUS and μCT was found in ATT vs bone surface density (BS/BV) (p < 0.05), ATT vs trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (p < 0.01), ATT vs degree of anisotropy (DA) (p < 0.05), UV vs trabecular bone number (Tb.N) (p < 0.05), and UV vs Tb.Th (p < 0.001). In the frontal plane, significant improvement was found in ATT vs structural model index (SMI) (p < 0.01), ATT vs bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (p < 0.01), ATT vs BS/BV (p < 0.001), ATT vs Tb.Th (p < 0.001), ATT vs DA (p < 0.001), and ATT vs modulus (p < 0.001), UV vs SMI (p < 0.01), UV vs BV/TV (p < 0.05), UV vs BS/BV (p < 0.05), UV vs Tb.Th (p < 0.01), UV vs

  20. Gilded and gelded. Hard-won lessons from the PR wars.

    PubMed

    Martin, Dick

    2003-10-01

    A golden statue of a winged youth once perched on the roof of AT&T's old headquarters. But when AT&T lowered the 24-foot-high statue for regilding so that it could be placed in the company's new headquarters, the chairman was shocked to discover that the figure was anatomically correct. So he decreed that it also be gelded. The altered "Golden Boy" thus became a metaphor for AT&T's recent embattled history, and it serves as a cautionary symbol for all companies operating in today's brutal business environment, where perception can be as important as reality. While image consultants and executives work to gild a company's image, special interest groups and the media can geld a company with countless little cuts. The author, a former executive vice president of public relations for AT&T, provides an insider's view of some of the company's most painful public-relations scrapes. They include the collapse of two apparent CEO succession plans, AT&T's inability to meet heightened expectations after Mike Armstrong was appointed CEO, and the racially charged furor over a cartoon in an employee publication. The author offers four lessons: Don't become hypnotized by your own buzz; understand the way the business media think; address the needs of all your stakeholders; and be sensitive to the possible emotional resonance of what appear to be straightforward facts. To illustrate the final point, the author mentions AT&T's elimination of 40,000 jobs in 1996. Wall Street was impressed, but NBC's Tom Brokaw said the workforce reduction might signal "another long, anxious year for the American middle class." No rational argument from AT&T could overcome the layoffs' symbolic impact. Wounded but wiser after numerous public-relations battles, the company eventually learned to stop aggregating job-reduction information for the media. PMID:14521097

  1. SU-D-18C-05: Variable Bolus Arterial Spin Labeling MRI for Accurate Cerebral Blood Flow and Arterial Transit Time Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, M; Jung, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an MRI perfusion imaging method from which quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps can be calculated. Acquisition with variable post-labeling delays (PLD) and variable TRs allows for arterial transit time (ATT) mapping and leads to more accurate CBF quantification with a scan time saving of 48%. In addition, T1 and M0 maps can be obtained without a separate scan. In order to accurately estimate ATT and T1 of brain tissue from the ASL data, variable labeling durations were invented, entitled variable-bolus ASL. Methods: All images were collected on a healthy subject with a 3T Siemens Skyra scanner. Variable-bolus Psuedo-continuous ASL (PCASL) images were collected with 7 TI times ranging 100-4300ms in increments of 700ms with TR ranging 1000-5200ms. All boluses were 1600ms when the TI allowed, otherwise the bolus duration was 100ms shorter than the TI. All TI times were interleaved to reduce sensitivity to motion. Voxel-wise T1 and M0 maps were estimated using a linear least squares fitting routine from the average singal from each TI time. Then pairwise subtraction of each label/control pair and averaging for each TI time was performed. CBF and ATT maps were created using the standard model by Buxton et al. with a nonlinear fitting routine using the T1 tissue map. Results: CBF maps insensitive to ATT were produced along with ATT maps. Both maps show patterns and averages consistent with literature. The T1 map also shows typical T1 contrast. Conclusion: It has been demonstrated that variablebolus ASL produces CBF maps free from the errors due to ATT and tissue T1 variations and provides M0, T1, and ATT maps which have potential utility. This is accomplished with a single scan in a feasible scan time (under 6 minutes) with low sensivity to motion.

  2. Group IIC Intron with an Unusual Target of Integration in Enterobacter cloacae

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martínez, José-Manuel; Poirel, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    A potential role of group IIC-attC introns in integron gene cassette formation, that is, the way in which they could provide the attC sequence essential for recombination, has been proposed. Group IIC introns usually target the attC site of gene cassettes and more specifically their inverse core. Here we characterized a novel group IIC intron targeting the core site of the aadA1 gene cassette attC site (aadA1-qacEΔ1 gene cassette junction) from enterobacterial isolates. Intron mobility (retrohoming) was analyzed using a two-plasmid assay performed in Escherichia coli. Intron mobility assays confirmed the mobilization-integration of the group II intron into the core site of the aadA2, blaVIM-2, blaCARB-2, aac(6′)-Ib, dfrXVb, arr2, cmlA4, and aadB gene cassettes but not into the attI site. This mobility was dependent on maturase activity. Reverse transcriptase PCR showed that this intron was transcriptionally active, and an intermediate circular form was detected by inverse PCR. This element was linked to the blaVEB-1 extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene in a high number of enterobacterial isolates. A phylogenetic tree showed that the identified element was located in a branch separate from group IIC-attC introns, being an IIC intron possessing the ability to integrate using the core site of the attC sites as target. PMID:22020643

  3. Characterization of IntA, a Bidirectional Site-Specific Recombinase Required for Conjugative Transfer of the Symbiotic Plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Tamayo, Rogelio; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Puente, José Luis; Brom, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific recombination occurs at short specific sequences, mediated by the cognate recombinases. IntA is a recombinase from Rhizobium etli CFN42 and belongs to the tyrosine recombinase family. It allows cointegration of plasmid p42a and the symbiotic plasmid via site-specific recombination between attachment regions (attA and attD) located in each replicon. Cointegration is needed for conjugative transfer of the symbiotic plasmid. To characterize this system, two plasmids harboring the corresponding attachment sites and intA were constructed. Introduction of these plasmids into R. etli revealed IntA-dependent recombination events occurring at high frequency. Interestingly, IntA promotes not only integration, but also excision events, albeit at a lower frequency. Thus, R. etli IntA appears to be a bidirectional recombinase. IntA was purified and used to set up electrophoretic mobility shift assays with linear fragments containing attA and attD. IntA-dependent retarded complexes were observed only with fragments containing either attA or attD. Specific retarded complexes, as well as normal in vivo recombination abilities, were seen even in derivatives harboring only a minimal attachment region (comprising the 5-bp central region flanked by 9- to 11-bp inverted repeats). DNase I-footprinting assays with IntA revealed specific protection of these zones. Mutations that disrupt the integrity of the 9- to 11-bp inverted repeats abolish both specific binding and recombination ability, while mutations in the 5-bp central region severely reduce both binding and recombination. These results show that IntA is a bidirectional recombinase that binds to att regions without requiring neighboring sequences as enhancers of recombination. PMID:23935046

  4. Mortality in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis treated with streptomycin and a two-week intensified regimen: data from an HIV cohort study using inverse probability of treatment weighting.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Midde, Manoranjan; Naik, Praveen K

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the dramatic scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries, tuberculosis (TB) is still the main cause of death among HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings. Previous studies in patients with TB meningitis suggest that the use of higher doses of common anti-TB drugs could reduce mortality. Methods. Using clinical data from an HIV cohort study in India, we compared the mortality among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with TB according to the regimen received during the first two weeks of treatment: standard anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) (N = 847), intensified ATT (N = 322), and intensified ATT with streptomycin (N = 446). The intensified ATT comprised double dose of rifampicin and substitution of ethambutol with levofloxacin. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard models and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) based on propensity scores. Patients with TB meningitis were excluded. Results. The use of intensified ATT alone did not improve survival. However, when streptomycin was added, the use intensified ATT was associated with reduced mortality in Cox models (adjusted hazard ratio 0.72, 95% CI [0.57-0.91]) and after IPTW (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% CI [0.67-0.96]). Other factors associated with improved survival were high serum albumin concentration, high CD4 lymphocyte cell-counts, and high glomerular filtration rates. Factors associated with increased mortality were high urea concentrations, being on antiretroviral therapy at the time of ATT initiation and high BUN/creatinine ratio. In an effect modification analysis, the survival benefits of the intensified ATT with streptomycin disappeared in patients with severe hypoalbuminemia. Conclusion. The results of this study are in accordance with a previous study from our cohort involving patients with TB meningitis, and suggest that an intensified 2-week ATT with streptomycin could reduce mortality in HIV infected patients

  5. Mortality in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis treated with streptomycin and a two-week intensified regimen: data from an HIV cohort study using inverse probability of treatment weighting

    PubMed Central

    Midde, Manoranjan; Naik, Praveen K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the dramatic scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries, tuberculosis (TB) is still the main cause of death among HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings. Previous studies in patients with TB meningitis suggest that the use of higher doses of common anti-TB drugs could reduce mortality. Methods. Using clinical data from an HIV cohort study in India, we compared the mortality among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with TB according to the regimen received during the first two weeks of treatment: standard anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) (N = 847), intensified ATT (N = 322), and intensified ATT with streptomycin (N = 446). The intensified ATT comprised double dose of rifampicin and substitution of ethambutol with levofloxacin. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard models and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) based on propensity scores. Patients with TB meningitis were excluded. Results. The use of intensified ATT alone did not improve survival. However, when streptomycin was added, the use intensified ATT was associated with reduced mortality in Cox models (adjusted hazard ratio 0.72, 95% CI [0.57–0.91]) and after IPTW (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% CI [0.67–0.96]). Other factors associated with improved survival were high serum albumin concentration, high CD4 lymphocyte cell-counts, and high glomerular filtration rates. Factors associated with increased mortality were high urea concentrations, being on antiretroviral therapy at the time of ATT initiation and high BUN/creatinine ratio. In an effect modification analysis, the survival benefits of the intensified ATT with streptomycin disappeared in patients with severe hypoalbuminemia. Conclusion. The results of this study are in accordance with a previous study from our cohort involving patients with TB meningitis, and suggest that an intensified 2-week ATT with streptomycin could reduce mortality in HIV infected

  6. Biomechanical Evaluation of Knee Kinematics after ACL Reconstructions in Anatomic SB and DB - Technique with Additional Medial Meniscus Suture

    PubMed Central

    Lorbach, Olaf; Herbort, Mirco; Engelhardt, Martin; Kieb, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Biomechanical evaluation of knee laxity after single- and double-bundle ACL reconstruction with additional medial meniscus suture. Methods: Kinematics of the intact knee were determined in 12 human cadaver specimens in response to a 134-N anterior tibial load (aTT) and a combined rotatory load of 10 Nm valgus and 4 Nm internal tibial rotation using a robotic/universal force moment sensor testing system. Subsequently, the ACL was resected following the creation of a bucket-handle tear of the medial meniscus. A standard repair of the medial meniscus was performed using 3 inside-out horizontal sutures. Finally, The ACL was reconstructed using an anatomic single-bundle (6) or double-bundle technique (6). Knee kinematics were determined following every sub-step. Results: Significant increase of aTT in the ACL-deficient knee was found with significant increase in the ACL-deficient knee with additional medial meniscal injury (p=.003; p=.009). ACL reconstructions significantly decreased aTT compared to the ACL-deficient knee. No significant differences were found between the intact knee and the ACL reconstructed knee with additional meniscal repair. In response to a simulated pivot shift, aTT in the intact knee significantly increased in the ACL-deficient knee as well as in the meniscus injured/meniscus-sutured knee (p=.003;p=.007). No significant differences were found between the ACL-deficient and ACL reconstructed knee with additional meniscal repair. SB as well as DB ACL reconstruction with additional medial meniscal repair restored knee kinematics compared to the intact knee. Comparison of SB versus DB ACL reconstruction did not reveal any significant differences neither in a simulated Lachman test nor in response to a simulated pivot shift (p=.05). Conclusion: aTT as well as aTT in response to a combined rotatory load significantly increased with ACL deficiency compared to the intact knee, additional medial meniscal injury further increased aTT. Anatomic

  7. Spatial bias: attentional and intentional influence in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R L; Adair, J C; Na, D; Williamson, D J; Heilman, K M

    1997-01-01

    Normal subjects often demonstrate a spatial bias on line bisection (LB) and cancellation (CA) tasks. We wanted to learn if horizontal spatial bias found in normal subjects may be dissociable into sensory-attentional (ATT) and motor-intentional (INT) subgroups similar to those described in brain-injured patients with spatial neglect. We studied the influence of ATT and INT factors on the spatial bias observed in normal subjects using a new technique that uncouples the direction of action from the direction of attention. This technique also allowed us to test both LB and CA tasks on the same individuals. Our results show that ATT bias significantly influenced performance on an LB task, whereas performance on a CA task was influenced by biases in both the ATT and INT systems. In addition, the overall bias on these two tasks reflects an interaction between the biases induced by the ATT and INT systems that may be in the same or different directions. PMID:9008524

  8. Historical Data Analyses and Scientific Knowledge Suggest Complete Removal of the Abnormal Toxicity Test as a Quality Control Test

    PubMed Central

    Garbe, Joerg H O; Ausborn, Susanne; Beggs, Claire; Bopst, Martin; Joos, Angelika; Kitashova, Alexandra A; Kovbasenco, OLga; Schiller, Claus-Dieter; Schwinger, Martina; Semenova, Natalia; Smirnova, Lilia; Stodart, Fraser; Visalli, Thomas; Vromans, Lisette

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the abnormal toxicity test (ATT) was developed as an auxiliary means to ensure safe and consistent antiserum production. Today, the ATT is utilized as a quality control (QC) release test according to pharmacopoeial or other regulatory requirements. The study design has not been changed since around 1940. The evidence of abnormal toxicity testing as a prediction for harmful batches is highly questionable and lacks a scientific rationale. Numerous reviews of historical ATT results have revealed that no reliable conclusions can be drawn from this QC measure. Modern pharmaceutical manufacturers have thorough control of the manufacturing process and comply with good manufacturing practice rules. Contaminants are appropriately controlled by complying with the validated manufacturing processes and strict QC batch release confirming batch-to-batch consistency. Recognizing that product safety, efficacy, and stability can be ensured with strict QC measures, nowadays most regulatory authorities do not require the ATT for most product classes. In line with the replacement, reduction, and refinement (3Rs) initiative, the test requirement has been deleted from approximately 80 monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia and for the majority of product classes in the United States. For these reasons, it is recommended that the ATT should be consistently omitted world-wide and be removed from pharmacopoeias and other regulatory requirements. PMID:25209378

  9. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: Compensation during Gait using Hamstring Muscle Activity

    PubMed Central

    Catalfamo, Paola Formento; Aguiar, Gerardo; Curi, Jorge; Braidot, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that an increase in hamstring activation may compensate for anterior tibial transalation (ATT) in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee (ACLd); however, the effects of this compensation still remain unclear. The goals of this study were to quantify the activation of the hamstring muscles needed to compensate the ATT in ACLd knee during the complete gait cycle and to evaluate the effect of this compensation on quadriceps activation and joint contact forces. A two dimensional model of the knee was used, which included the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints, knee ligaments, the medial capsule and two muscles units. Simulations were conducted to determine the ATT in healthy and ACLd knee and the hamstring activation needed to correct the abnormal ATT to normal levels (100% compensation) and to 50% compensation. Then, the quadriceps activation and the joint contact forces were calculated. Results showed that 100% compensation would require hamstring and quadriceps activations larger than their maximum isometric force, and would generate an increment in the peak contact force at the tibiofemoral (115%) and patellofemoral (48%) joint with respect to the healthy knee. On the other hand, 50% compensation would require less force generated by the muscles (less than 0.85 of maximum isometric force) and smaller contact forces (peak tibiofemoral contact force increased 23% and peak patellofemoral contact force decreased 7.5% with respect to the healthy knee). Total compensation of ATT by means of increased hamstring activity is possible; however, partial compensation represents a less deleterious strategy. PMID:20721326

  10. Effect of advanced component technology on helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental tests were performed on the NASA/Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) 500 hp advanced technology transmission (ATT) at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The ATT was a retrofit of the OH-58C helicopter 236 kW (317 hp) main rotor transmission, upgraded to 373 kW (500 hp), with a design goal of retaining long life with a minimum increase in cost, weight, and size. Vibration, strain, efficiency, deflection, and temperature experiments were performed and the results were compared to previous experiments on the OH-58A, OH-58C, and UH-60A transmissions. The high-contact-ratio gears and the cantilevered-mounted, flexible ring gear of the ATT reduced vibration compared to that of the OH-58C. The ATT flexible ring gear improved planetary load sharing compared to that of the rigid ring gear of the UH-60A transmission. The ATT mechanical efficiency was lower than that of the OH-58A transmission, probably due to the high-contact-ratio planetary gears.

  11. [The adipose tissue transfer in the mammary parenchyma (part I): Review of the literature on modifications of the radiological images].

    PubMed

    Garrido, I; Leguevaque, P; Gangloff, D; Mojallal, A

    2010-12-01

    The adipose tissue transfer (ATT) in the mammary parenchyma is a subject of controversy and generates passionate debates in scientific meetings. So far, many phenomena remain unexplained. Among these phenomena, changes in mammogram images generated by the grafted adipose tissue and the interactions between the grafted adipose tissue and a clinically undetectable breast cancer are the most important. We will present a series of articles with a critical analysis of the scientific literature on each of these phenomena. This first article presents the review of the literature on modifications of the radiological images after ATT. Two types of images are most common in mammograms after ATT. These are oil cysts and microcalcifications. Regarding to the presented review of literature, there is not yet sufficient evidence to prove a similarity or not between these images generated by the ATT and those from a breast malignancy. Therefore, clinically, patients must be included in a prospective clinical trial and in terms of research, the first step should be an exhaustive description of radiological images after ATT and a comparison of these images to images of malignancy. So, it's important to include these patients in prospective protocols with close and long term follow-up. PMID:21144953

  12. Tools for Targeted Genome Engineering of Established Drosophila Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Cherbas, Lucy; Hackney, Jennifer; Gong, Lei; Salzer, Claire; Mauser, Eric; Zhang, Dayu; Cherbas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We describe an adaptation of φC31 integrase–mediated targeted cassette exchange for use in Drosophila cell lines. Single copies of an attP-bounded docking platform carrying a GFP-expression marker, with or without insulator elements flanking the attP sites, were inserted by P-element transformation into the Kc167 and Sg4 cell lines; each of the resulting docking-site lines carries a single mapped copy of one of the docking platforms. Vectors for targeted substitution contain a cloning cassette flanked by attB sites. Targeted substitution occurs by integrase-mediated substitution between the attP sites (integrated) and the attB sites (vector). We describe procedures for isolating cells carrying the substitutions and for eliminating the products of secondary off-target events. We demonstrate the technology by integrating a cassette containing a Cu2+-inducible mCherry marker, and we report the expression properties of those lines. When compared with clonal lines made by traditional transformation methods, which lead to the illegitimate insertion of tandem arrays, targeted insertion lines give more uniform expression, lower basal expression, and higher induction ratios. Targeted substitution, though intricate, affords results that should greatly improve comparative expression assays—a major emphasis of cell-based studies. PMID:26450921

  13. Historical data analyses and scientific knowledge suggest complete removal of the abnormal toxicity test as a quality control test.

    PubMed

    Garbe, Joerg H O; Ausborn, Susanne; Beggs, Claire; Bopst, Martin; Joos, Angelika; Kitashova, Alexandra A; Kovbasenco, Olga; Schiller, Claus-Dieter; Schwinger, Martina; Semenova, Natalia; Smirnova, Lilia; Stodart, Fraser; Visalli, Thomas; Vromans, Lisette

    2014-11-01

    In the early 1900s, the abnormal toxicity test (ATT) was developed as an auxiliary means to ensure safe and consistent antiserum production. Today, the ATT is utilized as a quality control (QC) release test according to pharmacopoeial or other regulatory requirements. The study design has not been changed since around 1940. The evidence of abnormal toxicity testing as a prediction for harmful batches is highly questionable and lacks a scientific rationale. Numerous reviews of historical ATT results have revealed that no reliable conclusions can be drawn from this QC measure. Modern pharmaceutical manufacturers have thorough control of the manufacturing process and comply with good manufacturing practice rules. Contaminants are appropriately controlled by complying with the validated manufacturing processes and strict QC batch release confirming batch-to-batch consistency. Recognizing that product safety, efficacy, and stability can be ensured with strict QC measures, nowadays most regulatory authorities do not require the ATT for most product classes. In line with the replacement, reduction, and refinement (3Rs) initiative, the test requirement has been deleted from approximately 80 monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia and for the majority of product classes in the United States. For these reasons, it is recommended that the ATT should be consistently omitted world-wide and be removed from pharmacopoeias and other regulatory requirements. PMID:25209378

  14. Can the attention training technique turn one marshmallow into two? Improving children's ability to delay gratification.

    PubMed

    Murray, Joanne; Theakston, Anna; Wells, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    The seminal Marshmallow Test (Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970) has reliably demonstrated that children who can delay gratification are more likely to be emotionally stable and successful later in life. However, this is not good news for those children who can't delay. Therefore, this study aimed to explore whether a metacognitive therapy technique, Attention Training (ATT: Wells, 1990) can improve young children's ability to delay gratification. One hundred children participated. Classes of 5-6 year olds were randomly allocated to either the ATT or a no-intervention condition and were tested pre and post-intervention on ability to delay gratification, verbal inhibition (executive control), and measures of mood. The ATT intervention significantly increased (2.64 times) delay of gratification compared to the no-intervention condition. After controlling for age and months in school, the ATT intervention and verbal inhibition task performance were significant independent predictors of delay of gratification. These results provide evidence that ATT can improve children's self-regulatory abilities with the implication that this might reduce psychological vulnerability later in life. The findings highlight the potential contribution that the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model could make to designing techniques to enhance children's self-regulatory processes. PMID:26708331

  15. A Rare Case of Flare-Up of PID in Infertility Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Leena; Wadhwa, Sanjana N.; Jindal, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Case Presentation. Mrs. X, 35 years old, case of primary infertility, was diagnosed to have genital tuberculosis on the basis of PCR positive and hysterolaparoscopy findings and received category I ATT for 6 months. Following ATT completion, her USG revealed no evidence of tuboovarian mass or hydrosalpinx. Since her tubes were patent, she underwent 3 cycles of ovulation induction and 2 cycles of IUI. The women presented with acute PID, five days after IUI, and was conservatively managed. She again presented 24 days after IUI with persistent low grade fever and abdominal pain. Suspecting relapse of genital tuberculosis, she was started on category II ATT. She had acute episodes of high grade fever with chills 2 weeks after starting ATT and MRI revealed bilateral TO masses suggestive of pyosalpinx. Emergency laparotomy was done, pus was drained, and cyst wall was removed and HPE was suggestive of chronic inflammation with few granulation tissues. ATT was continued for one year and the woman improved. Conclusion. The possibility of flare-up of PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) in treated case of tuberculosis undergoing infertility management should be kept in mind and aggressive management should be done. PMID:26600959

  16. Corrosion of copper in aerated acidic pickling solutions and its inhibition by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol.

    PubMed

    Sherif, El-Sayed M; Erasmus, R M; Comins, J D

    2007-02-01

    Corrosion of copper in aerated acidic chloride pickling (0.5 M HCl) solutions and its inhibition by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (ATT) have been investigated using electrochemical techniques and weight-loss measurements, along with Raman spectroscopy. Electrochemical measurements for copper after varied immersion periods of 0, 24, and 48 h showed that the presence of ATT and the increase of its concentration significantly decrease cathodic, anodic, corrosion (j(Corr)) currents and corrosion rates (K(Corr)), as well as the dissolution currents at 300 mV vs Ag/AgCl, while increasing polarization resistance (Rp), degree of surface coverage (theta) and inhibition efficiency (IE%) to a great extent. Weight-loss measurements after different immersion periods of 6 to 48 h revealed that the dissolution of copper decreased to a minimum and the corresponding IE% increased with increasing ATT concentration. The detection of ATT molecules on the copper surface by Raman spectroscopy indicated that inhibition of copper corrosion is achieved by strong adsorption of ATT molecules onto the copper surface. PMID:17084854

  17. Utilization of site-specific recombination for generating therapeutic protein producing cell lines.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Margie; Corisdeo, Susanne; McGee, Clair; Kraichely, Denny

    2010-07-01

    The AttSite Recombinase Technology from Intrexon, Blacksburg, VA, utilizes specific DNA sequences and proprietary recombinase enzymes to catalyze the insertion of a gene of interest at a specific location in the host cell genome. Using this technology, we have developed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines that have incorporated attB recombination sites at highly transcriptionally active loci or 'hot spots' within the cell genome. Subsequently, these attB site containing host cell lines could then be used for the expression of future Centocor products. Candidate production cell lines would be generated by a simple recombination event. Since the therapeutic gene of interest would preferentially integrate into the pre-selected high-expressing attB site, candidate cell lines would consistently express high levels of the gene of interest. We have been able to demonstrate that the AttSite Recombinase Technology could be a valid approach for the development of high-expressing production cell lines. PMID:20300883

  18. A Rare Case of Flare-Up of PID in Infertility Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Leena; Wadhwa, Sanjana N; Jindal, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Case Presentation. Mrs. X, 35 years old, case of primary infertility, was diagnosed to have genital tuberculosis on the basis of PCR positive and hysterolaparoscopy findings and received category I ATT for 6 months. Following ATT completion, her USG revealed no evidence of tuboovarian mass or hydrosalpinx. Since her tubes were patent, she underwent 3 cycles of ovulation induction and 2 cycles of IUI. The women presented with acute PID, five days after IUI, and was conservatively managed. She again presented 24 days after IUI with persistent low grade fever and abdominal pain. Suspecting relapse of genital tuberculosis, she was started on category II ATT. She had acute episodes of high grade fever with chills 2 weeks after starting ATT and MRI revealed bilateral TO masses suggestive of pyosalpinx. Emergency laparotomy was done, pus was drained, and cyst wall was removed and HPE was suggestive of chronic inflammation with few granulation tissues. ATT was continued for one year and the woman improved. Conclusion. The possibility of flare-up of PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) in treated case of tuberculosis undergoing infertility management should be kept in mind and aggressive management should be done. PMID:26600959

  19. Preserved hippocampal function during learning in the context of risk in adolescent suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lisa; Segreti, Annamaria; Almeida, Jorge; Jollant, Fabrice; Lawrence, Natalia; Brent, David; Phillips, Mary

    2013-02-28

    Impairment in decision-making is frequently observed in suicide attempters. Little is known, however, about neural circuitry underlying decision-making in adolescent attempters. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess decision-making and learning-related neural activity during Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance in adolescents with depression and suicide attempt (ATT, n=15), non-attempters with depression (NAT, n=14), and healthy controls (HC, n=13). ATT performed best on the IGT. A three group by two condition (high-risk versus low-risk) by three IGT block (each of 20 cards) whole-brain analysis (p<0.05, corrected) interaction was found in the left hippocampal, frontal and temporal cortical, striatal and thalamic regions. Post-hoc analyses revealed that during low-risk decisions in blocks 2 and 3, NAT, but not ATT, showed greater left hippocampal activation versus HC (p=0.0004, p=0.003); in block 2, during low-risk decisions NAT showed greater left middle temporal gyral activation versus HC (p=0.003); in block 3, during high-risk decisions ATT showed less activation in the right thalamus versus NAT (p=0.001) and during low risk decisions ATT showed greater activation than HC in the left caudate (p=0.002). NAT, but not ATT are differentiated from HC during performance of the IGT. Functional abnormalities in neural circuitry implicated in learning in the context of risk may underlie risk for MDD, but not risk for suicide attempt, in adolescence. PMID:23158778

  20. A New Generation of Modified Live-Attenuated Avian Influenza Viruses Using a Two-Strategy Combination as Potential Vaccine Candidates▿

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haichen; Nieto, Gloria Ramirez; Perez, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    In light of the recurrent outbreaks of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), there is a pressing need for the development of vaccines that allow rapid mass vaccination. In this study, we introduced by reverse genetics temperature-sensitive mutations in the PB1 and PB2 genes of an avian influenza virus, A/Guinea Fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 (H9N2) (WF10). Further genetic modifications were introduced into the PB1 gene to enhance the attenuated (att) phenotype of the virus in vivo. Using the att WF10 as a backbone, we substituted neuraminidase (NA) for hemagglutinin (HA) for vaccine purposes. In chickens, a vaccination scheme consisting of a single dose of an att H7N2 vaccine virus at 2 weeks of age and subsequent challenge with the wild-type H7N2 LPAI virus resulted in complete protection. We further extended our vaccination strategy against the HPAI H5N1. In this case, we reconstituted an att H5N1 vaccine virus, whose HA and NA genes were derived from an Asian H5N1 virus. A single-dose immunization in ovo with the att H5N1 vaccine virus in 18-day-old chicken embryos resulted in more than 60% protection for 4-week-old chickens and 100% protection for 9- to 12-week-old chickens. Boosting at 2 weeks posthatching provided 100% protection against challenge with the HPAI H5N1 virus for chickens as young as 4 weeks old, with undetectable virus shedding postchallenge. Our results highlight the potential of live att avian influenza vaccines for mass vaccination in poultry. PMID:17596317

  1. Arterial Transit Time Mapping Obtained by Pulsed Continuous 3D ASL Imaging with Multiple Post-Label Delay Acquisitions: Comparative Study with PET-CBF in Patients with Chronic Occlusive Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsujikawa, Tetsuya; Kimura, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Isozaki, Makoto; Kikuta, Ken-ichiro; Okazawa, Hidehiko

    2016-01-01

    Arterial transit time (ATT) is most crucial for measuring absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) by arterial spin labeling (ASL), a noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion assessment technique, in patients with chronic occlusive cerebrovascular disease. We validated ASL-CBF and ASL-ATT maps calculated by pulsed continuous ASL (pCASL) with multiple post-label delay acquisitions in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Fifteen patients underwent MR scans, including pCASL, and positron emission tomography (PET) scans with 15O-water to obtain PET-CBF. MR acquisitions with different post-label delays (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 sec) were also obtained for ATT correction. The theoretical framework of 2-compartmental model (2CM) was also used for the delay compensation. ASL-CBF and ASL-ATT were calculated based on the proposed 2CM, and the effect on the CBF values and the ATT correction characteristics were discussed. Linear regression analyses were performed both on pixel-by-pixel and region-of-interest bases in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. There were significant correlations between ASL-CBF and PET-CBF both for voxel values (r = 0.74 ± 0.08, slope: 0.87 ± 0.22, intercept: 6.1 ± 4.9) and for the MCA territorial comparison in both affected (R2 = 0.67, y = 0.83x + 6.3) and contralateral sides (R2 = 0.66, y = 0.74x + 6.3). ASL-ATTs in the affected side were significantly longer than those in the contralateral side (1.51 ± 0.41 sec and 1.12 ± 0.30 sec, respectively, p <0.0005). CBF measurement using pCASL with delay compensation was feasible and fairly accurate even in altered hemodynamic states. PMID:27275779

  2. Multicopy integration of mini-Tn7 transposons into selected chromosomal sites of a Salmonella vaccine strain

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Karen; Werner, Esther; Loessner, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal integration of expression modules for transgenes is an important aspect for the development of novel Salmonella vectors. Mini-Tn7 transposons have been used for the insertion of one such module into the chromosomal site attTn7, present only once in most Gram-negative bacteria. However, integration of multiple mini-Tn7 copies might be suitable for expression of appropriate amounts of antigen or combination of different modules. Here we demonstrate that integration of a 9.6 kb mini-Tn7 harbouring the luciferase luxCDABE (lux) occurs at the natural attTn7 site and simultaneously other locations of the Salmonella chromosome, which were engineered using λ-Red recombinase to contain one or two additional artificial attTn7 sites (a-attTn7). Multicopy integration even at closely spaced attTn7 sites was unexpected in light of the previously reported distance-dependent Tn7 target immunity. Integration of multiple copies of a mini-Tn7 containing a gfp cassette resulted in increasing green fluorescence of bacteria. Stable consecutive integration of two mini-Tn7 encoding lacZ and lux was achieved by initial transposition of lacZ-mini-Tn7, subsequent chromosomal insertion of a-attTn7 and a second round of transposition with lux-mini-Tn7. Mini-Tn7 thus constitutes a versatile method for multicopy integration of expression cassettes into the chromosome of Salmonella and possibly other bacteria. PMID:25488129

  3. Adverse Drug Reaction Profile in Patients on Anti-tubercular Treatment Alone and in Combination with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, Shamiya; Khajuria, Vijay; Mahajan, Annil; Singh, Jang B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Adverse drug reactions are very common among patients on anti-tubercular treatment alone or in combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy but comparatively studied very less. Hence, the current study was done to evalaute the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile in patients receiving anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) and ATT with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Materials and Methods A one year prospective, cross-sectional observational study was undertaken using suspected adverse drug data collection form available under Pharmacovigilance Programme of India. Results Seventy four patients receiving ATT & 32 patients on both ATT & HAART presented with 74 and 45 adverse drug events (ADE) respectively. Males were more affected than females in both the groups. DOTS category- 1 regimen was mostly responsible for ADE in both the groups. Epigastric pain was the most common ADE in TB patients, while anaemia was the most common presentation in TB with HIV group. On comparison, ADE rate of TB with HIV co-morbid patients was more (55.8%) than TB patients (0.36%) (p < 0.001). Urban population presented more with ADR in TB/HIV group unlike rural population in TB group (p<0.0001). Whereas, illiterate were more involved in TB group unlike literate in TB/HIV group (p<0.05). Type A reactions were more common in TB group (p < 0.001). Addition of drugs for the management of ADR events was more in TB/HIV group (p < 0.001) as compared to TB group. Rest all the parameters were comparable. Conclusion The study underscores that concomitant HAART and ATT, result in more ADRs in comparison to ATT alone demanding collaboration & integration of National AIDS Control programme and PvPI to enhance drug safety in this field. PMID:26557538

  4. Effects of geometry and chemistry on hydrophobic solvation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Robert C; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2014-10-14

    Inserting an uncharged van der Waals (vdw) cavity into water disrupts the distribution of water and creates attractive dispersion interactions between the solvent and solute. This free-energy change is the hydrophobic solvation energy (ΔG(vdw)). Frequently, it is assumed to be linear in the solvent-accessible surface area, with a positive surface tension (γ) that is independent of the properties of the molecule. However, we found that γ for a set of alkanes differed from that for four configurations of decaalanine, and γ = -5 was negative for the decaalanines. These findings conflict with the notion that ΔG(vdw) favors smaller A. We broke ΔG(vdw) into the free energy required to exclude water from the vdw cavity (ΔG(rep)) and the free energy of forming the attractive interactions between the solute and solvent (ΔG(att)) and found that γ < 0 for the decaalanines because -γ(att) > γ(rep) and γ(att) < 0. Additionally, γ(att) and γ(rep) for the alkanes differed from those for the decaalanines, implying that none of ΔG(att), ΔG(rep), and ΔG(vdw) can be computed with a constant surface tension. We also showed that ΔG(att) could not be computed from either the initial or final water distributions, implying that this quantity is more difficult to compute than is sometimes assumed. Finally, we showed that each atom's contribution to γ(rep) depended on multibody interactions with its surrounding atoms, implying that these contributions are not additive. These findings call into question some hydrophobic models. PMID:25258413

  5. Intramedullary Tuberculoma of Dorsal Spinal Cord: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, Dhiraj Vithal; Jagtap, Sanjay Anand; Patif, Hitendra Gulabrao; Biraris, Sandeep Ramesh; Chandanwale, Ajay S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intramedullary tuberculoma (IMT)are extremely rare lesions should be distinguished from other space occupying lesions like neoplasms. Although it is a treatable condition delaying diagnosis leads to significant morbidity. Case Report: We report a case of intramedullary thoracic tuberculoma with paraparesis showing deterioration of neurological status during medical treatment. Surgical resection had shown the excellent result. Conclusion: The possibility of IMT should be seriously considered when an intraspinal mass is found with evidence of tuberculosis. Anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT) is the mainstay of treatment and had shown good results. Surgical removal is to be considered in cases of worsening neurological status while the patient is on ATT. PMID:27299042

  6. A novel Streptomyces spp. integration vector derived from the S. venezuelae phage, SV1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrating vectors based on the int/attP loci of temperate phages are convenient and used widely, particularly for cloning genes in Streptomyces spp. Results We have constructed and tested a novel integrating vector based on g27, encoding integrase, and attP site from the phage, SV1. This plasmid, pBF3 integrates efficiently in S. coelicolor and S. lividans but surprisingly fails to generate stable integrants in S. venezuelae, the natural host for phage SV1. Conclusion pBF3 promises to be a useful addition to the range of integrating vectors currently available for Streptomyces molecular genetics. PMID:24885867

  7. Pituitary tumor evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Albertson, B.; Binney, S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes research on the following: the structure of {sup 10}B{sub 10}-ovine corticotropin releasing hormone and {sup 10}B{sub 10}-growth hormone releasing hormone; the BNCT effect on AtT-20 cell {sup 10}B{sub 10}-CRH incubations in vitro; BNCT effects on GH{sub 4}C{sub 1} cell {sup 10}B{sub 10} growth hormone releasing factor incubation in vitro; and competitive inhibition of AtT-20 cell BNCT effect.

  8. Bot, Cyborg and Automated Turing Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jeff

    The Automated Turing test (ATT) is almost a standard security technique for addressing the threat of undesirable or malicious bot programs. In this paper, we motivate an interesting adversary model, cyborgs, which are either humans assisted by bots or bots assisted by humans. Since there is always a human behind these bots, or a human can always be available on demand, ATT fails to differentiate such cyborgs from humans. The notion of “telling humans and cyborgs apart” is novel, and it can be of practical relevance in network security. Although it is a challenging task, we have had some success in telling cyborgs and humans apart automatically.

  9. Bacteriophage φC31 Integrase Mediated Transgenesis in Xenopus laevis for Protein Expression at Endogenous Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Bryan G.; Weeks, Daniel L.

    Bacteriophage φC31 inserts its genome into that of its host bacterium via the integrase enzyme which catalyzes recombination between a phage attachment site (attP) and a bacterial attachment site (attB). Integrase requires no accessory factors, has a high efficiency of recombination, and does not need perfect sequence fidelity for recognition and recombination between these attachment sites. These imperfect attachment sites, or pseudo-attachment sites, are present in many organisms and have been used to insert transgenes in a variety of species. Here we describe the φC31 integrase approach to make transgenic Xenopus laevis embryos.

  10. Synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART): average tumour trajectory for lung patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neicu, Toni; Shirato, Hiroki; Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Jiang, Steve B.

    2003-03-01

    Synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART) is a new technique for treating mobile tumours under development at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). The basic idea of SMART is to synchronize the moving radiation beam aperture formed by a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) with the tumour motion induced by respiration. SMART is based on the concept of the average tumour trajectory (ATT) exhibited by a tumour during respiration. During the treatment simulation stage, tumour motion is measured and the ATT is derived. Then, the original IMRT MLC leaf sequence is modified using the ATT to compensate for tumour motion. During treatment, the tumour motion is monitored. The treatment starts when leaf motion and tumour motion are synchronized at a specific breathing phase. The treatment will halt when the tumour drifts away from the ATT and will resume when the synchronization between tumour motion and radiation beam is re-established. In this paper, we present a method to derive the ATT from measured tumour trajectory data. We also investigate the validity of the ATT concept for lung tumours during normal breathing. The lung tumour trajectory data were acquired during actual radiotherapy sessions using a real-time tumour-tracking system. SMART treatment is simulated by assuming that the radiation beam follows the derived ATT and the tumour follows the measured trajectory. In simulation, the treatment starts at exhale phase. The duty cycle of SMART delivery was calculated for various treatment times and gating thresholds, as well as for various exhale phases where the treatment begins. The simulation results show that in the case of free breathing, for 4 out of 11 lung datasets with tumour motion greater than 1 cm from peak to peak, the error in tumour tracking can be controlled to within a couple of millimetres while maintaining a reasonable delivery efficiency. That is to say, without any breath coaching/control, the ATT is a valid concept for some lung

  11. Studies on attitude toward teaching science and anxiety about teaching science in preservice elementary teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerback, Mary E.

    These studies examined attitude toward teaching science (ATTS) using an adaptation of the Bratt Attitude Test (M-BAT); anxiety about teaching science (ANX-TS), as measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI A-State); and selected demographic variables in preservice elementary teachers for the 1977-1978 and 1978-1979 academic years and a follow-up of those students who completed their student teaching in May 1979. The M-BAT and STAI were administered in September at the beginning of Science 6 (earth science and biology course), in December on the next to last day of Science 6, in May on the next to the last day of Science 5 (physical science), and in May 1979 after student teaching. In the two academic years, both ATTS and ANX-TS became more positive during the sequence Science 6-5. Both changes in ATTS and ANX-TS continued to change in a positive direction after completion of Science 6-5, after student teaching. There were differences in the times that the greatest changes in ATTS and ANX-TS occurred. In both studies, the greatest change in ATTS took place between September and December, during Science 6. The greatest change in ANX-TS, however, took place during Science 5 between December and May in the 1977-1978 study. In the 1978-1979 study, the greatest changes in ANX-TS occurred in Science 6, between September and December. The delayed reduction of ANX-TS in the 1977-1978 study may be explained by differences in teaching patterns. In 1977-1978, two teachers taught only their academic specialty, biology or earth science, to students who switched teachers midsemester. In 1978-1979, the same two instructors taught both biology and earth science to the same students. Correlation coefficients for successive and corresponding administrations of both the M-BAT and STAI suggest these variables are related. Students with more positive ATTS tended to have reduced ANX-TS. Neither the number of high school or college science and math courses completed nor the level

  12. Major U.S. Supreme Court Civil Rights/Affirmative Action Decisions, January-June 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinove, Samuel

    1990-01-01

    Illustrates how the Supreme Court has been divided in its 1989 decisions on affirmative action. Reviews the following cases: City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Co.; Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins; Wards Cove Packing Company, Inc. v. Antonio; Martin v. Wilks; Lorance v. AT&T Technologies, Inc.; Patterson v. McLean Credit Union; and Jett v. Dallas…

  13. Relation of Spectral and Physiological Properties to Leaf Structural Characteristics of Arsenic Treated Rice Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arsenic (As) is a widely spread soil contaminant which can cause toxicity in plants. Although many studies have investigated the spectral characteristics of affected plants, the extent to which different toxicities may result in correspondingly different spectral signatures has received little atte...

  14. New developments in food-based synthetic attractants for pest Tephritidae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal capture of several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera spp. tephritid fruit flies is in traps baited with the aqueous protein bait Nulure combined with borax. Nulure is produced by acid hydrolysis of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline and more att...

  15. 78 FR 22345 - Advisory Committee on the Electronic Records Archives (ACERA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... via AT&T Connect web conference. Members of the public who would like to join the proceedings should..., 2013 to register and obtain access information. Ms. Scates can be reached via email at kimberly.scates@nara.gov or by phone at (301) 837-3176. This meeting will be recorded for transcription purposes....

  16. 78 FR 31596 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Date of TA-W Subject firm (petitioners) Location institution petition 82697 AT&T Pittsburgh, PA 04/29... of Trade Adjustment Assistance, at the address shown below, not later than June 3, 2013. Interested... Director, Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, at the address shown below, not later than June 3,...

  17. 77 FR 57087 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... McIntosh and David McIntosh for Indiana Draft Advisory Opinion 2012-31: AT&T Inc. Audit Division... Sunshine Act Notice AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. DATE & TIME: Thursday, September 20, 2012 At 10 a..., Secretary and Clerk, at (202) 694-1040, at least 72 hours prior to the meeting date. PERSON TO CONTACT...

  18. Synthesized Speech Intelligibility and Early Preschool-Age Children: Comparing Accuracy for Single-Word Repetition with Repeated Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkoski-Ball, Carrie L.; Reichle, Joe; Munson, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation examined the effect of repeated exposure to novel and repeated spoken words in typical environments on the intelligibility of 2 synthesized voices and human recorded speech in preschools. Method: Eighteen preschoolers listened to and repeated single words presented in human-recorded speech, DECtalk Paul, and AT&T Voice…

  19. Rehabilitation after ACL Injury: A Fluoroscopic Study on the Effects of Type of Exercise on the Knee Sagittal Plane Arthrokinematics

    PubMed Central

    Norouzi, Sadegh; Esfandiarpour, Fateme; Shakourirad, Ali; Salehi, Reza; Akbar, Mohammad; Farahmand, Farzam

    2013-01-01

    A safe rehabilitation exercise for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries needs to be compatible with the normal knee arthrokinematics to avoid abnormal loading on the joint structures. The objective of this study was to measure the amount of the anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the ACL-deficient knees during selective open and closed kinetic chain exercises. The intact and injured knees of fourteen male subjects with unilateral ACL injury were imaged using uniplanar fluoroscopy, while the subjects performed forward lunge and unloaded/loaded open kinetic knee extension exercises. The ATTs were measured from fluoroscopic images, as the distance between the tibial and femoral reference points, at seven knee flexion angles, from 0° to 90°. No significant differences were found between the ATTs of the ACL-deficient and intact knees at all flexion angles during forward lunge and unloaded open kinetic knee extension (P < 0.05). During loaded open kinetic knee extension, however, the ATTs of the ACL deficient knees were significantly larger than those of the intact knees at 0° (P = 0.002) and 15° (P = 0.012). It was suggested that the forward lunge, as a weight-bearing closed kinetic chain exercise, provides a safer approach for developing muscle strength and functional stability in rehabilitation program of ACL-deficient knees, in comparison with open kinetic knee extension exercise. PMID:24066288

  20. Strategic Human Resources Management of Employer Cooperative Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Richard P.; Porter, Ralph C.

    1982-01-01

    This article discusses effective strategic planning and management of employer cooperative education programs. It examines types of planning, the need for such programs, and implementation strategies. Several case studies are considered: Dayton-Hudson, IBM, AT&T, Delta Airlines, and Rockwell International. (CT)

  1. Acquiescence Response Style and the Vocational Development Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, John O.

    1971-01-01

    The possible effects of acquiescence response style upon endorsement of items in the Vocational Development Inventory-Attitude Scale were investigated. It was concluded that responses to the VDI-Att are not significantly affected by acquiescence; rather, it was hypothesized that they can be conceptually related to discrimination learning…

  2. Orbit attitude processor. STS-1 bench program verification test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    A plan for the static verification of the STS-1 ATT PROC ORBIT software requirements is presented. The orbit version of the SAPIENS bench program is used to generate the verification data. A brief discussion of the simulation software and flight software modules is presented along with a description of the test cases.

  3. New Frontiers in Educational Technology: Trends and Issues. Proceedings of the Conference of the University/Urban Schools National Task Force (8th, San Francisco, California, November 14-15, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossone, Richard M., Ed.; Polishook, Irwin H., Ed.

    The papers in this collection of presentations at a conference of the University/Urban Schools National Task Force address topics on trends in educational technology and issues in teaching with educational technology. The following papers are included: (1) "The Appropriate Use of Technology in Education" (James E. Dezell, Jr.); (2) AT&T and the…

  4. Integrated Communications at America's Leading Total Quality Management Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronstedt, Anders

    1996-01-01

    Examines how to create organizational processes that allow communication professionals with a variety of expertise to support each other through coordination and integration. Studies eight of America's leading total quality management corporations, including AT&T, Federal Express, Saturn, and Xerox. Explores how various total quality management…

  5. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXPLORATORY DATA ANALYSIS AND SUMMARY STATISTICS (D05)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the methods and procedures for two types of QA procedures: spot checks of hand entered data, and QA procedures for co-located and split samples. The spot checks were used to determine whether the error rate goal for the input of hand entered data was being att...

  6. Aspirin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines . Circulation . 2011 ; 123 : 2022 – 2060 . OpenUrl FREE Full Text 4. ↵ Antithrombotic Trialists' (ATT) Collaboration , Baigent C , Blackwell ... BMJ . 2002 ; 324 : 71 – 86 . OpenUrl Abstract / FREE Full Text 6. ↵ Furie KL , Kasner SE , Adams RJ , Albers ...

  7. Using Technology in School Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bercik, Janet T.; Blair-Larsen, Susan M.

    2000-01-01

    Notes that few college faculty use technology in their teaching despite rapid growth in technology-based instruction in K-12 education. Describes two projects using AT&T's PersonaLink Service and Sony's Magic Link PIC 1000 in field experience supervision. (SG)

  8. Stanniocalcin-1 regulates endothelial gene expression and modulates trans-endothelial migration of leukocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammalian counterpart of the fish calcium-regulating hormone stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) inhibits monocyte chemotactic protein-1- and stromal-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha)-mediated chemotaxis and diminishes chemokinesis in macrophage-like RAW264.7 and U937 cells in a manner that may involve atte...

  9. The Slick Hair Coat Locus Maps to Bovine Chromosome 20 in Senepol Derived Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to maintain normal temperatures during heat stress is an important attribute for cattle in the subtropics and tropics. Previous studies have shown that Senepol cattle and their crosses with the Holstein, Charolais and Angus breeds are as heat tolerant as Brahman cattle. This has been att...

  10. COMPOSITIONAL LANDSCAPE METRICS AND LANDCOVER CONNECTIVITY MEASURES FOR THE SUB-WATERSHEDS OF THE UPPER SAN PEDRO RIVER 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various compositional landscape metrics and landcover connectivity measures for the sub-watersheds of the Upper San Pedro River. Metrics were computed using the ATtILA v3.03 ArcView extension. Inputs included the sub-watershed coverage obtained from the USDA-ARS-SWRC in Tucson, A...

  11. COMPOSITIONAL LANDSCAPE METRICS AND LANDCOVER CONNECTIVITY MEASURES FOR THE SUB-WATERSHEDS OF THE UPPER SAN PEDRO RIVER 1997

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various compositional landscape metrics and landcover connectivity measures for the sub-watersheds of the Upper San Pedro River. Metrics were computed using the ATtILA v.3.03 ArcView extension. Inputs included the sub-watershed coverage obtained from the USDA-ARS-SWRC in Tucson,...

  12. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY (CAT) AS A POTENTIAL INDICATOR OF MARINE MARCO BENTHIC ACTIVITY ALONG POLLUTION GRADIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores were imaged using a local hospital CAT scanner. These image data were transferred to a personal computer at our laboratory using specially developed software. Previously, we reported an inverse correlation (r2 = 0.98, P<0.01) between the average sediment x-ray atte...

  13. Low level hydrogen peroxide generation from a nonwoven fibrous pectin-cellulose blend

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fibrous pectic-cellulose (FPC) (cellulose blended with primary cell wall pectin at 2 percent by weight of pectin) is product made from naturally occurring plant fibers. FPC is a fibrous mixture of polysaccharides with a low percent by weight of pectin-based primary cell wall and lipid components att...

  14. Proprioception in the ACL-ruptured knee: the contribution of the medial collateral ligament and patellar ligament. An in vivo experimental study in the cat.

    PubMed

    Bonsfills, N; Raygoza, J J; Boemo, E; Garrido, J; Núñez, A; Gómez-Barrena, E

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), secondary restraints such as menisci, ligaments, and tendons restrict anterior knee laxity. Strain detection at these sites could define the contribution of this alternative signalling system to knee proprioception after ACL injury. The hypothesis in this study questions if measurements of anterior tibial translation (ATT) from surface strain gauges on the insertions of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and the patellar tendon (PT) are sufficiently sensitive and specific to differentiate normal, stable knees from acutely unstable knees due to ACL section. Twelve cats received miniaturized strain gauges on the surface of MCL and PT distal insertions. A purpose-made receiver transformed into measurements any voltage variation obtained during passive knee flexion-extension and anterior tibial translation manoeuvres. Variables under evaluation included first peak latency, normalized amplitude, and slope of voltage along time. Femorotibial displacements were video recorded, digitized, and used as the ATT reference. The proposed system detected significant changes in the slope of the voltage/time signal, with higher specificity and sensitivity during ATT after experimental ACL section. Changes were not significant during flexion or extension. It was found that a pattern of earlier and more intense strain in MCL and PT distal insertions was found during ATT in the ACL deficient knee. Enhanced pattern recognition learning from these structures could be a future target for proprioceptive training after ACL injury. PMID:17070686

  15. 78 FR 32688 - Notice of Realty Action, Segregation Terminated, Direct Sale of Public Land in San Bernardino...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... February 10, 2010 (75 FR 6702). This previous segregation will terminate on May 31, 2013 and be replaced... States under the Act of August 30, 1890 (43 U.S.C 945). 2. Subject to a ROW for a buried fiber optic... buried fiber optic cable issued to AT&T under serial number CACA 21604. 4. A condition that...

  16. Changes Come as Old Hiring Practices Go.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Career Planning & Employment, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Assembles a number of short takes that describe how some human resource professionals have changed their operations to upgrade their bottom line. Includes: Deloitte & Touche, Andersen Consulting, Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Brown & Root, AT&T, Ford Motor Company, and The Monsanto Company. Provides advice and tips. (JBJ)

  17. Percentage of Protected Area Amounts within each Watershed Boundary for the Conterminous US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: This dataset uses spatial information from the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD, March 2011) and the Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US Version 1.0). The resulting data layer, with percentages of protected areas by category, was created using the ATtI...

  18. End-User Searching in a Large Library Network: A Case Study of Patent Attorneys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollaro, Alice J.; Hawkins, Donald T.

    1986-01-01

    Reports results of study of a group of end users (patent attorneys) doing their own online searching at AT&T Bell Laboratories. Highlights include DIALOG databases used by the attorneys, locations and searching modes, characteristics of patent attorney searchers, and problem areas. Questionnaire is appended. (5 references) (EJS)

  19. A SEARCH FOR RESIDUAL BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE) IN RATS EXPOSED AS YOUNG ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a solvent of concern to the EPA due to its extensive use in industry, its prevalence in urban air, and its appearance in water supplies. Human clinical studies have associated short and long-termsolvent exposures with cognitive dysfunction including att...

  20. Synthesis of formyl esters of vegetable oils: Milkweed, Pennycress and Soy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study of the characteristics of acyl derivatives of polyhydroxy milkweed oil (PHMWO), it was observed that the densities and viscosities of the respective derivatives decreased with increased chain length of the substituent acyl group. Thus, from the polyhydroxyl starting material, att...

  1. Irrigated agriculture with limited water supply:Tools for understanding and managing irrigation and crop water use efficiencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water availability for irrigated agriculture is declining in both China and the United States due to increased use for power generation, municipalities, industries and environmental protection. Persistent droughts have exacerbated the situation, leading to increases in irrigated area as farmers atte...

  2. Characterizing the molecular basis of attenuation of Marek’s disease virus via in vitro serial passage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by the oncogenic Gallid herpesvirus 2, commonly known as Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MD vaccines, the primary control method, are often generated by repeated in vitro serial passage of this highly cell-associated virus to atte...

  3. Electronic Baby Steps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Ann D.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the participation of a small Catholic school near Philadelphia in the AT&T Learning Circles Project, which involved networking with schools in several states. The integration of the telecommunications project with the language arts curriculum is discussed, including creative writing about local food and historic places to share with…

  4. Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2013-04-01

    Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways. PMID:23453730

  5. Antibiotic resistance in the ECOR collection: integrons and identification of a novel aad gene.

    PubMed

    Mazel, D; Dychinco, B; Webb, V A; Davies, J

    2000-06-01

    The 72 Escherichia coli strains of the ECOR collection were examined for resistance to 10 different antimicrobial agents including ampicillin, tetracycline, mercury, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides. Eighteen strains were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested, and nearly 20% (14 of 72) were resistant to two or more. Several of the resistance determinants were shown to be carried on conjugative elements. The collection was screened for the presence of the three classes of integrons and for the sul1 gene, which is generally associated with class 1 integrons. The four strains found to carry a class 1 integron also had Tn21-encoded mercury resistance. One of the integrons encoded a novel streptomycin resistance gene, aadA7, with an attC site (or 59-base element) nearly identical to the attC site associated with the qacF gene cassette found in In40 (M.-C. Ploy, P. Courvalin, and T. Lambert, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:2557-2563, 1998). The conservation of associated attC sites among unrelated resistance cassettes is similar to arrangements found in the Vibrio cholerae superintegrons (D. Mazel, B. Dychinco, V. A. Webb, and J. Davies, Science 280:605-608, 1998) and supports the hypothesis that resistance cassettes are picked up from superintegron pools and independently assembled from unrelated genes and related attC sites. PMID:10817710

  6. Flood stress as a technicque to assess preventive insecticide and fungicide treatments for protecting trees against ambrosia beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exotic ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus germanus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus compactus tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress as a tactic for making trees attractive and vulnerable to att...

  7. 78 FR 72670 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings 1 Take notice that the Commission received the.... Description: Entergy Arkansas, Inc. submits Att Y Ministerial Corrections to be effective 12/1/2012. Filed.... Description: Southwest Power Pool, Inc. submits 607R20 Westar Energy, Inc. NITSA and NOA to be effective...

  8. 77 FR 48137 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings 1 Take notice that the Commission received... Applicants: PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Description: Revisions to Sec 3.2.3-OATT Att K Appx & OA Sch 1- Shortage Pricing Sharing Agmts to be effective 10/1/2012. Filed Date: 8/2/12 Accession Number:...

  9. 78 FR 38707 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings 1 Take notice that the Commission received the.... Description: NYISO Response to NCZ Deficiency Letter to be effective 1/27/2014. Filed Date: 6/12/13. Accession.... Description: Ministerial Clean-Up Filing-Section 7.4 of the OATT Att K and OA Schedule 1 to be effective...

  10. The UNIX Operating System in Libraries: Advantages of LAN's and Bulletin Board Systems in Your Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Phillip E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the experiences of the AT&T Technical Library in installing a local area network (LAN) and bulletin board using the UNIX operating system. Reasons why a LAN was needed, how the system works, and hardware and software used are discussed. (1 reference) (MES)

  11. Towards Compliance: How One Global Corporation Complies with Copyright Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaper, Louise Levy; Kawecki, Alicja T.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses copyright issues related to paper and electronic copying and describes how AT&T Bell Laboratories has developed policies to manage copyright compliance. Copyright law is discussed, examples of legal suits are given, the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) is explained, and procedures to encourage compliance by end users and suppliers are…

  12. Attention Training with Auditory Hallucinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Bouman, Theo K.; Schuurman, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The case presented in this paper illustrates how Attention Training (ATT; [Wells, A. (1990). "Panic disorder in association with relaxation induced anxiety: An attentional training approach to treatment." "Behavior Therapy," 21, 273-280.]) can be applied in an outpatient setting in the treatment of auditory hallucinations. The 25-year-old male…

  13. Genomic sequence analysis of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomic sequences of low and high passages of U.S. infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO) these strains were determined using hybrid next generation sequencing in order to define relevant genomic changes associated with att...

  14. Centennial Calendar- 100 Years of the American Phytopathological Society

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    I edited a 40-page publication (calendar) that covered 18 chapters written by members of our society. This covered pioneering researchers, departments, and epidemics of the last 100 years of plant pathology in the U. S. This was given to all members of the American Phytopathological Society who att...

  15. Host-seeking height preferences of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in North-central Florida suburban and sylvatic locales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of Aedes albopictus to the BG-Sentinel™, Omni-directional-Fay-Prince and Mosquito Magnet-X traps was evaluated in four suburban and four sylvatic habitats in North-Central Florida to ascertain potential height preference of this species. These traps, which are primarily designed to att...

  16. Biology of Eurytoma Sivinskii, an unusual Eurytomid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurytomidae are diverse biologically, being entomophagous, phytophagous or both and typically attack egg, larval and/or pupal stages of their hosts. Here, we describe some aspects of the natural history of a recently described Mexican species, Eurytoma sivinskii (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) found att...

  17. Biology of Eurytoma sivinskii, an unusual eurytomid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurytomidae are diverse biologically, being entomophagous, phytophagous or both and typically attack egg, larval and/or pupal stages of their hosts. Here, we describe some aspects of the natural history of a recently described Mexican species, Eurytoma sivinskii (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) found att...

  18. MANAGEMENT OF WET-WEATHER FLOW IN THE URBAN WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter covers the control and treatment of stormwater in relation to the removal or reduction of the stormwater pollutant loads. The control of stormwater to prevent flooding is not the emphasis of this chapter. The pollution abatement technologies discussed will help atte...

  19. The Prototype of the Virtual Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jack M.; Mosher, David N.

    1994-01-01

    Introduces an interactive distance learning environment prototype developed jointly by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) and AT&T which allows students to participate in virtual classroom environments by using computer teleconferencing. Student collaboration, note taking, question answering capabilities, project background, learning theory,…

  20. 78 FR 76710 - Notice of Buy America Waiver for a Video Ready Access Device Cabinet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... cabinet needed for an AT&T utility relocation associated with the Charlotte Area Transit System's (CATS... Transit System's (CATS or City of Charlotte) LYNX Blue Line Extension (BLE) project, which is an FTA... interpretation of FTA's Buy America rules with respect to the utility relocation performed for the CATS LYNX...

  1. Proceedings of the Symposium on Training of Nuclear Facility Personnel (8th, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, April 24-27, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.

    Education-related titles among the 56 papers are "Panel Discussion: Plant Expectation of Training" (Sellman, Zach, Cross); "Managing Training AT&T" (Solomon); "Training Management Systems" (Waylett); "Managing the Training Function" (Wiggin); "Training Management" (Newton); Three Alternative Simulation Systems for Training Nuclear Power Plant…

  2. A novel approach to investigate the uptake and internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in spinach cultivated in soil and hydroponic media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into spinach plants through root uptake is a potential route of contamination. A Tn7-based plasmid vector was used to insert the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene into the attTn7 site in the E. coli chromosome. Three gfp-labeled E. coli inocula, O157:H7 strains ...

  3. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 2800 - Security Termination Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Termination Statement 2 Attachment 2 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part...

  4. Protein-protein interactions in a higher-order structure direct lambda site-specific recombination.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J F; de Vargas, L M; Skinner, S E; Landy, A

    1987-06-01

    The highly directional site-specific recombination of bacteriophage lambda is tightly regulated by the binding of three different proteins to a complex array of sites. The manner in which these reactions are both stimulated and inhibited by co-operative binding of proteins to specific sites on the P arm of attP and AttR has been elucidated by correlation of nuclease protection with recombination studies of both wild-type and mutant DNAs. In addition to co-operative forces, there is a specific competitive interaction that allows the protein-DNA complex to serve as a "biological switch". This switch does not depend upon the simple occlusion of DNA binding sites by neighboring proteins; but, rather, the outcome of this competition is dependent on long-range interactions that vary between the higher-order structures of attP and attR. These higher-order structures are dependent on cooperative interactions involving three proteins binding to five or more sites. PMID:2958633

  5. 32 CFR Attachment 3 to Part 855 - Landing Permit Application Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Attachment 3 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 3 Attachment 3 to Part 855... along with DD Form 2401 for continued use of Air Force airfields. The DD Form 2400 may be submitted...

  6. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B.

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  7. Developmental and Behavioral Performance of Internationally Adopted Preschoolers: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Emma; Miller, Laurie C.; Tirella, Linda G.

    2010-01-01

    Most international adoptees (IA) have rapid catch-up of the delays common at arrival. However, it is not known whether development at arrival predicts later abilities or school readiness. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated language, fine motor, visual reception (VR), executive function (EF), attention (ATT), and sensory skills (SS) in IA…

  8. 32 CFR Attachment 5 to Part 855 - Sample Temporary Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample Temporary Agreement 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855—Sample Temporary Agreement Letter of Agreement...

  9. 32 CFR Attachment 5 to Part 855 - Sample Temporary Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample Temporary Agreement 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855—Sample Temporary Agreement Letter of Agreement...

  10. 32 CFR Attachment 5 to Part 855 - Sample Temporary Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample Temporary Agreement 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855—Sample Temporary Agreement Letter of Agreement...

  11. 32 CFR Attachment 5 to Part 855 - Sample Temporary Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Temporary Agreement 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855—Sample Temporary Agreement Letter of Agreement...

  12. 32 CFR Attachment 5 to Part 855 - Sample Temporary Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample Temporary Agreement 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855—Sample Temporary Agreement Letter of Agreement...

  13. Workplace Education Initiative: Year Two Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperazi, Laura; Astrein, Bruce

    Site visits to 17 workplace education projects funded in the second year of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative are reported for year 1 and year 2 projects. The year one projects are as follows: EASCO Handtool Company (Springfield), T.J. Maxx Distribution Center (Worcester), laundry workers (Boston/Lynn), AT&T (Lawrence), and Columbia…

  14. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 855 - Weather Alternate List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weather Alternate List 2 Attachment 2 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part...

  15. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 855 - Weather Alternate List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weather Alternate List 2 Attachment 2 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part...

  16. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 855 - Weather Alternate List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weather Alternate List 2 Attachment 2 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part...

  17. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  18. Information Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luskin, Bernard J.; Krinsky, Ira W.

    1994-01-01

    The growing number of mergers, takeovers, and joint ventures has dramatic implications for communications, publishing, and education worldwide. Apple Computer and IBM have created Kaleida, a standard for software used in devices that combine text, sound, video, and graphics. Apple, AT&T, Matsushita, Motorola, Philips, and Sony are developing a…

  19. Tritium waste control: October 1981-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1982-08-16

    Progress reports and summaries are presented for the following: electrolysis of tritiated water; impurity removal from the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) feed water; gas generation measurements on tritiated waste materials; fixation of aqueous tritiated waste in polymer-impregnated concrete; management of high specific activity tritiated liquid wastes; and treatment of tritium contaminated water at Three Mile Island. (ATT)

  20. RESPIRATORY-CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND CHLOROETHANE GILL FLUX IN THE CHANNEL CATFISH ICTALRUS PUNCTATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fish respirometer-metabolism chamber was used to obtain in ivo respiratory-cardiovascular and chloroethane gill flux data on transected channel catfish (Ictalrus punctatus). ethods used for spinal transection, attachment of an oral membrane (respiratory mask), placement and att...

  1. ANALYTICAL TOOLS INTERFACE FOR LANDSCAPE ASSESSMENTS (ATTILA) USER MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATtlLA is an ArcView extension that allows users to easily calculate many common landscape metrics. GIS expertise is not required, but some experience with ArcView is recommended. Four metric groups are currently included in ATtILA: landscape characteristics, riparian characteris...

  2. UNIX Systems in Higher Education: A Paradoxical Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCredie, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Bell Laboratories' much acclaimed UNIX operating system is widely used in educational computing environments. Discusses history of the system, system features and weaknesses, and policy issues. Also discusses some ways UNIX systems are used and recent developments at American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) impacting UNIX systems. (JN)

  3. Research on Teletraining: Student Acceptance, Learning Effectiveness and Cost Benefits in the Corporate Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chute, Alan G.

    The Sales and Marketing Education organization of AT&T Communications conducts ongoing research to monitor the impact of their National Teletraining Network (NTN) programs for professional sales personnel on: (1) learning, (2) student acceptance of courses and instructors, and (3) student willingness to take additional teletrained programs. During…

  4. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are potent producers of carcinogenic and hepatotoxic aflatoxins, polyketide-derived secondary metabolites that contaminate a wide variety of agricultural crops. Strains with opposite mating-type genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 within each species were crossed in an att...

  5. Integrated circuit with dissipative layer for photogenerated carriers

    DOEpatents

    Myers, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The sensitivity of an integrated circuit to single-event upsets is decreased by providing a dissi The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-ACO4-76DP00789 between the Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  6. Integrated circuit with dissipative layer for photogenerated carriers

    DOEpatents

    Myers, D.R.

    1989-09-12

    The sensitivity of an integrated circuit to single-event upsets is decreased by providing a dissi The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-ACO4-76DP00789 between the Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  7. Making Education and Training Work: Case Studies of Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, David. Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Includes 12 case studies of education and training in various settings and countries: AT&T, Microsoft, and IBM; Maytag; Vauxhall; St. John Ambulance; McDonald's; Bayer; Newcastle (England) City Council; corporate universities; European management program; distance learning at Leuven University (Belgium); learning organizations; and technology…

  8. Software process assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon E.; Tucker, George T.; Verducci, Anthony J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Software process assessments (SPA's) are part of an ongoing program of continuous quality improvements in AT&T. Their use was found to be very beneficial by software development organizations in identifying the issues facing the organization and the actions required to increase both quality and productivity in the organization.

  9. Heating poultry houses with an attic ventilation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuel use constitutes a large percentage of the energy costs incurred by growers during winter flocks and increasing fuel costs have illustrated the need for alternative methods to reduce energy usage in broiler production. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using the att...

  10. Technology and the Research Environment of the Future. The Impact of the Information Science Revolution on the Research Environment of the Future. Proceedings of Three Seminars (Albany, New York, September 15, 1987, February 2, 1988, and May 6, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Library, Albany.

    In a series of three half-day seminars, scientists from AT&T Bell Laboratories, IBM (International Business Machines), and the Corporation for National Research Initiatives described current research in materials science, computing, and networking with implications for scholarly communication in the future. The audience for the seminars included…

  11. Generation of recombinant newcastle disease viruses, expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus, subtype A, or B, for use as bivalent vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using reverse genetics technology, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant viruses were engineered to express the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), subtype A, or B, as bivalent vaccines. These recombinant viruses, rLS/aMPV-A G and rLS/aMPV-B G, were slightly att...

  12. Installing the Future. Fiber Optics Program Readies Students for Lucrative Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optics program at Somerset County Technical Institute (SCTI) prepares college students and trades workers for telecommunication's new wave of installation. The program was born of a partnership among an electricians' union, AT&T, and SCTI to meet the expected need for fiber optic technicians. (JOW)

  13. Building Models for the Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Suicidal Behavior: Based on Data from General Population Surveys in Sweden, Norway, and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Koposov, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to build a model delineating the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and suicidal behavior and to assess equivalence by applying the model on data from different countries. Representative samples from the general population were approached in Sweden, Norway, and Russia with the Attitudes Toward Suicide (ATTS) questionnaire.…

  14. Two-stage, low noise advanced technology fan. 5: Acoustic final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofrin, T. G.; Riloff, N., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Q2S(quiet two-stage) fan is a 0.836m (32.9 in.) diameter model of the STF 433 engine fan, selected in a 1972 study for an Advanced Technology Transport (ATT) airplane. Noise-control features include: low tip speed, moderate stage pressure rise, large blade-vane spacings, no inlet guide vanes, and optimum blade and vane numbers. Tests were run on the baseline Q2S fan with standard inlet and discharge ducts. Further tests were made of a translating centerbody sonic inlet device and treated discharge ducts. Results were scaled to JT8D and JT3D engine fan size for comparison with current two-stage fans, and were also scaled to STF 433 fan size to compare calculated ATT flyover noise with FAR 36 limits. Baseline Q2S results scaled to JT8D and JT3D engine fan sizes showed substantial noise reductions. Calculated unsuppressed baseline ATT flyovers averaged about 2.5 EPNdB below FAR 36 limits. Using measured sonic inlet results, scaled baseline Q2S fan results, and calculated attenuations for a 1975 technology duct liner, projected flyover noise calculations for the ATT averaged about FAR 36 limits minus 10 EPNdB. Advances in suppression technology required to meet the 1985 goal of FAR 36 limits minus 20 EPNdB are discussed.

  15. New qnr Gene Cassettes Associated with Superintegron Repeats in Vibrio cholerae O1

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Freitas, Fernanda; Vieira, Verônica V.; Vicente, Ana C.P.

    2008-01-01

    A novel qnr determinant emerged in ciprofloxacin-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Amazon region of Brazil. This qnrVC1 was in a typical class 1 integron. Its attC showed 89% identity with V. parahaemolyticus superintegron repeats. Analysis showed V. cholerae O1 carrying qnrVC2 associated with a V. cholerae superintegron repeat. PMID:18598639

  16. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 855 - Weather Alternate List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weather Alternate List 2 Attachment 2 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part...

  17. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 855 - Weather Alternate List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weather Alternate List 2 Attachment 2 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part...

  18. Heat Stress Screening of Peanut Seedlings for Acquired Thermotolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop a user-friendly and medium throughput laboratory protocol using acquired thermotolerance (ATT) in peanut seedlings as a measure of one mechanism of heat stress tolerance. Sixteen genotypes, including selected accessions of the U.S. peanut min...

  19. 32 CFR Attachment 1 to Part 855 - Glossary of References, Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Terms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF). US registered aircraft, certificated under FAR part 121, obligated by... THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 1... 10-10, Civil Aircraft Use of United States Air Force Airfields AFI 10-1001, Civil Aircraft...

  20. 32 CFR Attachment 1 to Part 855 - Glossary of References, Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Terms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF). US registered aircraft, certificated under FAR Part 121, obligated by... THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 1... 10-10, Civil Aircraft Use of United States Air Force Airfields AFI 10-1001, Civil Aircraft...

  1. 32 CFR Attachment 1 to Part 855 - Glossary of References, Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Terms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF). US registered aircraft, certificated under FAR part 121, obligated by... THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 1... 10-10, Civil Aircraft Use of United States Air Force Airfields AFI 10-1001, Civil Aircraft...

  2. 32 CFR Attachment D to Subpart B... - Decision Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision Tables D Attachment D to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY... Investigative Standards Pt. 147, Subpt. B, Att. D Attachment D to Subpart B of Part 147—Decision Tables Table...

  3. 32 CFR Attachment D to Subpart B... - Decision Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision Tables D Attachment D to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY... Investigative Standards Pt. 147, Subpt. B, Att. D Attachment D to Subpart B of Part 147—Decision Tables Table...

  4. 32 CFR Attachment D to Subpart B... - Decision Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision Tables D Attachment D to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY... Investigative Standards Pt. 147, Subpt. B, Att. D Attachment D to Subpart B of Part 147—Decision Tables Table...

  5. Evaluating and Diffusing an Organizational Change Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Alan O.

    1979-01-01

    Illustrates AT&T's organization analysis and design process by describing a study in which it was used to analyze and improve the efficiency of one division's operation, including the identification of specific workflow and performance problems. Difficulties encountered with pilot implementation and diffusion are discussed. (JD)

  6. 76 FR 75539 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings 1 Take notice that the Commission received the... effective 1/1/2012. Filed Date: 11/21/11. Accession Number: 20111121-5234. ] Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 12/12... Operator, Inc. Description: 11-21-11 Att FF & X--Option 1 Removal to be effective 3/22/2011. Filed Date:...

  7. 77 FR 3470 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings 1 Take notice that the Commission received the... filing per 35: Att. L--MVP Compliance to be effective 1/ 1/2012. Filed Date: 1/12/12. Accession Number... effective 12/31/9998. Filed Date: 1/11/12. Accession Number: 20120111-5204. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET...

  8. 77 FR 30272 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings 1 Take notice that the Commission received the.... Filed Date: 5/1/12. Accession Number: 20120501-5447. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 5/22/12. Docket Numbers... of the PJM OATT Att K Appx & OA Schedule 1 to be effective 4/1/2012. Filed Date: 5/14/12....

  9. Cutting out the φC31 prophage.

    PubMed

    Stark, W Marshall

    2011-06-01

    To establish a lysogenic lifestyle, the temperate bacteriophage φC31 integrates its genome into the chromosome of its Streptomyces host, by site-specific recombination between attP (the attachment site in the phage DNA) and attB (the chromosomal attachment site). This reaction is promoted by a phage-encoded serine recombinase Int. To return to the lytic lifestyle, the prophage excises its DNA by a similar Int-mediated reaction between the recombinant sites flanking the prophage, attL and attR. φC31 Int has been developed into a popular experimental tool for integration of transgenic DNA into the genomes of eukaryotic organisms. However, until now it has not been possible to use Int to promote the reverse reaction, excision. In many other phages, the presence of a recombination directionality factor (RDF) protein biases the phage-encoded integrase towards prophage excision, whereas absence of the RDF favours integration; but the φC31 RDF had proved elusive. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Khaleel et al. (2011) report the identification and purification of the φC31 RDF, and show that it both promotes excision and inhibits integration by direct protein-protein interactions with Int itself. PMID:21564340

  10. Generation of Food-Grade Recombinant Lactic Acid Bacterium Strains by Site-Specific Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Martín, M. Cruz; Alonso, Juan C.; Suárez, Juan E.; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2000-01-01

    The construction of a delivery and clearing system for the generation of food-grade recombinant lactic acid bacterium strains, based on the use of an integrase (Int) and a resolvo-invertase (β-recombinase) and their respective target sites (attP-attB and six, respectively) is reported. The delivery system contains a heterologous replication origin and antibiotic resistance markers surrounded by two directly oriented six sites, a multiple cloning site where passenger DNA could be inserted (e.g., the cI gene of bacteriophage A2), the int gene, and the attP site of phage A2. The clearing system provides a plasmid-borne gene encoding β-recombinase. The nonreplicative vector-borne delivery system was transformed into Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 and, by site-specific recombination, integrated as a single copy in an orientation- and Int-dependent manner into the attB site present in the genome of the host strain. The transfer of the clearing system into this strain, with the subsequent expression of the β-recombinase, led to site-specific DNA resolution of the non-food-grade DNA. These methods were validated by the construction of a stable food-grade L. casei ATCC 393-derived strain completely immune to phage A2 infection during milk fermentation. PMID:10831443

  11. Credit. 1991-92 NCCE/AT&T Projects. Consumer Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti. National Inst. for Consumer Education.

    Summaries are provided of 37 projects that address the credit education and information needs of consumers. The projects are supported by AT&T Universal Card Services Corp. through a fund managed by the National Coalition for Consumer Education. Each summary provides a project description, grant recipient, and address/telephone number. The…

  12. The influence of light on small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) behavior and trap capture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida, Murray) is a major pest of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, particularly in the Southeastern United States. We evaluated the small hive beetle’s (SHB) response to different wavelengths of the light spectrum and found that SHB larvae and adults were most att...

  13. Effect of body composition methodology on estimates of fat mass heritability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Body fatness is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have produced a wide range of estimates for the heritability of body fatness, ranging from 0.34-0.90 for body mass index (BMI), 0.59-0.83 for percent body fat, and 0.45-0.71 for fat mass. Little atte...

  14. A maize (Zea mays) line resistant to herbivory constitutively releases (E)-B-caryophyllene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important agricultural crop. Various insect pests such as those in the order of Lepidoptera frequently feed on young maize plants and pose a significant threat to plant development and survival. To deal with this problem, maize generates a wide variety of responses to att...

  15. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Impacts of Telephone Deregulation Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Three papers consider various aspects of the AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph Company) court-ordered divestiture. The first paper, "InterLATA Toll Alternatives for the Bell Regional Holding Companies" (Elizabeth A. La Blanc, Ann M. Wolf, and Richard M. Wolf), examines six options available to the RHCs (regional holding companies) for…

  16. Protein binding sites involved in the assembly of the KplE1 prophage intasome.

    PubMed

    Panis, Gaël; Duverger, Yohann; Champ, Stéphanie; Ansaldi, Mireille

    2010-08-15

    The organization of the recombination regions of the KplE1 prophage in Escherichia coli K12 differs from that observed in the lambda prophage. Indeed, the binding sites characterized for the IntS integrase, the TorI recombination directionality factor (RDF) and the integration host factor (IHF) vary in number, spacing and orientation on the attL and attR regions. In this paper, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of the recombination sites to decipher if all sites are essential for the site-specific recombination reaction and how the KplE1 intasome is assembled. We also show that TorI and IntS form oligomers that are stabilized in the presence of their target DNA. Moreover, we found that IHF is the only nucleoid associated protein (NAP) involved in KplE1 recombination, although it is dispensable. This is consistent with the presence of only one functional IHF site on attR and none on attL. PMID:20494389

  17. The Impact of the AT&T-EEO Consent Decree. Labor Relations and Public Rolicy Series No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrup, Herbert R.; Larson, John A.

    The consent decree agreed to in January 1973 by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T), the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the Department of Justice, and the Department of Labor was a milestone of EEOC enforcement. Large amounts of back pay were paid to women and minorities, and goals were set which, as…

  18. 77 FR 9222 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ...: 5 pm ET 2/28/12. Docket Numbers: ER12-561-001. Applicants: Oregon Trail Wind Park, LLC. ] Description: Oregon Trail Tariff to be effective 2/2/2012. Filed Date: 2/7/12. Accession Number: 20120207-5126...: Appalachian Power Company. Description: 20120207 Att K and L Revisions Correction to be effective N/A....

  19. Isolation and characterization of a proteinase K sensitive PrPSc fraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that a sizeable fraction of PrPSc present in prion-infected tissues is,contrary to previous conceptions, sensitive to digestion by proteinase K (PK). This finding has important implications in the context of diagnosis of prion disease, as PK has been extensively used in att...

  20. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting: DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The meeting consisted of the following six sessions: (1) plenary session I; (2) disposal technology; (3) characteristics and treatment of low-level waste; (4) environmental aspects and performance prediction; (5) overall summary sessions; and (6) plenary session II. Fifty two papers of the papers presented were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  1. Characterization of the lactococcal temperate phage TP901-1 and its site-specific integration.

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, B; Johnsen, M G; Stenby, E; Vogensen, F K; Hammer, K

    1994-01-01

    The temperate lactococcal phage TP901-1, induced by UV light from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 901-1, was characterized. The restriction map was found to be circular, and the packaging of TP901-1 DNA was concluded to occur by a headful mechanism. The pac region was localized on the 38.4-kb phage genome. TP901-1 belongs to the class of P335 phages (V. Braun, S. Hertwig, H. Neve, A. Geis, and M. Teuber, J. Gen. Microbiol. 135:2551-2560, 1989). Evidence is presented that the phages TP936-1 (V. Braun, S. Hertwig, H. Neve, A. Geis, and M. Teuber, J. Gen. Microbiol. 135:2551-2560, 1989) and C3-T1 (A. W. Jarvis, V. R. Parker, and M. B. Bianchin, Can. J. Microbiol. 38:398-404, 1992) are very closely related to or are identical to TP901-1. The lytically propagated TP901-1 phages were able to lysogenize both indicator strains Lactococcus cremoris 3107 and Wg2. Lysogenization resulted in site-specific integration of the phage genome into the bacterial chromosome. Only one chromosomal attB site was found in 20 independent lysogens. The attP region of TP901-1 and the attL and attR regions were cloned and sequenced. The results showed a core region of only 5 bp, in which the recombination occurs, followed after a 1-bp mismatch by a 7-bp identical region, TCAAT(T/C)AAGGTAA. This result was further verified by sequencing of the attB region obtained by PCR. An integration vector was constructed with the 6.5-kb EcoRI fragment from TP901-1 containing attP. This vector also functions in the plasmid-free strains, MG1363 and LM0230 with only one specific attB site, strongly indicating a more general use of the TP901-1-based integration vector in lactococci. Images PMID:8106318

  2. Brujita Integrase: A Simple, Arm-Less, Directionless, and Promiscuous Tyrosine Integrase System.

    PubMed

    Lunt, Bryce L; Hatfull, Graham F

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacteriophage Brujita is an unusual temperate phage in which establishment of superinfection immunity is dependent on chromosomal integration. Integration is mediated by a non-canonical tyrosine integrase (Int) lacking an N-terminal domain typically associated with binding to arm-type sites within the phage attachment site (attP). This raises the question as to how these Ints bind their DNA substrates, if they form higher-order protein DNA complexes, and how site selection and recombinational directionality are determined. Here we show that Brujita Int is a simple recombinase, whose properties more closely resemble those of FLP and Cre than it does the canonical phage Ints. Brujita Int uses relatively small DNA substrates, fails to discriminate between attP and attB, cleaves attachment site DNA to form a 6-base overlap region, and lacks directional control. Brujita Int also has an unusual pattern of binding to its DNA substrates. It binds to two half sites (B and B') at attB, although binding to the B half site is strongly dependent on occupancy of B'. In contrast, binding to the P half site is not observed, even when Int is bound at P'. However, an additional Int binding site (P1) is displaced to the left of the crossover site at attP, is required for recombination and is predicted to facilitate binding of Int to the P half site during synapsis. These simple phage Int systems may reflect ancestral states of phage evolution with the complexities of higher-order complex formation and directional control representing subsequent adaptations. PMID:27113630

  3. Spectroscopic measurement of adipose tissue thickness and comparison with ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskin, Dmitri; Boeth, Heide; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

    2007-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is widely applied for applications monitoring skeletal muscle oxygenation. However, this method is obstructed by the subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness (ATT) which might vary between < 1 mm to more than 12 mm. Though diffuse optical imaging can be applied to measure ATT, the objective here is to get this measure from spectroscopic data of a single source-detector distance. For the measurement of the optical lipid signal we used a broad band spatially resolved system (SRS), which is based on measurements of the wavelength dependence of the attenuation A for source detector distances ρ between 29 mm and 39 mm. Ultrasound images served as an anatomical reference of the lipid layer. The measurements were taken on 5 different muscle groups of 20 healthy volunteers, each for left and right limbs, e.g. vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle on the leg and ventral forearm muscles and biceps brachii muscle on the arm. Different analysis strategies were tested for the best calculation of ATT. There is a good non-linear correlation between optical lipid signal and ultrasound data, with an overall error in ATT prediction of about 0.5 mm. This finding is supported experimentally by additional MRI measurements as well as a multi-layer Monte Carlo (MC) model. Based on this data of the ATT thickness, a newly developed algorithm which exploits the wavelength dependence of the slope in attenuation with respect to source-detector distance and MC simulation for these parameters as a function of absorption and scattering coefficients delivers a considerably better fit of reflectance spectra when fitting haemoglobin concentrations. Implications for the monitoring of muscle oxygen saturation are discussed.

  4. Architecture of the Tn7 Post-Transposition Complex: an Elaborate Nucleoprotein Structure

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Jason W.; Craig, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Four transposition proteins encoded by the bacterial transposon Tn7, TnsA, TnsB, TnsC, and TnsD, mediate its site- and orientation-specific insertion into the chromosomal site attTn7. To establish which Tns proteins are actually present in the transpososome that executes DNA breakage and joining, we have determined the proteins present in the nucleoprotein product of transposition, the Post-Transposition Complex (PTC) using fluorescently labeled Tns proteins. All four required Tns proteins are present in the PTC in which we also find that the Tn7 ends are paired by protein-protein contacts between Tns proteins bound to the ends. Quantification of the relative amounts of the fluorescent Tns proteins in the PTC indicates that oligomers of TnsA, TnsB, and TnsC mediate Tn7 transposition. High-resolution DNA footprinting of the DNA product of transposition attTn7∷Tn7 revealed that about 350 bp of DNA on the transposon ends and on attTn7 contact the Tns proteins. All seven binding sites for TnsB, the component of the transposase that specifically binds the ends and mediates 3’ end breakage and joining, are occupied in the PTC. However, the protection pattern of the sites closest to the Tn7 ends in the PTC are different from that observed with TnsB alone, likely reflecting the pairing of the ends and their interaction with the target nucleoprotein complex necessary for activation of the breakage and joining steps. We also observe extensive protection of the attTn7 sequences in the PTC and that alternative DNA structures in substrate attTn7 that are imposed by TnsD are maintained in the PTC. PMID:20538004

  5. Tuberculous Drug-induced Liver Injury and Treatment Re-challenge in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Costiniuk, Cecilia T.; Gosnell, Bernadett I.; Manzini, Thandekile C.; Du Plessis, Camille N.; Moosa, Mahomed Yunus S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (TB-DILI) is the most common adverse event necessitating therapy interruption. The optimal re-challenge strategy for antituberculous therapy (ATT) remains unclear, especially in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected individuals in high-prevalence settings such as South Africa. Objective: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for the recurrence of TB-DILI with different ATT re-challenge strategies. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients managed for TB-DILI from 2005 to 2013 at King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban, South Africa. Relevant clinical and laboratory data at the presentation of TB-DILI, time to recovery of liver function, method of ATT re-challenge and outcome of re-challenge were documented. Results: 1016 charts were reviewed, and 53 individuals with TB-DILI (48 HIV-co-infected) were identified. Following discontinuation of ATT, the median time to alanine aminotransferase normalization was 28 days (interquartile range 13-43). Forty-two subjects were re-challenged (30 regimen re-challenges and 12 step-wise re-challenges). 5 (12%) cases of recurrent TB-DILI were noted. Recurrences were not associated with the method of re-challenge. Conclusion: Based on the data available, it appears that full ATT can be safely restarted in the majority of subjects with a recurrence of DILI occurring in about 12% of subjects. The method of re-challenge did not appear to impact on the risk of recurrence. Ideally, a prospective randomized trial is needed to determine the best method of re-challenge. PMID:26752869

  6. ACL mismatch reconstructions: influence of different tunnel placement strategies in single-bundle ACL reconstructions on the knee kinematics.

    PubMed

    Herbort, Mirco; Lenschow, Simon; Fu, Freddie H; Petersen, Wolf; Zantop, Thore

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of tibial and femoral tunnel position in ACL reconstruction on knee kinematics, we compared ACL reconstruction with a tibial and femoral tunnel in anteromedial (AM-AM reconstruction) and in posterolateral footprint (PL-PL reconstruction) with a reconstruction technique with tibial posterolateral and femoral anteromedial tunnel placement (PL-AM reconstruction). In 9 fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees, the knee kinematics under simulated Lachman (134 N anterior tibial load) and a simulated pivot shift test (10 N/m valgus and 4 N/m internal tibial torque) were determined at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion. Kinematics were recorded for intact, ACL-deficient, and single-bundle ACL reconstructed knees using three different reconstruction strategies in randomized order: (1) PL-AM, (2) AM-AM and (3) PL-PL reconstructions. Under simulated Lachman test, single-bundle PL-AM reconstruction and PL-PL reconstructions both showed significantly increased anterior tibial translation (ATT) at 60° and 90° when compared to the intact knee. At all flexion angles, AM-AM reconstruction did not show any statistical significant differences in ATT compared to the intact knee. Under simulated pivot shift, PL-AM reconstruction resulted in significantly higher ATT at 0°, 30°, and 60° knee flexion and AM-AM reconstructions showed significantly higher ATT at 30° compared to the intact knee. PL-PL reconstructions did not show any significant differences to the intact knee. AM-AM reconstructions restore the intact knee kinematics more closely when compared to a PL-AM technique resembling a transtibial approach. PL-PL reconstructions showed increased ATT at higher flexion angles, however, secured the rotational stability at all flexion angles. Due to the independent tibial and femoral tunnel location, a medial portal technique may be superior to a transtibial approach. PMID:20461359

  7. Mechanistic insights into filamentous phage integration in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bhabatosh

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of acute diarrhoeal disease cholera, harbors large numbers of lysogenic filamentous phages, contribute significantly to the host pathogenesis and provide fitness factors to the pathogen that help the bacterium to survive in natural environment. Most of the vibriophage genomes are not equipped with integrase and thus exploit two host-encoded tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD, for lysogenic conversion. Integration is site-specific and it occurs at dimer resolution site (dif) of either one or both chromosomes of V. cholerae. Each dif sequence contains two recombinase-binding sequences flanking a central region. The integration follows a sequential strand exchanges between dif and attP sites within a DNA-protein complex consisting of one pair of each recombinase and two DNA fragments. During entire process of recombination, both the DNA components and recombinases of the synaptic complex keep transiently interconnected. Within the context of synaptic complex, both of the actuated enzymes mediate cleavage of phosphodiester bonds. First cleavage generates a phosphotyrosyl-linked recombinase-DNA complex at the recombinase binding sequence and free 5′-hydroxyl end at the first base of the central region. Following the cleavage, the exposed bases with 5′-hydroxyl ends of the central region of dif and attP sites melt from their complementary strands and react with the recombinase-DNA phosphotyrosyl linkage of their recombining partner. Subsequent ligation between dif and attP strands requires complementary base pair interactions at the site of phosphodiester bond formation. Integration mechanism is mostly influenced by the compatibility of dif and attP sequences. dif sites are highly conserved across bacterial phyla. Different phage genomes have different attP sequences; therefore they rely on different mechanisms for integration. Here, I review our current understanding of integration mechanisms used by the vibriophages. PMID

  8. 6-trifluoromethyl-2-thiouracil possesses anti-Toxoplasma gondii effect in vitro and in vivo with low hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwa-Jung; Yu, Seung-Taek; Lee, Kee-In; Choi, Joong-Kwon; Chang, Bo-Yoon; Kim, Sung-Yeon; Ko, Mi-Hwa; Song, Hyun-Ok; Park, Hyun

    2014-08-01

    Since pyrimethamine, the general therapeutic drug for toxoplasmosis, presents several adverse side effects, the need to develop and evaluate new drugs for the condition is critical. In this study, anti-Toxoplasma gondii activities of 3-[{2-((E)-furan-2-ylmethylene)hydrazinyl}methylene]-1,3-dihydroindol-2-one (ATT-5126) and 6-trifluoromethyl-2-thiouracil (KH-0562) were evaluated in vitro using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay and in vivo by measuring amount of the tachyzoites in mice ascites. Biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were also evaluated in livers of mice at 4 days post-infection. As a result, the ATT-5126 and KH-0562 showed anti-T. gondii activity in vitro. Treatment of ATT-5126 or KH-0562 decreased the amount of tachyzoites in T. gondii infected ICR mice. The relative weight of liver and spleen increased by T. gondii infection were decreased by treatment of ATT-5126 or KH-0562. The levels of LPO, ALT and AST, which are biochemical parameters involved in liver injury, were also significantly recovered by treatment of ATT-5126 or KH-0562 (p<0.05). In particular, the recovered levels by KH-0562 were similar to those of pyrimethamine-treated group (p<0.05). However, the level of GSH, which is an antioxidant indicator, showed insignificant statistics. The results suggest that KH-0562 show anti-T. gondii activities in vitro and in vivo with low hepatotoxicity. Therefore, KH-0562 may be a useful candidate for treating T. gondii infection. PMID:24830752

  9. Importance of anatomically locating the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve in reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament using flexor tendons☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Resina, André França; Pedro, Gabriel; Neto, Ildefonso Angelo Mora; Almagro, Marco Antonio Pires; da Silva, Phelipe Augusto Cintra; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the path of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IBSN) using the medial joint line, anterior tibial tuberosity (ATT), tibial collateral ligament and a horizontal line parallel to the medial joint line that passes over the ATT, as reference points, in order to help surgeons to diminish the likelihood of injuring this nerve branch during reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using flexor tendons. Methods Ten frozen knees that originated from amputations were examined. Through anatomical dissection performed with the specimens flexed, we sought to find the IBSN, from its most medial and proximal portion to its most lateral and distal portion. Following this, the anatomical specimens were photographed and, using the ImageJ software, we determined the distance from the IBSN to the medial joint line and to a lower horizontal line going through the ATT and parallel to the first line. We also measured the angle of the direction of the path of the nerve branch in relation to this lower line. Results The mean angle of the path of the nerve branch in relation to the lower horizontal line was 17.50 ± 6.17°. The mean distance from the IBSN to the medial joint line was 2.61 ± 0.59 cm and from the IBSN to the lower horizontal line, 1.44 ± 0.51 cm. Conclusion The IBSN was found in all the knees studied. In three knees, we found a second branch proximal to the first one. The direction of its path was always from proximal and medial to distal and lateral. The IBSN was always proximal and medial to the ATT and distal to the medial joint line. The medial angle between its direction and a horizontal line going through the ATT was 17.50 ± 6.17°. PMID:26229872

  10. [Expression, purification of recombinant cationic peptide AIK in Escherichia coli and its antitumor activity].

    PubMed

    Fan, Fangfang; Sun, Huiying; Xu, Hui; Liu, Jiawei; Zhang, Haiyuan; Li, Yilan; Ning, Xuelian; Sun, Yue; Bai, Jing; Fu, Songbin; Zhou, Chunshui

    2015-12-01

    AIK is a novel cationic peptide with potential antitumor activity. In order to construct the AIK expression vector by Gateway technology, and establish an optimal expression and purification method for recombinant AIK, a set of primers containing AttB sites were designed and used to create the AttB-TEV-FLAG-AIR fusion gene by overlapping PCR. The resulting fusion gene was cloned into the donor vector pDONR223 by attB and attP mediated recombination (BP reaction), then, transferred into the destination vector pDESTl 5 by attL and attR mediated recombination (LR reaction). All the cloning was verified by both colony PCR and DNA sequencing. The BL21 F. coli transformed by the GST-AIR expression plasmid was used to express the GST-AIK fusion protein with IPTG induction and the induction conditions were optimized. GST-AIR fusion protein was purified by glutathione magnetic beads, followed by rTEV cleavage to remove GST tag and MTS assay to test the growth inhibition activity of the recombinant AIR on human leukemia HL-60 cells. We found that a high level of soluble expression of GST-AIK protein (more than 30% out of the total bacterial proteins) was achieved upon 0.1 mmol/L ITPG induction for 4 h at 37 °C in the transformed BL21 F. coli with starting OD₆₀₀ at 1.0. Through GST affinity purification and rTEV cleavage, the purity of the resulting recombinant AIK was greater than 95%. And the MTS assays on HL-60 cells confirmed that the recombinant AIK retains an antitumor activity at a level similar to the chemically synthesized AIK. Taken together, we have established a method for expression and purification of recombinant AIK with a potent activity against tumor cells, which will be beneficial for the large-scale production and application of recombinant AIK in the future. PMID:27093838

  11. Determining average path length and average trapping time on generalized dual dendrimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Guan, Jihong

    2015-03-01

    Dendrimer has wide number of important applications in various fields. In some cases during transport or diffusion process, it transforms into its dual structure named Husimi cactus. In this paper, we study the structure properties and trapping problem on a family of generalized dual dendrimer with arbitrary coordination numbers. We first calculate exactly the average path length (APL) of the networks. The APL increases logarithmically with the network size, indicating that the networks exhibit a small-world effect. Then we determine the average trapping time (ATT) of the trapping process in two cases, i.e., the trap placed on a central node and the trap is uniformly distributed in all the nodes of the network. In both case, we obtain explicit solutions of ATT and show how they vary with the networks size. Besides, we also discuss the influence of the coordination number on trapping efficiency.

  12. ALT in the polarized Drell-Yan process at RHIC and HERA energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, Y.; Koike, Yuji; Nishiyama, N.

    1998-06-01

    We present a leading order (LO) estimate for the longitudinal-transverse spin asymmetry (ALT) in the nucleon-nucleon polarized Drell-Yan process at RHIC and HERA-N energies in comparison with ALL and ATT. ALT receives contribution from g1, the transversity distribution h1, and the twist-3 distributions gT and hL. For the twist-3 contribution we use the bag model prediction evolved to a high energy scale by the large-Nc evolution equation. We found that ALT (normalized by the asymmetry in the parton level) is much smaller than the corresponding ATT. Twist-3 contribution given by the bag model also turned out to be negligible.

  13. Bilateral Presumed Tuberculous Choroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Naseh; Ghassemi, Fariba; Shojaei, Esfandiar; Moradnejad, Pardis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of bilateral presumed tuberculous choroiditis which resolved promptly with a short course of antituberculous therapy. Case Report: A 44-year-old lady presented with bilateral visual loss of 8 months’duration. Considering the presence of pan-uveitis, severe macular edema, multifocal leakage on fluorescein angiography, positive tuberculin skin test, and after excluding other diseases, she underwent anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT) for disseminated choroiditis due to presumed ocular tuberculosis. She improved promptly and completely. There were no signs of relapse 18 months after completion of the treatment course. In a young patient with disseminated choroiditis and relatively short duration of symptoms, a course of ATT for 6 months may effectively treat the disease preventing relapse for a considerable period of time. Conclusion: In Presumed Tuberculous chroiditis early diagnosis is crucial for prompt and complete improvement. PMID:27413507

  14. [Construction of RNAi vectors for SmNAC1 transcription factors of Salvia miltiorrhiza using Gateway cloning technology].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rong; Rong, Qi-Xian; Liu, Yu-Zhong; Shen, Ye; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-05-01

    NAC transcription factors involved in plant growth and development, as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stress. RNAi Vectors for SmNAC transcription factors of Salvia miltiorrhiza was constructed by using Gateway cloning technology, in order to further study the function of SmNAC1 transcription factor. According to Gateway cloning technology, the specific fragments of SmNAC1 containing attB adapter was amplified by PCR using ultra-fideling phusion polymerase of NEB. By the BP recombination reaction, the PCR product containing attB was transferred to an donor vector (pENTR/SD/D-TOPO). Finally, SmNACi specific gene was cloned into pK7GWIWG2D plant expression vectors by LR recombination reaction. Experimental results showed that Gateway cloning technology provide a rapid and highly efficient way to clone the interested gene. PMID:25095362

  15. Cold inducible RNA binding protein upregulation in pituitary corticotroph adenoma induces corticotroph cell proliferation via Erk signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wei; Tang, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Zhao, Yao; Zheng, Lili; Pan, Sijian; Wang, Weiqing; Bian, Liuguan; Sun, Qingfang

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's disease is caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma, and the pathogenesis of it has remained obscure. Here, we showed that cold inducible RNA binding protein (CIRP) was markedly elevated in corticotroph tumors. Forced overexpression of CIRP in murine AtT20 pituitary corticotroph cell line increased corticotroph precursor hormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC) transcription, ACTH secretion and cellular proliferation. In vivo, CIRP overexpression promotes murine corticotroph tumor growth and enhances ACTH production. Mechanistically, we show that CIRP could promote AtT20 cells proliferation by inducing cyclinD1 and decreasing p27 expression via Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Clinically, CIRP overexpression is significantly correlated with Cushing's disease recurrence. CIRP appears to play a critical tumorigenesis function in Cushing's disease and its expression might be a useful biomarker for tumor recurrence. PMID:26824322

  16. Site-specific integration of mycobacteriophage L5: integration-proficient vectors for Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and bacille Calmette-Guérin.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M H; Pascopella, L; Jacobs, W R; Hatfull, G F

    1991-01-01

    Mycobacteriophage L5, a temperate phage of mycobacteria, integrates site-specifically into the Mycobacterium smegmatis chromosome. We have identified the int gene and attP site of L5, characterized the chromosomal attachment site (attB), and constructed plasmid vectors that efficiently transform M. smegmatis through stable site-specific integration of the plasmid into the bacterial genome. These integration-proficient plasmids also efficiently transform slow-growing mycobacteria such as the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the vaccine strain bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). The ability to easily generate stable recombinants in these slow-growing mycobacteria without the requirement for continual selection is of particular importance for the construction of recombinant BCG vaccines and for the isolation and characterization of mycobacterial pathogenic determinants in animal model systems. Integration vectors of this type should be of general use in a number of additional bacterial systems where temperate phages have been identified. Images PMID:1901654

  17. Andersson lesion in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Dhakad, Urmila; Das, Siddharth K

    2013-01-01

    A middle-aged male patient developed acute back pain and a lumbar vertebral lesion following trivial physical trauma. The lesion was considered as tuberculous on vertebral x-rays and MRI. After biopsy of the lesion and spinal fixation, the patient was kept on empirical antituberculous treatment (ATT) to which he did not respond. On re-evaluation he was diagnosed to have an Andersson lesion in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). ATT was stopped and he was successfully managed by rest, steroids, methotrexate and sulfasalazine. A careful look at the patient's plain x-ray spine and awareness about the lesion can avoid misdiagnosis of this characteristic vertebral lesion found in AS. PMID:23559648

  18. Studies on the Mechanism of Transduction by Bacteriophage ϕ_entitystart_#947_entit I. Genetic Characterization of the Transducing Segment

    PubMed Central

    Gratia, Jean-Pierre

    1976-01-01

    The bacteriophage Φγ, though related to the lambdoid phage ϕ80, has unusual features in its specialized transduction and is being investigated to determine the mechanism of the transduction process. Genetic analysis of the transducing element gives evidence for a relatively long and uniform linear segment, up to about 1% of the E. coli chromosome, extending in either direction from the prophage attachment site, e.g., on the right side: att80-tonB-trpABCDE-cysB-pryF. The att end includes a variable amount of phage genome, probably very short in most particles. In a small fraction of the transducing particles the phage segment may be more extensive and, conversely, the bacterial segment is shorter, ending around cysB. The transducing segment from modificationless bacteria carries a site susceptible to the K-restriction system which affects the efficiency of transduction. PMID:795713

  19. Permanent genetic memory with >1-byte capacity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Nielsen, Alec A K; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Jesus; McClune, Conor J; Laub, Michael T; Lu, Timothy K; Voigt, Christopher A

    2014-12-01

    Genetic memory enables the recording of information in the DNA of living cells. Memory can record a transient environmental signal or cell state that is then recalled at a later time. Permanent memory is implemented using irreversible recombinases that invert the orientation of a unit of DNA, corresponding to the [0,1] state of a bit. To expand the memory capacity, we have applied bioinformatics to identify 34 phage integrases (and their cognate attB and attP recognition sites), from which we build 11 memory switches that are perfectly orthogonal to each other and the FimE and HbiF bacterial invertases. Using these switches, a memory array is constructed in Escherichia coli that can record 1.375 bytes of information. It is demonstrated that the recombinases can be layered and used to permanently record the transient state of a transcriptional logic gate. PMID:25344638

  20. Permanent genetic memory with >1 byte capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Nielsen, Alec A.K.; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Jesus; McClune, Conor J.; Laub, Michael T.; Lu, Timothy K.; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic memory enables the recording of information in the DNA of living cells. Memory can record a transient environmental signal or cell state that is then recalled at a later time. Permanent memory is implemented using irreversible recombinases that invert the orientation of a unit of DNA, corresponding to the [0,1] state of a bit. To expand the memory capacity, we have applied bioinformatics to identify 34 phage integrases (and their cognate attB and attP recognition sites), from which we build 11 memory switches that are perfectly orthogonal to each other and the FimE and HbiF bacterial invertases. Using these switches, a memory array is constructed in Escherichia coli that can record 1.375 bytes of information. It is demonstrated that the recombinases can be layered and used to permanently record the transient state of a transcriptional logic gate. PMID:25344638

  1. Restructuring the US telecommunications industry - Impact on innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Romeo, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Communications Act of 1934, which regulates the United States telecommunications industry, is becoming less able to deal with the changes brought by modern technology. Therefore, proposals are being made to restructure the industry. Breaking up AT&T into smaller firms would have only minor effects, since its ratio of R and D to sales has been near the median for large telephone companies. Restructuring AT&T into subsidiaries dealing at arms' length might cause a reordering of priorities toward more directly marketable and useful products, but too extensive a break-up could endanger Bell Labs' commitment to basic research. Regulation leads a firm to ignore true social value of possible products, expand into low profit markets, and favor capital-intensive over labor-intensive innovation. If regulatory lag occurs, a firm will produce cost-reducing innovation in order to increase its profit.

  2. Platinum and palladium complexes of thiosemicarbazones derived of 2-acetylthiophene: Synthesis and spectral studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, J. L.; de Lima, G. M.; Beraldo, H.

    2006-03-01

    The reaction of 2-acetylthiophene thiosemicarbazone (2-HATT) and 2-acetylthiophene 4-phenylthiosemicarbazone (2-HAT-4-FT) with Pd(COD)Cl 2 (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) and trans-Pt 2PEt 3Cl 4 yielded four new metal complexes: [Pd(2-HATT)Cl 2] ( 1), [Pd(2-ATT) 2] ( 2), [Pd(2-AT-4-FT)Cl] ( 3) and [Pt(2-ATT)(PEt 3)Cl] ( 4). Apart from compound 3 all the others were characterised by 1H and 13C{ 1H} NMR, infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Multinuclear NMR experiments of 31P{ 1H} and 195Pt{ 1H} of complex 4 have revealed that the ligand 2-HATT behaves as a bidentate chelating agent towards Pd(COD)Cl 2 and trans-Pt 2PEt 3Cl 4 whereas ligand 2-HAT-4-FT forms a tridentate chelating complex with Pd(COD)Cl 2.

  3. A signal sequence is sufficient for green fluorescent protein to be routed to regulated secretory granules.

    PubMed

    El Meskini, R; Jin, L; Marx, R; Bruzzaniti, A; Lee, J; Emeson, R; Mains, R

    2001-02-01

    To investigate trafficking in neuroendocrine cells, green fluorescent protein (GFP) tags were fused to various portions of the preproneuropeptide Y (NPY) precursor. Two neuroendocrine cell lines, AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells and PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells, along with primary anterior pituitary cells, were examined. Expression of chimeric constructs did not disrupt trafficking or regulated secretion of endogenous ACTH and prohormone convertase 1 in AtT-20 cells. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses demonstrated that the chimeric constructs remained intact, as long as the Lys-Arg cleavage site within preproNPY was deleted. GFP was stored in, and released from, regulated granules in cells expressing half of the NPY precursor fused to GFP, and also in cells in which only the signal sequence of preproNPY was fused to GFP. Thus, in neuroendocrine cells, entering the lumen of the secretory pathway is sufficient to target GFP to regulated secretory granules. PMID:11159860

  4. Pertussis toxin modifies the characteristics of both the inhibitory GTP binding proteins and the somatostatin receptor in anterior pituitary tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mahy, N.; Woolkalis, M.; Thermos, K.; Carlson, K.; Manning, D.; Reisine, T.

    1988-08-01

    The effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the characteristics of somatostatin receptors in the anterior pituitary tumor cell line AtT-20 were examined. Pertussis toxin selectively catalyzed the ADP ribosylation of the alpha subunits of the inhibitory GTP binding proteins in AtT-20 cells. Toxin treatment abolished somatostatin inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity and somatostatin stimulation of GTPase activity. To examine the effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the characteristics of the somatostatin receptor, the receptor was labeled by the somatostatin analog (125I)CGP 23996. (125I)CGP 23996 binding to AtT-20 cell membranes was saturable and within a limited concentration range was to a single high affinity site. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced the apparent density of the high affinity (125I)CGP 23996 binding sites in AtT-20 cell membranes. Inhibition of (125I)CGP 23996 binding by a wide concentration range of CGP 23996 revealed the presence of two binding sites. GTP predominantly reduced the level of high affinity sites in control membranes. Pertussis toxin treatment also diminished the amount of high affinity sites. GTP did not affect (125I)CGP 23996 binding in the pertussis toxin-treated membranes. The high affinity somatostatin receptors were covalently labeled with (125I) CGP 23996 and the photoactivated crosslinking agent n-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidobenzoate. No high affinity somatostatin receptors, covalently bound to (125I)CGP 23996, were detected in the pertussis toxin-treated membranes. These results are most consistent with pertussis toxin uncoupling the inhibitory G proteins from the somatostatin receptor thereby converting the receptor from a mixed population of high and low affinity sites to only low affinity receptors.

  5. 78 FR 49267 - Conflict of Interest Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Commission granted a waiver of the financial relationship prohibition contained in section 4(b) of the Communications Act of 1924, as amended, 47 U.S.C. 154(b), for Mr. Theodore Marcus, Attorney Advisor, Enforcement Bureau, FCC, to retain time-limited financial interests in AT&T through a last distribution in March 2014 and a reasonable time thereafter for......

  6. An improved Tn7-lux reporter for broad host range, chromosomally-integrated promoter fusions in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Glassing, Angela; Lewis, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    An improved vector for chromosomally-integrated promoter-lux fusions is described. The modified vector was tested in parallel with the unmodified vector using the well-characterized Escherichia coli araBAD promoter in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa attTn7 site. The modified mini-Tn7 showed reduced background luminescence, and increased luminescence upon induction, giving >16-fold higher induction ratio. PMID:26341612

  7. Abdominal Lymphonodular Cryptococcosis in an Immunocompetent Child

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Mehjabeen; Qureshi, Sonia; Shakoor, Sadia; Fatima, Saira; Mir, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    We describe our experience with an apparently immunocompetent child presenting with pyrexia of unknown origin without focal signs. Investigations revealed lymphadenopathy at lung hila, mesentery, and porta hepatis. The child had received at least two months of empiric antituberculous therapy (ATT) before she came to us. A CT-guided biopsy revealed granulomatous inflammation. PAS stain showed yeasts which stained blue with Alcian blue, suggesting C. neoformans. PMID:26649217

  8. Research Resource: Real-Time Analysis of Somatostatin and Dopamine Receptor Signaling in Pituitary Cells Using a Fluorescence-Based Membrane Potential Assay.

    PubMed

    Günther, Thomas; Culler, Michael; Schulz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Stable somatostatin analogues and dopamine receptor agonists are the mainstay for the pharmacological treatment of functional pituitary adenomas; however, only a few cellular assays have been developed to detect receptor activation of novel compounds without disrupting cells to obtain the second messenger content. Here, we adapted a novel fluorescence-based membrane potential assay to characterize receptor signaling in a time-dependent manner. This minimally invasive technique provides a robust and reliable read-out for ligand-induced receptor activation in permanent and primary pituitary cells. The mouse corticotropic cell line AtT-20 endogenously expresses both the somatostatin receptors 2 (sst2) and 5 (sst5). Exposure of wild-type AtT-20 cells to the sst2- and sst5-selective agonists BIM-23120 and BIM-23268, respectively, promoted a pertussis toxin- and tertiapin-Q-sensitive reduction in fluorescent signal intensity, which is indicative of activation of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. After heterologous expression, sst1, sst3, and sst4 receptors also coupled to GIRK channels in AtT-20 cells. Similar activation of GIRK channels by dopamine required overexpression of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). Interestingly, the presence of D2Rs in AtT-20 cells strongly facilitated GIRK channel activation elicited by the sst2-D2 chimeric ligand BIM-23A760, suggesting a synergistic action of sst2 and D2Rs. Furthermore, stable somatostatin analogues produced strong responses in primary pituitary cultures from wild-type mice; however, in cultures from sst2 receptor-deficient mice, only pasireotide and somatoprim, but not octreotide, induced a reduction in fluorescent signal intensity, suggesting that octreotide mediates its pharmacological action primarily via the sst2 receptor. PMID:26967369

  9. Anatomical versus Non-Anatomical Single Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Cadaveric Study of Comparison of Knee Stability

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hong-Chul; Yoon, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Joon-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the initial stability of anatomical and non-anatomical single bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to determine which would better restore intact knee kinematics. Our hypothesis was that the initial stability of anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction would be superior to that of non-anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction. Methods Anterior tibial translation (ATT) and internal rotation of the tibia were measured with a computer navigation system in seven pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric knees under two testing conditions (manual maximum anterior force, and a manual maximum anterior force combined with an internal rotational force). Tests were performed at 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees of flexion with the ACL intact, the ACL transected, and after reconstruction of one side of a pair with either anatomical or non-anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction. Results Under manual maximal anterior force, both reconstruction techniques showed no significant difference of ATT when compared to ACL intact knee state at 30° of knee flexion (p > 0.05). Under the combined anterior and internal rotatory force, non-anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction showed significant difference of ATT compared to those in ACL intact group (p < 0.05). In contrast, central anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction showed no significant difference of ATT compared to those in ACL intact group (p > 0.05). Internal rotation of the tibia showed no significant difference in the ACL intact, the ACL transected, non-anatomical reconstructed and anatomical reconstructed knees. Conclusions Anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction restored the initial stability closer to the native ACL under combined anterior and internal rotational forces when compared to non-anatomical ACL single bundle reconstruction. PMID:23205233

  10. Quantitative assessment of cerebral hemodynamic parameters by QUASAR arterial spin labeling in Alzheimer's disease and cognitively normal Elderly adults at 3-tesla.

    PubMed

    Mak, Henry K F; Chan, Queenie; Zhang, Zhipeng; Petersen, Esben T; Qiu, Deqiang; Zhang, Linda; Yau, Kelvin K W; Chu, Leung-Wing; Golay, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    QUASAR arterial spin labeling (ASL) was used to investigate the role of vascular impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesized that the hemodynamic parameters monitoring cerebrovascular integrity, i.e., cerebral blood flow (CBF), arterial blood volume (aBV), and arterial transit time (aTT), would be affected. 13 AD patients and 15 healthy control (HC) subjects underwent 3T MRI scanning. Two separate blood flow acquisitions were obtained with 1 slice overlap for whole brain coverage. CBF, aBV, and aTT maps were calculated using in-house software. Preprocessing and statistical analyses were performed on SPM5. Region-of-interest (ROI) studies of ten selected cerebral regions were also conducted. There were significant differences in mini mental status exam (MMSE) (AD: 16.3 ± 4.55, HC: 28.5 ± 2.00) and Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) scores (AD: 25.25 ± 9.64, HC: 5.51 ± 2.62) between the 2 groups (p < 0.001) but none in age (p = 0.068). CBF decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in AD compared to controls in the right middle cingulate, left cuneus, left inferior and middle frontal, right superior frontal, left inferior parietal, and right supramarginal gyri. ROI studies confirmed significant hemodynamic impairments in AD compared to HC (p < 0.05): CBF in middle and posterior cingulate, aBV in left superior temporal, right inferior parietal, and posterior cingulate, and aTT in left inferior frontal and middle cingulate gyri. CBF correlated positively while aTT correlated negatively to MMSE, and vice versa for ADAS-cog. Using QUASAR ASL, we found patterns of regional hemodynamic impairment typical of moderate AD, suggesting underlying vascular abnormality. As potential biomarkers, these hemodynamic parameters could differentiate patients from volunteers, and possibly indicate the conversion from healthy aging to mild cognitive impairment to AD. PMID:22504315

  11. Mouse embryonic stem cells with a multi-integrase mouse artificial chromosome for transchromosomic mouse generation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuki; Nakamura, Kazuomi; Endo, Takeshi; Kajitani, Naoyo; Kazuki, Kanako; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Kugoh, Hiroyuki; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    The mouse artificial chromosome (MAC) has several advantages as a gene delivery vector, including stable episomal maintenance of the exogenous genetic material and the ability to carry large and/or multiple gene inserts including their regulatory elements. Previously, a MAC containing multi-integration site (MI-MAC) was generated to facilitate transfer of multiple genes into desired cells. To generate transchromosomic (Tc) mice containing a MI-MAC with genes of interest, the desired genes were inserted into MI-MAC in CHO cells, and then the MI-MAC was transferred to mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT). However, the efficiency of MMCT from CHO to mES cells is very low (<10(-6)). In this study, we constructed mES cell lines containing a MI-MAC vector to directly insert a gene of interest into the MI-MAC in mES cells via a simple transfection method for Tc mouse generation. The recombination rate of the GFP gene at each attachment site (FRT, PhiC31attP, R4attP, TP901-1attP and Bxb1attP) on MI-MAC was greater than 50% in MI-MAC mES cells. Chimeric mice with high coat colour chimerism were generated from the MI-MAC mES cell lines and germline transmission from the chimera was observed. As an example for the generation of Tc mice with a desired gene by the MI-MAC mES approach, a Tc mouse strain ubiquitously expressing Emerald luciferase was efficiently established. Thus, the findings suggest that this new Tc strategy employing mES cells and a MI-MAC vector is efficient and useful for animal transgenesis. PMID:26055730

  12. We need abuse training for all.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Bekki

    2016-07-01

    I support mandatory domestic abuse training for all healthcare workers (news, June 22). I attended an emergency department aft er my ex-partner had att acked me. No one asked if I was okay - it was more a case of clean me up, check for injuries and send me on my way. Clearly, the 6Cs were not implemented during my visit. PMID:27380686

  13. 78 FR 2306 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... such statements. A. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for... charge imposed by NYSE. \\8\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(3)(A). \\9\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4(f)(2). At any time within 60... Chase & Co JPM Nokia Corporation NOK PFIZER Inc PFE Sprint Nextel Corporation S AT&T Inc T Wells...

  14. Versatile P(acman) BAC Libraries for Transgenesis Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Venken, Koen J.T.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Schulze, Karen L.; Pan, Hongling; He, Yuchun; Spokony, Rebecca; Wan, Kenneth H.; Koriabine, Maxim; de Jong, Pieter J.; White, Kevin P.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Hoskins, Roger A.

    2009-04-21

    We constructed Drosophila melanogaster BAC libraries with 21-kb and 83-kb inserts in the P(acman) system. Clones representing 12-fold coverage and encompassing more than 95percent of annotated genes were mapped onto the reference genome. These clones can be integrated into predetermined attP sites in the genome using Phi C31 integrase to rescue mutations. They can be modified through recombineering, for example to incorporate protein tags and assess expression patterns.

  15. Simultaneous measurement of forward-backward asymmetry and top polarization in dilepton final states from $$t\\bar t$$ production at the Tevatron

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2015-09-22

    We present a simultaneous measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry and the top-quark polarization in tt¯ production in dilepton final states using 9.7 fb–1 of proton-antiproton collisions at √s=1.96 TeV with the D0 detector. To reconstruct the distributions of kinematic observables we employ a matrix element technique that calculates the likelihood of the possible tt¯ kinematic configurations. After accounting for the presence of background events and for calibration effects, we obtain a forward-backward asymmetry of Att¯=(15.0±6.4(stat)±4.9(syst))% and a top-quark polarization times spin analyzing power in the beam basis of κP=(7.2±10.5(stat)±4.2(syst))%, with a correlation of –56% between the measurements. If we constrainmore » the forward-backward asymmetry to its expected standard model value, we obtain a measurement of the top polarization of κP=(11.3±9.1(stat)±1.9(syst))%. If we constrain the top polarization to its expected standard model value, we measure a forward-backward asymmetry of Att¯=(17.5±5.6(stat)±3.1(syst))%. A combination with the D0 Att¯ measurement in the lepton+jets final state yields an asymmetry of Att¯=(11.8±2.5(stat)±1.3(syst))%. Within their respective uncertainties, all these results are consistent with the standard model expectations.« less

  16. A method for producing transgenic cells using a multi-integrase system on a human artificial chromosome vector.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shigeyuki; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Nakayama, Yuji; Nanba, Eiji; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    The production of cells capable of expressing gene(s) of interest is important for a variety of applications in biomedicine and biotechnology, including gene therapy and animal transgenesis. The ability to insert transgenes at a precise location in the genome, using site-specific recombinases such as Cre, FLP, and ΦC31, has major benefits for the efficiency of transgenesis. Recent work on integrases from ΦC31, R4, TP901-1 and Bxb1 phages demonstrated that these recombinases catalyze site-specific recombination in mammalian cells. In the present study, we examined the activities of integrases on site-specific recombination and gene expression in mammalian cells. We designed a human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector containing five recombination sites (ΦC31 attP, R4 attP, TP901-1 attP, Bxb1 attP and FRT; multi-integrase HAC vector) and de novo mammalian codon-optimized integrases. The multi-integrase HAC vector has several functions, including gene integration in a precise locus and avoiding genomic position effects; therefore, it was used as a platform to investigate integrase activities. Integrases carried out site-specific recombination at frequencies ranging from 39.3-96.8%. Additionally, we observed homogenous gene expression in 77.3-87.5% of colonies obtained using the multi-integrase HAC vector. This vector is also transferable to another cell line, and is capable of accepting genes of interest in this environment. These data suggest that integrases have high DNA recombination efficiencies in mammalian cells. The multi-integrase HAC vector enables us to produce transgene-expressing cells efficiently and create platform cell lines for gene expression. PMID:21390305

  17. A synonymous codon change alters the drug sensitivity of ΔF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    PubMed

    Bali, Vedrana; Lazrak, Ahmed; Guroji, Purushotham; Fu, Lianwu; Matalon, Sadis; Bebok, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    Synonymous mutations, such as I507-ATC→ATT, in deletion of Phe508 in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ΔF508 CFTR), the most frequent disease-associated mutant of CFTR, may affect protein biogenesis, structure, and function and contribute to an altered disease phenotype. Small-molecule drugs are being developed to correct ΔF508 CFTR. To understand correction mechanisms and the consequences of synonymous mutations, we analyzed the effect of mechanistically distinct correctors, corrector 4a (C4) and lumacaftor (VX-809), on I507-ATT and I507-ATC ΔF508 CFTR biogenesis and function. C4 stabilized I507-ATT ΔF508 CFTR band B, but without considerable biochemical and functional correction. VX-809 biochemically corrected ∼10% of both of the variants, leading to stable, forskolin+3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-activated whole-cell currents in the presence of the corrector. Omitting VX-809 during whole-cell recordings led to a spontaneous decline of the currents, suggesting posttranslational stabilization by VX-809. Treatment of cells with the C4+VX-809 combination resulted in enhanced rescue and 2-fold higher forskolin+IBMX-activated currents of both I507-ATT and I507-ATC ΔF508 CFTR, compared with VX-809 treatment alone. The lack of an effect of C4 on I507-ATC ΔF508 CFTR, but its additive effect in combination with VX-809, implies that C4 acted on VX-809-modified I507-ATC ΔF508 CFTR. Our results suggest that binding of C4 and VX-809 to ΔF508 CFTR is conformation specific and provide evidence that synonymous mutations can alter the drug sensitivity of proteins. PMID:26336913

  18. Multibody correlations in the hydrophobic solvation of glycine peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Robert C.; Drake, Justin A.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2014-12-14

    Protein collapse during folding is often assumed to be driven by a hydrophobic solvation energy (ΔG{sub vdw}) that scales linearly with solvent-accessible surface area (A). In a previous study, we argued that ΔG{sub vdw}, as well as its attractive (ΔG{sub att}) and repulsive (ΔG{sub rep}) components, was not simply a linear function of A. We found that the surface tensions, γ{sub rep}, γ{sub att}, and γ{sub vdw}, gotten from ΔG{sub rep}, ΔG{sub att}, and ΔG{sub vdw} against A for four configurations of deca-alanine differed from those obtained for a set of alkanes. In the present study, we extend our analysis to fifty decaglycine structures and atomic decompositions. We find that different configurations of decaglycine generate different estimates of γ{sub rep}. Additionally, we considered the reconstruction of the solvation free energy from scaling the free energy of solvation of each atom type, free in solution. The free energy of the isolated atoms, scaled by the inverse surface area the atom would expose in the molecule does not reproduce the γ{sub rep} for the intact decaglycines. Finally, γ{sub att} for the decaglycine conformations is much larger in magnitude than those for deca-alanine or the alkanes, leading to large negative values of γ{sub vdw} (−74 and −56 cal/mol/Å{sup 2} for CHARMM27 and AMBER ff12sb force fields, respectively). These findings imply that ΔG{sub vdw} favors extended rather than compact structures for decaglycine. We find that ΔG{sub rep} and ΔG{sub vdw} have complicated dependencies on multibody correlations between solute atoms, on the geometry of the molecular surface, and on the chemical identities of the atoms.

  19. Fitness Cost Implications of PhiC31-Mediated Site-Specific Integrations in Target-Site Strains of the Mexican Fruit Fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Meza, José S.; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R.; Zepeda-Cisneros, Cristina Silvia; Handler, Alfred M.; Schetelig, Marc F.

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific recombination technologies are powerful new tools for the manipulation of genomic DNA in insects that can improve transgenesis strategies such as targeting transgene insertions, allowing transgene cassette exchange and DNA mobilization for transgene stabilization. However, understanding the fitness cost implications of these manipulations for transgenic strain applications is critical. In this study independent piggyBac-mediated attP target-sites marked with DsRed were created in several genomic positions in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens. Two of these strains, one having an autosomal (attP_F7) and the other a Y-linked (attP_2-M6y) integration, exhibited fitness parameters (dynamic demography and sexual competitiveness) similar to wild type flies. These strains were thus selected for targeted insertion using, for the first time in mexfly, the phiC31-integrase recombination system to insert an additional EGFP-marked transgene to determine its effect on host strain fitness. Fitness tests showed that the integration event in the int_2-M6y recombinant strain had no significant effect, while the int_F7 recombinant strain exhibited significantly lower fitness relative to the original attP_F7 target-site host strain. These results indicate that while targeted transgene integrations can be achieved without an additional fitness cost, at some genomic positions insertion of additional DNA into a previously integrated transgene can have a significant negative effect. Thus, for targeted transgene insertions fitness costs must be evaluated both previous to and subsequent to new site-specific insertions in the target-site strain. PMID:25303238

  20. Vitamin E deficiency reduced lumbar bone calcium content in female rats.

    PubMed

    Norazlina, M; Chua, C W; Ima-Nirwana, S

    2004-12-01

    Vitamin E deficiency has been found to impair bone calcification. This study was done to determine the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on parathyroid hormone, i.e. the hormone involved in bone regulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) normal rat chow (RC), 2) vitamin E deficiency (VED), vitamin E deficient rats supplemented with 3) 60 mg/kg alpha-tocotrienol (ATT) and 4) 60 mg/kg (alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatment was carried out for 3 months. Vitamin E deficiency caused hypocalcaemia during the first month of the treatment period, increased the parathyroid hormone level in the second month and decreased the bone calcium content in the 4th lumbar bone at the end of the treatment. Vitamin E supplementation (ATT and ATF) failed to improve these conditions. The bone formation marker, osteocalcin, and the bone resorption marker, deoxypyridinoline did not change throughout the study period. In conclusion vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcium homeostasis with subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism and vertebral bone loss. Replacing the vitamin E with pure ATF or pure ATT alone failed to correct the changes seen. PMID:15889565

  1. Hyperammonaemic encephalopathy secondary to selective cobalamin deficiency in a juvenile Border collie.

    PubMed

    Battersby, I A; Giger, U; Hall, E J

    2005-07-01

    An eight-month-old Border collie was presented with anorexia, cachexia, failure to thrive and stupor. Laboratory tests demonstrated a mild anaemia, neutropenia, proteinuria and hyperammonaemia. Serum bile acid concentrations were normal, but an ammonia tolerance test (ATT) was abnormal. The dog responded to symptomatic therapy for hepatoencephalopathy. When a low serum cobalamin (vitamin B12) concentration and methylmalonic aciduria were noted, the dog was given a supplement of parenteral cobalamin. Two weeks later, a repeat ATT was normal. Cobalamin supplementation was continued every two weeks, and all clinical signs, except for proteinuria, resolved despite withdrawing all therapy for hepatoencephalopathy. A presumptive diagnosis of hereditary selective cobalamin malabsorption was made, based on the young age, Border collie breed, low serum cobalamin concentration and methylmalonic aciduria. Although hereditary selective cobalamin malabsorption in Border collies, giant schnauzers, Australian shepherd dogs and beagles has previously been reported in North America, to the authors' knowledge this is the first report of the condition in the UK and the first to document an abnormal ATT in a cobalamin-deficient dog. PMID:16035451

  2. Traffic accident in Cuiabá-MT: an analysis through the data mining technology.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Noemi Dreyer; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2010-01-01

    The traffic road accidents (ATT) are non-intentional events with an important magnitude worldwide, mainly in the urban centers. This article aims to analyzes data related to the victims of ATT recorded by the Justice Secretariat and Public Security (SEJUSP) in hospital morbidity and mortality incidence at the city of Cuiabá-MT during 2006, using data mining technology. An observational, retrospective and exploratory study of the secondary data bases was carried out. The three database selected were related using the probabilistic method, through the free software RecLink. One hundred and thirty-nine (139) real pairs of victims of ATT were obtained. In this related database the data mining technology was applied with the software WEKA using the Apriori algorithm. The result generated 10 best rules, six of them were considered according to the parameters established that indicated a useful and comprehensible knowledge to characterize the victims of accidents in Cuiabá. Finally, the findings of the associative rules showed peculiarities of the road traffic accident victims in Cuiabá and highlight the need of prevention measures in the collision accidents for males. PMID:20841739

  3. Algorithms for muscle oxygenation monitoring corrected for adipose tissue thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskin, Dmitri; Platen, Petra; Franke, Julia; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

    2007-07-01

    The measurement of skeletal muscle oxygenation by NIRS methods is obstructed by the subcutaneous adipose tissue which might vary between < 1 mm to more than 12 mm in thickness. A new algorithm is developed to minimize the large scattering effect of this lipid layer on the calculation of muscle haemoglobin / myoglobin concentrations. First, we demonstrate by comparison with ultrasound imaging that the optical lipid signal peaking at 930 nm is a good predictor of the adipose tissue thickness (ATT). Second, the algorithm is based on measurements of the wavelength dependence of the slope ΔA/Δρ of attenuation A with respect to source detector distance ρ and Monte Carlo simulations which estimate the muscle absorption coefficient based on this slope and the additional information of the ATT. Third, we illustrate the influence of the wavelength dependent transport scattering coefficient of the new algorithm by using the solution of the diffusion equation for a two-layered turbid medium. This method is tested on experimental data measured on the vastus lateralis muscle of volunteers during an incremental cycling exercise under normal and hypoxic conditions (corresponding to 0, 2000 and 4000 m altitude). The experimental setup uses broad band detection between 700 and 1000 nm at six source-detector distances. We demonstrate that the description of the experimental data as judged by the residual spectrum is significantly improved and the calculated changes in oxygen saturation are markedly different when the ATT correction is included.

  4. Autoantibodies to the GLUT-2 glucose transporter of beta cells in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus of recent onset.

    PubMed Central

    Inman, L R; McAllister, C T; Chen, L; Hughes, S; Newgard, C B; Kettman, J R; Unger, R H; Johnson, J H

    1993-01-01

    Purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) from the serum of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) of recent onset inhibits high-Km uptake of 3-O-methyl-beta-D-glucose by rat pancreatic islets. To determine if the inhibition is the result of antibodies against GLUT-2, the high-Km glucose transporter of beta cells, we incubated IDDM sera with rat islet cells and with AtT-20ins cells transfected to express GLUT-2. IDDM sera inhibited glucose uptake in islet cells and in GLUT-2-expressing AtT-20ins cells but not in AtT-20ins cells transfected to express the low-Km isoform, GLUT-1. In 24 of 30 (77%) patients with newly diagnosed IDDM, IgG binding as measured by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry of the cells transfected to express GLUT-2 was > 2 standard deviations from the mean of the nondiabetic population; 29 of 31 (96%) of nondiabetic children were negative (P < 0.0001). Increased IgG binding could be removed by absorption with GLUT-2-expressing cells but not with GLUT-1-expressing cells. We conclude that most patients with IDDM of recent onset have autoantibodies to GLUT-2. PMID:8433987

  5. A Clinical Study of Miliary Brain Tuberculomas in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Zhang, Jia-Tang; Yao, Yan; Tan, Qing-Che; Gao, Ting; Tian, Cheng-Lin; Huang, Xusheng; Yu, Sheng-Yuan

    2016-05-20

    Brain tuberculomas can exhibit many different clinical and radiological patterns. However, disseminated or miliary brain tuberculomas are very rare. Miliary brain tuberculomas have specific clinical prognostic implications. Seven patients diagnosed with miliary brain tuberculomas between December 2004 and August 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Their clinical features, cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, treatments, and outcomes were reviewed. The median patient age was 42 years (range, 22-66 years). Six patients presented with fever, 5 with headache, 4 with papilledema, and 3 with diplopia. MRI studies revealed multiple brain lesions. MRI showed 20-50 lesions at the same level. These lesions measured approximately 2-4 mm in diameter and exhibited ring or nodular enhancement after gadolinium injection. All patients began to recover within 2 weeks of initiating antitubercular therapy (ATT). The number of lesions visible on MRI scans was halved within a month, and all lesions had healed without sequelae after 18 months of regular ATT. Miliary brain tuberculoma is a rare form of central nervous system tuberculosis. Some special characteristics of miliary brain tuberculomas are as follows: First, the presence of mild atypical clinical manifestations and almost normal laboratory findings; second, severe radiological features and 20-50 lesions at the same level on MRI scans; and third, a good response to standard ATT. Finally, they are benign; for instance, no patients died in our study. Early diagnosis and treatment can result in full recovery. PMID:26255731

  6. Structural analysis of glycoconjugates by on-target enzymatic digestion and MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Geyer, H; Schmitt, S; Wuhrer, M; Geyer, R

    1999-01-15

    Exoglycosidase digestion combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been demonstrated to be an effective method for the structural characterization of glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides in picomolar amounts. A sample preparation method is described, in which 6-aza-2-thiothymine (ATT) in water is used as matrix and enzymes are dialyzed before use against a low concentration of volatile buffer such as ammonium acetate. Under these conditions, a series of sequential on-target exoglycosidase treatments was carried out in one single analyte spot in the presence of ATT matrix. Subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of the resulting products yielded information on both the completeness of the reaction and structural features of the glycoconjugates such as monosaccharide sequence, branching pattern, and anomeric configurations of the corresponding glycosidic linkages. The results show that all exoglycosidases used retain their activity in the presence of ATT matrix. Hence, structural analysis of carbohydrates or mixtures thereof can be performed very fast, without intermediate desalting steps or sample splitting. This approach is illustrated by the analysis of underivatized glycans, oligosaccharide derivatives, glycopeptides, and glycolipids. Depending on the analyte, amounts of sample required could be limited to a few picomoles. PMID:9949734

  7. Fine pattern fabrication property of binary mask and attenuated phase shift mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Taichi; Kojima, Yosuke; Yamana, Mitsuharu; Haraguchi, Takashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    For 45nm and 32nm node technology, the challenges for resolution and CD control of mask patterns become the steeper mountain path. Especially, Sub Resolution Assist Feature (SRAF) is the smallest pattern on mask and amplifies the difficulty of mask fabrication. In order to improve the resolution of fine patterns, the influence of wet processing cannot be neglected, because it causes the pattern collapsing. Wet processing of mask-making can be divided into resist development and cleaning. In this study, the root causes of pattern collapsing are investigated at each wet processing. It is confirmed that thin resist can enhance the resolution limit of resist pattern and hard-mask blank, such as OMOG: Opaque MoSi On Glass, is suitable for thinner resist under 1500A. The pattern collapsing of OMOG is compared with that of Att.PSM at the cleaning before and after Cr stripping. Mask inspection finds that pattern collapsing can be suppressed by OMOG at both cleanings. It is because OMOG has lower cleaning stress than Att.PSM due to lower aspect-ratio. This benefit is demonstrated by cleaning stress simulation. Additionally, it is found that the SRAF size of OMOG can be wider than Att.PSM by optical simulation. From these results, OMOG has much advantage of fine pattern fabrication and is the optimal blank for 32nm node and beyond.

  8. Measurements of the charge asymmetry in top-quark pair production in the dilepton final state at s=8TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; et al

    2016-08-22

    Measurements of the top-antitop quark pair production charge asymmetry in the dilepton channel, characterized by two high-pT leptons (electrons or muons), are presented using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb–1 from pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy √s = 8 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Inclusive and differential measurements as a function of the invariant mass, transverse momentum, and longitudinal boost of the tt¯ system are performed both in the full phase space and in a fiducial phase space closely matching the detector acceptance. Two observables are studied: AℓℓCmore » based on the selected leptons and Att¯C based on the reconstructed tt¯ final state. As a result, the inclusive asymmetries are measured in the full phase space to be AℓℓC=0.008±0.006 and Att¯C=0.021±0.016, which are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions of AℓℓC=0.0064±0.0003 and Att¯C=0.0111±0.0004.« less

  9. An efficient strategy for producing a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Long, Dingpei; Lu, Weijian; Zhang, Yuli; Bi, Lihui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2015-01-01

    We developed an efficient strategy that combines a method for the post-integration elimination of all transposon sequences, a site-specific recombination system, and an optimized fibroin H-chain expression system to produce a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) that overcomes the disadvantages of random insertion and post-integration instability of transposons. Here, we generated four different transgenic silkworm strains, and of one the transgenic strains, designated TS1-RgG2, with up to 16% (w/w) of the target protein in the cocoons, was selected. The subsequent elimination of all the transposon sequences from TS1-RgG2 was completed by the heat-shock-induced expression of the transposase in vivo. The resulting transgenic silkworm strain was designated TS3-g2 and contained only the attP-flanked optimized fibroin H-chain expression cassette in its genome. A phiC31/att-system-based recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) method could be used to integrate other genes of interest into the same genome locus between the attP sites in TS3-g2. Controlling for position effects with phiC31-mediated RMCE will also allow the optimization of exogenous protein expression and fine gene function analyses in the silkworm. The strategy developed here is also applicable to other lepidopteran insects, to improve the ecological safety of transgenic strains in biocontrol programs. PMID:25739894

  10. An efficient strategy for producing a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Long, Dingpei; Lu, Weijian; Zhang, Yuli; Bi, Lihui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2015-01-01

    We developed an efficient strategy that combines a method for the post-integration elimination of all transposon sequences, a site-specific recombination system, and an optimized fibroin H-chain expression system to produce a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) that overcomes the disadvantages of random insertion and post-integration instability of transposons. Here, we generated four different transgenic silkworm strains, and of one the transgenic strains, designated TS1-RgG2, with up to 16% (w/w) of the target protein in the cocoons, was selected. The subsequent elimination of all the transposon sequences from TS1-RgG2 was completed by the heat-shock-induced expression of the transposase in vivo. The resulting transgenic silkworm strain was designated TS3-g2 and contained only the attP-flanked optimized fibroin H-chain expression cassette in its genome. A phiC31/att-system-based recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) method could be used to integrate other genes of interest into the same genome locus between the attP sites in TS3-g2. Controlling for position effects with phiC31-mediated RMCE will also allow the optimization of exogenous protein expression and fine gene function analyses in the silkworm. The strategy developed here is also applicable to other lepidopteran insects, to improve the ecological safety of transgenic strains in biocontrol programs. PMID:25739894

  11. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  12. Magnetic resonance study on the anatomical relationship between the posterior proximal region of the tibia and the popliteal artery☆

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo Goes, Rogério Franco; Filho, Augusto Cardoso; de Oliveira Castro, Gabriel Novaes Pillar; Loures, Fabricio Bolpato; Da Palma, Idemar Monteiro; Kinder, André; Labronici, Pedro José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze and describe the distance from the popliteal artery to three specific areas of the proximal region of the tibia, with the knee extended, by means of magnetic resonance. Methods Images of 100 knees of patients who underwent magnetic resonance examinations were analyzed. The location of the popliteal artery was measured in three different areas of the posterior proximal region of the tibia. The first measurement was made at the level of the knee joint (tibial plateau). The second was 9 mm distally to the tibial plateau. The third was at the level of the anterior tuberosity of the tibia (ATT). Results The distances between the popliteal artery and the tibial plateau and ATT region were significantly greater in males than in females. The distances between the popliteal artery and the regions 9 mm distally to the tibial plateau and the ATT were significantly greater in the age group over 36 years than in the group ≤36 years. Conclusion Knowledge of the anatomical position of the popliteal artery, as demonstrated through magnetic resonance studies, is of great relevance in planning surgical procedures that involve the knee joint. In this manner, devastating iatrogenic injuries can be avoided, particularly in regions that are proximal to the tibial plateau and in young patients. PMID:26417569

  13. Production of transgenic cattle highly expressing human serum albumin in milk by phiC31 integrase-mediated gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Lan, Hui; Shao, Minghao; Yu, Yuan; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Transgenic cattle expressing high levels of recombinant human serum albumin (HSA) in their milk may as an alternative source for commercial production. Our objective was to produce transgenic cattle highly expressing HSA in milk by using phiC31 integrase system and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The mammary-specific expression plasmid pIACH(-), containing the attB recognition site for phiC31 integrase, were co-transfected with integrase expression plasmid pCMVInt into bovine fetal fibroblast cells (BFFs). PhiC31 integrase-mediated integrations in genome of BFFs were screened by nested inverse PCR. After analysis of sequence of the PCR products, 46.0% (23/50) of the both attB-genome junction sites (attL and attR) were confirmed, and four pseudo attP sites were identified. The integration rates in BF3, BF11, BF19 and BF4 sites were 4.0% (2/50), 6.0% (3/50), 16.0% (8/50) and 20.0% (10/50), respectively. BF3 is located in the bovine chromosome 3 collagen alpha-3 (VI) chain isomer 2 gene, while the other three sites are located in the non-coding region. The transgenic cell lines from BF11, BF19 and BF4 sites were used as donors for SCNT. Two calves from transgenic cells BF19 were born, one died within a few hours after birth, and another calf survived healthy. PCR and Southern blot analysis revealed integration of the transgene in the genome of cloned calves. The nested reverse PCR confirmed that the integration site in cloned calves was identical to the donor cells. The western blotting assessment indicated that recombinant HSA was expressed in the milk of transgenic cattle and the expression level was about 4-8 mg/mL. The present study demonstrated that phiC31 integrase system was an efficient and safety gene delivery tool for producing HSA transgenic cattle. The production of recombinant HSA in the milk of cattle may provide a large-scale and cost-effective resource. PMID:26198751

  14. Knee Joint Laxity and Its Cyclic Variation Influence Tibiofemoral Motion during Weight Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Sandra J.; Schmitz, Randy J.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Levine, Beverly; Kim, Hyunsoo; Montgomery, Melissa M.; Shimokochi, Yohei; Beynnon, Bruce D.; Perrin, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To better understand how sex differences in anterior knee joint laxity (AKL) impact knee joint biomechanics, we examined the consequence of greater absolute baseline (males and females) and cyclic increases in AKL during the menstrual cycle (females) on anterior tibial translation (ATT) as the knee transitioned from non-weight bearing (NWB) to weight bearing (WB) conditions, while also controlling for genu recurvatum (GR). Methods Males and females (71F,48M;18-30 years) were measured for AKL and GR, and underwent measurement of ATT. Females were tested on the days of their cycle when AKL was at its minimum (T1) and maximum (T2); males were matched in time to a female with similar AKL. Linear regressions examined relationships between absolute baseline (AKLT1, GRT1) and cyclic changes (Δ=T2-T1; AKLΔ, GRΔ)(females only) in knee laxity with ATT as measured at T1 and T2, and Δ (T2-T1) (females only). Results AKL and GR increased in females, but not males, from T1 to T2. Greater AKLT1 and GRT1 predicted greater ATTT1 and ATTT2 in males (R2=21.0, P<.007). The combination of greater AKLT1, AKLΔ and less GRΔ predicted greater ATTT1 and ATTT2 in females (R2=12.5-13.1, P<.05), with AKLΔ being a stronger predictor (coefficient, P-value) of ATTT2 (0.864, P=.027) compared to ATTT1 (0.333, P=.370). AKLΔ was the sole predictor of ATTΔ (R2=.104; 0.740, P=.042). Conclusions Greater absolute baseline and cyclic increases in AKL were consistently associated with greater ATT produced by transition of the knee from NWB to WB. As the ACL is the primary restraint to ATT, these findings provide insight into possible mechanisms by which greater AKL may be associated with at risk knee biomechanics during the weight acceptance phase of dynamic tasks. PMID:20581718

  15. Hybrid lentivirus-phiC31-int-NLS vector allows site-specific recombination in murine and human cells but induces DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Grandchamp, Nicolas; Altémir, Dorothée; Philippe, Stéphanie; Ursulet, Suzanna; Pilet, Héloïse; Serre, Marie-Claude; Lenain, Aude; Serguera, Che; Mallet, Jacques; Sarkis, Chamsy

    2014-01-01

    Gene transfer allows transient or permanent genetic modifications of cells for experimental or therapeutic purposes. Gene delivery by HIV-derived lentiviral vector (LV) is highly effective but the risk of insertional mutagenesis is important and the random/uncontrollable integration of the DNA vector can deregulate the cell transcriptional activity. Non Integrative Lentiviral Vectors (NILVs) solve this issue in non-dividing cells, but they do not allow long term expression in dividing cells. In this context, obtaining stable expression while avoiding the problems inherent to unpredictable DNA vector integration requires the ability to control the integration site. One possibility is to use the integrase of phage phiC31 (phiC31-int) which catalyzes efficient site-specific recombination between the attP site in the phage genome and the chromosomal attB site of its Streptomyces host. Previous studies showed that phiC31-int is active in many eukaryotic cells, such as murine or human cells, and directs the integration of a DNA substrate into pseudo attP sites (pattP) which are homologous to the native attP site. In this study, we combined the efficiency of NILV for gene delivery and the specificity of phiC31-int for DNA substrate integration to engineer a hybrid tool for gene transfer with the aim of allowing long term expression in dividing and non-dividing cells preventing genotoxicity. We demonstrated the feasibility to target NILV integration in human and murine pattP sites with a dual NILV vectors system: one which delivers phiC31-int, the other which constitute the substrate containing an attB site in its DNA sequence. These promising results are however alleviated by the occurrence of significant DNA damages. Further improvements are thus required to prevent chromosomal rearrangements for a therapeutic use of the system. However, its use as a tool for experimental applications such as transgenesis is already applicable. PMID:24956106

  16. Survival and Persistence of Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and Attenuated Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Soils Amended with Animal Manure in a Greenhouse Environment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manan; Millner, Patricia D; Hashem, Fawzy; Camp, Mary; Whyte, Celia; Graham, Lorna; Cotton, Corrie P

    2016-06-01

    Animal manure provides benefits to agriculture but may contain pathogens that contaminate ready-to-eat produce. U.S. Food and Drug Administration standards include 90- or 120-day intervals between application of manure and harvest of crop to minimize risks of pathogen contamination of fresh produce. Data on factors affecting survival of Escherichia coli in soils under greenhouse conditions are needed. Three separate studies were conducted to evaluate survival of nonpathogenic E. coli (gEc) and attenuated E. coli O157:H7 (attO157) inoculated at either low (4 log CFU/ml) or high (6 log CFU/ml) populations over 56 days. Studies involved two pot sizes (small, 398 cm(3); large, 89 liters), three soil types (sandy loam, SL; clay loam, CL; silt loam, SIL), and four amendments (poultry litter, PL; dairy manure liquids, DML; horse manure, HM; unamended). Amendments were applied to the surface of the soil in either small or large containers. Study 1, conducted in regularly irrigated small containers, showed that populations of gEc and attO157 (2.84 to 2.88 log CFU/g) in PL-amended soils were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those in DML-amended (0.29 to 0.32 log CFU/g [dry weight] [gdw]) or unamended (0.25 to 0.28 log CFU/gdw) soils; soil type did not affect E. coli survival. Results from study 2, in large pots with CL and SIL, showed that PL-amended soils supported significantly higher attO157 and gEc populations compared with HM-amended or unamended soils. Study 3 compared results from small and large containers that received high inoculum simultaneously. Overall, in both small and large containers, PLamended soils supported higher gEc and attO157 populations compared with HM-amended and unamended soils. Populations of attO157 were significantly greater in small containers (1.83 log CFU/gdw) than in large containers (0.65 log CFU/gdw) at week 8, perhaps because small containers received more regular irrigation than large pots. Regular irrigation of small pots may have

  17. The effect of student-centered and teacher-centered instruction with and without conceptual advocacy on biology students' misconceptions, achievement, attitudes toward science, and cognitive retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallop, Roger Graham

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of student-centered and teacher-centered instructional strategies with and without conceptual advocacy (CA) on ninth-grade biology students' misconceptions (MIS), biology achievement (ACH), attitudes toward science (ATT), and cognitive retention of scientific method and measurement, spontaneous generation, and characteristics of living things. Students were purposively selected using intact classes and assigned to one of four treatment groups (i.e., student-centered instruction without CA, student-centered instruction with CA, teacher-centered instruction with CA, and teacher-centered instruction without CA). A modified quasi-experimental design was used in which students were not matched in the conventional sense but instead, groups were shown to be equivalent on the dependent measure via a pretest. A 5-day treatment implementation period addressed science conceptions under investigation. The treatment period was based on the number of class periods teachers at the target school actually spend teaching the biological concepts under investigation using traditional instruction. At the end of the treatment period, students were posttested using the Concepts in Biology instrument and Science Questionnaire. Eight weeks after the posttest, these instruments were administered again as a delayed posttest to determine cognitive retention of the correct biological conceptions and attitudes toward science. MANCOVA and follow-up univariate ANCOVA results indicated that student-centered instruction without CA (i.e., Group 1) did not have a significant effect on students' MIS, ACH, and ATT (F = .029, p = .8658; F = .002, p =.9688, F = .292, p = .5897, respectively). On the other hand, student-centered instruction with CA (i.e., Group 2) had a significant effect on students' MIS and ACH (F =10.33, p = .0016 and F = 10.17, p = .0017, respectively), but did not on ATT (F = .433, p = .5117). Teacher-centered instruction with

  18. Polycistronic transcription of fused cassettes and identification of translation initiation signals in an unusual gene cassette array from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Érica L.; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The gene cassettes found in class 1 integrons are generally promoterless units composed by an open reading frame (ORF), a short 5’ untranslated region (UTR) and a 3’ recombination site ( attC). Fused gene cassettes are generated by partial or total loss of the attC from the first cassette in an array, creating, in some cases, a fusion with the ORF from the next cassette. These structures are rare and little is known about their mechanisms of mobilization and expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamic of mobilization and transcription of the gcu14-bla GES-1 /aacA4 gene cassette array, which harbours a fused gene cassette represented by bla GES-1 /aacA4. The cassette array was analyzed by Northern blot and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in order to assess the transcription mechanism of bla GES-1 /aacA4 fused cassette. Also, inverse polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed to detect the free circular forms of gcu14, bla GES-1 and aacA4. The Northern blot and real time RT-PCR revealed a polycistronic transcription, in which the fused cassette bla GES-1 /aacA4 is transcribed as a unique gene, while gcu14 (with a canonical attC recombination site) has a monocistronic transcription. The gcu14 cassette, closer to the weak configuration of cassette promoter (PcW), had a higher transcription level than bla GES-1/ aacA4, indicating that the cassette position affects the transcript amounts. The presence of ORF-11 at attI1, immediately preceding gcu14, and of a Shine-Dalgarno sequence upstream bla GES-1/ aacA4 composes a scenario for the occurrence of array translation. Inverse PCR generated amplicons corresponding to gcu14, gcu14-aacA4 and gcu14-bla GES-1/ aacA4 free circular forms, but not to bla GES-1 and aacA4 alone, indicating that the GES-1 truncated attC is not substrate of integrase activity and that these genes are mobilized together as a unique cassette. This study was original in showing the

  19. Detrital Zircon U-Pb Age Populations in Time and Space in the Arctic Alaska Terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic Alaska Terrane (ATT) occupies the only margin of the Ameriasia Basin whose origin and position since Paleozoic time is incompletely known. To better understand its tectonic history, detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb ages from about 75 samples of clastic strata were obtained from representative parts of the ATT in northern Alaska. The oldest known strata of the AAT are Neoproterozoic clastic rocks exposed in the northeastern Brooks Range. DZ dating of these rocks show that they contain abundant ~1.8 Ga zircons and subordinate populations that indicate derivation from the northwest part of Laurentia. Upper Neoproterozoic strata in the Brooks Range, in contrast, contain populations dominated by ~600 Ma zircons. The latter ages are similar to those in parts of the ATT outside of northern Alaska, including the Seward Peninsula, Chukotka, and Wrangel Island that are thought to have been derived from the Timanian orogen of northern Baltica. Similar DZ populations have also been obtained from Silurian sandstones of the Lisburne Peninsula, suggesting that much of the western and southern parts of AAT may have formed in or near northern Baltica. A third group of DZ ages were found in deformed clastic rocks that were deposited across large parts of the North Slope in the Silurian and/or Devonian and are also present in parautochthonous settings in the Brooks Range. These rocks typically are dominated by DZ ages of 390-470 Ma, and sometimes contain subordinate non-Laurentian populations of ~1.5 Ga. These DZ ages, the underlying rocks of probable Baltic and Laurentian affinity, and evidence of significant deformation indicate that the ATT may have been constructed by Caledonian tectonism in the Silurian and Devonian. Following Devonian deformation, Mississippian to Triassic platform strata of the Ellesmerian Sequence were deposited on a regional unconformity. DZ ages from these rocks appear to reflect the compositions of the sub-unconformity units and indicate that Timanian

  20. Delayed initiation of anti-retroviral therapy in TB/HIV co-infected patients, Sanyati District, Zimbabwe, 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Maponga, Brian Abel; Chirundu, Daniel; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Bangure, Donewell; Takundwa, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem and is driven by HIV. Recent studies indicate that anti-retroviral therapy (ART) initiated during the first two months of anti-TB treatment (ATT) reduces risk of HIV morbidity and mortality. In Sanyati district, 14% of TB/HIV co-infected patients were initiated on ART during TB treatment, in 2010. The study was conducted to determine the magnitude and determinants of delay in ART initiation, in TB/HIV co-infected patients. Methods An analytic cross sectional study was conducted at three study sites in Sanyati district. The outcome was delayed ART initiation, being failure to be initiated on ART during the first two months of ATT. Respondents were interviewed using pre-tested questionnaires. Epi-Info™ was used to generate frequencies, means, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Stratified and logistic regression analysis was done. Results Of the 186 respondents, 63% had delayed ART initiation. Median delay from initiation of ATT to ART was 48 days (Q1=20; Q3=82). Risk factors for delayed ART initiation were: being treated for TB first time, AOR=2.23 (p=0.03); initially registered for HIV care outside Sanyati, AOR=3.08 (p<0.01); staying more than 5km from a clinic, AOR=3.29 (p<0.01). Enabling factors for early ART initiation was having a family member on ART, AOR=0.23 (p<0.01). Conclusion Significant delay and barriers to ART initiation were identified. Decentralization of ART initiation should be expedited. ART initiation should be expedited in patients with identified risk factors for delaying ART initiation. Peer support should be strengthened in families and community. Periodic evaluation of magnitude of delay and impact of early ART initiation in TB/HIV patients is recommended. PMID:26401222

  1. Multicopy Integration and Expression of Heterologous Genes in Methylobacterium extorquens ATCC 55366†

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young J.; Bourque, Denis; Morel, Lyne; Groleau, Denis; Míguez, Carlos B.

    2006-01-01

    High-level expression of chromosomally integrated genes in Methylobacterium extorquens ATCC 55366 was achieved under the control of the strong M. extorquens AM1 methanol dehydrogenase promoter (PmxaF) using the mini-Tn7 transposon system. Stable maintenance and expression of the integrated genes were obtained in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure. Furthermore, using this technology, a multicopy integration protocol for M. extorquens was also developed. Chromosomal integration of one to five copies of the gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (gfp) was achieved. The multicopy-based expression system permitted expression of a preset number of gene copies. A unique specific Tn7 integration locus in the chromosome of M. extorquens, known as the Tn7 attachment site (attTn7 site), was identified. This single attTn7 site was identified in an intergenic region between glmS, which encodes the essential enzyme glucosamine-6-phosphate synthetase, and dhaT, which encodes 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase. The fact that the integration event is site specific and the fact that the attTn7 site is a noncoding region of the chromosome make the mini-Tn7 transposon system very useful for insertion of target genes and subsequent expression. In all transformants tested, expression and segregation of the transforming gene were stable without generation of secondary mutations in the host. In this paper, we describe single and multicopy chromosome integration and stable expression of heterologous genes (bgl [β-galactosidase], est [esterase], and gfp [green fluorescent protein]) in M. extorquens. PMID:16391115

  2. The systemic effects of sclerostin overexpression using ΦC31 integrase in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Park, Bo Mi; Kang, Myengmo; Nam, HeeJin; Kim, Eun Jin; Bae, ChuHyun; Lim, Sung Kil

    2016-04-01

    Sclerostin, encoded by the Sost gene, is mainly produced by osteocytes in bone and antagonizes the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which is a requisite for bone formation. Currently, human anti-sclerostin antibodies are being tested in phase III clinical trials. In addition, serum sclerostin levels are reported to be associated with bone mineral density and fracture risk in normal individuals; however, the correlation between serum sclerostin and bone mass remains controversial. To study the effects of the continuous exposure of exogenous sclerostin on bone, a ΦC31 integrase system, which has the characteristics of site-specificity and efficiency, was applied for the delivery of the Sost gene in this study. We injected Sost-attB plasmid with or without ΦC31 integrase plasmid into the mouse tail vein using a hydrodynamic-based method. The site-specific integration of the Sost gene into the mouse genome was confirmed by examining a pseudo-attP site on the hepatic genomic DNA. Sclerostin was expressed in the hepatocytes, secreted into the blood flow, and maintained at high concentrations in the mice with both Sost-attB plasmid and ΦC31 integrase plasmid injections, which was observed by serial measurement. Moreover, the mice with long-term high levels of serum sclerostin showed trabecular bone loss on micro-CT analysis. Peripheral B cell populations were not affected. Our results suggested that sclerostin could be expressed in the liver and sustained successfully at high levels in the blood by using the ΦC31 integrase system, leading to trabecular bone loss. These findings may help to further ascertain the effects of sclerostin introduced exogenously on the skeleton. PMID:26845353

  3. Interleukin-7 Modulates Anti-Tumor CD8+ T Cell Responses via Its Action on Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deiser, Katrin; Stoycheva, Diana; Bank, Ute; Blankenstein, Thomas; Schüler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells is a promising approach for the treatment of chronic viral and malignant diseases. In order to improve adoptive T cell therapy (ATT) of cancer, recent strategies aim at the antibody-based blockade of immunosuppressive signaling pathways in CD8+ T cells. Alternatively, adjuvant effects of immunostimulatory cytokines might be exploited to improve therapeutic CD8+ T cell responses. For example, Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a potent growth, activation and survival factor for CD8+ T cells that can be used to improve virus- and tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Although direct IL-7 effects on CD8+ T cells were studied extensively in numerous models, the contribution of IL-7 receptor-competent (IL-7R+) host cells remained unclear. In the current study we provide evidence that CD8+ T cell-mediated tumor rejection in response to recombinant IL-7 (rIL-7) therapy is strictly dependent on IL-7R+ host cells. On the contrary, CD8+ T cell expansion is independent of host IL-7R expression. If, however, rIL-7 therapy and peptide vaccination are combined, host IL-7R signaling is crucial for CD8+ T cell expansion. Unexpectedly, maximum CD8+ T cell expansion relies mainly on IL-7R signaling in non-hematopoietic host cells, similar to the massive accumulation of dendritic cells and granulocytes. In summary, we provide evidence that IL-7R+ host cells are major targets of rIL-7 that modulate therapeutic CD8+ T cell responses and the outcome of rIL-7-assisted ATT. This knowledge may have important implications for the design and optimization of clinical ATT protocols. PMID:27447484

  4. Characterization of the chromosomal integration of Saccharopolyspora plasmid pCM32 and its application to improve production of spinosyn in Saccharopolyspora spinosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Xia, Haiyang; Dang, Fujun; Xu, Qingyu; Li, Wenjun; Qin, Zhongjun

    2015-12-01

    Saccharopolyspora spinosa produces tetra-cyclic macrolide spinosyns, a group of highly efficient pesticidal agents. However, this species lacks efficient vectors for genetic manipulation. In this study, the circular plasmid pCM32 was newly isolated from Saccharopolyspora endophytica YIM 61095. The complete nucleotide sequence of pCM32 consists of 14,611 bp and is predicted to encode 17 open reading frames (ORFs). Interestingly, a putative int gene in pCM32 was predicted by homologous alignment to encode an integrase belonging to the tyrosine family of integrases/recombinases. Plasmid pCM238 containing this int locus derived from pCM32 could be transferred by conjugation from Escherichia coli into Sa. spinosa at a high frequency. Integration of pCM238 in the host chromosome was demonstrated as site-specific recombination (at the tRNA (Ser) gene) via a 56-bp core sequence within the attP/attB sites. Plasmid pCM265, a shuttle vector containing the int and attP sequences of pCM32, was constructed to introduce foreign genes into Sa. spinosa. The production of spinosad approximately doubled in Sa. spinosa NRRL18395 after introducing pCM265-derived plasmids carrying the genes for phosphofructokinase (PFK) or anthranilate synthase. These results indicate that plasmid pCM32 is an actinomycete integrative and conjugative element (AICE) and that its derived integrative vectors are useful for efficiently introducing foreign DNA into Sa. spinosa. PMID:26260388

  5. A Histidine-rich Linker Region in Peptidylglycine α-Amidating Monooxygenase Has the Properties of a pH Sensor*

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanatha, Kurutihalli; Bäck, Nils; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A.

    2014-01-01

    Decreasing luminal pH is thought to play a role in the entry of newly synthesized and endocytosed membrane proteins into secretory granules. The two catalytic domains of peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a type I integral membrane protein, catalyze the sequential reactions that convert peptidyl-Gly substrates into amidated products. We explored the hypothesis that a conserved His-rich cluster (His-Gly-His-His) in the linker region connecting its two catalytic domains senses pH and affects PAM trafficking by mutating these His residues to Ala (Ala-Gly-Ala-Ala; H3A). Purified recombinant wild-type and H3A linker peptides were examined using circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence; mutation of the His cluster largely eliminated its pH sensitivity. An enzymatically active PAM protein with the same mutations (PAM-1/H3A) was expressed in HEK293 cells and AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells. Metabolic labeling followed by immunoprecipitation revealed more rapid loss of newly synthesized PAM-1/H3A than PAM-1; although release of newly synthesized monofunctional PHM/H3A was increased, release of soluble bifunctional PAM/H3A, a product of the endocytic pathway, was decreased. Surface biotinylation revealed rapid loss of PAM-1/H3A, with no detectable return of the mutant protein to secretory granules. Consistent with its altered endocytic trafficking, little PAM-1/H3A was subjected to regulated intramembrane proteolysis followed by release of a small nuclear-targeted cytosolic fragment. AtT-20 cells expressing PAM-1/H3A adopted the morphology of wild-type AtT-20 cells; secretory products no longer accumulated in the trans-Golgi network and secretory granule exocytosis was more responsive to secretagogue. PMID:24627494

  6. The evolutionary history of chromosomal super-integrons provides an ancestry for multiresistant integrons.

    PubMed

    Rowe-Magnus, D A; Guerout, A M; Ploncard, P; Dychinco, B; Davies, J; Mazel, D

    2001-01-16

    Integrons are genetic elements that acquire and exchange exogenous DNA, known as gene cassettes, by a site-specific recombination mechanism. Characterized gene cassettes consist of a target recombination sequence (attC site) usually associated with a single open reading frame coding for an antibiotic resistance determinant. The affiliation of multiresistant integrons (MRIs), which contain various combinations of antibiotic resistance gene cassettes, with transferable elements underlies the rapid evolution of multidrug resistance among diverse Gram-negative bacteria. Yet the origin of MRIs remains unknown. Recently, a chromosomal super-integron (SI) harboring hundreds of cassettes was identified in the Vibrio cholerae genome. Here, we demonstrate that the activity of its associated integrase is identical to that of the MRI integrase, IntI1. We have also identified equivalent integron superstructures in nine distinct genera throughout the gamma-proteobacterial radiation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the evolutionary history of the system paralleled that of the radiation, indicating that integrons are ancient structures. The attC sites of the 63 antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes identified thus far in MRIs are highly variable. Strikingly, one-fifth of these were virtually identical to the highly related yet species-specific attC sites of the SIs described here. Furthermore, antimicrobial resistance homologues were identified among the thousands of genes entrapped by these SIs. Because the gene cassettes of SIs are substrates for MRIs, these data identify SIs as the source of contemporary MRIs and their cassettes. However, our demonstration of the metabolic functions, beyond antibiotic resistance and virulence, of three distinct SI gene cassettes indicates that integrons function as a general gene-capture system for bacterial innovation. PMID:11209061

  7. Oligomerization of green fluorescent protein in the secretory pathway of endocrine cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jain, R K; Joyce, P B; Molinete, M; Halban, P A; Gorr, S U

    2001-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is used extensively as a reporter protein to monitor cellular processes, including intracellular protein trafficking and secretion. In general, this approach depends on GFP acting as a passive reporter protein. However, it was recently noted that GFP oligomerizes in the secretory pathway of endocrine cells. To characterize this oligomerization and its potential role in GFP transport, cytosolic and secretory forms of enhanced GFP (EGFP) were expressed in GH4C1 and AtT-20 endocrine cells. Biochemical analysis showed that cytosolic EGFP existed as a 27 kDa monomer, whereas secretory forms of EGFP formed disulphide-linked oligomers. EGFP contains two cysteine residues (Cys(49) and Cys(71)), which could play a role in this oligomerization. Site-directed mutagenesis of Cys(49) and Cys(71) showed that both cysteine residues were involved in disulphide interactions. Substitution of either cysteine residue resulted in a reduction or loss of oligomers, although dimers of the secretory form of EGFP remained. Mutation of these residues did not adversely affect the fluorescence of EGFP. EGFP oligomers were stored in secretory granules and secreted by the regulated secretory pathway in endocrine AtT-20 cells. Similarly, the dimeric mutant forms of EGFP were still secreted via the regulated secretory pathway, indicating that the higher-order oligomers were not necessary for sorting in AtT-20 cells. These results suggest that the oligomerization of EGFP must be considered when the protein is used as a reporter molecule in the secretory pathway. PMID:11736655

  8. Changes in CD4+ T-cells and HIV RNA resulting from combination of anti-TB therapy with Dzherelo in TB/HIV dually infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaeva, Lyudmila G; Maystat, Tatyana V; Masyuk, Lilia A; Pylypchuk, Volodymyr S; Volyanskii, Yuri L; Kutsyna, Galyna A

    2008-01-01

    The open-label, phase II clinical trial of antituberculosis therapy (ATT) with or without oral immunomodulator Dzherelo (Immunoxel) was conducted in TB/HIV coinfected, antiretroviral therapy naïve patients to evaluate the effect on CD4 T-lymphocyte counts and viral load. The arm A (n = 20) received isoniazid (H); rimfapicin (R); pyrazinamide (Z); streptomycin (S); and ethambutol (E), and arm B (n = 20) received 50 drops of Dzherelo twice per day in addition to HRZSE. After 2 months in 90% of Dzherelo patients the population of absolute CD4 T-cells expanded by an average of 71.2% (from 174 to 283 cells/μl; P = 0.00003), but declined in ATT-alone patients (182 to 174; P = 0.34). The ratio between CD4/CD8 cells deteriorated in 80% of individuals in arm A (1.213 > 0.943; P = 0.002), but improved in the same proportion of patients in arm B (1.244 > 1.536; P = 0.007). The number of total CD3+ lymphocytes rose from 728 to 921 cells in arm B (P = 0.025) whereas it fell from 650 to 585 cells in arm A (P = 0.25). The viral load, as measured by plasma RNA-PCR, decreased in 70% of Dzherelo recipients (2.174 > 1.558 copies/ml; P = 0.002), but increased in 70% of HRZSE only receivers (1.907 > 2.076 copies/ml; P = 0.03). Dzherelo has a favorable effect on the immune status and viral burden in TB/HIV patients when given as an immunomodulating adjunct to ATT. PMID:19920896

  9. Interleukin-7 Modulates Anti-Tumor CD8+ T Cell Responses via Its Action on Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Deiser, Katrin; Stoycheva, Diana; Bank, Ute; Blankenstein, Thomas; Schüler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells is a promising approach for the treatment of chronic viral and malignant diseases. In order to improve adoptive T cell therapy (ATT) of cancer, recent strategies aim at the antibody-based blockade of immunosuppressive signaling pathways in CD8+ T cells. Alternatively, adjuvant effects of immunostimulatory cytokines might be exploited to improve therapeutic CD8+ T cell responses. For example, Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a potent growth, activation and survival factor for CD8+ T cells that can be used to improve virus- and tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Although direct IL-7 effects on CD8+ T cells were studied extensively in numerous models, the contribution of IL-7 receptor-competent (IL-7R+) host cells remained unclear. In the current study we provide evidence that CD8+ T cell-mediated tumor rejection in response to recombinant IL-7 (rIL-7) therapy is strictly dependent on IL-7R+ host cells. On the contrary, CD8+ T cell expansion is independent of host IL-7R expression. If, however, rIL-7 therapy and peptide vaccination are combined, host IL-7R signaling is crucial for CD8+ T cell expansion. Unexpectedly, maximum CD8+ T cell expansion relies mainly on IL-7R signaling in non-hematopoietic host cells, similar to the massive accumulation of dendritic cells and granulocytes. In summary, we provide evidence that IL-7R+ host cells are major targets of rIL-7 that modulate therapeutic CD8+ T cell responses and the outcome of rIL-7-assisted ATT. This knowledge may have important implications for the design and optimization of clinical ATT protocols. PMID:27447484

  10. Diabetes Is Associated with Worse Clinical Presentation in Tuberculosis Patients from Brazil: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, Lucas S.; Daltro, Carla; Castro, Simone; Kornfeld, Hardy; Netto, Eduardo M.; Andrade, Bruno B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) worldwide, especially in developing countries, and the persistence of tuberculosis (TB) as a major public health issue in these same regions, emphasize the importance of investigating this association. Here, we compared the clinical profile and disease outcomes of TB patients with or without coincident DM in a TB reference center in Brazil. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of a TB patient cohort (treatment naïve) of 408 individuals recruited at a TB primary care center in Brazil between 2004 and 2010. Data on diagnosis of TB and DM were used to define the groups. The study groups were compared with regard to TB disease presentation at diagnosis as well as to clinical outcomes such as cure and mortality rates upon anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) initiation. A composite score utilizing clinical, radiological and microbiological parameters was used to compare TB severity between the groups. Results DM patients were older than non-diabetic TB patients. In addition, diabetic individuals more frequently presented with cough, night sweats, hemoptysis and malaise than those without DM. The overall pattern of lung lesions assessed by chest radiographic examination was similar between the groups. Compared to non-diabetic patients, those with TB-diabetes exhibited positive acid-fast bacilli in sputum samples more frequently at diagnosis and at 30 days after ATT initiation. Notably, higher values of the TB severity score were significantly associated with TB-diabetes comorbidity after adjustment for confounding factors. Moreover, during ATT, diabetic patients required more frequent transfers to TB reference hospitals for complex clinical management. Nevertheless, overall mortality and cure rates were indistinguishable between the study groups. Conclusions These findings reinforce the idea that diabetes negatively impacts pulmonary TB severity. Our study argues for the systematic screening for DM in TB

  11. Kappa Opioid Receptor Activation of p38 MAPK Is GRK3- and Arrestin-dependent in Neurons and Astrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Bruchas, Michael R.; Macey, Tara A.; Lowe, Janet D.; Chavkin, Charles

    2007-01-01

    AtT-20 cells expressing the wild-type kappa opioid receptor (KOR) increased phospho-p38 MAPK following treatment with the kappa agonist U50,488. The increase was blocked by the kappa antagonist norbinaltorphimine and not evident in untransfected cells. In contrast, U50,488 treatment of AtT-20 cells expressing KOR having alanine substituted for serine-369 (KSA) did not increase phospho-p38. Phosphorylation of serine 369 in the KOR carboxyl terminus by G-protein receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) was previously shown to be required for receptor desensitization, and the results suggest that p38 MAPK activation by KOR may require arrestin recruitment. This hypothesis was tested by transfecting arrestin3-(R170E), a dominant positive form of arrestin that does not require receptor phosphorylation for activation. AtT-20 cells expressing both KSA and arrestin3-(R170E) responded to U50,488 treatment with an increase in phospho-p38 consistent with the hypothesis. Primary cultured astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive) and neurons (γ-aminobutyric acid-positive) isolated from mouse striata also responded to U50,488 by increasing phospho-p38 immunolabeling. p38 activation was not evident in either striatal astrocytes or neurons isolated from KOR knock-out mice or GRK3 knock-out mice. Astrocytes pretreated with small interfering RNA for arrestin3 were also unable to activate p38 in response to U50,488 treatment. Furthermore, in striatal neurons, the kappa-mediated phospho-p38 labeling was colocalized with arrestin3. These findings suggest that KOR may activate p38 MAPK in brain by a GRK3 and arrestin-dependent mechanism. PMID:16648139

  12. Effects of geometry and chemistry on hydrophobic solvation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Robert C.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2014-01-01

    Inserting an uncharged van der Waals (vdw) cavity into water disrupts the distribution of water and creates attractive dispersion interactions between the solvent and solute. This free-energy change is the hydrophobic solvation energy (ΔGvdw). Frequently, it is assumed to be linear in the solvent-accessible surface area, with a positive surface tension (γ) that is independent of the properties of the molecule. However, we found that γ for a set of alkanes differed from that for four configurations of decaalanine, and γ = −5 was negative for the decaalanines. These findings conflict with the notion that ΔGvdw favors smaller A. We broke ΔGvdw into the free energy required to exclude water from the vdw cavity (ΔGrep) and the free energy of forming the attractive interactions between the solute and solvent (ΔGatt) and found that γ < 0 for the decaalanines because −γatt > γrep and γatt < 0. Additionally, γatt and γrep for the alkanes differed from those for the decaalanines, implying that none of ΔGatt, ΔGrep, and ΔGvdw can be computed with a constant surface tension. We also showed that ΔGatt could not be computed from either the initial or final water distributions, implying that this quantity is more difficult to compute than is sometimes assumed. Finally, we showed that each atom’s contribution to γrep depended on multibody interactions with its surrounding atoms, implying that these contributions are not additive. These findings call into question some hydrophobic models. PMID:25258413

  13. Transformation of Mo and W thiosalts into unsupported sulfide catalysts: A temperature dependent in-situ spectroscopic investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Yanjiao; Williams, Christopher T.; Glascock, Mary; Xiong, Guang; Lauterbach, Jochen; Liang, Changhai

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • TPD–MS results suggest that the majority of S remains in the solid sample after decomposition. • Decomposition of the (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}N is not directly correlated with that of the MS{sub 4}{sup 2−} species. • Surface of materials does not track directly with the bulk at various treatment temperatures. • ATT-derived materials retained a significant amount of +6 state consistent with the precursor. - Abstract: The thermal decomposition of ammonium thiomolybdate (ATM), ammonium thiotungstate (ATT), tetramethylammonium thiomolybdate (TMATM) and tetramethylammonium thiotungstate (TMATT) are investigated as a function of temperature by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature-programmed decomposition with mass spectroscopy (TPS–MS), in-situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results allow for correlations to be made between the changes in the bulk and surface structures of the materials, and the evolution of gas-phase decomposition products. The major difference between the ammonium and tetramethylammonium precursors is the complexity of the thermal decomposition profile, which is found to follow two steps over a wide temperature range for the former, but one step over a relatively narrow range for the latter materials. Raman and FTIR spectra reveal the decomposition of the ammonium and tetramethylammonium groups, along with the decomposition of the initial sulfide structures to metal disulfides. For both sets of precursors, XPS results show that the surface of the resulting materials at various temperatures of treatment does not track directly with the state of the bulk material. While the ATM, TMATM, and TMATT-derived material surfaces are reduced to the 4{sup +} state at the highest temperature, indicating disulfides, the ATT-derived materials still retained a significant amount of W{sup 6+} state consistent with the starting precursor.

  14. A randomized Phase 2 trial of telavancin versus standard therapy in patients with uncomplicated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: the ASSURE study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a common infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Telavancin is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide active against Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). We conducted a randomized, double-blind, Phase 2 trial in patients with uncomplicated S. aureus bacteremia. Methods Patients were randomized to either telavancin or standard therapy (vancomycin or anti-staphylococcal penicillin) for 14 days. Continuation criteria were set to avoid complicated S. aureus bacteremia. The primary end point was clinical cure at 84 days. Results In total, 60 patients were randomized and 58 received ≥1 study medication dose (all-treated), 31 patients fulfilled inclusion/exclusion and continuation criteria (all-treated target [ATT]) (telavancin 15, standard therapy 16), and 17 patients were clinically evaluable (CE) (telavancin 8, standard therapy 9). Mean age (ATT) was 60 years. Intravenous catheters were the most common source of S. aureus bacteremia and ~50% of patients had MRSA. A similar proportion of CE patients were cured in the telavancin (88%) and standard therapy (89%) groups. All patients with MRSA bacteremia were cured and one patient with MSSA bacteremia failed study treatment in each group. Although adverse events (AEs) were more common in the telavancin ATT group (90% vs. 72%), AEs leading to drug discontinuation were similar (7%) in both treatment arms. Potentially clinically significant increases in serum creatinine (≥1.5 mg/dl and at least 50% greater than baseline) were more common in the telavancin group (20% vs. 7%). Conclusions This study suggests that telavancin may have utility for treatment of uncomplicated S. aureus bacteremia; additional studies are warranted. (Telavancin for Treatment of Uncomplicated Staphylococcus Aureus Bacteremia (ASSURE); NCT00062647). PMID:24884578

  15. A Look into the Melting Pot: The mecC-Harboring Region Is a Recombination Hot Spot in Staphylococcus stepanovicii

    PubMed Central

    Semmler, Torsten; Harrison, Ewan M.; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Wieler, Lothar H.; Guenther, Sebastian; Stamm, Ivonne; Hanssen, Anne-Merethe; Holmes, Mark A.; Vincze, Szilvia; Walther, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important driver for resistance- and virulence factor accumulation in pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. Methods Here, we have investigated the downstream region of the bacterial chromosomal attachment site (attB) for the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element of a commensal mecC-positive Staphylococcus stepanovicii strain (IMT28705; ODD4) with respect to genetic composition and indications of HGT. S. stepanovicii IMT28705 was isolated from a fecal sample of a trapped wild bank vole (Myodes glareolus) during a screening study (National Network on “Rodent-Borne Pathogens”) in Germany. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of IMT28705 together with the mecC-negative type strain CM7717 was conducted in order to comparatively investigate the genomic region downstream of attB (GenBank accession no. KR732654 and KR732653). Results The bank vole isolate (IMT28705) harbors a mecC gene which shares 99.2% nucleotide (and 98.5% amino acid) sequence identity with mecC of MRSA_LGA251. In addition, the mecC-encoding region harbors the typical blaZ-mecC-mecR1-mecI structure, corresponding with the class E mec complex. While the sequences downstream of attB in both S. stepanovicii isolates (IMT28705 and CM7717) are partitioned by 15 bp direct repeats, further comparison revealed a remarkable low concordance of gene content, indicating a chromosomal “hot spot” for foreign DNA integration and exchange. Conclusion Our data highlight the necessity for further research on transmission routes of resistance encoding factors from the environmental and wildlife resistome. PMID:26799070

  16. A PC-interactive stereonet plotting program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, Walter L.

    The computer program here described allows the structural geologist to rotate and revolve structural data interactively (strike dip: trend plunge). These actions can remove the effects of dip and plunge. Once a final screen plot is obtained, it may be printed on an associated graphics printer. This program requires an IBM PC/XT AT or compatible equipped with the color graphics (CGA) card. It also works satisfactorily on compatible PCs such as the COMPAQ or AT&T 6300 (which use a combination mono CGA screen). The addition of a math coprocessor (8087 or 80287) greatly speeds up the response time but is not required.

  17. Frontal lobe tuberculoma

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Noella Maria Delia; Shah, Ira; Biyani, Naresh; Shah, Forum

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculomas are usually infratentorial in children, and supratentorial lesions predominate in adults. We present a 4-year-old girl with multiple seizures, papilloedema and brisk reflexes. On investigation, she was found to have a large left parafalcine tuberculoma. She was treated with antitubercular treatment (ATT) and steroids. The child improved, seizures stopped and the papilloedema gradually disappeared. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging brain after 8 months showed a mild reduction in the size of the lesion. Child is on regular follow-up. PMID:26835150

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: The First Fifty Years

    SciTech Connect

    MORA,CARL J.

    1999-11-03

    On Nov. 1, 1999, Sandia National Laboratories celebrates its 50th birthday. Although Sandia has its roots in the World War II-era Manhattan Project, Sandia began operating as a separate nuclear weapons engineering laboratory under the management of AT&T on Nov. 1, 1949. Today the lab employs more than 7,000 people at its two sites in Albuquerque and Livermore, California, and has research and development missions in national security, energy and environmental technologies, and U.S. economic competitiveness. Lockheed Martin Corporation operates Sandia for the US. Department of Energy.

  19. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG enhanced Th1 cellular immunity but did not affect antibody responses in a human gut microbiota transplanted neonatal gnotobiotic pig model.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ke; Tin, Christine; Wang, Haifeng; Yang, Xingdong; Li, Guohua; Giri-Rachman, Ernawati; Kocher, Jacob; Bui, Tammy; Clark-Deener, Sherrie; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to establish a human gut microbiota (HGM) transplanted gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of human rotavirus (HRV) infection and diarrhea, and to verify the dose-effects of probiotics on HRV vaccine-induced immune responses. Our previous studies using the Gn pig model found that probiotics dose-dependently regulated both T cell and B cell immune responses induced by rotavirus vaccines. We generated the HGM transplanted neonatal Gn pigs through daily feeding of neonatal human fecal suspension to germ-free pigs for 3 days starting at 12 hours after birth. We found that attenuated HRV (AttHRV) vaccination conferred similar overall protection against rotavirus diarrhea and virus shedding in Gn pigs and HGM transplanted Gn pigs. HGM promoted the development of the neonatal immune system, as evidenced by the significantly enhanced IFN-γ producing T cell responses and reduction of regulatory T cells and their cytokine production in the AttHRV-vaccinated pigs. The higher dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) feeding (14 doses, up to 109 colony-forming-unit [CFU]/dose) effectively increased the LGG counts in the HGM Gn pig intestinal contents and significantly enhanced HRV-specific IFN-γ producing T cell responses to the AttHRV vaccine. Lower dose LGG (9 doses, up to 106 CFU/dose) was ineffective. Neither doses of LGG significantly improved the protection rate, HRV-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers in serum, or IgA antibody titers in intestinal contents compared to the AttHRV vaccine alone, suggesting that an even higher dose of LGG is needed to overcome the influence of the microbiota to achieve the immunostimulatory effect in the HGM pigs. This study demonstrated that HGM Gn pig is an applicable animal model for studying immune responses to rotavirus vaccines and can be used for studying interventions (i.e., probiotics and prebiotics) that may enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccines through improving the gut microbiota. PMID:24722168

  20. Development and validation of the Thai version of the 4 ‘A’s Test for delirium screening in hospitalized elderly patients with acute medical illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Kuladee, Sanchai; Prachason, Thanavadee

    2016-01-01

    Background The English version of the 4 ‘A’s Test (4AT) is a rapid screening tool for delirium with a high sensitivity and specificity among hospitalized elderly patients. Objective To develop the Thai version of the 4AT (4AT-T) and assess its validity. Subjects and setting A total of 97 elderly patients aged 60 years or above who were admitted to the general medical wards were included. Methods Both authors independently translated the English version of the 4AT into Thai and thereafter developed a single reconciled forward translation by consensus. Back translation was performed by a bilingual native English speaker and it was then reviewed to ensure its agreement with the original one. After 24 hours of admission, subjects were enrolled and clinical data collected. Definite diagnosis of delirium was made by a psychiatrist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text-Revision criteria and the 6-item Thai Delirium Rating Scale; the 4AT was then administered to participants by nurses within 30 minutes. A 4AT score ≥4 was considered positive for delirium screening. The optimal cut-off point of the 4AT-T was identified by Youden’s index. Results In all, 24 out of 97 participants met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text-Revision criteria for delirium. At a cut-off score of 4 or greater, the 4AT-T exhibited satisfactory diagnostic performance with a sensitivity of 83.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62.6%–95.3%) and specificity of 86.3% (95% CI: 76.3%–93.2%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.92. The specified score provided maximal Youden’s index, suggesting an optimal criterion value for delirium screening. Conclusion The 4AT-T is a valid delirium-screening instrument for hospitalized elderly patients with acute medical illnesses. PMID:26966365

  1. Time Domain Version of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Paul R.

    1995-01-01

    A time domain (TD) version of the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction which is referred to as the TD-UTD is developed to analyze the transient electromagnetic scattering from perfectly conducting objects that are large in terms of pulse width. In particular, the scattering from a perfectly conducting arbitrary curved wedge and an arbitrary smooth convex surface are treated in detail. Note that the canonical geometries of a circular cylinder and a sphere are special cases of the arbitrary smooth convex surface. These TD -UTD solutions are obtained in the form of relatively simple analytical expressions valid for early to intermediate times. The geometries treated here can be used to build up a transient solution to more complex radiating objects via space-time localization, in exactly the same way as is done by invoking spatial localization properties in the frequency domain UTD. The TD-UTD provides the response due to an excitation of a general astigmatic impulsive wavefront with any polarization. This generalized impulse response may then be convolved with other excitation time pulses, to find even more general solutions due to other excitation pulses. Since the TD-UTD uses the same rays as the frequency domain UTD, it provides a simple picture for transient radiation or scattering and is therefore just as physically appealing as the frequency domain UTD. The formulation of an analytic time transform (ATT), which produces an analytic time signal given a frequency response function, is given here. This ATT is used because it provides a very efficient method of inverting the asymptotic high frequency UTD representations to obtain the corresponding TD-UTD expressions even when there are special UTD transition functions which may not be well behaved at the low frequencies; also, using the ATT avoids the difficulties associated with the inversion of UTD ray fields that traverse line or smooth caustics. Another useful aspect of the ATT is the ability to perform an

  2. XUNET experimental high-speed network testbed CRADA 1136, DOE TTI No. 92-MULT-020-B2

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    XUNET is a research program with AT&T and other partners to study high-speed wide area communication between local area networks over a backbone using Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switches. Important goals of the project are to develop software techniques for network control and management, and applications for high-speed networks. The project entails building a testbed between member sites to explore performance issues for mixed network traffic such as congestion control, multimedia communications protocols, segmentation and reassembly of ATM cells, and overall data throughput rates.

  3. Purchasers' group 'leapfrogs' to quality.

    PubMed

    2001-04-01

    Group hopes purchasing power or members will spark changes. What happens when big health care purchasers like AT&T, Boeing, Caterpillar, Delta Airlines, Eli Lilly, Ford, General Motors, and IBM get together and voice an opinion about the quality of health care? Hospitals listen. At least that's the theory behind the Leapfrog Group, an organization sponsored by the Business Roundtable and including some 70 companies that hope to improve safety in health care by alerting patients to key features of hospitals around the country. PMID:11330032

  4. [RIBOSOMAL DNA INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER 2 SEQUENCE AS A PHYLOGENETIC MARKER FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF TRICHINELLA NEMATODES].

    PubMed

    Odoyevskaya, I M; Spiridonov, S E

    2015-01-01

    The results of testing several primer combinations were used to choose an optimal pair for the amplification of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of ribosomal DNA (direct: Tri58s F 5 CGG TGG ATC RCT TGG CTC GTA CG and reverse: AB28 Rr (CGA CCG CTT ATT GAT ATG C). This pair of primers yields a 900 bp PCR product. Comparative analysis of obtained ITS2 sequences, for 8 Trichinella isolates from different regions of the Russian Federation permits different species and individual genotypes of these parasitic nematodes to be validly distinguished. PMID:26152035

  5. USGS Telecommunications Responding to Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hott, James L.

    1985-01-01

    The telecommunications industry is undergoing tremendous change due to the court ordered breakup of the monopoly once enjoyed by American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T). This action has resulted in a plethora of new services and products in all of the communications fields, including traditional voice and data. The new products are making extensive use of computer technology. At the same time, costs of telecommunications services have risen dramatically over the past three years. This article reviews some of the major actions that the Geological Survey has taken in response to these changes.

  6. The precise measurement of the attenuation coefficients of various IR optical materials applicable to immersion grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, Sayumi; Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kondo, Sohei; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2014-07-01

    Immersion grating is a next-generation diffraction grating which has the immersed the diffraction surface in an optical material with high refractive index of n > 2, and can provide higher spectral resolution than a classical reflective grating. Our group is developing various immersion gratings from the near- to mid-infrared region (Ikeda et al.1, 2, 3, 4, Sarugaku et al.5, and Sukegawa et al.6). The internal attenuation αatt of the candidate materials is especially very important to achieve the high efficiency immersion gratings used for astronomical applications. Nevertheless, because there are few available data as αatt < 0.01cm-1 in the infrared region, except for measurements of CVD-ZnSe, CVD-ZnS, and single-crystal Si in the short near-infrared region reported by Ikeda et al.7, we cannot select suitable materials as an immersion grating in an aimed wavelength range. Therefore, we measure the attenuation coefficients of CdTe, CdZnTe, Ge, Si, ZnSe, and ZnS that could be applicable to immersion gratings. We used an originally developed optical unit attached to a commercial FTIR which covers the wide wavelength range from 1.3μm to 28μm. This measurement system achieves the high accuracy of (triangle)αatt ~ 0.01cm-1. As a result, high-resistivity single-crystal CdZnTe, single-crystal Ge, single-crystal Si, CVD-ZnSe, and CVD-ZnS show αatt < 0.01cm-1 at the wavelength range of 5.5 - 19.0μm, 2.0 - 10.5μm, 1.3 - 5.4μm, 1.7 - 13.2μm, and 1.9 - 9.2μm, respectively. This indicates that these materials are good candidates for high efficiency immersion grating covering those wavelength ranges. We plan to make similar measurement under the cryogenic condition as T <= 10K for the infrared, especially mid-infrared applications.

  7. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B.

    1983-07-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: (1) abandoned oil field reports issued; (2) oilfield water data bank report published; (3) microbial enhanced recovery report issued; (4) polymer-augmented project could be economic today; (5) carbon dioxide EOR estimates given; (6) BETC passes 65th milestone; and (7) fifty achievements for fifty years (1918-1968). BETC publications are also listed. (ATT)

  8. Characterization of western coals and coal macerals by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Progress report, August 1, 1981-January 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Pugmire, R.J.; Grant, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Two bituminous coals were selected on the basis of petrographic analysis as having high concentrations of vitrinite, inertinite and liptinite. These coal samples were ground up to about 10-3 ..mu..m, treated with HCl and HF to remove the mineral matter, and the macerals were separated by density gradient centrifugation. Structural features of the three different macerals were obtained by NMR analysis based on conventional CP/MAS and multiple pulse multi-dimensional /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy. Results are presented in tabular form. (ATT)

  9. Thermal protein denaturation and protein aggregation in cells made thermotolerant by various chemicals: role of heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Kampinga, H H; Brunsting, J F; Stege, G J; Burgman, P W; Konings, A W

    1995-08-01

    Thermotolerance (TT) induced by sodium arsenite (A-TT: 100 microM, 1 h, 37 degrees C) was compared to heat-induced thermotolerance (H-TT: 15 min, 44 degrees C) using HeLa S3 cells. All four pretreatments led to comparable levels of thermotolerance and also induced resistance to arsenite-, ethanol-, and diamide-induced toxicity (clonogenic ability). Stress-induced expression of the major heat shock proteins (hsp27, hsc70(p73), hsp70(p72), and hsp90) was generally highest in H-TT cells and lowest in A-TT cells. Interestingly, the four types of TT cells showed distinct differences in certain aspects of resistance against thermal protein damage. Thermal protein denaturation and aggregation determined in isolated cellular membrane fractions was found to be attenuated when they were isolated from H-TT and A-TT cells but not when isolated from E-TT and D-TT cells. The heat resistance in the proteins of the membrane fraction corresponded with elevated levels of hsp70(p72) associated with the isolated membrane fractions. In the nuclear fraction, only marginal (not significant) attenuation of the formation of protein aggregates (as determined by TX-100 (in)solubility) was observed. However, the postheat recovery from heat-induced protein aggregation in the nucleus was faster in H-TT, E-TT, and D-TT cells, but not in A-TT cells. Despite the fact that elevated levels of hsp27, hsp70(p73), and hsp70(p72) were found in the TX-100 insoluble nuclear fraction derived from all TT cells, no correlation was found with the degree of resistance in terms of the accelerated recovery from nuclear protein aggregation. The only correlation between accelerated recovery from nuclear protein aggregates was that with total cellular levels of hsp27. The data indicate that heat-induced loss of clonogenic ability may be a multitarget rather than a single target event. A threshold of damage may exist in cells after exposure to heat; multiple sets of proteins in (different compartments of) the cell

  10. (+)-CC-1065 as a structural probe of Mu transposase-induced bending of DNA: overcoming limitations of hydroxyl-radical footprinting.

    PubMed

    Ding, Z M; Harshey, R M; Hurley, L H

    1993-09-11

    Phage Mu transposase (A-protein) is primarily responsible for transposition of the Mu genome. The protein binds to six att sites, three at each end of Mu DNA. At most att sites interaction of a protein monomer with DNA is seen to occur over three minor and two consecutive major grooves and to result in bending up to about 90 degrees. To probe the directionality and locus of these A-protein-induced bends, we have used the antitumor antibiotic (+)-CC-1065 as a structural probe. As a consequence of binding within the minor groove, (+)-CC-1065 is able to alkylate N3 of adenine in a sequence selective manner. This selectivity is partially determined by conformational flexibility of the DNA sequence, and the covalent adduct has a bent DNA structure in which narrowing of the minor groove has occurred. Using this drug in experiments in which either gel retardation or DNA strand breakage are used to monitor the stability of the A-protein--DNA complex or the (+)-CC-1065 alkylation sites on DNA (att site L3), we have demonstrated that of the three minor grooves implicated in the interaction with A-protein, the peripheral two are 'open' or accessible to drug bonding following protein binding. These drug-bonding sites very likely represent binding at at least two A-protein-induced bending sites. Significantly, the locus of bending at these sites is spaced approximately two helical turns apart, and the bending is proposed to occur by narrowing of the minor groove of DNA. The intervening minor groove between these two peripheral sites is protected from (+)-CC-1065 alkylation. The results are discussed in reference to a proposed model for overall DNA bending in the A-protein att L3 site complex. This study illustrates the utility of (+)-CC-1065 as a probe for protein-induced bending of DNA, as well as for interactions of minor groove DNA bending proteins with DNA which may be masked in hydroxyl radical footprinting experiments. PMID:8414983

  11. STS-51G Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-51G mission included (kneeling front left to right) Daniel C. Brandenstein, commander; and John O. Creighton, pilot. Standing, left to right, are mission specialists Shannon W. Lucid, Steven R. Nagel, and John M. Fabian; and payload specialists Sultan Salman Al-Saud, and Patrick Baudrey. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on June 17, 1985 at 7:33:00 am (EDT), the STS-51G mission's primary payloads were three communications satellites: MORELOS-A for Mexico; ARABSAT-A , for Arab Satellite communications; and TELSTAR-3D, for ATT.

  12. Advanced subsonic long-haul transport terminal area compatibility study. Volume 2: Research and technology recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Terminal Area Compatibility (TAC) study is briefly summarized for background information. The most important research items for the areas of noise congestion, and emissions are identified. Other key research areas are also discussed. The 50 recommended research items are categorized by flight phase, technology, and compatibility benefits. The relationship of the TAC recommendations to the previous ATT recommendations is discussed. The bulk of the document contains the 50 recommended research items. For each item, the potential payoff, state of readiness, recommended action and estimated cost and schedule are given.

  13. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  14. Multifocal tuberculous osteomyelitis: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Chandiralingam, Prasanna; Arvind Kumar, S M; Krishna Kumar, S; Kailash, S

    2015-01-01

    A 29 year old lady presented with vague right lower quadrant abdomen and thigh pain for the past 4 years. X-ray pelvis with both hips was remarkably normal, and MRI was suggestive of osteomyelitis in right ilium and proximal femur. Biopsy confirmed the lesion as tubercular. Isolated bone involvement by tuberculosis without a joint or pulmonary involvement is extremely rare in immunocompetent patients and has not been reported in literature so for. Tuberculosis should be suspected in patients presenting with multiple bone lesions, especially in endemic areas. Prompt surgical drainage and ATT forms the mainstay of treatment. PMID:25857565

  15. Long range view of materials research for civil transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Waters, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of various material technology advancements on the economics of civil transport aircraft is investigated. Benefits of advances in both airframe and engine materials are considered. Benefits are measured primarily by improvements in return on investment for an operator. Materials research and development programs which lead to the greatest benefits are assessed with regards to cost, risk, and commonality with other programs. Emphasis of the paper is on advanced technology subsonic/transonic transports (ATT type aircraft) since these are likely to be the next generation of commercial transports.

  16. Long range view of materials research for civil transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Waters, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The impact of various material technology advancements on the economics of civil transport aircraft is investigated. Benefits of advances in both airframe and engine materials are considered. Benefits are measured primarily by improvements in return on investment for an operator. Materials research and development programs which lead to the greatest benefits are assessed with regards to cost, risk, and commonality with other programs. Emphasis of the paper is on advanced technology subsonic/transonic transports (ATT type aircraft) since these are likely to be the next generation of commercial transports.

  17. IRDS prototyping with applications to the representation of EA/RA models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekkos, Anthony A.; Greenwood, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    The requirements and system overview for the Information Resources Dictionary System (IRDS) are described. A formal design specification for a scaled down IRDS implementation compatible with the proposed FIPS IRDS standard is contained. The major design objectives for this IRDS will include a menu driven user interface, implementation of basic IRDS operations, and PC compatibility. The IRDS was implemented using Smalltalk/5 object oriented programming system and an ATT 6300 personal computer running under MS-DOS 3.1. The difficulties encountered in using Smalltalk are discussed.

  18. Limitations on High Data Rate Optical Fiber Transmission Systems Due to Transmission Impairment

    SciTech Connect

    Menyuk, Curtis R.

    2002-03-15

    This project supplemented our regular DOE grant from the Basic Energy Sciences organization with the goal of fostering industrial partnerships and student internships. During the project period, we have interacted with between 15 and 20 companies in the optical fiber telecommunications equipment industry, and our students have participated in a number of highly visible projects with companies such as Ciena, Science Applications International Corporation, KDD, ATT, Virtual Photonics, Inc., Phaethon Telecommunications, PhotonEx, and others. The project led to many successful interactions and numerous job offers for our students.

  19. NASA MODIS Products For Military Land Monitoring and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozar, R. C.; Balbach, H. E.

    2002-12-01

    The US Army Corps on Engineers Engineering Research and Development Center, ERDC-CERL, is using MODIS products to study a large portion of the Sandhills and Sonora Desert ecoregions for monitoring ecosystem wide condition and provide a basis for military installation encroachment indicators. Because of the extent of these areas, MODIS products provide a practical input to regularly and inexpensively support the monitoring initiative. Here we illustrate how MODIS products have potential applications within an automated framework (e.g. ATtILA and FragStats) and on a case-by-case basis.

  20. Improved site-specific recombinase-based method to produce selectable marker- and vector-backbone-free transgenic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuan; Tong, Qi; Li, Zhongxia; Tian, Jinhai; Wang, Yizhi; Su, Feng; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yong

    2014-02-01

    PhiC31 integrase-mediated gene delivery has been extensively used in gene therapy and animal transgenesis. However, random integration events are observed in phiC31-mediated integration in different types of mammalian cells; as a result, the efficiencies of pseudo attP site integration and evaluation of site-specific integration are compromised. To improve this system, we used an attB-TK fusion gene as a negative selection marker, thereby eliminating random integration during phiC31-mediated transfection. We also excised the selection system and plasmid bacterial backbone by using two other site-specific recombinases, Cre and Dre. Thus, we generated clean transgenic bovine fetal fibroblast cells free of selectable marker and plasmid bacterial backbone. These clean cells were used as donor nuclei for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), indicating a similar developmental competence of SCNT embryos to that of non-transgenic cells. Therefore, the present gene delivery system facilitated the development of gene therapy and agricultural biotechnology.

  1. Refractory Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Presenting with Atypical Cutaneous Involvement and Diagnosis of ZZ Phenotype Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Khawandanah, Mohamad; Kraus, Teresa; Cherry, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare condition. Specific neoplastic involvement can be primary (confined to the skin) or secondary to systemic involvement (metastatic). Cutaneous involvement by HL usually occurs late in the course and is associated with poor prognosis; however in some cases it can exhibit indolent behavior. Skin involvement with nonspecific cutaneous findings may represent a paraneoplastic syndrome. We describe a case of 46-year-old white male patient presented with rash and lymphadenopathy which led to the diagnosis of stage IVE mixed cellularity classical Hodgkin lymphoma with skin involvement. His disease was refractory to multiple lines of chemotherapy including (1) AVD (doxorubicin/bleomycin/dacarbazine), (2) brentuximab, and (3) bendamustine, he later achieved complete remission with (4) GCD (gemcitabine/carboplatin/dexamethasone) salvage regimen. Bleomycin was not given secondary to poor pulmonary function tests. His treatment was complicated after AVD with multiple pneumothoraces which unmasked the diagnosis of ZZ phenotype alpha-1 antitrypsin (ATT) deficiency. Simultaneous existence of Hodgkin lymphoma and ATT is rarely reported. PMID:24955265

  2. Patterns of postictal cerebral perfusion in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: a multi-delay multi-parametric arterial spin labelling perfusion MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangxiang; Lei, Du; Ren, Jiechuan; Zuo, Panli; Suo, Xueling; Wang, Danny J. J.; Wang, Meiyun; Zhou, Dong; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    The cerebral haemodynamic status of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is a very complicated process. Little attention has been paid to cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations in IGE detected by arterial spin labelling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the selection of an optimal delay time is difficult for single-delay ASL. Multi-delay multi-parametric ASL perfusion MRI overcomes the limitations of single-delay ASL. We applied multi-delay multi-parametric ASL perfusion MRI to investigate the patterns of postictal cerebral perfusion in IGE patients with absence seizures. A total of 21 IGE patients with absence seizures and 24 healthy control subjects were enrolled. IGE patients exhibited prolonged arterial transit time (ATT) in the left superior temporal gyrus. The mean CBF of IGE patients was significantly increased in the left middle temporal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus and left fusiform gyrus. Prolonged ATT in the left superior temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the age at onset in IGE patients. This study demonstrated that cortical dysfunction in the temporal lobe and fusiform gyrus may be related to epileptic activity in IGE patients with absence seizures. This information can play an important role in elucidating the pathophysiological mechanism of IGE from a cerebral haemodynamic perspective. PMID:27374369

  3. G-protein-coupled glucocorticoid receptors on the pituitary cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Maier, Christina; Rünzler, Dominik; Schindelar, Julia; Grabner, Gottfried; Waldhäusl, Werner; Köhler, Gottfried; Luger, Anton

    2005-08-01

    Rapid, nongenomic actions of glucocorticoids (GCs) have been well documented, but information about putative membrane receptors that mediate them is scarce. We used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to search for membrane GC-binding on the mouse pituitary cell line AtT-20. A slowly diffusing fraction (tau3; diffusion constant 3x10(-10) cm2 s-1) of fluorescein-labeled dexamethasone on the cell membrane corresponds to fluorescein-dexamethasone binding. Preincubation experiments were performed to test binding specificity: a 500-fold excess of unlabeled dexamethasone abolished subsequent fluorescein-dexamethasone membrane binding from 58+/-2 (control) to 8+/-1 (% of tau3, mean+/-s.e.m.), the natural ligand corticosterone prevented it partially (29+/-2), while the sex steroids estradiol (56+/-4) and progesterone (50+/-4) and the GC-receptor antagonist RU486 (56+/-2) had no effect. Preincubation with pertussis toxin resulted in disappearance of the slowest diffusion component (11+/-4) suggesting association of the receptor with a G-protein. Varying the concentration of fluorescein-dexamethasone showed that membrane binding is highly cooperative with an apparent Kd of 180 nM and Bmax of 230 nM. Taken together, these results demonstrate high-affinity GC-binding on the cell membrane of AtT-20 cells with characteristics distinct from intracellular binding. PMID:16079279

  4. Site-specific T-DNA integration in Arabidopsis thaliana mediated by the combined action of CRE recombinase and ϕC31 integrase.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Annelies; De Buck, Sylvie; Nolf, Jonah; Van Lerberge, Els; Depicker, Ann

    2013-07-01

    Random T-DNA integration into the plant host genome can be problematic for a variety of reasons, including potentially variable transgene expression as a result of different integration positions and multiple T-DNA copies, the risk of mutating the host genome and the difficulty of stacking well-defined traits. Therefore, recombination systems have been proposed to integrate the T-DNA at a pre-selected site in the host genome. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of the ϕC31 integrase (INT) for efficient targeted T-DNA integration. Moreover, we show that the iterative site-specific integration system (ISSI), which combines the activities of the CRE recombinase and INT, enables the targeting of genes to a pre-selected site with the concomitant removal of the resident selectable marker. To begin, plants expressing both the CRE and INT recombinase and containing the target attP site were constructed. These plants were supertransformed with a T-DNA vector harboring the loxP site, the attB sites, a selectable marker and an expression cassette encoding a reporter protein. Three out of the 35 transformants obtained (9%) showed transgenerational site-specific integration (SSI) of this T-DNA and removal of the resident selectable marker, as demonstrated by PCR, Southern blot and segregation analysis. In conclusion, our results show the applicability of the ISSI system for precise and targeted Agrobacterium-mediated integration, allowing the serial integration of transgenic DNA sequences in plants. PMID:23574114

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of orb-weaving spider Araneus ventricosus (Araneae: Araneidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Liang; Li, Chao; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of an orb-weaving spider Araneus ventricosus was determined. It is a circular molecule of 14,617 bp in length and contains a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of majority strand (J-strand) is 73.4% (T: 38.5%; C: 10.1%; A: 34.9%; G: 16.5%). Among protein-coding genes, one gene (COI) begins with TTA, two (ATP6 and ND4) start with ATA, three (COII, COIII and ND6) begin with ATT and other seven genes use ATT as initiation codon. COIII and ND3 end with an incomplete stop codon (T), and ND1, ND2 and Cytb are terminated with TAG, while all other genes end with TAA as stop codon. Two regions including tandem repeats were found in the control region (D-loop): a 106 bp sequence tandemly repeated twice and a 195 bp sequence tandemly repeated twice with a partial third (120 bp). PMID:25329288

  6. CO near the Pleiades: Encounter of a star cluster with a small molecular cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bally, J.; White, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Although there is a large amount of interstellar matter near the Pleiades star cluster, the observed dust and gas is not a remnant of the placental molecular cloud from which the star cluster was formed. Carbon monoxide (CO) associated with the visible reflection nebulae was discovered by Cohen (1975). Its radial velocity differs from that of the cluster by many times the cluster escape velocity, which implies that the cloud-cluster association is the result of a chance encounter. This circumstance and the proximity of the Pleiades to the sun creates an unique opportunity for study of interstellar processes at high spatial resolution. To study the molecular component of the gas, a 1.7 square degree field was mapped with the AT&T Bell Laboratories 7-meter antenna (1.7' beam) on a 1' grid in the J=1.0 C(12)O line, obtaining over 6,000 spectra with 50 kHz resolution. The cloud core was mapped in the J=1-0 line of C(13)O. Further observations include an unsuccessful search for CS (J=2-1) at AT&T BL, and some C(12)O J=2-1 spectra obtained at the Millimeter Wave Observatory of the University of Texas.

  7. Screening of KHP30-like prophages among Japanese Helicobacter pylori strains, and genetic analysis of a defective KHP30-like prophage sequence integrated in the genome of the H. pylori strain NY40.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Jumpei; Takemura-Uchiyama, Iyo; Kato, Shin-Ichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Ujihara, Takako; Daibata, Masanori; Shimakura, Hidekatsu; Okamoto, Noriaki; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Matsuzaki, Shigenobu

    2016-08-01

    We have recently reported the active Helicobacter pylori bacteriophages (phages), KHP30 and KHP40, the genomic DNAs of which exist as episomes in host bacterial strains isolated in Japan (i.e. pseudolysogeny). In this study, we examined the possibility of the lysogeny of active KHP30-like phages in Japanese H. pylori strains, because their genomes contain a putative integrase gene. Only the NY40 strain yielded partial detection of a KHP30-like prophage sequence in PCR among 174 Japanese H. pylori isolates, except for strains producing the above active phages. Next, according to the genomic analysis of the NY40 strain, the KHP30-like prophage sequence was found to be located from ca. 524 to 549 kb in the host chromosome. The attachment sites, attL and attR, in the NY40 genome showed almost the same genomic location and sequence as those detected in a French isolate B38, suggesting that an active parental KHP30-like phage had integrated into the ancestral NY40 genome in a site-specific manner. The prophage found in the NY40 genome was assumed to have been genetically modified, after site-specific integration. These, together with the data in the KHP30-like prophages of other H. pylori genomes, suggest that the lysogenic state of the KHP30-like phages is generally unstable. PMID:27388014

  8. Nonlinear Reduced Order Random Response Analysis of Structures with Shallow Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further develop nonlinear modal numerical simulation methods for application to geometrically nonlinear response of structures with shallow curvature under random loadings. For reduced order analysis, the modal basis selection must be capable of reflecting the coupling in both the linear and nonlinear stiffness. For the symmetric shallow arch under consideration, four categories of modal basis functions are defined. Those having symmetric transverse displacements (ST modes) can be designated as transverse dominated (ST-T) modes and in-plane dominated (ST-I) modes. Those having anti-symmetric transverse displacements (AT modes) can similarly be designated as transverse dominated (AT-T) modes and in-plane dominated (AT-I) modes. The response of an aluminum arch under a uniformly distributed transverse random loading is investigated. Results from nonlinear modal simulations made using various modal bases are compared with those obtained from a numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom. While inclusion of ST-T modes is important for all response regimes, it is found that the ST-I modes become increasingly important in the nonlinear response regime, and that AT-T and AT-I modes are critical in the autoparametric regime.

  9. Nonlinear Reduced Order Random Response Analysis of Structures With Shallow Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further develop nonlinear modal numerical simulation methods for application to geometrically nonlinear response of structures with shallow curvature under random loadings. For reduced order analysis, the modal basis selection must be capable of reflecting the coupling in both the linear and nonlinear stiffness. For the symmetric shallow arch under consideration, four categories of modal basis functions are defined. Those having symmetric transverse displacements (ST modes) can be designated as transverse dominated (ST-T) modes and in-plane dominated (ST-I) modes. Those having anti-symmetric transverse displacements (AT modes) can similarly be designated as transverse dominated (AT-T) modes and in-plane dominated (AT-I) modes. The response of an aluminum arch under a uniformly distributed transverse random loading is investigated. Results from nonlinear modal simulations made using various modal bases are compared with those obtained from a numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom. While inclusion of ST-T modes is important for all response regimes, it is found that the ST-I modes become increasingly important in the nonlinear response regime, and that AT-T and AT-I modes are critical in the autoparametric regime.

  10. Biphasic Effect of Rifampicin on Bilirubin- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gopi, Manigandan; Seshadri, Mandalam Subramanian

    2016-04-01

    Drug induced hepatitis is a major problem which a physician encounters in his clinical practice. In view of increasing incidence of tuberculosis in our country a large number of infected individuals are started on Antituberculous (ATT) drugs and rifampicin is invariably part of the regimen. One of the major adverse effects of ATT drugs is drug- induced hepatitis which is characterized by elevation of liver enzymes and bilirubin. Hepatotoxicity is usually idiosyncratic or dose-dependent. Rifampicin causes transient elevation of transaminases in 10-20 percent of individuals and this does not warrant dose adjustments of the drug. Rarely rifampicin can lead to severe hepatitis with hyperbilirubinaemia and marked elevations of SGOT and SGPT and in some patients this can be fatal. The exact mechanism of Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity is not known but it is postulated to be due to idiosyncratic reaction to rifampicin metabolites which may be directly toxic or induce an immunologically mediated liver injury. Rarely rifampicin may cause hyperbilirubinaemia without enzyme elevation. Here we report a patient with bilateral pulmonary tuberculosis who developed transient severe indirect hyperbilirubinaemia on rifampicin. On review of relevant literature we find that rifampicin can have a biphasic effect on bilirubin, an initial increase in indirect bilirubin and later normalization of bilirubin. We have reported this case because of its rarity in clinical practice. PMID:27190870

  11. Distinct noise-controlling roles of multiple negative feedback mechanisms in a prokaryotic operon system.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, L K; Kulasiri, D

    2011-03-01

    Molecular fluctuations are known to affect dynamics of cellular systems in important ways. Studies aimed at understanding how molecular systems of certain regulatory architectures control noise therefore become essential. The interplay between feedback regulation and noise has been previously explored for cellular networks governed by a single negative feedback loop. However, similar issues within networks consisting of more complex regulatory structures remain elusive. The authors investigate how negative feedback loops manage noise within a biochemical cascade concurrently governed by multiple negative feedback loops, using the prokaryotic tryptophan (trp) operon system in Escherechia coli as the model system. To the authors knowledge, this is the first study of noise in the trp operon system. They show that the loops in the trp operon system possess distinct, even opposing, noise-controlling effects despite their seemingly analogous feedback structures. The enzyme inhibition loop, although controlling the last reaction of the cascade, was found to suppress noise not only for the tryptophan output but also for other upstream components. In contrast, the Repression (Rep) loop enhances noise for all systems components. Attenuation (Att) poses intermediate effects by attenuating noise for the upstream components but promoting noise for components downstream of its target. Regarding noise at the output tryptophan, Rep and Att can be categorised as noise-enhancing loops whereas Enzyme Inhibition as a noise-reducing loop. These findings suggest novel implications in how cellular systems with multiple feedback mechanisms control noise. [Includes supplementary material]. PMID:21405203

  12. Conservative site-specific and single-copy transgenesis in human LINE-1 elements

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya Chandra, Shree Harsha; Makhija, Harshyaa; Peter, Sabrina; Myint Wai, Cho Mar; Li, Jinming; Zhu, Jindong; Ren, Zhonglu; D'Alcontres, Martina Stagno; Siau, Jia Wei; Chee, Sharon; Ghadessy, Farid John; Dröge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Genome engineering of human cells plays an important role in biotechnology and molecular medicine. In particular, insertions of functional multi-transgene cassettes into suitable endogenous sequences will lead to novel applications. Although several tools have been exploited in this context, safety issues such as cytotoxicity, insertional mutagenesis and off-target cleavage together with limitations in cargo size/expression often compromise utility. Phage λ integrase (Int) is a transgenesis tool that mediates conservative site-specific integration of 48 kb DNA into a safe harbor site of the bacterial genome. Here, we show that an Int variant precisely recombines large episomes into a sequence, termed attH4X, found in 1000 human Long INterspersed Elements-1 (LINE-1). We demonstrate single-copy transgenesis through attH4X-targeting in various cell lines including hESCs, with the flexibility of selecting clones according to transgene performance and downstream applications. This is exemplified with pluripotency reporter cassettes and constitutively expressed payloads that remain functional in LINE1-targeted hESCs and differentiated progenies. Furthermore, LINE-1 targeting does not induce DNA damage-response or chromosomal aberrations, and neither global nor localized endogenous gene expression is substantially affected. Hence, this simple transgene addition tool should become particularly useful for applications that require engineering of the human genome with multi-transgenes. PMID:26673710

  13. Genomic Organization and Molecular Characterization of Clostridium difficile Bacteriophage ΦCD119

    PubMed Central

    Govind, Revathi; Fralick, Joe A.; Rolfe, Rial D.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we have isolated a temperate phage (ΦCD119) from a pathogenic Clostridium difficile strain and sequenced and annotated its genome. This virus has an icosahedral capsid and a contractile tail covered by a sheath and contains a double-stranded DNA genome. It belongs to the Myoviridae family of the tailed phages and the order Caudovirales. The genome was circularly permuted, with no physical ends detected by sequencing or restriction enzyme digestion analysis, and lacked a cos site. The DNA sequence of this phage consists of 53,325 bp, which carries 79 putative open reading frames (ORFs). A function could be assigned to 23 putative gene products, based upon bioinformatic analyses. The ΦCD119 genome is organized in a modular format, which includes modules for lysogeny, DNA replication, DNA packaging, structural proteins, and host cell lysis. The ΦCD119 attachment site attP lies in a noncoding region close to the putative integrase (int) gene. We have identified the phage integration site on the C. difficile chromosome (attB) located in a noncoding region just upstream of gene gltP, which encodes a carrier protein for glutamate and aspartate. This genetic analysis represents the first complete DNA sequence and annotation of a C. difficile phage. PMID:16547044

  14. Isolated Tubercular Osteomyelitis of Scapula – A Report of Two Cases and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Gopisankar; Arockiaraj, Justin; Roy, Alfred Cyril; Ashok, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Isolated tuberculosis of the scapula is rare. The presentation mimics the tumors of scapula. Hence it is important to know the clinical presentation and when to suspect tubercular osteomyelitis of scapula. Few cases have been described before. We have analyzed all reports with isolated scapular tuberculosis so far and described the varied presentations. Case Report: We report two cases of isolated scapular tuberculosis. One patient underwent aspiration and was started on antituberculous drugs (ATT) and the other underwent debridement, drainage of abscess and then was started on ATT. Both had excellent outcomes at the end of one year follow up. We reviewed previous published literature of isolated scapular tuberculosis. The most common presentation of scapular tuberculosis is as follows: age less than 30 years and there is no difference with respect to gender. Swelling and pain are the commonest symptoms. Lytic areas with surrounding sclerosis is the commonest radiological finding. Body of the scapula is affected most commonly. Prognosis is excellent with adequate treatment. Conclusion: To conclude, clinicians should have high index of suspicion for diagnosing this condition as it mimics tumors. Pain and swelling is the most common presentation of scapular tuberculosis. Radiography shows lytic lesion with marginal sclerosis. The prognosis is excellent with appropriate treatment. PMID:27298922

  15. Nanobody-based chimeric receptor gene integration in Jurkat cells mediated by PhiC31 integrase

    SciTech Connect

    Iri-Sofla, Farnoush Jafari; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud; Rasaee, Mohammad J.

    2011-11-01

    The crucial role of T lymphocytes in anti-tumor immunity has led to the development of novel strategies that can target and activate T cells against tumor cells. Recombinant DNA technology has been used to generate non-MHC-restricted chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). Here, we constructed a panel of recombinant CAR that harbors the anti-MUC1 nanobody and the signaling and co-signaling moieties (CD3{zeta}/CD28) with different spacer regions derived from human IgG3 with one or two repeats of the hinge sequence or the hinge region of Fc{gamma}RII. The PhiC31 integrase system was employed to investigate if the recombination efficiency could be recruited for high and stable expression of T cell chimeric receptor genes. The effect of nuclear localization signal (NLS) and two different promoters (CMV and CAG) on efficacy of PhiC31 integrase in human T cell lines was evaluated. The presence of integrase in combination with NLS, mediated up to 7.6 and 8.5 fold increases in CAR expression in ZCHN-attB and ZCHHN-attB cassette integrated T cells, respectively. Our results showed that highly efficient and stable transduction of the Jurkat cell line by PhiC31 integrase is a feasible modality for generating anti-cancer chimeric T cells for use in cancer immunotherapy.

  16. Prolonged retention after aggregation into secretory granules of human R183H-growth hormone (GH), a mutant that causes autosomal dominant GH deficiency type II.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong Lian; Conway-Campbell, Becky; Waters, Michael J; Dannies, Priscilla S

    2002-11-01

    Human R183H-GH causes autosomal dominant GH deficiency type II. Because we show here that the mutant hormone is fully bioactive, we have sought to locate an impairment in its progress through the secretory pathway as assessed by pulse chase experiments. Newly synthesized wild-type and R183H-GH were stable when expressed transiently in AtT20 cells, and both formed equivalent amounts of Lubrol-insoluble aggregates within 40 min after synthesis. There was no evidence for intermolecular disulfide bond formation in aggregates of wild-type hormone or the R183H mutant. Both wild-type and R183H-GH were packaged into secretory granules, assessed by the ability of 1 mM BaCl2 to stimulate release and by immunocytochemistry. The mutant differed from wild-type hormone in its retention in the cells after packaging into secretory granules; 50% more R183H-GH than wild-type aggregates were retained in AtT20 cells 120 min after synthesis, and stimulated release of R183H-GH or a mixture of R183H-GH and wild-type that had been retained in the cell was reduced. The longer retention of R183H-GH aggregates indicates that a single point mutation in a protein contained in secretory granules affects the rate of secretory granule release. PMID:12399418

  17. Incorporation of a lambda phage recombination system and EGFP detection to simplify mutagenesis of Herpes simplex virus bacterial artificial chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P

    2007-01-01

    Background Targeted mutagenesis of the herpesvirus genomes has been facilitated by the use of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology. Such modified genomes have potential uses in understanding viral pathogenesis, gene identification and characterization, and the development of new viral vectors and vaccines. We have previously described the construction of a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) BAC and the use of an allele replacement strategy to construct HSV-2 recombinants. While the BAC mutagenesis procedure is a powerful method to generate HSV-2 recombinants, particularly in the absence of selective marker in eukaryotic culture, the mutagenesis procedure is still difficult and cumbersome. Results Here we describe the incorporation of a phage lambda recombination system into an allele replacement vector. This strategy enables any DNA fragment containing the phage attL recombination sites to be efficiently inserted into the attR sites of the allele replacement vector using phage lambda clonase. We also describe how the incorporation of EGFP into the allele replacement vector can facilitate the selection of the desired cross-over recombinant BACs when the allele replacement reaction is a viral gene deletion. Finally, we incorporate the lambda phage recombination sites directly into an HSV-2 BAC vector for direct recombination of gene cassettes using the phage lambda clonase-driven recombination reaction. Conclusion Together, these improvements to the techniques of HSV BAC mutagenesis will facilitate the construction of recombinant herpes simplex viruses and viral vectors. PMID:17501993

  18. Promoter polymorphisms regulating corticotrophin-releasing hormone transcription in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wagner, U; Wahle, M; Moritz, F; Wagner, U; Häntzschel, H; Baerwald, C G O

    2006-02-01

    To investigate whether polymorphisms in the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) promoter are associated with altered CRH gene regulation, we studied the reactivity of three recently described promoter variants in vitro. The 3625 bp variants A1B1, A2B1 and A2B2 of the human CRH promoter were cloned in the 5' region to a luciferase reporter gene and transiently transfected into both mouse anterior pituitary cells AtT-20D16vF2 and pheochromocytoma cells PC12. Incubation with 8-Br-cAMP alone or in combination with cytokines significantly enhanced the promoter activity in both cell lines studied by up to 22-fold. However, dexamethasone antagonised cAMP effects on CRH expression in AtT-20 cells while showing no effect on PC12 cells, indicating that tissue-specific factors play a crucial role. Among the haplotypes studied, A1B1 exhibited the greatest reactivity on various stimuli. Electric mobility shift assay (EMSA) was performed to study whether the described polymorphic nucleotide sequences in the 5' region of the hCRH gene interfere with binding of nuclear proteins. A specific DNA protein complex was detected at position -2353 bp for the wild type sequence only, possibly interfering with a binding site for the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Taken together, this is the first study to demonstrate that CRH promoter reactivity varies between the compound promoter alleles. PMID:16523405

  19. Identification of genetic and environmental factors stimulating excision from Streptomyces scabiei chromosome of the toxicogenic region responsible for pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Chapleau, Mélanie; Guertin, Julien F; Farrokhi, Ali; Lerat, Sylvain; Burrus, Vincent; Beaulieu, Carole

    2016-05-01

    The genes conferring pathogenicity in Streptomyces turgidiscabies, a pathogen causing common scab of potato, are grouped together on a pathogenicity island (PAI), which has been found to be mobile and appears to transfer and disseminate like an integrative and conjugative element (ICE). However, in Streptomyces scabiei, another common scab-inducing species, the pathogenicity genes are clustered in two regions: the toxicogenic region (TR) and the colonization region. The S. scabiei 87.22 genome was analysed to investigate the potential mobility of the TR. Attachment sites (att), short homologous sequences that delineate ICEs, were identified at both extremities of the TR. An internal att site was also found, suggesting that the TR has a composite structure (TR1 and TR2). Thaxtomin biosynthetic genes, essential for pathogenicity, were found in TR1, whereas candidate genes with known functions in recombination, replication and conjugal transfer were found in TR2. Excision of the TR1 or TR2 subregions alone, or of the entire TR region, was observed, although the excision frequency of TR was low. However, the excision frequency was considerably increased in the presence of either mitomycin C or Streptomyces coelicolor cells. A composite TR structure was not observed in all S. scabiei and Streptomyces acidiscabies strains tested. Of the ten strains analysed, seven lacked TR2 and no TR excision event could be detected in these strains, thus suggesting the implication of TR2 in the mobilization of S. scabiei TR. PMID:26177341

  20. Differential activation of immune factors in neurons and glia contribute to individual differences in resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption.

    PubMed

    Dissel, Stephane; Seugnet, Laurent; Thimgan, Matthew S; Silverman, Neal; Angadi, Veena; Thacher, Pamela V; Burnham, Melissa M; Shaw, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    Individuals frequently find themselves confronted with a variety of challenges that threaten their wellbeing. While some individuals face these challenges efficiently and thrive (resilient) others are unable to cope and may suffer persistent consequences (vulnerable). Resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption may contribute to the vulnerability of individuals exposed to challenging conditions. With that in mind we exploited individual differences in a fly's ability to form short-term memory (STM) following 3 different types of sleep disruption to identify the underlying genes. Our analysis showed that in each category of flies examined, there are individuals that form STM in the face of sleep loss (resilient) while other individuals show dramatic declines in cognitive behavior (vulnerable). Molecular genetic studies revealed that Antimicrobial Peptides, factors important for innate immunity, were candidates for conferring resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Specifically, Metchnikowin (Mtk), drosocin (dro) and Attacin (Att) transcript levels seemed to be differentially increased by sleep deprivation in glia (Mtk), neurons (dro) or primarily in the head fat body (Att). Follow-up genetic studies confirmed that expressing Mtk in glia but not neurons, and expressing dro in neurons but not glia, disrupted memory while modulating sleep in opposite directions. These data indicate that various factors within glia or neurons can contribute to individual differences in resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation. PMID:25451614

  1. A novel gateway-compatible binary vector series (PC-GW) for flexible cloning of multiple genes for genetic transformation of plants.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Jyoti; Yalamanchili, Roopa; La Hovary, Christophe; Ji, Mikyoung; Rodriguez-Welsh, Maria; Aslett, Denise; Ganapathy, Sowmya; Grunden, Amy; Sederoff, Heike; Qu, Rongda

    2015-09-01

    The rapidly advancing field of plant synthetic biology requires transforming plants with multiple genes. This has sparked a growing interest in flexible plant transformation vectors, which can be used for multi-gene transformations. We have developed a novel binary vector series, named the PC-GW series (GenBank: KP826769-KP826773), for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. The PC-GW vectors use the pCAMBIA vector backbone, and contain NPTII, hpt, bar, mCherry or egfp genes as selectable markers for plant transformation. In a modified multiple cloning site (MCS) of the T-DNA region, we have placed the attR1, attR2 and ccdB sequences for rapid cloning of one to four genes by Gateway™-assisted recombination. In addition, we have introduced four meganuclease sites, and other restriction sites for multi-gene vector construction. Finally, we have placed a CaMV 35S promoter and a 35S terminator on the 5' and 3' ends of the MCS. The CaMV 35S promoter is flanked by PstI restriction sites that can be used to replace it with another promoter sequence if needed. The PC-GW vectors provide choices for selectable markers, cloning methods, and can accommodate up to eight gene constructs in a single T-DNA, thereby significantly reducing the number of transformations or crosses needed to generate multi-transgene expressing plants. PMID:26188330

  2. An improved method for oriT-directed cloning and functionalization of large bacterial genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Kvitko, Brian H; McMillan, Ian A; Schweizer, Herbert P

    2013-08-01

    We have made significant improvements to a broad-host-range system for the cloning and manipulation of large bacterial genomic regions based on site-specific recombination between directly repeated oriT sites during conjugation. Using two suicide capture vectors carrying flanking homology regions, oriT sites are recombined on either side of the target region. Using a broad-host-range conjugation helper plasmid, the region between the oriT sites is conjugated into an Escherichia coli recipient strain, where it is circularized and maintained as a chimeric mini-F vector. The cloned target region is functionalized in multiple ways to accommodate downstream manipulation. The target region is flanked with Gateway attB sites for recombination into other vectors and by rare 18-bp I-SceI restriction sites for subcloning. The Tn7-functionalized target can also be inserted at a naturally occurring chromosomal attTn7 site(s) or maintained as a broad-host-range plasmid for complementation or heterologous expression studies. We have used the oriTn7 capture technique to clone and complement Burkholderia pseudomallei genomic regions up to 140 kb in size and have created isogenic Burkholderia strains with various combinations of genomic islands. We believe this system will greatly aid the cloning and genetic analysis of genomic islands, biosynthetic gene clusters, and large open reading frames. PMID:23747708

  3. Rapid and efficient introduction of a foreign gene into bacterial artificial chromosome-cloned varicella vaccine by Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition

    SciTech Connect

    Somboonthum, Pranee; Koshizuka, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Shigefumi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Michiaki; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2010-06-20

    Using a rapid and reliable system based on Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition, we have successfully constructed a recombinant Oka varicella vaccine (vOka) expressing the mumps virus (MuV) fusion protein (F). The backbone of the vector was our previously reported vOka-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) genome. We inserted the transposon Tn7 attachment sequence, LacZ{alpha}-mini-attTn7, into the region between ORF12 and ORF13 to generate a vOka-BAC-Tn genome. The MuV-F expressing cassette was transposed into the vOka-BAC genome at the mini-attTn7 transposition site. MuV-F protein was expressed in recombinant virus, rvOka-F infected cells. In addition, the MuV-F protein was cleaved in the rvOka-F infected cells as in MuV-infected cells. The growth of rvOka-F was similar to that of the original recombinant vOka without the F gene. Thus, we show that Tn7-mediated transposition is an efficient method for introducing a foreign gene expression cassette into the vOka-BAC genome as a live virus vector.

  4. Targeting of frog prodermorphin to the regulated secretory pathway by fusion to proenkephalin.

    PubMed

    Seethaler, G; Chaminade, M; Vlasak, R; Ericsson, M; Griffiths, G; Toffoletto, O; Rossier, J; Stunnenberg, H G; Kreil, G

    1991-09-01

    We have investigated the sorting and processing of the amphibian precursor prepro-dermorphin in mammalian cells. Dermorphin, a D-alanine-containing peptide with potent opioid activity, has been isolated from the skin of the frog Phyllomedusa sauvagei. The maturation of this peptide from the precursor involves several posttranslational steps. Recombinant vaccinia viruses were used to infect AtT-20, PC12, and HeLa cells to study the sorting and processing of prepro-dermorphin. While this precursor was not processed in any of the examined cell lines, AtT-20 cells were able to process approximately 40% of a chimeric precursor consisting of the first 241 amino acids of prepro-enkephalin fused to a carboxy-terminal part of pro-dermorphin. By immunogold-EM, we could show that the chimeric protein, but not pro-dermorphin, was sorted to dense-core secretion granules. The processing products could be released upon stimulation by 8-Br-cAMP. We conclude that the pro-enkephalin part of the fusion protein contains the information for targeting to the regulated pathway of secretion, while this sorting information is missing in pro-dermorphin. This indicates that sorting mechanisms may differ between amphibian and mammalian cells. PMID:1894691

  5. Targeted Gene Knockin in Porcine Somatic Cells Using CRISPR/Cas Ribonucleoproteins.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Eun; Park, Chi-Hun; Powell, Anne; Martin, Jessica; Donovan, David M; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2016-01-01

    The pig is an ideal large animal model for genetic engineering applications. A relatively short gestation interval and large litter size makes the pig a conducive model for generating and propagating genetic modifications. The domestic pig also shares close similarity in anatomy, physiology, size, and life expectancy, making it an ideal animal for modeling human diseases. Often, however, the technical difficulties in generating desired genetic modifications such as targeted knockin of short stretches of sequences or transgenes have impeded progress in this field. In this study, we have investigated and compared the relative efficiency of CRISPR/Cas ribonucleoproteins in engineering targeted knockin of pseudo attP sites downstream of a ubiquitously expressed COL1A gene in porcine somatic cells and generated live fetuses by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). By leveraging these knockin pseudo attP sites, we have demonstrated subsequent phiC31 integrase mediated integration of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene into the site. This work for the first time created an optimized protocol for CRISPR/Cas mediated knockin in porcine somatic cells, while simultaneously creating a stable platform for future transgene integration and generating transgenic animals. PMID:27240344

  6. Chromosome Organization and Replisome Dynamics in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, John D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Subcellular organization of the bacterial nucleoid and spatiotemporal dynamics of DNA replication and segregation have been studied intensively, but the functional link between these processes remains poorly understood. Here we use quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy for single-cell analysis of chromosome organization and DNA replisome dynamics in Mycobacterium smegmatis. We report that DNA replication takes place near midcell, where, following assembly of the replisome on the replication origin, the left and right replication forks colocalize throughout the replication cycle. From its initial position near the cell pole, a fluorescently tagged chromosomal locus (attB, 245° from the origin) moves rapidly to the replisome complex just before it is replicated. The newly duplicated attB loci then segregate to mirror-symmetric positions relative to midcell. Genetic ablation of ParB, a component of the ParABS chromosome segregation system, causes marked defects in chromosome organization, condensation, and segregation. ParB deficiency also results in mislocalization of the DNA replication machinery and SMC (structural maintenance of chromosome) protein. These observations suggest that ParB and SMC play important and overlapping roles in chromosome organization and replisome dynamics in mycobacteria. PMID:25691587

  7. On my association with Bell Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondhi, M. Mohan

    2001-05-01

    I joined the Acoustics Research department at Bell Labs in 1962, just eight days before AT&T launched the first communications satellite, Telstar. During the 39 years between 1962 and my retirement in 2001, I worked on several problems related in one way or another to the processing of speech signals. Schroeder and Flanagan are presenting talks from a broad perspective in this session, so I will confine this talk to just my own contributions and collaborations for some of the topics on which I worked, e.g., echo cancellation, inverse problems in acoustics, speech analysis, synthesis, and recognition. I will tell you about one of these contributions that fortunately turned out to yield considerable profits to AT&T. To give you a flavor of the spirit of free inquiry at Bell Labs during that period, I will tell you about the contribution that I am most proud of (which was supported for several years even though it had no monetary value). And I will also mention the contribution that is most often cited of all my papers (which was in collaboration with two mathematicians, and had nothing at all to do with acoustics).

  8. Leukemia inhibitory factor regulates glucocorticoid receptor expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Kariagina, Anastasia; Zonis, Svetlana; Afkhami, Mahta; Romanenko, Dmitry; Chesnokova, Vera

    2005-11-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine belonging to the gp130 family. LIF is induced peripherally and within the brain during inflammatory or chronic autoimmune diseases and is a potent stimulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Here we investigated the role of LIF in mediating glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in the HPA axis. LIF treatment (3 microg/mouse, i.p.) markedly decreased GR mRNA levels in murine hypothalamus (5-fold, P < 0.01) and pituitary (1.7-fold, P < 0.01) and downregulated GR protein levels. LIF decreased GR expression in murine corticotroph cell line AtT20 within 2 h, and this effect was sustained for 8 h after treatment. LIF-induced GR mRNA reduction was abrogated in AtT20 cells overexpressing dominant-negative mutants of STAT3, indicating that intact JAK-STAT signaling is required to mediate LIF effects on GR expression. Conversely, mice with LIF deficiency exhibited increased GR mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and pituitary (3.5- and 3.5-fold, respectively; P < 0.01 for both) and increased GR protein expression when compared with wild-type littermates. The suppressive effects of dexamethasone on GR were more pronounced in LIF-null animals. These data suggest that LIF maintains the HPA axis activation by decreasing GR expression and raise the possibility that LIF might contribute to the development of central glucocorticoid resistance during inflammation. PMID:15985451

  9. Biphasic Effect of Rifampicin on Bilirubin- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Seshadri, Mandalam Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Drug induced hepatitis is a major problem which a physician encounters in his clinical practice. In view of increasing incidence of tuberculosis in our country a large number of infected individuals are started on Antituberculous (ATT) drugs and rifampicin is invariably part of the regimen. One of the major adverse effects of ATT drugs is drug- induced hepatitis which is characterized by elevation of liver enzymes and bilirubin. Hepatotoxicity is usually idiosyncratic or dose-dependent. Rifampicin causes transient elevation of transaminases in 10-20 percent of individuals and this does not warrant dose adjustments of the drug. Rarely rifampicin can lead to severe hepatitis with hyperbilirubinaemia and marked elevations of SGOT and SGPT and in some patients this can be fatal. The exact mechanism of Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity is not known but it is postulated to be due to idiosyncratic reaction to rifampicin metabolites which may be directly toxic or induce an immunologically mediated liver injury. Rarely rifampicin may cause hyperbilirubinaemia without enzyme elevation. Here we report a patient with bilateral pulmonary tuberculosis who developed transient severe indirect hyperbilirubinaemia on rifampicin. On review of relevant literature we find that rifampicin can have a biphasic effect on bilirubin, an initial increase in indirect bilirubin and later normalization of bilirubin. We have reported this case because of its rarity in clinical practice. PMID:27190870

  10. An Assay to Detect In Vivo Y Chromosome Loss in Drosophila Wing Disc Cells

    PubMed Central

    Szabad, Janos; Bellen, Hugo J.; Venken, Koen J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the Y chromosome in Drosophila has no impact on cell viability and therefore allows us to assay the impact of environmental agents and genetic alterations on chromosomal loss. To detect in vivo chromosome loss in cells of the developing Drosophila wing primordia, we first engineered a Y chromosome with an attP docking site. By making use of the ΦC31 integrase system, we site-specifically integrated a genomic transgene encompassing the multiple wing hair (mwh) locus into this attP site, leading to a mwh+Y chromosome. This chromosome fully rescues the mwh mutant phenotype, an excellent recessive wing cell marker mutation. Loss of this mwh+Y chromosome in wing primordial cells then leads to manifestation of the mwh mutant phenotype in mwh-homozygous cells. The forming mwh clones permit us to quantify the effect of agents and genetic alterations by assaying frequency and size of the mwh mosaic spots. To illustrate the use of the mwh+Y loss system, the effects of four known mutagens (X-rays, colchicine, ethyl methanesulfonate, and formaldehyde) and two genetic conditions (loss- and gain-of-function lodestar mutant alleles) are documented. The procedure is simple, sensitive, and inexpensive. PMID:22973547

  11. A Closer Look at Phonology as a Predictor of Spoken Sentence Processing and Word Reading.

    PubMed

    Myers, Suzanne; Robertson, Erin K

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N = 377) completed standardized tests of pA ('Elision') and pSTM ('Nonword Repetition') from the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing. Concepts and Following Directions (CFD) and Formulated Sentences (FS) were taken from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition, as measures of sentence comprehension and production, respectively. Children also completed the Word Identification (Word Id) and Word Attack (Word Att) subtests of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Third Edition. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for age and nonverbal IQ revealed that Elision was the only significant predictor of CFD and FS. While Elision was the strongest predictor of Word Id and Word Att, Nonword Repetition accounted for additional variance in both reading measures. These results emphasize the usefulness of breaking down phonological processing into multiple components and they also have implications language and reading disordered populations. PMID:24627225

  12. Mixed random walks with a trap in scale-free networks including nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongzhi; Dong, Yuze; Sheng, Yibin

    2015-10-01

    Random walks including non-nearest-neighbor jumps appear in many real situations such as the diffusion of adatoms and have found numerous applications including PageRank search algorithm; however, related theoretical results are much less for this dynamical process. In this paper, we present a study of mixed random walks in a family of fractal scale-free networks, where both nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor jumps are included. We focus on trapping problem in the network family, which is a particular case of random walks with a perfect trap fixed at the central high-degree node. We derive analytical expressions for the average trapping time (ATT), a quantitative indicator measuring the efficiency of the trapping process, by using two different methods, the results of which are consistent with each other. Furthermore, we analytically determine all the eigenvalues and their multiplicities for the fundamental matrix characterizing the dynamical process. Our results show that although next-nearest-neighbor jumps have no effect on the leading scaling of the trapping efficiency, they can strongly affect the prefactor of ATT, providing insight into better understanding of random-walk process in complex systems.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the orb-weaver spider Cyclosa argenteoalba Boes. et Str. (Araneae: Araneidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of an orb-weaver spider Cyclosa argenteoalba is determined in this article. The genome encodes the same 37 genes with a length of 14,575 bp as all other metazoan mitogenomes. The A + T content of the majority strand is 73.1%. Among the protein-coding genes, one gene (COI) begins with TTA, three (COII, COIII and ND6) start with ATT, three (ATP6, ND3 and ND4) begin with ATA and other six genes use ATT as initiation codon. All the protein-coding genes end with the canonical termination codons (TAA or TAG), except for ND3 and ND4L, which use an incomplete stop codon (T). Thirteen transfer RNAs genes lack the potential to form the cloverleaf-shaped secondary structure. The A + T-rich region is 1052 bp in length with an A + T content of 68.9%. In the phylogenetic analyses, C. argenteoalba was nested within Araneidae and the species from the superfamily Araneoidea form a momophyletic group. PMID:26017043

  14. BioSYNTHESIS: access to a knowledge network of health sciences databases.

    PubMed

    Broering, N C; Hylton, J S; Guttmann, R; Eskridge, D

    1991-04-01

    Users of the IAIMS Knowledge Network at the Georgetown University Medical Center have access to multiple in-house and external databases from a single point of entry through BioSYNTHESIS. The IAIMS project has developed a rich environment of biomedical information resources that represent a medical decision support system for campus physicians and students. The BioSYNTHESIS system is an information navigator that provides transparent access to a Knowledge Network of over a dozen databases. These multiple health sciences databases consist of bibliographic, informational, diagnostic, and research systems which reside on diverse computers such as DEC VAXs, SUN 490, AT&T 3B2s, Macintoshes, IBM PC/PS2s and the AT&T ISN and SYTEK network systems. Ethernet and TCP/IP protocols are used in the network architecture. BioSYNTHESIS also provides network links to the other campus libraries and to external institutions. As additional knowledge resources and technological advances have become available. BioSYNTHESIS has evolved from a two phase to a three phase program. Major components of the system including recent achievements and future plans are described. PMID:1661772

  15. Foldback intercoil DNA and the mechanism of DNA transposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Dong

    2014-09-01

    Foldback intercoil (FBI) DNA is formed by the folding back at one point of a non-helical parallel track of double-stranded DNA at as sharp as 180° and the intertwining of two double helixes within each other's major groove to form an intercoil with a diameter of 2.2 nm. FBI DNA has been suggested to mediate intra-molecular homologous recombination of a deletion and inversion. Inter-molecular homologous recombination, known as site-specific insertion, on the other hand, is mediated by the direct perpendicular approach of the FBI DNA tip, as the attP site, onto the target DNA, as the attB site. Transposition of DNA transposons involves the pairing of terminal inverted repeats and 5-7-bp tandem target duplication. FBI DNA configuration effectively explains simple as well as replicative transposition, along with the involvement of an enhancer element. The majority of diverse retrotransposable elements that employ a target site duplication mechanism is also suggested to follow the FBI DNA-mediated perpendicular insertion of the paired intercoil ends by non-homologous end-joining, together with gap filling. A genome-wide perspective of transposable elements in light of FBI DNA is discussed. PMID:25317106

  16. An efficient procedure for marker-free mutagenesis of S. coelicolor by site-specific recombination for secondary metabolite overproduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Lin; Dai, Ruixue; Yu, Meiying; Zhao, Guoping; Ding, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Streptomyces bacteria are known for producing important natural compounds by secondary metabolism, especially antibiotics with novel biological activities. Functional studies of antibiotic-biosynthesizing gene clusters are generally through homologous genomic recombination by gene-targeting vectors. Here, we present a rapid and efficient method for construction of gene-targeting vectors. This approach is based on Streptomyces phage φBT1 integrase-mediated multisite in vitro site-specific recombination. Four 'entry clones' were assembled into a circular plasmid to generate the destination gene-targeting vector by a one-step reaction. The four 'entry clones' contained two clones of the upstream and downstream flanks of the target gene, a selectable marker and an E. coli-Streptomyces shuttle vector. After targeted modification of the genome, the selectable markers were removed by φC31 integrase-mediated in vivo site-specific recombination between pre-placed attB and attP sites. Using this method, part of the calcium-dependent antibiotic (CDA) and actinorhodin (Act) biosynthetic gene clusters were deleted, and the rrdA encoding RrdA, a negative regulator of Red production, was also deleted. The final prodiginine production of the engineered strain was over five times that of the wild-type strain. This straightforward φBT1 and φC31 integrase-based strategy provides an alternative approach for rapid gene-targeting vector construction and marker removal in streptomycetes. PMID:23409083

  17. An Improved Method for oriT-Directed Cloning and Functionalization of Large Bacterial Genomic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kvitko, Brian H.; McMillan, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    We have made significant improvements to a broad-host-range system for the cloning and manipulation of large bacterial genomic regions based on site-specific recombination between directly repeated oriT sites during conjugation. Using two suicide capture vectors carrying flanking homology regions, oriT sites are recombined on either side of the target region. Using a broad-host-range conjugation helper plasmid, the region between the oriT sites is conjugated into an Escherichia coli recipient strain, where it is circularized and maintained as a chimeric mini-F vector. The cloned target region is functionalized in multiple ways to accommodate downstream manipulation. The target region is flanked with Gateway attB sites for recombination into other vectors and by rare 18-bp I-SceI restriction sites for subcloning. The Tn7-functionalized target can also be inserted at a naturally occurring chromosomal attTn7 site(s) or maintained as a broad-host-range plasmid for complementation or heterologous expression studies. We have used the oriTn7 capture technique to clone and complement Burkholderia pseudomallei genomic regions up to 140 kb in size and have created isogenic Burkholderia strains with various combinations of genomic islands. We believe this system will greatly aid the cloning and genetic analysis of genomic islands, biosynthetic gene clusters, and large open reading frames. PMID:23747708

  18. Multiplexed Integrating Plasmids for Engineering of the Erythromycin Gene Cluster for Expression in Streptomyces spp. and Combinatorial Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Fayed, Bahgat; Ashford, David A.; Hashem, Amal M.; Amin, Magdy A.; El Gazayerly, Omaima N.; Gregory, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Streptomyces and its close relatives are prolific producers of secondary metabolites with antibiotic activity. Genome sequencing of these bacteria has revealed a rich source of potentially new antibiotic pathways, whose products have never been observed. Moreover, these new pathways can provide novel genes that could be used in combinatorial biosynthesis approaches to generate unnatural analogues of existing antibiotics. We explore here the use of multiple orthologous integrating plasmid systems, based on the int/attP loci from phages TG1, SV1, and ϕBT1, to express the polyketide synthase (PKS) for erythromycin in a heterologous Streptomyces host. Streptomyces strains containing the three polyketide synthase genes eryAI, eryAII, and eryAIII expressed from three different integrated plasmids produced the aglycone intermediate, 6-deoxyerythronolide B (6-dEB). A further pair of integrating plasmids, both derived from the ϕC31 int/attP locus, were constructed carrying a gene cassette for glycosylation of the aglycone intermediates, with or without the tailoring gene, eryF, required for the synthesis of erythronolide B (EB). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the metabolites indicated the production of angolosaminyl-6-dEB and angolosaminyl-EB. The advantages of using multiplexed integrating plasmids for engineering expression and for combinatorial biosynthesis were demonstrated. PMID:26431970

  19. Staphylococcus aureus SarA is a Regulatory Protein Responsive to Redox and pH that can Support Bacteriophage Lambda Integrase-Mediated Excision/Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, David F.; Higginbotham, Robin H.; Maleki, Soheila J.; Segall1, Anca M.; Smeltzer, Mark S.; Hurlburt, Barry K.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide array of virulence factors and causes a correspondingly diverse array of infections. Production of these virulence factors is under the control of a complex network of global regulatory elements, one of which is sarA. sarA encodes a DNA-binding protein that is considered to function as a transcription factor capable of acting as either a repressor or an activator. Using competitive ELISA assays, we demonstrate that SarA is present at approximately 50,000 copies per cell, which is not characteristic of classical transcription factors. We also demonstrate that SarA is present at all stages of growth in vitro and is capable of binding DNA with high affinity but that its binding affinity and pattern of shifted complexes in electrophoretic mobility shift assays is responsive to the redox state. We also show that SarA binds to the bacteriophage lambda (λ) attachment site, attL, producing SarA-DNA complexes similar to intasomes, which consist of bacteriophage lambda integrase, E. coli integration host factor and attL DNA. In addition, SarA stimulates intramolecular excision recombination in the absence of λ excisionase, a DNA-binding accessory protein. Taken together, these data suggest that SarA may function as an architectural accessory protein. PMID:19919677

  20. Targeted Gene Knockin in Porcine Somatic Cells Using CRISPR/Cas Ribonucleoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki-Eun; Park, Chi-Hun; Powell, Anne; Martin, Jessica; Donovan, David M.; Telugu, Bhanu P.

    2016-01-01

    The pig is an ideal large animal model for genetic engineering applications. A relatively short gestation interval and large litter size makes the pig a conducive model for generating and propagating genetic modifications. The domestic pig also shares close similarity in anatomy, physiology, size, and life expectancy, making it an ideal animal for modeling human diseases. Often, however, the technical difficulties in generating desired genetic modifications such as targeted knockin of short stretches of sequences or transgenes have impeded progress in this field. In this study, we have investigated and compared the relative efficiency of CRISPR/Cas ribonucleoproteins in engineering targeted knockin of pseudo attP sites downstream of a ubiquitously expressed COL1A gene in porcine somatic cells and generated live fetuses by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). By leveraging these knockin pseudo attP sites, we have demonstrated subsequent phiC31 integrase mediated integration of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene into the site. This work for the first time created an optimized protocol for CRISPR/Cas mediated knockin in porcine somatic cells, while simultaneously creating a stable platform for future transgene integration and generating transgenic animals. PMID:27240344

  1. Radiological evolution and delayed resolution of an optic nerve tuberculoma: Challenges in diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sivadasan, Ajith; Alexander, Mathew; Mathew, Vivek; Mani, Sunithi; Patil, Anil Kumar B

    2013-01-01

    Optic nerve tuberculomas are rarely reported and their natural history, prognosis, and duration of required treatment remain unclear. A 40-year-old immunocompetent male presented with complete loss of vision in his right eye, which had evolved over 6 weeks. He had optic atrophy on examination. Initial imaging showed right optic nerve swelling and thickening suggesting an infiltrative inflammatory optic neuropathy (infectious or noninfectious). Serial imaging revealed appearance of ring enhancement with a necrotic centre. Biopsy and culture of the coexistent parietal lobe lesion revealed Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Persistent optic nerve granuloma with evidence of radiological improvement was noted at 18 months follow-up with antituberculous therapy (ATT). Visual recovery could not be achieved. The salient features in this case include the clinical presentation initially mimicking an infiltrative or compressive optic neuropathy, rapidradiological evolution into a tuberculoma, subtle paradoxical radiological worsening after initiation of ATT and persistence of granuloma on follow up scan. The challenges involved in early diagnosis and during the treatment course will be discussed. PMID:23661979

  2. Prediction of trabecular bone principal structural orientation using quantitative ultrasound scanning

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liangjun; Cheng, Jiqi; Lin, Wei; Qin, Yi-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Bone has the ability to adapt its structure in response to the mechanical environment as defined as Wolff’s Law. The alignment of trabecular structure is intended to adapt to the particular mechanical milieu applied to it. Due to the absence of normal mechanical loading, it will be extremely important to assess the anisotropic deterioration of bone during the extreme conditions, i.e., long term space mission and disease orientated disuse, to predict risk of fractures. The propagation of ultrasound wave in trabecular bone is substantially influenced by the anisotropy of the trabecular structure. Previous studies have shown that both ultrasound velocity and amplitude is dependent on the incident angle of the ultrasound signal into the bone sample. In this work, seven bovine trabecular bone balls were used for rotational ultrasound measurement around three anatomical axes to elucidate the ability of ultrasound to identify trabecular orientation. Both ultrasound attenuation (ATT) and fast wave velocity (UV) were used to calculate the principal orientation of the trabecular bone. By comparing to the mean intercept length (MIL) tensor obtained from μCT, the angle difference of the prediction by UV was 4.45°, while it resulted in 11.67° angle difference between direction predicted by μCT and the prediction by ATT. This result demonstrates the ability of ultrasound as a non-invasive measurement tool for the principal structural orientation of the trabecular bone. PMID:22560370

  3. Differential activation of immune factors in neurons and glia contribute to individual differences in resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption

    PubMed Central

    Dissel, Stephane; Seugnet, Laurent; Thimgan, Matthew S.; Silverman, Neal; Angadi, Veena; Thacher, Pamela V.; Burnham, Melissa M.; Shaw, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals frequently find themselves confronted with a variety of challenges that threaten their wellbeing. While some individuals face these challenges efficiently and thrive (resilient) others are unable to cope and may suffer persistent consequences (vulnerable). Resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption may contribute to the vulnerability to individuals exposed to challenging conditions. With that in mind we exploited individual differences in a fly’s ability to form short-term memory (STM) following 3 different types of sleep disruption to identify the underlying genes. Our analysis showed that in each category of flies examined, there are individuals that form STM in the face of sleep loss (resilient) while other individuals show dramatic declines in cognitive behavior (vulnerable). Molecular genetic studies revealed that Antimicrobial Peptides, factors important for innate immunity, were candidates for conferring resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Specifically, Metchnikowin (Mtk), drosocin (dro) and Attacin (Att) transcript levels seemed to be differentially increased by sleep deprivation in glia (Mtk), neurons (dro) or primarily in the head fat body (Att). Follow-up genetic studies confirmed that expressing Mtk in glia but not neurons, and expressing dro in neurons but not glia, disrupted memory while modulating sleep in opposite directions. These data indicate that various factors within glia or neurons can contribute to individual differences in resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation. PMID:25451614

  4. The filamentous phage XacF1 causes loss of virulence in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the causative agent of citrus canker disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Abdelmonim Ali; Askora, Ahmed; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, filamentous phage XacF1, which can infect Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) strains, was isolated and characterized. Electron microscopy showed that XacF1 is a member of the family Inoviridae and is about 600 nm long. The genome of XacF1 is 7325 nucleotides in size, containing 13 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), some of which showed significant homology to Ff-like phage proteins such as ORF1 (pII), ORF2 (pV), ORF6 (pIII), and ORF8 (pVI). XacF1 showed a relatively wide host range, infecting seven out of 11 strains tested in this study. Frequently, XacF1 was found to be integrated into the genome of Xac strains. This integration occurred at the host dif site (attB) and was mediated by the host XerC/D recombination system. The attP sequence was identical to that of Xanthomonas phage Cf1c. Interestingly, infection by XacF1 phage caused several physiological changes to the bacterial host cells, including lower levels of extracellular polysaccharide production, reduced motility, slower growth rate, and a dramatic reduction in virulence. In particular, the reduction in virulence suggested possible utilization of XacF1 as a biological control agent against citrus canker disease. PMID:25071734

  5. Extension of 193 nm dry lithography to 45-nm half-pitch node: double exposure and double processing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abani M.; Li, Jianliang; Hiserote, Jay A.; Melvin, Lawrence S., III

    2006-10-01

    Immersion lithography and multiple exposure techniques are the most promising methods to extend lithography manufacturing to the 45nm node. Although immersion lithography has attracted much attention recently as a promising optical lithography extension, it will not solve all the problems at the 45-nm node. The 'dry' option, (i.e. double exposure/etch) which can be realized with standard processing practice, will extend 193-nm lithography to the end of the current industry roadmap. Double exposure/etch lithography is expensive in terms of cost, throughput time, and overlay registration accuracy. However, it is less challenging compared to other possible alternatives and has the ability to break through the κ I barrier (0.25). This process, in combination with attenuated PSM (att-PSM) mask, is a good imaging solution that can reach, and most likely go beyond, the 45-nm node. Mask making requirements in a double exposure scheme will be reduced significantly. This can be appreciated by the fact that the separation of tightly-pitched mask into two less demanding pitch patterns will reduce the stringent specifications for each mask. In this study, modeling of double exposure lithography (DEL) with att-PSM masks to target 45-nm node is described. In addition, mask separation and implementation issues of optical proximity corrections (OPC) to improve process window are studied. To understand the impact of OPC on the process window, Fourier analysis of the masks has been carried out as well.

  6. The filamentous phage XacF1 causes loss of virulence in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the causative agent of citrus canker disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Abdelmonim Ali; Askora, Ahmed; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, filamentous phage XacF1, which can infect Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) strains, was isolated and characterized. Electron microscopy showed that XacF1 is a member of the family Inoviridae and is about 600 nm long. The genome of XacF1 is 7325 nucleotides in size, containing 13 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), some of which showed significant homology to Ff-like phage proteins such as ORF1 (pII), ORF2 (pV), ORF6 (pIII), and ORF8 (pVI). XacF1 showed a relatively wide host range, infecting seven out of 11 strains tested in this study. Frequently, XacF1 was found to be integrated into the genome of Xac strains. This integration occurred at the host dif site (attB) and was mediated by the host XerC/D recombination system. The attP sequence was identical to that of Xanthomonas phage Cf1c. Interestingly, infection by XacF1 phage caused several physiological changes to the bacterial host cells, including lower levels of extracellular polysaccharide production, reduced motility, slower growth rate, and a dramatic reduction in virulence. In particular, the reduction in virulence suggested possible utilization of XacF1 as a biological control agent against citrus canker disease. PMID:25071734

  7. Analysis of the First Temperate Broad Host Range Brucellaphage (BiPBO1) Isolated from B. inopinata

    PubMed Central

    Hammerl, Jens A.; Göllner, Cornelia; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Nöckler, Karsten; Reetz, Jochen; Hertwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Brucella species are important human and animal pathogens. Though, only little is known about mobile genetic elements of these highly pathogenic bacteria. To date, neither plasmids nor temperate phages have been described in brucellae. We analyzed genomic sequences of various reference and type strains and identified a number of putative prophages residing within the Brucella chromosomes. By induction, phage BiPBO1 was isolated from Brucella inopinata. BiPBO1 is a siphovirus that infects several Brucella species including Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis. Integration of the phage genome occurs adjacent to a tRNA gene in chromosome 1 (chr 1). The bacterial (attB) and phage (attP) attachment sites comprise an identical sequence of 46 bp. This sequence exists in many Brucella and Ochrobactrum species. The BiPBO1 genome is composed of a 46,877 bp double-stranded DNA. Eighty-seven putative gene products were determined, of which 32 could be functionally assigned. Strongest similarities were found to a temperate phage residing in the chromosome of Ochrobactrum anthropi ATCC 49188 and to prophages identified in several families belonging to the order rhizobiales. The data suggest that horizontal gene transfer may occur between Brucella and Ochrobactrum and underpin the close relationship of these environmental and pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26858702

  8. Plasmid integration in a wide range of bacteria mediated by the integrase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacteriophage mv4.

    PubMed Central

    Auvray, F; Coddeville, M; Ritzenthaler, P; Dupont, L

    1997-01-01

    Bacteriophage mv4 is a temperate phage infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. During lysogenization, the phage integrates its genome into the host chromosome at the 3' end of a tRNA(Ser) gene through a site-specific recombination process (L. Dupont et al., J. Bacteriol., 177:586-595, 1995). A nonreplicative vector (pMC1) based on the mv4 integrative elements (attP site and integrase-coding int gene) is able to integrate into the chromosome of a wide range of bacterial hosts, including Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei (two strains), Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Integrative recombination of pMC1 into the chromosomes of all of these species is dependent on the int gene product and occurs specifically at the pMC1 attP site. The isolation and sequencing of pMC1 integration sites from these bacteria showed that in lactobacilli, pMC1 integrated into the conserved tRNA(Ser) gene. In the other bacterial species where this tRNA gene is less or not conserved; secondary integration sites either in potential protein-coding regions or in intergenic DNA were used. A consensus sequence was deduced from the analysis of the different integration sites. The comparison of these sequences demonstrated the flexibility of the integrase for the bacterial integration site and suggested the importance of the trinucleotide CCT at the 5' end of the core in the strand exchange reaction. PMID:9068626

  9. MiMIC: a highly versatile transposon insertion resource for engineering Drosophila melanogaster genes

    PubMed Central

    Venken, Koen J. T.; Schulze, Karen L.; Haelterman, Nele A.; Pan, Hongling; He, Yuchun; Evans-Holm, Martha; Carlson, Joseph W.; Levis, Robert W.; Spradling, Allan C.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the versatility of a collection of insertions of the transposon Minos mediated integration cassette (MiMIC), in Drosophila melanogaster. MiMIC contains a gene-trap cassette and the yellow+ marker flanked by two inverted bacteriophage ΦC31 attP sites. MiMIC integrates almost at random in the genome to create sites for DNA manipulation. The attP sites allow the replacement of the intervening sequence of the transposon with any other sequence through recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). We can revert insertions that function as gene traps and cause mutant phenotypes to wild type by RMCE and modify insertions to control GAL4 or QF overexpression systems or perform lineage analysis using the Flp system. Insertions within coding introns can be exchanged with protein-tag cassettes to create fusion proteins to follow protein expression and perform biochemical experiments. The applications of MiMIC vastly extend the Drosophila melanogaster toolkit. PMID:21985007

  10. Infrastructure of Baltic Region Transmission System: Analysis of Technical and Economic Factors of its Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obushevs, A.; Oleinikova, I.; Mutule, A.

    2014-08-01

    The operational conditions of new networks dictate new requirements for the transmission planning, which would include the electricity market figures and a sizable involvement of renewable generation. This paper focuses on the transmission expansion planning techniques based on the calculations of optimal power flows and on the concept of development planning and sustainability. A description is given for the mathematical model of calculations and analysis of transmission system. The results have shown that the Baltic transmission system infrastructure can successfully be analyzed based on the proposed methodology and developed mathematical model Baltijas valstu (Latvijas, Lietuvas un Igaunijas) energosistēmas ir cieši saistītas vēsturiski, un to darbība nav iespējama bez savstarpējas sadarbības attīstības un darba režīmu jautājumos. Ekonomisko attiecību īstenošanu enerģētikas sektorā paātrināja elektroenerģijas tirgus attīstība. Baltijas valstu enerģētikas politika ir integrēta ES enerģētikas stratēģijas sastāvdaļa, nosakot trīs galvenos mērķus: enerģētikas nozares konkurētspēja, ilgtspējīga attīstība un drošība. Visas trīs Baltijas energosistēmas veica lielu darba apjomu iekārtu modernizācijā un standartu saskaņošanā, kuras ir saskaņā ar Eiropas Savienības prasībām, kā arī par tirgus attiecību un tehnoloģiju standartu ieviešanu, lai nodrošinātu energoapgādes drošību un elektroenerģijas pieejamību patērētājiem Tomēr, ņemot vērā strauji mainīgos ārējos apstākļus, it īpaši ģeopolitiskos faktorus, Baltijas valstu enerģētikas politika būtu jāizskata ar mērķi novērtēt, kā šie faktori ietekmē energosistēmas ilgtspējīgu attīstību kopumā. No iepriekš minētā izriet, ka nepieciešama jauna nacionāla enerģētikas stratēģija, kura stiprinātu efektīvu ekonomisko un sociālo pamatu ilgtspējīgu attīstību Baltijas valstu nacionālā ekonomikā. Šī darba m

  11. Investigating pilot performance using mixed-modality simulated data link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Jeff A.

    Empirical studies of general aviation (GA) pilot performance are lacking, especially with respect to envisioned future requirements. Two research studies were conducted to evaluate human performance using new technologies. In the first study, ten participants completed the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) in an effort to compare the intelligibility of two text-to-speech (TTS) engines (DECtalk and AT&T's Natural Voices) as presented in 85 dB(A) aircraft cockpit engine noise. Results indicated significant differences in intelligibility (p ≤ 0.05) between the two speech synthesizers across the tested speech-to-noise ratios (S/N) (i.e., -5 dB, -8 dB, and -11 dB S/N) with the AT&T engine resulting in superior intelligibility in all of the S/N. The AT&T product was therefore selected as the TTS engine for the second study. In the second study, 16 visual flight rules (VFR) rated pilots were evaluated for their data link performance using a flight simulator (ELITE i-GATE) equipped with a mixed-modality simulated data link within one of two flight conditions. Data link modalities included textual, synthesized speech, digitized speech, and synthesized speech/textual combination. Flight conditions included VFR (unlimited ceiling, visibility) or marginal VFR (MVFR) flight conditions (clouds 2800 feet above ground level [AGL], three miles visibility). Evaluation focused on the time required accessing, understanding, and executing data link commands. Additional data were gathered to evaluate workload, situation awareness, and subjective preference. Results indicated significant differences in pilot performance, mental workload, and situation awareness across the data link modalities and between flight conditions. Textual data link resulted in decreased performance while the other three data link conditions did not differ in performance. Workload evaluation indicated increased workload in the textual data link condition. Situation awareness (SA) measures indicated differences in

  12. Noninvasive detection of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows with calibrated ultrasonographic image analysis.

    PubMed

    Starke, A; Haudum, A; Weijers, G; Herzog, K; Wohlsein, P; Beyerbach, M; de Korte, C L; Thijssen, J M; Rehage, J

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to test the accuracy of calibrated digital analysis of ultrasonographic hepatic images for diagnosing fatty liver in dairy cows. Digital analysis was performed by means of a novel method, computer-aided ultrasound diagnosis (CAUS), previously published by the authors. This method implies a set of pre- and postprocessing steps to normalize and correct the transcutaneous ultrasonographic images. Transcutaneous hepatic ultrasonography was performed before surgical correction on 151 German Holstein dairy cows (mean +/- standard error of the means; body weight: 571+/-7 kg; age: 4.9+/-0.2 yr; DIM: 35+/-5) with left-sided abomasal displacement. Concentration of triacylglycerol (TAG) was biochemically determined in liver samples collected via biopsy and values were considered the gold standard to which ultrasound estimates were compared. According to histopathologic examination of biopsies, none of the cows suffered from hepatic disorders other than hepatic lipidosis. Hepatic TAG concentrations ranged from 4.6 to 292.4 mg/g of liver fresh weight (FW). High correlations were found between the hepatic TAG and mean echo level (r=0.59) and residual attenuation (ResAtt; r=0.80) obtained in ultrasonographic imaging. High correlation existed between ResAtt and mean echo level (r=0.76). The 151 studied cows were split randomly into a training set of 76 cows and a test set of 75 cows. Based on the data from the training set, ResAtt was statistically selected by means of stepwise multiple regression analysis for hepatic TAG prediction (R(2)=0.69). Then, using the predicted TAG data of the test set, receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to summarize the accuracy and predictive potential of the differentiation between various measured hepatic TAG values, based on TAG predicted from the regression formula. The area under the curve values of the receiver operating characteristic based on the regression equation were 0.94 (<50 vs. >or=50mg of TAG/g of FW

  13. Adverse Drug Reactions Causing Admission to Medical Wards: A Cross-Sectional Survey at 4 Hospitals in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Johannes P; Njuguna, Christine; Kramer, Nicole; Stewart, Annemie; Mehta, Ushma; Blockman, Marc; Fortuin-De Smidt, Melony; De Waal, Reneé; Parrish, Andy G; Wilson, Douglas P K; Igumbor, Ehimario U; Aynalem, Getahun; Dheda, Mukesh; Maartens, Gary; Cohen, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Limited data exist on the burden of serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in sub-Saharan Africa, which has high HIV and tuberculosis prevalence. We determined the proportion of adult admissions attributable to ADRs at 4 hospitals in South Africa. We characterized drugs implicated in, risk factors for, and the preventability of ADR-related admissions.We prospectively followed patients admitted to 4 hospitals' medical wards over sequential 30-day periods in 2013 and identified suspected ADRs with the aid of a trigger tool. A multidisciplinary team performed causality, preventability, and severity assessment using published criteria. We categorized an admission as ADR-related if the ADR was the primary reason for admission.There were 1951 admissions involving 1904 patients: median age was 50 years (interquartile range 34-65), 1057 of 1904 (56%) were female, 559 of 1904 (29%) were HIV-infected, and 183 of 1904 (10%) were on antituberculosis therapy (ATT). There were 164 of 1951 (8.4%) ADR-related admissions. After adjustment for age and ATT, ADR-related admission was independently associated (P ≤ 0.02) with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.06-2.14), increasing drug count (aOR 1.14 per additional drug, 95% CI 1.09-1.20), increasing comorbidity score (aOR 1.23 per additional point, 95% CI 1.07-1.41), and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) if HIV-infected (aOR 1.92 compared with HIV-negative/unknown, 95% CI 1.17-3.14). The most common ADRs were renal impairment, hypoglycemia, liver injury, and hemorrhage. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, insulin, rifampicin, and warfarin were most commonly implicated, respectively, in these 4 ADRs. ART, ATT, and/or co-trimoxazole were implicated in 56 of 164 (34%) ADR-related admissions. Seventy-three of 164 (45%) ADRs were assessed as preventable.In our survey, approximately 1 in 12 admissions was because of an ADR. The range of ADRs and implicated drugs reflect South Africa's high HIV

  14. Adverse Drug Reactions Causing Admission to Medical Wards

    PubMed Central

    Mouton, Johannes P.; Njuguna, Christine; Kramer, Nicole; Stewart, Annemie; Mehta, Ushma; Blockman, Marc; Fortuin-De Smidt, Melony; De Waal, Reneé; Parrish, Andy G.; Wilson, Douglas P.K.; Igumbor, Ehimario U.; Aynalem, Getahun; Dheda, Mukesh; Maartens, Gary; Cohen, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Limited data exist on the burden of serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in sub-Saharan Africa, which has high HIV and tuberculosis prevalence. We determined the proportion of adult admissions attributable to ADRs at 4 hospitals in South Africa. We characterized drugs implicated in, risk factors for, and the preventability of ADR-related admissions. We prospectively followed patients admitted to 4 hospitals’ medical wards over sequential 30-day periods in 2013 and identified suspected ADRs with the aid of a trigger tool. A multidisciplinary team performed causality, preventability, and severity assessment using published criteria. We categorized an admission as ADR-related if the ADR was the primary reason for admission. There were 1951 admissions involving 1904 patients: median age was 50 years (interquartile range 34–65), 1057 of 1904 (56%) were female, 559 of 1904 (29%) were HIV-infected, and 183 of 1904 (10%) were on antituberculosis therapy (ATT). There were 164 of 1951 (8.4%) ADR-related admissions. After adjustment for age and ATT, ADR-related admission was independently associated (P ≤ 0.02) with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.06–2.14), increasing drug count (aOR 1.14 per additional drug, 95% CI 1.09–1.20), increasing comorbidity score (aOR 1.23 per additional point, 95% CI 1.07–1.41), and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) if HIV-infected (aOR 1.92 compared with HIV-negative/unknown, 95% CI 1.17–3.14). The most common ADRs were renal impairment, hypoglycemia, liver injury, and hemorrhage. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, insulin, rifampicin, and warfarin were most commonly implicated, respectively, in these 4 ADRs. ART, ATT, and/or co-trimoxazole were implicated in 56 of 164 (34%) ADR-related admissions. Seventy-three of 164 (45%) ADRs were assessed as preventable. In our survey, approximately 1 in 12 admissions was because of an ADR. The range of ADRs and implicated drugs reflect

  15. Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Parashar, M K; Kale, Aditya

    2015-04-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis due to free living amoeba, also called 'brain eating amoeba', Naegleria fowleri, was detected in retroviral disease patient of 40 years who has history of using well water. Patient was admitted with severe headache, fever intermittent, nausea, vomiting and slurring of speech. CT scan and MRI scan findings were normal. CSF examination showed increased protein, low sugar and predominant lymphocytes. CSF was negative for cryptococcal antigen but wet mount preparation showed highly motile free living amoeba Naegleria fowleri. Patient was put on Amphotericin B, Metronidazole, Rifampicin in addition to ART and ATT and other supportive medications. His headache was relieved and patient improved and was discharged on request. Earlier eight cases have been reported from India of which four cases survived the acute episode. PMID:26591176

  16. Démonstration expérimentale d'une distribution quantique de clé par codage temporel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, W.; Debuisschert, T.

    2006-10-01

    Nous avons démontré expérimentalement la transmission quantique de clé par codage temporel. Alice envoie des impulsions cohérentes atténuées. La clé est codée dans l'instant de détection des photons chez Bob. Une mesure de la durée de cohérence par moyen interférométrique permet d'assurer un fonctionnement en régime quantique. Nous avons mesuré un taux d'erreur quantique de 3.3% et une chute relative de contraste de l'interféromètre de 8.4%. Ces valeurs permettent d'évaluer un avantage d'information de 0.49 bit/impulsion pour Alice et Bob par rapport à un espion éventuel.

  17. Geologic analysis of Devonian Shale cores

    SciTech Connect

    1982-02-01

    Cleveland Cliffs Iron Company was awarded a DOE contract in December 1977 for field retrieval and laboratory analysis of cores from the Devonian shales of the following eleven states: Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. The purpose of this project is to explore these areas to determine the amount of natural gas being produced from the Devonian shales. The physical properties testing of the rock specimens were performed under subcontract at Michigan Technological University (MTU). The study also included LANDSAT information, geochemical research, structural sedimentary and tectonic data. Following the introduction, and background of the project this report covers the following: field retrieval procedures; laboratory procedures; geologic analysis (by state); references and appendices. (ATT)

  18. A "Sweet 16" of Rules About Teamwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The following "Sweet 16" rules included in this paper derive from a longer paper by APPL Director Dr. Edward Hoffman and myself entitled " 99 Rules for Managing Faster, Better, Cheaper Projects." Our sources consisted mainly of "war stories" told by master project managers in my book Simultaneous Management: Managing Projects in a Dynamic Environment (AMACOM, The American Management Association, 1996). The Simultaneous Management model was a result of 10 years of intensive research and testing conducted with the active participation of master project managers from leading private organizations such as AT&T, DuPont, Exxon, General Motors, IBM, Motorola and Procter & Gamble. In a more recent study, led by Dr. Hoffman, we learned that master project managers in leading public organizations employ most of these rules as well. Both studies, in private and public organizations, found that a dynamic environment calls for dynamic management, and that is especially clear in how successful project managers think about their teams.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Stump-tailed Macaques (Macaca arctoides).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongtao; Cui, Yaoyao; Yu, Jianqiu; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Jiang, Juan; Li, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) has been enlisted as the Near Threatened species in the IUCN Red List. In this study, the complete mitochondial genome of M. arctoides was determined. The mitogenome was 16,559 bp in length with an A + T content of 56.8%, containing 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and a control region (D-loop). Ten protein-coding genes (ND1, COX1, COX2, ND4, COX3, ND4L, ATP8, ATP6, CYTB, ND6) started with ATG codons, while ND2, ND3 and ND5 initiated with ATT, ATC and ATA, respectively. Eight PCGs ended with complete termination codons except for COX3, ND3, ND4, and CYTB terminated with incompleted codon T. PMID:25242181

  20. Symposium on the 50th anniversary of the discovery of deuterium: divisions of history of chemistry, geochemistry, nuclear and physical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bigeleisen, J.

    1981-01-01

    In tribute to Harold Urey, the author cites Urey's accomplishments as a scientist and public servant and gives insight of the man. Some of his accomplishments in science are: discovered deuterium for which he received the Nobel prize in 1934; worked with Rittenberg and Greiff on the theory and calculation of the differences in the thermodynamic properties of isotopic compounds; with Thode, Hutchison and others, separated the isotopes of the light elements by chemical methods on a laboratory scale; during World War II headed the Substitute Alloy Materials Laboratories of Columbia University where his group developed industrial scale processes for the separation of /sup 2/H, /sup 10/B, and /sup 235/U; with his associates developed the /sup 18/O paleotemperature scale; made fundamental contributions to a widely accepted theory of the origin of the earth. (ATT)

  1. A prototype 4800 bps voice terminal for the mobile satellite experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Wai-Yip; Davidson, Grant; Chen, Juin-Hwey; Gersho, Allen

    1987-01-01

    The authors report the final stage of a research project for the NASA mobile satellite experiment (MSAT-X). The work has resulted in two alternative coding techniques which have achieved good communications quality at 4.8 kb/s while tolerating vehicle noise, fading, and a fairly high-error-rate, bursty channel. The authors have constructed a circuit board based on three AT&T 32-bit floating-point DSP32 digital signal processors (DSP) and providing both excess processing power and considerable flexibility for handling different variations of the algorithms. A Motorola 68HC11 microcomputer chip serves as the board controller and interface handler. Mounted on a wirewrapped card, the prototype's circuit footprint amounts to only 225 cm2 and consumes about 13 W of power. A description is given of the architecture, signal processing and communication functions, circuitry, and firmware of the prototype. Issues such as synchronization, framing, error control, and modem interface are also addressed.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of wolf spider Pirata subpiraticus Boes.et str. (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Liang; Li, Chao; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of a wolf spider Pirata subpiraticus was determined. It is a circular molecule of 14,528 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 21 transfer RNAs (tRNA(Gly) is lost) and a control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of majority strand (J-strand) is 75.6% (T: 42.0%; C: 8.6%; A:33.6%; G: 15.8%). Among protein-coding genes, one genes (COIII) start with TTG, four genes (ND1, ND2, ATP8 and Cytb) begin with ATT and other eight genes use ATA as initiation codon. ND2 and Cytb are terminated with TAG as stop codon, while all other genes end with TAA. Three isolated sequences repeat regions (212 bp) were found in the A+T-rich region (D-loop). PMID:25259450

  3. A High-Average-Power Free Electron Laser for Microfabrication and Surface Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dylla, H. F.; Benson, S.; Bisognano, J.; Bohn, C. L.; Cardman, L.; Engwall, D.; Fugitt, J.; Jordan, K.; Kehne, D.; Li, Z.; Liu, H.; Merminga, L.; Neil, G. R.; Neuffer, D.; Shinn, M.; Sinclair, C.; Wiseman, M.; Brillson, L. J.; Henkel, D. P.; Helvajian, H.; Kelley, M. J.; Nair, Shanti

    1995-01-01

    CEBAF has developed a comprehensive conceptual design of an industrial user facility based on a kilowatt ultraviolet (UV) (160-1000 mm) and infrared (IR) (2-25 micron) free electron laser (FEL) driven by a recirculating, energy recovering 200 MeV superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerator. FEL users, CEBAF's partners in the Lase Processing Consortium, including AT&T, DuPont, IBM, Northrop Grumman, 3M, and Xerox, are developing applications such as metal, ceramic, and electronic material micro-fabrication and polymer and metal surface processing, with the overall effort leading to later scale-up to industrial systems at 50-100 kW. Representative applications are described. The proposed high-average-power FEL overcomes limitations of conventional laser sources in available power, cost-effectiveness, tunability, and pulse structure.

  4. Novel mutation in TP63 associated with ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia and clefting syndrome and T cell lymphopenia.

    PubMed

    Giampietro, Philip F; Baker, Mei W; Basehore, Monica J; Jones, Julie R; Seroogy, Christine M

    2013-06-01

    A male child with clinical features consistent with EEC/EECUT plus syndrome (ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, clefting, urinary tract abnormalities, and thymic abnormalities) including mild ectodermal abnormalities, ectrodactyly of hands and feet, cleft palate, bilateral hydronephrosis, and T cell lymphopenia is reported. He was noted to have T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) analysis below the cutoff for normal on newborn screening and T cell lymphopenia on further immunologic evaluation. A novel, presumably pathogenic de novo 3 bp deletion in exon 7 of TP63 (c.970_972delATT; NCBI Reference Sequence NM_003722.4) was identified. This observation provides supporting evidence for the association between TP63 mutations and EECUT plus syndrome. Clinicians caring for infants presenting with EEC spectrum disorders in the newborn period should also consider the possibility of T cell lymphopenia. PMID:23613309

  5. Estimation of environmental noise impacts within architectural spaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. S.; Liebich, R. E.; Chun, K. C.

    2002-05-03

    Public Law 91-596, ''Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970,'' Dec. 29, 1970, stimulated interest in modeling the impacts of interior noise on employees, as well as the intelligibility of interior public-address and other speech intra-communication systems. The classical literature on this topic has primarily featured a statistical uniform diffuse-field model. This was pioneered by Leo L. Beranek in the 1950s, based on energy-density formulations at the former Bell Telephone (AT&T) Laboratories in the years from 1930 to 1950. This paper compares the classical prediction approach to the most recent statistical methods. Such models were developed in the late 1970s and included innovations such as consideration of irregularly shaped (e.g., L-shaped) interior room spaces and coupled spaces.

  6. Cognitive Processes in ADHD and Asperger's Disorder: Overlaps and Differences in PASS Profiles.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Stefano; Contena, Bastianina

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Many studies report on the usefulness of the evaluation of Executive Functions (EF) in the assessment of participants with ADHD, while others underline how deficits of EF in these participants are not consistent and that the same executive deficits are present in many other disorders, particularly in Asperger's disorder. Using the Planning Attention Simultaneous Successive (PASS) theory, the present study explores the cognitive profiles of participants with ADHD or Asperger's disorder and compares the cognitive functioning of these two diagnostic groups. Method: Forty-four children, 24 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 20 with a diagnosis of Asperger's disorder, participated and their cognitive processes were evaluated with the Cognitive Assessment System. Results: Results underline specific cognitive profiles in ADHD and Asperger's disorder characterized by weaknesses in planning and attention, but with a diverse level of severity. Conclusion: Implications of the different cognitive profiles of these diagnostic groups are discussed. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:24196344

  7. A high-average-power FEL for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Benson, S.; Bisognano, J.

    1995-12-31

    CEBAF has developed a comprehensive conceptual design of an industrial user facility based on a kilowatt UV (150-1000 nm) and IR (2-25 micron) FEL driven by a recirculating, energy-recovering 200 MeV superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) accelerator. FEL users{endash}CEBAF`s partners in the Laser Processing Consortium, including AT&T, DuPont, IBM, Northrop-Grumman, 3M, and Xerox{endash}plan to develop applications such as polymer surface processing, metals and ceramics micromachining, and metal surface processing, with the overall effort leading to later scale-up to industrial systems at 50-100 kW. Representative applications are described. The proposed high-average-power FEL overcomes limitations of conventional laser sources in available power, cost-effectiveness, tunability and pulse structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Optimization algorithms for new computer architectures with application to routing and scheduling (Year 3). Final report, 1 May 1989-30 September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kennington, J.L.; Helgason, R.V.

    1990-10-01

    One of the most important computer architecture innovations to appear in the market place during the last ten years is parallel processing on a shared memory multicomputer. This report presents new algorithms for a variety of network models along with empirical analysis on both sequential and parallel computers. An empirical study on the AT and T KORBX system is also presented. This system uses eight processors each of which has vector capability. Our research program objective is to develop and empirically test new parallel algorithms and software for a wide variety of optimization problems. The problems studied this past year include the shortest path problem, the assignment problem, the semi-assignment problem, the transportation problem, and the generalized network problem. Algorithms for all of these models have been developed and empirically tested on a variety of computers. In addition, we worked with the Military Airlift Command to test the ATT KORBX system located at Scott Air Force Base.

  9. Ceremonial Session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrieffer, R.

    1996-03-01

    1995 Edward A. Bouchet Award formerly the Visiting Minority Lectureship Award) to: Anthony M. Johnson, New Jersey Institute of Technology 1995 John H. Dillon Medal to: Julia Ann Kornfield, California Institute of Technology 1995 Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award to: Marjorie Olmstead, University of Washington 1995 Biological Physics Prize to: Sieji Ogawa, AT&T Bell Laboratories 1995 High Polymer Physics Prize to: Alan N. Gent, University of Akron 1995 Earl K. Plyler Prize to: Charles S. Parmenter, University of Indiana 1995 Frank Isakson Prize to : David E. Aspnes, North Carolina State University 1995 Oliver E. Buckley Prize to: Charles Pence Slichter, University of Illinois 1995 George E. Pake Prize to: Charles V. Shank, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  10. Using CLIPS in a distributed system: The Network Control Center (NCC) expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wannemacher, Tom

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent troubleshooting system for the Help Desk domain. It was developed on an IBM-compatible 80286 PC using Microsoft C and CLIPS and an AT&T 3B2 minicomputer using the UNIFY database and a combination of shell script, C programs and SQL queries. The two computers are linked by a lan. The functions of this system are to help non-technical NCC personnel handle trouble calls, to keep a log of problem calls with complete, concise information, and to keep a historical database of problems. The database helps identify hardware and software problem areas and provides a source of new rules for the troubleshooting knowledge base.

  11. Master schedule for CY-1982 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided does not include samples which are planned to be collected during FY-1982 in support of special studies or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results. Sampling schedules are presented for the following: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurements; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites. (ATT)

  12. Plasmids for Increased Efficiency of Vector Construction and Genetic Engineering in Filamentous Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Schoberle, Taylor J.; Nguyen-Coleman, C. Kim; May, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Fungal species are continuously being studied to not only understand disease in humans and plants but also to identify novel antibiotics and other metabolites of industrial importance. Genetic manipulations, such as gene deletion, gene complementation, and gene over-expression, are common techniques to investigate fungal gene functions. Although advances in transformation efficiency and promoter usage have improved genetic studies, some basic steps in vector construction are still laborious and time-consuming. Gateway cloning technology solves this problem by increasing the efficiency of vector construction through the use of λ phage integrase proteins and att recombination sites. We developed a series of Gateway-compatible vectors for use in genetic studies in a range of fungal species. They contain nutritional and drug-resistance markers and can be utilized to manipulate different filamentous fungal genomes. PMID:23867711

  13. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of Bufo gargarizans minshanicus (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiandong; Liu, Jiabin; Xue, Rui; Chen, Limin

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome of Bufo gargarizans minshanicus is 17,719 bp in size, and shares a conserved gene arrangement, gene content and base composition with other Bufonidae species. The base composition of the H-strand is biased toward A + T content at 56.97% (T 28.14%, C 27.67%, A 28.83% and G 15.36%). Most protein-coding genes (PCGs) begin with ATG, while COX1 and ND2 initiate with ATA and ND1 starts at ATT. Seven PCGs have the complete stop codons AGA and TAA, whereas the remaining four PCGs end with TA or T. The putative control region possesses two repeat motifs, and four termination-associated sequences and six conserved sequence blocks at the 5' and 3' ends. PMID:25856517

  14. Cloning and mapping of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene (sodA) of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Touati, D

    1983-01-01

    An Escherichia coli gene bank composed of large DNA fragments (about 40 kilobases) was constructed by using the small cosmid pHC79. From it, a clone was isolated for its ability to overproduce superoxide dismutase. The enzyme overproduced was manganese superoxide dismutase, as determined by electrophoresis and antibody precipitation. Maxicell analysis and two-dimensional O'Farrell polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the structural gene, sodA, of manganese superoxide dismutase was cloned. Subcloning fragments from the original cosmid located the sodA gene within a 4.8-kilobase EcoRI-BamHI fragment. This fragment was inserted into a lambda phage which was deleted for the att region and consequently could only lysogenize by recombination between the cloned bacterial DNA insertion and the bacterial chromosome. Genetic mapping of the prophage in such lysogens indicated that the chromosomal sodA locus lies near 87 min on the E. coli map. Images PMID:6309739

  15. Attention Problems and Academic Achievement: Do Persistent and Earlier-Emerging Problems Have More Adverse Long-Term Effects?

    PubMed

    Rabiner, David L; Carrig, Madeline M; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2013-10-18

    This study examined whether the negative association between children's attention difficulties and their academic functioning is largely confined to children whose attention problems persist across early grades and whether it depends on when attention problems emerge in children's schooling. Children from the normative sample of the Fast Track study were classified into four attention problem groups based on the presence versus absence of attention problems in first and second grade. Those with attention problems in both grades showed a decline in reading and math achievement during the K-5 interval relative to children with attention problems in first grade only. Both groups of inattentive first graders also performed worse than comparison children. In contrast, children whose attention problems emerged in second grade did not differ from comparison children on any achievement outcome performed significantly better than inattentive first graders. The implications of these findings are discussed. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24141101

  16. Adult ADHD Among NSW Prisoners: Prevalence and Psychiatric Comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Moore, Elizabeth; Sunjic, Sandra; Kaye, Sharlene; Archer, Vicki; Indig, Devon

    2013-10-17

    Objective: Given the paucity of research among prisoners, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity associated with adult ADHD. Method: The study was conducted at four NSW correctional facilities (2 male; 2 female). Results: Thirty-five percent of the sample screened positive for adult ADHD, and 17% of the sample met criteria for a full diagnosis. After adjustment, benzodiazepine dependence, borderline personality disorder, social phobia, antisocial personality disorder, and a number of lifetime psychological disorders remained significantly and independently associated with the diagnosis of adult ADHD. Lowering the threshold on the ADHD Self-Rating Scale to ≥3 (vs. ≥4) increased the sensitivity (80%-93%), but lowered the specificity (55%-47%). Conclusion: Adult ADHD among NSW prisoners is elevated, with substance use disorders and psychiatric comorbidity common. A greater acceptance of this disorder among prisoners, and appropriate treatment, is warranted. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24134874

  17. Personality Traits and Comorbidity in Adults With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Instanes, Johanne Telnes; Haavik, Jan; Halmøy, Anne

    2013-11-22

    Objective: To assess personality traits using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in a group of 63 previously diagnosed ADHD patients and 68 population controls and investigate the impact of common comorbid psychiatric disorders on these personality measures. Method: Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus and personality traits by the TCI. Results: The patient group had significantly higher scores on the TCI dimensions Harm avoidance and Novelty seeking compared with the control group. However, when adjusting for comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder, the ADHD group no longer showed higher Harm avoidance than the control group. The difference in Novelty seeking between the patient and control groups was correlated with lifetime diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Conclusion: It is important to take comorbid psychiatric disorders into account while investigating personality traits in ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24271945

  18. Does Gender Moderate the Relations Between Externalizing Behavior and Key Emergent Literacy Abilities? Evidence From a Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Allan, Nicholas P; Joye, Shauna W; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2013-11-26

    Objective: There is a significant negative relation between externalizing behavior and emergent literacy skills among preschool children. Method: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of gender on the predictive relation of externalizing behavior and emergent literacy in a group of 178 preschool children (mean age = 48.50 months, SD = 3.66; 48% boys). Results: Externalizing behaviors predicted emergent literacy over time. Distinct patterns of predictive associations dependent on gender were found. Girls with higher levels of externalizing behaviors experienced less change in their vocabulary skills compared with the vocabulary change shown by girls with lower levels of these problem behaviors. Conclusion: The results suggest that early identification programs that include externalizing behavior problems and their relation with emergent literacy development should account for potential gender differences. A theoretical framework in which girls with behavior problems receive less opportunity for vocabulary acquisition is presented. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) X-XX). PMID:24282144

  19. Prevalence of ADHD in Qatari School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Lori G; Kamal, Madeeha

    2014-01-10

    Objective: The purpose of this quantitative survey study is to provide current accurate estimates of the number of students with ADHD in Qatar Independent and English Medium Private Schools, so that adequate support will be available to assist in the educational growth and development of these students. Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study of teacher observational ratings used a standardized rating scale. Teachers completed the SNAP-IV. Rating Scales for more than 5,000 students from Qatar Independent Schools and private English Medium Schools between November 2011 and November 2012 in Qatar Grades 1 through 12. Results: Results align with and extend the previous study of ADHD in Qatar and the current worldwide prevalence. Conclusion: Enhanced analyses were conducted to identify differences between age groups, genders, and between Private and Independent Schools. Implications for teachers, administrators, and medical personnel are discussed. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) X-XX). PMID:24412969

  20. Dissociable Response Inhibition in Children With Tourette's Syndrome Compared With Children With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hovik, Kjell Tore; Plessen, Kerstin J; Skogli, Erik Winther; Andersen, Per Normann; Oie, Merete

    2013-11-25

    Objective: This study investigates whether performance in a verbal response task (Color-Word Interference Test [CWIT]) and a motor response task (Conners' Continuous Performance Test [CCPT]) discriminates children with Tourette's Syndrome (TS), ADHD, and typically developing children (TDC). Method: Nineteen children with TS, 79 with ADHD, and 50 with TDC participated (8-17 years). Results: Children with TS committed significantly fewer errors in the verbal response task than those with ADHD. Moreover, children with TS but without ADHD performed better than TDC. Errors in motor task and speed of response did not distinguish between groups. A cautious tendency of response correlated positively with rates of tics in children with TS. Conclusion: Children with TS were superior in inhibiting a prepotent verbal response; however, comorbidity with ADHD in those children negatively influenced performance. Results support the hypothesis that levels of inhibitory control distinguish children with TS, ADHD, and TDC. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24276800

  1. Automatic Colon Cleansing in CTC Image Using Gradient Magnitude and Similarity Measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunhapongpipat, Krisorn; Vajragupta, Laddawan; Chaopathomkul, Bundit; Cooharojananone, Nagul; Lipikorn, Rajalida

    Electronic colon cleansing (ECC) is an alternative method that can be used to remove remaining tagged fecal material from colon during polyp detection in virtual colonoscopy (VC). This paper presents a new method for automatic electronic colon cleansing using gradient magnitude and similarity measure to detect and remove tagged material from colon in CTC images. First, Canny edge detection and 8-adjacency are used to generate closed boundary for low density (air) and high density regions (tagged material and bone). Then similarity measure is used to classify pixels into high density regions, and all the pixels that are classified as high density materials are removed. Finally, gradient magnitude and thresholding are used to detect AT and ATT layers. The proposed method was evaluated on four pilot dadasets from two patients and the experimental results reveal that the proposed method can perform colon cleansing effectively.

  2. A new synthetic route to a family of non-classical addition-type thermoplastics. I - Concept and demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.

    1988-01-01

    A synthesis scheme was developed for a host of nonclassical addition-type thermoplastics (ATT) that can be cured by an addition reaction, leading to a linear polymer structure. The synthesis involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated prepolymer with either a bismaleimide (BMI) or a biscitraconimide. A new polymer, designated LaRC-RP80, synthesized using this scheme, was found to exhibit several significantly improved properties over the commercial BMI, Kerimid 601, including an eight-fold increase in toughness while maintaining a high Tg, a higher (by 167 C) heat stability, and a 50-percent increase in moisture resistance. In addition, LaRC-RP80 has good hot/wet lap shear strength and processes easily at 288 C without voids in the finished product.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenetic analysis of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Peng, Rui; Zeng, Bo; Meng, Xiuxiang; Yue, Bisong; Zhang, Zhihe; Zou, Fangdong

    2007-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, was determined by the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction (LA-PCR) with conserved primers and primer walking sequence methods. The complete mitochondrial DNA is 16,805 nucleotides in length and contains two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one control region. The total length of the 13 protein-coding genes is longer than the American black bear, brown bear and polar bear by 3 amino acids at the end of ND5 gene. The codon usage also followed the typical vertebrate pattern except for an unusual ATT start codon, which initiates the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) gene. The molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed on the sequences of 12 concatenated heavy-strand encoded protein-coding genes, and suggested that the giant panda is most closely related to bears. PMID:17499457

  4. Digital control of magnetic bearings supporting a multimass flexible rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, F. J.; Williams, R. D.; Allaire, P. E.; Schafer, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics of magnetic bearings used to support a three mass flexible rotor operated at speeds up to 14,000 RPM are discussed. The magnetic components of the bearing are of a type reported in the literature previously, but the earlier analog controls were replaced by digital ones. Analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters and digital control software were installed in an AT&T PC. This PC-based digital controller was used to operate one of the magnetic bearings on the test rig. Basic proportional-derivative control was applied to the bearings, and the bearing stiffness and damping characteristics were evaluated. Particular attention is paid to the frequency dependent behavior of the stiffness and damping properties, and comparisons are made between the actual controllers and ideal proportional-derivative control.

  5. Equity Oil Company BX in situ oil shale project, Piceance Basin, Colorado. Environmental quarter report, March 1-May 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-12

    This report has been organized into three sections for ease of review. Section A - Air Resources covers data collected by the 100-foot tower between September and December 1980. Section B - Water Resources covers data collected since the last Quarterly Report. Section C - Aquatic Biology covers data collected since January 1981. Laboratory analysis results of all water samples show no significant changes from previous sample have occurred. The alluvial wells did exhibit slightly higher concentrations of phenols. Presently no baseline record exists for these wells to establish the normal levels of phenols in the alluvial ground water. Laboratory analysis of all sampling locations are presented in Appendix B. Aquatic biology covers data collected during the initial two aquatic biology field sampling trips of 1981. Benthic invertebrates, periphyton algae, and a fishery survey was conducted. Stream observations indicate that the stream habitat has remained unchanged since the August 1980 field visit. (ATT)

  6. Repair simulation with image processing and artificial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yo-Han; Sung, Moon-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Park, Jin-Hong; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Moon, Seong-Yong; Choi, Sung-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung

    2005-05-01

    Defect-free mask is a dream of mask makers. Repair technology [1] that removes defects on Att. PSM is getting more attentions than ever. Therefore the fast and precise verification of repaired results is highly required. Most confirmation methods are carried out by using the inspection system because it is faster than AIMS to verify the repaired results. However, the accuracy of the verification using the inspection system cannot be compared to it with AIMS in the view of printability. In this paper, the results of optical simulation using top-down repair image are compared with those of AIMS for rapid confirmation of repaired results with competitive accuracy. Also, neural network which can compute the complex non-linear relationships easily are used to increase the accuracy of repair simulation.

  7. Primary Extrapulmonary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis of the Sternum without HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal tuberculosis (TB) accounts for about 9% of all TB cases. Tuberculosis of the sternum is not a common presentation. The case of primary multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB of the sternum is even rare. So far no such case has been reported in the medical literature. Herein, we present the very first case of primary extrapulmonary MDR TB of the sternum in a 21-year-old immunocompetent Indian female who presented with chest pain and an increased swelling over the anterior chest with an intermittently discharging sinus. She was diagnosed with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis of the sternum without the active pulmonary disease. Conservative management with oral multidrug antitubercular therapy (ATT) completely cured the patient. PMID:26894135

  8. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two orb-weaving spider Cyrtarachne nagasakiensis (Strand, 1918) and Hypsosinga pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) (Araneae: Araneidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitogenomes of Cyrtarachne nagasakiensis and Hypsosinga pygmaea are determined to be 14,402 and 14,193 bp in length, with the A + T content of 75.7% and 76.1%, respectively. All protein-coding genes in both spiders start with the initiation codons (ATT, ATA, TTA or TTG) that are usually used in Araneae mitogenomes, and terminate with canonical stop codon TAA or TAG except for ND5 in both spiders and ND4L in H. pygmaea, which end with the incomplete codon TA or T instead. Most of the tRNAs lack the potential to form the typically cloverleaf-shaped secondary structures and none of tandem repeats are present in the control regions of both spider mitogenomes. The phylogenetic analysis based on the Bayesian inference dataset shows a good resolution of relationship of C. nagasakiensis and H. pygmaea in Araneidae. PMID:26119123

  9. Sandia National Laboratories embraces ISDN

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, L.F.; Eldridge, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), a multidisciplinary research and development laboratory located on Kirtland Air Force Base, has embraced Integrated Services Digital Network technology as an integral part of its communication network. Sandia and the Department of Energy`s Albuquerque Operations Office have recently completed the installation of a modernized and expanded telephone system based, on the AT&T 5ESS telephone switch. Sandia is committed to ISDN as an integral part of data communication services, and it views ISDN as one part of a continuum of services -- services that range from ISDN`s asynchronous and limited bandwidth Ethernet (250--1000 Kbps) through full bandwidth Ethernet, FDDI, and ATM at Sonet rates. Sandia has demonstrated this commitment through its use of ISDN data features to support critical progmmmatic services such as access to corporate data base systems. In the future, ISDN will provide enhanced voice, data communication, and video services.

  10. Integration-dependent bacteriophage immunity provides insights into the evolution of genetic switches

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Gregory W.; Oldfield, Lauren M.; Villanueva, Valerie M.; Lunt, Bryce L.; Shine, Emilee E.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Genetic switches are critical components of developmental circuits. Because temperate bacteriophages are vastly abundant and greatly diverse, they are rich resources for understanding the mechanisms and evolution of switches and the molecular control of genetic circuitry. Here, we describe a new class of small, compact, and simple switches that use site-specific recombination as the key decision point. The phage attachment site attP is located within the phage repressor gene such that chromosomal integration results in removal of a C-terminal tag that destabilizes the virally-encoded form of the repressor. Integration thus not only confers prophage stability, but also is a requirement for lysogenic establishment. The variety of these self-contained integration-dependent immunity systems in different genomic contexts suggests that these represent ancestral states in switch evolution from which more complex switches have evolved. They also provide a powerful toolkit for building synthetic biological circuits. PMID:23246436

  11. Homeopathy in the treatment of tubercular lymphadenitis (TBLN)--an Indian experience.

    PubMed

    Chand, S Kusum; Manchanda, R K; Batra, Sudhir; Mittal, Renu

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been known since antiquity. In spite of effective antibiotic treatment, it is still a major worldwide public health problem. Endogenous factors are important in the development of active disease. Homeopathic medicines have the potential for immune-modulation and hence to influence endogenous factors in disease. In India, patients with tubercular lymphadenitis (TBLN) often consult homeopaths but such cases are seldom documented. The objective of the present study is to document such experience. A retrospective exploratory study of 25 positively diagnosed cases of TBLN has lead to the development of a homeopathic regime consisting of a patient specific constitutional medicine, one disease specific biotherapy (Tuberculinum) and Silicea 6x as supportive medicine. Homeopathy can be used as a complement to conventional anti tubercular treatment (ATT) with beneficial results. Further validation in controlled trials with immunological markers is required. PMID:21784333

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the leopard spider Pardosa laura (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Jian; Fang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Peng; Pan, Hong-Chun

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Pardosa laura is a circular molecule of 14,513 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 77.4% (T: 42.9%; C: 8.1%; A: 34.5%; G: 14.5%). ATP6, COII and COIII genes begin with TTG as start codon; ND4 and ND6 genes begin with ATA as start codon, while other eight protein-coding genes start with ATT. COII, COIII, ND2 and ND6 genes are terminated with TAG as stop codon, COI and ND4L end with T, ND4 ends with TA, ATP6, ATP8, Cyt b, ND1, ND3and ND5 end with TAA. PMID:25208170

  13. Demonstration and evaluation of Dosco in-seam heading machine. Final report, October 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, C.D.

    1981-10-01

    The Dosco In-Seam Miner was originally developed for driving face entries to permit installation of Longwall supports. It offers advantages over current mining equipment in mechanical simplicity, lower dust and noise emissions and in allowing roof support to be installed immediately behind the face. The purposes of this project were as follows: (1) To determine if the machine is adaptable to accelerated entry development. (2) Evaluation of this equipment in an operating section to determine its performance potential and establish if an economic savings can be realized. (3) To examine the performance characteristics and evaluate where improvements in the system design can be made. (4) To determine the machines potential for applications under US mining conditions. Machine description, present configuration, test site and unit preparation, operating problems, individual problems, performance highlights and conclusions are presented. The general conclusion is that except for inadequacy of the conveying system, the concept of in-seam development was proven to be successful. (ATT)

  14. Drosophila topoisomerase II double-strand DNA cleavage: analysis of DNA sequence homology at the cleavage site.

    PubMed Central

    Sander, M; Hsieh, T S

    1985-01-01

    In order to study the sequence specificity of double-strand DNA cleavage by Drosophila topoisomerase II, we have mapped and sequenced 16 strong and 47 weak cleavage sites in the recombinant plasmid p pi 25.1. Analysis of the nucleotide and dinucleotide frequencies in the region near the site of phosphodiester bond breakage revealed a nonrandom distribution. The nucleotide frequencies observed would occur by chance with a probability less than 0.05. The consensus sequence we derived is 5'GT.A/TAY decrease ATT.AT..G 3', where a dot means no preferred nucleotide, Y is for pyrimidine, and the arrow shows the point of bond cleavage. On average, strong sites match the consensus better than weak sites. Images PMID:2987816

  15. Reduction of carbon monoxide. Past research summary

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, R.R.

    1981-10-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  16. Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method

    DOEpatents

    Ochoa, Ellen; Schils, George F.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789 between the U.S. Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  17. Image Display in Local Database Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, James S.; Olson, Frederick R.

    1989-05-01

    Dearchival of image data in the form of x-ray film provides a major challenge for radiology departments. In highly active referral environments such as tertiary care hospitals, patients may be referred to multiple clinical subspecialists within a very short time. Each clinical subspecialist frequently requires diagnostic image data to complete the diagnosis. This need for image access often interferes with the normal process of film handling and interpretation, subsequently reducing the efficiency of the department. The concept of creating a local image database on individual nursing stations utilizing the AT&T CommView Results Viewing Station (RVS) is being evaluated. Initial physician acceptance has been favorable. Objective measurements of operational productivity enhancements are in progress.

  18. Advanced Technology Program: a new approach to U.S. competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Brian C.

    1992-05-01

    The Advanced Technology Program (ATP) is a new extramural program managed by the Technology Administration's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The purpose of the program is to enhance U.S. competitiveness by funding industry-led precompetitive, generic technology development. While most Federal R&D programs focus either on basic research or on technology development for specific agency mission needs, the ATP is unique in that it provides a mechanism for obtaining funding for innovative, high-risk industrially oriented R&D projects that companies or consortia deem most important to their future. This paper describes the ATP, the awards that resulted from the first competition, and lessons learned. Examples of funded projects related to advanced optics and imaging include `Short Wavelength Sources for Optical Recording' (National Storage Industry Consortium), `Volume Holographic Mass Storage Subsystem' (MCC), and `Precision Optics for Soft X-ray Projection Lithography' (AT&T Bell Laboratories).

  19. Site-specific cassette exchange systems in the Aedes aegypti mosquito and the Plutella xylostella moth.

    PubMed

    Haghighat-Khah, Roya Elaine; Scaife, Sarah; Martins, Sara; St John, Oliver; Matzen, Kelly Jean; Morrison, Neil; Alphey, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered insects are being evaluated as potential tools to decrease the economic and public health burden of mosquitoes and agricultural pest insects. Here we describe a new tool for the reliable and targeted genome manipulation of pest insects for research and field release using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) mechanisms. We successfully demonstrated the established ΦC31-RMCE method in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is the first report of RMCE in mosquitoes. A new variant of this RMCE system, called iRMCE, combines the ΦC31-att integration system and Cre or FLP-mediated excision to remove extraneous sequences introduced as part of the site-specific integration process. Complete iRMCE was achieved in two important insect pests, Aedes aegypti and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, demonstrating the transferability of the system across a wide phylogenetic range of insect pests. PMID:25830287

  20. Site-Specific Cassette Exchange Systems in the Aedes aegypti Mosquito and the Plutella xylostella Moth

    PubMed Central

    Haghighat-Khah, Roya Elaine; Scaife, Sarah; Martins, Sara; St John, Oliver; Matzen, Kelly Jean; Morrison, Neil; Alphey, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered insects are being evaluated as potential tools to decrease the economic and public health burden of mosquitoes and agricultural pest insects. Here we describe a new tool for the reliable and targeted genome manipulation of pest insects for research and field release using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) mechanisms. We successfully demonstrated the established ΦC31-RMCE method in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is the first report of RMCE in mosquitoes. A new variant of this RMCE system, called iRMCE, combines the ΦC31-att integration system and Cre or FLP-mediated excision to remove extraneous sequences introduced as part of the site-specific integration process. Complete iRMCE was achieved in two important insect pests, Aedes aegypti and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, demonstrating the transferability of the system across a wide phylogenetic range of insect pests. PMID:25830287

  1. A Multiprocessor Operating System Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Gary M.; Campbell, Roy H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a multiprocessor operating system simulator that was developed by the authors in the Fall semester of 1987. The simulator was built in response to the need to provide students with an environment in which to build and test operating system concepts as part of the coursework of a third-year undergraduate operating systems course. Written in C++, the simulator uses the co-routine style task package that is distributed with the AT&T C++ Translator to provide a hierarchy of classes that represents a broad range of operating system software and hardware components. The class hierarchy closely follows that of the 'Choices' family of operating systems for loosely- and tightly-coupled multiprocessors. During an operating system course, these classes are refined and specialized by students in homework assignments to facilitate experimentation with different aspects of operating system design and policy decisions. The current implementation runs on the IBM RT PC under 4.3bsd UNIX.

  2. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome due to tuberculous meningitis; a case report.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Syed; Majid, Zain; Mehdi, Mehwish; Mubarak, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    A 58-year-old male presented with fever, nausea, and vomiting since 15 days along with irritability and confusion since 5 days. His laboratory reports showed low serum sodium, serum osmolality and uric acid. Computerized tomography (CT) scan of brain revealed age-related changes. While on lumbar puncture (LP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, CSF protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total leukocyte count (predominant lymphocytes) were all increased. On his 14th day of admission, his serum sodium was 116 mEq/l and he had a high urine output. Fluid restriction was tried in order to rule out syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) but the patient did not respond to it. Keeping in view the above findings, a final diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis leading to cerebral salt wasting syndrome was made. The patient was started on 3% hypertonic saline, mineralocorticoids and anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT), to which he responded favorably and was later discharged. PMID:27069970

  3. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome due to tuberculous meningitis; a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Syed; Majid, Zain; Mehdi, Mehwish; Mubarak, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    A 58-year-old male presented with fever, nausea, and vomiting since 15 days along with irritability and confusion since 5 days. His laboratory reports showed low serum sodium, serum osmolality and uric acid. Computerized tomography (CT) scan of brain revealed age-related changes. While on lumbar puncture (LP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, CSF protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total leukocyte count (predominant lymphocytes) were all increased. On his 14th day of admission, his serum sodium was 116 mEq/l and he had a high urine output. Fluid restriction was tried in order to rule out syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) but the patient did not respond to it. Keeping in view the above findings, a final diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis leading to cerebral salt wasting syndrome was made. The patient was started on 3% hypertonic saline, mineralocorticoids and anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT), to which he responded favorably and was later discharged. PMID:27069970

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lucioperca lucioperca (Perciformes: Percidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang; Xie, Peng; Kanu, Unisa Conteh; Li, Yu; Niu, Jiangong; Ma, Xufa

    2016-09-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Lucioperca lucioperca was cloned and sequenced in this study, which contained 16,542 bp. Results showed that the sequence was made up of 13 proteins, 22 transfer RNAs and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The control region and the origin of the light strand replication were similar to other vertebrates. All protein-coding genes began with ATG except for COX1 and COX2, the COX1 genes started with ATC and COX2 genes started with ATT, while all of those ended with TAA, TA, T or TAG. The result could be used in related studies such as molecular ecology and evolutionary biology. PMID:25630724

  5. Immobilization of Thiadiazole Derivatives on Magnetite Mesoporous Silica Shell Nanoparticles in Application to Heavy Metal Removal from Biological Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Emadi, Masoomeh; Shams, Esmaeil

    2010-12-02

    In this report magnetite was synthesized by a coprecipitation method, then coated with a layer of silica. Another layer of mesoporous silica was added by a sol-gel method, then 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-thiol (ATT) was immobilized onto the synthesized nanoparticles with a simple procedure. This was followed by a series of characterizations, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR spectrum, elemental analysis and XRD. Heavy metal uptake of the modified nanoparticles was examined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. For further investigation we chose Cu{sup 2+} as the preferred heavy metal to evaluate the amount of adsorption, as well as the kinetics and mechanism of adsorption. Finally, the capacity of our nanoparticles for the heavy metal removal from blood was shown. We found that the kinetic rate of Cu{sup 2+} adsorption was 0.05 g/mg/min, and the best binding model was the Freundlich isotherm.

  6. A prototype 4800 bps voice terminal for the mobile satellite experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Wai-Yip; Davidson, Grant; Chen, Juin-Hwey; Gersho, Allen

    The authors report the final stage of a research project for the NASA mobile satellite experiment (MSAT-X). The work has resulted in two alternative coding techniques which have achieved good communications quality at 4.8 kb/s while tolerating vehicle noise, fading, and a fairly high-error-rate, bursty channel. The authors have constructed a circuit board based on three AT&T 32-bit floating-point DSP32 digital signal processors (DSP) and providing both excess processing power and considerable flexibility for handling different variations of the algorithms. A Motorola 68HC11 microcomputer chip serves as the board controller and interface handler. Mounted on a wirewrapped card, the prototype's circuit footprint amounts to only 225 cm2 and consumes about 13 W of power. A description is given of the architecture, signal processing and communication functions, circuitry, and firmware of the prototype. Issues such as synchronization, framing, error control, and modem interface are also addressed.

  7. The extraterritoriality of US patents on the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunseok

    2014-09-01

    As pharmaceutical industries have rapidly modernized and globalized, borders have been blurred and multiple entities in different countries are now involved with the manufacture, supply, distribution, dispensing and administration of even a single drug in the pharmaceutical industry. The cross jurisdictional nature of the modern pharmaceutical industry presents new challenges to limitations on the extraterritorial reach of US patents. The enforcement of US patents outside the jurisdictional boundaries of the USA has judicially evolved through cases such as Deep South, Microsoft, Bayer AG, Union Carbide, AT&T, Cardiac Pacemakers and others. This article explores the effects of recent cases on the extraterritorial enforcement of US pharmaceutical patents, particularly when different types of claims are involved. PMID:25374318

  8. Pathology, Pathogenesis and Therapy of Growth Hormone (GH)-producing Pituitary Adenomas: Technical Advances in Histochemistry and Their Contribution

    PubMed Central

    Osamura, Robert Y.; Egashira, Noboru; Kajiya, Hanako; Takei, Mao; Tobita, Maya; Miyakoshi, Takashi; Inomoto, Chie; Takekoshi, Susumu; Teramoto, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-producing adenomas (GHomas) are one of the most frequently-occurring pituitary adenomas. Differentiation of hormone-producing cells in the pituitary gland is regulated by transcription factors and co-factors. The transcription factors include Pit-1, Prop-1, NeuroD1, Tpit, GATA-2, SF-1. Aberrant expression of transcription factors such as Pit-1 results in translineage expression of GH in adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing adenomas (ACTHomas). This situation has been substantiated by GFP-Pit-1 transfection expression in the AtT20 cell line. Experimentally, GHomas have been induced in GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) or Prop-1 transgenic animals. Immunohistochemical detection of somatostatin receptor (SSTR2a) has recently emphasized their role in the response of GHomas to somatostatin analogue therapy. In this review, the advances in technology and their contribution to cell biology and medical practice are discussed. PMID:19759870

  9. Remapping the quantum frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroe, Christopher; Lukin, Mikhail

    2008-08-01

    In 1994 the mathematician Peter Shor, then working at AT&T Bell Laboratories in the US, applied quantum mechanics to an age-old problem in number theory and made a remarkable discovery. He showed that a computer that operates on and processes quantum systems could factor large integers exponentially faster than a conventional computer. This result attracted a lot of attention because the difficulty of factoring large numbers is what ensures the security of modern cryptography schemes - even the best conventional computer would take several thousand years to factor a number with more than about 150 digits. Shor's quantum factoring algorithm could, in principle, break such encryption standards - a possibility that led to an explosion of interest in quantum information science. Until then it was a field that had largely been a mere curiosity, despite notable contributions from the likes of Richard Feynman and David Deutsch.

  10. Integration-dependent bacteriophage immunity provides insights into the evolution of genetic switches.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Gregory W; Oldfield, Lauren M; Villanueva, Valerie M; Lunt, Bryce L; Shine, Emilee E; Hatfull, Graham F

    2013-01-24

    Genetic switches are critical components of developmental circuits. Because temperate bacteriophages are vastly abundant and greatly diverse, they are rich resources for understanding the mechanisms and evolution of switches and the molecular control of genetic circuitry. Here, we describe a new class of small, compact, and simple switches that use site-specific recombination as the key decision point. The phage attachment site attP is located within the phage repressor gene such that chromosomal integration results in removal of a C-terminal tag that destabilizes the virally encoded form of the repressor. Integration thus not only confers prophage stability but also is a requirement for lysogenic establishment. The variety of these self-contained integration-dependent immunity systems in different genomic contexts suggests that these represent ancestral states in switch evolution from which more-complex switches have evolved. They also provide a powerful toolkit for building synthetic biological circuits. PMID:23246436

  11. Efficient generation of infectious recombinant baculoviruses by site-specific transposon-mediated insertion of foreign genes into a baculovirus genome propagated in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Luckow, V A; Lee, S C; Barry, G F; Olins, P O

    1993-01-01

    The construction and purification of recombinant baculovirus vectors for the expression of foreign genes in insect cells by standard transfection and plaque assay methods can take as long as 4 to 6 weeks. This period can be reduced to several days by using a novel baculovirus shuttle vector (bacmid) that can replicate in Escherichia coli as a plasmid and can infect susceptible lepidopteran insect cells. The bacmid is a recombinant virus that contains a mini-F replicon, a kanamycin resistance marker, and attTn7, the target site for the bacterial transposon Tn7. Expression cassettes comprising a baculovirus promoter driving expression of a foreign gene that is flanked by the left and right ends of Tn7 can transpose to the target bacmid in E. coli when Tn7 transposition functions are provided in trans by a helper plasmid. The foreign gene is expressed when the resulting composite bacmid is introduced into insect cells. Images PMID:8392598

  12. Sandia`s network for supercomputing `95: Validating the progress of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switching

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, T.J.; Vahle, O.; Gossage, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Networking Integration Department at Sandia National Laboratories has used the annual Supercomputing conference sponsored by the IEEE and ACM for the past three years as a forum to demonstrate and focus communication and networking developments. For Supercomputing `95, Sandia elected: to demonstrate the functionality and capability of an AT&T Globeview 20Gbps Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switch, which represents the core of Sandia`s corporate network, to build and utilize a three node 622 megabit per second Paragon network, and to extend the DOD`s ACTS ATM Internet from Sandia, New Mexico to the conference`s show floor in San Diego, California, for video demonstrations. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their implementation, and describes how these demonstrations supports Sandia`s overall strategies in ATM networking.

  13. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Mike, J., P.E.

    2012-08-30

    The STI product is the Final Technical Report from ReliOn, Inc. for contract award DE-EE0000487: Recovery Act PEM Fuel Cell Systems Providing Emergency Reserve and Backup Power. The program covered the turnkey deployment of 431 ReliOn fuel cell systems at 189 individual sites for AT&T and PG&E with ReliOn functioning as the primary equipment supplier and the project manager. The Final Technical Report provides an executive level summary, a comparison of the actual accomplishments vs. the goals and objectives of the project, as well as a summary of the project activity from the contract award date of August 1, 2009 through the contract expiration date of December 31, 2011. Two photos are included in the body of the report which show hydrogen storage and bulk hydrogen refueling technologies developed as a result of this program.

  14. Method for exponentiating in cryptographic systems

    DOEpatents

    Brickell, Ernest F.; Gordon, Daniel M.; McCurley, Kevin S.

    1994-01-01

    An improved cryptographic method utilizing exponentiation is provided which has the advantage of reducing the number of multiplications required to determine the legitimacy of a message or user. The basic method comprises the steps of selecting a key from a preapproved group of integer keys g; exponentiating the key by an integer value e, where e represents a digital signature, to generate a value g.sup.e ; transmitting the value g.sup.e to a remote facility by a communications network; receiving the value g.sup.e at the remote facility; and verifying the digital signature as originating from the legitimate user. The exponentiating step comprises the steps of initializing a plurality of memory locations with a plurality of values g.sup.xi ; computi The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789 between the Department of Energy and AT&T Company.

  15. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  16. Automatic recognition of emotions from facial expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Henry; Gertner, Izidor

    2014-06-01

    In the human-computer interaction (HCI) process it is desirable to have an artificial intelligent (AI) system that can identify and categorize human emotions from facial expressions. Such systems can be used in security, in entertainment industries, and also to study visual perception, social interactions and disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and autism). In this work we survey and compare the performance of different feature extraction algorithms and classification schemes. We introduce a faster feature extraction method that resizes and applies a set of filters to the data images without sacrificing the accuracy. In addition, we have enhanced SVM to multiple dimensions while retaining the high accuracy rate of SVM. The algorithms were tested using the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database and the Database of Faces (AT&T Faces).

  17. Reduction of Carbon Monoxide. Past Research Summary

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Schrock, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  18. Effects of pre-stressing and flux on the flow of solder on PWB copper surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.

    1994-12-31

    A variety of test methods are available to evaluate the solderability of printed wiring board [PWB] surface finishes. A new test has been developed which better simulates the capillary flow physics of typical solder assembly processing, especially surface mount soldering. The work was conducted under a cooperative research and development agreement between Sandia National Laboratories, the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, and several PWB fabricators (AT&T, IBM, Texas Instruments, and United Technologies Corporation/Hamilton Standard) to advance PWB interconnect systems technology. Particular attention has been given at Sandia to characterizing the effects of accelerated aging in a simulated indoor industrial environment on subsequent PWB solderability. The program`s baseline surface finish was copper. Solderability testing on ``as-fabricated`` and ``pre-stressed copper`` pad-strip geometries was performed with Sn-Pb eutectic solder and three different fluxes at four different reflow temperatures.

  19. Next-generation avionics packaging and cooling 'test results from a prototype system'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seals, J. D.

    The author reports on the design, material characteristics, and test results obtained under the US Air Force's advanced aircraft avionics packaging technologies (AAAPT) program, whose charter is to investigate new designs and technologies for reliable packaging, interconnection, and thermal management. Under this program, AT&T Bell Laboratories has completed the preliminary testing of and is evaluating a number of promising materials and technologies, including conformal encapsulation, liquid flow-through cooling, and a cyanate ester backplane. A fifty-two module system incorporating these and and other technologies has undergone preliminary cooling efficiency, shock, sine and random vibration, and maintenance testing. One of the primary objectives was to evaluate the interaction compatibility of new materials and designs with other components in the system.

  20. Nononcogenic deletion mutants of herpesvirus saimiri are defective for in vitro immortalization.

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, R C; Silva, D P; Waldron, L M; Letvin, N L

    1986-01-01

    Herpesvirus saimiri L-DNA sequences between 0.0 and 4.0 map units (4.5 kilobase pairs) are required for oncogenicity; these sequences are not required for replication of the virus. To investigate the basis for the lack of oncogenicity of mutants with deletions in this region and to study the function of this region, we developed a reliable system for in vitro immortalization by herpesvirus saimiri. In contrast to peripheral blood lymphocytes from cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and owl monkeys (Aotus sp.), infection of peripheral blood lymphocytes from common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in vitro with herpesvirus saimiri consistently yielded continuously growing lymphoblastoid cell lines. Such cell lines were established using strains of herpesvirus saimiri from group A and group non-A, non-B; however, repeated attempts to immortalize common marmoset peripheral blood lymphocytes using strains from group B were not successful. Common marmoset cell lines immortalized by herpesvirus saimiri were T12+, T8+, T4-, and B1-, indicating that they were derived from suppressor/cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Cell lines could not be established using the nononcogenic mutants 11att and S4, both of which were derived from the group A strain 11 virus. Strain 11att has a spontaneous deletion and S4 has a constructed deletion in the 0.0 to 4.0 map unit region. Constructed strains which had these deleted sequences restored did immortalize common marmoset peripheral blood lymphocytes. Thus, the nononcogenic deletion mutants are defective for immortalization. This system should facilitate attempts to define the sequences responsible for immortalization and to determine their function. PMID:3003401

  1. Cervical Node Tuberculosis in Adults of an Urban Middle Class Community: Incidence and Management.

    PubMed

    Khajanchi, Monty; Bambarkar, Supriya; Gadgil, Anita; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the incidence of cervical node tuberculosis (TB) in an urban middle class population and to describe an effective protocol for management of cervical lymphadenopathy. The present study is a prospective observational study conducted over two years (2007-2009) in a community hospital in Mumbai, India. All adults (age ≥14 years) presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy, not resolving were included and their details of history and examination were noted. All patients were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and biopsy was done selectively as indicated. The response at 1, 3 and 6 months of starting anti tuberculous treatment (ATT) were noted. A total of 191 patients were included in this study. The mean age was 41 years and male to female ratio was 1:1.1 in patients with cervical lymphadenopathy. A history of contact with a patient of TB was the most significantly associated history seen in patients diagnosed to have TB of cervical nodes (p < 0.001). TB (38.7%) followed by reactive nodes (37.6%) were the most common etiologies. A 90.6% response rate was seen in patients taking 6 months ATT for cervical node TB. The incidence of adult (≥14 years) cervical node TB was 52/100,000 people in an urban middle class community in Mumbai. A single swelling in the neck without other associated symptoms or signs was the commonest mode of presentation of TB of the neck nodes. A history of contact with TB, demonstrated an association with the final diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenopathy. PMID:27508138

  2. Online Community Use Predicts Abstinence in Combined Internet/Phone Intervention for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Papandonatos, George D.; Erar, Bahar; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Graham, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the causal effects of online community use on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 3 months among smokers randomized to combined Internet+Phone intervention for smoking cessation. Method Participants were N=399 adult smokers in the Internet+Phone arm of The iQUITT Study, a randomized trial of Internet and proactive telephone counseling for smoking cessation. All participants accessed a web-based smoking-cessation program with an established online community and received telephone counseling. Automated tracking metrics of passive (e.g., reading posts, viewing profiles) and active (e.g., writing posts, sending messages) community use were extracted at 3 months. Self-selected community use defines the groups of interest: None, Passive, and Both (passive+active). Inverse probability of treatment weighting corrected for baseline imbalances on demographic, smoking, and psychosocial variables. Propensity weights estimated via generalized boosted models were used to calculate Average Treatment Effects (ATE) and Average Treatment effects on the Treated (ATT). Results Patterns of community use were: None=145 (36.3%), Passive=82 (20.6%), and Both=172 (43.1%). ATE-weighted abstinence rates were: None=12.2% (95% CI=6.7–17.7); Passive=25.2% (95% CI=15.1–35.2); Both=35.5% (95% CI=28.1–42.9). ATT-weighted abstinence rates indicated even greater benefits of passive community use by non-users. Conclusions More than one third of participants who received telephone counseling and used the community both passively and actively achieved abstinence. Participation in an established online community as part of a combined Internet+phone intervention has the potential to promote short-term abstinence. Results also demonstrated that information and support that originate in the community can serve as a resource for all users. PMID:27100127

  3. Multibody correlations in the hydrophobic solvation of glycine peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Robert C.; Drake, Justin A.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2014-12-01

    Protein collapse during folding is often assumed to be driven by a hydrophobic solvation energy (ΔGvdw) that scales linearly with solvent-accessible surface area (A). In a previous study, we argued that ΔGvdw, as well as its attractive (ΔGatt) and repulsive (ΔGrep) components, was not simply a linear function of A. We found that the surface tensions, γrep, γatt, and γvdw, gotten from ΔGrep, ΔGatt, and ΔGvdw against A for four configurations of deca-alanine differed from those obtained for a set of alkanes. In the present study, we extend our analysis to fifty decaglycine structures and atomic decompositions. We find that different configurations of decaglycine generate different estimates of γrep. Additionally, we considered the reconstruction of the solvation free energy from scaling the free energy of solvation of each atom type, free in solution. The free energy of the isolated atoms, scaled by the inverse surface area the atom would expose in the molecule does not reproduce the γrep for the intact decaglycines. Finally, γatt for the decaglycine conformations is much larger in magnitude than those for deca-alanine or the alkanes, leading to large negative values of γvdw (-74 and -56 cal/mol/Å2 for CHARMM27 and AMBER ff12sb force fields, respectively). These findings imply that ΔGvdw favors extended rather than compact structures for decaglycine. We find that ΔGrep and ΔGvdw have complicated dependencies on multibody correlations between solute atoms, on the geometry of the molecular surface, and on the chemical identities of the atoms.

  4. A novel hybrid SCCmec-mecC region in Staphylococcus sciuri

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Ewan M.; Paterson, Gavin K.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Ba, Xiaoliang; Rolo, Joana; Morgan, Fiona J. E.; Pichon, Bruno; Kearns, Angela; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Parkhill, Julian; Holmes, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus spp. results from the expression of an alternative penicillin-binding protein 2a (encoded by mecA) with a low affinity for β-lactam antibiotics. Recently, a novel variant of mecA known as mecC (formerly mecALGA251) was identified in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from both humans and animals. In this study, we identified two Staphylococcus sciuri subsp. carnaticus isolates from bovine infections that harbour three different mecA homologues: mecA, mecA1 and mecC. Methods We subjected the two isolates to whole-genome sequencing to further understand the genetic context of the mec-containing region. We also used PCR and RT–PCR to investigate the excision and expression of the SCCmec element and mec genes, respectively. Results Whole-genome sequencing revealed a novel hybrid SCCmec region at the orfX locus consisting of a class E mec complex (mecI-mecR1-mecC1-blaZ) located immediately downstream of a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type VII element. A second SCCmec attL site (attL2), which was imperfect, was present downstream of the mecC region. PCR analysis of stationary-phase cultures showed that both the SCCmec type VII element and a hybrid SCCmec-mecC element were capable of excision from the genome and forming a circular intermediate. Transcriptional analysis showed that mecC and mecA, but not mecA1, were both expressed in liquid culture supplemented with oxacillin. Conclusions Overall, this study further highlights that a range of staphylococcal species harbour the mecC gene and furthers the view that coagulase-negative staphylococci associated with animals may act as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes for more pathogenic staphylococcal species. PMID:24302651

  5. An avian live attenuated master backbone for potential use in epidemic and pandemic influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Danielle; Hossain, Md Jaber; Song, Haichen; Araya, Yonas; Solórzano, Alicia; Perez, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    The unprecedented emergence in Asia of multiple avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes with a broad host range poses a major challenge in the design of vaccination strategies that are both effective and available in a timely manner. The present study focused on the protective effects of a genetically modified AIV as a source for the preparation of vaccines for epidemic and pandemic influenza. It has previously been demonstrated that a live attenuated AIV based on the internal backbone of influenza A/Guinea fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 (H9N2), called WF10att, is effective at protecting poultry species against low- and high-pathogenicity influenza strains. More importantly, this live attenuated virus provided effective protection when administered in ovo. In order to characterize the WF10att backbone further for use in epidemic and pandemic influenza vaccines, this study evaluated its protective effects in mice. Intranasal inoculation of modified attenuated viruses in mice provided adequate protective immunity against homologous lethal challenges with both the wild-type influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) and A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) viruses. Adequate heterotypic immunity was also observed in mice vaccinated with modified attenuated viruses carrying H7N2 surface proteins. The results presented in this report suggest that the internal genes of a genetically modified AIV confer similar protection in a mouse model and thus could be used as a master donor strain for the generation of live attenuated vaccines for epidemic and pandemic influenza. PMID:18931063

  6. Telemedicine: the slow revolution.

    PubMed

    Moncrief, Jack W

    2014-01-01

    The use of interactive video has been recognized as a means of delivering medical support to isolated areas since the 1950s. The Department of Defense recognized early the capacity of telemedicine to deliver medical care and support to front-line military personnel. In 1989, the Texas Telemedicine Project received grants and support from the then American Telephone and Telegraph Company (now AT&T) and the Meadows Foundation of Dallas, Texas, to establish and evaluate telemedicine delivery in central Texas. That project had 6 connected telemedicine sites: 3 in Austin, Texas, and 3 in Giddings, Texas (a small community 55 miles to the southeast of Austin). The sites in Giddings included a chronic outpatient dialysis facility, an inpatient psychiatric hospital, and the emergency department at Giddings Hospital. Patient contact began in April 1991 and continued through March 1993. During that period, data on the 1500 patient contacts made were recorded. After termination of the Texas Telemedicine Project, AT&T continued to provide the transmission lines, and between 1993 and 1996, another 12,000 patient contacts were made. Approximately 80% were dialysis evaluations and 20% were non-dialysis primary care contacts. The original cost of materials and equipment in the Texas Telemedicine Project exceeded $50,000 per site. Today, a secure Internet connection with full-motion video and wireless data transfer to almost any location in the world is achievable with an iPad. Multiple inexpensive applications with connections for electrocardiogram, otoscope, and stethoscope, among others, make this technology extremely inexpensive and user-friendly. The revolution now is rapidly moving forward, with Medicare reimbursing telemedicine contacts in medically underserved areas. Multiple bills are before Congress to expand Medicare and therefore private insurance payment for this service. PMID:25338434

  7. Response of mice to continuous 5-day passive hyperthermia resembles human heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Sareh, Houtan; Tulapurkar, Mohan E; Shah, Nirav G; Singh, Ishwar S; Hasday, Jeffrey D

    2011-05-01

    Chronic repeated exposure to hyperthermia in humans results in heat acclimation (HA), an adaptive process that is attained in humans by repeated exposure to hyperthermia and is characterized by improved heat elimination and increased exercise capacity, and acquired thermal tolerance (ATT), a cellular response characterized by increased baseline heat shock protein (HSP) expression and blunting of the acute increase in HSP expression stimulated by re-exposure to thermal stress. Epidemiologic studies in military personnel operating in hot environments and elite athletes suggest that repeated exposure to hyperthermia may also exert long-term health effects. Animal models demonstrate that coincident exposure to mild hyperthermia or prior exposure to severe hyperthermia can profoundly affect the course of experimental infection and injury, but these models do not represent HA. In this study, we demonstrate that CD-1 mice continuously exposed to mild hyperthermia (ambient temperature ~37°C causing ~2°C increase in core temperature) for 5 days and then exposed to a thermal stress (42°C ambient temperature for 40 min) exhibited some of the salient features of human HA, including (1) slower warming during thermal stress and more rapid cooling during recovery and (2) increased activity during thermal stress, as well as some of the features of ATT, including (1) increased baseline expression of HSP72 and HSP90 in lung, heart, spleen, liver, and brain; and (2) blunted incremental increase in HSP72 expression following acute thermal stress. This study suggests that continuous 5-day exposure of CD-1 mice to mild hyperthermia induces a state that resembles the physiologic and cellular responses of human HA. This model may be useful for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of HA and its consequences on host responsiveness to subsequent stresses. PMID:21080137

  8. 3D GRASE pulsed arterial spin labeling at multiple inflow times in patients with long arterial transit times: comparison with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Steve Z; Madai, Vince I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Federico C; Mutke, Matthias A; Bauer, Miriam; Herzig, Cornelius X; Hetzer, Stefan; Günther, Matthias; Sobesky, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) at multiple inflow times (multi-TIs) is advantageous for the measurement of brain perfusion in patients with long arterial transit times (ATTs) as in steno-occlusive disease, because bolus-arrival-time can be measured and blood flow measurements can be corrected accordingly. Owing to its increased signal-to-noise ratio, a combination with a three-dimensional gradient and spin echo (GRASE) readout allows acquiring a sufficient number of multi-TIs within a clinically feasible acquisition time of 5 minutes. We compared this technique with the clinical standard dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced imaging–magnetic resonance imaging in patients with unilateral stenosis >70% of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery (MCA) at 3 Tesla. We performed qualitative (assessment by three expert raters) and quantitative (region of interest (ROI)/volume of interest (VOI) based) comparisons. In 43 patients, multi-TI PASL-GRASE showed perfusion alterations with moderate accuracy in the qualitative analysis. Quantitatively, moderate correlation coefficients were found for the MCA territory (ROI based: r=0.52, VOI based: r=0.48). In the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory, a readout related right-sided susceptibility artifact impaired correlation (ROI based: r=0.29, VOI based: r=0.34). Arterial transit delay artifacts were found only in 12% of patients. In conclusion, multi-TI PASL-GRASE can correct for arterial transit delay in patients with long ATTs. These results are promising for the transfer of ASL to the clinical practice. PMID:25407272

  9. Effects of RXR Agonists on Cell Proliferation/Apoptosis and ACTH Secretion/Pomc Expression

    PubMed Central

    Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Uruno, Akira; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kyoko; Parvin, Rehana; Kudo, Masataka; Saito-Ito, Takako; Sato, Ikuko; Kogure, Naotaka; Suzuki, Dai; Shimada, Hiroki; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Kure, Shigeo; Ito, Sadayoshi; Sugawara, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Various retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists have recently been developed, and some of them have shown anti-tumor effects both in vivo and in vitro. However, there has been no report showing the effects of RXR agonists on Cushing’s disease, which is caused by excessive ACTH secretion in a corticotroph tumor of the pituitary gland. Therefore, we examined the effects of synthetic RXR pan-agonists HX630 and PA024 on the proliferation, apoptosis, ACTH secretion, and pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene expression of murine pituitary corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells. We demonstrated that both RXR agonists induced apoptosis dose-dependently in AtT20 cells, and inhibited their proliferation at their higher doses. Microarray analysis identified a significant gene network associated with caspase 3 induced by high dose HX630. On the other hand, HX630, but not PA024, inhibited Pomc transcription, Pomc mRNA expression, and ACTH secretion dose-dependently. Furthermore, we provide new evidence that HX630 negatively regulates the Pomc promoter activity at the transcriptional level due to the suppression of the transcription factor Nur77 and Nurr1 mRNA expression and the reduction of Nur77/Nurr1 heterodimer recruiting to the Pomc promoter region. We also demonstrated that the HX630-mediated suppression of the Pomc gene expression was exerted via RXRα. Furthermore, HX630 inhibited tumor growth and decreased Pomc mRNA expression in corticotroph tumor cells in female nude mice in vivo. Thus, these results indicate that RXR agonists, especially HX630, could be a new therapeutic candidate for Cushing’s disease. PMID:26714014

  10. Effects of RXR Agonists on Cell Proliferation/Apoptosis and ACTH Secretion/Pomc Expression.

    PubMed

    Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Uruno, Akira; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kyoko; Parvin, Rehana; Kudo, Masataka; Saito-Ito, Takako; Sato, Ikuko; Kogure, Naotaka; Suzuki, Dai; Shimada, Hiroki; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Kure, Shigeo; Ito, Sadayoshi; Sugawara, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Various retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists have recently been developed, and some of them have shown anti-tumor effects both in vivo and in vitro. However, there has been no report showing the effects of RXR agonists on Cushing's disease, which is caused by excessive ACTH secretion in a corticotroph tumor of the pituitary gland. Therefore, we examined the effects of synthetic RXR pan-agonists HX630 and PA024 on the proliferation, apoptosis, ACTH secretion, and pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene expression of murine pituitary corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells. We demonstrated that both RXR agonists induced apoptosis dose-dependently in AtT20 cells, and inhibited their proliferation at their higher doses. Microarray analysis identified a significant gene network associated with caspase 3 induced by high dose HX630. On the other hand, HX630, but not PA024, inhibited Pomc transcription, Pomc mRNA expression, and ACTH secretion dose-dependently. Furthermore, we provide new evidence that HX630 negatively regulates the Pomc promoter activity at the transcriptional level due to the suppression of the transcription factor Nur77 and Nurr1 mRNA expression and the reduction of Nur77/Nurr1 heterodimer recruiting to the Pomc promoter region. We also demonstrated that the HX630-mediated suppression of the Pomc gene expression was exerted via RXRα. Furthermore, HX630 inhibited tumor growth and decreased Pomc mRNA expression in corticotroph tumor cells in female nude mice in vivo. Thus, these results indicate that RXR agonists, especially HX630, could be a new therapeutic candidate for Cushing's disease. PMID:26714014

  11. Deposition and localization of lipid polyester in developing seeds of Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Molina, Isabel; Ohlrogge, John B; Pollard, Mike

    2008-02-01

    Mature seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus contain complex mixtures of aliphatic monomers derived from non-extractable lipid polyesters. Most of the monomers are deposited in the seed coat, and their compositions suggest the presence of both cutin and suberin layers. The location of these polyesters within the seed coat, and their contributions to permeability of the seed coat and other functional properties are unknown. Polyester deposition was followed over Brassica seed development and distinct temporal patterns of monomer accumulation were observed. Octadecadiene-1,18-dioate, the major leaf cutin monomer, was transiently deposited. In contrast, the saturated dicarboxylates maintained a constant level during seed desiccation, whereas the fatty alcohols and saturated omega-hydroxy fatty acids continually increased. Dissection and analysis of Brassica seed coats showed that suberization is not specific to the chalaza. Analysis of the Arabidopsis ap2-7 mutant suggested that suberin monomers are preferentially associated with the outer integument. Several Arabidopsis knockout mutant lines for genes involved in polyester biosynthesis (att1, fatB and gpat5) were examined for seed monomer load and composition. The variance in polyester monomers of these mutants is correlated with dye penetration assays. Furthermore, stable transgenic plants expressing promoter::YFP fusions showed ATT1 promoter activity in the inner integument, whereas GPAT5 promoter is active in the outer integument. Together, the Arabidopsis data indicated that there is a suberized layer associated with the outer integument and a cutin-like polyester layer associated with the inner seed coat. PMID:18179651

  12. An on-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-multi-stage mass spectrometry-deoxyribonucleic acid-4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-fluorescence detector system for screening the DNA-binding active compounds in Fufang Banbianlian Injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Sensen; Jiang, Haixiu; Lin, Zongtao; Deng, Shanshan; Guan, Yanqing; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2015-12-11

    Fufang Banbianlian Injection (FBI), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been recently approved and extensively used as a newly anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor drug. This prescription comprises an equal ratio of three traditional Chinese herbs, Lobelia chinensis Lour, Scutellaria barbata D. Don and Hedyotis diffusa Willd. The relationships between its chemical compositions and activities have not been understood well yet. To investigate the ingredients and their DNA-binding activities in FBI, an on-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-multi-stage mass spectrometry-deoxyribonucleic acid-4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-fluorescence detector (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)-DNA-DAPI-FLD) system was developed using a combination of chromatographic, mass spectrometric and fluorescent detection techniques. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) specifically binds to three ATT base pairs on the DNA minor groove, and thus can be used as a fluorescent probe for screening active compounds that compete ATT sequences with DAPI. Using this system, 21 of 58 identified or tentatively characterized compounds in FBI showed DNA-binding activities, with most of the active compounds being flavone glycosides. In addition, the structure-activity relationships of these active compounds suggested that conjugated planar structures are favorable for DNA-binding activities, and adjacent hydroxyl groups in flavonoids can significantly improve their activities. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first application of DAPI as a fluorescent probe for the screening of DNA-binding active compounds in complex samples. PMID:26592560

  13. Cell-specific activity of neprilysin 2 isoforms and enzymic specificity compared with neprilysin.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Christiane; Voisin, Stéphanie; Gros, Claude; Schwartz, Jean-Charles; Ouimet, Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Neprilysin (NEP) 2 is a recently cloned glycoprotein displaying a high degree of sequence identity with neprilysin (EC 3.4.24.11), the prototypical member of the M13 subfamily of metalloproteases. Whereas NEP is involved in the metabolism of several bioactive peptides by plasma membranes of various cells, the enzymic properties and physiological functions of NEP2 are unknown. Here we characterize the cell-expression modalities and enzymic specificity of two alternatively spliced isoforms of NEP2 in Chinese hamster ovary and AtT20 cells. In the two cell lines, both isoforms are type II glycoproteins inserted in the endoplasmic reticulum as inactive precursors. Maturation detected by Western-blot analysis of glycosidase digests was cell-specific and more efficient in the endocrine cell line. The enzymic activity of both isoforms semi-purified from AtT20 cells reveals comparable specificities in terms of model substrates, pH optima and inhibitory patterns. NEP2 activity was compared with that of NEP regarding potencies of transition-state inhibitors, modes of hydrolysis, maximal hydrolysis rates and apparent affinities of bioactive peptides. Although all transition-state inhibitors of NEP inhibited NEP2 activity, albeit with different potencies, and many peptides were cleaved at the same amide bond by both peptidases, differences could be observed, i.e. in the hydrolysis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and cholecystokinin, which occurred at different sites and more efficiently in the case of NEP2. Differences in cleavage of bioactive peptides, in cell-trafficking patterns and in tissue distribution indicate that NEP and NEP2 play distinct physiological roles in spite of their high degree of sequence identity. PMID:11964170

  14. Unified Model of Multiple Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutule, A.; Kochukov, O.

    2014-08-01

    An approach is proposed to the modelling of wind farms in the electric power system long-term planning. It allows a specialist to perform calculations based on scanty information and offers a set of ready-to-use data for easy, fast, and precise modelling. The authors exemplify the calculations of wind speed probability density and power curves and give an idea for relevant corrections. They also show how to pass from a single wind turbine model to the unified model of multiple wind turbines which would meet the requirements of long-term planning tasks. The paper presents the data on wind farms that are operating in UK and Oceania Rakstā ir apskatīta vēja elektrostaciju modelēšana ilgtermiņa attīstības plānošanas uzdevumos. Modelēšana tika veikta, izmantojot ierobežotu datu apjomu, kuri bija piejami lietotājam. Gatavie dati deva iespēju veikt ātru un precīzu modelēšanu. Raksts piedāva metodi kā pāriet no viena vēja ģeneratora modeli uz vēja elektrostaciju (vairāki vēja ģeneratori) modeli, kas atbilst ilgtermiņa attīstības plānošanas prasībām. Rakstā atspoguļoti dati no Okeānijas un Lielbritānijas eksistējošām vēja elektrostacijām

  15. Molecular Dissection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Integration Host Factor Reveals Novel Insights into the Mode of DNA Binding and Nucleoid Compaction*

    PubMed Central

    Sharadamma, Narayanaswamy; Harshavardhana, Yadumurthy; Ravishankar, Apoorva; Anand, Praveen; Chandra, Nagasuma; Muniyappa, K.

    2014-01-01

    The annotated whole-genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed that Rv1388 (Mtihf) is likely to encode for a putative 20-kDa integration host factor (mIHF). However, very little is known about the functional properties of mIHF or the organization of the mycobacterial nucleoid. Molecular modeling of the mIHF three-dimensional structure, based on the cocrystal structure of Streptomyces coelicolor IHF duplex DNA, a bona fide relative of mIHF, revealed the presence of Arg-170, Arg-171, and Arg-173, which might be involved in DNA binding, and a conserved proline (Pro-150) in the tight turn. The phenotypic sensitivity of Escherichia coli ΔihfA and ΔihfB strains to UV and methyl methanesulfonate could be complemented with the wild-type Mtihf but not its alleles bearing mutations in the DNA-binding residues. Protein-DNA interaction assays revealed that wild-type mIHF, but not its DNA-binding variants, binds with high affinity to fragments containing attB and attP sites and curved DNA. Strikingly, the functionally important amino acid residues of mIHF and the mechanism(s) underlying its binding to DNA, DNA bending, and site-specific recombination are fundamentally different from that of E. coli IHFαβ. Furthermore, we reveal novel insights into IHF-mediated DNA compaction depending on the placement of its preferred binding sites; mIHF promotes DNA compaction into nucleoid-like or higher order filamentous structures. We therefore propose that mIHF is a distinct member of a subfamily of proteins that serve as essential cofactors in site-specific recombination and nucleoid organization and that these findings represent a significant advance in our understanding of the role(s) of nucleoid-associated proteins. PMID:25324543

  16. An electrical test system for conductor formation process analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, T. A.; Rhodes, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and built an electrical test system which fulfills a requirement to quickly, accurately, and precisely measure the resistance of conductors formed on Printed Wiring Board (PWB) substrates. This requirement stems from the need to measure small variations in conductors and thus to determine the source of the variations. With this test technology, experiments can be conducted with new materials, equipment, and processes in a timely and scientific manner. Conductor formation processes can be optimized for both conductor yield and uniformity, and process equipment can be fine-tuned prior to processing product to ensure that conductor attributes fulfill requirements. Significant resources were spent by Sandia National Laboratories and Texas Instruments modifying commercially available two-probe testers. AT&T has built a two-probe tester and obtained a commercially available 'bed-of-nails' test system. The two-probe systems have limitations in speed and precision; the 'bed-of-nails' system has proved to be superior to the two-probe designs but is expensive and lacks test pattern flexibility and ease of use. Due to the need to establish a testing technology which meets the requirements of Sandia National Laboratories and the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences PWB Consortium Imaging Team (current Imaging Team members; AT&T, Texas Instruments, AlliedSignal, IBM, and Sandia National Laboratories), a prototype test system was designed and built by Sandia. This paper will discuss the design and performance of the test system and the results of a comparison to other test systems.

  17. Clinical Predictors of Streptomycin-Vestibulotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Miraj; Mishra, Anupam; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Verma, Veerendra; Garg, Rajiv; Singh, Hitendra Prakash; Kumar, Sunil

    2016-09-01

    The Global tuberculosis control is challenged with a growing resistance to antitubercular treatment (ATT) culminating in resistant (MDR/XDR) strains; an important factor being premature withdrawal of streptomycin owing to its morbidity particularly nephrotoxicity and cochleotoxicity as guidelines for their prevention exist. An attempt is made here to address the least recognized and most debilitating vestibular toxic effects of streptomycin and defining a vestibular-protocol for its early detection and progression. Thirty two prospective patients (treatment-failures, relapse and default cases) undergoing ATT (24 shots of IM streptomycin 15-20 mg/kg over 8 weeks) underwent complete vestibular workup including vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflex assessment with an attempt to closely follow them. Four categories (I: No-, II: Occult-, III: Delayed-Manifest- and IV: Manifest-vestibulotoxicity) were defined. The DHI and casual gait abnormality clearly differentiated III/IV from I/II. The occilopsia and head thrust tests significantly differentiated II from I. Rotation and bithermal calorics significantly differentiated I from II and II from III/IV. The Fukuda, Rhomberg, Tandem-Rhomberg and CTSIB were significant in differentiating I from II and II from III/IV. Dix-Hallpike and Positional tests were of no significance in the entire study. The Occilopsia and Head-Thrust tests that showed 100 % positivity for II to IV are more likely to better predict 'manifest' or 'occult' -vestibulotoxicity while DHI and casual gait assessment may be carried out by a paramedic at a peripheral center to suspect vestibulotoxicity. Since we found absolute compliance with our series we feel that vestibulotoxicity may not be a deciding factor for termination of streptomycin provided an in-built mechanism for patient support/counseling be incorporated in management schedule. PMID:27508140

  18. Attrition of TCR Vα7.2+ CD161++ MAIT cells in HIV-tuberculosis co-infection is associated with elevated levels of PD-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Alireza; Tien Tien, Vicky L; Al-Batran, Rami; Al-Darraji, Haider A; Tan, Hong Y; Yong, Yean K; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Barathan, Muttiah; Rukumani, Devi V; Ansari, Abdul W; Velu, Vijayakumar; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Larsson, Marie; Shankar, Esaki M

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial MR1-restricted CD8(+) T cells co-expressing the semi-invariant TCR Vα7.2, and are numerous in the blood and mucosal tissues of humans. MAIT cells appear to undergo exhaustion in chronic viral infections. However, their role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mono-infection and HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infection have seldom been elaborately investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the frequencies and phenotypes of CD161(++)CD8(+) T cells among anti-retroviral therapy (ART)/anti-TB therapy (ATT) treatment-naïve HIV/TB co-infected, ART/TB treated HIV/TB co-infected, ART naïve HIV-infected, ART-treated HIV-infected patients, and HIV negative healthy controls (HCs) by flow cytometry. Our data revealed that the frequency of MAIT cells was severely depleted in HIV mono- and HIV/TB co-infections. Further, PD-1 expression on MAIT cells was significantly increased in HIV mono- and HIV-TB co-infected patients. The frequency of MAIT cells did not show any significant increase despite the initiation of ART and/or ATT. Majority of the MAIT cells in HCs showed a significant increase in CCR6 expression as compared to HIV/TB co-infections. No marked difference was seen with expressions of chemokine co-receptor CCR5 and CD103 among the study groups. Decrease of CCR6 expression appears to explain why HIV-infected patients display weakened mucosal immune responses. PMID:25894562

  19. Multibody correlations in the hydrophobic solvation of glycine peptides

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Robert C.; Drake, Justin A.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2014-01-01

    Protein collapse during folding is often assumed to be driven by a hydrophobic solvation energy (ΔGvdw) that scales linearly with solvent-accessible surface area (A). In a previous study, we argued that ΔGvdw, as well as its attractive (ΔGatt) and repulsive (ΔGrep) components, was not simply a linear function of A. We found that the surface tensions, γrep, γatt, and γvdw, gotten from ΔGrep, ΔGatt, and ΔGvdw against A for four configurations of deca-alanine differed from those obtained for a set of alkanes. In the present study, we extend our analysis to fifty decaglycine structures and atomic decompositions. We find that different configurations of decaglycine generate different estimates of γrep. Additionally, we considered the reconstruction of the solvation free energy from scaling the free energy of solvation of each atom type, free in solution. The free energy of the isolated atoms, scaled by the inverse surface area the atom would expose in the molecule does not reproduce the γrep for the intact decaglycines. Finally, γatt for the decaglycine conformations is much larger in magnitude than those for deca-alanine or the alkanes, leading to large negative values of γvdw (−74 and −56 cal/mol/Å2 for CHARMM27 and AMBER ff12sb force fields, respectively). These findings imply that ΔGvdw favors extended rather than compact structures for decaglycine. We find that ΔGrep and ΔGvdw have complicated dependencies on multibody correlations between solute atoms, on the geometry of the molecular surface, and on the chemical identities of the atoms. PMID:25494796

  20. Multibody correlations in the hydrophobic solvation of glycine peptides.

    PubMed

    Harris, Robert C; Drake, Justin A; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2014-12-14

    Protein collapse during folding is often assumed to be driven by a hydrophobic solvation energy (ΔGvdw) that scales linearly with solvent-accessible surface area (A). In a previous study, we argued that ΔGvdw, as well as its attractive (ΔGatt) and repulsive (ΔGrep) components, was not simply a linear function of A. We found that the surface tensions, γrep, γatt, and γvdw, gotten from ΔGrep, ΔGatt, and ΔGvdw against A for four configurations of deca-alanine differed from those obtained for a set of alkanes. In the present study, we extend our analysis to fifty decaglycine structures and atomic decompositions. We find that different configurations of decaglycine generate different estimates of γrep. Additionally, we considered the reconstruction of the solvation free energy from scaling the free energy of solvation of each atom type, free in solution. The free energy of the isolated atoms, scaled by the inverse surface area the atom would expose in the molecule does not reproduce the γrep for the intact decaglycines. Finally, γatt for the decaglycine conformations is much larger in magnitude than those for deca-alanine or the alkanes, leading to large negative values of γvdw (-74 and -56 cal/mol/Å(2) for CHARMM27 and AMBER ff12sb force fields, respectively). These findings imply that ΔGvdw favors extended rather than compact structures for decaglycine. We find that ΔGrep and ΔGvdw have complicated dependencies on multibody correlations between solute atoms, on the geometry of the molecular surface, and on the chemical identities of the atoms. PMID:25494796

  1. Effect of a Primary Care based Brief Intervention Trial among Risky Drug Users on Health-related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Gelberg, Lillian; Leake, Barbara D.; Yacenda-Murphy, Julia; Vahidi, Mani; Andersen, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Improvement in quality of life (QOL) is a long term goal of drug treatment. Although some brief interventions have been found to reduce illicit drug use, no trial among adult risky (moderate non-dependent) drug users has tested effects on health-related quality of life. Methods A single-blind randomized controlled trial of patients enrolled from February 2011 to November 2012 was conducted in waiting rooms of five federally qualified health centers. 413 adult primary care patients were identified as risky drug users using the WHO-ASSIST and 334 (81% response; 171 intervention, 163 control) consented to participate in the trial. Three-month follow-ups were completed by 261 patients (78%). Intervention patients received the QUIT intervention of brief clinician advice and up to two drug-use health telephone sessions. The control group received usual care and information on cancer screening. Outcomes were three-month changes in the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental health component summary score (MCS) and physical health component summary score (PCS). Results The average treatment effect (ATE) was non-significant for MCS (0.2 points, p-value=0.87) and marginally significant for PCS (1.7 points, p-value=0.08). The average treatment effect on the treated (ATT) was 0.1 (p-value=0.93) for MCS and 1.9 (p-value=0.056) for PCS. The effect on PCS was stronger at higher (above median) baseline number of drug use days: ATE=2.7, p-value=0.04; ATT=3.21, p-value=0.02. Conclusions The trial found a marginally significant effect on improvement in PCS, and significant and stronger effect on the SF-12 physical component among patients with greater frequency of initial drug use. PMID:25042213

  2. piggybac- and PhiC31-Mediated Genetic Transformation of the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse)

    PubMed Central

    Labbé, Geneviève M. C.; Nimmo, Derric D.; Alphey, Luke

    2010-01-01

    Background The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is a vector of several arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya. This highly invasive species originating from Southeast Asia has travelled the world in the last 30 years and is now established in Europe, North and South America, Africa, the Middle East and the Caribbean. In the absence of vaccine or antiviral drugs, efficient mosquito control strategies are crucial. Conventional control methods have so far failed to control Ae. albopictus adequately. Methodology/Principal Findings Germline transformation of Aedes albopictus was achieved by micro-injection of embryos with a piggyBac-based transgene carrying a 3xP3-ECFP marker and an attP site, combined with piggyBac transposase mRNA and piggyBac helper plasmid. Five independent transgenic lines were established, corresponding to an estimated transformation efficiency of 2–3%. Three lines were re-injected with a second-phase plasmid carrying an attB site and a 3xP3-DsRed2 marker, combined with PhiC31 integrase mRNA. Successful site-specific integration was observed in all three lines with an estimated transformation efficiency of 2–6%. Conclusions/Significance Both piggybac- and site-specific PhiC31-mediated germline transformation of Aedes albopictus were successfully achieved. This is the first report of Ae. albopictus germline transformation and engineering, a key step towards studying and controlling this species using novel molecular techniques and genetic control strategies. PMID:20808959

  3. An electrical test system for conductor formation process analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Estes, T.A.; Rhodes, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and built an electrical test system which fulfills a requirement to quickly, accurately and precisely measure the resistance of conductors formed on Printed Wiring Board (PWB) substrates. This requirement stems from the need to measure small variations in conductors and thus to determine the source of the variations. With this test technology, experiments can be conducted with new materials, equipment, and processes in a timely and scientific manner. Conductor formation processes can be optimized for both conductor yield and uniformity, and process equipment can be fine-tuned prior to processing product to ensure that conductor attributes fulfill requirements. Significant resources have been spent by Sandia National Laboratories and Texas Instruments modifying commercially available two-probe testers. AT&T has built a two-probe tester and obtained a commercially available ``bed-of-nails`` test system. The two-probe systems have limitations in speed and precision; the ``bed-of-nails`` system has proved to be superior to the two-probe designs but is expensive, and lacks test pattern flexibility and ease of use. Due to the need to establish a testing technology which meets the requirements of Sandia National Laboratories and the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences PWB Consortium Imaging Team (current Imaging Team members; AT&T, Texas Instruments, AlliedSignal, IBM, and Sandia National Laboratories), a prototype test system was designed and built by Sandia. This paper will discuss the design and performance of the test system and the results of a comparison to other test systems.

  4. Feasibility Assessment of Using Geoinformatics Technology in Disaster Disease Surveillance in a Developing Country, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Faruque, Md Omar; Holakouie Naieni, Kourosh; Ardalan, Ali; Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Mohammadinia, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Geoinformatics technology retains an unprecedented trait of performing with a supersonic speed and precision in public health management whereas the existing disease surveillance systems in developing countries lack using this technology. This article aims to assess the feasibility of using geoinformatics technology in disaster disease surveillance in a developing country, Iran. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on technology acceptance model (TAM), and a semi-quantitative survey was conducted in order to collect data. Fifty TUMS & HS personnel, currently involve in disease surveillance and information technology, were included. Initially, a pilot study was conducted to test the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Cronbach alpha, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and standard error of measurement (SEM) were calculated to validate the causal model. Results: The results from structural equation analysis suggested that TAM provided a constructive picture of using geoinformatics technology in disaster disease surveillance at TUMS &HS. The study found attitude (ATT) had a significant influence on participants intention to use (ITU) a new technology, and perceived ease of use (PEOU) was a strong determinant of perceived of usefulness (PU). Subsequently, PU and PEOU explained ATT substantially; even though the analysis showed insignificant statistical association among these constructs. The high R2 (Coefficient of determination) of the constructs described respondents positive instinct towards accepting a new technology. Conclusion: The study reveals that personnel intent to adopt geoinformatics technology in disaster disease surveillance; and at the same time, they possess a positive attitude towards the technology. This study also found PEOU has a strong influence on PU, so information sessions and training on geoinformatics technology need to focus primarily on the applications and impacts of technology

  5. Rapid Optimization of Engineered Metabolic Pathways with Serine Integrase Recombinational Assembly (SIRA).

    PubMed

    Merrick, C A; Wardrope, C; Paget, J E; Colloms, S D; Rosser, S J

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic pathway engineering in microbial hosts for heterologous biosynthesis of commodity compounds and fine chemicals offers a cheaper, greener, and more reliable method of production than does chemical synthesis. However, engineering metabolic pathways within a microbe is a complicated process: levels of gene expression, protein stability, enzyme activity, and metabolic flux must be balanced for high productivity without compromising host cell viability. A major rate-limiting step in engineering microbes for optimum biosynthesis of a target compound is DNA assembly, as current methods can be cumbersome and costly. Serine integrase recombinational assembly (SIRA) is a rapid DNA assembly method that utilizes serine integrases, and is particularly applicable to rapid optimization of engineered metabolic pathways. Using six pairs of orthogonal attP and attB sites with different central dinucleotide sequences that follow SIRA design principles, we have demonstrated that ΦC31 integrase can be used to (1) insert a single piece of DNA into a substrate plasmid; (2) assemble three, four, and five DNA parts encoding the enzymes for functional metabolic pathways in a one-pot reaction; (3) generate combinatorial libraries of metabolic pathway constructs with varied ribosome binding site strengths or gene orders in a one-pot reaction; and (4) replace and add DNA parts within a construct through targeted postassembly modification. We explain the mechanism of SIRA and the principles behind designing a SIRA reaction. We also provide protocols for making SIRA reaction components and practical methods for applying SIRA to rapid optimization of metabolic pathways. PMID:27417934

  6. Attrition of TCR Vα7.2+ CD161++ MAIT Cells in HIV-Tuberculosis Co-Infection Is Associated with Elevated Levels of PD-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Alireza; Tien Tien, Vicky L.; Al-Batran, Rami; Al-Darraji, Haider A.; Tan, Hong Y.; Yong, Yean K.; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Barathan, Muttiah; Rukumani, Devi V.; Ansari, Abdul W.; Velu, Vijayakumar; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Larsson, Marie; Shankar, Esaki M.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial MR1-restricted CD8+ T cells co-expressing the semi-invariant TCR Vα7.2, and are numerous in the blood and mucosal tissues of humans. MAIT cells appear to undergo exhaustion in chronic viral infections. However, their role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mono-infection and HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infection have seldom been elaborately investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the frequencies and phenotypes of CD161++CD8+ T cells among anti-retroviral therapy (ART)/anti-TB therapy (ATT) treatment-naïve HIV/TB co-infected, ART/TB treated HIV/TB co-infected, ART naïve HIV-infected, ART-treated HIV-infected patients, and HIV negative healthy controls (HCs) by flow cytometry. Our data revealed that the frequency of MAIT cells was severely depleted in HIV mono- and HIV/TB co-infections. Further, PD-1 expression on MAIT cells was significantly increased in HIV mono- and HIV-TB co-infected patients. The frequency of MAIT cells did not show any significant increase despite the initiation of ART and/or ATT. Majority of the MAIT cells in HCs showed a significant increase in CCR6 expression as compared to HIV/TB co-infections. No marked difference was seen with expressions of chemokine co-receptor CCR5 and CD103 among the study groups. Decrease of CCR6 expression appears to explain why HIV-infected patients display weakened mucosal immune responses. PMID:25894562

  7. Multiple Mechanisms Contribute to Lateral Transfer of an Organophosphate Degradation (opd) Island in Sphingobium fuliginis ATCC 27551

    PubMed Central

    Pandeeti, Emmanuel Vijay Paul; Longkumer, Toshisangba; Chakka, Deviprasanna; Muthyala, Venkateswar Reddy; Parthasarathy, Sunil; Madugundu, Anil Kumar; Ghanta, Sujana; Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Pantula, Surat Chameli; Yekkala, Harshita; Siddavattam, Dayananda

    2012-01-01

    The complete sequence of pPDL2 (37,317 bp), an indigenous plasmid of Sphingobium fuliginis ATCC 27551 that encodes genes for organophosphate degradation (opd), revealed the existence of a site-specific integrase (int) gene with an attachment site attP, typically seen in integrative mobilizable elements (IME). In agreement with this sequence information, site-specific recombination was observed between pPDL2 and an artificial plasmid having a temperature-sensitive replicon and a cloned attB site at the 3′ end of the seryl tRNA gene of Sphingobium japonicum. The opd gene cluster on pPDL2 was found to be part of an active catabolic transposon with mobile elements y4qE and Tn3 at its flanking ends. Besides the previously reported opd cluster, this transposon contains genes coding for protocatechuate dioxygenase and for two transport proteins from the major facilitator family that are predicted to be involved in transport and metabolism of aromatic compounds. A pPDL2 derivative, pPDL2-K, was horizontally transferred into Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter strains, suggesting that the oriT identified in pPDL2 is functional. A well-defined replicative origin (oriV), repA was identified along with a plasmid addiction module relB/relE that would support stable maintenance of pPDL2 in Sphingobium fuliginis ATCC 27551. However, if pPDL2 is laterally transferred into hosts that do not support its replication, the opd cluster appears to integrate into the host chromosome, either through transposition or through site-specific integration. The data presented in this study help to explain the existence of identical opd genes among soil bacteria. PMID:23275877

  8. Tight Regulation of the intS Gene of the KplE1 Prophage: A New Paradigm for Integrase Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Panis, Gaël; Duverger, Yohann; Courvoisier-Dezord, Elise; Champ, Stéphanie; Talla, Emmanuel; Ansaldi, Mireille

    2010-01-01

    Temperate phages have the ability to maintain their genome in their host, a process called lysogeny. For most, passive replication of the phage genome relies on integration into the host's chromosome and becoming a prophage. Prophages remain silent in the absence of stress and replicate passively within their host genome. However, when stressful conditions occur, a prophage excises itself and resumes the viral cycle. Integration and excision of phage genomes are mediated by regulated site-specific recombination catalyzed by tyrosine and serine recombinases. In the KplE1 prophage, site-specific recombination is mediated by the IntS integrase and the TorI recombination directionality factor (RDF). We previously described a sub-family of temperate phages that is characterized by an unusual organization of the recombination module. Consequently, the attL recombination region overlaps with the integrase promoter, and the integrase and RDF genes do not share a common activated promoter upon lytic induction as in the lambda prophage. In this study, we show that the intS gene is tightly regulated by its own product as well as by the TorI RDF protein. In silico analysis revealed that overlap of the attL region with the integrase promoter is widely encountered in prophages present in prokaryotic genomes, suggesting a general occurrence of negatively autoregulated integrase genes. The prediction that these integrase genes are negatively autoregulated was biologically assessed by studying the regulation of several integrase genes from two different Escherichia coli strains. Our results suggest that the majority of tRNA-associated integrase genes in prokaryotic genomes could be autoregulated and that this might be correlated with the recombination efficiency as in KplE1. The consequences of this unprecedented regulation for excisive recombination are discussed. PMID:20949106

  9. Tight regulation of the intS gene of the KplE1 prophage: a new paradigm for integrase gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Panis, Gaël; Duverger, Yohann; Courvoisier-Dezord, Elise; Champ, Stéphanie; Talla, Emmanuel; Ansaldi, Mireille

    2010-10-01

    Temperate phages have the ability to maintain their genome in their host, a process called lysogeny. For most, passive replication of the phage genome relies on integration into the host's chromosome and becoming a prophage. Prophages remain silent in the absence of stress and replicate passively within their host genome. However, when stressful conditions occur, a prophage excises itself and resumes the viral cycle. Integration and excision of phage genomes are mediated by regulated site-specific recombination catalyzed by tyrosine and serine recombinases. In the KplE1 prophage, site-specific recombination is mediated by the IntS integrase and the TorI recombination directionality factor (RDF). We previously described a sub-family of temperate phages that is characterized by an unusual organization of the recombination module. Consequently, the attL recombination region overlaps with the integrase promoter, and the integrase and RDF genes do not share a common activated promoter upon lytic induction as in the lambda prophage. In this study, we show that the intS gene is tightly regulated by its own product as well as by the TorI RDF protein. In silico analysis revealed that overlap of the attL region with the integrase promoter is widely encountered in prophages present in prokaryotic genomes, suggesting a general occurrence of negatively autoregulated integrase genes. The prediction that these integrase genes are negatively autoregulated was biologically assessed by studying the regulation of several integrase genes from two different Escherichia coli strains. Our results suggest that the majority of tRNA-associated integrase genes in prokaryotic genomes could be autoregulated and that this might be correlated with the recombination efficiency as in KplE1. The consequences of this unprecedented regulation for excessive recombination are discussed. PMID:20949106

  10. The role of adipose tissue-associated macrophages and T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung Ho; Saxena, Arpit; Kaur, Kamaljeet; Fletcher, Emma; Ponemone, Venkatesh; Nottingham, James M; Sheppe, Joseph A; Petroni, Maria; Greene, Jennifer; Graves, Kelly; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Fayad, Raja

    2013-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract that affect more than 3 million people worldwide, but the pathological etiology is still unknown. The overall purpose of our investigations was to elucidate the possibility of pathological causes of IBD, and therefore, we determined the difference of inflammatory cytokine profiles in adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and T lymphocytes (ATTs) obtained near active lesions of IBD; investigated whether the alteration in ATM activation induces genes involved in collagen formation; and evaluated the effects of fatty acid oxidation inhibitors on factors involved in inflammation and collagen production by ATMs in IBD. Adipose tissues (ATs) were collected near active lesions and also at the margin of resected segments of the bowel from IBD patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and CD (n=14/group). Normal appearing ATs from control subjects (n=14) who had colon resection for adenocarcinoma were collected as far away from the cancer lesion as possible to rule out possible changes. Compared with inactive disease lesions, ATMs and ATTs from active lesions released more IL-6, IL-4 and IL-13. Treatments of cytokine IL-4 and/or IL-13 to ATMs reduced iNOS expression but increased Arg-I expression which were exacerbated when treated with T cell- and adipocyte-conditioned medium. However, fatty acid oxidation inhibitors prevented the effects of cytokines IL-4 and/or IL-13 on iNOS and Arg-I expressions. This study was the first to show the effect of IL-4 and IL-13 on collagen formation, through iNOS and Arg-I expressions, that was exacerbated in a condition that mimics in vivo condition of active lesions. Moreover, our study was the first to provide potential benefits of fatty acid oxidation inhibitors to ATMs on preventing collagen formation; thus, providing therapeutic implications for individuals with intestinal fibrosis and stricture lesions, although future study should be

  11. Use of an Online Smoking Cessation Community Promotes Abstinence: Results of Propensity Score Weighting

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L.; Papandonatos, George D.; Erar, Bahar; Stanton, Cassandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the causal effects of use of an online smoking cessation community on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 3 months. Methods Participants were N=492 adult current smokers in the enhanced Internet arm of The iQUITT Study, a randomized trial of Internet and telephone treatment for smoking cessation. All participants accessed a web-based smoking-cessation program that included a large, established online community. Automated tracking metrics of passive (e.g., reading forum posts, viewing member profiles) and active (e.g., writing forum posts, sending private messages) community use were extracted from the site at 3 months. Self-selected community use defines the groups of interest: “None”, “Passive”, and “Both” (passive+active). Inverse probability of treatment weighting corrected for baseline imbalances on demographic, smoking, psychosocial, and medical history variables. Propensity weights estimated via generalized boosted models were used to calculate Average Treatment Effects (ATE) and Average Treatment effects on the Treated (ATT). Results Patterns of community use were: None=198 (40.2%), Passive=110 (22.4%), and Both=184 (37.4%). ATE-weighted abstinence rates were: None=4.2% (95% CI=1.5–6.9); Passive=15.1% (95% CI=8.4–21.9); Both=20.4% (95% CI=13.9–26.8). ATT-weighted abstinence rates indicated even greater benefits of community use. Conclusions Community users were more likely to quit smoking at 3 months than nonusers. The estimated benefit from use of online community resources was even larger among subjects with high propensity to use them. No differences in abstinence emerged between passive and passive/active users. Results suggest that lurking in online communities confers specific abstinence benefits. Implications of these findings for online cessation communities are discussed. PMID:26651470

  12. The presupplementary area within the language network: a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Ter Minassian, Aram; Ricalens, Emmanuel; Nguyen The Tich, Sylvie; Dinomais, Mickaël; Aubé, Christophe; Beydon, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    The presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) is involved in volitional selection. Despite the lateralization of the language network and different functions for both pre-SMA, few studies have reported the lateralization of pre-SMA activity and very little is known about the possible lateralization of pre-SMA connectivity. Via functional connectivity analysis, we sought to understand how the language network may be connected to other intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) through the pre-SMA. We performed a spatial independent component analysis of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in 30 volunteers to identify the language network. Subsequently, we applied seed-to-voxel functional connectivity analyses centered on peaks detected in the pre-SMA. Three signal peaks were detected in the pre-SMA. The left rostral pre-SMA intrinsic connectivity network (LR ICN) was left lateralized in contrast to bilateral ICNs associated to right pre-SMA peaks. The LR ICN was anticorrelated with the dorsal attention network and the right caudal pre-SMA ICN (RC ICN) anticorrelated with the default mode network. These two ICNs overlapped minimally. In contrast, the right rostral ICN overlapped the LR ICN. Both right ICNs overlapped in the ventral attention network (vATT). The bilateral connectivity of the right rostral pre-SMA may allow right hemispheric recruitment to process semantic ambiguities. Overlap between the right pre-SMA ICNs in vATT may contribute to internal thought to external environment reorientation. Distinct ICNs connected to areas involved in lexico-syntactic selection and phonology converge in the pre-SMA, which may constitute the resolution space of competing condition-action associations for speech production. PMID:24939724

  13. Further Studies on the Immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae Type b and Pneumococcal Type 6A Polysaccharide-Protein Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chiayung; Schneerson, Rachel; Robbins, John B.; Rastogi, Suresh C.

    1983-01-01

    Conjugates were prepared by carbodiimide-mediated coupling of adipic acid hydrazide derivatives of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Escherichia coli K100, and pneumococcal 6A (Pn6A) polysaccharides with tetanus toxoid (TT), as an example of a “useful” carrier, and horseshoe crab hemocyanin (HCH), as an example of a “nonsense” carrier. These conjugates were injected into NIH mice, and their serum antibody responses to the polysaccharides and proteins were characterized. As originally reported, Hib conjugates increased the immunogenicity of the capsular polysaccharide and elicited greater than the estimated protective levels of anti-Hib antibodies in most recipients after one injection and in all after the third injection (Schneerson et al., J. Exp. Med. 152:361-376, 1980). Both Hib conjugates induced similar anti-Hib responses. The K100-HCH conjugate was more immunogenic than the K100-TT conjugate and elicited anti-Hib responses similar to the Hib conjugates after the third injection. Simultaneous injection of the K100 and the Hib conjugates did not enhance the anti-Hib response. The Pn6A-TT conjugate induced low levels of anti-Hib antibodies; when injected simultaneously with the Hib conjugates, the anti-Hib response was enhanced, as all mice responded after the first injection and with higher levels of anti-Hib than observed with the Hib conjugates alone (P < 0.05). The Pn6A conjugates were not as immunogenic as the Hib conjugates. Pn6A-TT was more effective than was Pn6A-HCH; it elicited anti-Pn6A (>100 ng of antibody nitrogen per ml) in 6 of 10 mice after the third injection. The addition of the Hib-HCH conjugate to the Pn6A-TT conjugate increased the anti-Pn6A response with a higher geometric mean antibody titer, and 9 of 10 mice responded after the third injection. A preparation of diphtheria toxoid, TT, and pertussis vaccine increased the anti-Hib antibody levels after the first injection only in mice receiving Hib-TT, but not in mice receiving

  14. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of serum antibodies elicited in adults by Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcus type 6A capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugates.

    PubMed Central

    Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B; Parke, J C; Bell, C; Schlesselman, J J; Sutton, A; Wang, Z; Schiffman, G; Karpas, A; Shiloach, J

    1986-01-01

    Covalent binding to immunogenic proteins increases the immunogenicity of the capsular polysaccharides of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcus type 6A (Pn6A). Conjugates composed of Hib, Pn6A, or the cross-reacting Escherichia coli K100 covalently bound to tetanus toxoid (TT) were injected into young adult volunteers. Local reactions were common and were probably due to Arthus reactivity mediated by the preexisting antibodies reacting with the TT component of the conjugates. Fever occurred in about 10% of the volunteers after the first injection; no volunteers had fever after the second injection. Similar levels of Hib or Pn6A antibodies were elicited by either 50- or 100-micrograms doses or by concurrent injection of two different conjugates (Hib-TT and Pn6A-TT or Hib-TT and K100-TT). The Hib-TT elicited about a 180-fold increase in Hib antibodies, and the Pn6A-TT conjugate elicited about an 8-fold increase in Pn6A antibodies after one injection. Booster reactions were not elicited in adults; similar levels of antibodies in the five experimental groups suggested that the responses elicited by the conjugates were maximal. A one-way cross-reaction was noted as Pn6A conjugates elicited rises of Hib antibodies in 13 of 20 volunteers; only 4 of 59 volunteers immunized with Hib-TT had increases in Pn6A antibodies. The preimmunization Hib antibodies were composed of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG. The postimmunization sera showed an increase in all three isotypes; the elevation of the IgG was the highest of the three isotypes. Conjugate-induced antibodies to both the polysaccharide and TT exerted biological activities that have been correlated with immunity. Adsorption of the Hib-TT onto aluminium hydroxide resulted in higher levels and an earlier Hib antibody response in infant rhesus. These results encourage the evaluation of Hib and Pn6A conjugates in human children and infants. PMID:3516876

  15. Attenuation and efficacy of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) vaccine candidates containing stabilized mutations in the P/C and L genes

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Emmalene J; Castaño, Adam; Surman, Sonja R; Collins, Peter L; Skiadopoulos, Mario H; Murphy, Brian R

    2007-01-01

    Background Two recombinant, live attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) mutant viruses have been developed, using a reverse genetics system, for evaluation as potential intranasal vaccine candidates. These rHPIV1 vaccine candidates have two non-temperature sensitive (non-ts) attenuating (att) mutations primarily in the P/C gene, namely CR84GHNT553A (two point mutations used together as a set) and CΔ170 (a short deletion mutation), and two ts att mutations in the L gene, namely LY942A (a point mutation), and LΔ1710–11 (a short deletion), the last of which has not been previously described. The latter three mutations were specifically designed for increased genetic and phenotypic stability. These mutations were evaluated on the HPIV1 backbone, both individually and in combination, for attenuation, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in African green monkeys (AGMs). Results The rHPIV1 mutant bearing the novel LΔ1710–11 mutation was highly ts and attenuated in AGMs and was immunogenic and efficacious against HPIV1 wt challenge. The rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALY942A and rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALΔ1710–11 vaccine candidates were highly ts, with shut-off temperatures of 38°C and 35°C, respectively, and were highly attenuated in AGMs. Immunization with rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALY942A protected against HPIV1 wt challenge in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. In contrast, rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALΔ1710–11 was not protective in AGMs due to over-attenuation, but it is expected to replicate more efficiently and be more immunogenic in the natural human host. Conclusion The rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALY942A and rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALΔ1710–11 vaccine candidates are clearly highly attenuated in AGMs and clinical trials are planned to address safety and immunogenicity in humans. PMID:17605811

  16. The microbiota mediates pathogen clearance from the gut lumen after non-typhoidal Salmonella diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Endt, Kathrin; Stecher, Bärbel; Chaffron, Samuel; Slack, Emma; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Benecke, Arndt; Van Maele, Laurye; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Mueller, Andreas J; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Macpherson, Andrew J; Strugnell, Richard; von Mering, Christian; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Many enteropathogenic bacteria target the mammalian gut. The mechanisms protecting the host from infection are poorly understood. We have studied the protective functions of secretory antibodies (sIgA) and the microbiota, using a mouse model for S. typhimurium diarrhea. This pathogen is a common cause of diarrhea in humans world-wide. S. typhimurium (S. tm(att), sseD) causes a self-limiting gut infection in streptomycin-treated mice. After 40 days, all animals had overcome the disease, developed a sIgA response, and most had cleared the pathogen from the gut lumen. sIgA limited pathogen access to the mucosal surface and protected from gut inflammation in challenge infections. This protection was O-antigen specific, as demonstrated with pathogens lacking the S. typhimurium O-antigen (wbaP, S. enteritidis) and sIgA-deficient mice (TCRβ(-/-)δ(-/-), J(H) (-/-), IgA(-/-), pIgR(-/-)). Surprisingly, sIgA-deficiency did not affect the kinetics of pathogen clearance from the gut lumen. Instead, this was mediated by the microbiota. This was confirmed using 'L-mice' which harbor a low complexity gut flora, lack colonization resistance and develop a normal sIgA response, but fail to clear S. tm(att) from the gut lumen. In these mice, pathogen clearance was achieved by transferring a normal complex microbiota. Thus, besides colonization resistance ( = pathogen blockage by an intact microbiota), the microbiota mediates a second, novel protective function, i.e. pathogen clearance. Here, the normal microbiota re-grows from a state of depletion and disturbed composition and gradually clears even very high pathogen loads from the gut lumen, a site inaccessible to most "classical" immune effector mechanisms. In conclusion, sIgA and microbiota serve complementary protective functions. The microbiota confers colonization resistance and mediates pathogen clearance in primary infections, while sIgA protects from disease if the host re-encounters the same pathogen. This has

  17. Typing of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Encoding Phages and lukSF-PV Gene Sequence Variation in Staphylococcus aureus from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huanqiang; Hu, Fupin; Jin, Shu; Xu, Xiaogang; Zou, Yuhan; Ding, Baixing; He, Chunyan; Gong, Fang; Liu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, encoded by lukSF-PV genes), a bi-component and pore-forming toxin, is carried by different staphylococcal bacteriophages. The prevalence of PVL in Staphylococcus aureus has been reported around the globe. However, the data on PVL-encoding phage types, lukSF-PV gene variation and chromosomal phage insertion sites for PVL-positive S. aureus are limited, especially in China. In order to obtain a more complete understanding of the molecular epidemiology of PVL-positive S. aureus, an integrated and modified PCR-based scheme was applied to detect the PVL-encoding phage types. Phage insertion locus and the lukSF-PV variant were determined by PCR and sequencing. Meanwhile, the genetic background was characterized by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene polymorphisms typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, accessory gene regulator (agr) locus typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Seventy eight (78/1175, 6.6%) isolates possessed the lukSF-PV genes and 59.0% (46/78) of PVL-positive strains belonged to CC59 lineage. Eight known different PVL-encoding phage types were detected, and Φ7247PVL/ΦST5967PVL (n = 13) and ΦPVL (n = 12) were the most prevalent among them. While 25 (25/78, 32.1%) isolates, belonging to ST30, and ST59 clones, were unable to be typed by the modified PCR-based scheme. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at five locations in the lukSF-PV genes, two of which were non-synonymous. Maximum-likelihood tree analysis of attachment sites sequences detected six SNP profiles for attR and eight for attL, respectively. In conclusion, the PVL-positive S. aureus mainly harbored Φ7247PVL/ΦST5967PVL and ΦPVL in the regions studied. lukSF-PV gene sequences, PVL-encoding phages, and phage insertion locus generally varied with lineages. Moreover, PVL-positive clones that have emerged worldwide likely carry distinct phages. PMID:27536288

  18. Typing of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Encoding Phages and lukSF-PV Gene Sequence Variation in Staphylococcus aureus from China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huanqiang; Hu, Fupin; Jin, Shu; Xu, Xiaogang; Zou, Yuhan; Ding, Baixing; He, Chunyan; Gong, Fang; Liu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, encoded by lukSF-PV genes), a bi-component and pore-forming toxin, is carried by different staphylococcal bacteriophages. The prevalence of PVL in Staphylococcus aureus has been reported around the globe. However, the data on PVL-encoding phage types, lukSF-PV gene variation and chromosomal phage insertion sites for PVL-positive S. aureus are limited, especially in China. In order to obtain a more complete understanding of the molecular epidemiology of PVL-positive S. aureus, an integrated and modified PCR-based scheme was applied to detect the PVL-encoding phage types. Phage insertion locus and the lukSF-PV variant were determined by PCR and sequencing. Meanwhile, the genetic background was characterized by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene polymorphisms typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, accessory gene regulator (agr) locus typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Seventy eight (78/1175, 6.6%) isolates possessed the lukSF-PV genes and 59.0% (46/78) of PVL-positive strains belonged to CC59 lineage. Eight known different PVL-encoding phage types were detected, and Φ7247PVL/ΦST5967PVL (n = 13) and ΦPVL (n = 12) were the most prevalent among them. While 25 (25/78, 32.1%) isolates, belonging to ST30, and ST59 clones, were unable to be typed by the modified PCR-based scheme. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at five locations in the lukSF-PV genes, two of which were non-synonymous. Maximum-likelihood tree analysis of attachment sites sequences detected six SNP profiles for attR and eight for attL, respectively. In conclusion, the PVL-positive S. aureus mainly harbored Φ7247PVL/ΦST5967PVL and ΦPVL in the regions studied. lukSF-PV gene sequences, PVL-encoding phages, and phage insertion locus generally varied with lineages. Moreover, PVL-positive clones that have emerged worldwide likely carry distinct phages. PMID:27536288

  19. Double exposure technique for 45nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Stephen; Park, Jungchul; Van Den Broeke, Douglas; Chen, J. Fung

    2005-11-01

    The technical challenges in using F2 lithography for the 45nm node, along with the insurmountable difficulties in EUV lithography, has driven the semiconductor chipmaker into the low k1 lithography era under the pressure of ever decreasing feature sizes. Extending lithography towards lower k1 puts heavy demand on the resolution enhancement technique (RET), exposure tool, and the need for litho friendly design. Hyper numerical aperture (NA) exposure tools, immersion, and double exposure techniques (DET's) are the promising methods to extend lithography manufacturing to the 45nm node at k1 factors below 0.3. Scattering bars (SB's) have become an integral part of the lithography process as chipmakers move to production at ever lower k1 factors. To achieve better critical dimension (CD) control, polarization is applied to enhance the image contrast in the preferential imaging orientation, which increases the risk of SB printability. The optimum SB width is approximately (0.20 ~ 0.25)*(λ/NA). When the SB width becomes less than the exposure wavelength on the 4X mask, Kirchhoff's scalar theory under predicts the SB intensity. The optical weighting factor of the SB increases (Figure 1b) and the SB's become more susceptible to printing. Meanwhile, under hyper NA conditions, the effectiveness of "subresolution" SB's is significantly diminished. A full-sized scattering bars (FSB) scheme becomes necessary. Double exposure methods, such as using ternary 6% attenuated PSM (attPSM) for DDL, are good imaging solutions that can reach and likely go beyond the 45nm node. Today DDL, using binary chrome masks, is capable of printing 65 nm device patterns. In this work, we investigate the use of DET with 6% attPSM masks to target 45nm node device. The SB scalability and printability issues can be taken cared of by using "mutual trimming", i.e., with the combined energy from the two exposures. In this study, we share our findings of using DET to pattern a 45nm node device design with

  20. Maternal and neonatal FTO rs9939609 polymorphism affect insulin sensitivity markers and lipoprotein profile at birth in appropriate-for-gestational-age term neonates.

    PubMed

    Gesteiro, Eva; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Ortega-Azorín, Carolina; Guillén, Marisa; Corella, Dolores; Bastida, Sara

    2016-06-01

    The influence of maternal fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene polymorphism on neonatal insulin sensitivity/resistance biomarkers and lipoprotein profile has not been tested. The study aimed to assess the association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism in mother-neonate couples and neonatal anthropometrical measurements, insulin sensitivity/resistance, and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations at birth. Fifty-three term, appropriate-for-gestational-age, Caucasian newborns together with their respective mothers participated in a cross-sectional study. Sixty-six percent of mothers and neonates carried the A allele (being AA or AT). TT mothers gained less weight during pregnancy, but non-significant maternal gene influence was found for neonatal bodyweight, body mass index, or ponderal index. Neonates from AA + AT mothers showed lower glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) but higher homeostatic model assessment insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and homocysteine than neonates whose mothers were TT. AA + AT neonates had higher insulin and HOMA-IR than TT. The genotype neonatal × maternal association was tested in the following four groups of neonates: TT neonates × TT mothers (nTT × mTT), TT neonates × AA + AT mothers (nTT × mAA + AT), AA + AT neonates × TT mothers (nAA + AT × mTT), and AA + AT neonates × AA + AT mothers (nAA + AT × mAA + AT). Non-significant interactions between neonatal and maternal alleles were found for any parameter tested. However, maternal alleles affected significantly glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and homocysteine while neonatal alleles the arylesterase activity. Most significant differences were found between nATT + AA × mTT and nATT + AA × mAA + AT. Glycemia, insulinemia, and HOMA-IR were lower, while the Mediterranean diet adherence (MDA) was higher in the mAA + AT vs. mTT whose children were AA + AT. This dietary fact seems to counterbalance the potential negative effect on glucose homeostasis of