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Sample records for attenuated human rotavirus

  1. Rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Esona, Mathew D; Gautam, Rashi

    2015-06-01

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children worldwide. Introduction of two live, attenuated rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix® and RotaTeq®, has dramatically reduced RVA-associated AGE and mortality. High-throughput, sensitive and specific techniques are required to rapidly diagnose and characterize rotavirus strains in stool samples for proper patient treatment and to monitor circulating vaccine and wild-type rotavirus strains. New molecular assays are rapidly developed that are more sensitive and specific than the conventional assays for detection, genotyping and full genome characterization of circulating rotavirus wild-type and vaccine (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) strains causing AGE. PMID:26004648

  2. Oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix™) offers sustained high protection against severe G9P[8] rotavirus gastroenteritis during the first two years of life in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Justino, Maria Cleonice A; Araújo, Eliete C; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Oliveira, Consuelo S; Gabbay, Yvone B; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc P; Miranda, Yllen S; Guerra, Sylvia de Fátima S; Silva, Veronilce B da; Linhares, Alexandre C

    2012-11-01

    In a large Phase III trial conducted in 10 Latin American countries, the safety and efficacy of the live attenuated monovalent rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 was evaluated in 15,183 healthy infants followed up during the first two years of life. Belém was the only site in Brazil included in this multicentre trial. The study in Belém included a subset of 653 infants who were followed up until 24 months of age for protection against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. These subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two doses of vaccine (n = 328) or two doses of placebo (n = 325) at approximately two and four months of age. Of the 653 enrolled infants, 23 dropped out during the study period. For the combined two-year period, the efficacy of RIX4414 was 72.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 37.5-89.1%] against severe rotavirus-related gastroenteritis, reaching a protection rate of 81.8% (95% CI 36.4-96.6%) against circulating wild-type G9 rotavirus strains. It is concluded that two doses of RIX4414 are highly efficacious against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in Belém during the first two years of life and provide high protection against the worldwide emergence and spread of G9P[8] strains. PMID:23147138

  3. A serotype 10 human rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Beards, G; Xu, L; Ballard, A; Desselberger, U; McCrae, M A

    1992-06-01

    Rotaviruses with genome rearrangements isolated from a chronically infected immunodeficient child (F. Hundley, M. McIntyre, B. Clark, G. Beards, D. Wood, I. Chrystie, and U. Desselberger, J. Virol 61:3365-3372, 1987) are the first recognized human isolates of serotype 10. This was shown by both a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization assays using serotype specific monoclonal antibodies. The serotype was confirmed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding VP7, which revealed a 96% amino acid homology to the bovine serotype 10 isolate B223. PMID:1320627

  4. Natural history of human rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Bishop, R F

    1996-01-01

    Rotavirus infections occur repeatedly in humans from birth to old age. Most are asymptomatic or are associated with mild enteric symptoms. Infection in young children can be accompanied by severe life-threatening diarrhea, most commonly after primary infection. Annual childhood morbidity rates for severe diarrhea are similar worldwide. Mortality rates are low in developed countries but approach 1,000,000 annually in young children in developing countries. Rotaviruses can be classified into Groups A-E according to antigenic groups on VP6, the major capsid antigen. Only Group A,B and C rotaviruses have been shown to infect humans, and most human rotavirus disease is caused by Group A viruses. These are further classified into G and P types based on identification of antigens on the outer capsid proteins VP7 and VP4 respectively. Most severe infections in young children are caused by serotypes G1-4, and during the last two decades, G1 infections appear to have predominated worldwide. In general the more densely populated countries show the most complex patterns of occurrence of serotypes. Clinical rotavirus disease can be accompanied by shedding of > 10(12) rotavirus particles/gm feces. The virus is highly infectious and appears to retain infectivity over many months. In temperate climates, disease is most common during the colder months, when it is likely that rapid spread within families and communities occurs. Nosocomial infections are frequent, and rotaviruses can become endemic within obstetric hospital nurseries for the newborn. Few (if any) human rotavirus infections appear to be zoonoses, even though Group A rotaviruses are widespread in the young of all mammalian species. However infection of humans with reassortant rotavirus strains derived from human-animal sources can occur. The extent to which this contributes to new epidemic strains within particular countries (or worldwide) remains to be determined. PMID:9015109

  5. MAVS Protein Is Attenuated by Rotavirus Nonstructural Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Satabdi; Chanda, Shampa; Bagchi, Parikshit; Nayak, Mukti Kant; Bhowmick, Rahul; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus is the single, most important agent of infantile gastroenteritis in many animal species, including humans. In developing countries, rotavirus infection attributes approximately 500,000 deaths annually. Like other viruses it establishes an intimate and complex interaction with the host cell to counteract the antiviral responses elicited by the cell. Among various pattern recognition receptors (PAMPs) of the host, the cytosolic RNA helicases interact with viral RNA to activate the Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling protein (MAVS), which regulates cellular interferon response. With an aim to identify the role of different PAMPs in rotavirus infected cell, MAVS was found to degrade in a time dependent and strain independent manner. Rotavirus non-structural protein 1 (NSP1) which is a known IFN antagonist, interacted with MAVS and degraded it in a strain independent manner, resulting in a complete loss of RNA sensing machinery in the infected cell. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report on NSP1 functionality where a signaling protein is targeted unanimously in all strains. In addition NSP1 inhibited the formation of detergent resistant MAVS aggregates, thereby averting the antiviral signaling cascade. The present study highlights the multifunctional role of rotavirus NSP1 and reinforces the fact that the virus orchestrates the cellular antiviral response to its own benefit by various back up strategies. PMID:24643253

  6. Rescue of noncultivatable human rotavirus by gene reassortment during mixed infection with ts mutants of a cultivatable bovine rotavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, H B; Kalica, A R; Wyatt, R G; Jones, R W; Kapikian, A Z; Chanock, R M

    1981-01-01

    Fastidious human rotaviruses that did not undergo productive infection in tissue culture were rescued by genetic reassortment during mixed infection with a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of a cultivatable bovine rotavirus. In this manner, the genes of the fastidious rotavirus that restricted growth in vitro were replaced by the corresponding genes from a tissue culture-adapted rotavirus. We recovered genetically reassorted viruses that grew to high titer and were neutralized specifically by hyperimmune guinea pig type 1 or type 2 human rotavirus antiserum. Preliminary RNA analysis of these clones disclosed that they were indeed viruses with reassorted genes. Images PMID:6264442

  7. SIMPLIFIED RADIOIMMUNOASSAY FOR DETECTION OF HUMAN ROTAVIRUS IN STOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simplified radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was developed to facilitate the diagnosis of human rotavirus in stools of infants with diarrhea. This microtiter solid-phase RIA utilizes as a critical reagent hyperimmune serum against a tissue culture-grown simian rotavirus that is ...

  8. Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.M.; Chen, Y.S.; Lindburg, K.; Morales, D.

    1987-09-01

    The inactivation of simian rotavirus Sa-11 and human rotavirus type 2 (Wa) by ozone was compared at 4/sup 0/C by using single-particle virus stocks. Although the human strain was clearly more sensitive, both virus types were rapidly inactivated by ozone concentrations of 0.25 mg/liter or greater at all pH levels tested. Comparison of the virucidal activity of ozone with that of chlorine in identical experiments indicated little significant difference in rotavirus-inactivating efficiencies when the disinfectants were used at concentrations of 0.25 mg/liter or greater.

  9. Probiotics and virulent human rotavirus modulate the transplanted human gut microbiota in gnotobiotic pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We generated a neonatal pig model with human infant gut microbiota (HGM) to study the effect of a probiotic on the composition of the transplanted microbiota following rotavirus vaccination and challenge. All the HGM-transplanted pigs received two doses of an oral attenuated rotavirus vaccine. The gut microbiota of vaccinated pigs were investigated for effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) supplement and homotypic virulent human rotavirus (HRV) challenge. High-throughput sequencing of V4 region of 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that HGM-transplanted pigs carried microbiota similar to that of the C-section delivered baby. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria represented over 98% of total bacteria in the human donor and the recipient pigs. HRV challenge caused a phylum-level shift from Firmicutes to Proteobacteria. LGG supplement prevented the changes in microbial communities caused by HRV challenge. In particular, members of Enterococcus in LGG-supplemented pigs were kept at the baseline level, while they were enriched in HRV challenged pigs. Taken together, our results suggested that HGM pigs are valuable for testing the microbiota’s response to probiotic interventions for treating infantile HRV infection. PMID:25349634

  10. Human and bovine serotype G8 rotaviruses may be derived by reassortment.

    PubMed

    Browning, G F; Snodgrass, D R; Nakagomi, O; Kaga, E; Sarasini, A; Gerna, G

    1992-01-01

    The origin of, and relationship between human and bovine serotype G8 rotaviruses were investigated by genomic hybridisation. Radiolabelled mRNAs of human G8 rotaviruses 69M (isolated in Indonesia) and HAL1271 (isolated in Finland), and bovine rotaviruses KK3 (G10) and NCDV (G6), were used as probes. The products of liquid hybridisation between the probes and the genomic RNA of human and bovine rotaviruses, including bovine G8 rotavirus 678 (isolated in Scotland) and two other Finnish human G8 rotaviruses HAL1166 and HAL8590, were examined by separation in polyacrylamide gels. The genomes of Finnish human G8 rotaviruses were similar to those of bovine G6 and G10 rotaviruses. Neither Indonesian human G8 nor bovine G8 viruses had high levels of similarity to each other or to other bovine and human rotaviruses. Thus these three epidemiologically distinct G8 rotaviruses have different origins and may be derived by reassortment with rotaviruses of a third, as yet unknown, host species. The similarity between the Finnish isolates and the bovine isolate NCDV suggests that they have diverged recently and that these human G8 rotaviruses may be derived from a zoonotic infection, or alternatively, from the live rotavirus vaccine of bovine origin which has been used to vaccinate Finnish children. PMID:1322648

  11. Human milk mucin inhibits rotavirus replication and prevents experimental gastroenteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Yolken, R H; Peterson, J A; Vonderfecht, S L; Fouts, E T; Midthun, K; Newburg, D S

    1992-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal infections due to rotaviruses and other enteric pathogens are major causes of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children throughout the world. Breast-feeding can reduce the rate of serious gastroenteritis in infants; however, the degrees of protection offered against rotavirus infection vary in different populations. The mechanisms associated with milk-mediated protection against viral gastroenteritis have not been fully elucidated. We have isolated a macromolecular component of human milk that inhibits the replication of rotaviruses in tissue culture and prevents the development of gastroenteritis in an animal model system. Purification of the component indicates that the antiviral activity is associated with an acidic fraction (pI = 4.0-4.6), which is free of detectable immunoglobulins. Furthermore, high levels of antiviral activity are associated with an affinity-purified complex of human milk mucin. Deglycosylation of the mucin complex results in the loss of antiviral activity. Further purification indicated that rotavirus specifically binds to the milk mucin complex as well as to the 46-kD glycoprotein component of the complex. Binding to the 46-kD component was substantially reduced after chemical hydrolysis of sialic acid. We have documented that human milk mucin can bind to rotavirus and inhibit viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Variations in milk mucin glycoproteins may be associated with different levels of protection against infection with gastrointestinal pathogens. Images PMID:1331178

  12. Human Intestinal Enteroids: a New Model To Study Human Rotavirus Infection, Host Restriction, and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Kapil; Blutt, Sarah E.; Ettayebi, Khalil; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Broughman, James R.; Crawford, Sue E.; Karandikar, Umesh C.; Sastri, Narayan P.; Conner, Margaret E.; Opekun, Antone R.; Graham, David Y.; Qureshi, Waqar; Sherman, Vadim; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; In, Julie; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Zachos, Nicholas C.; Donowitz, Mark

    2015-01-01

    gastrointestinal infections such as HRV infection. HRVs remain a major worldwide cause of diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality in children ≤5 years of age. Current in vitro models of rotavirus infection rely primarily on the use of animal rotaviruses because HRV growth is limited in most transformed cell lines and animal models. We demonstrate that HIEs are novel, cellularly diverse, and physiologically relevant epithelial cell cultures that recapitulate in vivo properties of HRV infection. HIEs will allow the study of HRV biology, including human host-pathogen and live, attenuated vaccine interactions; host and cell type restriction; virus-induced fluid secretion; cell-cell communication within the epithelium; and the epithelial response to infection in cultures from genetically diverse individuals. Finally, drug therapies to prevent/treat diarrheal disease can be tested in these physiologically active cultures. PMID:26446608

  13. Stability of live attenuated rotavirus vaccine with selected preservatives and primary containers.

    PubMed

    Lal, Manjari; Jarrahian, Courtney; Zhu, Changcheng; Hosken, Nancy A; McClurkan, Chris L; Koelle, David M; Saxon, Eugene; Roehrig, Andrew; Zehrung, Darin; Chen, Dexiang

    2016-05-11

    Rotavirus infection, which can be prevented by vaccination, is responsible for a high burden of acute gastroenteritis disease in children, especially in low-income countries. An appropriate formulation, packaging, and delivery device for oral rotavirus vaccine has the potential to reduce the manufacturing cost of the vaccine and the logistical impact associated with introduction of a new vaccine, simplify the vaccination procedure, and ensure that the vaccine is safely and accurately delivered to children. Single-dose prefilled presentations can be easy to use; however, they are typically more expensive, can be a bottleneck during production, and occupy a greater volume per dose vis-à-vis supply chain storage and medical waste disposal, which is a challenge in low-resource settings. Multi-dose presentations used thus far have other issues, including increased wastage of vaccine and the need for separate delivery devices. In this study, the goals were to evaluate both the technical feasibility of using preservatives to develop a liquid multi-dose formulation and the primary packaging alternatives for orally delivered, liquid rotavirus vaccines. The feasibility evaluation included evaluation of commonly used preservatives for compatibility with rotavirus vaccines and stability testing of rotavirus vaccine in various primary containers, including Lameplast's plastic tubes, BD's oral dispenser version of Uniject™ (Uniject DP), rommelag's blow-fill-seal containers, and MEDInstill's multi-dose vial and pouch. These presentations were compared to a standard glass vial. The results showed that none of the preservatives tested were compatible with a live attenuated rotavirus vaccine because they had a detrimental effect on the viability of the virus. In the presence of preservatives, vaccine virus titers declined to undetectable levels within 1 month. The vaccine formulation without preservatives maintained a stability profile over 12 months in all primary containers

  14. Dietary rice bran protects against rotavirus diarrhea and promotes Th1-type immune responses to human rotavirus vaccine in gnotobiotic pigs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingdong; Wen, Ke; Tin, Christine; Li, Guohua; Wang, Haifeng; Kocher, Jacob; Pelzer, Kevin; Ryan, Elizabeth; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-10-01

    Rice bran (RB) contains a distinct stoichiometry of phytochemicals that can promote gut mucosal immune responses against enteric pathogens. The effects of RB on rotavirus diarrhea and immunogenicity of an attenuated human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine were evaluated in gnotobiotic pigs. The four treatment groups studied were RB plus vaccine, vaccine only, RB only, and mock control. Pigs in the RB groups were fed the amount of RB that replaced 10% of the pigs' total daily calorie intake from milk starting from 5 days of age until they were euthanized. Pigs in the vaccine groups were orally inoculated with two doses of the attenuated HRV vaccine. A subset of pigs from each group was orally challenged with the homologous virulent HRV on postinoculation day 28. Diarrhea and virus shedding were monitored daily from postchallenge day 0 to day 7. RB feeding significantly protected against diarrhea upon virulent HRV challenge and enhanced the protective rate of the vaccine against rotavirus diarrhea. Consistent with protection, RB significantly increased gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses in intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues. Furthermore, RB also increased the number of total IgM- and IgA-secreting cells, total serum IgM, IgG, and IgA titers, and HRV-specific IgA titers in intestinal contents. RB reduced the numbers of intestinal and systemic HRV-specific IgA and IgG antibody-secreting cells and reduced serum HRV-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers before the challenge. These results demonstrate clear beneficial effects of RB in protection against rotavirus diarrhea and stimulation of nonspecific and HRV-specific immune responses, as well as its biased Th1-type adjuvant effect for the vaccine. PMID:25080551

  15. Passive immunisation of children with bovine colostrum containing antibodies to human rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Davidson, G P; Whyte, P B; Daniels, E; Franklin, K; Nunan, H; McCloud, P I; Moore, A G; Moore, D J

    1989-09-23

    The efficacy of a 10-day course of bovine colostrum with high antibody titre against the four known human rotavirus serotypes in protecting children against rotavirus infection was examined in patients admitted to hospital. Children aged 3 to 15 months were blocked in pairs according to ward accommodation (ie, isolation or open area). Each block contained 1 treated and 1 control child. The allocation to treatment or control (an artificial infant formula) was randomised. 9 of 65 control children but none of 55 treated children acquired rotavirus infection during the treatment period (p less than 0.001). The importance of protecting against rotavirus infection was highlighted by the fact that parents of symptomatic rotavirus-positive children sought medical attention seven times more often than did parents of symptomatic rotavirus-negative children (p less than 0.05). PMID:2570959

  16. Detection of group C rotavirus antigens and antibodies in animals and humans by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed Central

    Tsunemitsu, H; Jiang, B; Saif, L J

    1992-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed to detect group (gp) C rotavirus antigens and antibodies. Both assays were confirmed to be specific for gp C rotavirus by using serogroup A, B, and C rotaviruses; hyperimmune antisera to these serogroups of rotaviruses; and paired serum specimens from animals infected with gp C rotaviruses. The ELISA for antigen detection reacted not only with porcine gp C rotaviruses but also with human and bovine gp C rotaviruses. Following experimental challenge of gnotobiotic pigs with porcine gp C rotavirus, the virus was found by ELISA in all diarrheic feces. A high prevalence of antibodies to gp C rotaviruses was detected in sera from adult pigs (93 to 97%) and cattle (47 to 56%) in the United States and Japan. However, no antibody to gp C rotavirus was detected in the sera (n = 20) of adult horses in the United States. In human sera from Hokkaido, Japan, 3% of children and 13% of adults possessed antibody to gp C rotaviruses. These results suggest that the ELISA that we developed may be useful for surveying gp C rotavirus infections in animals and humans. On the basis of serology, gp C rotavirus infections are common in pigs and cattle in the United States and Japan, but they occur at lower levels in humans from the Hokkaido area of Japan. PMID:1323577

  17. Ovine rotaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gazal, S.; Mir, I.A.; Iqbal, A.; Taku, A.K.; Kumar, B.; Bhat, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus has been recognized as a predominant cause of acute diarrhea in young animals and humans. Rotavirus has segmented genome composed of 11 segments of double stranded RNA. The virus has a triple layered protein shell consisting of a core, an inner capsid and an outer capsid. The inner capsid protein is responsible for group specificity and based on it rotaviruses are classified into seven groups. Ovine rotavirus strains have only been identified into two serogroups (A and B). The two outer capsid proteins (VP7 and VP4) are responsible for G and P typing of rotavirus, respectively. Although rotavirus has been frequently reported in many animal species, data regarding ovine rotavirus strains is very scanty and limited. Only a few ovine rotaviruses have been isolated and characterized so far. Recently, the G and P types circulating in ovines have been identified. The ovine rotavirus strain NT isolated from a diarrheic lamb in China is being considered as a promising vaccine candidate for human infants. PMID:26623281

  18. Clinical Symptoms of Human Rotavirus Infection Observed in Children in Sokoto, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alkali, B. R.; Daneji, A. I.; Magaji, A. A.; Bilbis, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus has been identified among the most important causes of infantile diarrhoea, especially in developing countries. The present study was undertaken to determine the occurrence and clinical symptoms of human rotavirus disease among children presenting with varying degree of diarrhoea in selected urban hospitals in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. Diarrhoea samples were collected from 200 diarrheic children younger than 5 years of age and tested using a commercially available DAKO Rotavirus ELISA kit which detects the presence of human group A rotaviruses. A questionnaire, based on WHO generic protocol, was completed for each child to generate the primary data. Of the total number of samples collected, 51 were found to be positive for human group A rotavirus indicating 25.5% prevalence of the disease in Sokoto state. The symptoms associated with the disease were analyzed and discussed. PMID:26692016

  19. Development of a method for detection of human rotavirus in water and sewage.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E M; Gerba, C P

    1982-01-01

    The simian rotavirus SA11 was used to develop a simple, reliable, and efficient method to concentrate rotavirus from tap water, treated sewage, and raw sewage by absorption to and elution from Filterite fiberglass-epoxy filters. SA11 adsorbed optimally to Filterite filters from water containing 0.5 mM AlCl3 at pH 3.5. Filter-bound virus was eluted with 0.05 M glycine-NaOH supplemented with 10% tryptose phosphate broth at pH 10. SA11 was quantitated by plaque assay, whereas human rotavirus was detected by immunofluorescence. The method was applied to detect rotavirus in raw and treated sewage at two Houston, Tex., sewage treatment plants. The sewage isolates were identified as rotavirus, probably a human strain, based on several criteria. The sewage isolates were detectable by an immunofluorescence test, using anti-SA11 serum which would detect the simian, human bovine, and porcine rotaviruses. No reaction was noted by immunofluorescence with the reoviruses or several common enteroviruses. The sewage isolates were neutralized by convalescent sera from a human adult and infant who had been infected by rotavirus as well as by a hyperimmune serum prepared in guinea pigs against purified human rotavirus. Preimmune or preillness sera did not react with the isolates by neutralization or immunofluorescence. The natural isolates were sensitive to pH 11 and other inactivating agents, similar to SA11. The buoyant density of the sewage isolates in CsCl gradients was 1.36 g/cm3, which is the value usually reported for complete, infectious rotavirus particles. The double-shelled particle diameter was 67.1 +/- 2.4 nm. Finally, electron micrographs of cell lysates inoculated with the sewage isolate showed particles displaying characteristic rotavirus morphology. Images PMID:6285825

  20. Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu-Shiaw ); Vaughn, J.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The inactivation of single-particle stocks of human (type 2, Wa) and simian (SA-11) rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide was investigated. Experiments were conducted at 4{degree}C in a standard phosphate-carbonate buffer. Both virus types were rapidly inactivated, within 20 s under alkaline conditions, when chlorine dioxide concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/liter were used. Similar reductions of 10{sup 5}-fold in infectivity required additional exposure time of 120 s at 0.2 mg/liter for Wa and at 0.5 mg/liter for SA-11, respectively, at pH 6.0. The inactivation of both virus types was moderate a neutral pH, and the sensitivities to chlorine dioxide were similar. The observed enhancement of virucidal efficiency with increasing pH was contrary to earlier findings with chlorine- and ozone-treated rotavirus particles, where efficiencies decreased with increasing alkalinity. Comparison of 99.9% virus inactivation times revealed ozone to be the most effective virucidal agent among these three disinfectants.

  1. Molecular and biological characterization of the 5 human-bovine rotavirus (WC3)-based reassortant strains of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq.

    PubMed

    Matthijnssens, Jelle; Joelsson, Daniel B; Warakomski, Donald J; Zhou, Tingyi; Mathis, Pamela K; van Maanen, Marc-Henri; Ranheim, Todd S; Ciarlet, Max

    2010-08-01

    RotaTeq is a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine that contains five human-bovine reassortant strains (designated G1, G2, G3, G4, and P1) on the backbone of the naturally attenuated tissue culture-adapted parental bovine rotavirus (BRV) strain WC3. The viral genomes of each of the reassortant strains were completely sequenced and compared pairwise and phylogenetically among each other and to human rotavirus (HRV) and BRV reference strains. Reassortants G1, G2, G3, and G4 contained the VP7 gene from their corresponding HRV parent strains, while reassortants G1 and G2 also contained the VP3 gene (genotype M1) from the HRV parent strain. The P1 reassortant contained the VP4 gene from the HRV parent strain and all the other gene segments from the BRV WC3 strain. The human VP7s had a high level of overall amino acid identity (G1: 95-99%, G2: 94-99% G3: 96-100%, G4: 93-99%) when compared to those of representative rotavirus strains of their corresponding G serotypes. The VP4 of the P1 reassortant had a high identity (92-97%) with those of serotype P1A[8] HRV reference strains, while the BRV VP7 showed identities ranging from 91% to 94% to those of serotype G6 HRV strains. Sequence analyses of the BRV or HRV genes confirmed that the fundamental structure of the proteins in the vaccine was similar to those of the HRV and BRV references strains. Sequences analyses showed that RotaTeq exhibited a high degree of genetic stability as no mutations were identified in the material of each reassortant, which undergoes two rounds of replication cycles in cell culture during the manufacturing process, when compared to the final material used to fill the dosing tubes. The infectivity of each of the reassortant strains of RotaTeq, like HRV strains, did not require the presence of sialic acid residues on the cell surface. The molecular and biologic characterization of RotaTeq adds to the significant body of clinical data supporting the consistent efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of Rota

  2. Molecular and biological characterization of the 5 human-bovine rotavirus (WC3)-based reassortant strains of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq (registered)

    SciTech Connect

    Matthijnssens, Jelle; Joelsson, Daniel B.; Warakomski, Donald J.; Zhou, Tingyi; Mathis, Pamela K.; Maanen, Marc-Henri van; Ranheim, Todd S.; Ciarlet, Max

    2010-08-01

    RotaTeq (registered) is a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine that contains five human-bovine reassortant strains (designated G1, G2, G3, G4, and P1) on the backbone of the naturally attenuated tissue culture-adapted parental bovine rotavirus (BRV) strain WC3. The viral genomes of each of the reassortant strains were completely sequenced and compared pairwise and phylogenetically among each other and to human rotavirus (HRV) and BRV reference strains. Reassortants G1, G2, G3, and G4 contained the VP7 gene from their corresponding HRV parent strains, while reassortants G1 and G2 also contained the VP3 gene (genotype M1) from the HRV parent strain. The P1 reassortant contained the VP4 gene from the HRV parent strain and all the other gene segments from the BRV WC3 strain. The human VP7s had a high level of overall amino acid identity (G1: 95-99%, G2: 94-99% G3: 96-100%, G4: 93-99%) when compared to those of representative rotavirus strains of their corresponding G serotypes. The VP4 of the P1 reassortant had a high identity (92-97%) with those of serotype P1A[8] HRV reference strains, while the BRV VP7 showed identities ranging from 91% to 94% to those of serotype G6 HRV strains. Sequence analyses of the BRV or HRV genes confirmed that the fundamental structure of the proteins in the vaccine was similar to those of the HRV and BRV references strains. Sequences analyses showed that RotaTeq (registered) exhibited a high degree of genetic stability as no mutations were identified in the material of each reassortant, which undergoes two rounds of replication cycles in cell culture during the manufacturing process, when compared to the final material used to fill the dosing tubes. The infectivity of each of the reassortant strains of RotaTeq (registered) , like HRV strains, did not require the presence of sialic acid residues on the cell surface. The molecular and biologic characterization of RotaTeq (registered) adds to the significant body of clinical data supporting the

  3. Antigenic relationships among human rotaviruses as determined by outer capsid protein VP4.

    PubMed

    Gorziglia, M; Larralde, G; Kapikian, A Z; Chanock, R M

    1990-09-01

    cDNA clones representing the VP4 gene of symptomatic human rotavirus strain KU (VP7 serotype 1) or DS-1 (VP7 serotype 2) or asymptomatic human rotavirus strain 1076 (VP7 serotype 2) were constructed and inserted into a baculovirus expression vector under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. The resulting recombinants expressed the appropriate authentic VP4 rotavirus outer capsid protein. Guinea pigs immunized with these VP4 proteins developed antibodies that neutralized infectivity of the rotavirus from which the immunizing VP4 was derived. These antisera were then used in neutralization tests to define the extent and distribution of VP4 antigenic polymorphism among human rotaviruses. Three distinct serotypes and one subtype of the VP4 outer capsid protein were identified among 17 human rotavirus strains that had previously been assigned to five distinct VP7 serotypes. For the most part, VP4 serotype segregated independently of VP7 serotype. Ten strains of human rotavirus that were associated with symptomatic infection and that exhibited VP7 serotype 1, 3, 4, or 9 specificity, each possessed a VP4 of the same serotype and subtype, designated VP4 serotype 1A. Both symptomatic human rotavirus strains with VP7 serotype 2 specificity were related by neutralization to the VP4 serotype 1A strains and were classified as a subtype of VP4 serotype 1--i.e., serotype 1B--since viruses of serotype 1A appeared to be prime strains. Four human rotavirus strains that were recovered from healthy infants in newborn nurseries in which virus transmission persisted over a long interval, belonged to VP7 serotype 1, 2, 3, or 4, but each strain possessed the same VP4 antigenic specificity that was designated VP4 serotype 2. Finally, a single strain of symptomatic human rotavirus of VP7 serotype 1 specificity possessed a unique VP4 that was provisionally classified as VP4 serotype 3 but this remains to be confirmed because neutralization tests were performed in only one direction. Among

  4. Distinguishing the genotype 1 genes and proteins of human Wa-like rotaviruses vs. porcine rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda D F; Gregori, F; McDonald, Sarah M

    2016-09-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are 11-segmented, double-stranded RNA viruses and important causes of gastroenteritis in the young of many animal species. Previous studies have suggested that human Wa-like RVAs share a close evolutionary relationship with porcine RVAs. Specifically, the VP1-VP3 and NSP2-5/6 genes of these viruses are usually classified as genotype 1 with >81% nucleotide sequence identity. Yet, it remains unknown whether the genotype 1 genes and proteins of human Wa-like strains are distinguishable from those of porcine strains. To investigate this, we performed comprehensive bioinformatic analyses using all known genotype 1 gene sequences. The RVAs analyzed represent wildtype strains isolated from humans or pigs at various geographical locations during the years of 2004-2013, including 11 newly-sequenced porcine RVAs from Brazil. We also analyzed archival strains that were isolated during the years of 1977-1992 as well as atypical strains involved in inter-species transmission between humans and pigs. We found that, in general, the genotype 1 genes of typical modern human Wa-like RVAs clustered together in phylogenetic trees and were separate from those of typical modern porcine RVAs. The only exception was for the NSP5/6 gene, which showed no host-specific phylogenetic clustering. Using amino acid sequence alignments, we identified 34 positions that differentiated the VP1-VP3, NSP2, and NSP3 genotype 1 proteins of typical modern human Wa-like RVAs versus typical modern porcine RVAs and documented how these positions vary in the archival/unusual isolates. No host-specific amino acid positions were identified for NSP4, NSP5, or NSP6. Altogether, the results of this study support the notion that human Wa-like RVAs and porcine RVAs are evolutionarily related, but indicate that some of their genotype 1 genes and proteins have diverged over time possibly as a reflection of sequestered replication and protein co-adaptation in their respective hosts. PMID

  5. Rotavirus Infection of Human Cholangiocytes Parallels the Murine Model of Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Coots, Abigail; Donnelly, Bryan; Mohanty, Sujit K; McNeal, Monica; Sestak, Karol; Tiao, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Biliary atresia (BA) is the leading indication for liver transplantation in the pediatric population. The murine model of BA supports a viral etiology as infection of neonatal mice with rhesus rotavirus (RRV) results in biliary obstruction. Viral infection targets the biliary epithelium and development of the model is viral strain dependent. No study has yet determined if human cholangiocytes are also susceptible to rotaviral infection. We established an in vitro human model utilizing an immortalized human cholangiocyte cell line and primary human cholangiocytes obtained from explanted livers to determine human cholangiocyte susceptibility to rotavirus infection. Methods Replication and binding assays were performed on immortalized mouse (mCL) and human (H69) cells using six different strains of rotavirus. Primary human cholangiocytes were isolated from cadaveric livers, characterized in culture, and infected with RRV which causes BA in mice and another simian strain, TUCH which does not cause BA in mice. Results Immortalized mouse and human cholangiocytes demonstrated similar patterns of infectivity and binding with different strains of rotavirus. Both cell lines produced a significantly higher viral yield with RRV infection than with the other strains tested. In primary human cholangiocytes, which maintained their epithelial characteristics as demonstrated by cytokeratin staining, RRV replicated to a yield 1000 fold higher than TUCH. Conclusions Both immortalized and primary human cholangiocytes are susceptible to RRV infection in a fashion similar to murine cholangiocytes. These novel findings suggest rotavirus infection could have a potential role in the pathogenesis of human BA. PMID:22785360

  6. Molecular characterizations of human and animal group a rotaviruses in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, R; Koopmans, M P G; Shekary, N; Houwers, D J; van Duynhoven, Y T H P; van der Poel, W H M

    2005-02-01

    To gain more insight into interspecies transmission of rotavirus group A, human and animal fecal samples were collected between 1997 and 2001 in The Netherlands. A total of 110 human stool samples were successfully P and G genotyped by reverse transcriptase PCR. All strains belonged to the main human rotavirus genotypes G1 to G4, G9, [P4], [P6], [P8], and [P9]. [P8]G1 was predominant, and 5.5% belonged to the G9 genotype. Eleven percent of all P[8] genotypes could be genotyped only by a recently published modified primer. Rotavirus-positive fecal samples from 28 calf herds were genotyped by DNA sequencing. Genotypes G6 and G10 predominated; G6 and G10 were detected in 22 (78.6%) and 16 (57.1%) of the rotavirus-positive calf herds, respectively. In 12 (42.9%) calf herds, we found mixed infections. Genotype G8 was not found. Genotype G6 bovine rotaviruses were divided into three clusters: UK-like, VMRI-29-like, and Hun4-like. DNA sequencing of a part of the VP7 gene was shown to be useful as a quick determination of uncommon or novel strains of which the genotyping cannot be done by genotyping PCR. Of equine strains, both VP4 and VP7 genes could be used for genotyping: two [P12]G3 and four [P12]G14 equine rotaviruses were determined. We did not find indications for rotavirus interspecies transmissions, although the recently published human G6-Hun4 is genetically related to our G6 bovine isolates. All bovine, porcine, and equine rotaviruses were within genotypes previously reported for these animal species. PMID:15695662

  7. Reassortment of Human and Animal Rotavirus Gene Segments in Emerging DS-1-Like G1P[8] Rotavirus Strains.

    PubMed

    Komoto, Satoshi; Tacharoenmuang, Ratana; Guntapong, Ratigorn; Ide, Tomihiko; Tsuji, Takao; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Tharmaphornpilas, Piyanit; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Taniguchi, Koki

    2016-01-01

    The emergence and rapid spread of novel DS-1-like G1P[8] human rotaviruses in Japan were recently reported. More recently, such intergenogroup reassortant strains were identified in Thailand, implying the ongoing spread of unusual rotavirus strains in Asia. During rotavirus surveillance in Thailand, three DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant strains having G3P[8] (RVA/Human-wt/THA/SKT-281/2013/G3P[8] and RVA/Human-wt/THA/SKT-289/2013/G3P[8]) and G2P[8] (RVA/Human-wt/THA/LS-04/2013/G2P[8]) genotypes were identified in fecal samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the complete genomes of strains SKT-281, SKT-289, and LS-04. On whole genomic analysis, all three strains exhibited unique genotype constellations including both genogroup 1 and 2 genes: G3-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 for strains SKT-281 and SKT-289, and G2-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 for strain LS-04. Except for the G genotype, the unique genotype constellation of the three strains (P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2) is commonly shared with DS-1-like G1P[8] strains. On phylogenetic analysis, nine of the 11 genes of strains SKT-281 and SKT-289 (VP4, VP6, VP1-3, NSP1-3, and NSP5) appeared to have originated from DS-1-like G1P[8] strains, while the remaining VP7 and NSP4 genes appeared to be of equine and bovine origin, respectively. Thus, strains SKT-281 and SKT-289 appeared to be reassortant strains as to DS-1-like G1P[8], animal-derived human, and/or animal rotaviruses. On the other hand, seven of the 11 genes of strain LS-04 (VP7, VP6, VP1, VP3, and NSP3-5) appeared to have originated from locally circulating DS-1-like G2P[4] human rotaviruses, while three genes (VP4, VP2, and NSP1) were assumed to be derived from DS-1-like G1P[8] strains. Notably, the remaining NSP2 gene of strain LS-04 appeared to be of bovine origin. Thus, strain LS-04 was assumed to be a multiple reassortment strain as to DS-1-like G1P[8], locally circulating

  8. Reassortment of Human and Animal Rotavirus Gene Segments in Emerging DS-1-Like G1P[8] Rotavirus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Komoto, Satoshi; Tacharoenmuang, Ratana; Guntapong, Ratigorn; Ide, Tomihiko; Tsuji, Takao; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Tharmaphornpilas, Piyanit; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Taniguchi, Koki

    2016-01-01

    The emergence and rapid spread of novel DS-1-like G1P[8] human rotaviruses in Japan were recently reported. More recently, such intergenogroup reassortant strains were identified in Thailand, implying the ongoing spread of unusual rotavirus strains in Asia. During rotavirus surveillance in Thailand, three DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant strains having G3P[8] (RVA/Human-wt/THA/SKT-281/2013/G3P[8] and RVA/Human-wt/THA/SKT-289/2013/G3P[8]) and G2P[8] (RVA/Human-wt/THA/LS-04/2013/G2P[8]) genotypes were identified in fecal samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the complete genomes of strains SKT-281, SKT-289, and LS-04. On whole genomic analysis, all three strains exhibited unique genotype constellations including both genogroup 1 and 2 genes: G3-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 for strains SKT-281 and SKT-289, and G2-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 for strain LS-04. Except for the G genotype, the unique genotype constellation of the three strains (P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2) is commonly shared with DS-1-like G1P[8] strains. On phylogenetic analysis, nine of the 11 genes of strains SKT-281 and SKT-289 (VP4, VP6, VP1-3, NSP1-3, and NSP5) appeared to have originated from DS-1-like G1P[8] strains, while the remaining VP7 and NSP4 genes appeared to be of equine and bovine origin, respectively. Thus, strains SKT-281 and SKT-289 appeared to be reassortant strains as to DS-1-like G1P[8], animal-derived human, and/or animal rotaviruses. On the other hand, seven of the 11 genes of strain LS-04 (VP7, VP6, VP1, VP3, and NSP3-5) appeared to have originated from locally circulating DS-1-like G2P[4] human rotaviruses, while three genes (VP4, VP2, and NSP1) were assumed to be derived from DS-1-like G1P[8] strains. Notably, the remaining NSP2 gene of strain LS-04 appeared to be of bovine origin. Thus, strain LS-04 was assumed to be a multiple reassortment strain as to DS-1-like G1P[8], locally circulating

  9. Evidence of multiple reassortment events of feline-to-human rotaviruses based on a rare human G3P[9] rotavirus isolated from a patient with acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tinh Huu; Than, Van Thai; Thanh, Hien Dang; Kim, Wonyong

    2016-06-01

    A rare human/feline-like rotavirus G3P[9] strain, CAU14-1-262, from a 2-year-old girl with severe gastroenteritis was isolated and sequenced. The 11 gene segments of the CAU14-1-262 strain possessed a novel genotype constellation, G3-P[9]-I3-R3-C3-M3-A3-N3-T1-E3-H6, which was identified for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of this strain identified the following genome origins: VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1-VP3, NSP1, NSP2, and NSP4 genes possessed an AU-1-like genotype 3 constellation with high sequence identity to those of the feline and human/feline-like rotaviruses; NSP5 possessed a H6 lineage, with highest sequence identity to the human/feline-like E2541 strain; and the NSP3 gene possessed a Wa-like genotype 1 constellation with high sequence identity to those of the of human rotaviruses. These results provided evidence of multiple reassortment events in G3P[9] rotavirus CAU14-1-262 and possibility of feline-to-human interspecies transmission. PMID:27260811

  10. Physicochemical stability and inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Z.D.; Birch, C.; Heath, R.; Gust, I.

    1987-04-01

    The effects of various physical and chemical treatments on the stability of a human serotype 1 rotavirus and simian agent 11 (SA11) were compared by using a fluorescence focus assay. The infectivity of both strains was retained after storage at room temperature for 14 days, 4 degree C for 22 days, and -20 degree C for 32 days; lyophilization; and treatment at pH 3 to 11. Both viruses were inactivated at pH 12, as was the human virus at pH 2, although this pH resulted in only partial inactivation of SA11. The human virus also appeared to be more sensitive than SA11 to the action of ether and chloroform. The infectivity of both viruses was lost after UV irradiation for 15 min and after treatment with 8% formaldehyde for 5 min, 70% (vol/vol) ethanol for 30 min, and 2% lysol, 2% phenol, and 1% H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ for 1 h each.

  11. Rotavirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G

    1998-01-01

    Encouraging results have been reported from several large trials of tetravalent rhesus rotavirus vaccine, with efficacy of 70-80% against severe disease. A recent Venezuelan study showed similar results to trials in USA and Europe. The vaccine may soon be licensed in USA. It provides the exciting prospect of a strategy to prevent one of the world's major child killers. Other candidate vaccines are under development including human-bovine reassortants, neonatal strains, non-replicating rotaviruses, vector vaccines and other genetically engineered products. Second and third generation rotavirus vaccines are on the horizon. The need for a rotavirus vaccine is well accepted by paediatricians, but public health authorities need to be lobbied. Other issues which need to be addressed include relative importance of non-group A rotaviruses, possible administration with OPV, the influence of breast feeding, and most importantly, cost. It is essential that rotavirus vaccine is somehow made available to all of the world's children, not just those in developed countries. PMID:9553287

  12. Typing of human rotavirus VP4 by an enzyme immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, B S

    1993-01-01

    Two different neutralization specificities exist on the outer capsid of group A rotaviruses. At least seven VP7 (G) antigenic types are distinguishable among human rotaviruses. Four distinct antigenic (P) types of human rotavirus VP4 corresponding to separate rotavirus gene 4 groups have been described. The aim of this study was to identify P types in clinical specimens by developing an enzyme immunoassay, using P-type-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (N-MAbs). Three N-MAbs primarily or solely recognizing each of P types 4, 6, and 8 and binding to VP4 or its subunit VP5* were derived. These N-MAbs served as detector antibodies in an enzyme immunoassay P-typing system similar to that in use for G typing. P-type specificity was highest when the G-type specificity of the capture antiserum was matched to the G type of the rotavirus in the test sample. The method correctly identified the P types of 13 well-characterized, cell culture-adapted human rotaviruses and was used to classify a further six strains. P typing of 118 rotavirus-positive stools gave results consistent with the P type inferred from the G type for 98 (83%) samples. Twelve (10%) of the stools showed no reaction with any N-MAb and eight (7%) samples were untypeable because of cross-reactivity between N-MAbs or high background readings. This P-typing enzyme immunoassay system is economical and amenable to large-scale use in epidemiological studies. Its use will facilitate assessment of the distribution of P types worldwide and of the role of VP4 in eliciting protective immune responses. PMID:7678015

  13. Distribution of serotypes of human rotavirus in different populations.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, P A; Gentsch, J; Gouvea, V; Mata, L; Santosham, M; Bai, Z S; Urasawa, S; Glass, R I

    1992-01-01

    Serotyping is a useful tool to study the epidemiologic characteristics of rotaviruses in large populations and to assess the need for a vaccine to protect against all strains. By using an enzyme immunoassay with serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies to the four most common rotavirus serotypes, we analyzed 1,183 rotavirus-positive specimens from 16 stool collections in eight countries on four continents that were obtained from 1978 to 1989. Of the 926 strains (78%) that could be serotyped, 48% were serotype 1, 8% were serotype 2, 15% were serotype 3, and 7% were serotype 4. Twenty-two percent had insufficient numbers of double-shelled virus particles to react with the monoclonal antibody of the VP4 rotavirus protein and therefore could not be serotyped. Our results indicate that vaccines being developed must provide the greatest coverage against serotype 1 and that the serotype distribution cannot be predicted currently by the geographic area or prevalence in the preceding year. PMID:1315333

  14. Rotavirus vaccine: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Goel Manish; Arun, Kumar; Bilas, Jain Ram; Ruchi, Jain; Pardeep, Khanna; Pradeep, Siwach

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, large proportion i.e., 37% of deaths due to diarrhea in young children is attributed to rotavirus. A monovalent P1A[8] G1 vaccine and a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine human rotavirus vaccine had shown good clinical efficacy without any increase in intussusception among vaccine recipients. WHO recommends that the first dose of rotavirus vaccine should be administered to infants up to age of 6-15 weeks irrespective of the prior history of rotavirus infection and the maximum age for administering the last dose of the vaccine should be 32 weeks. Booster doses are not recommended. The current update reviews the issues related to rotavirus vaccines and their usages like milestones in the development of rotavirus vaccines, concerns regarding their efficacy and cost-effectiveness, immunity after natural infection, potential for changes in virus strains, current recommendations, post marketing surveillance, and future challenges and scope for further research regarding rotavirus vaccines. PMID:25145068

  15. Genetic diversity and zoonotic potential of human rotavirus strains, 2003-2006, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Bányai, Krisztián; Bogdán, Agnes; Domonkos, Gertrud; Kisfali, Péter; Molnár, Péter; Tóth, András; Melegh, Béla; Martella, Vito; Gentsch, Jon R; Szucs, György

    2009-02-01

    Rotavirus strain surveillance is being conducted in many countries before and after introduction of newly licensed vaccines to assess the impact of the vaccines on rotavirus strains. Here we describe a strain surveillance study in the Budapest area of Hungary (2003-2006) based on RNA profile analysis, genotyping by multiplex PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Among 1,983 G-typed rotaviruses we identified G1 (22%), G2 (4.8%), G3 (3.5%), G4 (18.5%), G6 (1.1%), G8 (<0.1%, n = 1), G9 (42%), and G12 (3.4%) specificities. Information on P genotype incidence was determined for a subset of samples (n = 814). In addition to the globally important strains, a variety of uncommon antigen combinations were also found, for example, P[9],G3; P[14],G6; or P[14],G8. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the VP7, VP4, VP6, and NSP4 genes of selected strains with uncommon antigen combinations demonstrated high similarity with certain bovine, porcine, feline, equine, and lapine rotaviruses, respectively. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the role of animal rotaviruses in human diseases. PMID:19107981

  16. Construction and Characterization of Human Rotavirus Recombinant VP8* Subunit Parenteral Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiaobo; Cao, Dianjun; Jones, Ronald W.; Li, Jianping; Szu, Shousun; Hoshino, Yasutaka

    2012-01-01

    Two currently licensed live oral rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) are highly efficacious against severe rotavirus diarrhea. However, the efficacy of such vaccines in selected low-income African and Asian countries is much lower than that in middle or high-income countries. Additionally, these two vaccines have recently been associated with rare case of intussusception in vaccinated infants. We developed a novel recombinant subunit parenteral rotavirus vaccine which may be more effective in low-income countries and also avert the potential problem of intussusception. Truncated recombinant VP8* (ΔVP8*) protein of human rotavirus strain Wa P[8], DS-1 P[4] or 1076 P[6] expressed in E. coli was highly soluble and was generated in high yield. Guinea pigs hyperimmunized intramuscularly with each of the ΔVP8* proteins (i.e., (P[8], P[4] or P[6]) developed high levels of homotypic as well as variable levels of heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, the selected ΔVP8* proteins when administered to mice at a clinically relevant dosage, route and schedule, elicited high levels of serum anti-VP8* IgG and/or neutralizing antibodies. Our data indicated that the ΔVP8* proteins may be a plausible additional candidate as new parenteral rotavirus vaccines. PMID:22885016

  17. Whole genome detection of rotavirus mixed infections in human, porcine and bovine samples co-infected with various rotavirus strains collected from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyaga, Martin M; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Esona, Mathew D; Seheri, Mapaseka L; Stucker, Karla M; Halpin, Rebecca A; Akopov, Asmik; Stockwell, Timothy B; Peenze, Ina; Diop, Amadou; Ndiaye, Kader; Boula, Angeline; Maphalala, Gugu; Berejena, Chipo; Mwenda, Jason M; Steele, A Duncan; Wentworth, David E; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are among the main global causes of severe diarrhea in children under the age of 5years. Strain diversity, mixed infections and untypeable RVA strains are frequently reported in Africa. We analysed rotavirus-positive human stool samples (n=13) obtained from hospitalised children under the age of 5years who presented with acute gastroenteritis at sentinel hospital sites in six African countries, as well as bovine and porcine stool samples (n=1 each), to gain insights into rotavirus diversity and evolution. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis and genotyping with G-(VP7) and P-specific (VP4) typing primers suggested that 13 of the 15 samples contained more than 11 segments and/or mixed G/P genotypes. Full-length amplicons for each segment were generated using RVA-specific primers and sequenced using the Ion Torrent and/or Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing platforms. Sequencing detected at least one segment in each sample for which duplicate sequences, often having distinct genotypes, existed. This supported and extended the PAGE and RT-PCR genotyping findings that suggested these samples were collected from individuals that had mixed rotavirus infections. The study reports the first porcine (MRC-DPRU1567) and bovine (MRC-DPRU3010) mixed infections. We also report a unique genome segment 9 (VP7), whose G9 genotype belongs to lineage VI and clusters with porcine reference strains. Previously, African G9 strains have all been in lineage III. Furthermore, additional RVA segments isolated from humans have a clear evolutionary relationship with porcine, bovine and ovine rotavirus sequences, indicating relatively recent interspecies transmission and reassortment. Thus, multiple RVA strains from sub-Saharan Africa are infecting mammalian hosts with unpredictable variations in their gene segment combinations. Whole-genome sequence analyses of mixed RVA strains underscore the considerable diversity of rotavirus sequences and

  18. Whole genome detection of rotavirus mixed infections in human, porcine and bovine samples co-infected with various rotavirus strains collected from sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nyaga, Martin M.; Jere, Khuzwayo C.; Esona, Mathew D.; Seheri, Mapaseka L.; Stucker, Karla M.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Akopov, Asmik; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Peenze, Ina; Diop, Amadou; Ndiaye, Kader; Boula, Angeline; Maphalala, Gugu; Berejena, Chipo; Mwenda, Jason M.; Steele, A. Duncan; Wentworth, David E.; Mphahlele, M. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are among the main global causes of severe diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years. Strain diversity, mixed infections and untypeable RVA strains are frequently reported in Africa. We analysed rotavirus-positive human stool samples (n=13) obtained from hospitalised children under the age of 5 years who presented with acute gastroenteritis at sentinel hospital sites in six African countries, as well as bovine and porcine stool samples (n=1 each), to gain insights into rotavirus diversity and evolution. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis and genotyping with G- (VP7) and P-specific (VP4) typing primers suggested that 13 of the 15 samples contained more than 11 segments and/or mixed G/P genotypes. Full-length amplicons for each segment were generated using RVA-specific primers and sequenced using the Ion Torrent and/or Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing platforms. Sequencing detected at least one segment in each sample for which duplicate sequences, often having distinct genotypes, existed. This supported and extended the PAGE and RT-PCR genotyping findings that suggested these samples were collected from individuals that had mixed rotavirus infections. The study reports the first porcine (MRC-DPRU1567) and bovine (MRC-DPRU3010) mixed infections. We also report a unique genome segment 9 (VP7), whose G9 genotype belongs to lineage VI and clusters with porcine reference strains. Previously, African G9 strains have all been in lineage III. Furthermore, additional RVA segments isolated from humans have a clear evolutionary relationship with porcine, bovine and ovine rotavirus sequences, indicating relatively recent interspecies transmission and reassortment. Thus, multiple RVA strains from sub-Saharan Africa are infecting mammalian hosts with unpredictable variations in their gene segment combinations. Whole-genome sequence analyses of mixed RVA strains underscore the considerable diversity of rotavirus sequences and

  19. Identification of novel and diverse rotaviruses in rodents and insectivores, and evidence of cross-species transmission into humans.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Huang, Kai-Yu; Zhang, Bing; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Wang, Wen; Xing, Jian-Guang; Li, Ming-Hui; Hong, Wang-Sheng; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2016-07-01

    Rotaviruses are an important cause of severe diarrheal illness in children globally. We characterized rotaviruses sampled in humans, insectivores (shrews) and rodents from urban and rural regions of Zhejiang province, China. Phylogenetic analyses revealed seven genotypic constellations of human rotaviruses with six different combinations of G and P genotypes - G3P[8] (50.06%), G9P[8] (36.16%), G1P[8] (8.92%), G2P[4] (4.63%), G3P[3] (0.12%), and G3P[9] (0.12%). In rodents and shrews sampled from the same locality we identified a novel genotype constellation (G32-P[46]-I24-R18-C17-M17-A28-N17-T19-E24-H19), a novel P genotype (P[45]), and two different AU-1-like rotaviruses associated with a G3P[3] genotype combination. Of particular note was a novel rotavirus from a human patient that was closely related to viruses sampled from rodents in the same region, indicative of a local species jump. In sum, these data are suggestive of the cross-species transmission of rodent rotaviruses into humans and for reassortment among human and animal rotaviruses. PMID:27115729

  20. Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants and children: rotavirus vaccine safety, efficacy, and potential impact of vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Aruna; Fitzwater, Sean; Zhen, Anjie; Santosham, Mathuram

    2010-01-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis globally, with greater than 86% of deaths occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. There are two rotavirus vaccines currently licensed in the United States and prequalified by the World Health Organization. RV1 is a monovalent attenuated human rotavirus strain, given orally in two doses. RV5 is a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine, given orally in three doses. A third rotavirus vaccine, LLV, is a lamb rotavirus strain given orally as a single dose, which is currently available only in China. RV1 and RV5 have been shown to be highly efficacious in developed countries, and initial results from trials in Africa and Asia are promising as well. At least three other vaccines are in development, which are being developed by manufacturers of developing countries. Further studies are needed to clarify issues including administration of oral rotavirus vaccines with breastfeeding and other oral vaccines, and alterations in dosing schedule. Using new data on global diarrheal burden, rotavirus is estimated to cause 390,000 deaths in children younger than 5 years. Should rotavirus vaccines be introduced in the routine immunization programs of all countries, a potential of 170,000 deaths could be prevented annually. The largest impact on mortality would be seen in low-income and middle-income countries, despite poor immunization coverage and lower efficacy. Therefore, international efforts are needed to ensure that rotavirus vaccines reach the populations with highest burden of rotavirus disease. PMID:20714358

  1. Full Genomic Characterization of a Novel Genotype Combination, G4P[14], of a Human Rotavirus Strain from Barbados

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Ka Ian; Roy, Sunando; Esona, Mathew D.; Jones, Starlene; Sobers, Stephanie; Morris-Glasgow, Victoria; Rey-Benito, Gloria; Gentsch, Jon R.; Bowen, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has carried out rotavirus surveillance in Latin America and the Caribbean. Here we report the characterization of human rotavirus with the novel G-P combination of G4P[14], detected through PAHO surveillance in Barbados. Full genome sequencing of strain RVA/Human-wt/BRB/CDC1133/2012/G4P[14] revealed that its genotype is G4-P[14]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1. The possession of a Genogroup 1 (Wa-like) backbone distinguishes this strain from other P[14] rotavirus strains. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that this strain was likely generated by genetic reassortment between human, porcine and possibly other animal rotavirus strains and identified 7 lineages within the P[14] genotype. The results of this study reinforce the potential role of interspecies transmission in generating human rotavirus diversity through reassortment. Continued surveillance is important to determine if rotavirus vaccines will protect against strains that express the P[14] rotavirus genotype. PMID:25251674

  2. Structural characterization by multistage mass spectrometry (MSn) of human milk glycans recognized by human rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    Ashline, David J; Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Hu, Liya; Ramani, Sasirekha; Prasad, Venkataram; Estes, Mary K; Cummings, Richard D; Smith, David F; Reinhold, Vernon N

    2014-11-01

    We have shown that recombinant forms of VP8* domains of the human rotavirus outer capsid spike protein VP4 from human neonatal strains (N155(G10P[11]) and RV3(G3P[6]) and a bovine strain (B223) recognize unique glycans within the repertoire of human milk glycans. The accompanying study by Yu et al.(2), describes a human milk glycan shotgun glycan microarray that led to the identification of 32 specific glycans in the human milk tagged glycan library that were recognized by these human rotaviruses. These microarray analyses also provided a variety of metadata about the recognized glycan structures compiled from anti-glycan antibody and lectin binding before and after specific glycosidase digestions, along with compositional information from mass analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry. To deduce glycan sequence and utilize information predicted by analyses of metadata from each glycan, 28 of the glycan targets were retrieved from the tagged glycan library for detailed sequencing using sequential disassembly of glycans by ion-trap mass spectrometry. Our aim is to obtain a deeper structural understanding of these key glycans using an orthogonal approach for structural confirmation in a single ion trap mass spectrometer. This sequential ion disassembly strategy details the complexities of linkage and branching in multiple compositions, several of which contained isomeric mixtures including several novel structures. The application of this approach exploits both library matching with standard materials and de novo approaches. This combination together with the metadata generated from lectin and antibody-binding data before and after glycosidase digestions provide a heretofore-unavailable level of analytical detail to glycan structure analysis. The results of these studies showed that, among the 28 glycan targets analyzed, 27 unique structures were identified, and 23 of the human milk glycans recognized by human rotaviruses represent

  3. Molecular Characterization of Human Rotavirus from Children with Diarrhoeal Disease in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alkali, B. R.; Daneji, A. I.; Magaji, A. A.; Bilbis, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to detect and characterize prevalent human group A rotavirus strains from 200 diarrheic children in Sokoto, Nigeria, by ELISA, monoclonal antibody (Mab) serotyping and Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. Rotavirus was detected in 25.5% of the children. The G-serotypes observed in circulation were G4: 16 (59.3%), G1: 4 (14.8%), G2: 3 (11.1%), G3: 3 (11.1%), and G12: 1 (3.7%). The monoclonal antibody (Mab) serotyping detected G1 and G3 but did not detect G4 and G2 serotypes. The Mab typing of the G1 and G3 serotypes was consistent with the result of the RT-PCR. The VP4 genotypes detected were P[6] 3 (13%), P[8] 11 (47.8%), and the rare human P genotype (P[9]), found in 9 patients (39.1%). Nine strains identified with the common G and P combinations were G4 P[8] 5 (56%), G4 P[6] 1 (11%), G1 P[8] 2 (22%), and G3 P[8] 1 (11%), while seven strains with unusual combinations or rare G or P genotypes identified were G12 P[8] 1 (14%), G2 P[8] 2 (29%), and G4 P[9] 4 (57%). To our knowledge this is the first molecular study of human rotavirus and report of rare human G and P serotypes in Sokoto State. PMID:27051531

  4. High Prevalence of G12 Human Rotaviruses in Children with Gastroenteritis in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Ide, Tomihiko; Higo-Moriguchi, Kyoko; Komoto, Satoshi; Htun, Khaing Win; Myint, Yi Yi; Myat, Theingi Win; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Thu, Hlaing Myat; Win, Mo Mo; Oo, Htun Naing; Htut, Than; Rahman, Shofiqur; Nguyen, Sa Van; Umeda, Kouji; Oguma, Keiji; Tsuji, Takao; Taniguchi, Koki

    2016-07-22

    Human rotavirus samples from 54 children with acute gastroenteritis in Myanmar in 2011 were subjected to reverse transcription-PCR to determine their G and P types. On G typing, G2 (24/54; 44.4%) was found to be the most prevalent, followed by G12 (17/54; 31.5%) and G1 (1/54; 1.9%). Mixed cases with G2 and G12 were found in 12 of the 54 (22.2%) samples. On P typing, P[4] was found to be the most predominant (29/54; 53.7%), followed by P[8] (17/54; 31.5%) and P[6] (4/54; 7.4%). Mixed cases with P[4] and P[8] were detected in 4 of 54 (7.4%) samples. Thus, occurrence of G2 and unusual G12 in high proportions was characteristic of human rotaviruses in Myanmar in this study setting. PMID:26370431

  5. Development of a human rotavirus induced diarrhea model in Chinese mini-pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Tao; Wei, Jing; Guo, Hong-Xia; Han, Jiang-Bo; Ye, Nan; He, Hai-Yang; Yu, Tian-Tian; Wu, Yu-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To establish a new animal model for the research of human rotavirus (HRV) infection, its pathogenesis and immunity and evaluation of potential vaccines. METHODS 5-d, 30-d and 60-d-old Chinese mini-pigs, Guizhou and Bamma, were inoculated with a single oral dose of attenuated strain Wa, G1, G3 of HRV, and PBS (control), respectively, and fecal samples of pigs from 0 to 7 d post infection (DPI) were collected individually. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect HRV antigen in feces. The HRV was tested by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The sections of the intestinal tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to observe the morphologic variation by microscopy. Immunofluorescence was used to determine the HRV in intestinal tissue. HRV particles in cells of the ileum were observed by electron micrography. RESULTS When inoculated with HRV, mini-pigs younger than 30 d developed diarrhea in an age-dependent manner and shed HRV antigen of the same inoculum, as demonstrated by RT-PCR. Histopathological changes were observed in HRV inoculated mini-pigs including small intestinal cell tumefaction and necrosis. HRV that was distributed in the small intestine was restricted to the top part of the villi on the internal wall of the ileum, which was observed by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Virus particles were observed in Golgi like follicles in HRV-infected neonatal mini-pigs. Guizhou mini-pigs were more sensitive to HRV than Bamma with respect to RV antigen shedding and clinical diarrhea. CONCLUSION These results indicate that we have established a mini-pig model of HRV induced diarrhea. Our findings are useful for the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of HRV infection. PMID:27610023

  6. Rotavirus Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Why get vaccinated?Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead ... and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common ...

  7. Full genomic analyses of human rotavirus strains possessing the rare P[8]b VP4 subtype.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Souvik; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Yamamoto, Dai; Nagashima, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2011-08-01

    Rotaviruses with the P[8] VP4 genotype are a major cause of acute infantile diarrhea. The P[8] genotype is classified into two genetically distinct subtypes, P[8]a and P[8]b. Most of the P[8] strains belong to subtype P[8]a, whilst P[8]b strains are rare. To date, the whole genomes of a few P[8]a strains have been analyzed, whilst there are no reports on full genomic analysis of the P[8]b strains. To determine the genetic makeup of the rare P[8]b strains and their overall genetic relatedness to the P[8]a strains, the present study analyzed the full genomes of a human G9P[8]b strain, MMC38, and a G1P[8]b strain, MMC71, detected in Bangladesh in 2005. By nucleotide sequence identities and phylogenetic analyses, strains MMC38 and MMC71 exhibited a human rotavirus Wa-like genotype constellation. Except for the VP4 gene, all the genes of strains MMC38 and MMC71 were closely related to cognate genes of the contemporary and more recent human Wa-like G1P[8]a, G9P[8]a, G11P[8]a, G11P[25], G12P[6] and G12P[8]a strains, including those from Bangladesh. Therefore, strains MMC38 and MMC71 possessed the genetically distinct P[8]b VP4 gene on a common human Wa-like genetic backbone, pointing towards their possible origin from reassortment events between common human Wa-like strains and unidentified rotavirus strains possessing the rare P[8]b-like VP4 gene. Since strains with this stable Wa-like genetic backbone can spread rapidly, and it is not certain as to whether the current rotavirus vaccines will be equally efficacious against the P[8]b strains as the P[8]a strains, proper detection of P[8]b strains and their whole genomic analyses might be of public health significance. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report on full genomic analysis of the rare P[8]b rotavirus strains. PMID:21640848

  8. Interaction of Rotavirus with Human Myeloid Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Narváez, Carlos F.; Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A.

    2005-01-01

    We have previously shown that very few rotavirus (RV)-specific T cells that secrete gamma interferon circulate in recently infected and seropositive adults and children. Here, we have studied the interaction of RV with myeloid immature (IDC) and mature dendritic cells (MDC) in vitro. RV did not induce cell death of IDC or MDC and induced maturation of between 12 and 48% of IDC. Nonetheless, RV did not inhibit the maturation of IDC or change the expression of maturation markers on MDC. After treatment with RV, few IDC expressed the nonstructural viral protein NSP4. In contrast, a discrete productive viral infection was shown in MDC of a subset of volunteers, and between 3 and 46% of these cells expressed NSP4. RV-treated IDC secreted interleukin 6 (IL-6) (but not IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or transforming growth factor beta), and MDC released IL-6 and small amounts of IL-10 and IL-12p70. The patterns of cytokines secreted by T cells stimulated by staphylococcal enterotoxin B presented by MDC infected with RV or uninfected were comparable. The frequencies and patterns of cytokines secreted by memory RV-specific T cells evidenced after stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with RV were similar to those evidenced after stimulation of PBMC with RV-infected MDC. Finally, IDC treated with RV strongly stimulated naive allogeneic CD4+ T cells to secrete Th1 cytokines. Thus, although RV does not seem to be a strong maturing stimulus for DC, it promotes their capacity to prime Th1 cells. PMID:16282452

  9. Identification of human rotavirus serotype by hybridization to polymerase chain reaction-generated probes derived from a hyperdivergent region of the gene encoding outer capsid protein VP7

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, J.; Sears, J.; Schael, I.P.; White, L.; Garcia, D.; Lanata, C.; Kapikian, A.Z. )

    1990-08-01

    We have synthesized {sup 32}P-labeled hybridization probes from a hyperdivergent region (nucleotides 51 to 392) of the rotavirus gene encoding the VP7 glycoprotein by using the polymerase chain reaction method. Both RNA (after an initial reverse transcription step) and cloned cDNA from human rotavirus serotypes 1 through 4 could be used as templates to amplify this region. High-stringency hybridization of each of the four probes to rotavirus RNAs dotted on nylon membranes allowed the specific detection of corresponding sequences and thus permitted identification of the serotype of the strains dotted. The procedure was useful when applied to rotaviruses isolated from field studies.

  10. Complete Genome Characterization of Recent and Ancient Belgian Pig Group A Rotaviruses and Assessment of Their Evolutionary Relationship with Human Rotaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Heylen, Elisabeth; Zeller, Mark; Roukaerts, Inge D. M.; Desmarets, Lowiese M. B.; Van Ranst, Marc; Nauwynck, Hans J.; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are an important cause of diarrhea in young pigs and children. An evolutionary relationship has been suggested to exist between pig and human RVAs. This hypothesis was further investigated by phylogenetic analysis of the complete genomes of six recent (G2P[27], G3P[6], G4P[7], G5P[7], G9P[13], and G9P[23]) and one historic (G1P[7]) Belgian pig RVA strains and of all completely characterized pig RVAs from around the globe. In contrast to the large diversity of genotypes found for the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, a relatively conserved genotype constellation (I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T7-E1-H1) was found for the other 9 genes in most pig RVA strains. VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP2, NSP4, and NSP5 genes of porcine RVAs belonged to genotype 1, which is shared with human Wa-like RVAs. However, for most of these gene segments, pig strains clustered distantly from human Wa-like RVAs, indicating that viruses from both species have entered different evolutionary paths. However, VP1, VP2, and NSP3 genes of some archival human strains were moderately related to pig strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP6, NSP1, and NSP3 genes, as well as amino acid analysis of the antigenic regions of VP7, further confirmed this evolutionary segregation. The present results also indicate that the species barrier is less strict for pig P[6] strains but that chances for successful spread of these strains in the human population are hampered by the better adaptation of pig RVAs to pig enterocytes. However, future surveillance of pig and human RVA strains is warranted. IMPORTANCE Rotaviruses are an important cause of diarrhea in many species, including pigs and humans. Our understanding of the evolutionary relationship between rotaviruses from both species is limited by the lack of genomic data on pig strains. In this study, recent and ancient Belgian pig rotavirus isolates were sequenced, and their evolutionary relationship with human Wa-like strains was investigated

  11. RELATIVE CONCENTRATIONS OF SERUM NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODY TO VP3 AND VP7 PROTEINS IN ADULTS INFECTED WITH A HUMAN ROTAVIRUS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two outer capsid rotavirus proteins, VP3 and VP7, have been found to elicit neutralizing antibody production, but the immunogenicity of these proteins during human rotavirus infection has not been determined. The relative amounts of serum neutralizing antibody against the VP3 and...

  12. Rotavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  13. Structural basis of glycan specificity in neonate-specific bovine-human reassortant rotavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Liya; Ramani, Sasirekha; Czako, Rita; Sankaran, Banumathi; Yu, Ying; Smith, David F.; Cummings, Richard D.; Estes, Mary K.; Venkataram Prasad, B. V.

    2015-09-30

    We report that strain-dependent variation of glycan recognition during initial cell attachment of viruses is a critical determinant of host specificity, tissue-tropism and zoonosis. Rotaviruses (RVs), which cause life-threatening gastroenteritis in infants and children, display significant genotype-dependent variations in glycan recognition resulting from sequence alterations in the VP8* domain of the spike protein VP4. The structural basis of this genotype-dependent glycan specificity, particularly in human RVs, remains poorly understood. Here, from crystallographic studies, we show how genotypic variations configure a novel binding site in the VP8* of a neonate-specific bovine-human reassortant to uniquely recognize either type I or type II precursor glycans, and to restrict type II glycan binding in the bovine counterpart. In conclusion, such a distinct glycan-binding site that allows differential recognition of the precursor glycans, which are developmentally regulated in the neonate gut and abundant in bovine and human milk provides a basis for age-restricted tropism and zoonotic transmission of G10P[11] rotaviruses.

  14. Structural basis of glycan specificity in neonate-specific bovine-human reassortant rotavirus

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hu, Liya; Ramani, Sasirekha; Czako, Rita; Sankaran, Banumathi; Yu, Ying; Smith, David F.; Cummings, Richard D.; Estes, Mary K.; Venkataram Prasad, B. V.

    2015-09-30

    We report that strain-dependent variation of glycan recognition during initial cell attachment of viruses is a critical determinant of host specificity, tissue-tropism and zoonosis. Rotaviruses (RVs), which cause life-threatening gastroenteritis in infants and children, display significant genotype-dependent variations in glycan recognition resulting from sequence alterations in the VP8* domain of the spike protein VP4. The structural basis of this genotype-dependent glycan specificity, particularly in human RVs, remains poorly understood. Here, from crystallographic studies, we show how genotypic variations configure a novel binding site in the VP8* of a neonate-specific bovine-human reassortant to uniquely recognize either type I or type IImore » precursor glycans, and to restrict type II glycan binding in the bovine counterpart. In conclusion, such a distinct glycan-binding site that allows differential recognition of the precursor glycans, which are developmentally regulated in the neonate gut and abundant in bovine and human milk provides a basis for age-restricted tropism and zoonotic transmission of G10P[11] rotaviruses.« less

  15. Conservation of the fourth gene among rotaviruses recovered from asymptomatic newborn infants and its possible role in attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, J.; Midthun, K.; Hoshino, Y.; Green, K.; Gorziglia, M.; Kapikian, A.Z.; Chanock, R.M.

    1986-11-01

    RNA-RNA hybridization was performed to assess the extent of genetic relatedness among human rotaviruses isolated from children with gastroenteritis and from asymptomatic newborn infants. /sup 32/P-labeled single-stranded RNAs produced by in vitro transcription from viral cores of the different strains tested were used as probes in two different hybridization assays: (1) undenatured genomic RNAs were resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, denatured in situ, electrophoretically transferred to diazobenzyloxymethyl-paper (Northern blots), and then hybridized to the probes under two different conditions of stringency; and (ii) denatured genomic double-stranded RNAs were hybridized to the probes in solution and the hybrids which formed were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When analyzed by Northern blot hybridization at a low level of stringency, all genes from the strains tested cross-hybridized, providing evidence for some sequence homology in each of the corresponding genes. However, when hybridization stringency was increased, a difference in gene 4 sequence was detected between strains recovered from asymptomatic newborn infants (nursery strains) and strains recovered from infants and young children with diarrhea. Although the nursery strains exhibited serotypic diversity, the fourth gene appeared to be highly conversed. These results were confirmed and extended during experiments in which the RNA-RNA hybridization was carried out in solution and the resulting hybrids were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Full-length hybrids did not form between the fourth genes from the nursery strains and the corresponding genes from the strains recovered from symptomatic infants and young children.

  16. Identification of Novel Ghanaian G8P[6] Human-Bovine Reassortant Rotavirus Strain by Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Francis E.; Fujii, Yoshiki; Haga, Kei; Damanka, Susan; Lartey, Belinda; Agbemabiese, Chantal A.; Ohta, Nobuo; Armah, George E.; Katayama, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are the most important etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age worldwide. The monovalent rotavirus vaccine Rotarix was introduced into the national Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in Ghana in May 2012. However, there is a paucity of genetic and phylogenetic data on the complete genomes of human RVAs in circulation pre-vaccine introduction. The common bovine rotavirus VP7 genotype G8 has been sporadically detected in Ghanaian children, usually in combination with the VP4 genotype P[6]. To investigate the genomic constellations and phylogeny of RVA strains in circulation prior to vaccine introduction, the full genomes of two unusual G8P[6] strains, GH018-08 and GH019-08, detected during burden of disease surveillance, were characterized by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The Ghanaian isolates, GH018-08 and GH019-08, exhibited the unusual, previously unreported genotype constellation G8-P[6]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H3. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that 10 out of the 11 genes of GH018-08 and GH019-08 were identical/nearly identical, with significant variation detected only in their VP1 genes, and clearly established the occurrence of multiple independent interspecies transmission and reassortment events between co-circulating bovine/ovine/caprine rotaviruses and human DS-1-like RVA strains. These findings highlight the contribution of reassortment and interspecies transmission events to the high rotavirus diversity in this region of Africa, and justify the need for simultaneous monitoring of animal and human rotavirus strains. PMID:24971993

  17. Molecular characterization of the first G24P[14] rotavirus strain detected in humans.

    PubMed

    Ward, M Leanne; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Roy, Sunando; Rungsrisuriyachai, Kunchala; Boom, Julie A; Sahni, Leila C; Baker, Carol J; Rench, Marcia A; Wikswo, Mary E; Payne, Daniel C; Parashar, Umesh D; Bowen, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Here we report the genome of a novel rotavirus A (RVA) strain detected in a stool sample collected during routine surveillance by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's New Vaccine Surveillance Network. The strain, RVA/human-wt/USA/2012741499/2012/G24P[14], has a genomic constellation of G24-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T9-E2-H3. The VP2, VP3, VP7 and NSP3 genes cluster phylogenetically with bovine strains. The other genes occupy mixed clades containing animal and human strains. Strain RVA/human-wt/USA/2012741499/2012/G24P[14] most likely is the product of interspecies transmission and reassortment events. This is the second report of the G24 genotype and the first report of the G24P[14] genotype combination in humans. PMID:27237948

  18. Monoclonal antibodies directed against VP7 protein of human group B rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaojie; Xiong, Guomei; Cong, Wenjuan; Liu, Zhonglai; Qi, Chao; Yang, Jihong

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare and identify a monoclonal antibody that binds the viral proteins 7 (VP7 protein) of human group B rotavirus (GBRV) and to describe its immunologic characterization. Human group B rotavirus vp7 gene was successfully ligated into pGEX-KG vector and transformed into Escherichia coli TOP10 cells. The glutathione S-transferases (GST)-fusion protein GST-VP7 was induced by Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and immediately purified to immunize BALB/c mice. Splenocytes were then prepared from the immunized mouse and fused with SP2/0 myeloma cell line. In the end we obtained one positive hybridoma cell line stably secreting monoclonal antibody against GST-VP7 protein by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and limiting dilution. The production of the monoclonal antibody against GBRV will benefit the further study of GBRV's structures and functions and also lay a solid foundation for the research of disease prevention, clinical diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24555935

  19. Complete Genome Analysis of a Rabbit Rotavirus Causing Gastroenteritis in a Human Infant

    PubMed Central

    Bonica, Melisa Berenice; Zeller, Mark; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Heylen, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are responsible for causing infantile diarrhea both in humans and animals. The molecular characteristics of lapine RVA strains are only studied to a limited extent and so far G3P[14] and G3P[22] were found to be the most common G/P-genotypes. During the 2012-2013 rotavirus season in Belgium, a G3P[14] RVA strain was isolated from stool collected from a two-year-old boy. We investigated whether RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE5028/2012/G3P[14] is completely of lapine origin or the result of reassortment event(s). Phylogenetic analyses of all gene segments revealed the following genotype constellation: G3-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M3-A9-N2-T6-E5-H3 and indicated that BE5028 probably represents a rabbit to human interspecies transmission able to cause disease in a human child. Interestingly, BE5028 showed a close evolutionary relationship to RVA/Human-wt/BEL/B4106/2000/G3P[14], another lapine-like strain isolated in a Belgian child in 2000. The phylogenetic analysis of the NSP3 segment suggests the introduction of a bovine(-like) NSP3 into the lapine RVA population in the past 12 years. Sequence analysis of NSP5 revealed a head-to-tail partial duplication, combined with two short insertions and a deletion, indicative of the continuous circulation of this RVA lineage within the rabbit population. PMID:25690801

  20. One year survey of human rotavirus strains suggests the emergence of genotype G12 in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ndze, Valentine N; Papp, Hajnalka; Achidi, Eric A; Gonsu, Kamga H; László, Brigitta; Farkas, Szilvia; Kisfali, Péter; Melegh, Béla; Esona, Mathew D; Bowen, Michael D; Bányai, K; Gentsch, Jon R; Odama, Abena M T

    2013-08-01

    In this study the emergence of rotavirus A genotype G12 in children <5 years of age is reported from Cameroon during 2010/2011. A total of 135 human stool samples were P and G genotyped by reverse transcriptase PCR. Six different rotavirus VP7 genotypes were detected, including G1, G2, G3, G8, G9, and G12 in combinations with P[4], P[6] and P[8] VP4 genotypes. Genotype G12 predominated in combination with P[8] (54.1%) and P[6] (10.4%) genotypes followed by G1P[6] (8.2%), G3P[6] (6.7%), G2P[4] (5.9%), G8P[6] (3.7%), G2P[6] (0.7%), G3P[8] (0.7%), and G9P[8] (0.7%). Genotype P[6] strains in combination with various G-types represented a substantial proportion (N=44, 32.6%) of the genotyped strains. Partially typed strains included G12P[NT] (2.2%); G3P[NT] (0.7%); G(NT)P[6] (1.5%); and G(NT)P[8] (0.7%). Mixed infections were found in five specimens (3.7%) in several combinations including G1+ G12P[6], G2+ G3P[6] + P[8], G3+ G8P[6], G3 + G12P[6] + P[8], and G12P[6] +P[8]. The approximately 10% relative frequency of G12P[6] strains detected in this study suggests that this strain is emerging in Cameroon and should be monitored carefully as rotavirus vaccine is implemented in this country, as it shares neither G- nor P-type specificity with strains in the RotaTeq® and Rotarix® vaccines. These findings are consistent with other recent reports of the global spread and increasing epidemiologic importance of G12 and P[6] strains. PMID:23765785

  1. Human group A rotavirus infections in children in Denmark: detection of reassortant G9 strains and zoonotic P[14] strains.

    PubMed

    Midgley, S; Böttiger, B; Jensen, T G; Friis-Møller, A; Person, L K; Nielsen, L; Barzinci, S; Fischer, T K

    2014-10-01

    One of the leading causes of severe childhood gastroenteritis are group A rotaviruses, and they have been found to be associated with ∼40% of the annual gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations in young Danish children <5years of age (Fischer et al., 2011). In this study, we investigated the diversity of rotavirus strains circulating among young children <5years of age, presenting with gastroenteritis disease either at the general practitioner or in the hospital, during the period 2009-2013. A total of 831 rotavirus positive stool samples were genotyped in the study period, and the majority of samples (74%) were from hospitalized children. G and P genotypes were successfully determined for 826 of samples, with G1P[8] being the most commonly detected genotype. Detection of G1 showed a decreasing trend over time, and an inverse trend was seen for the emerging G9P. The common human genotypes (G1/G3/G4/G9P[8] and G2P[4]) were detected in the majority of samples (n=733, 88.2%). Rare genotype combinations such as G6P[14] were detected in <1% of samples. Rare genotype strains and strains which failed to amplify in genotyping RT-PCR were subjected to genetic characterization by sequencing one or all of the following genes; VP7, VP4, VP6 and NSP4. Sequences of sufficient length and quality were available for all 4 genes for 28 strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that reassortant G9P[4] strains circulated with 3 different genotype combinations. As rotavirus vaccines are not widely used in Denmark or its neighboring countries, the diversity of rotavirus strains identified in this study most likely reflects naturally occurring selection pressures and viral evolution. PMID:25038295

  2. Human milk oligosaccharides shorten rotavirus-induced diarrhea and modulate piglet mucosal immunity and colonic microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Monaco, Marcia H; Wang, Mei; Comstock, Sarah S; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Fahey Jr, George C; Miller, Michael J; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Donovan, Sharon M

    2014-01-01

    The impact of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) on mucosal immunity, gut microbiota and response to rotavirus (RV) infection was investigated in the piglet model. Newborn piglets were fed with formula alone (FF) or formula supplemented with 4 g l−1 HMO (HMO) or a prebiotic mixture of 9:1 short-chain galactooligosaccharides (3.6 g l−1) and long-chain fructooligosaccharides (0.4 g l−1) (PRE) (n=19–21 per group) for 15 days. Piglets (n=7–8) in each dietary group were orally infected with porcine rotavirus (RV) OSU strain on d10, and stool consistency was assessed daily. Blood, small intestine and colonic contents were collected at day 15. Serum RV-specific antibody concentrations, intestinal histomorphology, RV non-structural protein-4 (NSP4) and cytokine mRNA expression were assessed. Colonic content pH, dry matter (DM) and short-chain fatty acid concentrations were measured. Ascending colonic microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene v1-3 region pyrosequencing. HMO- and PRE-fed groups had shorter duration of diarrhea than FF piglets. Infection changed intestinal histomorphology, increased serum RV-specific antibody response and intestinal RV NSP4 expression, and modulated ileal cytokine expression. HMO enhanced T helper type 1 (interferon-gamma) and anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10) cytokines in the ileum, while prebiotics promoted RV-specific immunoglobulin M response to the infection. RV infection and HMO supplementation altered intraluminal environment and gut microbiota. HMO increased pH and lowered DM of colonic contents and enhanced the abundance of unclassified Lachnospiraceae, which contains numerous butyrate-producing bacteria. In conclusion, HMO and prebiotics did not prevent the onset of RV infection but reduced the duration of RV-induced diarrhea in piglets, in part, by modulating colonic microbiota and immune response to RV infection. PMID:24522264

  3. Rotavirus Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  4. Rotavirus Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Treatment Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  5. Comparative In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Porcine Rotavirus G9P[13] and Human Rotavirus Wa G1P[8

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Lulu; Fischer, David D.; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Rauf, Abdul; Langel, Stephanie N.; Wentworth, David E.; Stucker, Karla M.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lam, Ham Ching; Marthaler, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The changing epidemiology of group A rotavirus (RV) strains in humans and swine, including emerging G9 strains, poses new challenges to current vaccines. In this study, we comparatively assessed the pathogenesis of porcine RV (PRV) G9P[13] and evaluated the short-term cross-protection between this strain and human RV (HRV) Wa G1P[8] in gnotobiotic pigs. Complete genome sequencing demonstrated that PRV G9P[13] possessed a human-like G9 VP7 genotype but shared higher overall nucleotide identity with historic PRV strains. PRV G9P[13] induced longer rectal virus shedding and RV RNAemia in pigs than HRV Wa G1P[8] and generated complete short-term cross-protection in pigs challenged with HRV or PRV, whereas HRV Wa G1P[8] induced only partial protection against PRV challenge. Moreover, PRV G9P[13] replicated more extensively in porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) than did HRV Wa G1P[8]. Cross-protection was likely not dependent on serum virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies, as the heterologous VN antibody titers in the sera of G9P[13]-inoculated pigs were low. Thus, our results suggest that heterologous protection by the current monovalent G1P[8] HRV vaccine against emerging G9 strains should be evaluated in clinical and experimental studies to prevent further dissemination of G9 strains. Differences in the pathogenesis of these two strains may be partially attributable to their variable abilities to replicate and persist in porcine immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs). Additional studies are needed to evaluate the emerging G9 strains as potential vaccine candidates and to test the susceptibility of various immune cells to infection by G9 and other common HRV/PRV genotypes. IMPORTANCE The changing epidemiology of porcine and human group A rotaviruses (RVs), including emerging G9 strains, may compromise the efficacy of current vaccines. An understanding of the pathogenesis and genetic, immunological, and biological features of the new emerging

  6. Quantification of human infection risk caused by rotavirus in surface waters from Córdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Prez, V E; Gil, P I; Temprana, C F; Cuadrado, P R; Martínez, L C; Giordano, M O; Masachessi, G; Isa, M B; Ré, V E; Paván, J V; Nates, S V; Barril, P A

    2015-12-15

    Fecal contamination of water is a worrying problem because it is associated with the transmission of enteric pathogenic microorganisms that can cause many infectious diseases. In this study, an environmental survey was conducted to assess the level of viral contamination by viable enterovirus and rotavirus genome in two recreational rivers (Suquía and Xanaes) of Córdoba, Argentina. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was calculated to estimate the risk of rotavirus infection. Water sampling was carried out during a one-year period, the presence of total and fecal coliforms was determined and water samples were then concentrated for viral determination. Cell culture and indirect immunofluorescence were applied for enterovirus detection and RT-qPCR for rotavirus quantification. Coliform bacteria levels found in Suquía River often far exceeded the guideline limits for recreational waters. The Xanaes exhibited a lower level of bacterial contamination, frequently within the guideline limits. Enterovirus and rotavirus were frequently detected in the monitoring rivers (percentage of positive samples in Suquía: 78.6% enterovirus, 100% rotavirus; in Xanaes: 87.5% enterovirus, 18.7% rotavirus). Rotavirus was detected at a media concentration of 5.7×10(5) genome copies/L (gc/L) in the Suquía and 8.5×10(0)gc/L in the Xanaes. QMRA revealed high risk of rotavirus infection in the Suquía, at sampling points with acceptable and non-acceptable bacteria numbers. The Xanaes showed significantly lower health risk of rotavirus infection but it proved to be a public health hazard. The viral occurrence was not readily explained by the levels of bacteria indicators, thus viral monitoring should be included to determine microbiological water quality. These findings provide the first data of QMRA for recreational waters in Argentina and reveal the need for public awareness of the health implications of the use of the river waters. PMID:26311578

  7. PCR-based approach to distinguish group A human rotavirus genotype 1 vs. genotype 2 genes.

    PubMed

    McKell, Allison O; Nichols, Joshua C; McDonald, Sarah M

    2013-12-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVs) are eleven-segmented, double-stranded RNA viruses and important causes of severe diarrhea in children. A full-genome classification system is readily used to describe the genetic makeup of individual RV strains. In this system, each viral gene is assigned a specific genotype based upon its nucleotide sequence and established percent identity cut-off values. However, a faster and more cost-effective approach to determine RV gene genotypes is to utilize specific oligonucleotide primer sets in RT-PCR/PCR. Such primer sets and PCR-based genotyping methods have already been developed for the VP7-, VP6-, VP4- and NSP4-coding gene segments. In this study, primers were developed for the remaining seven RV gene segments, which encode proteins VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, and NSP5/6. Specifically, primers were designed to distinguish the two most common human RV genotypes (1 vs. 2) for these genes and were validated on several cell culture-adapted human and animal RV strains, as well as on human RVs from clinical fecal specimens. As such, primer sets now exist for all eleven genes of common human RVs, allowing for the identification of reassortant strains with mixed constellations of both genotype 1 and 2 genes using a rapid and economical RT-PCR/PCR method. PMID:24012969

  8. Expression and characterization of human group C rotavirus virus-like particles in insect cells

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Kristina B.; Lin, S.-C.; Humphrey, Charles; Foytich, Kimberly; Esona, Mathew; Wang Yuhuan; Liu, Merry; Jiang Baoming

    2009-05-10

    Group C rotavirus (GpC RV) is a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis in children and adults. We expressed the three major capsid proteins VP2, VP6 and VP7 of human GpC RV in baculovirus and demonstrated the self-assembly of VP2/6/7 or VP6/7 virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells. We examined a number of parameters, including the kinetics of protein synthesis in different cell lines and media, to optimize the most favorable conditions for the synthesis of recombinant viral proteins and the production of VLPs in Sf9 cells. Hyperimmune serum to VP2/6/7 and VP6/7 VLPs recognized individual recombinant proteins of human GpC RV by Western blot analysis. This serum also showed specific reactivities with the corresponding GpC VLPs but not GpA RV by using immune electron microscopy (IEM) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The ability to produce an unlimited amount of GpC RV antigen and the availability of high quality antibody will allow us to develop sensitive and specific diagnostic assays to better determine the epidemiology and disease burden of GpC RV in humans.

  9. The prevalence and genotype diversity of Human Rotavirus A circulating in Thailand, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Vutithanachot, Viboonsak; Phumpholsup, Tikumporn; Posuwan, Nawarat; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Human rotavirus A (RVA) is the major infectious virus causing acute watery diarrhea in children, especially those younger than 5 years of age, and is a major public health problem in Thailand. Outbreaks of this virus have been reported worldwide. Besides the common genotypes, unusual genotypes providing evidence of inter-species transmission have also been described. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genotypes of RVA in Thailand. A total of 688 samples were collected from children who were hospitalized with acute diarrhea in Chumphae Hospital in Khon Kaen and Chulalongkorn Hospital in Bangkok. RVA was detected using one-step RT-PCR and the genotypes were evaluated by sequencing. Overall, 204 of the 688 samples (30%) were positive for RVA. Nine genotypes were identified: three common in humans (G1P[8] [53%], G2P[4] [18%], G3P[8] [12%]), one feline-like (G3P[9] [1%]), four porcine-like (G4P[6] [0.5%], G5P[6] [0.5%], G9P[8] [0.5%], G12P[6] [1.5%]), and one bovine-like (G8P[8] [13%]). The variation in virus genotypes and the animal-like genotypes detected in this study suggested that a high diversity of RVA types is circulating in the Thai population. Therefore, continuous molecular epidemiological monitoring of RVA is essential and has implications for the national vaccination program. PMID:26593177

  10. Distribution of VP4 gene alleles in human rotaviruses by using probes to the hyperdivergent region of the VP4 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Steele, A D; Garcia, D; Sears, J; Gerna, G; Nakagomi, O; Flores, J

    1993-01-01

    The rotavirus VP4 protein elicits the production of neutralizing antibodies and is known to play a role in inducing resistance to disease. At least five human rotavirus VP4 gene alleles have been described on the basis of antigenic polymorphism and/or nucleotide sequence differences. In the present study, we developed cDNA probes directed at the hyperdivergent region of the VP4 gene of the five described human rotavirus VP4 alleles (Wa, DS1, M37, AU228, and 69M) and used them in hybridization assays with human rotavirus strains from Latin America and Europe to determine the distribution of the VP4 gene alleles in nature. The Wa-like allele was detected most frequently, occurring in 57% of the 402 rotavirus strains tested, and the DS1-like allele was the next most common, occurring in 14% of the strains tested. The M37- and AU228-like alleles were detected in only 4 and 3% of the rotavirus strains tested, respectively, whereas the 69M-like VP4 gene allele was not detected. Several rotavirus strains from Europe did not react with any of the VP4 gene probes, although they did hybridize to a probe generated from a representative strain from the group. These data indicate the global distribution of various VP4 gene alleles and raise the possibility that other, unrecognized human VP4 alleles exist in nature because almost one-fourth of the strains could not be classified into any of the established VP4 groups. Images PMID:8394374

  11. Whole genomic analysis of human G1P[8] rotavirus strains from different age groups in China.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Tsuzumi; Ghosh, Souvik; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Zhou, Xuan; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2012-08-01

    G1P[8] rotaviruses are an important cause of diarrhea in humans in China. To date, there are no reports on the whole genomic analysis of the Chinese G1P[8] rotaviruses. To determine the origin and overall genetic makeup of the recent Chinese G1P[8] strains, the whole genomes of three strains, RVA/Human-wt/CHN/E1911/2009/G1P[8], RVA/Human-tc/CHN/R588/2005/G1P[8] and RVA/Human-tc/CHN/Y128/2004/G1P[8], detected in an infant, a child and an adult, respectively, were analyzed. Strains E1911, R588 and Y128 exhibited a typical Wa-like genotype constellation. Except for the NSP3 gene of E1911, the whole genomes of strains E1911, R588 and Y128 were found to be more closely related to those of the recent Wa-like common human strains from different countries than those of the prototype G1P[8] strain, or other old strains. On the other hand, the NSP3 gene of E1911 was genetically distinct from those of Y128, R588, or other Wa-like common human strains, and appeared to share a common origin with those of the porcine-like human G9 strains, providing evidence for intergenotype reassortment events. Comparisons of the amino acid residues defining the VP7 and VP4 antigenic domains revealed several mismatches between these Chinese G1P[8] strains and the G1 and P[8] strains contained in the currently licensed rotavirus vaccines Rotarix(TM )and RotaTeq(TM). PMID:23012626

  12. Effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide on human rotavirus infectivity and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bin; Jin, Min; Yang, Dong; Guo, Xuan; Chen, Zhaoli; Shen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xinwei; Qiu, Zhigang; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Junwen

    2013-06-15

    Despite the health risks posed by waterborne human rotavirus (HRV), little information is available concerning the effectiveness of chlorine or chlorine dioxide (ClO2), two common disinfectants of public water sources, against HRV and their effects on its genome remain poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of chlorine and ClO2 on purified HRV by using cell culture and RT-PCR to assess virus infectivity and genetic integrity, respectively. The disinfection efficacy of ClO2 was found to be higher than that of chlorine. According to the efficiency factor Hom model, Ct value (mg/L min) ranges required for a 4-log reduction of HRV at 20 °C by chlorine and ClO2 were 5.55-5.59 and 1.21-2.47 mg/L min, respectively. Detection of the 11 HRV genome segments revealed that damage to the 1227-2354 bp of the VP4 gene was associated with the disappearance of viral infectivity by chlorine. However, no complete accordance between culturing and RT-PCR assays was observed after treatment of HRV with ClO2. These results collectively indicate that the current practice of chlorine disinfection may be inadequate to manage the risk of waterborne HRV infection, and offer the potential to monitor the infectivity of HRV adapting PCR-based protocols in chlorine disinfection. PMID:23591108

  13. Chemical disinfection of human rotaviruses: efficacy of commercially-available products in suspension tests.

    PubMed Central

    Springthorpe, V. S.; Grenier, J. L.; Lloyd-Evans, N.; Sattar, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    Suspension tests were conducted on 69 commercial and 7 non-commercial disinfectant formulations to determine which classes of chemicals were most active against human rotavirus (HRV). Virus samples, in the presence of varying levels of organic matter, were exposed to the disinfectants for 1 min. The levels of remaining infectious virus were determined by plaque assay. Products were rated by their ability to reduce the levels of infectious virus by more than 3 log10 in the presence or absence of tryptose phosphate broth (peptides and inorganic salts) or fecal matter. Of the commercially-available products tested, only 25% were rated as highly and 7% as moderately effective. The remaining 68% were either effective only in the absence of any additional organic matter (48%) or were completely ineffective (20%). The majority (64%) of the moderately and highly effective products were further examined for their ability to inactivate greater than 6 log10 of infectious HRV in the presence of fecal matter or tryptose phosphate broth. With one exception, all these products were still effective. Products potentially suitable as topical antiseptics, hard surface disinfectants and instrument soaks were identified. The results emphasize the care that should be exercised in the selection of disinfectants for the control and prevention of rotaviral infections. PMID:3016081

  14. Phylogenetic inference of the porcine Rotavirus A origin of the human G1 VP7 gene.

    PubMed

    Do, Loan Phuong; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Otaki, Hiroki; Agbemabiese, Chantal Ama; Nakagomi, Osamu; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Rotavirus A (RVA) is an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. The most common VP7 genotype of human RVA is G1, but G1 is rarely detected in porcine strains. To understand the evolutionary relationships between human and porcine G1 VP7 genes, we sequenced the VP7 genes of three Japanese G1 porcine strains; the first two (PRV2, S80B) were isolated in 1980 and the third (Kyusyu-14) was isolated in 2001. Then, we performed phylogenetic and in-silico structural analyses. All three VP7 sequences clustered into lineage VI, and the mean nucleotide sequence identity between any pair of porcine G1 VP7 sequences belonging to lineage VI was 91.9%. In contrast, the mean nucleotide sequence identity between any pair of human G1 VP7 sequences belonging to lineages I-V was 95.5%. While the mean nucleotide sequence identity between any pair of porcine lineage VI strain and human lineage I-V strain was 85.4%, the VP7 genes of PRV2 and a rare porcine-like human G1P[6] strain (AU19) were 98% identical, strengthening the porcine RVA origin of AU19. The phylogenetic tree suggests that human G1 VP7 genes originated from porcine G1 VP7 genes. The time of their most recent common ancestor was estimated to be 1948, and human and porcine RVA strains evolved along independent pathways. In-silico structural analyses identified 7 amino acid residues within the known neutralisation epitopes that show differences in electric charges and shape between different porcine and human G1 strains. When compared with much divergent porcine G1 VP7 lineages, monophyletic, less divergent human G1 VP7 lineages support the hypothesis that all human G1 VP7 genes included in this study originated from a rare event of a porcine RVA transmitting to humans that was followed by successful adaptation to the human host. By contrast, AU19 represents interspecies transmission that terminated in dead-end infection. PMID:26961591

  15. Human Milk Contains Novel Glycans That Are Potential Decoy Receptors for Neonatal Rotaviruses*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Hu, Liya; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mickum, Megan L.; Ashline, David J.; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram; Estes, Mary K.; Reinhold, Vernon N.; Cummings, Richard D.; Smith, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Human milk contains a rich set of soluble, reducing glycans whose functions and bioactivities are not well understood. Because human milk glycans (HMGs) have been implicated as receptors for various pathogens, we explored the functional glycome of human milk using shotgun glycomics. The free glycans from pooled milk samples of donors with mixed Lewis and Secretor phenotypes were labeled with a fluorescent tag and separated via multidimensional HPLC to generate a tagged glycan library containing 247 HMG targets that were printed to generate the HMG shotgun glycan microarray (SGM). To investigate the potential role of HMGs as decoy receptors for rotavirus (RV), a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children, we interrogated the HMG SGM with recombinant forms of VP8* domains of the RV outer capsid spike protein VP4 from human neonatal strains N155(G10P[11]) and RV3(G3P[6]) and a bovine strain, B223(G10P[11]). Glycans that were bound by RV attachment proteins were selected for detailed structural analyses using metadata-assisted glycan sequencing, which compiles data on each glycan based on its binding by antibodies and lectins before and after exo- and endo-glycosidase digestion of the SGM, coupled with independent MSn analyses. These complementary structural approaches resulted in the identification of 32 glycans based on RV VP8* binding, many of which are novel HMGs, whose detailed structural assignments by MSn are described in a companion report. Although sialic acid has been thought to be important as a surface receptor for RVs, our studies indicated that sialic acid is not required for binding of glycans to individual VP8* domains. Remarkably, each VP8* recognized specific glycan determinants within a unique subset of related glycan structures where specificity differences arise from subtle differences in glycan structures. PMID:25048705

  16. Full genomic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a zoonotic human G8P[14] rotavirus strain detected in a sample from Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Rashi; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Roy, Sunando; Esona, Mathew D; Lopez, Beatriz; Mencos, Yolanda; Rey-Benito, Gloria; Bowen, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    We report the genomic characterization of a rare human G8P[14] rotavirus strain, identified in a stool sample from Guatemala (GTM) during routine rotavirus surveillance. This strain was designated as RVA/Human-wt/GTM/2009726790/2009/G8P[14], with a genomic constellation of G8-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A13-N2-T6-E2-H3. The VP4 gene occupied lineage VII within the P[14] genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of each genome segment revealed close relatedness to several zoonotic simian, guanaco and bovine strains. Our findings suggest that strain RVA/Human-wt/GTM/2009726790/2009/G8P[14] is an example of a direct zoonotic transmission event. The results of this study reinforce the potential role of interspecies transmission and reassortment in generating novel and rare rotavirus strains which infect humans. PMID:25952569

  17. Chimaeric virus-like particles derived from consensus genome sequences of human rotavirus strains co-circulating in Africa.

    PubMed

    Jere, Khuzwayo C; O'Neill, Hester G; Potgieter, A Christiaan; van Dijk, Alberdina A

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus virus-like particles (RV-VLPs) are potential alternative non-live vaccine candidates due to their high immunogenicity. They mimic the natural conformation of native viral proteins but cannot replicate because they do not contain genomic material which makes them safe. To date, most RV-VLPs have been derived from cell culture adapted strains or common G1 and G3 rotaviruses that have been circulating in communities for some time. In this study, chimaeric RV-VLPs were generated from the consensus sequences of African rotaviruses (G2, G8, G9 or G12 strains associated with either P[4], P[6] or P[8] genotypes) characterised directly from human stool samples without prior adaptation of the wild type strains to cell culture. Codon-optimised sequences for insect cell expression of genome segments 2 (VP2), 4 (VP4), 6 (VP6) and 9 (VP7) were cloned into a modified pFASTBAC vector, which allowed simultaneous expression of up to four genes using the Bac-to-Bac Baculovirus Expression System (BEVS; Invitrogen). Several combinations of the genome segments originating from different field strains were cloned to produce double-layered RV-VLPs (dRV-VLP; VP2/6), triple-layered RV-VLPs (tRV-VLP; VP2/6/7 or VP2/6/7/4) and chimaeric tRV-VLPs. The RV-VLPs were produced by infecting Spodoptera frugiperda 9 and Trichoplusia ni cells with recombinant baculoviruses using multi-cistronic, dual co-infection and stepwise-infection expression strategies. The size and morphology of the RV-VLPs, as determined by transmission electron microscopy, revealed successful production of RV-VLPs. The novel approach of producing tRV-VLPs, by using the consensus insect cell codon-optimised nucleotide sequence derived from dsRNA extracted directly from clinical specimens, should speed-up vaccine research and development by by-passing the need to adapt rotaviruses to cell culture. Other problems associated with cell culture adaptation, such as possible changes in epitopes, can also be circumvented

  18. Analysis of host range restriction determinants in the rabbit model: comparison of homologous and heterologous rotavirus infections.

    PubMed

    Ciarlet, M; Estes, M K; Barone, C; Ramig, R F; Conner, M E

    1998-03-01

    The main limitation of both the rabbit and mouse models of rotavirus infection is that human rotavirus (HRV) strains do not replicate efficiently in either animal. The identification of individual genes necessary for conferring replication competence in a heterologous host is important to an understanding of the host range restriction of rotavirus infections. We recently reported the identification of the P type of the spike protein VP4 of four lapine rotavirus strains as being P[14]. To determine whether VP4 is involved in host range restriction in rabbits, we evaluated infection in rotavirus antibody-free rabbits inoculated orally with two P[14] HRVs, PA169 (G6) and HAL1166 (G8), and with several other HRV strains and animal rotavirus strains of different P and G types. We also evaluated whether the parental rhesus rotavirus (RRV) (P5B[3], G3) and the derived RRV-HRV reassortant candidate vaccine strains RRV x D (G1), RRV x DS-1 (G2), and RRV x ST3 (G4) would productively infect rabbits. Based on virus shedding, limited replication was observed with the P[14] HRV strains and with the SA11 Cl3 (P[2], G3) and SA11 4F (P6[1], G3) animal rotavirus strains, compared to the homologous ALA strain (P[14], G3). However, even limited infection provided complete protection from rotavirus infection when rabbits were challenged orally 28 days postinoculation (DPI) with 10(3) 50% infective doses of ALA rabbit rotavirus. Other HRVs did not productively infect rabbits and provided no significant protection from challenge, in spite of occasional seroconversion. Simian RRV replicated as efficiently as lapine ALA rotavirus in rabbits and provided complete protection from ALA challenge. Live attenuated RRV reassortant vaccine strains resulted in no, limited, or productive infection of rabbits, but all rabbits were completely protected from heterotypic ALA challenge. The altered replication efficiency of the reassortants in rabbits suggests a role for VP7 in host range restriction

  19. Therapeutics Insight with Inclusive Immunopharmacology Explication of Human Rotavirus A for the Treatment of Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Hashem, Abu; Keya, Chaman Ara; Salimullah, Md.

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe infant and childhood diarrhea worldwide, and the morbidity and mortality rate is going to be outnumbered in developing countries like Bangladesh. To mitigate this substantial burden of disease, new therapeutics such as vaccine and drug are swiftly required against rotavirus. The present therapeutics insight study was performed with comprehensive immunoinformatics and pharmacoinformatics approach. T and B-cell epitopes were assessed in the conserved region of outer capsid protein VP4 among the highly reviewed strains from different countries including Bangladesh. The results suggest that epitope SU1 (TLKNLNDNY) could be an ideal candidate among the predicted five epitopes for both T and B-cell epitopes for the development of universal vaccine against rotavirus. This research also suggests five novel drug compounds from medicinal plant Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. for better therapeutics strategies against rotavirus diarrhea based on 3D structure building, pharmacophore, ADMET, and QSAR properties. The exact mode of action between drug compounds and target protein VP4 were revealed by molecular docking analysis. Drug likeness and oral bioavailability further confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed drugs against rotavirus diarrhea. This study might be implemented for experimental validation to facilitate the novel vaccine and drug design. PMID:27445802

  20. MicroRNA profile analysis of host cells before and after wild human rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Wu, Jinyuan; Geng, Panpan; Kui, Xiang; Xie, Yuping; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Yaling; Yin, Na; Zhang, Guangming; Yi, Shan; Li, Hongjun; Sun, Maosheng

    2016-09-01

    Rotavirus infection is an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children, but the interaction between rotavirus and host cells is not completely understood. We isolated a wildtype (wt) rotavirus strain, ZTR-68(P [8] G1), which is derived from an infant with diarrhea in southwest China in 2010. In this study, we investigated host cellular miRNA expression profiles changes in response to ZTR-68 in early stage of infection to investigate the role of miRNAs upon rotavirus infection. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified by deep sequencing and qRT-PCR and the function of their targets predicted by Gene Ontology (GO) function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway annotation. A total of 36 candidate miRNAs were identified. Comparative analysis indicated that 29 miRNAs were significantly down-regulated and 7 were up-regulated after infection. The data were provided contrasting the types of microRNAs in two different permissive cell lines (HT29 and MA104). The target assays results showed that mml-miR-7 and mml-miR-125a are involved in anti-rotavirus and virus-host interaction in host cells. These results offer clues for identifying potential candidates in vector-based antiviral strategies. J. Med. Virol. 88:1497-1510, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890217

  1. Attenuation of human influenza a viruses

    PubMed Central

    Beare, A. S.; Bynoe, M. L.

    1969-01-01

    The attenuation of two human influenza A viruses has been carried out, using the selection of inhibitor-resistant strains and multiple passages at low temperatures. A virus related to A2/Tokyo/3/67 was obtained in an inhibitor-resistant form. When this was compared with the inhibitor-sensitive strain in a volunteer trial it was relatively non-pathogenic. The second virus, A2/Hongkong/1/68, was subjected to much longer treatment, but nevertheless remained slightly sensitive to serum inhibitor. When given to volunteers it was less pathogenic than before but attenuation was incomplete. A2/Hongkong/1/68 was also modified by passage at low temperatures. Many of these passages are apparently necessary for full attenuation. All attenuated viruses were infective and antigenic. PMID:4900146

  2. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the VP8* carbohydrate-binding protein of the human rotavirus strain Wa

    SciTech Connect

    Kraschnefski, Mark J.; Scott, Stacy A.; Holloway, Gavan; Coulson, Barbara S.; Itzstein, Mark von; Blanchard, Helen

    2005-11-01

    The carbohydrate-binding component (VP8*{sub 64–223}) of the human Wa rotavirus spike protein has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized in two different crystal forms. X-ray diffraction data have been collected that have enabled determination of the Wa VP8*{sub 64–223} structure by molecular replacement. Rotaviruses exhibit host-specificity and the first crystallographic information on a rotavirus strain that infects humans is reported here. Recognition and attachment to host cells, leading to invasion and infection, is critically linked to the function of the outer capsid spike protein of the rotavirus particle. In some strains the VP8* component of the spike protein is implicated in recognition and binding of sialic-acid-containing cell-surface carbohydrates, thereby enabling infection by the virus. The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and initial X-ray diffraction analysis of the VP8* core from human Wa rotavirus is reported. Two crystal forms (trigonal P3{sub 2}21 and monoclinic P2{sub 1}) have been obtained and X-ray diffraction data have been collected, enabling determination of the VP8*{sub 64–223} structure by molecular replacement.

  3. Diversity and relationships of cocirculating modern human rotaviruses revealed using large-scale comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sarah M; McKell, Allison O; Rippinger, Christine M; McAllen, John K; Akopov, Asmik; Kirkness, Ewen F; Payne, Daniel C; Edwards, Kathryn M; Chappell, James D; Patton, John T

    2012-09-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVs) are 11-segmented, double-stranded RNA viruses and are primary causes of gastroenteritis in young children. Despite their medical relevance, the genetic diversity of modern human RVs is poorly understood, and the impact of vaccine use on circulating strains remains unknown. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence analysis of 58 RVs isolated from children with severe diarrhea and/or vomiting at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) in Nashville, TN, during the years spanning community vaccine implementation (2005 to 2009). The RVs analyzed include 36 G1P[8], 18 G3P[8], and 4 G12P[8] Wa-like genogroup 1 strains with VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5/6 genotype constellations of I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. By constructing phylogenetic trees, we identified 2 to 5 subgenotype alleles for each gene. The results show evidence of intragenogroup gene reassortment among the cocirculating strains. However, several isolates from different seasons maintained identical allele constellations, consistent with the notion that certain RV clades persisted in the community. By comparing the genes of VUMC RVs to those of other archival and contemporary RV strains for which sequences are available, we defined phylogenetic lineages and verified that the diversity of the strains analyzed in this study reflects that seen in other regions of the world. Importantly, the VP4 and VP7 proteins encoded by VUMC RVs and other contemporary strains show amino acid changes in or near neutralization domains, which might reflect antigenic drift of the virus. Thus, this large-scale, comparative genomic study of modern human RVs provides significant insight into how this pathogen evolves during its spread in the community. PMID:22696651

  4. Diversity and Relationships of Cocirculating Modern Human Rotaviruses Revealed Using Large-Scale Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    McKell, Allison O.; Rippinger, Christine M.; McAllen, John K.; Akopov, Asmik; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Payne, Daniel C.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Chappell, James D.; Patton, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVs) are 11-segmented, double-stranded RNA viruses and are primary causes of gastroenteritis in young children. Despite their medical relevance, the genetic diversity of modern human RVs is poorly understood, and the impact of vaccine use on circulating strains remains unknown. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence analysis of 58 RVs isolated from children with severe diarrhea and/or vomiting at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) in Nashville, TN, during the years spanning community vaccine implementation (2005 to 2009). The RVs analyzed include 36 G1P[8], 18 G3P[8], and 4 G12P[8] Wa-like genogroup 1 strains with VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5/6 genotype constellations of I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. By constructing phylogenetic trees, we identified 2 to 5 subgenotype alleles for each gene. The results show evidence of intragenogroup gene reassortment among the cocirculating strains. However, several isolates from different seasons maintained identical allele constellations, consistent with the notion that certain RV clades persisted in the community. By comparing the genes of VUMC RVs to those of other archival and contemporary RV strains for which sequences are available, we defined phylogenetic lineages and verified that the diversity of the strains analyzed in this study reflects that seen in other regions of the world. Importantly, the VP4 and VP7 proteins encoded by VUMC RVs and other contemporary strains show amino acid changes in or near neutralization domains, which might reflect antigenic drift of the virus. Thus, this large-scale, comparative genomic study of modern human RVs provides significant insight into how this pathogen evolves during its spread in the community. PMID:22696651

  5. Human rotavirus strains bearing VP4 gene P[6] allele recovered from asymptomatic or symptomatic infections share similar, if not identical, VP4 neutralization specificities.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Yasutaka; Jones, Ronald W; Ross, Jerri; Santos, Norma; Kapikian, Albert Z

    2003-11-10

    A rotavirus VP4 gene P[6] allele has been documented in a number of countries to be characteristically associated with an endemic predominantly asymptomatic infection in neonates in maternity hospital nurseries. The mechanisms underlying the endemicity and asymptomatic nature of such neonatal infections remain unknown. Rotavirus strains sharing this same P genotype, however, have more recently been recovered from an increasing number of symptomatic diarrheal episodes in infants and young children in various parts of the world. Previously, we have shown that an asymptomatic P[6] rotavirus neonatal infection is not associated with a unique VP7 (G) serotype but may occur in conjunction with various G types. Although amino acid sequence comparisons of the VP4 gene between selected "asymptomatic" and "symptomatic" P[6] rotavirus strains have been reported and yielded information concerning their VP4 genotypes, serotypic comparisons of the outer capsid spike protein VP4 of such viruses have not been studied systematically by two-way cross-neutralizations. We determined the VP4 neutralization specificities of four asymptomatic and four symptomatic P[6] strains: two each of asymptomatic and symptomatic strains by two-way tests, and two each of additional asymptomatic and symptomatic strains by one-way tests. Both asymptomatic and symptomatic P[6] strains were shown to bear similar, if not identical, VP4 neutralization specificities. Thus, P[6] rotavirus strains causing asymptomatic or symptomatic infections did not appear to belong to unique P (VP4) serotypes. In addition, a close VP4 serotypic relationship between human P[6] rotavirus strains and the porcine P[6] rotavirus Gottfried strain was confirmed. PMID:14599785

  6. Emergence of G9 P[6] Human Rotaviruses in Argentina: Phylogenetic Relationships among G9 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Karin; Palacios, Gustavo; Sijvarger, Karina; Matson, David; Gomez, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Because rotavirus diarrhea can be reduced through vaccination and because current vaccine candidates provide protection against only the most common G antigenic types (G1 to G4), detection of uncommon G types is one of the main goals of rotavirus surveillance. After a 2-year nationwide rotavirus surveillance study in Argentina concluded, surveillance was continued and an increase of G9 prevalence in several Argentine cities was detected. During this period G9 strains predominated in the south, and a gradient of decreasing G9 prevalence was observed from south to north (41 to 0%). Sequence analysis of gene 9, encoding the G antigen, showed that Argentine strains cluster with most G9 isolates from other countries, showing less than 2% nucleotide divergence among them, but are distinctive from them in that they present some unique amino acid changes. Our results agree with reports of increased G9 prevalence in other parts of the world, suggesting the need to incorporate G9 into candidate rotavirus vaccines. PMID:11682524

  7. Rotavirus antigen test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003349.htm Rotavirus antigen test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The rotavirus antigen test detects rotavirus in the feces. This ...

  8. Solar and temperature treatments affect the ability of human rotavirus wa to bind to host cells and synthesize viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Romero-Maraccini, Ofelia C; Shisler, Joanna L; Nguyen, Thanh H

    2015-06-15

    Rotavirus, the leading cause of diarrheal diseases in children under the age of five, is often resistant to conventional wastewater treatment and thus can remain infectious once released into the aquatic environment. Solar and heat treatments can inactivate rotavirus, but it is unknown how these treatments inactivate the virus on a molecular level. To answer this question, our approach was to correlate rotavirus inactivation with the inhibition of portions of the virus life cycle as a means to identify the mechanisms of solar or heat inactivation. Specifically, the integrity of the rotavirus NSP3 gene, virus-host cell interaction, and viral RNA synthesis were examined after heat (57°C) or solar treatment of rotavirus. Only the inhibition of viral RNA synthesis positively correlated with a loss of rotavirus infectivity; 57°C treatment of rotavirus resulted in a decrease of rotavirus RNA synthesis at the same rate as rotavirus infectivity. These data suggest that heat treatment neutralized rotaviruses primarily by targeting viral transcription functions. In contrast, when using solar disinfection, the decrease in RNA synthesis was responsible for approximately one-half of the decrease in infectivity, suggesting that other mechanisms, including posttranslational, contribute to inactivation. Nevertheless, both solar and heat inactivation of rotaviruses disrupted viral RNA synthesis as a mechanism for inactivation. PMID:25862222

  9. Solar and Temperature Treatments Affect the Ability of Human Rotavirus Wa To Bind to Host Cells and Synthesize Viral RNA

    PubMed Central

    Shisler, Joanna L.

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus, the leading cause of diarrheal diseases in children under the age of five, is often resistant to conventional wastewater treatment and thus can remain infectious once released into the aquatic environment. Solar and heat treatments can inactivate rotavirus, but it is unknown how these treatments inactivate the virus on a molecular level. To answer this question, our approach was to correlate rotavirus inactivation with the inhibition of portions of the virus life cycle as a means to identify the mechanisms of solar or heat inactivation. Specifically, the integrity of the rotavirus NSP3 gene, virus-host cell interaction, and viral RNA synthesis were examined after heat (57°C) or solar treatment of rotavirus. Only the inhibition of viral RNA synthesis positively correlated with a loss of rotavirus infectivity; 57°C treatment of rotavirus resulted in a decrease of rotavirus RNA synthesis at the same rate as rotavirus infectivity. These data suggest that heat treatment neutralized rotaviruses primarily by targeting viral transcription functions. In contrast, when using solar disinfection, the decrease in RNA synthesis was responsible for approximately one-half of the decrease in infectivity, suggesting that other mechanisms, including posttranslational, contribute to inactivation. Nevertheless, both solar and heat inactivation of rotaviruses disrupted viral RNA synthesis as a mechanism for inactivation. PMID:25862222

  10. Rotavirus Infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The avian rotaviruses are members of the Reoviridae family, which is characterized by virions that contain 10-12 linear double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments. The Reoviridae consists of 15 genera which can be placed into two recognized subfamilies based upon the presence or absence of structural “tur...

  11. Evolutionary dynamics of human rotaviruses: balancing reassortment with preferred genome constellations.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sarah M; Matthijnssens, Jelle; McAllen, John K; Hine, Erin; Overton, Larry; Wang, Shiliang; Lemey, Philippe; Zeller, Mark; Van Ranst, Marc; Spiro, David J; Patton, John T

    2009-10-01

    Group A human rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Yet, aside from the genes encoding serotype antigens (VP7; G-type and VP4; P-type), little is known about the genetic make-up of emerging and endemic human RV strains. To gain insight into the diversity and evolution of RVs circulating at a single location over a period of time, we sequenced the eleven-segmented, double-stranded RNA genomes of fifty-one G3P[8] strains collected from 1974 to 1991 at Children's Hospital National Medical Center, Washington, D. C. During this period, G1P[8] strains typically dominated, comprising on average 56% of RV infections each year in hospitalized children. A notable exception was in the 1976 and 1991 winter seasons when the incidence of G1P[8] infections decreased dramatically, a trend that correlated with a significant increase in G3P[8] infections. Our sequence analysis indicates that the 1976 season was characterized by the presence of several genetically distinct, co-circulating clades of G3P[8] viruses, which contained minor but significant differences in their encoded proteins. These 1976 lineages did not readily exchange gene segments with each other, but instead remained stable over the course of the season. In contrast, the 1991 season contained a single major clade, whose genome constellation was similar to one of the 1976 clades. The 1991 clade may have gained a fitness advantage after reassorting with as of yet unidentified RV strain(s). This study reveals for the first time that genetically distinct RV clades of the same G/P-type can co-circulate and cause disease. The findings from this study also suggest that, although gene segment exchange occurs, most reassortant strains are replaced over time by lineages with preferred genome constellations. Elucidation of the selective pressures that favor maintenance of RVs with certain sets of genes may be necessary to anticipate future vaccine needs. PMID:19851457

  12. Rotavirus P[8] Infections in Persons with Secretor and Nonsecretor Phenotypes, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ayouni, Siwar; Sdiri-Loulizi, Khira; de Rougemont, Alexis; Estienney, Marie; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Aho, Serge; Hamami, Sabeur; Aouni, Mahjoub; Neji-Guediche, Mohamed; Pothier, Pierre; Belliot, Gaël

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether rotavirus infections are linked to secretor status, we studied samples from children in Tunisia with gastroenteritis. We phenotyped saliva for human blood group antigens and tested feces for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 32/114 patients. Secretor genotyping showed that P[8] rotavirus infected secretors and nonsecretors, and infection correlated with presence of Lewis antigen. PMID:26488868

  13. Pathogenicity of rotavirus in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Thouless, M E; DiGiacomo, R F; Deeb, B J; Howard, H

    1988-01-01

    The role of rotavirus in diarrheal disease of rabbits was investigated, and a model for human rotavirus infection was established. Orogastric inoculation of 8- and 12-week-old New Zealand White rabbits with a rabbit strain of rotavirus (L:ALA:84) resulted in fecal shedding of virus for 6 to 8 days from 2 to 5 days after inoculation. Most rabbits exhibited diarrhea, coincident with the onset of viral shedding, which persisted for 2 to 4 days. Diarrhea was characterized by soft or fluid stools and fecal staining of the perineum. Inoculation of 3-week-old rabbits resulted in a briefer period of viral shedding and diarrhea of a milder nature. Histopathologic examination during the period of viral shedding revealed a mild, nonsuppurative enteritis. Inoculated rabbits exhibited antibodies in serum to rotavirus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sham-inoculated or uninoculated rabbits maintained in the same cage or the same room with inoculated rabbits acquired rotavirus infection. The mild diarrheal disease which resulted with a rotavirus isolate from severe field cases suggests that cofactors were involved. Images PMID:2838507

  14. Diarrheal response of gnotobiotic pigs after fetal infection and neonatal challenge with homologous and heterologous human rotavirus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, A; Ji-Huang, L

    1986-01-01

    Pigs exposed in utero to human rotavirus (HRV) strain Wa serotype 1 from 15 to 36 days prior to birth responded immunologically by modifying their clinical response to neonatal oral challenge with a pathogenic dose of homologous Wa or heterologous M serotype 3 HRV. In these cases, diarrhea was prevented in 12 of 14 pigs and greatly reduced in the other two. However, fecal virus shedding was not significantly modified, since it was detected in 12 of 14 pigs. These results suggest the existence of a closer antigenic relationship between these two different HRV serotypes which may only be expressed in an in vivo test system. Exposure of fetal pigs to HRV DS-1 serotype 2 failed to cause infection or to induce any protection when pigs were challenged at birth with HRV Wa. This model for cross-protection studies in gnotobiotic piglets offers good possibilities for the evaluation of potential HRV vaccine candidates, for the in vivo study of antigenic similarities between rotavirus serotypes, and for the understanding of protective immune responses against diarrhea and virus shedding. PMID:3023662

  15. The Impact of Socio-Economic Determinants on the Vaccination Rates with Rotavirus and Human Papiloma Virus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    GRDADOLNIK, Urška; SOČAN, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic inequalities may have an impact on the uptake of selfpaid vaccines. The aim of the study was to identify the effect of some socio economic determinants on vaccination rates with self-paid human papilloma virus (HPV) and rotavirus (RV) vaccines. Methods Vaccination coverage data, available in electronic database cepljenje.net (administered by the National Institute of Public Health), were collected at administrative unit level. The socio-economic determinants (the average gross pay in euros, the unemployment rate, the educational and households structure, the population density, the number of inhabitants, the number of children aged from 0 to 4, the number of women aged from 15 to 30) were extracted from Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia web page. The strength of the correlation between socioeconomic variables and self-paid HPV and RV vaccination rates was determined. Results Rotavirus vaccination rates show a slight negative correlation with the number of residents per administrative unit (ρ=−0.29, p=0.04), and no correlation with other socio-economic variables. Likewise, no correlation has been found between HPV vaccination rates and the selected socio-economic variables. Conclusion Ecological study did not reveal any correlations between socio economic variables and vaccination rates with RV and HPV self-paid vaccines on administrative unit level.

  16. Full genome characterization of the first G3P[24] rotavirus strain detected in humans provides evidence of interspecies reassortment and mutational saturation in the VP7 gene.

    PubMed

    Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Roy, Sunando; Teel, Elizabeth N; Weinberg, Geoffrey A; Payne, Daniel C; Parashar, Umesh D; Bowen, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    During the 2008-2009 rotavirus season of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention New Vaccine Surveillance Network, one case of paediatric acute gastroenteritis associated with a rotavirus G14P[24] strain was identified. This was the first detection of the genotype G14 and P[24] in humans, and the first detection of the G14P[24] combination. To gain an insight into the origins and the evolution of this strain, we determined the complete ORF sequences of all 11 genes. A majority of the genes identified were similar to the simian strain TUCH, except for the VP1 and VP7 genes that clustered only distantly with the bovine and equine strains, respectively. In addition, this strain carried AU-1-like NSP2 and NSP4 genes. Using codon-partitioning and protein-based phylogenetic approaches, we determined that the VP7 genotype of strain 2009727118 was actually G3; therefore, the proposed full genomic classification of the 2009727118 strain is G3-P[24]-I9-R2-C3-M3-A9-N3-T3-E3-H6. These findings indicate the possibility that the 2009727118 strain originated by interspecies transmission and multiple reassortment events involving human, bovine and equine rotaviruses, resulting in the introduction of some genes into the genome of simian rotaviruses. Additionally, we found evidence of mutational saturation in the third codon position of the VP7 ORF which presented an issue with homoplasy in phylogenetic analyses. PMID:26590163

  17. Full genome characterization of the first G3P[24] rotavirus strain detected in humans provides evidence of interspecies reassortment and mutational saturation in the VP7 gene

    PubMed Central

    Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Roy, Sunando; Teel, Elizabeth N.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Payne, Daniel C.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Bowen, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    During the 2008–2009 rotavirus season of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention New Vaccine Surveillance Network, one case of paediatric acute gastroenteritis associated with a rotavirus G14P[24] strain was identified. This was the first detection of the genotype G14 and P[24] in humans, and the first detection of the G14P[24] combination. To gain an insight into the origins and the evolution of this strain, we determined the complete ORF sequences of all 11 genes. A majority of the genes identified were similar to the simian strain TUCH, except for the VP1 and VP7 genes that clustered only distantly with the bovine and equine strains, respectively. In addition, this strain carried AU-1-like NSP2 and NSP4 genes. Using codon-partitioning and protein-based phylogenetic approaches, we determined that the VP7 genotype of strain 2009727118 was actually G3; therefore, the proposed full genomic classification of the 2009727118 strain is G3-P[24]-I9-R2-C3-M3-A9-N3-T3-E3-H6. These findings indicate the possibility that the 2009727118 strain originated by interspecies transmission and multiple reassortment events involving human, bovine and equine rotaviruses, resulting in the introduction of some genes into the genome of simian rotaviruses. Additionally, we found evidence of mutational saturation in the third codon position of the VP7 ORF which presented an issue with homoplasy in phylogenetic analyses. PMID:26590163

  18. No Evidence of Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Viruses in Live Attenuated Human Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Zheng, HaoQiang; Simmons, Graham; Zhou, Yanchen; Tang, Shaohua; Shankar, Anupama; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric L.; Heneine, Walid

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV) in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome reported in previous studies remains controversial as these results have been questioned by recent data. Nonetheless, concerns have been raised regarding contamination of human vaccines as a possible source of introduction of XMRV and MLV into human populations. To address this possibility, we tested eight live attenuated human vaccines using generic PCR for XMRV and MLV sequences. Viral metagenomics using deep sequencing was also done to identify the possibility of other adventitious agents. Results All eight live attenuated vaccines, including Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) (SA-14-14-2), varicella (Varivax), measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR-II), measles (Attenuvax), rubella (Meruvax-II), rotavirus (Rotateq and Rotarix), and yellow fever virus were negative for XMRV and highly related MLV sequences. However, residual hamster DNA, but not RNA, containing novel endogenous gammaretrovirus sequences was detected in the JEV vaccine using PCR. Metagenomics analysis did not detect any adventitious viral sequences of public health concern. Intracisternal A particle sequences closest to those present in Syrian hamsters and not mice were also detected in the JEV SA-14-14-2 vaccine. Combined, these results are consistent with the production of the JEV vaccine in Syrian hamster cells. Conclusions We found no evidence of XMRV and MLV in eight live attenuated human vaccines further supporting the safety of these vaccines. Our findings suggest that vaccines are an unlikely source of XMRV and MLV exposure in humans and are consistent with the mounting evidence on the absence of these viruses in humans. PMID:22216219

  19. Development of γδ T cell subset responses in gnotobiotic pigs infected with human rotaviruses and colonized with probiotic lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ke; Li, Guohua; Zhang, Wei; Azevedo, Marli SP; Saif, Linda J; Liu, Fangning; Bui, Tammy; Yousef, Ahmed; Yuan, Lijuan

    2011-01-01

    γδ T cell responses are induced by various viral and bacterial infections. Different γδ T cells contribute to activation and regulation of the inflammatory response and to epithelial repair. How γδ T cells respond to rotavirus infection and how the colonization of probiotics influences the γδ T cell response were unknown. In this study, we evaluated by multicolor flow cytometry the frequencies and distribution of total γδ T cells and three major subsets (CD2−CD8−, CD2+CD8− and CD2+CD8+) in ileum, spleen and blood of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs at early (3–5 days) and late phases (28 days) after rotavirus infection. The Gn pigs were inoculated with the virulent human rotavirus Wa strain and colonized with a mixture of two strains of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri. In naive pigs, the highest frequency of total γδ T cells was found in blood, followed by spleen and ileum at the early age (8–10 days old) whereas in older pigs (32 days of age) the highest frequency of total γδ T cells was found in ileum and spleen followed by blood. Rotavirus infection significantly increased frequencies of intestinal total γδ T cells and the putatively regulatory CD2+CD8+ γδ T cell subset and decreased frequencies of the putatively proinflammatory CD8− subsets in ileum, spleen and blood at post-infection days (PID) 3 or 5. The three γδ T cell subsets distributed and responded differently after rotavirus infection and/or lactobacilli colonization. The CD2+CD8+ subset contributed the most to the expansion of total γδ T cells after rotavirus infection in ileum because more than 77% of the total γδ T cells there were CD2+CD8+ cells. There was an additive effect between lactobacilli and rotavirus in inducing total γδ T cell expansion in ileum at PID 5. The overall effect of lactobacilli colonization versus rotavirus infection on frequencies of the CD2+CD8+ γδ T cell subset in ileum was similar; however, rotavirus-infected pigs

  20. A candidate packaging signal of human rotavirus differentiating Wa-like and DS-1-like genomic constellations.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki

    2015-09-01

    Rotavirus A (RVA) possesses a genome of 11 segmented RNAs. In human RVA, two major genomic constellations are represented by prototype strains Wa and DS-1. Here packaging signals differentiating Wa-like and DS-1-like genomic constellations were searched for by analyzing genomic sequences of Wa-like and DS-1-like strains. One pair of 11 nucleotide sites in the coding regions of viral structural protein (VP) 2 and VP6 was found to be complementary specifically among Wa-like strains. These sites tended to be free from base-pairing in secondary structures of genomic segments, suggesting that they may serve as a packaging signal in Wa-like strains. PMID:26224654

  1. Differential Effects of Escherichia coli Nissle and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG on Human Rotavirus Binding, Infection, and B Cell Immunity.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Sukumar; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Fischer, David; Kumar, Anand; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Rauf, Abdul; Shao, Lulu; Langel, Stephanie N; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2016-02-15

    Rotavirus (RV) causes significant morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in modulating host-pathogen interactions, but little is known about the impact of commonly used probiotics on human RV (HRV) infection. In this study, we compared the immunomodulatory effects of Gram-positive (Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG [LGG]) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli Nissle [EcN]) probiotic bacteria on virulent human rotavirus (VirHRV) infection and immunity using neonatal gnotobiotic piglets. Gnotobiotic piglets were colonized with EcN, LGG, or EcN+LGG or uncolonized and challenged with VirHRV. Mean peak virus shedding titers and mean cumulative fecal scores were significantly lower in EcN-colonized compared with LGG-colonized or uncolonized piglets. Reduced viral shedding titers were correlated with significantly reduced small intestinal HRV IgA Ab responses in EcN-colonized compared with uncolonized piglets post-VirHRV challenge. However the total IgA levels post-VirHRV challenge in the intestine and pre-VirHRV challenge in serum were significantly higher in EcN-colonized than in LGG-colonized piglets. In vitro treatment of mononuclear cells with these probiotics demonstrated that EcN, but not LGG, induced IL-6, IL-10, and IgA, with the latter partially dependent on IL-10. However, addition of exogenous recombinant porcine IL-10 + IL-6 to mononuclear cells cocultured with LGG significantly enhanced IgA responses. The greater effectiveness of EcN in moderating HRV infection may also be explained by the binding of EcN but not LGG to Wa HRV particles or HRV 2/4/6 virus-like particles but not 2/6 virus-like particles. Results suggest that EcN and LGG differentially modulate RV infection and B cell responses. PMID:26800875

  2. Genetic analysis of human rotavirus C: The appearance of Indian-Bangladeshi strain in Far East Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Doan, Yen Hai; Haga, Kei; Fujimoto, Akira; Fujii, Yoshiki; Takai-Todaka, Reiko; Oka, Tomoichiro; Kimura, Hirokazu; Yoshizumi, Shima; Shigemoto, Naoki; Okamoto-Nakagawa, Reiko; Shirabe, Komei; Shinomiya, Hiroto; Sakon, Naomi; Katayama, Kazuhiko

    2016-07-01

    Rotaviruses C (RVCs) circulate worldwide as an enteric pathogen in both humans and animals. Most studies of their genetic diversity focus on the VP7 and VP4 genes, but the complete genomes of 18 human RVCs have been described in independent studies. The genetic background of the Far East Asian RVCs is different than other human RVCs that were found in India and Bangladesh. Recently, a RVC detected in 2010 in South Korea had genetic background similar to the Indian-Bangladeshi RVCs. This study was undertaken to determine the whole genome of eight Japanese RVCs detected in 2005-2012, and to compare them with other human and animal global RVCs to better understand the genetic background of contemporary Far East Asian RVC. By phylogenetic analysis, the human RVCs appeared to be distinct from animal RVCs. Among human RVCs, three lineage constellations had prolonged circulation. The genetic background of the Far East Asian RVC was distinguished from Indian-Bangladeshi RVC as reported earlier. However, we found one Japanese RVC in 2012 that carried the genetic background of Indian-Bangladeshi RVC, whereas the remaining seven Japanese RVCs carried the typical genetic background of Far East Asian RVC. This is the first report of the Indian-Bangladeshi RVC in Japan. With that observation and the reassortment event of human RVCs in Hungary, our study indicates that the RVCs are spreading from one region to another. PMID:27071530

  3. [Genomic Characterization of an Unusual Human G3P[3] Rotavirus with Multiple Cross-species Reassortment].

    PubMed

    Dong, Huijin; Qian, Yuan; Nong, Yi; Zhang, You; Mo, Zhaojun; Li, Rongcheng

    2016-03-01

    One unusual human G3P[3] group A rotavirus (RVA) strain M2-102 was identified in stool sample collected from a child with diarrhea in Guangxi Province, China in 2014. It is well known that G3P[3] is a genotype commonly identified in feline and canine RVAs. However, the preliminary phylogenetic analyses of the VP7 and VP4 genes of strain M2-102 indicated that these two genes were closely related to bat RVA strain MYAS33 and simian strain RRV, respectively, whereas both clustered distantly to feline/canine-like RVA strains. In this study, full genome sequencing and molecular analyses were conducted to obtain the true origin of strain M2-102. It was revealed that strain RVA/Human-wt/CHN/M2-102/2014/G3P[3] exhibited a G3-P[3]-I3-R3-C3-M3-A9-N3-T3-E3-H6 genotype constellation for VP7-VP4-VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5 genes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 5 genes (VP7, VP1, VP2, NSP2 and NSP3) from strain M2-102 were closely related to those of bat strain MYAS33 from Yunnan Province which was thought a true bat RVA strain rather than a virus transmitted between species, while another 5 genes (VP4, VP3, NSP1, NSP4 and NSP5) clustered closely with those of simian strain RRV, yet the VP6 gene was closely related to that of human G3P[9] strain AU-1 and AU-1-like RVAs. The epidemiological data indicated that the child infected with M2-102 came from a countryside village, located in Dong Autonomous County of Sanjiang (subtropical hilly wooded area), Liuzhou city in Guangxi Province which might provide natural environment for reassortment events occurring among animal and human RVAs. Therefore, the data suggest that human strain M2-102 might originate from multiple reassortment events among bat, simian and human AU-1-like RVAs, yet it is not clear whether the genomic backbone based on bat MYAS33 (5 genes) and simian RRV (5 genes) like rotaviruses had been obtained through reassortment before being transmitted to the human. This is the first report on whole

  4. Aging attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chester A.; Monahan, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The vestibular system contributes to sympathetic activation by engagement of the otolith organs. However, there is a significant loss of vestibular function with aging. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine if young and older individuals differ in their cardiovascular and sympathetic responses to otolithic stimulation (ie, head-down rotation, HDR). We hypothesized that responses to otolithic stimulation would be attenuated in older adults because of morphological and physiological alterations that occur in the vestibular system with aging. METHODS AND RESULTS: Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and head rotation were measured during HDR in 11 young (26 +/- 1 years) and 11 older (64 +/- 1 years) subjects in the prone posture. Five older subjects performed head rotation (chin to chest) in the lateral decubitus position, which simulates HDR but does not alter afferent inputs from the vestibular system. MSNA responses to HDR were significantly attenuated in older as compared with young subjects (P<0.01). MSNA increased in the older subjects by only 12 +/- 5% as compared with 85 +/- 16% in the young. Furthermore, HDR elicited significant reductions in mean arterial blood pressure in older (Delta-6 +/- 1 mm Hg; P<0.01) but not young subjects (Delta1 +/- 1 mm Hg). In contrast to HDR, head rotation performed in the lateral decubitus position did not elicit hypotension. MSNA responses to baroreceptor unloading and the cold pressor test were not different between the age groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that aging attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex in humans and may contribute to the increased prevalence of orthostatic hypotension with age.

  5. 75 FR 48706 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... these materials is included in a December 17, 1999 Federal Register notice (64 FR 70914). Proposed..., rotavirus, hepatitis A, meningococcal, human papillomavirus (HPV), and trivalent influenza...

  6. Substantial Receptor-induced Structural Rearrangement of Rotavirus VP8*: Potential Implications for Cross-Species Infection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xing; Mishra, Rahul; Holloway, Gavan; von Itzstein, Mark; Coulson, Barbara S; Blanchard, Helen

    2015-10-12

    Rotavirus-cell binding is the essential first step in rotavirus infection. This binding is a major determinant of rotavirus tropism, as host cell invasion is necessary to initiate infection. Initial rotavirus-cell interactions are mediated by carbohydrate-recognizing domain VP8* of the rotavirus capsid spike protein VP4. Here, we report the first observation of significant structural rearrangement of VP8* from human and animal rotavirus strains upon glycan receptor binding. The structural adaptability of rotavirus VP8* delivers important insights into how human and animal rotaviruses utilize the wider range of cellular glycans identified as VP8* binding partners. Furthermore, our studies on rotaviruses with atypical genetic makeup provide information expected to be critical for understanding the mechanisms of animal rotavirus gene emergence in humans and support implementation of epidemiologic surveillance of animal reservoirs as well as future vaccination schemes. PMID:26250751

  7. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to human group B rotavirus and their use in an antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, J W; Welch, S K; Nakata, S; Estes, M K

    1989-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs)--B5C9, B5E4, and B10G10--to human group B rotavirus, an agent implicated in epidemic outbreaks of diarrhea in the People's Republic of China, primarily in adults, were prepared. MAb reactivity was decreased when virus preparations were treated with EDTA, suggesting reactivity with the outer-capsid protein(s). Competition experiments suggested that these MAbs recognize overlapping epitopes within a single antigenic site. A simple antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for the human group B rotavirus was established by using these MAbs as capture antibodies. Fifteen clinical samples obtained from three epidemic areas in the People's Republic of China and previously shown by Chinese scientists to contain group B virus were all positive in the MAb capture antigen detection ELISA, whereas none of the 57 samples lacking the group B virus reacted in the test. The results suggest that this MAb capture antigen detection ELISA will be useful to identify outbreaks caused by the human group B rotavirus and to monitor possible spread of the virus. Images PMID:2536755

  8. Whole genomic analysis of a porcine-like human G5P[6] rotavirus strain isolated from a child with diarrhoea and encephalopathy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Komoto, Satoshi; Maeno, Yoshimasa; Tomita, Mayuko; Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi; Ohfu, Masaharu; Yodoshi, Toshifumi; Akeda, Hideki; Taniguchi, Koki

    2013-07-01

    An unusual rotavirus strain, Ryukyu-1120, with G5P[6] genotypes (RVA/Human-wt/JPN/Ryukyu-1120/2011/G5P[6]) was identified in a stool specimen from a hospitalized child aged 4 years who showed diarrhoea and encephalopathy. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the complete genome of strain Ryukyu-1120. On whole genomic analysis, this strain was found to have a unique genotype constellation: G5-P[6]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1. The VP6 and NSP1 genotypes I5 and A8 are those commonly found in porcine strains. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicated that each of the 11 genes of strain Ryukyu-1120 appeared to be of porcine origin. Thus, strain Ryukyu-1120 was found to have a porcine rotavirus genetic backbone and is likely to be of porcine origin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of whole-genome-based characterization of the emerging G5P[6] strains in Asian countries. Our observations will provide important insights into the origin of G5P[6] strains and the dynamic interactions between human and porcine rotavirus strains. PMID:23515025

  9. Analysis of Human Rotaviruses from a Single Location Over an 18-Year Time Span Suggests that Protein Coadaption Influences Gene Constellations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; McDonald, Paul W.; Thompson, Travis A.; Dennis, Allison F.; Akopov, Asmik; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Patton, John T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rotaviruses (RVs) are 11-segmented, double-stranded RNA viruses that cause severe gastroenteritis in children. In addition to an error-prone genome replication mechanism, RVs can increase their genetic diversity by reassorting genes during host coinfection. Such exchanges allow RVs to acquire advantageous genes and adapt in the face of selective pressures. However, reassortment may also impose fitness costs if it unlinks genes/proteins that have accumulated compensatory, coadaptive mutations and that operate best when kept together. To better understand human RV evolutionary dynamics, we analyzed the genome sequences of 135 strains (genotype G1/G3/G4-P[8]-I1-C1-R1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1) that were collected at a single location in Washington, DC, during the years 1974 to 1991. Intragenotypic phylogenetic trees were constructed for each viral gene using the nucleotide sequences, thereby defining novel allele level gene constellations (GCs) and illuminating putative reassortment events. The results showed that RVs with distinct GCs cocirculated during the vast majority of the collection years and that some of these GCs persisted in the community unchanged by reassortment. To investigate the influence of protein coadaptation on GC maintenance, we performed a mutual information-based analysis of the concatenated amino acid sequences and identified an extensive covariance network. Unexpectedly, amino acid covariation was highest between VP4 and VP2, which are structural components of the RV virion that are not thought to directly interact. These results suggest that GCs may be influenced by the selective constraints placed on functionally coadapted, albeit noninteracting, viral proteins. This work raises important questions about mutation-reassortment interplay and its impact on human RV evolution. IMPORTANCE Rotaviruses are devastating human pathogens that cause severe diarrhea and kill >450,000 children each year. The virus can evolve by accumulating mutations and by

  10. The role of human adenoviruses type 41 in acute diarrheal disease in Minas Gerais after rotavirus vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Thaís Aparecida Vieira; Assis, Andrêssa Silvino Ferreira; do Valle, Daniel Almeida; Barletta, Vívian Honorato; de Carvalho, Iná Pires; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; da Rosa e Silva, Maria Luzia

    2016-01-01

    Human adenovirus species F (HAdV-F) type 40 and 41 are commonly associated with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) across the world. Despite being the largest state in southeastern Brazil and having the second largest number of inhabitants, there is no information in the State of Minas Gerais regarding the role of HAdV-F in the etiology of ADD. This study was performed to determine the prevalence, to verify the epidemiological aspects of infection, and to characterize the strains of human adenoviruses (HAdV) detected. A total of 377 diarrheal fecal samples were obtained between January 2007 and August 2011 from inpatient and outpatient children of age ranging from 0 to 12 years. All samples were previously tested for rotavirus, norovirus, and astrovirus, and 314 of 377 were negative. The viral DNA was extracted, amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and the HAdV-positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test (p < 0.05), considering two conditions: the total of samples tested (377) and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (314). The overall prevalence of HAdV was 12.47% (47/377); and in 76.60% (36/47) of the positive samples, this virus was the only infectious agent detected. The phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of 32 positive samples revealed that they all clustered with the HAdV-F type 41. The statistical analysis showed that there was no correlation between the onset of the HAdV infection and the origin of the samples (inpatients or outpatients) in the two conditions tested: the total of samples tested (p = 0.598) and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (p = 0.614). There was a significant association in the occurrence of infection in children aged 0–12 months for the condition 1 (p = 0.030) as well as condition 2 (p = 0.019). The occurrence of infections due to HAdV did not coincide with a pattern of seasonal

  11. Rotavirus Infects Human Biliary Epithelial Cells and Stimulates Secretion of Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 via MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Maria Grazia; Patton, John T.; Anders, Robert A.; Yolken, Robert H.; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2015-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is an infantile inflammatory cholangiopathy of unknown etiology although epidemiologic studies and animal models utilizing rotavirus (RV) have suggested a role for viral infection. Proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines have been detected in infants with BA. The purpose of our study was to investigate the susceptibility of human cholangiocytes (H69 cells) to infection with RRV and to determine if this infection resulted in cytokine secretion. Infection of H69 cells by RRV was noncytolytic and resulted in a time-dependent increase in the release of both infectious virions and cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 into the supernate. The greatest difference in cytokine supernatant levels between infected and mock-infected cells was noted at 24 hours postinfection (h p.i.) for IL-8, 556 ± 111 versus 77 ± 68 pg/mL (p < 0.0001), and at 48 h p.i. for IL-6, 459 ± 64 versus 67 ± 2 pg/mL (p < 0.0001). Production of both cytokines following RRV infection was significantly reduced by pretreating the H69 cells with inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Conclusion. RRV can infect human cholangiocytes resulting in the production of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines via the MAPK pathway. RRV-infected H69 cells could be a useful model system for investigating the viral hypothesis of BA. PMID:26247025

  12. Whole-genomic analysis of a human G1P[9] rotavirus strain reveals intergenogroup-reassortment events.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Souvik; Shintani, Tsuzumi; Urushibara, Noriko; Taniguchi, Koki; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2012-08-01

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) strain K8 (RVA/Human-tc/JPN/K8/1977/G1P[9]) was found to have Wa-like VP7 and NSP1 genes and AU-1-like VP4 and NSP5 genes. To determine the exact origin and overall genetic makeup of this unusual RVA strain, the remaining genes (VP1-VP3, VP6 and NSP2-NSP4) of K8 were analysed in this study. Strain K8 exhibited a G1-P[9]-I1-R3-C3-M3-A1-N1-T3-E3-H3 genotype constellation, not reported previously. The VP6 and NSP2 genes of strain K8 were related closely to those of common human Wa-like G1P[8] and/or G3P[8] strains, whilst its VP1-VP3, NSP3 and NSP4 genes were related more closely to those of AU-1-like RVAs and/or AU-1-like genes of multi-reassortant strains than to those of other RVAs. Therefore, strain K8 might have originated from intergenogroup-reassortment events involving acquisition of four Wa-like genes, possibly from G1P[8] RVAs, by an AU-1-like P[9] strain. Whole-genomic analysis of strain K8 has provided important insights into the complex genetic diversity of RVAs. PMID:22592265

  13. Genomic characterization of uncommon human G3P[6] rotavirus strains causing diarrhea in children in Italy in 2009.

    PubMed

    Ianiro, Giovanni; Delogu, Roberto; Fiore, Lucia; Ruggeri, Franco M

    2015-07-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children, causing up to 450,000 deaths worldwide, mostly in developing countries. Most of RVA human infections in developed countries are related to five major G/P combinations: G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8] and G9P[8]. During the surveillance activity of RotaNet-Italy, three uncommon G3P[6] RVA strains, designated as RVA/Human-wt/ITA/NA01/2009/G3P[6], RVA/Human-wt/ITA/NA06/2009/G3P[6], and RVA/Human-wt/ITA/NA19/2009/G3P[6], were identified in the stools of children with diarrhea hospitalized in Southern Italy in 2009. Samples NA01, NA06 and NA19 were characterized as genotype G3P[6]. To investigate the three strains further, partial sequencing of the eleven genomic segments was performed. RVA strains NA01, NA06 and NA19 were found to share the rare genotype constellation: G3-P[6]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2, which had not been reported previously in continental Italy. The phylogenetic analysis of the eleven genomic segments showed no evidence of zoonosis or inter-species reassortment at the origin of the Italian G3P[6] strains, indicating that they possessed DS-1-like genomic constellations similar to those detected previously in human cases in Africa and Europe. The analysis of the hypervariable regions of VP7 and VP4 (VP8*) revealed high amino acid identity between the Italian G3P[6] RVA strains involved in this study. PMID:25913157

  14. High protective efficacy of rice bran against human rotavirus diarrhea via enhancing probiotic growth, gut barrier function, and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingdong; Twitchell, Erica; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Weiss, Mariah; Kocher, Jacob; Lei, Shaohua; Ramesh, Ashwin; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Yuan, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we showed that rice bran (RB) was able to reduce human rotavirus (HRV) diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Here, we investigated its effect on the growth of diarrhea-reducing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN), and the resulting effects on HRV diarrhea, gut epithelial health, permeability and innate immune responses during virulent HRV challenge. On 3, 5, and 7 days of age pigs were inoculated with 2 × 10(4) colony-forming-units LGG+EcN to initiate colonization. Daily RB supplementation (replacing 10% calorie intake) was started at 5 days of age and continued until euthanasia. A subset of pigs in each group was challenged orally with 10(5) focus-forming-units of virulent HRV at 33 days of age. RB completely prevented HRV diarrhea in LGG+EcN colonized pigs. RB significantly promoted the growth of both probiotic strains in the gut (~5 logs) and increased the body-weight-gain at 4-5 weeks of age compared to non-RB group. After HRV challenge, RB-fed pigs had significantly lower ileal mitotic index and villus width, and significantly increased intestinal IFN-γ and total IgA levels compared to non-RB group. Therefore, RB plus LGG+EcN colonization may represent a highly effective therapeutic approach against HRV and potentially a variety of other diarrhea-inducing enteric pathogens. PMID:26459937

  15. High protective efficacy of rice bran against human rotavirus diarrhea via enhancing probiotic growth, gut barrier function, and innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xingdong; Twitchell, Erica; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Weiss, Mariah; Kocher, Jacob; Lei, Shaohua; Ramesh, Ashwin; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Yuan, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we showed that rice bran (RB) was able to reduce human rotavirus (HRV) diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Here, we investigated its effect on the growth of diarrhea-reducing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN), and the resulting effects on HRV diarrhea, gut epithelial health, permeability and innate immune responses during virulent HRV challenge. On 3, 5, and 7 days of age pigs were inoculated with 2 × 104 colony-forming-units LGG+EcN to initiate colonization. Daily RB supplementation (replacing 10% calorie intake) was started at 5 days of age and continued until euthanasia. A subset of pigs in each group was challenged orally with 105 focus-forming-units of virulent HRV at 33 days of age. RB completely prevented HRV diarrhea in LGG+EcN colonized pigs. RB significantly promoted the growth of both probiotic strains in the gut (~5 logs) and increased the body-weight-gain at 4–5 weeks of age compared to non-RB group. After HRV challenge, RB-fed pigs had significantly lower ileal mitotic index and villus width, and significantly increased intestinal IFN-γ and total IgA levels compared to non-RB group. Therefore, RB plus LGG+EcN colonization may represent a highly effective therapeutic approach against HRV and potentially a variety of other diarrhea-inducing enteric pathogens. PMID:26459937

  16. Evidence of Vaccine-related Reassortment of Rotavirus, Brazil, 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Marques da Silva, Marcelle Figueira; Goméz, Mariela Martinéz; Resque, Hugo Reis; Ichihara, Maria Yury Travassos; Volotão, Eduardo de Mello; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of 27 rotavirus strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated children revealed reassortment events in 3 strains: a gene derived from a vaccine; a gene acquired from a circulating strain; and reassortment between circulating strains. Data suggest that the widespread use of this monovalent rotavirus vaccine may introduce vaccine genes into circulating human rotaviruses or vice versa. PMID:24188273

  17. Whole Genomic Analysis of an Unusual Human G6P[14] Rotavirus Strain Isolated from a Child with Diarrhea in Thailand: Evidence for Bovine-To-Human Interspecies Transmission and Reassortment Events

    PubMed Central

    Tacharoenmuang, Ratana; Komoto, Satoshi; Guntapong, Ratigorn; Ide, Tomihiko; Haga, Kei; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kato, Takema; Ouchi, Yuya; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Tsuji, Takao; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Taniguchi, Koki

    2015-01-01

    An unusual rotavirus strain, SKT-27, with the G6P[14] genotypes (RVA/Human-wt/THA/SKT-27/2012/G6P[14]), was identified in a stool specimen from a hospitalized child aged eight months with severe diarrhea. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the complete genome of strain SKT-27. On whole genomic analysis, strain SKT-27 was found to have a unique genotype constellation: G6-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. The non-G/P genotype constellation of this strain (I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3) is commonly shared with rotavirus strains from artiodactyls such as cattle. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that nine of the 11 genes of strain SKT-27 (VP7, VP4, VP6, VP2-3, NSP1, NSP3-5) appeared to be of artiodactyl (likely bovine) origin, while the remaining VP1 and NSP2 genes were assumed to be of human origin. Thus, strain SKT-27 was found to have a bovine rotavirus genetic backbone, and thus is likely to be of bovine origin. Furthermore, strain SKT-27 appeared to be derived through interspecies transmission and reassortment events involving bovine and human rotavirus strains. Of note is that the VP7 gene of strain SKT-27 was located in G6 lineage-5 together with those of bovine rotavirus strains, away from the clusters comprising other G6P[14] strains in G6 lineages-2/6, suggesting the occurrence of independent bovine-to-human interspecies transmission events. To our knowledge, this is the first report on full genome-based characterization of human G6P[14] strains that have emerged in Southeast Asia. Our observations will provide important insights into the origin of G6P[14] strains, and into dynamic interactions between human and bovine rotavirus strains. PMID:26421718

  18. Rotavirus and Serotonin Cross-Talk in Diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Johan; Karlsson, Thommie; Sharma, Sumit; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Svensson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) has been shown to infect and stimulate secretion of serotonin from human enterochromaffin (EC) cells and to infect EC cells in the small intestine of mice. It remains to identify which intracellularly expressed viral protein(s) is responsible for this novel property and to further establish the clinical role of serotonin in RV infection. First, we found that siRNA specifically silencing NSP4 (siRNANSP4) significantly attenuated secretion of serotonin from Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) infected EC tumor cells compared to siRNAVP4, siRNAVP6 and siRNAVP7. Second, intracellular calcium mobilization and diarrhoeal capacity from virulent and avirulent porcine viruses correlated with the capacity to release serotonin from EC tumor cells. Third, following administration of serotonin, all (10/10) infants, but no (0/8) adult mice, responded with diarrhoea. Finally, blocking of serotonin receptors using Ondansetron significantly attenuated murine RV (strain EDIM) diarrhoea in infant mice (2.9 vs 4.5 days). Ondansetron-treated mice (n = 11) had significantly (p < 0.05) less diarrhoea, lower diarrhoea severity score and lower total diarrhoea output as compared to mock-treated mice (n = 9). Similarly, Ondansetron-treated mice had better weight gain than mock-treated animals (p < 0.05). A most surprising finding was that the serotonin receptor antagonist significantly (p < 0.05) also attenuated total viral shedding. In summary, we show that intracellularly expressed NSP4 stimulates release of serotonin from human EC tumor cells and that serotonin participates in RV diarrhoea, which can be attenuated by Ondansetron. PMID:27459372

  19. Rotavirus and Serotonin Cross-Talk in Diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Bialowas, Sonja; Hagbom, Marie; Nordgren, Johan; Karlsson, Thommie; Sharma, Sumit; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Svensson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) has been shown to infect and stimulate secretion of serotonin from human enterochromaffin (EC) cells and to infect EC cells in the small intestine of mice. It remains to identify which intracellularly expressed viral protein(s) is responsible for this novel property and to further establish the clinical role of serotonin in RV infection. First, we found that siRNA specifically silencing NSP4 (siRNANSP4) significantly attenuated secretion of serotonin from Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) infected EC tumor cells compared to siRNAVP4, siRNAVP6 and siRNAVP7. Second, intracellular calcium mobilization and diarrhoeal capacity from virulent and avirulent porcine viruses correlated with the capacity to release serotonin from EC tumor cells. Third, following administration of serotonin, all (10/10) infants, but no (0/8) adult mice, responded with diarrhoea. Finally, blocking of serotonin receptors using Ondansetron significantly attenuated murine RV (strain EDIM) diarrhoea in infant mice (2.9 vs 4.5 days). Ondansetron-treated mice (n = 11) had significantly (p < 0.05) less diarrhoea, lower diarrhoea severity score and lower total diarrhoea output as compared to mock-treated mice (n = 9). Similarly, Ondansetron-treated mice had better weight gain than mock-treated animals (p < 0.05). A most surprising finding was that the serotonin receptor antagonist significantly (p < 0.05) also attenuated total viral shedding. In summary, we show that intracellularly expressed NSP4 stimulates release of serotonin from human EC tumor cells and that serotonin participates in RV diarrhoea, which can be attenuated by Ondansetron. PMID:27459372

  20. Whole genomic analysis of human and bovine G8P[1] rotavirus strains isolated in Nigeria provides evidence for direct bovine-to-human interspecies transmission.

    PubMed

    Komoto, Satoshi; Adah, Mohammed Ignatius; Ide, Tomihiko; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Taniguchi, Koki

    2016-09-01

    Bovine group A rotavirus (RVA) G8P[1] strains have been rarely detected in humans. Two Nigerian G8P[1] strains, HMG035 (RVA/Human-tc/NGA/HMG035/1999/G8P[1]) and NGRBg8 (RVA/Cow-tc/NGA/NGRBg8/1998/G8P[1]), were previously suggested to have the VP7, VP4, and NSP1 genes of bovine origin. In order to obtain precise information on the origin and evolution of these G8P[1] strains, the complete nucleotide sequences of the whole genomes of strains HMG035 and NGRBg8 were determined and analyzed in the present study. On whole genomic analysis, strains HMG035 and NGRBg8 were found to be very closely related to each other in all the 11 segments, and were found to have a bovine RVA-like genotype constellation (G8-P[1]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A11-N2-T6-E2-H3). Furthermore, on phylogenetic analysis, each of the 11 genes of strains HMG035 and NGRBg8 appeared to be of bovine origin. Thus, strains HMG035 and NGRBg8 were suggested to be derived from a common origin, and strain NGRBg8 was assumed to represent an example of bovine RVA strains that were transmitted to humans. Our findings provide clear evidence for direct bovine-to-human interspecies transmission of RVA strains. PMID:27302094

  1. Effectiveness of the live attenuated rotavirus vaccine produced by a domestic manufacturer in China studied using a population-based case–control design

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shan-Shan; Li, Yue; Wang, Song-Mei; Zhang, Xin-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Ying; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Jing-Chen; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Wang, Xuan-Yi

    2015-01-01

    A universal rotavirus (RV) immunization program is a potentially cost-effective measure for preventing RV infection in China. However, the efficacy of the only licensed RV vaccine (Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine, LLR), which is made by a domestic manufacturer, has not been proven by a properly designed clinical trial. In October 2011 to March 2012, to measure the potential protection provided by LLR, a case–control study nested in a population-based active diarrhea surveillance study of children <5 years of age was conducted in rural Zhengding county. During the study period, 308 episodes of diarrhea were identified as being caused by RV infection, resulting in an incidence rate of 48.0/1000 people/year. The predominant RV serotype was G3 (61.5%), followed by G1 (15.2%), and G9 (6.5%). Overall, a protection of 35.0% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0%–52.0%) was identified, and higher protection was found among moderate RV gastroenteritis cases caused by the serotype G3 (52.0% 95% CI: 2.0%–76.1%). A concurrently conducted case–control study comparing non-RV viral diarrheal cases with non-diarrheal controls in the same population found that the RV vaccine offered no protection against non-RV diarrhea. Even under a less ideal immunization schedule, the oral LLR conferred a certain level of protection against RV gastroenteritis. However, further studies are needed to understand the full characteristics of the LLR, including its efficacy when administered following the optimal regimen, the potential risk of inducing intussusception, and the direct and indirect protective effects of LLR. PMID:26576341

  2. Effectiveness of the live attenuated rotavirus vaccine produced by a domestic manufacturer in China studied using a population-based case-control design.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Shan-Shan; Li, Yue; Wang, Song-Mei; Zhang, Xin-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Ying; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Jing-Chen; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Wang, Xuan-Yi

    2015-10-01

    A universal rotavirus (RV) immunization program is a potentially cost-effective measure for preventing RV infection in China. However, the efficacy of the only licensed RV vaccine (Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine, LLR), which is made by a domestic manufacturer, has not been proven by a properly designed clinical trial. In October 2011 to March 2012, to measure the potential protection provided by LLR, a case-control study nested in a population-based active diarrhea surveillance study of children <5 years of age was conducted in rural Zhengding county. During the study period, 308 episodes of diarrhea were identified as being caused by RV infection, resulting in an incidence rate of 48.0/1000 people/year. The predominant RV serotype was G3 (61.5%), followed by G1 (15.2%), and G9 (6.5%). Overall, a protection of 35.0% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0%-52.0%) was identified, and higher protection was found among moderate RV gastroenteritis cases caused by the serotype G3 (52.0% 95% CI: 2.0%-76.1%). A concurrently conducted case-control study comparing non-RV viral diarrheal cases with non-diarrheal controls in the same population found that the RV vaccine offered no protection against non-RV diarrhea. Even under a less ideal immunization schedule, the oral LLR conferred a certain level of protection against RV gastroenteritis. However, further studies are needed to understand the full characteristics of the LLR, including its efficacy when administered following the optimal regimen, the potential risk of inducing intussusception, and the direct and indirect protective effects of LLR. PMID:26576341

  3. Attenuation Coefficient Estimation of the Healthy Human Thyroid In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouyer, J.; Cueva, T.; Portal, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Lavarello, R.

    Previous studies have demonstrated that attenuation coefficients can be useful towards characterizing thyroid tissues. In this work, ultrasonic attenuation coefficients were estimated from healthy human thyroids in vivo using a clinical scanner. The selected subjects were five young, healthy volunteers (age: 26 ± 6 years old, gender: three females, two males) with no reported history of thyroid diseases, no palpable thyroid nodules, no smoking habits, and body mass index less than 30 kg/m2. Echographic examinations were conducted by a trained sonographer using a SonixTouch system (Ultrasonix Medical Corporation, Richmond, BC) equipped with an L14-5 linear transducer array (nominal center frequency of 10 MHz, transducer footprint of 3.8 cm). Radiofrequency data corresponding to the collected echographic images in both transverse and longitudinal views were digitized at a sampling rate of 40 MHz and processed with Matlab codes (MathWorks, Natick, MA) to estimate attenuation coefficients using the spectral log difference method. The estimation was performed using an analysis bandwidth spanning from 4.0 to 9.0 MHz. The average value of the estimated ultrasonic attenuation coefficients was equal to 1.34 ± 0.15 dB/(cm.MHz). The standard deviation of the estimated average attenuation coefficient across different volunteers suggests a non-negligible inter-subject variability in the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient of the human thyroid.

  4. Correlates of protection against rotavirus infection and disease.

    PubMed

    Offit, P A

    2001-01-01

    Repeated infections with the 'mucosal' pathogen rotavirus are common in children. Subsequent rotavirus infections usually cause milder symptoms than first-time infections. Therefore, although natural rotavirus infection attenuates the severity of subsequent infections, it does not prevent reinfection or mild disease. On the other hand, natural infection with 'systemic' viruses such as measles, mumps, rubella, or varicella often confers life-long protection against mild disease associated with reinfection. The degree to which differences in the pathogenesis of systemic and mucosal pathogens determines differences in the capacity of natural infection to induce life-long protective immunity will be discussed. This paradigm will be used to explore the immunological effector functions associated with protection against rotavirus challenge. PMID:11444023

  5. [Rotavirus and other viruses of diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Bajolet, O; Chippaux-Hyppolite, C

    1998-01-01

    Rotaviruses represent 80% of recognized viral etiologies and 140 million cases of diarrhea per year. They strike young children with similar frequency throughout the world, but the mortality rate is high in developing countries only, with some 870,000 deaths per year (WHO, 1997). Rotaviruses belong to the family of Reoviridae; they are segmented bicatenary RNA viruses, which explains their genetic variability, the presence of mixed infections, the establishment for some time already of a molecular epidemiology by electrophore types. The viruses are "naked" and thus resistant to the outside environment; their massive elimination, 10(8) to 10(10)viral particles per gram of faeces, begins with the first day of diarrhea. They are found in used water and can also be concentrated by shellfish; the environment thus constitutes a notable reservoir for the virus. Oral-faecal transmission is facilitated by deficient sanitary conditions. The 11 fragments of the genome each codify for 1 viral protein; 2 surface proteins, VP4 and VP7, bring about the formation of neutralizing antibodies, which are important for the protection and determination of different serotypes. A non structural protein--NSP4--would seem to intervene in the cytopathogenic effect and may act as a veritable viral enterotoxine. Numerous animal species are infected by rotaviruses which are district from the human ones. The pathology as it affects animals is of economic importance and of interest as an experimental and vaccinal model. Between human and animal rotaviruses there can be genetic rematchings and the VP6 protein is an antigen common to the group. The description of the other viruses responsible for diarrhea has benefited from widespread use of electronic microscopes from the very first years of study of rotaviruses. These other viruses belong to 6 different types: adenovirus, calcivirus, astrovirus, Norwalk agent and related viruses, coronavirus, enterovirus. They therefore have a structural and

  6. Molecular and antigenic characterization of porcine rotavirus YM, a possible new rotavirus serotype.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, A M; López, I V; López, S; Espejo, R T; Arias, C F

    1988-01-01

    In 1983, we isolated a porcine rotavirus (strain YM) that was prevalent in several regions of Mexico, as judged by the frequency of its characteristic electropherotype. By a focus reduction neutralization test, rotavirus YM was clearly distinguished from prototype rotavirus strains belonging to serotypes 1 (Wa), 2 (S2), 3 (SA11), 4 (ST3), 5 (OSU), and 6 (NCDV). Minor, one-way cross-neutralization (1 to 5%) was observed when antisera to the various rotavirus strains were incubated with rotavirus YM. In addition, the YM virus was not neutralized by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies with specificity to serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 5. The subgroup of the virus was determined to be I by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To characterize the serotype-specific glycoprotein of the virus at the molecular level, we cloned and sequenced the gene coding for VP7. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with reported homologous sequences from human and animal rotavirus strains belonging to six different serotypes further supported the distinct immunological identity of the YM VP7 protein. Images PMID:2845146

  7. Rotavirus (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spring months. It is particularly a problem in childcare centers and children's hospitals because rotavirus infection is ... who care for kids, including health care and childcare workers, also can spread the virus, especially if ...

  8. Study on Rotavirus Infection and Its Genotyping in Children Below 5 Years in South West Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azaran, Azarakhsh; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Samarbafzadeh, Alireza; Neisi, Niloofar; Hoseinzadeh, Mohsen; Rasti, Mojtaba; Teymurirad, Majid; Teimoori, Ali; Varnaseri, Mehran; Makvandi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Background Human rotaviruses are the most important agents for severe dehydrating diarrhea in children below 5 years old. Rotaviruses (RV) is a serious public health problem in developing and developed countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection and their genotypes in children younger than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods For this study, 200 stool samples from children below 5 years of age with acute diarrhea were collected between October 2011 and March 2012. Initially all stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA, and positive samples were confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the VP6 rotavirus gene. Determination of rotavirus genotypes was carried out by performing RT-PCR for G and P types. Altogether, 15 samples were sequenced. Results Out of 200 stool samples, 100 (50%) had rotavirus antigen detected by ELISA and 73 (36.5%) were found positive by RT-PCR. Of the rotavirus strains identified, only 63 (86.3%) were positive for both VP7 and VP4 while 10 (13.7%) strains were found nontypeable. Rotavirus infection accounts for 36.5% of gastroenteritis cases in samples from symptomatic children. The most prevalent rotavirus genotypes were G1P [8] (80%) followed by G2P [4] (20%). Conclusions Our results suggest that group A rotavirus is a major pathogene of acute diarrhea in Ahvaz city. The genotypes circulating are similar with those of other countries. PMID:27307959

  9. Frequently Asked Questions about Rotavirus

    MedlinePlus

    ... from being exposed to rotavirus. Better hygiene and sanitation have not been very good at reducing rotavirus disease. Because the virus is so widespread, even the cleanest environments can be infected. Children who have previously had ...

  10. Reassortant group A rotavirus from straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum).

    PubMed

    Esona, Mathew D; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Conrardy, Christina; Tong, Suxiang; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F; Banyai, Krisztian; Niezgoda, Michael; Rupprecht, Charles E; Gentsch, Jon R; Bowen, Michael D

    2010-12-01

    Bats are known reservoirs of viral zoonoses. We report genetic characterization of a bat rotavirus (Bat/KE4852/07) detected in the feces of a straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum). Six bat rotavirus genes (viral protein [VP] 2, VP6, VP7, nonstructural protein [NSP] 2, NSP3, and NSP5) shared ancestry with other mammalian rotaviruses but were distantly related. The VP4 gene was nearly identical to that of human P[6] rotavirus strains, and the NSP4 gene was closely related to those of previously described mammalian rotaviruses, including human strains. Analysis of partial sequence of the VP1 gene indicated that it was distinct from cognate genes of other rotaviruses. No sequences were obtained for the VP3 and NSP1 genes of the bat rotavirus. This rotavirus was designated G25-P[6]-I15-R8(provisional)-C8-Mx-Ax-N8-T11-E2-H10. Results suggest that several reassortment events have occurred between human, animal, and bat rotaviruses. Several additional rotavirus strains were detected in bats. PMID:21122212

  11. Human G9P[8] rotavirus strains circulating in Cameroon, 1999–2000: Genetic relationships with other G9 strains and detection of a new G9 subtype

    PubMed Central

    Esona, M.D.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, S.; Foytich, K.; Roy, S.; Banyai, K.; Armah, G.E.; Steele, A.D.; Volotão, E.M.; Gomez, M.M.; Silva, M.F.M.; Gautam, R.; Quaye, O.; Tam, K.I.; Forbi, J.C.; Seheri, M.; Page, N.; Nyangao, J.; Ndze, V.N.; Aminu, M.; Bowen, M.D.; Gentsch, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RV-A) are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in children worldwide and genotype G9P[8] is one of the five most common genotypes detected in humans. In order to gain insight into the degree of genetic variability of G9P[8] strains circulating in Cameroon, stool samples were collected during the 1999–2000 rotavirus season in two different geographic regions in Cameroon (Southwest and Western Regions). By RT-PCR, 15 G9P[8] strains (15/89 = 16.8%) were identified whose genomic configurations was subsequently determined by complete or partial gene sequencing. In general, all Cameroonian G9 strains clustered into current globally-spread sublineages of the VP7 gene and displayed 86.6–100% nucleotide identity amongst themselves and 81.2–99.5% nucleotide identity with global G9 strains. The full genome classification of all Cameroonian strains was G9-P[8]-I1–R1–C1–M1–A1–N1–T1–E1–H1 but phylogenetic analysis of each gene revealed that the strains were spread across 4 or more distinct lineages. An unusual strain, RVA/Human-wt/CMR/6788/1999/G9P[8], which shared the genomic constellation of other Cameroonian G9P[8] strains, contained a novel G9 subtype which diverged significantly (18.8% nucleotide and 19% amino acid distance) from previously described G9 strains. Nucleotide and amino acid alignments revealed that the 3′ end of this gene is highly divergent from other G9 VP7 genes suggesting that it arose through extensive accumulation of point mutations. The results of this study demonstrate that diverse G9 strains circulated in Cameroon during 1999–2000. PMID:23770141

  12. Whole genomic analyses of asymptomatic human G1P[6], G2P[6] and G3P[6] rotavirus strains reveal intergenogroup reassortment events and genome segments of artiodactyl origin.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta; Krishnan, Triveni; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2013-06-01

    Although P[6] group A rotaviruses (RVA) cause diarrhoea in humans, they have been also associated with endemics of predominantly asymptomatic neonatal infections. Interestingly, strains representing the endemic and asymptomatic P[6] RVAs were found to possess one of the four common human VP7 serotypes (G1-G4), and exhibited little antigenic/genetic differences with the VP4 proteins/VP4 encoding genome segments of P[6] RVAs recovered from diarrhoeic children, raising interest on their complete genetic constellations. In the present study, we report the overall genetic makeup and possible origin of three such asymptomatic human P[6] RVA strains, RVA/Human-tc/VEN/M37/1982/G1P2A[6], RVA/Human-tc/SWE/1076/1983/G2P2A[6] and RVA/Human-tc/AUS/McN13/1980/G3P2A[6]. G1P[6] strain M37 exhibited an unusual genotype constellation (G1-P[6]-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T2-E1-H1), not reported previously, and was found to originate from possible intergenogroup reassortment events involving acquisition of a DS-1-like NSP3 encoding genome segment by a human Wa-like RVA strain. On the other hand, G2P[6] strain 1076 exhibited a DS-1-like genotype constellation, and was found to possess several genome segments (those encoding VP1, VP3, VP6 and NSP4) of possible artiodactyl (ruminants) origin on a human RVA genetic backbone. The whole genome of G3P[6] strain McN13 was closely related to that of asymptomatic human Wa-like G3P[6] strain RV3, and both strains shared unique amino acid changes, which might have contributed to their attenuation. Taken together, the present study provided insights into the origin and complex genetic diversity of P[6] RVAs possessing the common human VP7 genotypes. This is the first report on the whole genomic analysis of a G1P[6] RVA strain. PMID:23347969

  13. Rotavirus vaccine-derived shedding and viral reassortants.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Michael D; Payne, Daniel C

    2012-11-01

    EVALUATION OF: Donato CM, Ch’ng LS, Boniface KF et al. Identification of strains of RotaTeq rotavirus vaccine in infants with gastroenteritis following routine vaccination. J. Infect. Dis. 206(3), 377–383 (2012).Two live, attenuated rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq(®) (Merck) and Rotarix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline), have been used in Australia since July 2007 to prevent severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children. Using active postvaccination monitoring, passive surveillance and state-of-the-art laboratory techniques, Donato et al. report that RotaTeq rotavirus vaccine and vaccine-derived strains were detected actively in stool samples from 13 out of 61 (21.3%) infants having diarrhea within 2 weeks of rotavirus vaccination, and among three out of 460 (0.7%) cases with acute gastroenteritis captured via the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program. Six (37.5%) of these 16 vaccine-derived viral specimens were associated with a G1P[8] strain thought to be the result of genetic reassortment between two component RotaTeq strains. Although nearly half of these reassortant-associated cases had underlying medical conditions, such as severe combined immunodeficiency disorder, further study is needed to understand the relationship between shedding, viral reassortants and underlying medical conditions. PMID:23249230

  14. Genetic diversity of porcine group A rotavirus strains in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Chandler-Bostock, Rebecca; Hancox, Laura R.; Nawaz, Sameena; Watts, Oliver; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Mellits, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus is endemic in pig farms where it causes a loss in production. This study is the first to characterise porcine rotavirus circulating in UK pigs. Samples from diarrheic pigs with rotavirus enteritis obtained between 2010 and 2012 were genotyped in order to determine the diversity of group A rotavirus (GARV) in UK pigs. A wide range of rotavirus genotypes were identified in UK pigs: six G types (VP7); G2, G3, G4, G5, G9 and G11 and six P types (VP4); P[6], P[7], P[8], P[13], P[23], and P[32]. With the exception of a single P[8] isolate, there was less than 95% nucleotide identity between sequences from this study and any available rotavirus sequences. The G9 and P[6] genotypes are capable of infecting both humans and pigs, but showed no species cross-over within the UK as they were shown to be genetically distinct, which suggested zoonotic transmission is rare within the UK. We identified the P[8] genotype in one isolate, this genotype is almost exclusively found in humans. The P[8] was linked to a human Irish rotavirus isolate in the same year. The discovery of human genotype P[8] rotavirus in a UK pig confirms this common human genotype can infect pigs and also highlights the necessity of surveillance of porcine rotavirus genotypes to safeguard human as well as porcine health. PMID:25123085

  15. Complement-fixing antibody response to rotavirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Gust, I D; Pringle, R C; Barnes, G L; Davidson, G P; Bishop, R F

    1977-01-01

    A human rotavirus complement-fixing (CF) antigen, prepared by purification of large volumes of fluid feces collected from children with winter diarrhea, was used to study the development and persistence of antibody in children with diarrhea and the prevalence of rotavirus antibody in Melbourne. In children with diarrhea, antibody rises were detectable within 4 to 6 weeks of the onset of illness, and the titers usually remained elevated for the next 1 to 2 years. CF antibody did not develop in two children with proven rotavirus infection aged less than 6 months, an age at which poor CF responses to other viruses have also been observed. A study of CF antibody levels in the general community showed that in Melbourne, most children have been infected with human rotavirus by the age of 3 years. PMID:403196

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of human group C rotavirus in hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Belém, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Patrícia Dos Santos; de Fátima Dos Santos Guerra, Sylvia; Siqueira, Jones Anderson Monteiro; Soares, Luana da Silva; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol; Linhares, Alexandre C; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira

    2016-04-01

    Group C rotavirus (RVC) is potentially an important pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis (AG), especially in outbreaks. This study aims to detect and molecularly characterize RVC in hospitalized children with AG in Belém, Brazil. From May 2008 to April 2011, 279 stools were subjected to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction targeting VP7, VP6, VP4, and NSP4 genes. RVC positivity rate was 2.1% (6/279) and phylogenetic analysis of positive samples yields genotype G4-P[2]-I2-E2. No evidence of zoonotic transmission and VP7 gene demonstrated close relationship with Asian strains. RVC surveillance is worth to expand information on evolutionary and epidemiological features of this virus. J. Med. Virol. 88:728-733, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26369400

  17. Group A rotavirus gastroenteritis: post-vaccine era, genotypes and zoonotic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Luchs, Adriana; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article provides a review of immunity, diagnosis, and clinical aspects of rotavirus disease. It also informs about the changes in epidemiology of diarrheal disease and genetic diversity of circulating group A rotavirus strains following the introduction of vaccines. Group A rotavirus is the major pathogen causing gastroenteritis in animals. Its segmented RNA genome can lead to the emergence of new or unusual strains in human populations via interspecies transmission and/or reassortment events. PMID:27462899

  18. Experimental Adaptation of Rotaviruses to Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Carlos A.; Guerrero, Rafael A.; Silva, Elver; Acosta, Orlando; Barreto, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    A number of viruses show a naturally extended tropism for tumor cells whereas other viruses have been genetically modified or adapted to infect tumor cells. Oncolytic viruses have become a promising tool for treating some cancers by inducing cell lysis or immune response to tumor cells. In the present work, rotavirus strains TRF-41 (G5) (porcine), RRV (G3) (simian), UK (G6-P5) (bovine), Ym (G11-P9) (porcine), ECwt (murine), Wa (G1-P8), Wi61 (G9) and M69 (G8) (human), and five wild-type human rotavirus isolates were passaged multiple times in different human tumor cell lines and then combined in five different ways before additional multiple passages in tumor cell lines. Cell death caused by the tumor cell-adapted isolates was characterized using Hoechst, propidium iodide, 7-AAD, Annexin V, TUNEL, and anti-poly-(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) and -phospho-histone H2A.X antibodies. Multiple passages of the combined rotaviruses in tumor cell lines led to a successful infection of these cells, suggesting a gain-of-function by the acquisition of greater infectious capacity as compared with that of the parental rotaviruses. The electropherotype profiles suggest that unique tumor cell-adapted isolates were derived from reassortment of parental rotaviruses. Infection produced by such rotavirus isolates induced chromatin modifications compatible with apoptotic cell death. PMID:26828934

  19. Detection of human adenovirus, rotavirus and enterovirus in water samples collected on dairy farms from Tenente Portela, Northwest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Spilki, Fernando Rosado; da Luz, Roger Bordin; Fabres, Rafael Bandeira; Soliman, Mayra Cristina; Kluge, Mariana; Fleck, Juliane Deise; Rodrigues, Manoela Tressoldi; Comerlato, Juliana; Cenci, Alexander; Cerva, Cristine; Dasso, Maurício Gautério; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2013-01-01

    Viral gastroenteritis and other waterborne diseases are a major concern for health in Brazil. A number of studies were conducted about the presence of viruses on water samples from Brazilian areas. However, the knowledge about the occurrence of viral contamination of drinking water sources in rural settings of the country is insufficient. On the present work, 15 samples from 5 dairy farms located at the municipality of Tenente Portela were collected and analysed for the presence of human adenoviruses (HAdV), as well as human enteroviruses (EV) and rotaviruses (RV). HAdV was present on 66.66% of the water samples, and have been found in all samples from artesian wells and springs, which are used as sources of drinking water for the individuals inhabiting those farms. EV and RV found only in one sample each. The detection rates of HAdV on the water from these dairy farms are alarming and point towards a situation of elevated environmental contamination by fecal microorganisms of human origin and poor basic sanitation conditions. PMID:24516464

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of probable non-human genes of group A rotaviruses isolated from children with acute gastroenteritis in Belém, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maestri, Régis Piloni; Kaiano, Jane Haruko Lima; Neri, Darivaldo Luz; Soares, Luana da Silva; Guerra, Sylvia de Fatima Dos Santos; Oliveira, Darleise de Souza; Farias, Yasmin Nascimento; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira

    2012-12-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are the main cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in both humans and young animals of various species such as calves, horses, pigs, dogs, cats, and birds. The genetic diversity of RVs is related to a variety of evolutionary mechanisms, including point mutation, and genome reassortment. The objective of this study was to characterize molecularly genes that encode structural and nonstructural proteins in unusual RV strains. The clinical specimens selected for this study were obtained from children and newborn with RV gastroenteritis, who participated in research projects on viral gastroenteritis conducted at the Evandro Chagas Institute. Structural (VP1-VP4, VP6, and VP7) and nonstructural (NSP1-NSP6) genes were amplified from stool samples by the polymerase chain reaction and subsequently sequenced. Eight unusual RV strains isolated from children and newborn with gastroenteritis were studied. Reassortment between genes of animal origin were observed in 5/8 (62.5%) strains analyzed. These results demonstrate that, although rare, interspecies (animal-human) transmission of RVs occurs in nature, as observed in the present study in strains NB150, HSP034, HSP180, HST327, and RV10109. This study is the first to be conducted in the Amazon region and supports previous data showing a close relationship between genes of human and animal origin, representing a challenge to the large-scale introduction of RV vaccines in national immunization programs. PMID:23080508

  1. Putative E3 Ubiquitin Ligase of Human Rotavirus Inhibits NF-κB Activation by Using Molecular Mimicry To Target β-TrCP

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, Marco; Dennis, Allison F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT   NF-κB plays a critical role in the induction and maintenance of innate and adaptive immune transcriptional programs. An associated inhibitor of κB protein (IκB) regulates NF-κB activation and contains a degron motif (DSGΦxS) that undergoes phosphorylation following pathogen recognition or other proinflammatory signals. The E3 ubiquitin ligase SCFβ-TrCP recognizes this phosphodegron through its β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP) subunit and induces IκB degradation, allowing NF-κB to translocate to the nucleus and modulate gene expression. Rotavirus (RV), a major cause of pediatric gastroenteritis, can block NF-κB activation through the action of its nonstructural protein NSP1, a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates the degradation of β-TrCP or other immunomodulatory proteins in a virus strain-specific manner. Here, we show that NSP1 targets β-TrCP by mimicking the IκB phosphodegron. The NSP1 proteins of most human and porcine RV strains conserve a C-terminal phosphodegron-like (PDL) motif, DSGΦS. Deletion of this motif or mutation of its serine residues disrupts NSP1-mediated degradation of β-TrCP and inhibition of NF-κB activation. Additionally, a point mutation within the phosphodegron-binding pocket protects β-TrCP from NSP1-mediated turnover. Fusion of the PDL motif to an NSP1 protein known to target other immunomodulatory proteins generates a chimeric NSP1 protein that can induce β-TrCP degradation and block NF-κB activation. Other viral proteins (Epstein-Barr virus LMP1, HIV-1 Vpu, and vaccinia virus A49) also contain a PDL motif and interact with β-TrCP to inhibit NF-κB activation. Taken together, these data suggest that targeting β-TrCP by molecular mimicry may be a common strategy used by human viruses to evade the host immune response. IMPORTANCE   The transcription factor NF-κB, a central regulator of the host response to infection, is a frequent target of viral antagonism. Pathogen detection

  2. Measurement of immunoglobulin A, G, and M class rotavirus antibodies in serum and mucosal secretions.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, B; Sonza, S; Holmes, I H

    1980-01-01

    A solid-phase, enzyme-linked immunospecific assay for measurement of different immunoglobulin classes of human rotavirus antibodies is described. The antigen, which was adsorbed directly to polyvinyl microtiter plates, consisted of a clarified cell culture stock of the simian rotavirus SA 11. The assay was sensitive and reproducible and could readily be calibrated to determine concentrations of each class of antibody. The assay was applied to measurements of rotavirus antibodies in serum, colostrum, milk, and fecal samples. It particularly facilitates investigations of the role of immunoglobulin A antibodies in immunity to rotavirus infections. PMID:6260831

  3. Novel porcine-like human G26P[19] rotavirus identified in hospitalized paediatric diarrhoea patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    My, Phan Vu Tra; Rabaa, Maia A.; Donato, Celeste; Cowley, Daniel; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Anh, Pham Hong; Vinh, Ha; Bryant, Juliet E.; Kellam, Paul; Thwaites, Guy; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Kirkwood, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    During a hospital-based diarrhoeal disease study conducted in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam from 2009 to 2010, we identified four symptomatic children infected with G26P[19] rotavirus (RV) – an atypical variant that has not previously been reported in human gastroenteritis. To determine the genetic structure and investigate the origin of this G26P[19] strain, the whole genome of a representative example was characterized, revealing a novel genome constellation: G26–P[19]–I5–R1–C1–M1–A8–N1–T1–E1–H1. The genome segments were most closely related to porcine (VP7, VP4, VP6 and NSP1) and Wa-like porcine RVs (VP1–3 and NSP2–5). We proposed that this G26P[19] strain was the product of zoonotic transmission coupled with one or more reassortment events occurring in human and/or animal reservoirs. The identification of such strains has potential implications for vaccine efficacy in south-east Asia, and outlines the utility of whole-genome sequencing for studying RV diversity and zoonotic potential during disease surveillance. PMID:25121549

  4. Systemic features of rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Calle, Irene; Gómez-Rial, José; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2016-07-01

    A growing body of evidence warrants a revision of the received/conventional wisdom of rotavirus infection as synonymous with acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus vaccines have boosted our interest and knowledge of this virus, but also importantly, they may have changed the landscape of the disease. Extraintestinal spread of rotavirus is well documented, and the clinical spectrum of the disease is widening. Furthermore, the positive impact of current rotavirus vaccines in reducing seizure hospitalization rates should prompt a reassessment of the actual burden of extraintestinal manifestations of rotavirus diseases. This article discusses current knowledge of the systemic extraintestinal manifestations of rotavirus infection and their underlying mechanisms, and aims to pave the way for future clinical, public health and research questions. PMID:27181101

  5. Rotavirus Diversity and Evolution in the Post-Vaccine World

    PubMed Central

    Patton, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are a large genetically diverse population of segmented double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses that are important causes of gastroenteritis in many animal species. The human RVs are responsible for the deaths of nearly 450,000 infants and young children each year, most occurring in developing countries. Recent large-scale sequencing efforts have revealed that the genomes of human RVs typically consist of phylogenetically linked constellations of eleven dsRNA segments. The presence of such preferred constellations indicate that the human RV genes have co-evolved to produce protein sets that work optimally together to support virus replication. Two of the viral genes encode virion outer capsid proteins (VP7 and VP4) whose antigenic properties define the G/P type of the virus. From year-to-year and place-to-place, the G/P type of human RVs associated with disease can fluctuate dramatically, phenomena that can be associated with the presence and behavior of genetically distinct RV clades. The recent introduction of two live attenuated RV vaccines (RotaReq™ and Rotarix™) into the childhood vaccination programs of various countries has been highly effective in reducing the incidence of RV diarrheal disease. Whether the widespread use of these vaccines will introduce selective pressures on human RVs, triggering genetic and antigenic changes that undermine the effectiveness of vaccinations programs, is uncertain and will require continued surveillance of human RVs. PMID:22284787

  6. Rotaviruses from Canadian farm samples.

    PubMed

    Lamhoujeb, Safaa; Cook, Angela; Pollari, Frank; Bidawid, Sabah; Farber, Jeff; Mattison, Kirsten

    2010-07-01

    Animal rotavirus (RoV) strains detected in Canadian swine and dairy cattle farms were characterized by sequence analysis of viral protein 4 (VP4), VP6, VP7 and non-structural protein 4 segments from 15 RoV strains. Some porcine strains were found to contain a mixture of segments typical of human and animal viruses. One strain represented a novel VP6 genotype "I14", G2-P[27]-I14. Other strains detected in porcine samples represented multiple different segment types. These results illustrate the active evolution of animal RoV strains and underline the need for surveillance of both animal and human strains in public health-monitoring programs. PMID:20517624

  7. Comparative analysis of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine strains and G8 rotaviruses identified during vaccine trial in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Heylen, Elisabeth; Zeller, Mark; Ciarlet, Max; Lawrence, Jody; Steele, Duncan; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    RotaTeqTM is a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine based on a bovine rotavirus genetic backbone in vitro reassorted with human outer capsid genes. During clinical trials of RotaTeqTM in Sub-Saharan Africa, the vaccine efficacy over a 2-year follow-up was lower against the genotypes contained in the vaccine than against the heterotypic G8P[6] and G8P[1] rotavirus strains of which the former is highly prevalent in Africa. Complete genome analyses of 43 complete rotavirus genomes collected during phase III clinical trials of RotaTeqTM in Sub-Saharan Africa, were conducted to gain insight into the high level of cross-protection afforded by RotaTeqTM against these G8 strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a high number of bovine rotavirus gene segments in these human G8 strains. In addition, we performed an in depth analysis on the individual amino acid level which showed that G8 rotaviruses were more similar to the RotaTeqTM vaccine than non-G8 strains. Because RotaTeqTM possesses a bovine genetic backbone, the high vaccine efficacy against G8 strains might be partially explained by the fact that all these strains contain a complete or partial bovine-like backbone. Altogether, this study supports the hypothesis that gene segments other than VP7 and VP4 play a role in vaccine-induced immunity. PMID:26440913

  8. Disease Caused by Rotavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Che-Liang; Chen, Shou-Chien; Liu, Shyun-Yeu; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Although rotavirus vaccines are available, rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide. The Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals Rixensart, Belgium) and RotaTeq (Merck and Co., Inc. Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, USA) vaccines are effective for reducing the morbidity and mortality of rotavirus infection. This article aims to assess the epidemiology of rotaviral gastroenteritis and the efficacy and effectiveness of licensed rotavirus vaccines. This review concludes by presenting challenges in the field that require further exploration by and perspectives from basic and translational research in the future. PMID:25553142

  9. Genetic heterogeneity, evolution and recombination in emerging G9 rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    Phan, Tung Gia; Okitsu, Shoko; Maneekarn, Niwat; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2007-09-01

    G9 rotavirus is recognized as the emerging genotype spreading around the world. The rapidly increasing detection of this virus in association with the genetic heterogeneity raises questions regarding its origin and epidemiological importance. A total of 380 sequences of rotavirus G9 strains including our sequence data from Vietnam and Japan, which were detected from 1983 to 2006 in five different continents, were collected from GenBank to investigate their heterogeneity and evolution. A novel nomenclature for G9 rotaviruses is proposed, in which these viruses are clustered into 6 lineages with 11 sublineages. Multiple amino acid substitutions of VP7 specific for lineages and sublineages were found. Interestingly, six short amino acid motifs correctly defined phylogenetic lineages and sublineages. Another interesting finding was the identification of recombinant G9 rotavirus, bearing different genotype sequence. In view of rotavirus evolution, this report is an additional evidence to support the notion that there might exist a genomic relatedness between human and porcine rotaviruses. PMID:17544926

  10. Rotavirus vaccine: a cost effective control measure for India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Goel, Manish K; Jain, Ram Bilas; Khanna, Pardeep; Vibha, Vibha

    2012-04-01

    Globally, rotavirus diarrhea results in 453,000 deaths in children younger than 5 y—37% of deaths attributable to diarrhea and 5% of all deaths in children younger than 5 y. India alone accounts for 22% (~100,000 deaths) of all deaths attributable to rotavirus infection. Two oral rotavirus vaccines are available: Rotarix, a monovalent P1A[8] G1 vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline), and RotaTeq, a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine (Merck). Rotarix is administered in a 2-dose schedule with the first and second doses of DTP (DTP1, DTP2). RotaTeq requires a 3-dose schedule with DTP1, DTP2 and DTP3 with an interval of 4–10 weeks between doses. The first dose of either vaccine should be administered to infants aged 6–15 weeks irrespective of the history of previous rotavirus infection, and the maximum age for administering the last dose of either vaccine should be 32 weeks. Although India would require funding from international health organizations/GAVI until new indigenous rotavirus vaccine candidates are developed at a cheaper price, introduction of vaccination into the national immunization program would be a cost-effective step toward control of the rotavirus diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality in India. PMID:23071989

  11. Monitoring of group A rotaviruses in wild-living birds in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Ursu, K; Papp, H; Kisfali, P; Rigó, D; Melegh, B; Martella, V; Bányai, K

    2011-03-01

    Rotavirus is a common pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans and domesticated animals. The incidence of rotavirus in wild-living animals, particularly in avian species, has not been systematically investigated. In this study 1220 fecal samples and cloacal swabs collected from wild-living birds during 2008 in Hungary were tested for the presence of group A rotaviruses by a VP6 gene-specific reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction assay. Of the 1220 samples, 276 and 944 were processed as individual and pooled specimens, respectively. Rotavirus was identified in two pooled pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) samples and two individual reed bunting samples (Emberiza schoeniclus). These data indicated a very low prevalence of group A rotaviruses (0.3%) in our sample set. Nonetheless, the present study, together with existing literature data, implies that rotavirus infections occur in a wide spectrum of feral bird species. These findings are exciting and suggest that pursuing rotavirus monitoring is needed to uncover avian rotavirus strain diversity and understand rotavirus ecology in nature. PMID:21500648

  12. Intellectual property rights and challenges for development of affordable human papillomavirus, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines: Patent landscaping and perspectives of developing country vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Amin, Tahir; Kim, Joyce; Furrer, Eliane; Matterson, Anna-Carin; Schwalbe, Nina; Nguyen, Aurélia

    2015-11-17

    The success of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance depends on the vaccine markets providing appropriate, affordable vaccines at sufficient and reliable quantities. Gavi's current supplier base for new and underutilized vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), rotavirus, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is very small. There is growing concern that following globalization of laws on intellectual property rights (IPRs) through trade agreements, IPRs are impeding new manufacturers from entering the market with competing vaccines. This article examines the extent to which IPRs, specifically patents, can create such obstacles, in particular for developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). Through building patent landscapes in Brazil, China, and India and interviews with manufacturers and experts in the field, we found intense patenting activity for the HPV and pneumococcal vaccines that could potentially delay the entry of new manufacturers. Increased transparency around patenting of vaccine technologies, stricter patentability criteria suited for local development needs and strengthening of IPRs management capabilities where relevant, may help reduce impediments to market entry for new manufacturers and ensure a competitive supplier base for quality vaccines at sustainably low prices. PMID:26368398

  13. Identification of Equine Lactadherin-derived Peptides That Inhibit Rotavirus Infection via Integrin Receptor Competition*

    PubMed Central

    Civra, Andrea; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Donalisio, Manuela; Napolitano, Lorenzo; Takada, Yoshikazu; Coulson, Barbara S.; Conti, Amedeo; Lembo, David

    2015-01-01

    Human rotavirus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children under the age of 5 years in both developed and developing countries. Human lactadherin, a milk fat globule membrane glycoprotein, inhibits human rotavirus infection in vitro, whereas bovine lactadherin is not active. Moreover, it protects breastfed infants against symptomatic rotavirus infections. To explore the potential antiviral activity of lactadherin sourced by equines, we undertook a proteomic analysis of milk fat globule membrane proteins from donkey milk and elucidated its amino acid sequence. Alignment of the human, bovine, and donkey lactadherin sequences revealed the presence of an Asp-Gly-Glu (DGE) α2β1 integrin-binding motif in the N-terminal domain of donkey sequence only. Because integrin α2β1 plays a critical role during early steps of rotavirus host cell adhesion, we tested a minilibrary of donkey lactadherin-derived peptides containing DGE sequence for anti-rotavirus activity. A 20-amino acid peptide containing both DGE and RGD motifs (named pDGE-RGD) showed the greatest activity, and its mechanism of antiviral action was characterized; pDGE-RGD binds to integrin α2β1 by means of the DGE motif and inhibits rotavirus attachment to the cell surface. These findings suggest the potential anti-rotavirus activity of equine lactadherin and support the feasibility of developing an anti-rotavirus peptide that acts by hindering virus-receptor binding. PMID:25814665

  14. Association of Rotavirus With Seizures Accompanied by Cerebral White Matter Injury in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ki Won; Moon, Chang Hoon; Lee, Kyung Yeon

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to identify whether rotavirus, human parechovirus, or enterovirus are causative or associated viral pathogens of seizures accompanied by diffuse cerebral white matter injury in neonates. Thirty neonates who presented with seizures and diffusion-restriction in the widespread bilateral cerebral white matter on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included in this study. All patients were tested for rotavirus, human parechovirus, and enterovirus by using reverse transcription PCR. Stool, cerebrospinal fluid, and serum samples were examined in 30, 25, and 20 patients, respectively. Rotavirus was detected in stool samples from all 30 patients (100%). Stool samples from 5 patients (16.7%) were also positive for enterovirus. Rotavirus or human parechovirus were not detected in any cerebrospinal fluid samples from 25 patients, but 1 patient tested positive for enterovirus. No virus was detected in any of 20 patient sera. This study indicated an association between rotavirus and seizures accompanied by diffuse cerebral white matter lesions in neonates. PMID:25637646

  15. Human G3P[9] rotavirus strains possessing an identical genotype constellation to AU-1 isolated at high prevalence in Brazil, 1997–1999

    PubMed Central

    Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) A is a very common cause of acute diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide. Most human strains are classified into two major Wa-like and DS-1-like genotype constellations, whilst a minor third strain, AU-1, was described in 1989 among human RV isolates from Japan. AU-1 demonstrates a high degree of homology to a feline RV, FRV-1, which suggests interspecies transmission of feline RV. However, there has been no subsequent report of RVs possessing the AU-1 genotype throughout all 11 genes of the genome. Between March 1997 and December 1999, 157 RV-positive stool samples were collected from Brazilian children, and 16 of the RVs (10.2 %) were P[9] genotype. We analysed eight strains by almost full-genome sequencing. These eight strains were divided into two groups: five AU-1-like and three Wa-like strains. Four of the five AU-1-like strains had the AU-1-like genotype constellation throughout the 11 genes. The remaining AU-1-like strain was considered to be a reassortant strain comprosed of nine, two and one genes from the AU-1-like, Wa-like and G9 strains, respectively. The three Wa-like strains were considered to be reassortants comprising seven to eight genes and three to four genes from Wa-like and non-Wa-like strains, respectively. This report of human G3P[9] RV strains possessing the AU-1 genotype constellation throughout all genes demonstrates the stability and infectivity of the AU-1-like strain with its original genotype over distance and time. PMID:25467218

  16. Epidemiological survey of enteric viruses in wild boars in the Czech Republic: First evidence of close relationship between wild boar and human rotavirus A strains.

    PubMed

    Moutelíková, Romana; Dufková, Lucie; Kamler, Jiří; Drimaj, Jakub; Plhal, Radim; Prodělalová, Jana

    2016-09-25

    Population of wild boar is increasing in the whole Europe, the animals migrate close to human habitats which greatly increases the possibility of natural transmission between domestic animals or humans and wild boars. The aim of the study was to estimate in population of free-living wild boar in the Czech Republic the prevalence of enteric viral pathogens, namely rotavirus groups A and C (RVA and RVC), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and members of family Coronaviridae (transmissible gastroenteritis virus - TGEV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - PEDV, porcine respiratory coronavirus - PRCV, and porcine hemagglutination encephalomyelitis virus - PHEV) and Picornaviridae,(teschovirus A - PTV, sapelovirus A - PSV, and enterovirus G - EV-G). In our study, stool samples from 203 wild boars culled during hunting season 2014-2015 (from October to January) were examined by RT-PCR. RVA was detected in 2.5% of tested samples. Nucleotide analysis of VP7, VP4, and VP6 genes revealed that four RVA strains belong to G4P[25]I1, G4P[6]I5, G11P[13]I5, and G5P[13]I5 genotypes and phylogenetic analysis suggested close relation to porcine and human RVAs. The prevalence of RVC in wild boar population reached 12.8%, PTV was detected in 20.2%, PSV in 8.9%, and EV-G in 2.5% of samples. During our study no PRRSV or coronaviruses were detected. Our study provides the first evidence of RVC prevalence in wild boars and indicates that wild boars might contribute to the genetic variability of RVA and also serve as an important reservoir of other enteric viruses. PMID:27599927

  17. Mapping the hemagglutination domain of rotaviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Pananá, E M; López, S; Gorziglia, M; Arias, C F

    1995-01-01

    Most strains of animal rotaviruses are able to agglutinate erythrocytes, and the surface protein VP4 is the virus hemagglutinin. To map the hemagglutination domain on VP4 while preserving the conformation of the protein, we constructed full-length chimeras between the VP4 genes of hemagglutinating (YM) and nonhemagglutinating (KU) rotavirus strains. The parental and chimeric genes were expressed in insect cells, and the recombinant VP4 proteins were evaluated for their capacity to agglutinate human type O erythrocytes. Three chimeric genes, encoding amino acids 1 to 208 (QKU), 93 to 208 (QC), and 93 to 776 (QYM) of the YM VP4 protein in a KU VP4 background, were constructed. YM VP4 and chimeras QKU and QC were shown to specifically hemagglutinate, indicating that the region between amino acids 93 and 208 of YM VP4 is sufficient to determine the hemagglutination activity of the protein. PMID:7884915

  18. Rotavirus in India: Forty Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-07-01

    Rotavirus was first identified as a human pathogen just over 40 years ago, and work on this pathogen in India started shortly thereafter. Subsequent studies have confirmed its pre-eminent role in gastroenteritis in children in India. Standardized surveillance has enabled the documentation of the high burden of disease, and has demonstrated that there is considerable geographic and temporal variation in strain circulation. Internationally licensed vaccines, vaccine candidates based on indigenous strains and out-licensed strains have been tested for safety, immunogenicity and efficacy; three vaccines are now licensed in India and are used in the private sector. Public sector vaccination has begun, and it will be path-breaking for Indian vaccinologists to measure impact of vaccine introduction in terms of safety and effectiveness. So far, India has kept pace with international epidemiologic and vaccine research on rotavirus, and these efforts should continue. PMID:27508532

  19. Global Seasonality of Rotavirus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manish M.; Pitzer, Virginia; Alonso, Wladimir J.; Vera, David; Lopman, Ben; Tate, Jacqueline; Viboud, Cecile; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2012-01-01

    Background A substantial number of surveillance studies have documented rotavirus prevalence among children admitted for dehydrating diarrhea. We sought to establish global seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease before widespread vaccine introduction. Methods We reviewed studies of rotavirus detection in children with diarrhea published since 1995. We assessed potential relationships between seasonal prevalence and locality by plotting the average monthly proportion of diarrhea cases positive for rotavirus according to geography, country development, and latitude. We used linear regression to identify variables that were potentially associated with the seasonal intensity of rotavirus. Results Among a total of 99 studies representing all six geographical regions of the world, patterns of year-round disease were more evident in low- and low-middle income countries compared with upper-middle and high income countries where disease was more likely to be seasonal. The level of country development was a stronger predictor of strength of seasonality (P=0.001) than geographical location or climate. However, the observation of distinctly different seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease in some countries with similar geographical location, climate and level of development indicate that a single unifying explanation for variation in seasonality of rotavirus disease is unlikely. Conclusion While no unifying explanation emerged for varying rotavirus seasonality globally, the country income level was somewhat more predictive of the likelihood of having seasonal disease than other factors. Future evaluation of the effect of rotavirus vaccination on seasonal patterns of disease in different settings may help understand factors that drive the global seasonality of rotavirus disease. PMID:23190782

  20. Nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for the detection of group A rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    Elschner, M; Prudlo, J; Hotzel, H; Otto, P; Sachse, K

    2002-03-01

    Rotaviruses are important pathogens associated with diarrhoeal diseases in almost all species of mammals. In the present study, a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of group A rotaviruses was developed, which is based on a target region in gene segment 6. Rotavirus strains of human, bovine, porcine, canine, feline, equine, and ovine origin were examined. Furthermore several faecal specimens, in which rotavirus had already been detected using other methods than PCR, were included in the study. A nested RT-PCR product was formed with all strains and faecal samples tested. The detection limit for virus-containing cell culture supernatant was 3 x 10(-2) [50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)] by RT-PCR and 3 x 10(-3) TCID50) by nested amplification. In order to examine the influence of the sample matrix on sensitivity, a rotavirus-negative faecal specimen was spiked with virus-containing cell culture suspension of the porcine rotavirus OSU. The detection limit of the present PCR procedure was approximately 1.6 x 10(2) TCID50 per g faeces and could be increased by one order of magnitude using nested PCR. The present method for detection and identification of group A rotaviruses represents a powerful diagnostic tool and was shown to be applicable to rotaviruses of different origin, including human sources. PMID:12002423

  1. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of the Impact of Alternative Dosing Schedules on the Immune Response to Human Rotavirus Vaccine in Rural Ghanaian Infants

    PubMed Central

    Armah, George; Lewis, Kristen D. C.; Cortese, Margaret M.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Ansah, Akosua; Gazley, Lauren; Victor, John C.; McNeal, Monica M.; Binka, Fred; Steele, A. Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Background. The recommended schedule for receipt of 2-dose human rotavirus vaccine (HRV) coincides with receipt of the first and second doses of diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccine (ie, 6 and 10 weeks of age, respectively). Alternative schedules and additional doses of HRV have been proposed and may improve vaccine performance in low-income countries. Methods. In this randomized trial in rural Ghana, HRV was administered at ages 6 and 10 weeks (group 1), 10 and 14 weeks (group 2), or 6, 10, and 14 weeks (group 3). We compared serum antirotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) seroconversion (≥20 U/mL) and geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) between group 1 and groups 2 and 3. Results. Ninety-three percent of participants (424 of 456) completed the study per protocol. In groups 1, 2, and 3, the IgA seroconversion frequencies among participants with IgA levels of <20 U/mL at baseline were 28.9%, 37.4%, and 43.4%, respectively (group 1 vs group 3, P = .014; group 1 vs group 2, P = .163). Postvaccination IgA GMCs were 22.1 U/mL, 26.5 U/mL, and 32.6 U/mL in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (group 1 vs group 3, P = .038; group 1 vs group 2, P = .304). Conclusions. A third dose of HRV resulted in increased seroconversion frequencies and GMCs, compared with 2 doses administered at 6 and 10 weeks of age. Since there is no correlate of protection, a postmarketing effectiveness study is required to determine whether the improvement in immune response translates into a public health benefit in low-income countries. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT015751. PMID:26823335

  2. Genetic Variation of Capsid Protein VP7 in Genotype G4 Human Rotavirus Strains: Simultaneous Emergence and Spread of Different Lineages in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Karin; Matson, David O.; Gomez, Jorge A.

    2002-01-01

    Rotavirus is the most-common cause of severe diarrhea in young children. Complete rotavirus characterization includes determination of the antigenic type of the two outer capsid proteins, VP7 and VP4, designated G and P types, respectively. During a nationwide rotavirus surveillance study, genotype G4 frequency increased during the second year. To evaluate further the mechanism of emergence and the relationship among G4 strains, the genetic diversity of VP7 capsid protein in these samples was studied in detail. Overall nucleotide sequence divergence ranged from less than 0.1 to 19.5%, a higher divergence than that observed for other rotavirus G types (0.1 to 9%). Sequences were classified into two major lineages (designated I and II) based on their nucleotide distances. The most heterogeneous lineage was further subdivided into four sublineages (designated Ia to Id). Most Argentine sequences were of sublineages Ib and Ic, which were confirmed to be independent sequence clusters by parsimony analysis. This study describes different lineages and sublineages within G4 strains and shows that Argentine strains are distantly related to reference strain ST3. The appearance of at least two G4 genotype (sub)lineages during 1998 demonstrates that the increased frequency of these strains was due to the synchronized emergence of different groups of strains. PMID:12037057

  3. Genetic Diversity of Rotavirus Strains Circulating in Environmental Water and Bivalve Shellfish in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kittigul, Leera; Panjangampatthana, Apinya; Rupprom, Kitwadee; Pombubpa, Kannika

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus is a common cause of acute diarrhea in young children worldwide. This study investigated the prevalence and molecular characterization of rotavirus in environmental water and oyster samples in Thailand. A total of 114 water samples and 110 oyster samples were collected and tested for group A rotavirus using RT-nested PCR. Rotavirus genotype was identified by phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 genetic sequences. Group A rotavirus was detected in 21 water samples (18.4%) and six oyster samples (5.4%). Twenty five rotavirus strains were successfully sequenced and classified into four genotypes; G1, G2, G3, and G9. Rotavirus G1 (three strains), G2 (three strains), and G9 (two strains) demonstrated the genetic sequences similar to human strains (90%–99% nucleotide identity), whereas G3 (17 strains) was closely related to animal strains (84%–98% nucleotide identity). G1 strains belonged to lineages I (sub-lineage c) and II. G2 strains belonged to lineage II. G9 strains belonged to lineages III (sub-lineage b) and IV. G3 strains belonged to lineages I, III (sub-lineage c), and IV with a predominance of lineage I. The present study provides important information on the rotavirus strains circulating in the environment. PMID:24469269

  4. Integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 are receptors for the rotavirus enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Neung-Seon; Zeng, Carl Q-Y; Hyser, Joseph M; Utama, Budi; Crawford, Sue E; Kim, Kate J; Höök, Magnus; Estes, Mary K

    2008-07-01

    Rotavirus NSP4 is a viral enterotoxin capable of causing diarrhea in neonatal mice. This process is initiated by the binding of extracellular NSP4 to target molecule(s) on the cell surface that triggers a signaling cascade leading to diarrhea. We now report that the integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 are receptors for NSP4. NSP4 specifically binds to the alpha1 and alpha2 I domains with apparent K(d) = 1-2.7 muM. Binding is mediated by the I domain metal ion-dependent adhesion site motif, requires Mg(2+) or Mn(2+), is abolished with EDTA, and an NSP4 point mutant, E(120)A, fails to bind alpha2 integrin I domain. NSP4 has two distinct integrin interaction domains. NSP4 amino acids 114-130 are essential for binding to the I domain, and NSP4 peptide 114-135 blocks binding of the natural ligand, collagen I, to integrin alpha2. NSP4 amino acids 131-140 are not associated with the initial binding to the I domain, but elicit signaling that leads to the spreading of attached C2C12-alpha2 cells, mouse myoblast cells stably expressing the human alpha2 integrin. NSP4 colocalizes with integrin alpha2 on the basolateral surface of rotavirus-infected polarized intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells as well as surrounding noninfected cells. NSP4 mutants that fail to bind or signal through integrin alpha2 were attenuated in diarrhea induction in neonatal mice. These results indicate that NSP4 interaction with integrin alpha1 and alpha2 is an important component of enterotoxin function and rotavirus pathogenesis, further distinguishing this viral virulence factor from other microbial enterotoxins. PMID:18587047

  5. Wave Dispersion and Attenuation on Human Femur Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Polyzos, Demosthenes; Boulpaep, Frans; van Hemelrijck, Danny; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.

    2014-01-01

    Cortical bone is a highly heterogeneous material at the microscale and has one of the most complex structures among materials. Application of elastic wave techniques to this material is thus very challenging. In such media the initial excitation energy goes into the formation of elastic waves of different modes. Due to “dispersion”, these modes tend to separate according to the velocities of the frequency components. This work demonstrates elastic wave measurements on human femur specimens. The aim of the study is to measure parameters like wave velocity, dispersion and attenuation by using broadband acoustic emission sensors. First, four sensors were placed at small intervals on the surface of the bone to record the response after pencil lead break excitations. Next, the results were compared to measurements on a bulk steel block which does not exhibit heterogeneity at the same wave lengths. It can be concluded that the microstructure of the tissue imposes a dispersive behavior for frequencies below 1 MHz and care should be taken for interpretation of the signals. Of particular interest are waveform parameters like the duration, rise time and average frequency, since in the next stage of research the bone specimens will be fractured with concurrent monitoring of acoustic emission. PMID:25196011

  6. Introduction and prolonged circulation of G12 rotaviruses in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, G M; Bonura, F; DI Bernardo, F; Cascio, A; Ferrera, G; Dones, P; Saporito, L; Collura, A; Terranova, D M; Valenzise, M; Allù, M T; Casuccio, N; Palermo, M; Bányai, K; Martella, V; DE Grazia, S

    2016-07-01

    Genotype G12 strains are now considered to be the sixth most prevalent human rotaviruses worldwide. In two Sicilian cities, Palermo and Messina, surveillance of rotavirus circulation performed since 1985 and 2009, respectively, did not detect G12 strains until 2012. From 2012 to 2014 rotavirus infection was detected in 29·7% of 1647 stool samples collected from children admitted for acute gastroenteritis to three Sicilian hospitals in Palermo, Messina and Ragusa. In 2012, G12P[8] was first detected in Palermo and then in Messina where it represented the second most frequent genotype (20% prevalence) after G1P[8]. Thereafter, G12 strains continued to circulate in Sicily, showing a marked prevalence in Ragusa (27·8%) in 2013 and in Palermo (21%) and Messina (16·6%) in 2014. All but one of the Sicilian G12 strains carried a P[8] VP4 genotype, whereas the single non-P[8] rotavirus strain was genotyped as G12P[9]. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 and VP4 sequences allowed distinction of several genetic lineages and separation of the G12P[8] strains into three cluster combinations. These findings indicate independent introductions of G12 rotavirus strains in Sicily in recent years. PMID:26743189

  7. 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits rotavirus replication in culture

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Glycyrrhizin (GA) and primary metabolite 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA) are pharmacologically active components of the medicinal licorice root, and both have been shown to have antiviral and immunomodulatory properties. Although these properties are well established, the mechanisms of action are not completely understood. In this study, GA and GRA were tested for the ability to inhibit rotavirus replication in cell culture, toward a long term goal of discovering natural compounds that may complement existing vaccines. Methods Epithelial cells were treated with GA or GRA various times pre- or post-infection and virus yields were measured by immunofluorescent focus assay. Levels of viral proteins VP2, VP6, and NSP2 in GRA treated cells were measured by immunoblot to determine if there was an effect of GRA treatment on the accumulation of viral protein. Results GRA treatment reduced rotavirus yields by 99% when added to infected cultures post-- virus adsorption, whereas virus yields in GA treated cultures were similar to mock treated controls. Time of addition experiments indicated that GRA-mediated replication inhibition likely occurs at a step or steps subsequent to virus entry. The amounts of VP2, VP6 and NSP2 were substantially reduced when GRA was added to cultures up to two hours post-entry. Conclusions GRA, but not GA, has significant antiviral activity against rotavirus replication in vitro, and studies to determine whether GRA attenuates rotavirus replication in vivo are underway. PMID:22616823

  8. Rotavirus Vaccine -- Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... to these vaccines. The infant's immune response to influenza vaccine administered at the same time as rotavirus vaccine ... previously that an inactivated vaccine (e.g., inactivated influenza vaccine) may be administered either simultaneously or at any ...

  9. Sudden Death from Systemic Rotavirus Infection and Detection of Nonstructural Rotavirus Proteins▿

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ineko; Taniguchi, Koki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Maeno, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yui, Akiko; Komoto, Satoshi; Wakata, Yasushi; Matsubara, Tamehito; Ozaki, Nozomu

    2011-01-01

    A 2.5-year-old girl died suddenly during the course of rotavirus gastroenteritis. The autopsy showed encephalopathy with rotavirus systemic infection. Here, we provide evidence of rotavirus replication in multiple organs. Our findings clarify that rotavirus infection in children can extend beyond the intestinal tract through viremia. PMID:21998424

  10. Assessment of the risks for human health of adenoviruses, hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams in the Eastern Cape.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-06-01

    Buffalo River is an important water resource in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The potential risks of infection constituted by exposure to human enteric viruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course were assessed using mean values and static quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The daily risks of infection determined by the exponential model [for human adenovirus (HAdV) and enterovirus (EnV)] and the beta-Poisson model (for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and rotavirus (RoV)) varied with sites and exposure scenario. The estimated daily risks of infection values at the sites where the respective viruses were detected, ranged from 7.31 × 10(-3) to 1 (for HAdV), 4.23 × 10(-2) to 6.54 × 10(-1) (RoV), 2.32 × 10(-4) to 1.73 × 10(-1) (HAV) and 1.32 × 10(-4) to 5.70 × 10(-2) (EnV). The yearly risks of infection in individuals exposed to the river/dam water via drinking, recreational, domestic or irrigational activities were unacceptably high, exceeding the acceptable risk of 0.01% (10(-4) infection/person/year), and the guideline value used as by several nations for drinking water. The risks of illness and death from infection ranged from 6.58 × 10(-5) to 5.0 × 10(-1) and 6.58 × 10(-9) to 5.0 × 10(-5), respectively. The threats here are heightened by the high mortality rates for HAV, and its endemicity in South Africa. Therefore, we conclude that the Buffalo River and its source water dams are a public health hazard. The QMRA presented here is the first of its kinds in the Eastern Cape Province and provides the building block for a quantitatively oriented local guideline for water quality management in the Province. PMID:24676673

  11. Rotavirus Prevalence in the Primary Care Setting in Nicaragua after Universal Infant Rotavirus Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Paniagua, Margarita; Zambrana, Luis Enrique; Bucardo, Filemon; Hudgens, Michael G.; Weber, David J.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Espinoza, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Nicaragua was the first developing nation to implement universal infant rotavirus immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5). Initial studies of vaccine effectiveness in Nicaragua and other developing nations have focused on the prevention of hospitalizations and severe rotavirus diarrhea. However, rotavirus diarrhea is more commonly treated in the primary care setting, with only 1–3% of rotavirus cases receiving hospital care. We measured the prevalence of rotavirus infection in primary care clinics in León, Nicaragua, after introduction of the immunization program. In the post-vaccine period, 3.5% (95% confidence interval = 1.9–5.8) of children seeking care for diarrhea tested positive for rotavirus. A high diversity of rotavirus genotypes was encountered among the few positive samples. In conclusion, rotavirus was an uncommon cause of childhood diarrhea in this primary care setting after implementation of a rotavirus immunization program. PMID:22049057

  12. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  13. Protect Your Child from Rotavirus Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... within the first week after the first or second dose of rotavirus vaccine.​ CDC continues to recommend that infants receive rotavirus vaccine. The benefits of the vaccine far outweigh the small risk ...

  14. Rotavirus seasonality in urban sewage from Argentina: effect of meteorological variables on the viral load and the genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Barril, P A; Fumian, T M; Prez, V E; Gil, P I; Martínez, L C; Giordano, M O; Masachessi, G; Isa, M B; Ferreyra, L J; Ré, V E; Miagostovich, M; Pavan, J V; Nates, S V

    2015-04-01

    In Argentina, the rotavirus disease exhibits seasonal variations, being most prevalent in the fall and winter months. To deepen the understanding of rotavirus seasonality in our community, the influence of meteorological factors on the rotavirus load and the genetic diversity in urban raw sewage from Córdoba city, Argentina were evaluated. Wastewater samples were collected monthly during a three-year study period and viral particles were concentrated by polyethylene glycol precipitation. RT-nested PCR was applied for rotavirus detection, and VP7/VP4 characterization and real-time PCR for rotavirus quantification. Both molecular techniques showed relatively similar sensitivity rates and revealed rotavirus presence in urban wastewater in cold and warm seasons, indicating its circulation in the local community all year round. However, a slight trend for rotavirus circulation was noted by real-time PCR in the fall and winter seasons, showing a significantly higher peak of rotavirus concentration at mean temperatures lower than 18°C and also higher, although not statistically different during drier weather. VP7 and VP4 gene characterization showed that G1 and P[8] genotypes were dominant, and temporal variations in genotype distribution were not observed. Rotavirus spread is complex and our results point out that weather factors alone cannot explain the seasonal quantitative pattern of the rotavirus disease. Therefore, alternative transmission routes, changes in human behavior and susceptibility, and the stability and survivability of the virus might all together contribute to the seasonality of rotavirus. The results obtained here provide evidence regarding the dynamics of rotavirus circulation and maintenance in Argentina. PMID:25777068

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Contemporary G2P[4] Human Rotaviruses Cocirculating in a Single U.S. Community: Footprints of a Globally Transitioning Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Allison F.; McDonald, Sarah M.; Payne, Daniel C.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Esona, Mathew D.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Chappell, James D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Group A rotaviruses (RVs) remain a leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Although the G/P types of locally circulating RVs can vary from year to year and differ depending upon geographical location, those with G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8], and G12P[8] specificities typically dominate. Little is known about the evolution and diversity of G2P[4] RVs and the possible role that widespread vaccine use has had on their increased frequency of detection. To address these issues, we analyzed the 12 G2P[4] RV isolates associated with a rise in RV gastroenteritis cases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) during the 2010-2011 winter season. Full-genome sequencing revealed that the isolates had genotype 2 constellations typical of DS-1-like viruses (G2P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the genome segments of the isolates were comprised of two or three different subgenotype alleles; this enabled recognition of three distinct clades of G2P[4] viruses that caused disease at VUMC in the 2010-2011 season. Although the three clades cocirculated in the same community, there was no evidence of interclade reassortment. Bayesian analysis of 328 VP7 genes of G2 viruses isolated in the last 39 years indicate that existing G2 VP7 gene lineages continue to evolve and that novel lineages, as represented by the VUMC isolates, are constantly being formed. Moreover, G2 lineages are characteristically shaped by lineage turnover events that introduce new globally dominant strains every 7 years, on average. The ongoing evolution of G2 VP7 lineages may give rise to antigenic changes that undermine vaccine effectiveness in the long term. IMPORTANCE Little is known about the diversity of cocirculating G2 rotaviruses and how their evolution may undermine the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines. To expand our understanding of the potential genetic range exhibited by rotaviruses circulating in postvaccine communities, we

  16. The first detection and whole genome characterization of the G6P[15] group A rotavirus strain from roe deer.

    PubMed

    Jamnikar-Ciglenecki, Urska; Kuhar, Urska; Sturm, Sabina; Kirbis, Andrej; Racki, Nejc; Steyer, Andrej

    2016-08-15

    Although rotaviruses have been detected in a variety of host species, there are only limited records of their occurrence in deer, where their role is unknown. In this study, group A rotavirus was identified in roe deer during a study of enteric viruses in game animals. 102 samples of intestinal content were collected from roe deer (56), wild boars (29), chamois (10), red deer (6) and mouflon (1), but only one sample from roe deer was positive. Following whole genome sequence analysis, the rotavirus strain D38/14 was characterized by next generation sequencing. The genotype constellation, comprising 11 genome segments, was G6-P[15]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 genome segment showed that the D38/14 rotavirus strain is closely related to the various G6 zoonotic rotavirus strains of bovine-like origin frequently detected in humans. In the VP4 segment, this strain showed high variation compared to that in the P[15] strain found in sheep and in a goat. This finding suggests that rotaviruses from deer are similar to those in other DS-1 rotavirus groups and could constitute a source of zoonotically transmitted rotaviruses. The epidemiological status of group A rotaviruses in deer should be further investigated. PMID:27374907

  17. Rotavirus serotype G5 associated with diarrhea in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Gouvea, V; de Castro, L; Timenetsky, M C; Greenberg, H; Santos, N

    1994-05-01

    Rotavirus serotype G5 in fecal specimens of 38 Brazilian children with diarrhea was identified by PCR and enzyme immunoassays. The strains exhibited long RNA electropherotypes and either subgroup II or nonsubgroup I-nonsubgroup II specificities. Serotype G5 has been found in piglets and horses but not yet in humans. PMID:8051281

  18. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the human rotavirus vaccine, RIX4414 oral suspension, when co-administered with routine childhood vaccines in Chinese infants.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong-Cheng; Huang, Teng; Li, Yanping; Wang, Lao-Hong; Tao, Junhui; Fu, Botao; Si, Guoai; Nong, Yi; Mo, Zhaojun; Liao, XueYan; Luan, Ivy; Tang, Haiwen; Rathi, Niraj; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the immunogenicity of the human rotavirus (RV) vaccine (RIX4414) when co-administered with routine childhood vaccines in Chinese infants (NCT01171963). Healthy infants aged 6-16 weeks received 2 doses of either RIX4414 or placebo according to a 0, 1-month schedule. Infants received routine diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa) and oral poliovirus (OPV) vaccines either separately from or concomitantly with RIX4414/placebo (separate and co-administration cohorts, respectively). Anti-RV IgA seroconversion rates (one month post-dose-2) and seropositivity rates (at one year of age) were measured using ELISA. Immune responses against the DTPa and OPV antigens were measured one month post-DTPa dose-3 in the co-administration cohort. Solicited local and general symptoms were recorded for 8-days post-vaccination (total cohort). The according-to-protocol immunogenicity population included 511 infants in the separate cohort and 275 in the co-administration cohort. One month post-RIX4414 dose-2, anti-RV IgA seroconversion rates were 74.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.9-79.9) and 64.2% (95% CI: 55.4-72.3) in the separate and co-administration cohorts; seropositivity rates at one year of age were 71.5% (95% CI: 65.5-77.1) and 50.0% (95% CI: 40.9-59.1), respectively. One month post-DTPa dose-3, all infants in the co-administration cohort were seroprotected against diphtheria and tetanus, and seropositive for pertussis toxoid, pertactin and filamentous haemaglutinin. Two months post-OPV dose-3, seroprotection rates against anti-poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 were >99% in the co-administration cohort. Reactogenicity profiles were similar in both cohorts. RIX4414 was immunogenic and well-tolerated in Chinese infants and did not appear to interfere with the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of co-administered routine childhood vaccines. PMID:27149266

  19. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the human rotavirus vaccine, RIX4414 oral suspension, when co-administered with routine childhood vaccines in Chinese infants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong-cheng; Huang, Teng; Li, Yanping; Wang, Lao-Hong; Tao, Junhui; Fu, Botao; Si, Guoai; Nong, Yi; Mo, Zhaojun; Liao, XueYan; Luan, Ivy; Tang, Haiwen; Rathi, Niraj; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the immunogenicity of the human rotavirus (RV) vaccine (RIX4414) when co-administered with routine childhood vaccines in Chinese infants (NCT01171963). Healthy infants aged 6–16 weeks received 2 doses of either RIX4414 or placebo according to a 0, 1-month schedule. Infants received routine diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa) and oral poliovirus (OPV) vaccines either separately from or concomitantly with RIX4414/placebo (separate and co-administration cohorts, respectively). Anti-RV IgA seroconversion rates (one month post-dose-2) and seropositivity rates (at one year of age) were measured using ELISA. Immune responses against the DTPa and OPV antigens were measured one month post-DTPa dose-3 in the co-administration cohort. Solicited local and general symptoms were recorded for 8-days post-vaccination (total cohort). The according-to-protocol immunogenicity population included 511 infants in the separate cohort and 275 in the co-administration cohort. One month post-RIX4414 dose-2, anti-RV IgA seroconversion rates were 74.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.9–79.9) and 64.2% (95% CI: 55.4–72.3) in the separate and co-administration cohorts; seropositivity rates at one year of age were 71.5% (95% CI: 65.5–77.1) and 50.0% (95% CI: 40.9–59.1), respectively. One month post-DTPa dose-3, all infants in the co-administration cohort were seroprotected against diphtheria and tetanus, and seropositive for pertussis toxoid, pertactin and filamentous haemaglutinin. Two months post-OPV dose-3, seroprotection rates against anti-poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 were >99% in the co-administration cohort. Reactogenicity profiles were similar in both cohorts. RIX4414 was immunogenic and well-tolerated in Chinese infants and did not appear to interfere with the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of co-administered routine childhood vaccines. PMID:27149266

  20. Growth restriction of an experimental live attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 2 vaccine in human ciliated airway epithelium in vitro parallels attenuation in African green monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schaap-Nutt, Anne; Scull, Margaret A.; Schmidt, Alexander C.; Murphy, Brian R.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are common causes of severe pediatric respiratory viral disease. We characterized wild-type HPIV2 infection in an in vitro model of human airway epithelium (HAE) and found that the virus replicates to high titer, sheds apically, targets ciliated cells, and induces minimal cytopathology. Replication of an experimental, live attenuated HPIV2 vaccine strain, containing both temperature sensitive (ts) and non-ts attenuating mutations, was restricted >30-fold compared to rHPIV2-WT in HAE at 32°C and exhibited little productive replication at 37°C. This restriction paralleled attenuation in the upper and lower respiratory tract of African green monkeys, supporting the HAE model as an appropriate and convenient system for characterizing HPIV2 vaccine candidates. PMID:20139039

  1. Prevention of rotavirus infections in vitro with aqueous extracts of Quillaja Saponaria Molina

    PubMed Central

    Roner, Michael R; Tam, Ka Ian; Kiesling-Barrager, Melody

    2010-01-01

    Background Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide, estimated to be responsible for over 300,000 childhood deaths every year, mostly in developing countries. Rotavirus-related deaths represent approximately 5% of all deaths in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. Saponins are readily soluble in water and are approved by the US FDA for inclusion in beverages intended for human consumption. The addition of saponins to existing water supplies offers a new form of intervention into the cycle of rotavirus infection. We believe that saponins will ‘coat’ the epithelium of the host's small intestine and prevent attachment of rotavirus. Discussion This experiment provides in vitro data for the possibility of including saponin in drinking water to prevent infections of rotavirus. We demonstrate that microgram amounts of extract, while exhibiting no cell cytotoxicity or direct virucidal activity, prevent rotavirus from infecting its host cells. In addition, the presence of residual amounts of extract continue to block viral infection and render cells resistant to infection for at least 16 h after the removal of the extract from the cell culture media. Conclusion We demonstrate that two Quillaja extracts possess strong antiviral activity at concentrations more than 1000-fold lower than concentrations exhibiting cell cytotoxicity. Extract concentrations as high as 1000 μg/ml are not cytotoxic, but concentrations as low as 1.0 μg/ml are able to block rotavirus and reovirus attachment and infection. PMID:20725585

  2. Candidate new rotavirus species in sheltered dogs, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Mihalov-Kovács, Eszter; Gellért, Ákos; Marton, Szilvia; Farkas, Szilvia L; Fehér, Enikő; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2015-04-01

    We identified unusual rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from sheltered dogs in Hungary by viral metagenomics. The novel rotavirus species displayed limited genome sequence homology to representatives of the 8 rotavirus species, A-H, and qualifies as a candidate new rotavirus species that we tentatively named Rotavirus I. PMID:25811414

  3. Ability of TESTPACK ROTAVIRUS enzyme immunoassay to diagnose rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Chernesky, M; Castriciano, S; Mahony, J; Spiewak, M; Schaefer, L

    1988-01-01

    TESTPACK ROTAVIRUS, a simple 10-min enzyme immunoassay, was compared with electron microscopy and Pathfinder enzyme immunoassay on feces from 172 patients of various ages with gastroenteritis. The percent sensitivities and specificities before blocking with antiserum were as follows: TESTPACK, 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity; Pathfinder, 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity. After blocking, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 100% and 100% for TESTPACK and 95% and 99% for Pathfinder. TESTPACK ROTAVIRUS was more sensitive, but not significantly, than Pathfinder (P greater than 0.1) and the direct electron microscopy technique (P greater than 0.1). PMID:3069866

  4. Extinction treatment in multiple contexts attenuates ABC renewal in humans.

    PubMed

    Balooch, Siavash Bandarian; Neumann, David L; Boschen, Mark J

    2012-10-01

    Renewal has been implicated as one of the underlying mechanisms in return of fear following exposure therapy. ABC renewal is clinically more relevant than ABA renewal and yet it is a weaker form of renewal, suggesting that conducting extinction treatment in multiple contexts may be sufficient to attenuate ABC renewal. Using self-reported expectancy of shock and startle blink responses the current study examined the effects of conducting extinction treatment in multiple contexts on ABC fear renewal. Participants (N = 68) received conditional stimulus (CS) and unconditional stimulus (US) pairings in one context (A) followed by extinction treatment (CS presentations alone) in either one other context (B) or three other contexts (BCD). Non-reinforced test trials in a novel context (E) resulted in renewal of extinguished conditioned behaviour for those who received extinction in only one context. However, renewal was attenuated for those who received extinction treatment in three contexts. No renewal was found for the control group that received the test trial in the same context as during extinction. Suggestions are provided for clinicians seeking to prevent or attenuate return of fear following exposure therapy. PMID:22835841

  5. Characterization of full-length and polymerase chain reaction-derived partial-length Gottfried and OSU gene 4 probes for serotypic differentiation of porcine rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    Rosen, B I; Parwani, A V; Gorziglia, M; Larralde, G; Saif, L J

    1992-10-01

    To determine the VP4 (P type) specificity of porcine rotaviruses, full- and partial-length gene 4 probes were produced from cloned Gottfried and OSU porcine rotavirus genomic segment 4 cDNAs. The gene 4 segments from the prototype Gottfried (VP7 serotype 4) and OSU (VP7 serotype 5) porcine rotavirus strains were selected for study because of their distinct P types and the occurrence of rotaviruses with similar serotypes among swine. Partial-length gene 4 cDNAs were produced and amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and encompassed portions of the variable region (nucleotides 211 to 612) of VP8 encoded by genomic segment 4. The hybridization stringency conditions necessary for optimal probe specificity and sensitivity were determined by dot or Northern (RNA) blot hybridizations against a diverse group of human and animal rotaviruses of heterologous group A serotypes and against representative group B and C porcine rotaviruses. The PCR-derived gene 4 probes were more specific than the full-length gene 4 probes but demonstrated equivalent sensitivity. The Gottfried PCR-derived probe hybridized with Gottfried, SB2, SB3, and SB5 G serotype 4 porcine rotaviruses. The OSU PCR-derived probe hybridized with OSU, EE, A580, and SB-1A porcine rotaviruses and equine H1 rotavirus. Results of the hybridization reactions of the PCR-derived gene 4 probes with selected porcine rotavirus strains agreed with previous serological or genetic analyses, indicating their suitability as diagnostic reagents. PMID:1328281

  6. Rotavirus antagonizes cellular antiviral responses by inhibiting the nuclear accumulation of STAT1, STAT2, and NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Gavan; Truong, Thanhmai T; Coulson, Barbara S

    2009-05-01

    A vital arm of the innate immune response to viral infection is the induction and subsequent antiviral effects of interferon (IFN). Rotavirus reduces type I IFN induction in infected cells by the degradation of IFN regulatory factors. Here, we show that the monkey rotavirus RRV and human rotavirus Wa also block gene expression induced by type I and II IFNs through a mechanism allowing signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT2 activation but preventing their nuclear accumulation. In infected cells, this may allow rotavirus to block the antiviral actions of IFN produced early in infection or by activated immune cells. As the intracellular expression of rotavirus nonstructural proteins NSP1, NSP3, and NSP4 individually did not inhibit IFN-stimulated gene expression, their involvement in this process is unlikely. RRV and Wa rotaviruses also prevented the tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated nuclear accumulation of NF-kappaB and NF-kappaB-driven gene expression. In addition, NF-kappaB was activated by rotavirus infection, confirming earlier findings by others. As NF-kappaB is important for the induction of IFN and other cytokines during viral infection, this suggests that rotavirus prevents cellular transcription as a means to evade host responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of this strategy by a double-stranded RNA virus. PMID:19244315

  7. Attenuation correction for the large non-human primate brain imaging using microPET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo-Variawa, S.; Lehnert, W.; Kassiou, M.; Banati, R.; Meikle, S. R.

    2010-04-01

    Assessment of the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals in vivo is often performed on animal models of human disease prior to their use in humans. The baboon brain is physiologically and neuro-anatomically similar to the human brain and is therefore a suitable model for evaluating novel CNS radioligands. We previously demonstrated the feasibility of performing baboon brain imaging on a dedicated small animal PET scanner provided that the data are accurately corrected for degrading physical effects such as photon attenuation in the body. In this study, we investigated factors affecting the accuracy and reliability of alternative attenuation correction strategies when imaging the brain of a large non-human primate (papio hamadryas) using the microPET Focus 220 animal scanner. For measured attenuation correction, the best bias versus noise performance was achieved using a 57Co transmission point source with a 4% energy window. The optimal energy window for a 68Ge transmission source operating in singles acquisition mode was 20%, independent of the source strength, providing bias-noise performance almost as good as for 57Co. For both transmission sources, doubling the acquisition time had minimal impact on the bias-noise trade-off for corrected emission images, despite observable improvements in reconstructed attenuation values. In a [18F]FDG brain scan of a female baboon, both measured attenuation correction strategies achieved good results and similar SNR, while segmented attenuation correction (based on uncorrected emission images) resulted in appreciable regional bias in deep grey matter structures and the skull. We conclude that measured attenuation correction using a single pass 57Co (4% energy window) or 68Ge (20% window) transmission scan achieves an excellent trade-off between bias and propagation of noise when imaging the large non-human primate brain with a microPET scanner.

  8. Bovine Fetal Inoculations with Calf Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Schlafer, D. H.; Schultz, R. D.; Scott, F. W.; Duncan, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The serological and histopathological responses of bovine fetuses to in utero inoculation with virulent and attenuated strains of the calf rotavirus (reovirus-like agent of neonatal calf diarrhea) are described. Thirteen bovine fetuses, 63 to 190 days of gestation, were inoculated in utero with attenuated (three fetuses) or field strain virus (nine fetuses) or both (one fetus). Serum-neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1:16 to > 1:256 were detected in six of eight fetuses tested, demonstrating the ability of the bovine fetus to respond immunologically to this agent. The youngest fetus in the series was inoculated at 63 days of gestation and developed a titer of 128 in 64 days. This represents the earliest stage of gestation at which a bovine fetus has been inoculated with a bovine virus and found to produce antibody to it. Serum neutralizing titers in six of the eight dams tested increased significantly following the inoculations of their fetuses in utero. Histological changes associated with viral replication and antigenic stimulation of the lymphoreticular system were observed. Pneumonic lesions consisting of both local and diffuse lymphoreticular proliferation were present in five of the nine fetuses that were alive at slaughter. Gliosis and perivascular cuffing were noted in the brains of two of these fetuses and meningitis was seen in one. No evidence of teratogenic change was found. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:232853

  9. Rotavirus gene structure and function.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, M K; Cohen, J

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge of the structure and function of the genes and proteins of the rotaviruses has expanded rapidly. Information obtained in the last 5 years has revealed unexpected and unique molecular properties of rotavirus proteins of general interest to virologists, biochemists, and cell biologists. Rotaviruses share some features of replication with reoviruses, yet antigenic and molecular properties of the outer capsid proteins, VP4 (a protein whose cleavage is required for infectivity, possibly by mediating fusion with the cell membrane) and VP7 (a glycoprotein), show more similarities with those of other viruses such as the orthomyxoviruses, paramyxoviruses, and alphaviruses. Rotavirus morphogenesis is a unique process, during which immature subviral particles bud through the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). During this process, transiently enveloped particles form, the outer capsid proteins are assembled onto particles, and mature particles accumulate in the lumen of the ER. Two ER-specific viral glycoproteins are involved in virus maturation, and these glycoproteins have been shown to be useful models for studying protein targeting and retention in the ER and for studying mechanisms of virus budding. New ideas and approaches to understanding how each gene functions to replicate and assemble the segmented viral genome have emerged from knowledge of the primary structure of rotavirus genes and their proteins and from knowledge of the properties of domains on individual proteins. Localization of type-specific and cross-reactive neutralizing epitopes on the outer capsid proteins is becoming increasingly useful in dissecting the protective immune response, including evaluation of vaccine trials, with the practical possibility of enhancing the production of new, more effective vaccines. Finally, future analyses with recently characterized immunologic and gene probes and new animal models can be expected to provide a basic understanding of what regulates the

  10. [Isolation and characterization of rotavirus from bat].

    PubMed

    Xia, Le-Le; He, Biao; Hu, Ting-Song; Zhang, Wen-Dong; Wang, Yi-Yin; Xu, Lin; Li, Nan; Qiu, Wei; Yu, Jing; Fan, Quan-Shui; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Tu, Chang-Chun

    2013-11-01

    Bats are considered as important animal reservoirs for many pathogenic viruses to humans. The viral metagenomic analysis was performed to study gut and lung tissues of 30 insectivorous bats collected in Yunnan Province and 26 reads were noted to group A rotavirus (RVA). Further RT-PCR screening on bat samples and in vitro viral isolation on cell cultures confirmed the presence of a novel RVA, named as RVA/Bat-tc/MYAS33/2013/G3P[10], in one of 30 Stoliczka's trident bats. The VP7 gene of this strain MYAS33 was closely related to that of an equine RVA strain from Argentina and the nucleotide sequence similarity was 93%, while its VP4 gene was a rare P[10] type and obtained the maximum sequence identity (94.8%) with that of a human strain from Thailand. The present study highlights the potential role of bats as reservoirs for RVAs. PMID:24520769

  11. A reverse evidence of rotavirus vaccines impact.

    PubMed

    Martinón-Torres, Federico; Aramburo, Angela; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Cebey, Miriam; Seoane-Pillado, María Teresa; Redondo-Collazo, Lorenzo; Martinón-Sánchez, Jose Maria

    2013-06-01

    In 2010, and due to a quality problem identified in the vaccine manufacture, the rotavirus (RV) vaccination was withheld in Spain during 5 months. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact that this sudden cease had on rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RAGE) hospitalizations. An increase in RAGE hospitalization was observed in parallel to the drop in vaccine coverage. Here, we report the first reverse evidence of rotavirus vaccine impact. PMID:23836258

  12. A reverse evidence of rotavirus vaccines impact

    PubMed Central

    Martinón-Torres, Federico; Aramburo, Angela; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Cebey, Miriam; Seoane-Pillado, María Teresa; Redondo-Collazo, Lorenzo; Martinón-Sánchez, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, and due to a quality problem identified in the vaccine manufacture, the rotavirus (RV) vaccination was withheld in Spain during 5 months. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact that this sudden cease had on rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RAGE) hospitalizations. An increase in RAGE hospitalization was observed in parallel to the drop in vaccine coverage. Here, we report the first reverse evidence of rotavirus vaccine impact. PMID:23836258

  13. Inflammatory and oxidative stress in rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Carlos A; Acosta, Orlando

    2016-05-12

    Rotaviruses are the single leading cause of life-threatening diarrhea affecting children under 5 years of age. Rotavirus entry into the host cell seems to occur by sequential interactions between virion proteins and various cell surface molecules. The entry mechanisms seem to involve the contribution of cellular molecules having binding, chaperoning and oxido-reducing activities. It appears to be that the receptor usage and tropism of rotaviruses is determined by the species, cell line and rotavirus strain. Rotaviruses have evolved functions which can antagonize the host innate immune response, whereas are able to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling. A networking between ER stress, inflammation and oxidative stress is suggested, in which release of calcium from the ER increases the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria. Sustained ER stress potentially stimulates inflammatory response through unfolded protein response pathways. However, the detailed characterization of the molecular mechanisms underpinning these rotavirus-induced stressful conditions is still lacking. The signaling events triggered by host recognition of virus-associated molecular patterns offers an opportunity for the development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with rotavirus infection. The use of N-acetylcysteine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and PPARγ agonists to inhibit rotavirus infection opens a new way for treating the rotavirus-induced diarrhea and complementing vaccines. PMID:27175349

  14. Inflammatory and oxidative stress in rotavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Carlos A; Acosta, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Rotaviruses are the single leading cause of life-threatening diarrhea affecting children under 5 years of age. Rotavirus entry into the host cell seems to occur by sequential interactions between virion proteins and various cell surface molecules. The entry mechanisms seem to involve the contribution of cellular molecules having binding, chaperoning and oxido-reducing activities. It appears to be that the receptor usage and tropism of rotaviruses is determined by the species, cell line and rotavirus strain. Rotaviruses have evolved functions which can antagonize the host innate immune response, whereas are able to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling. A networking between ER stress, inflammation and oxidative stress is suggested, in which release of calcium from the ER increases the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria. Sustained ER stress potentially stimulates inflammatory response through unfolded protein response pathways. However, the detailed characterization of the molecular mechanisms underpinning these rotavirus-induced stressful conditions is still lacking. The signaling events triggered by host recognition of virus-associated molecular patterns offers an opportunity for the development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with rotavirus infection. The use of N-acetylcysteine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and PPARγ agonists to inhibit rotavirus infection opens a new way for treating the rotavirus-induced diarrhea and complementing vaccines. PMID:27175349

  15. Rotavirus virus-like particles as surrogates in environmental persistence and inactivation studies.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Santiago; Abad, F Xavier; Loisy, Fabienne; Le Guyader, Françoise S; Cohen, Jean; Pintó, Rosa M; Bosch, Albert

    2004-07-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) with the full-length VP2 and VP6 rotavirus capsid proteins, produced in the baculovirus expression system, have been evaluated as surrogates of human rotavirus in different environmental scenarios. Green fluorescent protein-labeled VLPs (GFP-VLPs) and particles enclosing a heterologous RNA (pseudoviruses), whose stability may be monitored by flow cytometry and antigen capture reverse transcription-PCR, respectively, were used. After 1 month in seawater at 20 degrees C, no significant differences were observed between the behaviors of GFP-VLPs and of infectious rotavirus, whereas pseudovirus particles showed a higher decay rate. In the presence of 1 mg of free chlorine (FC)/liter both tracers persisted longer in freshwater at 20 degrees C than infectious viruses, whereas in the presence of 0.2 mg of FC/liter no differences were observed between tracers and infectious rotavirus at short contact times. However, from 30 min of contact with FC onward, the decay of infectious rotavirus was higher than that of recombinant particles. The predicted Ct value for a 90% reduction of GFP-VLPs or pseudoviruses induces a 99.99% inactivation of infectious rotavirus. Both tracers were more resistant to UV light irradiation than infectious rotavirus in fresh and marine water. The effect of UV exposure was more pronounced on pseudovirus than in GFP-VLPs. In all types of water, the UV dose to induce a 90% reduction of pseudovirus ensures a 99.99% inactivation of infectious rotavirus. Recombinant virus surrogates open new possibilities for the systematic validation of virus removal practices in actual field situations where pathogenic agents cannot be introduced. PMID:15240262

  16. Development of a human live attenuated West Nile infectious DNA vaccine: Suitability of attenuating mutations found in SA14-14-2 for WN vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Yamshchikov, Vladimir; Manuvakhova, Marina; Rodriguez, Efrain

    2016-01-01

    Direct attenuation of West Nile (WN) virus strain NY99 for the purpose of vaccine development is not feasible due to its high virulence and pathogenicity. Instead, we created highly attenuated chimeric virus W1806 with the serological identity of NY99. To further attenuate W1806, we investigated effects of mutations found in Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine SA14-14-2. WN viruses carrying all attenuating mutations lost infectivity in mammalian, but not in mosquito cells. No single reversion restored infectivity in mammalian cells, although increased infectivity in mosquito cells was observed. To identify a subset of mutations suitable for further attenuation of W1806, we analyzed effects of E138K and K279M changes on virulence, growth properties, and immunogenicity of derivatized W956, from which chimeric W1806 inherited its biological properties and attenuation profile. Despite strong dominant attenuating effect, introduction of only two mutations was not sufficient for attenuating W1806 to the safety level acceptable for human use. PMID:26545140

  17. Detection of bovine group B rotaviruses in feces by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Chinsangaram, J; Akita, G Y; Osburn, B I

    1994-07-01

    A pair of primers designed from the sequence of genome segment 9 of group B rat rotavirus (IDIR) were employed to amplify genome segment 9 of a group B bovine rotavirus in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to sequence the derived PCR products. A new pair of primers were synthesized from the obtained sequence data and used in a PCR detection assay for group B bovine rotavirus in fecal samples. In addition, another pair of primers were designed to produce a PCR-derived internal probe. This probe was used in a chemiluminescent hybridization to confirm the specificity and to increase the sensitivity of the assay. This assay could detect 0.1 fg of target double-stranded RNA. It was specific to group B bovine rotavirus and did not detect group B rat (IDIR) and porcine rotaviruses, group A bovine (NCDV), simian (SA-11), equine (H-2), porcine (OSU), human (DS-1), deer, and avian rotaviruses, coronavirus, or other enteric organisms tested in this study. PMID:7948199

  18. Prostaglandin ethanolamides attenuate damage in a human explant colitis model.

    PubMed

    Nicotra, Lauren L; Vu, Megan; Harvey, Benjamin S; Smid, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are protective in animal colitis models. As endocannabinoids also form novel prostaglandin ethanolamides (prostamides) via COX-2, we investigated the effects of prostamides and other COX-2 mediators on tissue damage in an ex vivo human mucosal explant colitis model. Healthy human colonic mucosae were incubated with pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β to elicit colitis-like tissue damage. The PGF-ethanolamide analogue, bimatoprost decreased colitis scores which were reversed by a prostamide-specific antagonist AGN 211334, but not the FP receptor antagonist AL-8810. PGF-ethanolamide and PGE-ethanolamide also reduced cytokine-evoked epithelial damage. Anandamide was protective in the explant colitis model; however COX-2 inhibition did not alter its effects, associated with a lack of COX-2 induction in explant mucosal tissue. These findings support an anti-inflammatory role for prostamides and endocannabinoids in the human colon. PMID:23380599

  19. Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Antonio E; Lopez, Wellington; Ortega, Nastassja; Chamorro, Marycris J

    2015-10-22

    Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated as ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P?. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses, respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex. PMID:26243695

  20. Detection of Novel Rotavirus Strain by Vaccine Postlicensure Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Teel, Elizabeth N.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Payne, Daniel C.; Roy, Sunando; Foytich, Kimberly; Parashar, Umesh D.; Gentsch, Jon R.; Bowen, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for rotavirus-associated diarrhea after implementation of rotavirus vaccination can assess vaccine effectiveness and identify disease-associated genotypes. During active vaccine postlicensure surveillance in the United States, we found a novel rotavirus genotype, G14P[24], in a stool sample from a child who had diarrhea. Unusual rotavirus strains may become more prevalent after vaccine implementation. PMID:23876297

  1. Novel NSP1 genotype characterised in an African camel G8P[11] rotavirus strain.

    PubMed

    Jere, Khuzwayo C; Esona, Mathew D; Ali, Yahia H; Peenze, Ina; Roy, Sunando; Bowen, Michael D; Saeed, Intisar K; Khalafalla, Abdelmelik I; Nyaga, Martin M; Mphahlele, Jeffrey; Steele, Duncan; Seheri, Mapaseka L

    2014-01-01

    Animal-human interspecies transmission is thought to play a significant role in influencing rotavirus strain diversity in humans. Proving this concept requires a better understanding of the complete genetic constellation of rotaviruses circulating in various animal species. However, very few whole genomes of animal rotaviruses, especially in developing countries, are available. In this study, complete genetic configuration of the first African camel rotavirus strain (RVA/Camel-wt/SDN/MRC-DPRU447/2002/G8P[11]) was assigned a unique G8-P[11]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A18-N2-T6-E2-H3 genotype constellation that has not been reported in other ruminants. It contained a novel NSP1 genotype (genotype A18). The evolutionary dynamics of the genome segments of strain MRC-DPRU447 were rather complex compared to those found in other camelids. Its genome segments 1, 3, 7-10 were closely related (>93% nucleotide identity) to those of human-animal reassortant strains like RVA/Human-tc/ITA/PA169/1988/G6P[14] and RVA/Human-wt/HUN/Hun5/1997/G6P[14], segments 4, 6 and 11 shared common ancestry (>95% nucleotide identity) with bovine rotaviruses like strains RVA/Cow-wt/CHN/DQ-75/2008/G10P[11] and RVA/Cow-wt/KOR/KJ19-2/XXXX/G6P[7], whereas segment 2 was closely related (94% nucleotide identity) to guanaco rotavirus strain RVA/Guanaco-wt/ARG/Rio_Negro/1998/G8P[1]. Its genetic backbone consisted of DS-1-like, AU-1-like, artiodactyl-like and a novel A18 genotype. This suggests that strain MRC-DPRU447 potentially emerged through multiple reassortment events between several mammalian rotaviruses of at least two genogroups or simply strain MRC-DPRU447 display a unique progenitor genotypes. Close relationship between some of the genome segments of strain MRC-DPRU447 to human rotaviruses suggests previous occurrence of reassortment processes combined with interspecies transmission between humans and camels. The whole genome data for strain MRC-DPRU447 adds to the much needed animal rotavirus data from Africa

  2. Rotavirus vaccines: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh; Patel, Manish; Gentsch, Jon; Jiang, Baoming

    2014-01-01

    Since 2006, the availability of two new rotavirus vaccines has raised enthusiasm to consider the eventual control and elimination of severe rotavirus diarrhea through the global use of vaccines. Rotavirus remains the most severe cause of acute diarrhea in children worldwide responsible for several hundred thousands of deaths in low income countries and up to half of hospital admissions for diarrhea around the world. The new vaccines have been recommended by WHO for all infants and in more than 47 countries, their introduction into routine childhood immunization programs has led to a remarkable decline in hospital admissions and even deaths within 3 years of introduction. Challenges remain with issues of vaccine finance globally and the problem that these live oral vaccines perform less well in low income settings where they are needed most. Ongoing research that will accompany vaccine introduction might help address these issues of efficacy and new vaccines and novel financing schemes may both help make these vaccines universally available and affordable in the decade. PMID:24156947

  3. Genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis attenuated vaccine strain A16R used for human in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiankai; Qi, Xinpeng; Zhu, Li; Wang, Dongshu; Gao, Zhiqi; Deng, Haijun; Wu, Weili; Hu, Tao; Chen, Chen; Chen, Weijun; Wang, Hengliang

    2015-09-20

    An attenuated Bacillus anthracis vaccine strain for human use, A16R, was obtained in China after ultraviolet radiation treatment and continuous subculture of the wild-type strain A16. A16R can synthesize the exotoxin, but without a capsule. We sequenced and annotated the A16R genome to encourage the use of this strain. The genome sequencing of the wild-type strain A16 is underway and the genomic comparison between the two strains will help to illustrate the attenuating mechanism of the A16R vaccine strain. PMID:26116813

  4. Establishment of indirect immunofluorescence assay for rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Tao, J; Zhang, J; Liu, X; Jin, H; Jiang, C; Yin, Y

    2016-03-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most frequent cause of infantile gastroenteritis worldwide and a significant cause of death in infants and young children, following severe diarrhea and dehydration. Rotavirus vaccines are considered the most effective way to prevent rotavirus infections. In the process of developing rotavirus vaccines, it is crucial to establish a reliable and standardized method to determine vaccine titer. In this study, we developed an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to determine the infectious titer of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus (LLR) vaccine grown in MA104 cells. The activating concentration of trypsin was 1 µg/ml for healthy monolayers of MA104 cells at 100% confluence. After incubation for 18 hr, a rabbit anti-SA11 polyclonal antibody, diluted at 1:800 in PBS, was added to all wells, followed by an Alexa-488-conjugated secondary antibody diluted at 1:500 in PBS. Cells were examined with a fluorescence microscope. Our results show that IFA was more reproducible, more sensitive, simpler, and more rapid than the log 50% cell culture infectious dose-ELISA (lgCCID50-ELISA) in measuring the rotavirus vaccines. IFA provided a reliable basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of rotavirus, and the certification of rotavirus vaccine production. PMID:26982471

  5. Distribution and titres of rotavirus antibodies in different age groups.

    PubMed Central

    Elias, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty-seven sera selected at random from hospital patients of all ages were examined for rotavirus antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence (FA) and complement fixation levels (CFT). Three hundred and fourteen of these were also tested for neutralizing antibodies to human rotavirus. Sera from patients admitted with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis were excluded from this survey. FA antibodies were found in newborn infants but fell to undetectable titres at 3 months. The highest titres were found in children between the ages of one and three years. In older age groups, the model titre fell gradually with increasing age until, in sera from those above 70 years of age, FA antibodies were almost undetectable. The same pattern was observed with neutralizing antibodies. A high model titre of CF antibodies was only found in sera from those aged one to three years. PMID:200676

  6. Longitudinal survey of rotavirus infection in calves.

    PubMed

    McNulty, M S; Logan, E F

    1983-10-01

    A longitudinal survey of rotavirus infection in heifer calves was carried out on a closed Friesian dairy herd over two successive calving seasons. Rotavirus was detected by electron microscopy in the faeces of 45 of 57 (79 per cent) calves examined. On average the virus was first detected at 6.1 days of age. Clinically the disease associated with rotavirus infection was of mild to moderate severity. Only one infected calf required intravenous fluid therapy. Diarrhoea or excretion of abnormal faeces was associated with rotavirus infection in 58 per cent of infected calves, while in the remaining 42 per cent infection was subclinical. The cycle of rotavirus infection was broken by thorough cleansing and disinfection of the calf house. PMID:6316619

  7. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    McAtee, Casey L; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5-24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. PMID:26598569

  8. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Rotavirus Molecular Signatures Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Driskell, Jeremy D.; Zhu, Yu; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Zhao, Yiping; Dluhy, Richard A.; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2010-01-01

    Human enteric virus infections range from gastroenteritis to life threatening diseases such as myocarditis and aseptic meningitis. Rotavirus is one of the most common enteric agents and mortality associated with infection can be very significant in developing countries. Most enteric viruses produce diseases that are not distinct from other pathogens, and current diagnostics is limited in breadth and sensitivity required to advance virus detection schemes for disease intervention strategies. A spectroscopic assay based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been developed for rapid and sensitive detection of rotavirus. The SERS method relies on the fabrication of silver nanorod array substrates that are extremely SERS-active allowing for direct structural characterization of viruses. SERS spectra for eight rotavirus strains were analyzed to qualitatively identify rotaviruses and to classify each according to G and P genotype and strain with >96% accuracy, and a quantitative model based on partial least squares regression analysis was evaluated. This novel SERS-based virus detection method shows that SERS can be used to identify spectral fingerprints of human rotaviruses, and suggests that this detection method can be used for pathogen detection central to human health care. PMID:20419101

  9. Attenuated noradrenergic sensitivity during local cooling in aged human skin

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Caitlin S; Holowatz, Lacy A; Kenney, W. Larry

    2005-01-01

    Reflex-mediated cutaneous vasoconstriction (VC) is impaired in older humans; however, it is unclear whether this blunted VC also occurs during local cooling, which mediates VC through different mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that the sensitization of cutaneous vessels to noradrenaline (NA) during direct skin cooling seen in young skin is blunted in aged skin. In 11 young (18–30 years) and 11 older (62–76 years) men and women, skin blood flow was monitored at two forearm sites with laser Doppler (LD) flowmetry while local skin temperature was cooled and clamped at 24°C. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; LD flux/mean arterial pressure) was expressed as percentage change from baseline (%ΔCVCbase). At one site, five doses of NA (10−10–10−2m) were sequentially infused via intradermal microdialysis during cooling while the other 24°C site served as control (Ringer solution + cooling). At control sites, VC due to cooling alone was similar in young versus older (−54 ± 5 versus −56 ± 3%ΔCVCbase, P= 0.46). In young, NA infusions induced additional dose-dependent VC (10−8, 10−6, 10−4 and 10−2m: −70 ± 2, −72 ± 3, −78 ± 3 and −79 ± 4%ΔCVCbase; P < 0.05 versus control). In older subjects, further VC did not occur until the highest infused dose of NA (10−2m: −70 ± 5%ΔCVCbase; P < 0.05 versus control). When cutaneous arterioles are sensitized to NA by direct cooling, young skin exhibits the capacity to further constrict to NA in a dose-dependent manner. However, older skin does not display enhanced VC capacity until treated with saturating doses of NA, possibly due to age-associated decrements in Ca2+ availability or α2C-adrenoceptor function. PMID:15705648

  10. Genome-Wide Evolutionary Analyses of G1P[8] Strains Isolated Before and After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Mark; Donato, Celeste; Trovão, Nídia Sequeira; Cowley, Daniel; Heylen, Elisabeth; Donker, Nicole C; McAllen, John K; Akopov, Asmik; Kirkness, Ewen F; Lemey, Philippe; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2015-09-01

    Rotaviruses are the most important etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Among the first countries to introduce rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs were Belgium (November 2006) and Australia (July 2007). Surveillance programs in Belgium (since 1999) and Australia (since 1989) offer the opportunity to perform a detailed comparison of rotavirus strains circulating pre- and postvaccine introduction. G1P[8] rotaviruses are the most prominent genotype in humans, and a total of 157 G1P[8] rotaviruses isolated between 1999 and 2011 were selected from Belgium and Australia and their complete genomes were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed evidence of frequent reassortment among Belgian and Australian G1P[8] rotaviruses. Although many different phylogenetic subclusters were present before and after vaccine introduction, some unique clusters were only identified after vaccine introduction, which could be due to natural fluctuation or the first signs of vaccine-driven evolution. The times to the most recent common ancestors for the Belgian and Australian G1P[8] rotaviruses ranged from 1846 to 1955 depending on the gene segment, with VP7 and NSP4 resulting in the most recent estimates. We found no evidence that rotavirus population size was affected after vaccine introduction and only six amino acid sites in VP2, VP3, VP7, and NSP1 were identified to be under positive selective pressure. Continued surveillance of G1P[8] strains is needed to determine long-term effects of vaccine introductions, particularly now rotavirus vaccines are implemented in the national immunization programs of an increasing number of countries worldwide. PMID:26254487

  11. Genome-Wide Evolutionary Analyses of G1P[8] Strains Isolated Before and After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Mark; Donato, Celeste; Trovão, Nídia Sequeira; Cowley, Daniel; Heylen, Elisabeth; Donker, Nicole C.; McAllen, John K.; Akopov, Asmik; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Lemey, Philippe; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Kirkwood, Carl D.

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses are the most important etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Among the first countries to introduce rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs were Belgium (November 2006) and Australia (July 2007). Surveillance programs in Belgium (since 1999) and Australia (since 1989) offer the opportunity to perform a detailed comparison of rotavirus strains circulating pre- and postvaccine introduction. G1P[8] rotaviruses are the most prominent genotype in humans, and a total of 157 G1P[8] rotaviruses isolated between 1999 and 2011 were selected from Belgium and Australia and their complete genomes were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed evidence of frequent reassortment among Belgian and Australian G1P[8] rotaviruses. Although many different phylogenetic subclusters were present before and after vaccine introduction, some unique clusters were only identified after vaccine introduction, which could be due to natural fluctuation or the first signs of vaccine-driven evolution. The times to the most recent common ancestors for the Belgian and Australian G1P[8] rotaviruses ranged from 1846 to 1955 depending on the gene segment, with VP7 and NSP4 resulting in the most recent estimates. We found no evidence that rotavirus population size was affected after vaccine introduction and only six amino acid sites in VP2, VP3, VP7, and NSP1 were identified to be under positive selective pressure. Continued surveillance of G1P[8] strains is needed to determine long-term effects of vaccine introductions, particularly now rotavirus vaccines are implemented in the national immunization programs of an increasing number of countries worldwide. PMID:26254487

  12. Interactions of Attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis phoP Mutant with Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Nadia L.; Gomez, Ana B.; Neyrolles, Olivier; Gicquel, Brigitte; Martin, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis phoP mutant SO2 derived from a clinical isolate was shown to be attenuated in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and in vivo mouse infection model and has demonstrated a high potential as attenuated vaccine candidate against tuberculosis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we analyze the adhesion and the intracellular growth and trafficking of SO2 in human macrophages. Our results indicate an enhanced adhesion to phagocitic cells and impaired intracellular replication of SO2 in both monocyte-derived macrophages and human cell line THP-1 in comparison with the wild type strain, consistent with murine model. Intracellular trafficking analysis in human THP-1 cells suggest that attenuation of SO2 within macrophages could be due to an impaired ability to block phagosome-lysosome fusion compared with the parental M. tuberculosis strain. No differences were found between SO2 and the wild-type strains in the release and mycobacterial susceptibility to nitric oxide (NO) produced by infected macrophages. Conclusions/Significance SO2 has enhanced ability to bind human macrophages and differs in intracellular trafficking as to wild-type M. tuberculosis. The altered lipid profile expression of the phoP mutant SO2 and its inability to secrete ESAT-6 is discussed. PMID:20885976

  13. Genetic variability of VP7, VP4, VP6 and NSP4 genes of common human G1P[8] rotavirus strains circulating in Italy between 2010 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Ianiro, Giovanni; Delogu, Roberto; Fiore, Lucia; Ruggeri, Franco M

    2016-07-15

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children worldwide. The RVA outer capsid layer is composed of the VP7 and VP4 proteins. The VP7 (G-type) and VP4 (P-type) genotypes are the basis for the binary RVA nomenclature. At least 27 G-types and 37 P-types of RVA are currently known, but most of human infections are related to the five major genotypes G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], and G9P[8]. Every year G1P[8] strains cause approximately 50% of all symptomatic RVA infections reported in children in Italy. Fifteen G1P[8] RVA strains identified in different areas of Italy between 2010 and 2014 were selected. Strains were subjected to nucleotide sequencing of the VP7, VP4, VP6 and NSP4 genes to investigate their genetic variability with respect to geographic area and date of detection. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the 15 G1P[8] RVA strains belonged to two different lineages for both the VP7 and NSP4 genes, and showed some intra-lineage diversity in VP4 and VP6 genes. Similarities between strains correlated by either area or date of detection were also evaluated. The results obtained by phylogenetic analyses were confirmed analyzing the deduced amino acid sequences of the VP7, VP4, VP6 and NSP4 proteins of the G1P[8] RVA strains, detecting several substitutions in all proteins. The genetic variability observed between common G1P[8] RVAs highlights the constant evolution of the RVA genome through random point mutations (genetic drift) and intra-genotype reassortment (genetic shift). The evolution and diversity of the G1 RVA strains observed in this study can be related to the naturally acquired herd immunity, which represents the main mechanism of selective pressure in Italy, where mass anti-rotavirus vaccination was missing during the years of the study. PMID:27130628

  14. A FUT2 gene common polymorphism determines resistance to rotavirus A of the P[8] genotype.

    PubMed

    Imbert-Marcille, Berthe-Marie; Barbé, Laure; Dupé, Mathilde; Le Moullac-Vaidye, Béatrice; Besse, Bernard; Peltier, Cécile; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2014-04-15

    Attachment to carbohydrates of the histo-blood group type of several human Rotavirus strains (RVA) has recently been described. Synthesis of these ligands requires a functional FUT2 enzyme, suggesting that FUT2 null homozygote (ie, nonsecretor) individuals may not be recognized by most human RVA strains. Whereas such individuals represent 20% of the control population, this retrospective study determined that none of 51 patients infected by P[8] rotavirus strains were nonsecretors. The lack of α1,2fucosylated carbohydrate motifs in the gut surface mucosa is thus associated with resistance to symptomatic infection and virus attachment to such motifs is essential to the infection process. PMID:24277741

  15. Virulence-Associated Genome Mutations of Murine Rotavirus Identified by Alternating Serial Passages in Mice and Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Tatsumi, Masatoshi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although significant clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed in many countries, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a cell culture-adapted murine rotavirus EB strain in mouse pups or in cell cultures alternately and repeatedly and fully sequenced all 11 genes of 21 virus samples passaged in mice or in cell cultures. Sequence analysis revealed that mouse-passaged viruses that regained virulence almost consistently acquired four kinds of amino acid (aa) substitutions in VP4 and substitution in aa 37 (Val to Ala) in NSP4. In addition, they gained and invariably conserved the 3′ consensus sequence in NSP1. The molecular changes occurred along with the acquisition of virulence during passages in mice and then disappeared following passages in cell cultures. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed the aa 37 site as important for its diarrheagenic activity in mice. These genome changes are likely to be correlated with rotavirus virulence. IMPORTANCE Serial passage of a virulent wild-type virus in vitro often results in loss of virulence of the virus in an original animal host, while serial passage of a cell culture-adapted avirulent virus in vivo often gains virulence in an animal host. Actually, live attenuated virus vaccines were originally produced by serial passage in cell cultures. Although clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a murine rotavirus by alternating switch of host (mice or cell cultures) repeatedly and sequenced the eleven genes of the passaged viruses to identify mutations associated with the emergence or disappearance of virulence. Sequence analysis revealed that changes in three genes (VP4, NSP1, and NSP4) were associated with virulence in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed its

  16. Rabbit model of rotavirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Conner, M E; Estes, M K; Graham, D Y

    1988-01-01

    A new small animal model was developed to study parameters of rotavirus infections, including the active immune response. Seronegative New Zealand White rabbits (neonatal to 4 months old) were inoculated orally with cultivatable rabbit rotavirus strains Ala, C11, and R2 and with the heterologous simian strain SA11. The course of infection was evaluated by clinical findings, virus isolation (plaque assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and serologic response. All four strains of virus were capable of infecting rabbits as determined by isolation of infectious virus from intestinal contents or fecal samples, by seroconversion, or by a combination of these methods. The responses differed depending on the virus strain used for inoculation. Rabbits remained susceptible to primary infection to at least 16 weeks of age (upper limit examined). Virus excretion in intestinal contents was detected from 6 h to 7 days postinoculation. RNA electropherotypes of inocula and viruses isolated from rabbits were the same in all samples tested. Transmission of Ala virus and R2 virus but not SA11 virus from inoculated animals to uninoculated controls also occurred. In a challenge experiment with Ala virus, 74- and 90-day-old rabbits were rechallenged with Ala 5 weeks after a primary infection with Ala. Virus was excreted in feces from 2 to 8 days after the primary infection but was not excreted after challenge. These results indicate that the rabbit provides an ideal model to investigate both the primary and secondary active immune responses to rotavirus infections and to evaluate candidate vaccines. Images PMID:2833612

  17. Molecular basis of the attenuated phenotype of human APOBEC3B DNA mutator enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Caval, Vincent; Bouzidi, Mohamed S.; Suspène, Rodolphe; Laude, Hélène; Dumargne, Marie-Charlotte; Bashamboo, Anu; Krey, Thomas; Vartanian, Jean-Pierre; Wain-Hobson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The human APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B genes (A3A and A3B) encode DNA mutator enzymes that deaminate cytidine and 5-methylcytidine residues in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). They are important sources of mutations in many cancer genomes which show a preponderance of CG->TA transitions. Although both enzymes can hypermutate chromosomal DNA in an experimental setting, only A3A can induce double strand DNA breaks, even though the catalytic domains of A3B and A3A differ by only 9% at the protein level. Accordingly we sought the molecular basis underlying A3B attenuation through the generation of A3A-A3B chimeras and mutants. It transpires that the N-terminal domain facilitates A3B activity while a handful of substitutions in the catalytic C-terminal domain impacting ssDNA binding serve to attenuate A3B compared to A3A. Interestingly, functional attenuation is also observed for the rhesus monkey rhA3B enzyme compared to rhA3A indicating that this genotoxic dichotomy has been selected for and maintained for some 38 million years. Expression of all human ssDNA cytidine deaminase genes is absent in mature sperm indicating they contribute to somatic mutation and cancer but not human diversity. PMID:26384561

  18. [Universal vaccination for Rotavirus infection control].

    PubMed

    Mita, Valentin; Capanna, Alessandra; Gervasi, Giuseppe; Zaratti, Laura; Franco, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses are the most common etiological cause for pediatric acute gastroenteritis, particularly in children under 5 years of age or immunocompromised. Since 2008, vaccination program has determined a decrease in Rotavirus-related hospitalization, outpatient's visits, emergency department visits and mortality. These indicators of illness for Rotaviruses diseases remain high in those countries where there is no access to rehydrating therapies. In Italy vaccine coverage is very low, even if the burden of RV disease is well known, and at present vaccination is offered free of charge in a single region. PMID:26519750

  19. Frequencies of Virus-Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T Lymphocytes Secreting Gamma Interferon after Acute Natural Rotavirus Infection in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes, María C.; Rojas, Olga Lucía; González, Ana María; Cajiao, Isabela; Charpilienne, Annie; Pothier, Pierre; Kohli, Evelyne; Greenberg, Harry B.; Franco, Manuel A.; Angel, Juana

    2002-01-01

    Human rotavirus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied using a flow cytometric assay that detects the intracellular accumulation of cytokines after short-term in vitro antigen stimulation. The frequencies of virus-specific T cells that secrete gamma interferon and interleukin-13 (IL-13) were determined in adults and children during the acute or convalescent phase of rotavirus-induced diarrhea, in asymptomatically infected adults and laboratory workers who worked with human stool samples containing rotavirus, and in healthy adults. Significantly higher frequencies of rotavirus-specific interferon gamma-secreting CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, but not IL-13-secreting T cells, were detected in symptomatically infected adults and exposed laboratory workers than in healthy adults and children with acute rotavirus diarrhea. The levels of rotavirus-specific T cells returned to levels found in healthy adults by 32 days after the onset of rotavirus diarrhea in most adult subjects. Children with rotavirus diarrhea had undetectable or very low levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that secrete gamma interferon. Adult cytomegalovirus-seropositive individuals had frequencies of cytomegalovirus-specific T cells that secrete gamma interferon that were approximately 20 times the level of rotavirus-specific T cells. This result suggests that rotavirus is a relatively poor inducer of circulating memory T cells that secrete gamma interferon. The frequencies of gamma interferon-secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the frequencies of IL-13-secreting CD4+ T cells responding to the T-cell superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) were lower in children than in adults. In both adults and children, the frequencies of CD4+ cells secreting gamma interferon in response to SEB were higher than the frequencies of cells secreting IL-13. PMID:11967291

  20. The VP8* Domain of Neonatal Rotavirus Strain G10P[11] Binds to Type II Precursor Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Sasirekha; Cortes-Penfield, Nicolas W.; Hu, Liya; Crawford, Sue E.; Czako, Rita; Smith, David F.; Kang, Gagandeep; Ramig, Robert F.; Le Pendu, Jacques; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring bovine-human reassortant rotaviruses with a P[11] VP4 genotype exhibit a tropism for neonates. Interaction of the VP8* domain of the spike protein VP4 with sialic acid was thought to be the key mediator for rotavirus infectivity. However, recent studies have indicated a role for nonsialylated glycoconjugates, including histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), in the infectivity of human rotaviruses. We sought to determine if the bovine rotavirus-derived VP8* of a reassortant neonatal G10P[11] virus interacts with hitherto uncharacterized glycans. In an array screen of >600 glycans, VP8* P[11] showed specific binding to glycans with the Galβ1-4GlcNAc motif, which forms the core structure of type II glycans and is the precursor of H type II HBGA. The specificity of glycan binding was confirmed through hemagglutination assays; GST-VP8* P[11] hemagglutinates type O, A, and B red blood cells as well as pooled umbilical cord blood erythrocytes. Further, G10P[11] infectivity was significantly enhanced by the expression of H type II HBGA in CHO cells. The bovine-origin VP4 was confirmed to be essential for this increased infectivity, using laboratory-derived reassortant viruses generated from sialic acid binding rotavirus SA11-4F and a bovine G10P[11] rotavirus, B223. The binding to a core glycan unit has not been reported for any rotavirus VP4. Core glycan synthesis is constitutive in most cell types, and modification of these glycans is thought to be developmentally regulated. These studies provide the first molecular basis for understanding neonatal rotavirus infections, indicating that glycan modification during neonatal development may mediate the age-restricted infectivity of neonatal viruses. PMID:23616650

  1. Phenylephrine-induced elevations in arterial blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that phenylephrine-induced elevations in blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans, blood pressure was elevated via steady-state infusion of three doses of phenylephrine HCl in 10 healthy subjects in both normothermic and heat stress conditions. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature by 0.5 degrees C, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate, and cardiac output and decreased total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR; all P < 0.005) but did not change mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; P > 0.05). At the highest dose of phenylephrine, the increase in MAP and TPR from predrug baselines was significantly attenuated during the heat stress [DeltaMAP 8.4 +/- 1.2 mmHg; DeltaTPR 0.96 +/- 0.85 peripheral resistance units (PRU)] compared with normothermia (DeltaMAP 15.4 +/- 1.4 mmHg, DeltaTPR 7.13 +/- 1.18 PRU; all P < 0.001). The sensitivity of baroreflex control of MSNA and heart rate, expressed as the slope of the relationship between MSNA and diastolic blood pressure, as well as the slope of the relationship between heart rate and systolic blood pressure, respectively, was similar between thermal conditions (each P > 0.05). These data suggest that phenylephrine-induced elevations in MAP are attenuated in heat-stressed humans without affecting baroreflex control of MSNA or heart rate.

  2. National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: addition of vaccines against rotavirus to the program. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Public Health Service (PHS), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). Final rule.

    PubMed

    1999-07-27

    This final rule amends the existing regulations governing the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP) by adding vaccines against rotavirus to the Table of Injuries, which lists the vaccines covered under the VICP. This action is taken under section 2114(e) of the Public Health Service Act (the Act). The VICP provides a system of no-fault compensation for certain individuals who have been injured by specific childhood vaccines. The two prerequisites for adding vaccines against rotavirus to the VICP have been satisfied. An excise tax of 75 cents per dose was enacted on October 21, 1998, and took effect for sales of the vaccines after October 21, 1998. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended to the Secretary of HHS that this vaccine be routinely administered to children. Thus, vaccines against rotavirus are now included in the VICP. PMID:10558598

  3. Epidemiologic Association Between FUT2 Secretor Status and Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Daniel C.; Currier, Rebecca L.; Staat, Mary A.; Sahni, Leila C.; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Halasa, Natasha B.; Englund, Janet A.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Boom, Julie A.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Klein, Eileen J.; Chappell, James; Harrison, Christopher J.; Davidson, Barbara S.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Moffatt, Mary D.; McNeal, Monica; Wikswo, Mary; Bowen, Michael D.; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE A genetic polymorphism affecting FUT2 secretor status in approximately one-quarter of humans of European descent affects the expression of histo-blood group antigens on the mucosal epithelia of human respiratory, genitourinary, and digestive tracts. These histo-blood group antigens serve as host receptor sites necessary for attachment and infection of some pathogens, including norovirus. OBJECTIVE We investigated whether an association exists between FUT2 secretor status and laboratory-confirmed rotavirus infections in US children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Multicenter case-control observational study involving active surveillance at 6 US pediatric medical institutions in the inpatient and emergency department clinical settings. We enrolled 1564 children younger than 5 years with acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea and/or vomiting) and 818 healthy controls frequency matched by age and month, from December 1, 2011, through March 31, 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Paired fecal-saliva specimens were tested for rotavirus and for secretor status. Comparisons were made between rotavirus test–positive cases and healthy controls stratified by ethnicity and vaccination status. Adjusted multivariable analyses assessed the preventive association of secretor status against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. RESULTS One (0.5%) of 189 rotavirus test–positive cases was a nonsecretor, compared with 188 (23%) of 818 healthy control participants (P < .001). Healthy control participants of Hispanic ethnicity were significantly less likely to be nonsecretors (13%) compared with healthy children who were not of Hispanic ethnicity (25%) (P < .001). After controlling for vaccination and other factors, children with the nonsecretor FUT2 polymorphism appeared statistically protected (98% [95% CI, 84%–100%]) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was virtually absent among US children who had a genetic

  4. Rotavirus vaccine - what you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by other germs. Another virus called porcine circovirus (or parts of it) can be found in ... get rotavirus vaccine. Babies who have had a type of bowel blockage called "intussusception" should not get ...

  5. Rotavirus immune responses and correlates of protection

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A.; Greenberg, Harry B.

    2012-01-01

    Selected topics in the field of rotavirus immunity are reviewed focusing on recent developments that may improve efficacy and safety of current and future vaccines. Rotaviruses have developed multiple mechanisms to evade interferon-mediated innate immunity. Compared to more developed regions of the world, protection induced by natural infection and vaccination is reduced in developing countries where, among other factors, high viral challenge loads are common and where infants are infected at an early age. Studies in developing countries indicate that rotavirus-specific serum IgA levels are not an optimal correlate of protection following vaccination, and better correlates need to be identified. Protection against rotavirus following vaccination is substantially heterotypic; nonetheless, a role for homotypic immunity in selection of circulating post vaccination strains needs further study. PMID:22677178

  6. Are hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis associated with meteorologic factors?

    PubMed

    Hervás, D; Hervás-Masip, J; Rosell, A; Mena, A; Pérez, J L; Hervás, J A

    2014-09-01

    Local climatic factors might explain seasonal patterns of rotavirus infections, but few models have been proposed to determine the effects of weather conditions on rotavirus activity. Here, we study the association of meteorologic factors with rotavirus activity, as determined by the number of children hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis on the Mediterranean island of Mallorca (Spain). We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of children aged 0-5 years admitted for rotavirus gastroenteritis between January 2000 and December 2010. The number of rotavirus hospitalizations was correlated to temperature, humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, water vapor pressure, wind speed, and solar radiation using regression and time-series techniques. A total of 311 patients were hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis in the 11-year study period, with a seasonal pattern from December to June, and a peak incidence in February. After multiple regressions, weekly rotavirus activity could be explained in 82 % of cases (p < 0.001) with a one-week lag meteorologic model. Rotavirus activity was negatively associated to temperature and positively associated to atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, and wind speed. Temperature and solar radiation were the factors that contributed most to the model, with a peak rotavirus activity at 9 °C and 800 10KJ/m(2), respectively. In conclusion, hospitalization for rotavirus was strongly associated with mean temperature, but an association of rotavirus activity with solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, and wind speed was also demonstrated. This model predicted more than 80 % of rotavirus hospitalizations. PMID:24760250

  7. A Systems Survey of Progressive Host-Cell Reorganization during Rotavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Green, Victoria A; Pelkmans, Lucas

    2016-07-13

    Pathogen invasion is often accompanied by widespread alterations in cellular physiology, which reflects the hijacking of host factors and processes for pathogen entry and replication. Although genetic perturbation screens have revealed the complexity of host factors involved for numerous pathogens, it has remained challenging to temporally define the progression of events in host cell reorganization during infection. We combine high-confidence genome-scale RNAi screening of host factors required for rotavirus infection in human intestinal cells with an innovative approach to infer the trajectory of virus infection from fixed cell populations. This approach reveals a comprehensive network of host cellular processes involved in rotavirus infection and implicates AMPK in initiating the development of a rotavirus-permissive environment. Our work provides a powerful approach that can be generalized to order complex host cellular requirements along a trajectory of cellular reorganization during pathogen invasion. PMID:27414499

  8. Impact of rotavirus vaccine on premature infants.

    PubMed

    Roué, Jean-Michel; Nowak, Emmanuel; Le Gal, Grégoire; Lemaitre, Thomas; Oger, Emmanuel; Poulhazan, Elise; Giroux, Jean-Dominique; Garenne, Armelle; Gagneur, Arnaud

    2014-10-01

    Infants born preterm are at a higher risk of complications and hospitalization in cases of rotavirus diarrhea than children born at term. We evaluated the impact of a rotavirus vaccination campaign (May 2007 to May 2010) on hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis in a population of children under 3 years old born prematurely (before 37 weeks of gestation) in the Brest University Hospital birth zone. Active surveillance from 2002 to 2006 and a prospective collection of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea were initiated in the pediatric units of Brest University Hospital until May 2010. Numbers of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea among the population of children born prematurely, before and after the start of the vaccination program, were compared using a Poisson regression model controlling for epidemic-to-epidemic variation. A total of 217 premature infants were vaccinated from 2007 to 2010. Vaccine coverage for a complete course of three doses was 41.9%. The vaccine safety in premature infants was similar to that in term infants. The vaccination program led to a division by a factor of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 5.2) in the number of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea during the first two epidemic seasons following vaccine introduction and by a factor of 11 (95% CI, 3.5 to 34.8) during the third season. We observed significant effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine on the number of hospitalizations in a population of prematurely born infants younger than 3 years of age. A multicenter national study would provide better assessment of this impact. (This study [Impact of Systematic Infants Vaccination Against Rotavirus on Gastroenteritis Hospitalization: a Prospective Study in Brest District, France (IVANHOE)] has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00740935.). PMID:25080553

  9. FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation in human granulosa cell tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Qiu, Xin; Fang, Lanlan; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Activin A stimulates cell proliferation in KGN human granulosa cell tumor-derived cell line. •Cyclin D2 mediates activin A-induced KGN cell proliferation. •FOXL2 induces follistatin expression in KGN cells. •FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated KGN cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Human granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare, and their etiology remains largely unknown. Recently, the FOXL2 402C > G (C134W) mutation was found to be specifically expressed in human adult-type GCTs; however, its function in the development of human GCTs is not fully understood. Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, which has been shown to stimulate normal granulosa cell proliferation; however, little is known regarding the function of activins in human GCTs. In this study, we examined the effect of activin A on cell proliferation in the human GCT-derived cell line KGN. We show that activin A treatment stimulates KGN cell proliferation. Treatment with the activin type I receptor inhibitor SB431542 blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. In addition, our results show that cyclin D2 is induced by treatment with activin A and is involved in activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. Moreover, the activation of Smad signaling is required for activin A-induced cyclin D2 expression. Finally, we show that the overexpression of the wild-type FOXL2 but not the C134W mutant FOXL2 induced follistatin production. Treatment with exogenous follistatin blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation, and the overexpression of wild-type FOXL2 attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. These results suggest that FOXL2 may act as a tumor suppressor in human adult-type GCTs by inducing follistatin expression, which subsequently inhibits activin-stimulated cell proliferation.

  10. Estimate of the attenuation coefficient using a clinical array transducer for the detection of cervical ripening in human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Labyed, Yassin; Bigelow, Timothy A; McFarlin, Barbara L

    2011-01-01

    Premature delivery is the leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Currently, premature delivery cannot be prevented and new treatments are difficult to develop due to the inability to diagnose symptoms prior to uterine contractions. Cervical ripening is a long period that precedes the active phase of uterine contractions and cervical dilation. The changes in the microstructure of the cervix during cervical ripening suggest that the ultrasonic attenuation should decrease. The objective of this study is to use the reference phantom algorithm to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in the cervix of pregnant human patients. Prior to applying the algorithm to in vivo human data, two homogeneous phantoms with known attenuation coefficients were used to validate the algorithm and to find the length and the width of the region of interest (ROI) that achieves the smallest error in the attenuation coefficient estimates. In the phantom data, we found that the errors in the attenuation coefficients estimates are less than 12% for ROIs that contain 40 wavelengths or more axially and 30 echo lines or more laterally. The reference phantom algorithm was then used to obtain attenuation maps of the echoes from two human pregnant cervices at different gestational ages. It was observed that the mean of the attenuation coefficient estimates in the cervix of the patient at a more advanced gestational age is smaller than the mean of the attenuation coefficient estimates in the cervix of the patient at an earlier gestational age which suggests that ultrasonic attenuation decreases with increasing gestational age. We also observed a large variance between the attenuation coefficient estimates in the different regions of the cervix due to the natural variation in tissue micro-structures across the cervix. The preliminary results indicate that the algorithm could potentially provide an important diagnostic tool for diagnosing the risk of premature delivery. PMID:20570308

  11. Measuring indirect effects of rotavirus vaccine in low income countries.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Aisleen; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Cunliffe, Nigel A

    2016-08-17

    Widespread introduction of rotavirus vaccines has led to major reductions in the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis worldwide. Vaccine effectiveness is diminished, however, in low income countries, that harbour the greatest burden of rotavirus attributed morbidity and mortality. Indirect effects of rotavirus vaccine (herd immunity and herd protection) could increase population level impact and improve vaccine cost effectiveness in such settings. While rotavirus vaccine indirect effects have been demonstrated in high and middle income countries, there are very little data from low income countries where force of infection, population structures and vaccine schedules differ. Targeted efforts to evaluate indirect effects of rotavirus vaccine in low income countries are required to understand the total impact of rotavirus vaccine on the global burden of rotavirus disease. PMID:27443593

  12. DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS WITH A NEW POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (ROTAZYME 2) AND A COMMERCIAL LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEXT (ROTALEX): COMPARISON WITH A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 176 human fecal specimens were examined for the presence of rotavirus using four different assays: a monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay; the original polyclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay marketed by Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL (Rotazyme I); a modification of...

  13. Lactodifucotetraose, a human milk oligosaccharide, attenuates platelet function and inflammatory cytokine release.

    PubMed

    Newburg, David S; Tanritanir, Ayse C; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2016-07-01

    Human milk strongly quenches inflammatory processes in vitro, and breastfed infants have lower incidence of inflammatory diseases than those fed artificially. Platelets from neonates, in contrast to those from adults, are less responsive to platelet agonists such as collagen, thrombin, ADP, and epinephrine. Breastfed infants absorb oligosaccharides intact from the human milk in their gut to the circulation. This study was to determine whether these oligosaccharides can attenuate platelet function and platelet secretion of pro-inflammatory proteins, and to identify the active component. The natural mixture of oligosaccharides from human milk and pure individual human milk oligosaccharides were tested for their ability to modulate responses of platelets isolated from human blood following exposure to thrombin, ADP, and collagen. Human milk and the natural mixture of human milk oligosaccharides inhibited platelet release of inflammatory proteins. Of the purified human milk oligosaccharides tested, only lactodifucotetraose (LDFT) significantly inhibited thrombin induced release of the pro-inflammatory proteins RANTES and sCD40L. LDFT also inhibited platelet adhesion to a collagen-coated surface, as well as platelet aggregation induced by ADP or collagen. These data indicate that LDFT may help modulate hemostasis by suppressing platelet-induced inflammatory processes in breastfed infants. This activity suggests further study of LDFT for its potential as a therapeutic agent in infants and adults. PMID:26743063

  14. Zika Virus Infects Human Cortical Neural Progenitors and Attenuates Their Growth.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hengli; Hammack, Christy; Ogden, Sarah C; Wen, Zhexing; Qian, Xuyu; Li, Yujing; Yao, Bing; Shin, Jaehoon; Zhang, Feiran; Lee, Emily M; Christian, Kimberly M; Didier, Ruth A; Jin, Peng; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li

    2016-05-01

    The suspected link between infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus, and microcephaly is an urgent global health concern. The direct target cells of ZIKV in the developing human fetus are not clear. Here we show that a strain of the ZIKV, MR766, serially passaged in monkey and mosquito cells efficiently infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Infected hNPCs further release infectious ZIKV particles. Importantly, ZIKV infection increases cell death and dysregulates cell-cycle progression, resulting in attenuated hNPC growth. Global gene expression analysis of infected hNPCs reveals transcriptional dysregulation, notably of cell-cycle-related pathways. Our results identify hNPCs as a direct ZIKV target. In addition, we establish a tractable experimental model system to investigate the impact and mechanism of ZIKV on human brain development and provide a platform to screen therapeutic compounds. PMID:26952870

  15. Epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhoea in Africa: a review to assess the need for rotavirus immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Cunliffe, N. A.; Kilgore, P. E.; Bresee, J. S.; Steele, A. D.; Luo, N.; Hart, C. A.; Glass, R. I.

    1998-01-01

    Rapid progress towards the development of rotavirus vaccines has prompted a reassessment of the disease burden of rotavirus diarrhoea in developing countries and the possible impact of these vaccines in reducing diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality among infants and young children. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus diarrhoea among hospitalized and clinic patients in African countries through a review of 43 published studies of the etiology of diarrhoea. The studies were carried out from 1975 through 1992, and only those in which a sample of more than 100 patients with diarrhoea were specifically screened for rotavirus by using an established diagnostic test were included. Rotavirus was detected in a median of 24% of children hospitalized for diarrhoea and in 23% who were treated as outpatients; 38% of the hospitalized patients with rotavirus were < 6 months and 81% were < 1 year of age. Rotavirus was detected year-round in nearly every country and generally exhibited distinct seasonal peaks during the dry months. In 5 countries where rotavirus strains had been G-typed, 74% of strains were of one of the four common serotypes (G1 to G4), G1 was the predominant serotype, and 26% were non-typeable. This cumulative experience from 15 African countries suggests that rotavirus is the most important cause of severe diarrhoea in African children and that most strains in circulation today belong to common G types that are included in reassortant vaccines. Wherever large numbers of cases of rotavirus diarrhoea occur early in infancy, immunization at birth may protect the children before their first symptomatic infection. PMID:9868844

  16. Homotypic and heterotypic immune responses to group A rotaviruses in parenterally immunized sheep.

    PubMed

    Beards, G M; King, J A; Mazhar, S; Landon, J; Desselberger, U

    1993-01-01

    Immune responses to human rotaviruses were investigated in sheep with a view to obtaining antibodies for passive immunotherapy of humans. Eighteen adult sheep with previous natural exposure to rotavirus serotypes G3 and G6 were immunized parenterally with purified preparations of either individual rotavirus serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and G8, or a mixture thereof. Two additional sheep were kept as control animals with the flock. The antibody responses were measured on serial serum samples by neutralization tests. The homotypic antibody response ranged from 100-fold (rarely) up to 100,000-fold increases in titre. Heterotypic responses against serotypes G3 and G6 were demonstrated in 7/12 and 15/18 sheep, respectively, but the increases in titre were lower than the homotypic responses, ranging from 10- to 100-fold in most cases and were 1000-fold in two sheep. Interestingly, no heterotypic response against the human rotavirus serotypes was raised after 3 months; moderate titres of cross-neutralizing antibodies for the human serotypes were only observed after a third inoculation. PMID:8382420

  17. Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2013-04-01

    Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways. PMID:23453730

  18. Effect of animal plasma proteins on intestinal damage and recovery of neonatal pigs infected with rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Corl, Benjamin A; Harrell, Robert J; Moon, Hong Kil; Phillips, Oulayvahn; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Arthington, John D; Odle, Jack

    2007-12-01

    Rotaviruses infect and elicit diarrhea in neonates of most mammalian species and cause 800,000 infant deaths a year. We used neonatal piglets to study the effects of dietary animal plasma proteins on intestinal health following rotavirus infection. Plasma protein contains a diverse mixture of functional components with biological activity and improves the health of animals challenged with other diarrhea-causing pathogens. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, we compared plasma protein- and soy protein-based diets in rotavirus-infected and noninfected piglets to determine if plasma protein reduced acute rotavirus intestinal damage or improved recovery. All infected animals shed rotavirus particles in their feces. Infected, plasma protein-fed piglets maintained growth rates similar to noninfected piglets in the first 3 days of infection; however, soy protein-fed piglets experienced reduced gains. Furthermore, infected, plasma protein-fed piglets showed no clinical signs of diarrhea. Infection reduced intestinal villus height and the villus height/crypt depth ratio by Day 3 of infection; however, reductions were not attenuated with dietary plasma protein. Infected, plasma protein-fed pigs maintained greater intestinal mucosa protein and estimated total lactase activity than infected, soy protein-fed piglets. Plasma proteins contain growth factors that may aid in rate of recovery as well as virus-binding proteins that may reduce infection pressure in the intestine. These data, combined with findings from other studies using plasma proteins in animal models of diarrhea, indicate the potential for using plasma proteins to improve the health of diarrheic neonates. PMID:17475463

  19. Association of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis with Histo-blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, E; Dwibedi, B; Kar, S K; Pandey, R M

    2016-07-01

    Association of rotavirus gastroenteritis with histo-blood group antigens in children younger than 5 years admitted with diarrhea (n=389) was studied. Distribution of blood groups in rotavirus positive (n=96) and rotavirus negative (n=51) diarrhea gastroenteritis cases did not show any susceptibility to any blood group; blood group O seemed to be protective. PMID:27508550

  20. Whole-genome analyses reveals the animal origin of a rotavirus G4P[6] detected in a child with severe diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Magaly; Galeano, Maria E; Akopov, Asmik; Palacios, Ruth; Russomando, Graciela; Kirkness, Ewen F; Parra, Gabriel I

    2014-10-01

    Group A rotaviruses are a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in children worldwide. Currently, two rotavirus vaccines are being used in vaccination programs, and one of the factors involved in lower vaccine efficacy is the mismatch among the circulating strains and the vaccine strains. Thus, the emergence of animal strains in the human population could affect the efficacy of vaccination programs. Here we report the presence of a G4P[6] strain in a Paraguayan child presenting acute gastroenteritis in 2009. Genomic analyses revealed that the strain presents a porcine-like genome (G4-P[6]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T7-E1-H1), suggesting a direct animal-to-human transmission. Continuous surveillance of rotaviruses in humans and animals will help us to better understand rotavirus epidemiology and evolution. PMID:25075468

  1. Hesperidin Attenuates Ultraviolet B-Induced Apoptosis by Mitigating Oxidative Stress in Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Madduma Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara; Piao, Mei Jing; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Ryu, Yea Seong; Han, Xia; Oh, Min Chang; Jung, Uhee; Kim, In Gyu; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-05-01

    Human skin cells undergo pathophysiological processes via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon excessive exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. This study investigated the ability of hesperidin (C28H34O15) to prevent apoptosis due to oxidative stress generated through UVB-induced ROS. Hesperidin significantly scavenged ROS generated by UVB radiation, attenuated the oxidation of cellular macromolecules, established mitochondrial membrane polarization, and prevented the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Hesperidin downregulated expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, and Bcl-2-associated X protein, and upregulated expression of B-cell lymphoma 2. Hesperidin absorbed wavelengths of light within the UVB range. In summary, hesperidin shielded human keratinocytes from UVB radiation-induced damage and apoptosis via its antioxidant and UVB absorption properties. PMID:26797112

  2. Hesperidin Attenuates Ultraviolet B-Induced Apoptosis by Mitigating Oxidative Stress in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara Madduma; Piao, Mei Jing; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Ryu, Yea Seong; Han, Xia; Oh, Min Chang; Jung, Uhee; Kim, In Gyu; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-01-01

    Human skin cells undergo pathophysiological processes via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon excessive exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. This study investigated the ability of hesperidin (C28H34O15) to prevent apoptosis due to oxidative stress generated through UVB-induced ROS. Hesperidin significantly scavenged ROS generated by UVB radiation, attenuated the oxidation of cellular macromolecules, established mitochondrial membrane polarization, and prevented the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Hesperidin downregulated expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, and Bcl-2-associated X protein, and upregulated expression of B-cell lymphoma 2. Hesperidin absorbed wavelengths of light within the UVB range. In summary, hesperidin shielded human keratinocytes from UVB radiation-induced damage and apoptosis via its antioxidant and UVB absorption properties. PMID:26797112

  3. Rotavirus-associated hospitalization and emergency department costs and rotavirus vaccine program impact☆

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, April; Donauer, Stephanie; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Payne, Daniel C.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Rice, Marilyn; Cassedy, Amy; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Staat, Mary Allen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the medical costs of laboratory-confirmed rotavirus hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits and estimate the economic impact of the rotavirus vaccine program. Patients and methods During 4 rotavirus seasons (2006–2009), children <3 years of age hospitalized or seen in the ED with laboratory-confirmed rotavirus were identified through active population-based rotavirus surveillance in three US counties. Medical costs were obtained from hospital and physician billing data, and factors associated with increased costs were examined. Annual national costs were estimated using rotavirus hospitalization and ED visit rates and medical costs for rotavirus hospitalizations and ED visits from our surveillance program for pre- (2006–2007) and post-vaccine (2008–2009) time periods. Results Pre-vaccine, for hospitalizations, the median medical cost per child was $3581, the rotavirus hospitalization rate was 22.1/10,000, with an estimated annual national cost of $91 million. Post-vaccine, the median medical cost was $4304, the hospitalization rate was 6.3/10,000 and the estimated annual national cost was $31 million. Increased costs were associated with study site, age <3 months, underlying medical conditions and an atypical acute gastroenteritis presentation. For ED visits, the pre-vaccine median medical cost per child was $574, the ED visit rate was 291/10,000 resulting in an estimated annual national cost of $192 million. Post-vaccine, the median medical cost was $794, the ED visit rate was 71/10,000 with an estimated annual national cost of $65 million. Conclusions After implementation of rotavirus immunization, the total annual medical costs decreased from $283 million to $96 million, an annual reduction of $187 million PMID:23845802

  4. Interaction of rotavirus particles with liposomes.

    PubMed

    Nandi, P; Charpilienne, A; Cohen, J

    1992-06-01

    We have studied the interactions of purified viral particles with liposomes as a model to understand the mechanism of entry of rotavirus into the cell. Liposomes, made from pure as well as mixed lipids, that contained encapsulated self-quenching concentrations of the fluorophore carboxyfluorescein (CF) were used. Rotavirus-liposome interactions were studied from the fluorescence dequenching of CF resulting from its release to the bulk solution. Purified infectious double-shelled virus particles induced a concentration- and temperature-dependent release of CF. The rate and extent of CF release was maximum between pH 7.3 and 7.6. The removal of outer structural proteins VP4 and VP7 from virus, which results in the formation of single-shelled particles, prevented virus interaction with liposomes. Rotavirus particles with uncleaved VP4 did not interact with liposomes, but treatment in situ of these particles with trypsin restored the interaction with the liposomes and resulted in CF dequenching. Our data support the view that rotavirus enters the cell through direct penetration of the plasma membrane. In contrast, adenovirus, the only other nonenveloped virus studied by this method, shows the optimum rate of marker release from liposomes at around pH 6 (R. Blumenthal, P. S. Seth, M. C. Willingham, and I. Pastan, Biochemistry 25:2231-2237, 1986). The interaction between rotavirus and liposomes is sensitive to specific divalent metal ions, unlike the adenovirus-liposome interaction, which is independent of them. PMID:1316453

  5. Isolation and molecular characterisation of equine rotaviruses from Germany.

    PubMed

    Elschner, Mandy; Schrader, Christina; Hotzel, Helmut; Prudlo, Jutta; Sachse, Konrad; Eichhorn, Werner; Herbst, Werner; Otto, Peter

    2005-01-31

    A total of 26 rotavirus positive faecal samples of diarrhoeal foals, and 8 equine rotavirus isolates were examined. Viral RNA patterns were generated, G typing was performed by PCR, and a P[12]-specific DNA probe was developed for P typing. Furthermore, five equine rotavirus isolates were sequenced in the genomic regions coding for VP7 and part of VP4. Rotaviruses of genotype G3 P[12] were found in 22 faecal samples and G14 P[12] type could be found in 4 faecal samples. These findings confirm that in Germany G3 P[12] is the predominating type of equine rotaviruses. PMID:15627523

  6. Identification of the two rotavirus genes determining neutralization specificities

    SciTech Connect

    Offit, P.A.; Blavat, G.

    1986-01-01

    Bovine rotavirus NCDV and simian rotavirus SA-11 represent two distinct rotavirus serotypes. A genetic approach was used to determine which viral gene segments segregated with serotype-specific viral neutralization. There were 16 reassortant rotarviruses derived by coinfection of MA-104 cells in vitro with the SA-11 and NCDV strains. The parental origin of reassortant rotavirus double-stranded RNA segments was determined by gene segment mobility in polyacrylamide gels and by hybridization with radioactively labeled parental viral transcripts. The authors found that two rotavirus gene segments found previously to code for outer capsid proteins vp3 and vp7 cosegreated with virus neutralization specificities.

  7. Attenuation of Human Enterovirus 71 High-Replication-Fidelity Variants in AG129 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a screen for ribavirin resistance, a novel high-fidelity variant of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) with the single amino acid change L123F in its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or 3D) was identified. Based on the crystal structure of EV71 RdRp, L123 locates at the entrance of the RNA template binding channel, which might form a fidelity checkpoint. EV71 RdRp-L123F variants generated less progeny in a guanidine resistance assay and virus populations with lower mutation frequencies in cell culture passage due to their higher replication fidelity. However, compared with wild-type viruses, they did not show growth defects. In vivo infections further revealed that high-fidelity mutations L123F and G64R (previously reported) negatively impacted EV71 fitness and greatly reduced viral pathogenicity alone or together in AG129 mice. Interestingly, a variant with double mutations, RG/B4-G64R/L123F (where RG/B4 is an EV71 genotype B4 virus constructed by reverse genetics [RG])showed higher fidelity in vitro and less virulence in vivo than any one of the above two single mutants. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of the double mutant increased more than 500 times compared with the LD50 of wild-type RG/B4 in mice. The results indicated that these high-fidelity variants exhibited an attenuated pathogenic phenotype in vivo and offer promise as a live attenuated EV71 vaccine. IMPORTANCE The error-prone nature of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of RNA viruses during replication results in quasispecies and aids survival of virus populations under a wide range of selective pressures. Virus variants with higher replication fidelity exhibit lower genetic diversity and attenuated pathogenicity in vivo. Here, we identified a novel high-fidelity mutation L123F in the RdRp of human enterovirus 71 (EV71). We further elucidated that EV71 variants with the RdRp-L123F mutation and/or the previously identified high-fidelity mutation RdRp-G64R were attenuated in an AG129 mouse model

  8. Characterization of in vivo anti-rotavirus activities of saponin extracts from Quillaja Saponaria Molina

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Ka Ian; Roner, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide with approximately 300,000 pre-adolescent deaths each year. Quillaja saponins are a natural aqueous extract obtained from the Chilean soapbark tree. The extract is approved for use in humans by the FDA for use in beverages as a food addictive. We have demonstrated that Quillaja extracts have strong antiviral activities in vitro against six different viruses. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo antiviral activity of these extracts against rhesus rotavirus (RRV) using a mouse model. We established that at a dosage of 0.015 mg/mouse of saponin extract, RRV induced diarrhea can be significantly reduced from 79% to 11% when mice are exposed to 500 plaque-forming-units (PFU) for each of five consecutive days. Additionally, while a reduction of RRV induced diarrhea depended both on the concentration of virus introduced and on the amount of Quillaja extract given to each mouse, the severity and interval of diarrhea under a variety of conditions tested, in all the treated mice were greatly reduced when compared to those that did not receive the Quillaja extracts. Mechanistically, there is strong evidence that the Quillaja extracts are able to “block” rotavirus infection by inhibiting virus-host attachment through disruption of cellular membrane proteins and/or virus receptors. We believe that Quillaja extracts have promise as antivirals to reduce rotavirus infection and the severity of the disease in humans. PMID:21549151

  9. Rotavirus spike protein VP5* binds alpha2beta1 integrin on the cell surface and competes with virus for cell binding and infectivity.

    PubMed

    Graham, Kate L; Takada, Yoshikazu; Coulson, Barbara S

    2006-05-01

    Rotaviruses recognize several cell-surface molecules, including the alpha2beta1 integrin, and the processes of rotavirus cell attachment and entry appear to be multifactorial. The VP5* subunit of the rotavirus spike protein VP4 contains the alpha2beta1 ligand sequence Asp-Gly-Glu at residues 308-310. Binding to alpha2beta1 and infectivity of monkey rotavirus strain RRV and human rotavirus strain Wa, but not porcine rotavirus strain CRW-8, are inhibited by peptides containing Asp-Gly-Glu. Asp308 and Gly309 are necessary for the binding of RRV VP5* (aa 248-474) to expressed I domain of the alpha2 integrin subunit. Here, the ability of RRV VP5* to bind cells and affect rotavirus-integrin interactions was determined. Interestingly, VP5* bound to cells at 4 and 37 degrees C, both via alpha2beta1 and independently of this integrin. Prior VP5* binding at 37 degrees C eliminated RRV binding to cellular alpha2beta1 and reduced RRV and Wa infectivity in MA104 cells by 38-46 %. VP5* binding did not affect the infectivity of CRW-8. VP5* binding at 4 degrees C did not affect permissive-cell infection by RRV, indicating an energy requirement for VP5* competition with virus for infectivity. Mutagenesis of VP5* Asp308 and Gly309 eliminated VP5* binding to alpha2beta1 and the VP5* inhibition of rotavirus cell binding and infection, but not alpha2beta1-independent cell binding by VP5*. These studies show for the first time that expressed VP5* binds cell-surface alpha2beta1 using Asp308 and Gly309 and inhibits the infection of homologous and heterologous rotaviruses that use alpha2beta1 as a receptor. PMID:16603530

  10. Transmission, attenuation and reflection of shear waves in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Erik H; Genin, Guy M; Bayly, Philip V

    2012-11-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are caused by acceleration of the skull or exposure to explosive blast, but the processes by which mechanical loads lead to neurological injury remain poorly understood. We adapted motion-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging methods to measure the motion of the human brain in vivo as the skull was exposed to harmonic pressure excitation (45, 60 and 80 Hz). We analysed displacement fields to quantify the transmission, attenuation and reflection of distortional (shear) waves as well as viscoelastic material properties. Results suggest that internal membranes, such as the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli, play a key role in reflecting and focusing shear waves within the brain. The skull acts as a low-pass filter over the range of frequencies studied. Transmissibility of pressure waves through the skull decreases and shear wave attenuation increases with increasing frequency. The skull and brain function mechanically as an integral structure that insulates internal anatomic features; these results are valuable for building and validating mathematical models of this complex and important structural system. PMID:22675163

  11. NF-κB signalling is attenuated by the E7 protein from cutaneous human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Byg, Luise M; Vidlund, Jessica; Vasiljevic, Natasa; Clausen, Dorte; Forslund, Ola; Norrild, Bodil

    2012-10-01

    The high-risk Alpha-types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are the causative agent of cervical cancer, which is the second major cause of death among women worldwide. Recent investigations have shown that E7 from the Alpha-papillomavirus HPV-16 interacts with IKKα and IKKβ of the IKK complex in the NF-κB pathway leading to an attenuation of the activity. There is a possible link between development of non-melanoma skin cancer and cutaneous Beta-papillomavirus but if these HPV types attenuate the NF-κB pathway is unclear. Seven different E7 proteins, representing four out of the five different species of the Beta genus (HPV-20, -37, -38, -92, -93 and -96) and one from the Gamma genus (HPV-4) were investigated for potential modulation of the NF-κB pathway in U2OS cells. Our results demonstrate that E7 from all the cutaneous HPV types were capable of inhibiting the NF-κB activity as well as E7 from HPV-16. In addition, E7 proteins from the cutaneous HPV types demonstrated interaction with IKKα but not with IKKβ. The deregulation of the NF-κB pathway by cutaneous HPVs might contribute to the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers and its precursors. PMID:22776252

  12. Relationships of ultrasonic backscatter with ultrasonic attenuation, sound speed and bone mineral density in human calcaneus.

    PubMed

    Wear, K A; Stuber, A P; Reynolds, J C

    2000-10-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation and sound speed have been investigated in trabecular bone by numerous authors. Ultrasonic backscatter has received much less attention. To investigate relationships among these three ultrasonic parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), 30 defatted human calcanei were investigated in vitro. Normalized broadband ultrasonic attenuation (nBUA), sound speed (SOS), and logarithm of ultrasonic backscatter coefficient (LBC) were measured. Bone mineral density was assessed using single-beam dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The correlation coefficients of least squares linear regressions of the three individual ultrasound (US) parameters with BMD were 0.84 (nBUA), 0.84 (SOS) and 0.79 (LBC). The 95% confidence intervals for the correlation coefficients were 0. 69-0.92 (nBUA), 0.68-0.92 (SOS) and 0.60-0.90 (LBC). The correlations among pairs of US variables ranged from 0.63-0.79. Variations in nBUA accounted for r(2) = 62% of the variations in LBC. Variations in SOS accounted for r(2) = 40% of the variations in LBC. These results suggest that ultrasonic backscattering properties may contain substantial information not already contained in nBUA and SOS. A multiple regression model including all three US variables was somewhat more predictive of BMD than a model including only nBUA and SOS. PMID:11120369

  13. The rhythmic expression of clock genes attenuated in human plaque-derived vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute myocardial infarction and stroke are more likely to occur in the early morning. Circadian pacemakers are considered to be involved in the process. Many peripheral tissues and cells also contain clock systems. In this study, we examined whether the primary cultured human plaque-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) process circadian rhythmicity; furthermore, we investigated the expression difference of clock genes between normal human carotid VSMCs and human plaque-derived VSMCs. Methods Fifty-six human carotid plaques provided the atherosclerotic tissue, and 21 samples yielded viable cultured primary VSMCs. The normal carotid VSMCs were cultured from donors’ normal carotids. The mRNA levels of the target genes were measured by Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Results After serum shock, both types of cells showed clear circadian expressions of Bmal1, Cry1, Cry2, Per1, Per2, Per3 and Rev-erbα mRNA; meanwhile the Clock mRNA show a rhythmic expression in plaque-derived SMCs but not in normal carotid VSMCs. The expression levels of these main clock genes were significantly attenuated in human plaque-derived VSMCs compared with normal human carotid VSMCs. The rhythm of Bmal1 mRNA in plaque-derived VSMCs was changed. Conclusion The present results demonstrate that the human plaque-derived VSMCs possess different circadian rhythmicity from that of normal carotid VSMCs. The rhythm changes of clock genes in plaque-derived VSMCs may be involved in the process of atherosclerosis and finally promote the rupture of plaque. PMID:24418196

  14. Hypoxia attenuates anti-Aspergillus fumigatus immune responses initiated by human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Fliesser, Mirjam; Wallstein, Marion; Kurzai, Oliver; Einsele, Hermann; Löffler, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic mould that causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients. During the course of IPA, localised areas of tissue hypoxia occur. Bacterial infection models revealed that hypoxic microenvironments modulate the function of host immune cells. However, the influence of hypoxia on anti-fungal immunity has been largely unknown. We evaluated the impact of hypoxia on the human anti-A. fumigatus immune response. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were stimulated in vitro with germ tubes of A. fumigatus under normoxia or hypoxia (1% O2 ), followed by analysis of DC viability, maturation and cytokine release. While DC viability was unaffected, hypoxia attenuated cytokine release from DCs and maturation of DCs upon stimulation with A. fumigatus. These data suggest that hypoxia at the site of A. fumigatus infection inhibits full activation and function of human DCs. Thereby, this study identified hypoxia as a crucial immune-modulating factor in the human anti-fungal immune response that might influence the course and outcome of IPA in immunocompromised patients. PMID:27005862

  15. Attenuated expression of interferon-β and interferon-λ1 by human alternatively activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    El Fiky, Ashraf; Perreault, Roger; McGinnis, Gwendolyn J; Rabin, Ronald L

    2013-12-01

    Macrophages can be polarized into classically (CAM) or alternatively (AAM) activated macrophages with IFN-γ or IL-4, respectively. CAM are associated with type 1 immune responses and are implicated in autoimmunity; AAM are associated with type 2 responses and are implicated in allergic diseases. An impediment in investigating macrophage biology using primary human monocyte derived macrophages is the wide inter-donor heterogeneity and the limited quantity of cells that survive in vitro polarization. To overcome this impediment, we established a protocol to generate CAM and AAM cultures derived from the THP-1 human promonocytic cell line. In this report, we demonstrate that THP-CAM and -AAM express gene and protein markers that define their primary human monocyte derived counterparts, such as IL-1β, CXCL10, and CXCL11 for CAM, and MRC1, IL-4 and CCL22 for AAM. In addition, we demonstrate that STAT6 is selectively activated in THP-AAM which, upon LPS stimulation, have an attenuated or delayed expression of IFN-β, IFN-λ1, and IFN α/β pathway genes compared to their CAM counterparts. Taken together, these findings may help further investigate human diseases associated with the alternatively activated macrophage phenotype using this reproducible in vitro macrophage model. PMID:23993990

  16. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation attenuates axonal injury in stroke rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Du, Shiwei; Yu, Xinguang; Han, Xiao; Hou, Jincai; Guo, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural functional recovery after stroke, but the neurorestorative mechanisms remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that functional recovery of myelinated axons may be one of underlying mechanisms. In this study, an ischemia/reperfusion rat model was established using the middle cerebral artery occlusion method. Rats were used to test the hypothesis that intravenous transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through the femoral vein could exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia via a mechanism associated with the ability to attenuate axonal injury. The results of behavioral tests, infarction volume analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that cerebral ischemia caused severe damage to the myelin sheath and axons. After rats were intravenously transplanted with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the levels of axon and myelin sheath-related proteins, including microtubule-associated protein 2, myelin basic protein, and growth-associated protein 43, were elevated, infarct volume was decreased and neural function was improved in cerebral ischemic rats. These findings suggest that intravenously transplanted human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promote neural function. Possible mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects include resistance to demyelination after cerebral ischemia, prevention of axonal degeneration, and promotion of axonal regeneration. PMID:25657721

  17. Inhibition of human copper trafficking by a small molecule significantly attenuates cancer cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Luo, Cheng; Shan, Changliang; You, Qiancheng; Lu, Junyan; Elf, Shannon; Zhou, Yu; Wen, Yi; Vinkenborg, Jan L.; Fan, Jun; Kang, Heebum; Lin, Ruiting; Han, Dali; Xie, Yuxin; Karpus, Jason; Chen, Shijie; Ouyang, Shisheng; Luan, Chihao; Zhang, Naixia; Ding, Hong; Merkx, Maarten; Liu, Hong; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Hualiang; He, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Copper is a transition metal that plays critical roles in many life processes. Controlling the cellular concentration and trafficking of copper offers a route to disrupt these processes. Here we report small molecules that inhibit the human copper-trafficking proteins Atox1 and CCS, and so provide a selective approach to disrupt cellular copper transport. The knockdown of Atox1 and CCS or their inhibition leads to a significantly reduced proliferation of cancer cells, but not of normal cells, as well as to attenuated tumour growth in mouse models. We show that blocking copper trafficking induces cellular oxidative stress and reduces levels of cellular ATP. The reduced level of ATP results in activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase that leads to reduced lipogenesis. Both effects contribute to the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our results establish copper chaperones as new targets for future developments in anticancer therapies.

  18. Inhibition of human copper trafficking by a small molecule significantly attenuates cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Luo, Cheng; Shan, Changliang; You, Qiancheng; Lu, Junyan; Elf, Shannon; Zhou, Yu; Wen, Yi; Vinkenborg, Jan L.; Fan, Jun; Kang, Heebum; Lin, Ruiting; Han, Dali; Xie, Yuxin; Karpus, Jason; Chen, Shijie; Ouyang, Shisheng; Luan, Chihao; Zhang, Naixia; Ding, Hong; Merkx, Maarten; Liu, Hong; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Hualiang; He, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that plays critical roles in many life processes. Controlling the cellular concentration and trafficking of copper offers a route to disrupt these processes. Here we report small molecules that inhibit the human copper-trafficking proteins Atox1 and CCS, and so provide a selective approach to disrupt cellular copper transport. The knockdown of Atox1 and CCS or their inhibition leads to a significantly reduced proliferation of cancer cells, but not of normal cells, as well as to attenuated tumour growth in mouse models. We show that blocking copper trafficking induces cellular oxidative stress and reduces levels of cellular ATP. The reduced level of ATP results in activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase that leads to reduced lipogenesis. Both effects contribute to the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our results establish copper chaperones as new targets for future developments in anticancer therapies. PMID:26587712

  19. Attenuating the p53 Pathway in Human Cancers: Many Means to the Same End.

    PubMed

    Wasylishen, Amanda R; Lozano, Guillermina

    2016-01-01

    The p53 pathway is perturbed in the majority of human cancers. Although this most frequently occurs through the direct mutation or deletion of p53 itself, there are a number of other alterations that can attenuate the pathway and contribute to tumorigenesis. For example, amplification of important negative regulators, MDM2 and MDM4, occurs in a number of cancers. In this work, we will review both the normal regulation of the p53 pathway and the different mechanisms of pathway inhibition in cancer, discuss these alterations in the context of the global genomic analyses that have been conducted across tumor types, and highlight the translational implications for cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27329033

  20. Inhibition of human copper trafficking by a small molecule significantly attenuates cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Luo, Cheng; Shan, Changliang; You, Qiancheng; Lu, Junyan; Elf, Shannon; Zhou, Yu; Wen, Yi; Vinkenborg, Jan L; Fan, Jun; Kang, Heebum; Lin, Ruiting; Han, Dali; Xie, Yuxin; Karpus, Jason; Chen, Shijie; Ouyang, Shisheng; Luan, Chihao; Zhang, Naixia; Ding, Hong; Merkx, Maarten; Liu, Hong; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Hualiang; He, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Copper is a transition metal that plays critical roles in many life processes. Controlling the cellular concentration and trafficking of copper offers a route to disrupt these processes. Here we report small molecules that inhibit the human copper-trafficking proteins Atox1 and CCS, and so provide a selective approach to disrupt cellular copper transport. The knockdown of Atox1 and CCS or their inhibition leads to a significantly reduced proliferation of cancer cells, but not of normal cells, as well as to attenuated tumour growth in mouse models. We show that blocking copper trafficking induces cellular oxidative stress and reduces levels of cellular ATP. The reduced level of ATP results in activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase that leads to reduced lipogenesis. Both effects contribute to the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our results establish copper chaperones as new targets for future developments in anticancer therapies. PMID:26587712

  1. Activated human B lymphocytes express cyclooxygenase-2 and cyclooxygenase inhibitors attenuate antibody production.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Elizabeth P; Pollock, Stephen J; Pollack, Stephen J; Murant, Thomas I; Bernstein, Steven H; Felgar, Raymond E; Phipps, Richard P

    2005-03-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and target cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 (Cox-1, Cox-2) that are responsible for PG production. Newer Cox-2-selective drugs have been heavily prescribed to quench inflammation. Little is known about whether or not these drugs influence human B lymphocytes and their ability to produce Ab. We report herein that activated human B cells not only highly express Cox-2 and produce PGs, but that the NSAID indomethacin and Cox-2-selective drugs profoundly inhibit the ability of human B cells to produce IgG and IgM in vitro. Human blood B cells highly express Cox-2 mRNA and protein and produce PGs after activation with CD40L, pansorbin, or CD40L plus BCR engagement. Cox-2 is also highly expressed by human tonsil B cells, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Cox-inhibiting drugs modestly affect purified B cell proliferation but profoundly reduce Ab production. The ability of whole blood to produce IgM and IgG following stimulation is also strongly inhibited. In support that Cox-2 plays a seminal role in B lymphocyte Ab production, Cox-2 knockout mice have 64% less IgM and 35% less IgG than normal littermate controls. These findings support that NSAIDs and the new Cox-2-selective drugs have an unsuspected target, the B cell, and attenuate Ab production in humans. Use of NSAIDs may therefore influence autoantibody production in autoimmune diseases and may dampen humoral immunity in response to antigenic challenge/vaccination. PMID:15728468

  2. Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines in preventing cases and hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in Navarre, Spain.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Jesús; Beristain, Xabier; Martínez-Artola, Víctor; Navascués, Ana; García Cenoz, Manuel; Alvarez, Nerea; Polo, Isabel; Mazón, Ana; Gil-Setas, Alberto; Barricarte, Aurelio

    2012-01-11

    Two rotavirus vaccines have been available since 2006. This study evaluates the effectiveness of these vaccines using a test-negative case-control design in Navarre, Spain. We included children 3-59 months of age who sought medical care for gastroenteritis and for whom stool samples were taken between January 2008 and June 2011. About 9% had received the pentavalent vaccine (RotaTeq) and another 8% received the monovalent vaccine (Rotarix). Cases were the 756 children with confirmed rotavirus and controls were the 6036 children who tested negative for rotavirus. Thirty-five percent of cases and 9% of controls had required hospitalization (p<0.0001). The adjusted effectiveness of complete vaccination was 78% (95% CI: 68-85%) in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis and 83% (95% CI: 65-93%) in preventing hospitalization for rotavirus gastroenteritis. No differences between the two vaccines were detected (p=0.4523). Both vaccines were highly effective in preventing cases and hospital admissions in children due to rotavirus gastroenteritis. PMID:22122860

  3. Geochemical Controls on Natural Attenuation of Arsenic Solubilized by Human-Induced Alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, A.; Hering, J. G.; Harrington, J.; Horst, J.; Burris, D.; Reisinger, H. J.

    2005-12-01

    Naturally-occurring arsenic (As) in soils can be solubilized into groundwater as a result of anthropogenic changes in subsurface redox conditions. However, the presence of As in groundwater may not lead to human exposure if As is attenuated before intercepting a water source. Dissolved As can be attenuated by sorption and precipitation processes whose effectiveness may be strongly influenced by redox transformations. Anaerobic bioremediation has been employed at a site in the Northeastern U.S. to treat a tetrachloroethene (PCE) plume in groundwater. An organic carbon source is injected via a transect of wells oriented perpendicular to groundwater flow. The resulting anaerobic reducing zone extends 30 meters down gradient of the injection transect. At the down gradient edge of the reducing zone, dissolved As and Fe concentrations have been observed at over 0.7 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and 450 mg/L, respectively. However, 60 m down gradient (and outside of the reducing zone), As and Fe concentrations have been maintained at levels below their detection limits (0.005 mg/L and 1 mg/L) for over 900 days, demonstrating natural attenuation of As. The sorption of As onto Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides under changing geochemical conditions is investigated by using the reactive transport modeling program Geochemist's Work Bench (GWB). Down gradient conditions are simulated where reduced constituents of contaminated groundwater react with Fe(III) and Mn(III, IV) oxyhydroxides in the soil/aquifer matrix or with dissolved oxygen in uncontaminated groundwater at the periphery of the reducing zone. Dissolved Fe(II) and Mn(II) are re-oxidized and precipitate as oxyhydroxide coatings on the soil or aquifer sediments. These coatings then serve as sorbents for both As(III) and As(V). Simulations allow us to examine As sequestration as a function of groundwater composition (e.g., pH and competing sorbates such as phosphate) and of the rate and extent of the precipitation of Fe(III) and Mn

  4. Human adipose-derived stem cells attenuate inflammatory bowel disease in IL-10 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo Yeun; Kang, Joo Hwan; Kim, Kyung Gon; Kim, Hee Snn; Jang, Byung Ik; Park, Yong Hoon; Song, In-Hwan

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex immunological disorder characterized by chronic inflammation caused mainly by unknown factors. The interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10 KO) mouse is a well-established murine model of IBD which develops spontaneous intestinal inflammation that resembles Crohn's disease. In the present study, human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) were administrated to IL-10 KO mice to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of hAMSCs that may attenuate the progress of or treat IBD. After IBD was induced by feeding the IL-10 KO mouse a 125-250 ppm piroxicam mixed diet for 1 week, 2×10(6) hAMSCs were injected into the peritoneum and the mice were switched to a normal diet. After 1 week, the mice were sacrificed and tissue samples were harvested. Tissue scores for inflammation and inflammation-related genes expression were determined. The hAMSC-treated group showed significantly reduced inflammatory changes in histological analysis. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that RANTES, Toll-like receptor 9, and IL-4 expression levels were not significantly different between the groups while IL-12, INF-γ, and TNF-α levels were significantly decreased in the hAMSC treated group. hAMSC attenuated IBD in the IL-10 KO mice by suppressing inflammatory cytokine expression, was mediated by the type 1 helper T cell pathway. Even though only a single injection of hAMSCs was delivered, the effect influenced chronic events associated with inflammatory changes and demonstrated that hAMSCs are a powerful candidate for IBD therapy. PMID:25544730

  5. Uniformity of rotavirus strain nomenclature proposed by the Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG).

    PubMed

    Matthijnssens, Jelle; Ciarlet, Max; McDonald, Sarah M; Attoui, Houssam; Bányai, Krisztián; Brister, J Rodney; Buesa, Javier; Esona, Mathew D; Estes, Mary K; Gentsch, Jon R; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Johne, Reimar; Kirkwood, Carl D; Martella, Vito; Mertens, Peter P C; Nakagomi, Osamu; Parreño, Viviana; Rahman, Mustafizur; Ruggeri, Franco M; Saif, Linda J; Santos, Norma; Steyer, Andrej; Taniguchi, Koki; Patton, John T; Desselberger, Ulrich; Van Ranst, Marc

    2011-08-01

    In April 2008, a nucleotide-sequence-based, complete genome classification system was developed for group A rotaviruses (RVs). This system assigns a specific genotype to each of the 11 genome segments of a particular RV strain according to established nucleotide percent cutoff values. Using this approach, the genome of individual RV strains are given the complete descriptor of Gx-P[x]-Ix-Rx-Cx-Mx-Ax-Nx-Tx-Ex-Hx. The Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG) was formed by scientists in the field to maintain, evaluate and develop the RV genotype classification system, in particular to aid in the designation of new genotypes. Since its conception, the group has ratified 51 new genotypes: as of April 2011, new genotypes for VP7 (G20-G27), VP4 (P[28]-P[35]), VP6 (I12-I16), VP1 (R5-R9), VP2 (C6-C9), VP3 (M7-M8), NSP1 (A15-A16), NSP2 (N6-N9), NSP3 (T8-T12), NSP4 (E12-E14) and NSP5/6 (H7-H11) have been defined for RV strains recovered from humans, cows, pigs, horses, mice, South American camelids (guanaco), chickens, turkeys, pheasants, bats and a sugar glider. With increasing numbers of complete RV genome sequences becoming available, a standardized RV strain nomenclature system is needed, and the RCWG proposes that individual RV strains are named as follows: RV group/species of origin/country of identification/common name/year of identification/G- and P-type. In collaboration with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the RCWG is also working on developing a RV-specific resource for the deposition of nucleotide sequences. This resource will provide useful information regarding RV strains, including, but not limited to, the individual gene genotypes and epidemiological and clinical information. Together, the proposed nomenclature system and the NCBI RV resource will offer highly useful tools for investigators to search for, retrieve, and analyze the ever-growing volume of RV genomic data. PMID:21597953

  6. DAPK2 Downregulation Associates With Attenuated Adipocyte Autophagic Clearance in Human Obesity.

    PubMed

    Soussi, Hedi; Reggio, Sophie; Alili, Rohia; Prado, Cecilia; Mutel, Sonia; Pini, Maria; Rouault, Christine; Clément, Karine; Dugail, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity has been linked to low-grade inflammation causing insulin resistance. Transcriptomic studies have identified death-associated protein kinase 2 (DAPK2) among the most strongly downregulated adipose tissue genes in human obesity, but the role of this kinase is unknown. We show that mature adipocytes rather than the stromal vascular cells in adipose tissue mainly expressed DAPK2 and that DAPK2 mRNA in obese patients gradually recovered after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss. DAPK2 mRNA is also downregulated in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Adenoviral-mediated DAPK2 overexpression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes did not affect lipid droplet size or cell viability but did increase autophagic clearance in nutrient-rich conditions, dependent on protein kinase activity. Conversely, DAPK2 inhibition in human preadipocytes by small interfering RNA decreased LC3-II accumulation rates with lysosome inhibitors. This led us to assess autophagic clearance in adipocytes freshly isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese patients. Severe reduction in autophagic flux was observed in obese adipocytes compared with control adipocytes, inversely correlated to fat cell lipids. After bariatric surgery, adipocyte autophagic clearance partially recovered proportional to the extent of fat cell size reduction. This study links adipocyte expression of an autophagy-regulating kinase, lysosome-mediated clearance and fat cell lipid accumulation; it demonstrates obesity-related attenuated autophagy in adipocytes, and identifies DAPK2 dependence in this regulation. PMID:26038578

  7. Molecular Characterization of Equine Rotavirus in Ireland▿

    PubMed Central

    Collins, P. J.; Cullinane, A.; Martella, V.; O'Shea, H.

    2008-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses are important causative agents of severe, acute dehydrating diarrhea in foals. A total of 86 rotavirus-positive fecal samples, collected from diarrheic foals from 11 counties in three of the four provinces of Ireland, were obtained from the Irish Equine Centre in Kildare during a 7-year (1999 to 2005) passive surveillance study and were characterized molecularly to establish the VP7 (G type) and VP4 (P type) antigenic specificities. Fifty-eight samples (67.5%) were found to contain G3 viruses, while in 26 samples (30.2%) the rotaviruses were typed as G14 and in 2 samples (2.3%) there was a mixed infection, G3 plus G14. All samples except for two, which were untypeable, were characterized as P[12]. Fifty-eight percent of the samples were obtained from County Kildare, the center of the Irish horse industry, where an apparent shift from G3P[12] to G14P[12] was observed in 2003. By sequence analysis of the VP7 protein, the G3 Irish strains were shown to resemble viruses of the G3A subtype (H2-like) (97.1 to 100% amino acid [aa] identity), while the G14 Irish strains displayed 93.9 to 97.1% aa identity to other G14 viruses. In the VP8* fragment of the VP4 protein, the P[12] Irish viruses displayed high conservation (92.3 to 100% aa) with other equine P[12] viruses. Worldwide, G3P[12] and G14P[12] are the most prevalent equine rotavirus strains, and G3P[12] vaccines have been developed for prevention of rotavirus-associated diarrhea in foals. Investigations of the VP7/VP4 diversity of the circulating equine viruses and the dynamics of strain replacement are important for better assessing the efficacies of the vaccines. PMID:18716232

  8. Rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in foals in Greece.

    PubMed

    Ntafis, V; Fragkiadaki, Eir; Xylouri, E; Omirou, A; Lavazza, A; Martella, V

    2010-08-26

    Severe outbreaks of diarrhoeic syndrome occurred in young foals at the same stud farm during two consecutive breeding periods namely spring 2006 and 2007. Rotavirus-like particles were detected by electron microscopy in the faeces of the affected foals and group A rotavirus infection was confirmed by Reverse-Transcription (RT)-PCR with selected sets of rotavirus-specific primers. Sequence analysis of the genes encoding the outer capsid rotavirus proteins VP7 and VP4 enabled classification of the viruses as G3AP[12] and revealed that the viruses were highly similar to recently reported equine rotavirus strains circulating in Europe. All Greek equine rotavirus isolates were genetically identical, suggesting persistence of the same viral strain in the stud farm, over the two consecutive foaling periods. PMID:20197218

  9. A lattice-based model of rotavirus epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara-Sagahón, A.; Govezensky, T.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.; José, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    The cyclic recurrence of childhood rotavirus epidemics in unvaccinated populations provides one of the best documented phenomena in population dynamics and can become a paradigm for epidemic studies. Herein we analyse the monthly incidence of rotavirus infection from the city of Melbourne, Australia during 1976-2003. We show that there is an inverse nonlinear relationship of the cumulative distribution of the number of cases per month in a log-log plot. It is also shown that the rate of transmission of rotavirus infection follows a symmetric distribution centered on zero. A wavelet phase analysis of rotavirus epidemics is also carried out. We test the hypothesis that rotavirus dynamics could be a realization of a forest-fire model with sparks and with immune trees. Some statistical properties of this model turn out to be similar to the above results of actual rotavirus data.

  10. Identification of an avian group A rotavirus containing a novel VP4 gene with a close relationship to those of mammalian rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    Trojnar, Eva; Sachsenröder, Jana; Twardziok, Sven; Reetz, Jochen; Otto, Peter H; Johne, Reimar

    2013-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are an important cause of diarrhoeal illness in humans, as well as in mammalian and avian animal species. Previous sequence analyses indicated that avian RVAs are related only distantly to mammalian RVAs. Here, the complete genomes of RVA strain 03V0002E10 from turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and RVA strain 10V0112H5 from pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) were analysed using a combination of 454 deep sequencing and Sanger sequencing technologies. An adenine-rich insertion similar to that found in the chicken RVA strain 02V0002G3, but considerably shorter, was found in the 3' NCR of the NSP1 gene of the pheasant strain. Most genome segments of both strains were related closely to those of avian RVAs. The novel genotype N10 was assigned to the NSP2 gene of the pheasant RVA, which is related most closely to genotype N6 found in avian RVAs. However, this virus contains a VP4 gene of the novel genotype P[37], which is related most closely to RVAs from pigs, dogs and humans. This strain either may represent an avian/mammalian rotavirus reassortant, or it carries an unusual avian rotavirus VP4 gene, thereby broadening the potential genetic and antigenic variability among RVAs. PMID:23052396

  11. The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in preventing acute gastroenteritis during rotavirus seasons among Polish children

    PubMed Central

    Kieltyka, Agnieszka; Majewska, Renata; Augustyniak, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rotavirus is the main etiological cause of intestinal infections in children. Voluntary rotavirus vaccines were included in the Polish vaccination schedule in 2007. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a completed rotavirus vaccination course in preventing acute gastroenteritis in Polish infants during their first five years of life. Material and methods This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in Lesser Poland (Malopolska Province). The sample population included a group of 303 children who received the completed rotavirus vaccination course and 303 children not vaccinated against rotavirus. The date of the child's acute gastroenteritis diagnosis and his or her vaccination history were extracted from the physicians’ records. Each kind of diagnosed acute gastroenteritis during winter-spring rotavirus seasons was treated as the endpoint. The relative risk of having gastrointestinal infection was assessed using the hazard ratio from the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results In the examined group, 96 (15.8%) children had winter-spring gastrointestinal infections. In the non-vaccinated children, the cumulative incidence of these infections in the first 5 years of life was 20.8%, whereas in the children vaccinated with Rotarix it was only 10.9%. Those who were vaccinated with Rotarix had a 44% reduction in the risk of a winter-spring acute gastroenteritis infection compared to those not vaccinated with Rotarix (p = 0.005). Birth weight less than 2500 g increased the risk of the infection twofold and also reached statistical significance (p = 0.044). Conclusions The results showed that Rotarix is effective in preventing acute gastroenteritis in Polish children during rotavirus seasons. PMID:27279856

  12. Detection of bovine group a rotavirus using rapid antigen detection kits, rt-PCR and next-generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Minami-Fukuda, Fujiko; Nagai, Makoto; Takai, Hikaru; Murakami, Toshiaki; Ozawa, Tadashi; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Okazaki, Sachiko; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Nishiura, Naomi; Sassa, Yukiko; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Furuya, Tetsuya; Koyama, Satoshi; Shirai, Junsuke; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi; Fujii, Yoshiki; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2013-12-30

    We investigated the sensitivity of human rotavirus rapid antigen detection (RAD) kits, RT-PCR and next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) for detection of bovine group A rotavirus (RVA). The Dipstick 'Eiken' Rota (Dipstick) showed the highest sensitivity out of the seven RAD kits against all selected strains in limited dilution analyses, which was consistent with the results for equine rotavirus previously reported. RT-PCR had 10⁰-10³-fold higher sensitivity than the Dipstick. NGS using thirteen RT-PCR-negative fecal samples revealed that all samples yielded RVA reads and especially that two of them covered all 11 genome segments. Moreover, mapping reads to reference sequences allowed genotyping. The NGS would be sensitive and useful for analysis of less dependent on specific primers and screening of genotypes. PMID:23912876

  13. Musashi-2 attenuates AHR signalling to expand human haematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rentas, Stefan; Holzapfel, Nicholas T; Belew, Muluken S; Pratt, Gabriel A; Voisin, Veronique; Wilhelm, Brian T; Bader, Gary D; Yeo, Gene W; Hope, Kristin J

    2016-04-28

    Umbilical cord blood-derived haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are essential for many life-saving regenerative therapies. However, despite their advantages for transplantation, their clinical use is restricted because HSCs in cord blood are found only in small numbers. Small molecules that enhance haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in culture have been identified, but in many cases their mechanisms of action or the nature of the pathways they impinge on are poorly understood. A greater understanding of the molecular circuitry that underpins the self-renewal of human HSCs will facilitate the development of targeted strategies that expand HSCs for regenerative therapies. Whereas transcription factor networks have been shown to influence the self-renewal and lineage decisions of human HSCs, the post-transcriptional mechanisms that guide HSC fate have not been closely investigated. Here we show that overexpression of the RNA-binding protein Musashi-2 (MSI2) induces multiple pro-self-renewal phenotypes, including a 17-fold increase in short-term repopulating cells and a net 23-fold ex vivo expansion of long-term repopulating HSCs. By performing a global analysis of MSI2-RNA interactions, we show that MSI2 directly attenuates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signalling through post-transcriptional downregulation of canonical AHR pathway components in cord blood HSPCs. Our study gives mechanistic insight into RNA networks controlled by RNA-binding proteins that underlie self-renewal and provides evidence that manipulating such networks ex vivo can enhance the regenerative potential of human HSCs. PMID:27121842

  14. Human mesenchymal stem cells attenuate experimental bronchopulmonary dysplasia induced by perinatal inflammation and hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hsiu-Chu; Li, Yuan-Tsung; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Systemic maternal inflammation and neonatal hyperoxia arrest alveolarization in neonates. The aims were to test whether human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduce lung inflammation and improve lung development in perinatal inflammation- and hyperoxia-induced experimental bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 mg/kg/day) on Gestational Days 20 and 21. Human MSCs (3×105 and 1×106 cells) in 0.03 ml normal saline (NS) were administered intratracheally on Postnatal Day 5. Pups were reared in room air (RA) or an oxygen-enriched atmosphere (O2) from Postnatal Days 1 to 14, and six study groups were obtained: LPS+RA+NS, LPS+RA+MSC (3×105 cells), LPS+RA+MSC (1×106 cells), LPS+O2+NS, LPS+O2+MSC (3×105 cells), and LPS+O2+MSC (1×106 cells). The lungs were excised for cytokine, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression, and histological analyses on Postnatal Day 14. Results: Body weight was significantly lower in rats reared in hyperoxia than in those reared in RA. The LPS+O2+NS group exhibited a significantly higher mean linear intercept (MLI) and collagen density and a significantly lower vascular density than the LPS+RA+NS group did. Administering MSC to hyperoxia-exposed rats improved MLI and vascular density and reduced tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 levels and collagen density to normoxic levels. This improvement in lung development and fibrosis was accompanied by an increase and decrease in lung VEGF and CTGF expression, respectively. Conclusion: Human MSCs attenuated perinatal inflammation- and hyperoxia-induced defective alveolarization and angiogenesis and reduced lung fibrosis, likely through increased VEGF and decreased CTGF expression. PMID:27158330

  15. Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking.

    PubMed

    Gong, Peijun; McLaughlin, Robert A; Liew, Yih Miin; Munro, Peter R T; Wood, Fiona M; Sampson, David D

    2014-02-01

    The formation of burn-scar tissue in human skin profoundly alters, among other things, the structure of the dermis. We present a method to characterize dermal scar tissue by the measurement of the near-infrared attenuation coefficient using optical coherence tomography (OCT). To generate accurate en face parametric images of attenuation, we found it critical to first identify (using speckle decorrelation) and mask the tissue vasculature from the three-dimensional OCT data. The resulting attenuation coefficients in the vasculature-masked regions of the dermis of human burn-scar patients are lower in hypertrophic (3.8±0.4  mm(-1)) and normotrophic (4.2±0.9  mm(-1)) scars than in contralateral or adjacent normal skin (6.3±0.5  mm(-1)). Our results suggest that the attenuation coefficient of vasculature-masked tissue could be used as an objective means to assess human burn scars. PMID:24192908

  16. Three infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis complicated by severe gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yoshiki; Miura, Hiroki; Mori, Yuji; Sugata, Ken; Nakajima, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Yasuto; Morooka, Masashi; Tsuge, Ikuya; Yoshikawa, Akiko; Taniguchi, Koki; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide in children. We report three infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis complicated by various severity of gastrointestinal bleeding. Two patients (cases 1 and 2) recovered completely without any specific treatments. One patient (case 3) died despite extensive treatments including a red blood cell transfusion and endoscopic hemostatic therapy. Rotavirus genotypes G1P[8] and G9P[8] were detected in cases 2 and 3, respectively. Rotavirus antigenemia levels were not high at the onset of melena, suggesting that systemic rotaviral infection does not play an important role in causing melena. PMID:26100228

  17. Asymptomatic rotavirus infections in England: prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gemma; Lopman, Ben; Rodrigues, Laura C; Tam, Clarence C

    2010-05-01

    Rotavirus is a major cause of infectious intestinal disease in young children; a substantial prevalence of asymptomatic infection has been reported across all age groups. In this study, the authors determined characteristics of asymptomatic rotavirus infection and potential risk factors for infection. Healthy persons were recruited at random from the general population of England during the Study of Infectious Intestinal Disease in England (1993-1996). Rotavirus infection was identified using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare exposures reported by participants with rotavirus infection with those of participants who tested negative. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing responses in the data set. The age-adjusted prevalence of asymptomatic rotavirus infection was 11%; prevalence was highest in children under age 18 years. Attendance at day care was a risk factor for asymptomatic rotavirus infection in children under age 5 years; living in a household with a baby that was still in diapers was a risk factor in older adults. The results suggest that asymptomatic rotavirus infection is transmitted through the same route as rotavirus infectious intestinal disease: person-to-person contact. More work is needed to understand the role of asymptomatic infections in transmission leading to rotavirus disease. PMID:20392863

  18. Impact of rotavirus disease in Spain: an estimate of hospital admissions due to rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Visser, L E; Cano Portero, R; Gay, N J; Martínez Navarro, J F

    1999-01-01

    The epidemiology of rotavirus infection in Spain was investigated using information from existing surveillance systems. Reports from laboratories and data on hospital admissions were used to estimate the number of hospital admissions due to rotavirus infection. Between January 1989 and December 1995 there were 8265 reports of rotavirus identification in the Sistema de Información Microbiológica, a voluntary national laboratory surveillance system. Where age was reported, 89.2% were in children under 5 y old. This represents 21.8% of all pathogens identified in faecal specimens in children of this age group. Between January and December 1994 there were 5639 admissions coded as "infectious intestinal disease" and 8225 as "non-infective gastroenteritis" in children under 5 y of age in the Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos, an obligatory hospital admissions surveillance system which covers 83% of public hospitals. Using regression analysis of admission data and laboratory reports it was estimated that rotavirus infection accounted for 3519 (25.3%) of the hospital admissions. We estimate that 4239 admissions attributable to rotavirus occurred in children under 5 y of age in Spain in 1994, a rate of 2.5/1000 population in this age group. These estimates are lower than those published for other countries, where the burden of disease is considered high enough to warrant a national vaccination programme. A cost-effectiveness study with Spanish information is essential before embarking on a national vaccination programme. PMID:10088916

  19. A bacterial regulatory RNA attenuates virulence, spread and human host cell phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Le Pabic, Hélène; Germain-Amiot, Noëlla; Bordeau, Valérie; Felden, Brice

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is directed by regulatory proteins and RNAs. We report the case of an RNA attenuating virulence and host uptake, possibly to sustain commensalism. A S. aureus sRNA, SprC (srn_3610), reduced virulence and bacterial loads in a mouse infection model. S. aureus deleted for sprC became more virulent and increased bacterial dissemination in colonized animals. Conversely, inducing SprC expression lowered virulence and the bacterial load. Without sprC, S. aureus phagocytosis by monocytes and macrophages was higher, whereas bacteria were internalized at lower yields when SprC expression was stimulated. Without sprC, higher internalization led to a greater number of extracellular bacteria, facilitating colonization. SprC expression decreased after phagocytosis, concurring with the facilitated growth of bacteria lacking the sRNA in the presence of an oxidant. The major staphylococcal autolysin facilitates S. aureus uptake by human phagocytes. ATL proved to be negatively regulated by SprC. The SprC domains involved in pairing with atl mRNA were analyzed. The addition of ATL reduced phagocytosis of bacteria lacking sprC with no effects on wild-type bacterial uptake, implying that SprC influences phagocytosis, at least in part, by controlling ATL. Since the control of SprC on ATL was modest, other factors must contribute to atl regulation. PMID:26240382

  20. Distinct composition of human fetal HDL attenuates its anti-oxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Sreckovic, Ivana; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Obrist, Britta; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Holzer, Michael; Scholler, Monika; Philipose, Sonia; Marsche, Gunther; Lang, Uwe; Desoye, Gernot; Wadsack, Christian

    2013-04-01

    In human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) represents the major cholesterol carrying lipoprotein class in cord blood, while cholesterol is mainly carried by low-density lipoprotein in maternal serum. Additionally, to carrying cholesterol, HDL also associates with a range of proteins as cargo. We tested the hypothesis that fetal HDL carries proteins qualitatively and quantitatively different from maternal HDL. These differences then contribute to distinct HDL functionality in both circulations. Shotgun proteomics and biochemical analyses were used to assess composition/function of fetal and maternal HDL isolated from uncomplicated human pregnancies at term of gestation. The pattern of analyzed proteins that were statistically elevated in fetal HDL (apoE, proteins involved in coagulation, transport processes) suggests a particle characteristic for the light HDL2 sub-fraction. In contrast, proteins that were enriched in maternal HDL (apoL, apoF, PON1, apoD, apoCs) have been described almost exclusively in the dense HDL3 fraction and relevant to its anti-oxidative function and role in innate immunity. Strikingly, PON1 mass and activity were 5-fold lower (p<0.01) in the fetus, which was accompanied by attenuation of anti-oxidant capacity of fetal HDL. Despite almost equal quantity of CETP in maternal and fetal HDL, its enzymatic activity was 55% lower (p<0.001) in the fetal circulation, whereas LCAT activity was not altered. These findings indicate that maternally derived HDL differs from fetal HDL with respect to its proteome, size and function. Absence of apoA-1, apoL and PON1 on fetal HDL is associated with decreased anti-oxidative properties together with deficiency in innate immunity collectively indicating distinct HDLs in fetuses. PMID:23321267

  1. Intravenous Administration of Human ES-derived Neural Precursor Cells Attenuates Cuprizone-induced CNS Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Stephen J.; Bajpai, Ruchi; Moore, Craig S.; Frausto, Ricardo F.; Brown, Graham D.; Pagarigan, Roberto R.; Whitton, J. Lindsay; Terskikh, Alexey V.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Previous studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential for human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells (hES-NPCs) in autoimmune and genetic animal models of demyelinating diseases. Herein, we tested whether intravenous (i.v) administration of hES-NPCs would impact central nervous system (CNS) demyelination in a cuprizone model of demyelination. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were fed cuprizone (0.2%) for two weeks and then separated into two groups that either received an i.v. injection of hES-NPCs or i.v. administration of media without these cells. After an additional two weeks of dietary cuprizone treatment, CNS tissues were analyzed for detection of transplanted cells and differences in myelination in the region of the corpus callosum (CC). Results Cuprizone-induced demyelination in the CC was significantly reduced in mice treated with hES-NPCs compared with cuprizone-treated controls that did not receive stem cells. hES-NPCs were identified within the brain tissues of treated mice and revealed migration of transplanted cells into the CNS. A limited number of human cells were found to express the mature oligodendrocyte marker, O1, or the astrocyte marker, GFAP. Reduced apoptosis and attenuated microglial and astrocytic responses were also observed in the CC of hES-NPC-treated mice. Conclusions These findings indicated that systemically-administered hES-NPCs migrated from circulation into a demyelinated lesion within the CNS and effectively reduced demyelination. Observed reductions in astrocyte and microglial responses, and (c) the benefit of hES-NPC treatment in this model of myelin injury was not obviously accountable to tissue replacement by exogenously administered cells. PMID:21276029

  2. Inhibition of tissue transglutaminase 2 attenuates contractility of pregnant human myometrium.

    PubMed

    Alcock, Joelle; Warren, Averil Y; Goodson, Yvonne J; Hill, Stephen J; Khan, Raheela N; Lymn, Joanne S

    2011-04-01

    Premature delivery remains a serious risk factor in pregnancy, with currently licensed tocolytics unable to offer significant improvement in neonatal outcome. Further understanding of the regulators of uterine contractility is required to enable the development of novel and more effective tocolytic therapies. The transglutaminase family is a class of calcium-dependent, transamidating enzymes, of which tissue transglutaminase 2 is a multifunctional enzyme with roles in cell survival, migration, adhesion, and contractility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of this enzyme in regulating the contractility of pregnant human myometrium. Tissue strips from biopsy samples obtained at elective cesarean section were either allowed to contract spontaneously or induced to contract with oxytocin, phenylephrine, or bradykinin. Activity integrals, used to measure contractile activity, were taken following cumulative additions of the reversible, polyamine transglutaminase inhibitors cystamine and mono-dansylcadaverine and the irreversible, site-specific transglutaminase inhibitors N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-phenylalanyl-6-dimethylsulfonium-5-oxo-L-norleucine and 1,3-dimethyl-2[(oxopropyl)thio]imidazolium. The ability of cystamine and mono-dansylcadaverine to affect oxytocin-mediated calcium mobilization within primary cultured myometrial cells was also measured utilizing a calcium indicator. All inhibitors attenuated myometrial contractions in a concentration-dependent manner independent of the method of contraction stimulus. Similarly cultured myometrial cells preincubated with cystamine and mono-dansylcadaverine displayed an altered calcium response to oxytocin stimulation. Our findings demonstrate a potential role for tissue transglutaminase 2 in regulating uterine contractility in pregnant human myometrium that may be associated with the calcium signaling cascade required for contraction. PMID:21123816

  3. Combined Administration of Human Ghrelin and Human Growth Hormone Attenuates Organ Injury and Improves Survival in Aged Septic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weng-Lang; Ma, Gaifeng; Zhou, Mian; Aziz, Monowar; Yen, Hao-Ting; Marvropoulos, Spyros A; Ojamaa, Kaie; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a major healthcare concern, especially in the elderly population. The use of an animal model closely resembling clinical conditions in this population may provide a better prediction in translating bench studies to the bedside. Ghrelin inhibits sympathetic nerve activity and inflammation in young septic animals; however, aged animals become hyporesponsive to ghrelin. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of combined human ghrelin and growth hormone (GH) for sepsis treatment in the elderly utilizing a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis. Male Fischer 344 rats 22 to 24 months old were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Human ghrelin plus GH or vehicle (normal saline) was administered subcutaneously at 5 h after CLP. At 20 h after CLP, blood and tissue samples were collected for various analyses. Combined treatment attenuated serum levels of lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in aged septic rats. The integrity of the microscopic structure in the lungs, liver and kidneys was well preserved after treatment. Expression of IL-6, TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine as well as myeloperoxidase activity and caspase-3 activation were significantly reduced in the lungs and liver of treated rats. Moreover, treated rats showed an improvement in cardiovascular function and increased expression of ghrelin receptor and c-fos in the brainstem. Finally, the 10-d survival of aged septic rats was increased from 29% to 64% after combined treatment and was associated with less body weight loss. Our findings warrant the development of combined human ghrelin and GH for sepsis treatment in the geriatric population. PMID:26835699

  4. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing chimeric proteins of human immunodeficiency virus and gamma interferon are attenuated for nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Giavedoni, L D; Jones, L; Gardner, M B; Gibson, H L; Ng, C T; Barr, P J; Yilma, T

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a method for attenuating vaccinia virus recombinants by expressing a fusion protein of a lymphokine and an immunogen. Chimeric genes were constructed that coded for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and structural proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In this study, we describe the biological and immunological properties of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing chimeric genes of murine or human IFN-gamma with glycoprotein gp120, gag, and a fragment of gp41. All fusion proteins retained the antigenic characteristics of both IFN-gamma and HIV as shown by immunoblot analysis. However, the antiviral activity of IFN-gamma could be demonstrated only for the IFN-gamma-gag fusion protein. In contrast, the attenuating activity of IFN-gamma for nude mice was retained by all of the recombinants, albeit at various rates. Unlike the antiviral activity, the attenuating activity of IFN-gamma was not species specific. Implications for the development of attenuated live recombinant vaccines for AIDS are discussed. Images PMID:1565633

  5. A Multi-Center, Qualitative Assessment of Pediatrician and Maternal Perspectives on Rotavirus Vaccines and the Detection of Porcine circovirus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2010, researchers using novel laboratory techniques found that US-licensed rotavirus vaccines contain DNA or DNA fragments from Porcine circovirus (PCV), a virus common among pigs but not believed to cause illness in humans. We sought to understand pediatricians' and mothers' perspectives on this finding. Methods We conducted three iterations of focus groups for pediatricians and non-vaccine hesitant mothers in Seattle, WA, Cincinnati, OH, and Rochester, NY. Focus groups explored perceptions of rotavirus disease, rotavirus vaccination, and attitudes about the detection of PCV material in rotavirus vaccines. Results Pediatricians understood firsthand the success of rotavirus vaccines in preventing severe acute gastroenteritis among infants and young children. They measured this benefit against the theoretical risk of DNA material from PCV in rotavirus vaccines, determining overall that the PCV finding was of no clinical significance. Particularly influential was the realization that the large, randomized clinical trials that found both vaccines to be highly effective and safe were conducted with DNA material from PCV already in the vaccines. Most mothers supported the ideal of full disclosure regarding vaccination risks and benefits. However, with a scientific topic of this complexity, simplified information regarding PCV material in rotavirus vaccines seemed frightening and suspicious, and detailed information was frequently overwhelming. Mothers often remarked that if they did not understand a medical or technical topic regarding their child's health, they relied on their pediatrician's guidance. Many mothers and pediatricians were also concerned that persons who abstain from pork consumption for religious or personal reasons may have unsubstantiated fears of the PCV finding. Conclusions Pediatricians considered the detection of DNA material from PCV in rotavirus vaccines a "non-issue" and reported little hesitation in continuing to recommend the

  6. Genomic characterization of nontypeable rotaviruses and detection of a rare G8 strain in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sumit; Paul, Vinod K; Bhan, Maharaj K; Ray, Pratima

    2009-12-01

    In the present investigation we molecularly characterized nontypeable rotavirus strains previously identified during surveillance in New Delhi, India. The majority of strains were demonstrated to belong to genotype G1 (54.5%) or P[8] (77.8%) on the basis of nucleotide sequencing of fragments from their VP7 and VP4 genes. The other genotypes detected included G2, G8, G9, G12, and P[4]. A G8P[6] strain, strain DS108, was detected for the first time in northern India. The VP7 gene of DS108 was most homologous with the VP7 gene of a bovine G8 strain, strain A5 (98.9%), indicating its bovine parentage. In contrast, the VP4 gene had a high degree of nucleotide sequence homology (92.9% to 99.1%) with the VP4 genes of human P[6] strains. The VP6 gene and nonstructural genes (NSP1 to NSP3 and NSP5) were most homologous with the VP6 gene and nonstructural genes of human rotaviruses belonging to the DS1 genogroup. Interestingly, the NSP4 gene of DS108 clustered within genotype E6 that until now had only two representative strains, both with G12P[6] specificity (strains RV176-00 and N26-02). Together, these results indicate that G8 strain DS108 belongs to the DS1 genogroup and could be the result of the acquisition of the VP7, VP4, and NSP4 genes by a human G2P[4] strain from more than one donor, similar to the evolution of G12P[6] strain RV176-00. The present study highlights the importance of characterizing multiple genes of nontypeable rotavirus strains to detect novel strains and get a more complete picture of rotavirus evolution. PMID:19794047

  7. Immunochromatography-based Diagnosis of Rotavirus Infection in Acute Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, Vipin M; Thacker, Sandeep; Namjoshi, Gajanan Sudhir

    2016-07-01

    Documentation of rotavirus diarrhea in a rural, resource-poor setting is a difficult task. We analyzed stool samples of 103 children admitted for acute diarrhea in a pediatric hospital in Bijnor, UP, India, using a simple bedside immunochromatography kit. Rotavirus infection was detected in 47 out of total of 103 children (45.6%). PMID:27508549

  8. Serological response to rotavirus infection in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Flores, J; White, L; Blanco, M; Perez-Schael, I

    1994-01-01

    We report the identification of rotavirus in stools of newborn infants at the "Hospital Materno Infantil de Caricuao" (HMIC) as well as the infants' serological responses to various rotavirus strains. The serological responses of another group of rotavirus-positive neonates studied previously at the "Maternidad Concepcion Palacios" (MCP) hospital was also evaluated. Fifty-four of 266 (20%) newborns examined at HMIC shed rotavirus. The infection rate was higher among infants admitted to the nursery (75%) than in those "rooming in" with their mothers (7%) (P < .01). Eleven of the 54 neonates (20%) had diarrhea; seven of them experienced mild, short-lived episodes, whereas five had frequent diarrhea bouts or diarrhea lasting for over 3 days; the remaining 43 infants were asymptomatic. Twenty-seven of 28 rotavirus specimens tested at HMIC had VP7 serotype 4 specificity and one belonged to VP7 serotype 1; VP4 typing performed on 24 of the viruses by RNA hybridization showed these viruses to be similar to the M37 strain, a rotavirus previously associated with asymptomatic infections in newborns at MCP. IgA seroresponses were detected in eight of 11 infants born at HMIC (73%), but most failed to developed neutralization responses to homologous or heterologous strains. Newborn infants who had shed the M37 rotavirus strain at MCP reacted similarly: 16 of 24 (67%) developed a rotavirus IgA rise, but only 29% developed a neutralization response. PMID:8308526

  9. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans.

    PubMed

    Kox, Matthijs; van Eijk, Lucas T; Zwaag, Jelle; van den Wildenberg, Joanne; Sweep, Fred C G J; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Pickkers, Peter

    2014-05-20

    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot be voluntarily influenced. Herein, we evaluated the effects of a training program on the autonomic nervous system and innate immune response. Healthy volunteers were randomized to either the intervention (n = 12) or control group (n = 12). Subjects in the intervention group were trained for 10 d in meditation (third eye meditation), breathing techniques (i.a., cyclic hyperventilation followed by breath retention), and exposure to cold (i.a., immersions in ice cold water). The control group was not trained. Subsequently, all subjects underwent experimental endotoxemia (i.v. administration of 2 ng/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin). In the intervention group, practicing the learned techniques resulted in intermittent respiratory alkalosis and hypoxia resulting in profoundly increased plasma epinephrine levels. In the intervention group, plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased more rapidly after endotoxin administration, correlated strongly with preceding epinephrine levels, and were higher. Levels of proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 were lower in the intervention group and correlated negatively with IL-10 levels. Finally, flu-like symptoms were lower in the intervention group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in epinephrine release and subsequent suppression of the innate immune response in humans in vivo. These results could have important implications for the treatment of conditions associated with excessive or persistent inflammation, such as autoimmune diseases. PMID:24799686

  10. Attenuated thermoregulatory sweating and cutaneous vasodilation after 14-day bed rest in humans.

    PubMed

    Michikami, Daisaku; Kamiya, Atsunori; Fu, Qi; Iwase, Satoshi; Mano, Tadaaki; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of head-down bed rest (HDBR) for 14 days on thermoregulatory sweating and cutaneous vasodilation in humans. Fluid intake was ad libitum during HDBR. We induced whole body heating by increasing skin temperature for 1 h with a water-perfused blanket through which hot water (42 degrees C) was circulated. The experimental room was air-conditioned (27 degrees C, 30-40% relative humidity). We measured skin blood flow (chest and forearm), skin temperatures (chest, upper arm, forearm, thigh, and calf), and tympanic temperature. We also measured sweat rate by the ventilated capsule method in which the skin area for measurement was drained by dry air conditioned at 27 degrees C under similar skin temperatures in both trials. We calculated cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) from the ratio of skin blood flow to mean blood pressure. From tympanic temperature-sweat rate and -CVC relationships, we assessed the threshold temperature and sensitivity as the slope response of variables to a given change in tympanic temperature. HDBR increased the threshold temperature for sweating by 0.31 degrees C at the chest and 0.32 degrees C at the forearm, whereas it reduced sensitivity by 40% at the chest and 31% at the forearm. HDBR increased the threshold temperature for cutaneous vasodilation, whereas it decreased sensitivity. HDBR reduced plasma volume by 11%, whereas it did not change plasma osmolarity. The increase in the threshold temperature for sweating correlated with that for cutaneous vasodilation. In conclusion, HDBR attenuated thermoregulatory sweating and cutaneous vasodilation by increasing the threshold temperature and decreasing sensitivity. HDBR increased the threshold temperature for sweating and cutaneous vasodilation by similar magnitudes, whereas it decreased their sensitivity by different magnitudes. PMID:12949026

  11. Human Defensin 5 Disulfide Array Mutants: Disulfide Bond Deletion Attenuates Antibacterial Activity Against Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Wanniarachchi, Yoshitha A.; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Wan, Andrea; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Human α-defensin 5 (HD5, HD5ox to specify the oxidized and disulfide linked form) is a 32-residue cysteine-rich host-defense peptide, expressed and released by small intestinal Paneth cells, that exhibits antibacterial activity against a number of Gram-negative and –positive bacterial strains. To ascertain the contributions of its disulfide array to structure, antimicrobial activity, and proteolytic stability, a series of HD5 double mutant peptides where pairs of cysteine residues corresponding to native disulfide linkages (Cys3—Cys31, Cys5—Cys20, Cys10—Cys30) were mutated to Ser or Ala residues were overexpressed in E. coli, purified and characterized. A hexa mutant peptide, HD5[Serhexa], where all six native Cys residues are replaced by Ser residues was also evaluated. Removal of a single native S—S linkage influences oxidative folding and regioisomerization, antibacterial activity, Gram-negative bacterial membrane permeabilization, and proteolytic stability. Whereas the majority of the HD5 mutant peptides show low-micromolar activity against Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 25922 in colony counting assays, the wild-type disulfide array is essential for low-micromolar activity against Gram-positive S. aureus ATCC 25923. Removal of a single disulfide bond attenuates the activity observed for HD5ox against this Gram-positive bacterial strain. This observation supports the notion that the HD5ox mechanism of antibacterial action differs for Gram-negative and Gram-positive species (Wei, G.; de Leeuw, E., Pazgier, M., Yuan, W., Zou, G., Wang, J., Ericksen, B., Lu, W.-Y.; Lehrer, R. I.; Lu, W. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 29180-29192), and that the native disulfide array is a requirement for its activity against S. aureus. PMID:21861459

  12. Comparison of human and monkey cells for the ability to attenuate transcripts that begin at the adenovirus major late promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Seiberg, M.; Aloni, Y. ); Levine, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Late transcription from the adenovirus major late promoter can terminate prematurely at a site 182 to 188 nucleotides downstream. Experiments have been designed, with run-on transcription in nuclei in vitro or riboprobe protection of RNA obtained both in vivo and in vitro, that demonstrate that the ratio of attenuator RNA to readthrough RNA is greater in monkey cells (CV-1) than in human cells (HeLa). This may explain, in part, why the human adenoviruses replicate more poorly in CV-1 cells than in HeLa cells. A mutant adenovirus that replicates better than wild-type virus in monkey cells produces less of the attenuator RNA than wild-type adenovirus does in monkey cells. Monkey cell extracts have been shown to contain a factor that, when added to human cell extracts transcribing adenovirus DNA in vitro, increases the production of attenuator RNA in these reactions. These observations help to explain a portion of the block to the production of infectious adenoviruses in monkey cells.

  13. Serotype-specific glycoprotein of simian 11 rotavirus: coding assignment and gene sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Both, G W; Mattick, J S; Bellamy, A R

    1983-01-01

    Cloned DNA copies of the double-stranded RNA genomic segments of simian 11 rotavirus have been used to determine the coding assignment for VP7, the type-specific antigen of this virus. Translation of hybrid-selected mRNAs in an in vitro system supplemented with canine pancreatic microsomes permitted VP7 to be assigned to segment 9 and the two nonstructural viral proteins NCVP4 and NCVP3, to segments 7 and 8, respectively. Hybridization of cloned DNA probes for segments 7-9 with the corresponding segments of human rotavirus Wa confirmed these assignments. The complete nucleotide sequence of gene 9 has been determined. The deduced amino acid sequence reveals VP7 to be 326 amino acids in length with two NH2-terminal hydrophobic regions and a single glycosylation site at residues 69-71. Images PMID:6304692

  14. Evaluation of Moisture-Related Attenuation Coefficient and Water Diffusion Velocity in Human Skin Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Chang, Feng-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Shen, Su-Chin; Yuan, Ouyang; Yang, Chih-He

    2013-01-01

    In this study, time-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning images of the process of water diffusion in the skin that illustrate the enhancement in the backscattered intensities due to the increased water concentration are presented. In our experiments, the water concentration in the skin was increased by soaking the hand in water, and the same region of the skin was scanned and measured with the OCT system and a commercial moisture monitor every three minutes. To quantitatively analyze the moisture-related optical properties and the velocity of water diffusion in human skin, the attenuation coefficients of the skin, including the epidermis and dermis layers, were evaluated. Furthermore, the evaluated attenuation coefficients were compared with the measurements made using the commercial moisture monitor. The results demonstrate that the attenuation coefficient increases as the water concentration increases. Furthermore, by evaluating the positions of center-of mass of the backscattered intensities from OCT images, the diffusion velocity can be estimated. In contrast to the commercial moisture monitor, OCT can provide three-dimensional structural images of the skin and characterize its optical property, which together can be used to observe morphological changes and quantitatively evaluate the moisture-related attenuation coefficients in different skin layers. PMID:23529149

  15. Safety and immunogenicity of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy elderly subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Jody; He, Su; Martin, Jason; Schödel, Florian; Ciarlet, Max; Murray, Alexander V

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus may be an important causative agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the elderly, a population that is particularly vulnerable due to waning immunity. It is estimated that rotavirus may account for 2–5% of adult gastroenteritis hospitalizations in the United States. This is the first study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the live pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) in an elderly population. In this study, healthy, independently living adults aged 65–80 years were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive three 2-mL oral doses of RV5 or placebo administered 28–42 days apart. All subjects were followed for safety for 42 days post any vaccination and up to 180 days after the final vaccination for clinical adverse events. Immunogenicity of RV5 was measured by serum anti-rotavirus IgA enzyme immunoassay and serum neutralizing antibody responses to human rotavirus serotypes prior to and after each dose. Results of this study demonstrated that RV5 was generally safe and well tolerated in healthy elderly adults, where 9% of placebo and 27% of RV5 recipients experienced a vaccine-related adverse event of mild or moderate intensity. Immune responses (serum anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A [IgA] and serum neutralizing antibodies against human rotavirus serotypes in the vaccine) were augmented in this population after a single dose of RV5, despite the factors of older age and preexisting antibodies to the virus. Therefore, if vaccination in the elderly is needed, further evaluation of RV5 as a candidate vaccine in this age group may be warranted. PMID:25424929

  16. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Amood Al-Kamarany, Mohammed; Al-Areqi, Lina; Mujally, Abulatif; Alkarshy, Fawzya; Nasser, Arwa; Jumaan, Aisha O

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH) in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009-July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013-December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%), followed by G1P[8] (15.0%), while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31%) was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%). In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains. PMID:27437161

  17. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Al-Areqi, Lina; Mujally, Abulatif; Alkarshy, Fawzya; Nasser, Arwa; Jumaan, Aisha O.

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH) in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009–July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013–December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%), followed by G1P[8] (15.0%), while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31%) was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%). In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains. PMID:27437161

  18. [Seasonality of rotavirus infection in Venezuela: relationship between monthly rotavirus incidence and rainfall rates].

    PubMed

    González Chávez, Rosabel

    2015-09-01

    In general, it has been reported that rotavirus infection was detected year round in tropical countries. However, studies in Venezuela and Brazil suggest a seasonal behavior of the infection. On the other hand, some studies link infection with climatic variables such as rainfall. This study analyzes the pattern of behavior of the rotavirus infection in Carabobo-Venezuela (2001-2005), associates the seasonality of the infection with rainfall, and according to the seasonal pattern, estimates the age of greatest risk for infection. The analysis of the rotavirus temporal series and accumulated precipitation was performed with the software SPSS. The infection showed two periods: high incidence (November-April) and low incidence (May-October). Accumulated precipitation presents an opposite behavior. The highest frequency of events (73.8% 573/779) for those born in the period with a low incidence of the virus was recorded at an earlier age (mean age 6.5 +/- 2.0 months) when compared with those born in the station of high incidence (63.5% 568/870, mean age 11.7 +/- 2.2 months). Seasonality of the infection and the inverse relationship between virus incidence and rainfall was demonstrated. In addition, it was found that the period of birth determines the age and risk of infection. This information generated during the preaccine period will be helpful to measure the impact of the vaccine against the rotavirus. PMID:26710540

  19. In vitro detection of porcine rotavirus-like virus (group B rotavirus) and its antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Theil, K W; Saif, L J

    1985-01-01

    Four isolates of porcine rotavirus-like virus (PRVLV) infected MA104 cells and induced syncytium formation after low-speed centrifugation of the inoculum onto the monolayer. Ten of 44 (23%) Ohio swine sera had PRVLV antibodies when tested by indirect immunofluorescence, using PRVLV-infected MA104 cell monolayers as antigen. Images PMID:2987303

  20. Live Attenuated Francisella novicida Vaccine Protects against Francisella tularensis Pulmonary Challenge in Rats and Non-human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ping; Cunningham, Aimee L.; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Nguyen, Jesse Q.; Barker, Jeffrey R.; Lyons, C. Rick; Wilder, Julie; Valderas, Michelle; Sherwood, Robert L.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.; Klose, Karl E.

    2014-01-01

    Francisella tularensis causes the disease tularemia. Human pulmonary exposure to the most virulent form, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (Ftt), leads to high morbidity and mortality, resulting in this bacterium being classified as a potential biothreat agent. However, a closely-related species, F. novicida, is avirulent in healthy humans. No tularemia vaccine is currently approved for human use. We demonstrate that a single dose vaccine of a live attenuated F. novicida strain (Fn iglD) protects against subsequent pulmonary challenge with Ftt using two different animal models, Fischer 344 rats and cynomolgus macaques (NHP). The Fn iglD vaccine showed protective efficacy in rats, as did a Ftt iglD vaccine, suggesting no disadvantage to utilizing the low human virulent Francisella species to induce protective immunity. Comparison of specific antibody profiles in vaccinated rat and NHP sera by proteome array identified a core set of immunodominant antigens in vaccinated animals. This is the first report of a defined live attenuated vaccine that demonstrates efficacy against pulmonary tularemia in a NHP, and indicates that the low human virulence F. novicida functions as an effective tularemia vaccine platform. PMID:25340543

  1. Interleukin 17A evoked mucosal damage is attenuated by cannabidiol and anandamide in a human colonic explant model.

    PubMed

    Harvey, B S; Sia, T C; Wattchow, D A; Smid, S D

    2014-02-01

    Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) is a cytokine linked to inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated IL-17A expression in human colonic mucosa, whether IL-17A can elicit colonic mucosal damage in a human explant model and modulate gastrointestinal epithelial permeability in cell culture. We also tested if select cannabinoid ligands, shown to be protective in colitis models could attenuate damage caused by IL-17A. In addition, the ability of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β to modulate levels of IL-17A in the explant colitis model was also explored. IL-17A incubation caused significant mucosal epithelial and crypt damage which were attenuated following hydrocortisone treatment, and also reduced following anandamide or cannabidiol incubation. IL-17A-evoked mucosal damage was also associated with an increase in matrix metalloprotease activity. However, IL-17A did not induce any significant changes in epithelial permeability in confluent Caco-2 cell monolayers over a 48h incubation period. IL-17A was located predominantly in human mucosal epithelium together with IL-17C, but both IL-17A and IL-17C were also expressed in the lamina propria and submucosa. Incubation of human colonic mucosal tissue or Caco-2 cells with pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β however did not alter IL-17A expression. These results indicate IL-17A has a widespread distribution in the human colon and the capacity to elicit mucosal damage which can be attenuated by cannabinoid ligands. PMID:24238999

  2. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates the AIM2-induced secretion of IL-1β in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Yun, Mihee; Seo, Gimoon; Lee, Ji-Young; Chae, Gue Tae; Lee, Seong-Beom

    2015-11-27

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Keratinocytes are a major source of IL-1β and express absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2). AIM2 recognizes a double-stranded DNA and initiates the IL-1β-processing of inflammasome. The AIM2 inflammasome is a cytosolic multiprotein complex composed of AIM2, an apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and pro-caspase-1. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenolic component of green tea, has anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, we investigated the issue of whether or how EGCG suppresses AIM2 inflammasome in human epidermal keratinocytes, neonatal (HEKn). Treatment with EGCG, before or after IFN-γ priming, attenuated poly(dA:dT)-induced IL-1β secretion in HEKn cells. Pre-treatment with EGCG reduced the level of IFN-γ-induced priming signal via the down-regulation of pro-IL-1β and pro-capspase-1 in HEKn cells. Furthermore, treatment with EGCG attenuated poly(dA:dT)-induced ASC oligomerization and caspase-1 activation in IFN-γ-primed HEKn cells. These results suggest that EGCG attenuates AIM2-induced IL-1β secretion by suppressing both IFN-γ-mediated priming and poly(dA:dT)-induced ASC oligomerization of inflammasomes in human epidermal keratinocytes. PMID:26494301

  3. Recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 2 vaccine candidates containing a 3′ genomic promoter mutation and L polymerase mutations are attenuated and protective in non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Sheila M.; Skiadopoulos, Mario H.; Bradley, Konrad; Kim, Olivia S.; Bier, Stacia; Amaro-Carambot, Emerito; Surman, Sonja R.; Davis, Stephanie; St. Claire, Marisa; Elkins, Randy; Collins, Peter L.; Murphy, Brian R.; Schaap-Nutt, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we identified several attenuating mutations in the L polymerase protein of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2) and genetically stabilized those mutations using reverse genetics (Nolan et al., 2005). Here we describe the discovery of an attenuating mutation at nucleotide 15 (15T→C) in the 3′ genomic promoter that was also present in the previously characterized mutants. We evaluated the properties of this promoter mutation alone and in various combinations with the L polymerase mutations. Amino acid substitutions at L protein positions 460 (460A or 460P) or 948 (948L), or deletion of amino acids 1724 and 1725 (Δ1724), each conferred a temperature sensitivity (ts) phenotype whereas the 15T→C mutation did not. The 460A and 948L mutations each contributed to restricted replication in the lower respiratory tract of African green monkeys, but the Δ1724 mutation increased attenuation only in certain combinations with other mutations. We constructed two highly attenuated viruses, rV94(15C)/460A/948L and rV94(15C)/948L/Δ1724, that were immunogenic and protective against challenge with wild-type HPIV2 in African green monkeys and, therefore, appear to be suitable for evaluation in humans. PMID:17658669

  4. Role of somatosensory and vestibular cues in attenuating visually induced human postural sway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Benolken, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory cues to the maintenance of stance in humans. Postural sway was induced by full-field, sinusoidal visual surround rotations about an axis at the level of the ankle joints. The influences of vestibular and somatosensory cues were characterized by comparing postural sway in normal and bilateral vestibular absent subjects in conditions that provided either accurate or inaccurate somatosensory orientation information. In normal subjects, the amplitude of visually induced sway reached a saturation level as stimulus amplitude increased. The saturation amplitude decreased with increasing stimulus frequency. No saturation phenomena were observed in subjects with vestibular loss, implying that vestibular cues were responsible for the saturation phenomenon. For visually induced sways below the saturation level, the stimulus-response curves for both normal subjects and subjects experiencing vestibular loss were nearly identical, implying (1) that normal subjects were not using vestibular information to attenuate their visually induced sway, possibly because sway was below a vestibular-related threshold level, and (2) that subjects with vestibular loss did not utilize visual cues to a greater extent than normal subjects; that is, a fundamental change in visual system "gain" was not used to compensate for a vestibular deficit. An unexpected finding was that the amplitude of body sway induced by visual surround motion could be almost 3 times greater than the amplitude of the visual stimulus in normal subjects and subjects with vestibular loss. This occurred in conditions where somatosensory cues were inaccurate and at low stimulus amplitudes. A control system model of visually induced postural sway was developed to explain this finding. For both subject groups, the amplitude of visually induced sway was smaller by a factor of about 4 in tests where somatosensory cues provided

  5. Role of somatosensory and vestibular cues in attenuating visually induced human postural sway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Benolken, Martha S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the contribution of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory cues to the maintenance of stance in humans. Postural sway was induced by full field, sinusoidal visual surround rotations about an axis at the level of the ankle joints. The influences of vestibular and somatosensory cues were characterized by comparing postural sway in normal and bilateral vestibular absent subjects in conditions that provided either accurate or inaccurate somatosensory orientation information. In normal subjects, the amplitude of visually induced sway reached a saturation level as stimulus amplitude increased. The saturation amplitude decreased with increasing stimulus frequency. No saturation phenomena was observed in subjects with vestibular loss, implying that vestibular cues were responsible for the saturation phenomenon. For visually induced sways below the saturation level, the stimulus-response curves for both normal and vestibular loss subjects were nearly identical implying that (1) normal subjects were not using vestibular information to attenuate their visually induced sway, possibly because sway was below a vestibular-related threshold level, and (2) vestibular loss subjects did not utilize visual cues to a greater extent than normal subjects; that is, a fundamental change in visual system 'gain' was not used to compensate for a vestibular deficit. An unexpected finding was that the amplitude of body sway induced by visual surround motion could be almost three times greater than the amplitude of the visual stimulus in normals and vestibular loss subjects. This occurred in conditions where somatosensory cues were inaccurate and at low stimulus amplitudes. A control system model of visually induced postural sway was developed to explain this finding. For both subject groups, the amplitude of visually induced sway was smaller by a factor of about four in tests where somatosensory cues provided accurate versus inaccurate orientation information. This

  6. Co-Expression of Anti-Rotavirus Proteins (Llama VHH Antibody Fragments) in Lactobacillus: Development and Functionality of Vectors Containing Two Expression Cassettes in Tandem

    PubMed Central

    Günaydın, Gökçe; Álvarez, Beatriz; Lin, Yin; Hammarström, Lennart; Marcotte, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus is an important pediatric pathogen, causing severe diarrhea and being associated with a high mortality rate causing approximately 500 000 deaths annually worldwide. Even though some vaccines are currently available, their efficacy is lower in the developing world, as compared to developed countries. Therefore, alternative or complementary treatment options are needed in the developing countries where the disease burden is the largest. The effect of Lactobacillus in promoting health and its use as a vehicle for delivery of protein and antibody fragments was previously shown. In this study, we have developed co-expression vectors enabling Lactobacillus paracasei BL23 to produce two VHH fragments against rotavirus (referred to as anti-rotavirus proteins 1 and 3, ARP1 and ARP3) as secreted and/or surface displayed products. ARP1 and ARP3 fragments were successfully co-expressed as shown by Western blot and flow cytometry. In addition, engineered Lactobacillus produced VHH antibody fragments were shown to bind to a broad range of rotavirus serotypes (including the human rotavirus strains 69M, Va70, F45, DS1, Wa and ST3 and simian rotavirus strains including RRV and SA11), by flow cytometry and ELISA. Hereby, we have demonstrated for the first time that when RRV was captured by one VHH displayed on the surface of co-expressor Lactobacillus, targeting other epitope was possible with another VHH secreted from the same bacterium. Therefore, Lactobacillus producing two VHH antibody fragments may potentially serve as treatment against rotavirus with a reduced risk of development of escape mutants. This co-expression and delivery platform can also be used for delivery of VHH fragments against a variety of mucosal pathogens or production of other therapeutic molecules. PMID:24781086

  7. Group A rotavirus gastroenteritis: post-vaccine era, genotypes and zoonotic transmission.

    PubMed

    Luchs, Adriana; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis article provides a review of immunity, diagnosis, and clinical aspects of rotavirus disease. It also informs about the changes in epidemiology of diarrheal disease and genetic diversity of circulating group A rotavirus strains following the introduction of vaccines. Group A rotavirus is the major pathogen causing gastroenteritis in animals. Its segmented RNA genome can lead to the emergence of new or unusual strains in human populations via interspecies transmission and/or reassortment events.RESUMOEste artigo fornece uma revisão sobre imunidade, diagnóstico e aspectos clínicos da doença causada por rotavírus. Também aponta as principais mudanças no perfil epidemiológico da doença diarreica e na diversidade genética das cepas circulantes de rotavírus do grupo A, após a introdução vacinal. O rotavírus do grupo A é o principal patógeno associado à gastroenterite em animais. Seu genoma RNA segmentado pode levar ao surgimento de cepas novas ou incomuns na população humana, por meio de transmissão entre espécies e eventos de rearranjo. PMID:27462899

  8. Interferon γ Attenuates Insulin Signaling, Lipid Storage, and Differentiation in Human Adipocytes via Activation of the JAK/STAT Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    McGillicuddy, Fiona C.; Chiquoine, Elise H.; Hinkle, Christine C.; Kim, Roy J.; Shah, Rachana; Roche, Helen M.; Smyth, Emer M.; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports demonstrate T-cell infiltration of adipose tissue in early obesity. We hypothesized that interferon (IFN) γ, a major T-cell inflammatory cytokine, would attenuate human adipocyte functions and sought to establish signaling mechanisms. Differentiated human adipocytes were treated with IFNγ ± pharmacological inhibitors prior to insulin stimulation. [3H]Glucose uptake and AKT phosphorylation were assessed as markers of insulin sensitivity. IFNγ induced sustained loss of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in human adipocytes, coincident with reduced Akt phosphorylation and down-regulation of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, and GLUT4. Loss of adipocyte triglyceride storage was observed with IFNγ co-incident with reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, adiponectin, perilipin, fatty acid synthase, and lipoprotein lipase. Treatment with IFNγ also blocked differentiation of pre-adipocytes to the mature phenotype. IFNγ-induced robust STAT1 phosphorylation and SOCS1 mRNA expression, with modest, transient STAT3 phosphorylation and SOCS3 induction. Preincubation with a non-selective JAK inhibitor restored glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation while completely reversing IFNγ suppression of adipogenic mRNAs and adipocyte differentiation. Specific inhibition of JAK2 or JAK3 failed to block IFNγ effects suggesting a predominant role for JAK1-STAT1. We demonstrate that IFNγ attenuates insulin sensitivity and suppresses differentiation in human adipocytes, an effect most likely mediated via sustained JAK-STAT1 pathway activation. PMID:19776010

  9. Avian rotavirus enteritis - an updated review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Saminathan, Mani; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Kumar, Naveen; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are among the leading causes of enteritis and diarrhea in a number of mammalian and avian species, and impose colossal loss to livestock and poultry industry globally. Subsequent to detection of rotavirus in mammalian hosts in 1973, avian rotavirus (AvRV) was first reported in turkey poults in USA during 1977 and since then RVs of group A (RVA), D (RVD), F (RVF) and G (RVG) have been identified around the globe. Besides RVA, other AvRV groups (RVD, RVF and RVG) may also contribute to disease. However, their significance has yet to be unraveled. Under field conditions, co-infection of AvRVs occurs with other infectious agents such as astroviruses, enteroviruses, reoviruses, paramyxovirus, adenovirus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, cryptosporidium and Eimeria species prospering severity of disease outcome. Birds surviving to RV disease predominantly succumb to secondary bacterial infections, mostly E. coli and Salmonella spp. Recent developments in molecular tools including state-of-the-art diagnostics and vaccine development have led to advances in our understanding towards AvRVs. Development of new generation vaccines using immunogenic antigens of AvRV has to be explored and given due importance. Till now, no effective vaccines are available. Although specific as well as sensitive approaches are available to identify and characterize AvRVs, there is still need to have point-of-care detection assays to review disease burden, contemplate new directions for adopting vaccination and follow improvements in public health measures. This review discusses AvRVs, their epidemiology, pathology and pathogenesis, immunity, recent trends in diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics as well as appropriate prevention and control strategies. PMID:25917772

  10. The Prevalence of Rotavirus and Adenovirus in the Childhood Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Ozsari, Tamer; Bora, Gulhan; Kaya, Bulent; Yakut, Kahraman

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute gastroenteritis stemming from viral causes is very common during the childhood period. Rotavirus and enteric adenovirus are the most common factors of acute gastroenteritis encountered in infants and children. However, the epidemiology of rotavirus and enteric adenovirus gastroenteritis in the east Anatolia region is not well-known. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the distribution of antigen positivity in rotavirus and enteric adenovirus antigen tests required cases and demographic data retrospectively in pediatric patients admitted to our hospital. Patients and Methods The records of stool sample analyses for 1154 patients admitted to our hospital from June 2011 to December 2011 with complaints of diarrhea were retrospectively examined. The presence of rotavirus and enteric adenovirus antigens in stool specimens was investigated by means of an immunochromatographic test. Results Viral antigens were detected in 327 (28.3%) stool specimens out of 1154. Among the positive results, the frequency was 73.7% for rotavirus and 26.2% for adenovirus. While the detected rotavirus antigen rate was high for all age groups, it was highest for children under the age of 2, with a rate of 57.1%. Moreover, the rotavirus infections were observed at a rate of 44.3% in winter and of 24.6% in autumn. Conclusions The most important factor in childhood acute gastroenteritis in east Anatolia is the rotavirus. Rotavirus and adenovirus antigens should be routinely investigated as a factor in fresh stool samples for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastroenteritis in children in the winter and autumn months.

  11. Inhibition of Rotavirus Infectivity by a Neoglycolipid Receptor Mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Bergner, Daniel W.; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B.; Hanafin, William P.; Firkins, Lawrence D.; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses are a major cause of diarrhea in the young of many mammalian species. In rotavirus infected piglets mortality can be as high as 60%. Previous research in this laboratory has identified a porcine intestinal GM3 ganglioside receptor that is required for sialic acid-dependent rotavirus recognition of host cells. In addition, we previously demonstrated exogenously added GM3 can competitively inhibit porcine rotavirus binding and infectivity of host cells in vitro. Sialyllactose, the carbohydrate moiety of GM3, is approximately 3 orders of magnitude less effective than GM3 at inhibiting rotavirus binding to cells. Furthermore, production of therapeutic quantities of GM3 ganglioside for use as an oral carbomimetic in swine is cost prohibitive. In an effort to circumvent these problems, a sialyllactose-containing neoglycolipid was synthesized and evaluated for its ability to inhibit rotavirus binding and infectivity of host cells. Sialyllactose was coupled to dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by reductive amination and the product (SLPE) purified by HPLC. Characterization of the product showed a single primulin (lipid) and resorcinol (sialic acid) positive band by thin layer chromatography and quantification of phosphate and sialic acid yielded a 1:1 molar ratio. Mass spectroscopy confirmed a molecular weight coinciding with SLPE. Concentration-dependent binding of rotavirus to SLPE was demonstrated using a thin-layer overlay assay. Using concentrations comparable to GM3, SLPE was also shown to inhibit rotavirus binding to host cells by 80%. Furthermore, SLPE was shown to decrease rotavirus infection of host cells by over 90%. Finally, preliminary results of in vivo animal challenge studies using newborn piglets in their natural environment, demonstrated SLPE afforded complete protection from rotavirus disease. The efficacy of SLPE in inhibiting rotavirus binding and infection in vitro and in vivo, coupled with its relatively low-cost, large

  12. Prevalence of Rotavirus Genotypes in Children Younger than 5 Years of Age before the Introduction of a Universal Rotavirus Vaccination Program: Report of Rotavirus Surveillance in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Riza; Kalaycioglu, Atila Taner; Acar, Sumeyra; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Karagoz, Alper; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Ertek, Mustafa; Torunoglu, Mehmet Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Group A rotaviruses are the most common causative agent of acute gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years of age throughout the world. This sentinel surveillance study was aimed to obtain baseline data on the rotavirus G and P genotypes across Turkey before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program. Methods Rotavirus antigen-positive samples were collected from 2102 children less than 5 years of age who attended hospitals participating in the Turkish Rotavirus Surveillance Network. Rotavirus antigen was detected in the laboratories of participating hospitals by commercial serological tests such as latex agglutination, immunochromatographic test or enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using consensus primers detecting the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Results RT-PCR found rotavirus RNA in 1644 (78.2%) of the samples tested. The highest rate of rotavirus positivity (38.7%) was observed among children in the 13 to 24 month age group, followed by children in the age group of 25 to 36 months (28.3%). A total of eight different G types, six different P types, and 42 different G–P combinations were obtained. Four common G types (G1, G2, G3, and G9) and two common P types (P[8] and P[4]) accounted for 95.1% and 98.8% of the strains, respectively. G9P[8] was the most common G/P combination found in 40.5% of the strains followed by G1P[8] (21.6%), G2P[8] (9.3%), G2P[4] (6.5%), G3P[8] (3.5%), and finally, G4P[8] (3.4%). These six common genotypes included 83.7% of the strains tested in this study. The rate of uncommon genotypes was 14%. Conclusion The majority of the strains analyzed belonged to the G1–G4 and G9 genotypes, suggesting high coverage of current rotavirus vaccines. This study also demonstrates a dramatic increase in G9 genotype across the country. PMID:25437502

  13. Field of view extension and truncation correction for MR-based human attenuation correction in simultaneous MR/PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blumhagen, Jan O. Ladebeck, Ralf; Fenchel, Matthias; Braun, Harald; Quick, Harald H.; Faul, David; Scheffler, Klaus

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: In quantitative PET imaging, it is critical to accurately measure and compensate for the attenuation of the photons absorbed in the tissue. While in PET/CT the linear attenuation coefficients can be easily determined from a low-dose CT-based transmission scan, in whole-body MR/PET the computation of the linear attenuation coefficients is based on the MR data. However, a constraint of the MR-based attenuation correction (AC) is the MR-inherent field-of-view (FoV) limitation due to static magnetic field (B{sub 0}) inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities. Therefore, the MR-based human AC map may be truncated or geometrically distorted toward the edges of the FoV and, consequently, the PET reconstruction with MR-based AC may be biased. This is especially of impact laterally where the patient arms rest beside the body and are not fully considered. Methods: A method is proposed to extend the MR FoV by determining an optimal readout gradient field which locally compensates B{sub 0} inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities. This technique was used to reduce truncation in AC maps of 12 patients, and the impact on the PET quantification was analyzed and compared to truncated data without applying the FoV extension and additionally to an established approach of PET-based FoV extension. Results: The truncation artifacts in the MR-based AC maps were successfully reduced in all patients, and the mean body volume was thereby increased by 5.4%. In some cases large patient-dependent changes in SUV of up to 30% were observed in individual lesions when compared to the standard truncated attenuation map. Conclusions: The proposed technique successfully extends the MR FoV in MR-based attenuation correction and shows an improvement of PET quantification in whole-body MR/PET hybrid imaging. In comparison to the PET-based completion of the truncated body contour, the proposed method is also applicable to specialized PET tracers with little uptake in the arms and might

  14. Modification of Rotavirus Multiplex RT-PCR for the Detection of G12 Strains Based on Characterization of Emerging G12 Rotavirus Strains From South India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Indrani; Ramani, Sasirekha; Primrose, Beryl; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Gray, James J.; Brown, David W.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2008-01-01

    Rotaviruses are the major etiological agents of diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. The commonest G types in humans are G1-4 and G9. G12 is a rare human rotavirus (HRV) strain first reported in the Philippines. In this study, 13 G12 strains obtained from a community-based cohort and a hospital-based surveillance system in 2005 were characterized by phylogenetic analysis of partial nucleotide sequences of VP7, VP6, and NSP4 genes. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of VP7 gene sequences showed that these southern Indian strains had the greatest homology with G12 strains recently reported from eastern India (97-99% identity both at the nucleotide level and deduced amino acid level) and less homology with the prototype G12 strain, L26 (89-90% identity at the nucleotide level and 90-94% at the deduced amino acid level). Phylogenetic analysis of the VP6 and the NSP4 genes revealed that the Vellore G12 strains belonged to VP6 subgroup II and NSP4 genotype B. The P types associated with these strains were P[6] and P[8]. A G12 type-specific primer was designed for inclusion in an established VP7 G-typing multiplex RT PCR, and tested against a panel of known G types and untyped samples and was found to detect G12 strains in the multiplex-PCR. Close homology of the South Indian G12 strains to those from Kolkata suggests that G12 HRV strains are emerging in India. Methods for characterization of rotaviruses in epidemiological studies need to be updated frequently, particularly in developing countries. PMID:17607780

  15. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Shi, Jim Q.; Zhang, Da; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob; Xu, X. George

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the GEANT4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization.

  16. Structural Correlates of Rotavirus Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhakim, Aliaa H.; Salgado, Eric N.; Fu, Xiaofeng; Pasham, Mithun; Nicastro, Daniela; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Cell entry by non-enveloped viruses requires translocation into the cytosol of a macromolecular complex—for double-strand RNA viruses, a complete subviral particle. We have used live-cell fluorescence imaging to follow rotavirus entry and penetration into the cytosol of its ∼700 Å inner capsid particle (“double-layered particle”, DLP). We label with distinct fluorescent tags the DLP and each of the two outer-layer proteins and track the fates of each species as the particles bind and enter BSC-1 cells. Virions attach to their glycolipid receptors in the host cell membrane and rapidly become inaccessible to externally added agents; most particles that release their DLP into the cytosol have done so by ∼10 minutes, as detected by rapid diffusional motion of the DLP away from residual outer-layer proteins. Electron microscopy shows images of particles at various stages of engulfment into tightly fitting membrane invaginations, consistent with the interpretation that rotavirus particles drive their own uptake. Electron cryotomography of membrane-bound virions also shows closely wrapped membrane. Combined with high resolution structural information about the viral components, these observations suggest a molecular model for membrane disruption and DLP penetration. PMID:25211455

  17. Population Impact and Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccination in Urban Malawian Children 3 Years After Vaccine Introduction: Ecological and Case-Control Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Zeev, Naor; Jere, Khuzwayo C.; Bennett, Aisleen; Pollock, Louisa; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Nakagomi, Osamu; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Costello, Anthony; Mwansambo, Charles; Parashar, Umesh D.; Heyderman, Robert S.; French, Neil; Cunliffe, Nigel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Rotavirus vaccines have been introduced in many low-income African countries including Malawi in 2012. Despite early evidence of vaccine impact, determining persistence of protection beyond infancy, the utility of the vaccine against specific rotavirus genotypes, and effectiveness in vulnerable subgroups is important. Methods. We compared rotavirus prevalence in diarrheal stool and hospitalization incidence before and following rotavirus vaccine introduction in Malawi. Using case-control analysis, we derived vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the second year of life and for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–exposed and stunted children. Results. Rotavirus prevalence declined concurrent with increasing vaccine coverage, and in 2015 was 24% compared with prevaccine mean baseline in 1997–2011 of 32%. Since vaccine introduction, population rotavirus hospitalization incidence declined in infants by 54.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.8–68.8), but did not fall in older children. Comparing 241 rotavirus cases with 692 test-negative controls, VE was 70.6% (95% CI, 33.6%–87.0%) and 31.7% (95% CI, −140.6% to 80.6%) in the first and second year of life, respectively, whereas mean age of rotavirus cases increased from 9.3 to 11.8 months. Despite higher VE against G1P[8] than against other genotypes, no resurgence of nonvaccine genotypes has occurred. VE did not differ significantly by nutritional status (78.1% [95% CI, 5.6%–94.9%] in 257 well-nourished and 27.8% [95% CI, −99.5% to 73.9%] in 205 stunted children; P = .12), or by HIV exposure (60.5% [95% CI, 13.3%–82.0%] in 745 HIV-unexposed and 42.2% [95% CI, −106.9% to 83.8%] in 174 exposed children; P = .91). Conclusions. Rotavirus vaccination in Malawi has resulted in reductions in disease burden in infants <12 months, but not in older children. Despite differences in genotype-specific VE, no genotype has emerged to suggest vaccine escape. VE was not demonstrably affected by HIV exposure

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Rotavirus in Cats in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Iturriza-Gómara, M.; Dove, W.; Sandrasegaram, M.; Nakagomi, T.; Nakagomi, O.; Cunliffe, N.; Radford, A. D.; Morgan, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Rotaviruses are leading causes of gastroenteritis in the young of many species. Molecular epidemiological studies in children suggest that interspecies transmission contributes to rotavirus strain diversity in people. However, population-based studies of rotaviruses in animals are few. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors for infection, and genetic diversity of rotavirus A in a cross-sectional survey of cats housed within 25 rescue catteries across the United Kingdom. Morning litter tray fecal samples were collected during the winter and summer in 2012 from all pens containing kittens and a random sample of those housing adult cats. Group A rotavirus RNA was detected by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, and positive samples were G and P genotyped using nested VP4 and VP7 PCR assays. A total of 1,727 fecal samples were collected from 1,105 pens. Overall, the prevalence of rotavirus was 3.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 4.9%). Thirteen out of 25 (52%; 95% CI, 31.3 to 72.2%) centers housed at least one rotavirus-positive cat. The prevalence of rotavirus was associated with season (odds ratio, 14.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 200.4]; P = 0.04) but not age or diarrhea. It was higher during the summer (4.7%; 95% CI, 1.2 to 8.3%) than in winter (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.5%). Asymptomatic epidemics of infection were detected in two centers. G genotypes were characterized for 19 (33.3%) of the 57 rotavirus-positive samples and P genotypes for 36 (59.7%). Two rotavirus genotypes were identified, G3P[9] and G6P[9]. This is the first population-based study of rotavirus in cats and the first report of feline G6P[9], which questions the previous belief that G6P[9] in people is of bovine origin. PMID:25411173

  19. Transient lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum due to rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Jonczyk-Potoczna, Katarzyna; Szpura, Krystyna; Biegański, Grzegorz; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Służewski, Wojciech; Figlerowicz, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Transient signal changes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) can result from many different reasons, including encephalitis and encephalopathy caused by infection, seizures, metabolic disorders and asphyxia. We report a case of a 6-year-old Polish girl with rotavirus infection demonstrating a reversible SCC lesion on diffusion-weighted MRI images. She presented six episodes of generalized tonic seizures with mild acute gastroenteritis. Stool test for rotavirus antigen was positive. At the time of admission imaging showed the hyperintense region in T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MRI, a well-defined lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum with restricted diffusion in diffusion-weighted MRI and no enhancement in post contrast T1-weighted imaging. Her first EEG showed slow brain activity in the posterior occipitotemporal portion, consisting mainly of theta waves with a frequency of 4.5-5.5 Hz and amplitude of 40 uV. The lesion had completely disappeared on follow-up MRI 10 days later. The patient recovered fully without any sequelae. PMID:25686898

  20. Genistein inhibits rotavirus replication and upregulates AQP4 expression in rotavirus-infected Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haohai; Liao, Dan; Liang, Liping; Song, Lijun; Zhao, Wenchang

    2015-06-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the primary cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis and acute diarrheal disease in infants and young children. Previous studies have revealed that genistein can inhibit the infectivity of enveloped or nonenveloped viruses. Although the biological properties of genistein are well studied, the mechanisms of action underlying their anti-rotavirus properties have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that genistein significantly inhibits RV-Wa replication in vitro by repressing viral RNA transcripts, and possibly viral protein synthesis. Interestingly, we also found that aquaporin 4 (AQP4) mRNA and protein expression, which was downregulated in RV-infected Caco-2 cells, can be upregulated by genistein in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further experiments confirmed that genistein triggers CREB phosphorylation through PKA activation and subsequently promotes AQP4 gene transcription. These findings suggest that the pathophysiological mechanism of RV infection involves decreased expression of AQP4 and that genistein may be a useful candidate for developing a new anti-RV strategy by inhibiting rotavirus replication and upregulating AQP4 expression via the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Further studies on the effect of genistein on RV-induced diarrhea are warranted. PMID:25877820

  1. Association of Maternal Immunity with Rotavirus Vaccine Immunogenicity in Zambian Infants

    PubMed Central

    Chilengi, Roma; Simuyandi, Michelo; Beach, Lauren; Mwila, Katayi; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Emperador, Devy M.; Velasquez, Daniel E.; Bosomprah, Samuel; Jiang, Baoming

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Live attenuated oral vaccines against rotavirus (RV) have been shown to be less efficacious in children from developing countries. Reasons for this disparity are not fully understood. We assessed the role of maternal factors including breast milk RV-specific IgA, transplacentally acquired infant serum RV-specific IgG and maternal HIV status in seroconversion among Zambian infants routinely immunized with Rotarix™ (RV1). Methods 420 mother-child pairs were recruited at infant age 6–12 weeks in Lusaka. Clinical information and samples were collected at baseline and at one month following the second dose of RV1. Determination of breast milk RV-specific IgA and serum RV-specific IgA and IgG was done using standardized ELISA. Seroconversion was defined as a ≥ 4 fold rise in serum IgA titre from baseline to one-month post RV1 dose 2, while seropositivity of IgA was defined as serum titre ≥ 40 and antibody variables were modelled on log-base 2. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of the odds of seroconversion. Results Baseline infant seropositivity was 25.5% (91/357). The seroconversion frequency was 60.2% (130/216). Infants who were IgA seropositive at baseline were less likely to seroconvert compared to their seronegative counterparts (P = 0.04). There was no evidence of an association between maternal HIV status and seroconversion (P = 0.25). Higher titres of breast milk rotavirus-specific IgA were associated with a lower frequency of seroconverson (Nonparametric test for trend Z = -2.84; P<0.01): a two-fold increase in breast milk RV-specific IgA titres was associated with a 22% lower odds of seroconversion (OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.68–0.94; P = 0.01). There was seasonal variation in baseline breast milk rotavirus-specific IgA titres, with significantly higher GMTs during the cold dry months (P = 0.01). Conclusion Low immunogenicity of RV1 vaccine could be explained in part by exposure to high antibody titres in breast milk and

  2. Estimating rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in Japan using a screening method.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kaoru; Hara, Megumi; Sakanishi, Yuta; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nishida, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Muneaki; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2016-05-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a highly contagious, acute viral disease that imposes a significant health burden worldwide. In Japan, rotavirus vaccines have been commercially available since 2011 for voluntary vaccination, but vaccine coverage and effectiveness have not been evaluated. In the absence of a vaccination registry in Japan, vaccination coverage in the general population was estimated according to the number of vaccines supplied by the manufacturer, the number of children who received financial support for vaccination, and the size of the target population. Patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis were identified by reviewing the medical records of all children who consulted 6 major hospitals in Saga Prefecture with gastroenteritis symptoms. Vaccination status among these patients was investigated by reviewing their medical records or interviewing their guardians by telephone. Vaccine effectiveness was determined using a screening method. Vaccination coverage increased with time, and it was 2-times higher in municipalities where the vaccination fee was supported. In the 2012/13 season, vaccination coverage in Saga Prefecture was 14.9% whereas the proportion of patients vaccinated was 5.1% among those with clinically diagnosed rotavirus gastroenteritis and 1.9% among those hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis. Thus, vaccine effectiveness was estimated as 69.5% and 88.8%, respectively. This is the first study to evaluate rotavirus vaccination coverage and effectiveness in Japan since vaccination began. PMID:26680277

  3. Estimating rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in Japan using a screening method

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Kaoru; Hara, Megumi; Sakanishi, Yuta; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nishida, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Muneaki; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    abstract Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a highly contagious, acute viral disease that imposes a significant health burden worldwide. In Japan, rotavirus vaccines have been commercially available since 2011 for voluntary vaccination, but vaccine coverage and effectiveness have not been evaluated. In the absence of a vaccination registry in Japan, vaccination coverage in the general population was estimated according to the number of vaccines supplied by the manufacturer, the number of children who received financial support for vaccination, and the size of the target population. Patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis were identified by reviewing the medical records of all children who consulted 6 major hospitals in Saga Prefecture with gastroenteritis symptoms. Vaccination status among these patients was investigated by reviewing their medical records or interviewing their guardians by telephone. Vaccine effectiveness was determined using a screening method. Vaccination coverage increased with time, and it was 2-times higher in municipalities where the vaccination fee was supported. In the 2012/13 season, vaccination coverage in Saga Prefecture was 14.9% whereas the proportion of patients vaccinated was 5.1% among those with clinically diagnosed rotavirus gastroenteritis and 1.9% among those hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis. Thus, vaccine effectiveness was estimated as 69.5% and 88.8%, respectively. This is the first study to evaluate rotavirus vaccination coverage and effectiveness in Japan since vaccination began. PMID:26680277

  4. Scope for rotavirus vaccination in India: revisiting the scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Neogi, Sutapa Bandyopadhyay; Hasan, Habib; Sheikh, Kabir; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2011-10-01

    Rotavirus vaccines have been developed to prevent deaths resulting from severe diarrhea of rotavirus origin. The use of vaccines as an intervention at scale to prevent and control the burden of rotavirus diarrhea is supported by the argument that prevailing public health measures such as hygiene and sanitation, breast feeding and use of ORS have failed to prevent severe dehydration resulting from diarrhea. The article reviews the existing evidence on the rationale of using rotavirus vaccine as against the feasibility of scaling it up in developing countries like India. The vaccines currently available may not cover the strains circulating in Indian population. The diversity of Rotavirus infection in the country is tremendous and since the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy data has not been collected for India, there is first a need to conduct studies to measure the extent of protection and cross-protection provided by the available vaccines for local strains, before venturing into Rotavirus vaccination program. The potential benefits of immunization have to be first vetted against the risks involved by the policymakers and other stakeholders. PMID:21611712

  5. Attenuated Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 (HPIV1) Expressing the Fusion Glycoprotein of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) as a Bivalent HPIV1/RSV Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Mackow, Natalie; Amaro-Carambot, Emérito; Liang, Bo; Surman, Sonja; Lingemann, Matthias; Yang, Lijuan; Collins, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Live attenuated recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) was investigated as a vector to express the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) glycoprotein, to provide a bivalent vaccine against RSV and HPIV1. The RSV F gene was engineered to include HPIV1 transcription signals and inserted individually into three gene locations in each of the two attenuated rHPIV1 backbones. Each backbone contained a single previously described attenuating mutation that was stabilized against deattenuation, specifically, a non-temperature-sensitive deletion mutation involving 6 nucleotides in the overlapping P/C open reading frames (ORFs) (CΔ170) or a temperature-sensitive missense mutation in the L ORF (LY942A). The insertion sites in the genome were pre-N (F1), N-P (F2), or P-M (F3) and were identical for both backbones. In vitro, the presence of the F insert reduced the rate of virus replication, but the final titers were the same as the final titer of wild-type (wt) HPIV1. High levels of RSV F expression in cultured cells were observed with rHPIV1-CΔ170-F1, -F2, and -F3 and rHPIV1-LY942A-F1. In hamsters, the rHPIV1-CΔ170-F1, -F2, and -F3 vectors were moderately restricted in the nasal turbinates, highly restricted in lungs, and genetically stable in vivo. Among the CΔ170 vectors, the F1 virus was the most immunogenic and protective against wt RSV challenge. The rHPIV1-LY942A vectors were highly restricted in vivo and were not detectably immunogenic or protective, indicative of overattenuation. The CΔ170-F1 construct appears to be suitably attenuated and immunogenic for further development as a bivalent intranasal pediatric vaccine. IMPORTANCE There are no vaccines for the pediatric respiratory pathogens RSV and HPIV. We are developing live attenuated RSV and HPIV vaccines for use in virus-naive infants. Live attenuated RSV strains in particular are difficult to develop due to their poor growth and physical instability, but these obstacles could be

  6. Rotavirus Genotypes in Belarus, 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Semeiko, Galina; Yermalovich, Marina; Poliakova, Nadezhda; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Kerin, Tara; Wasley, Annemarie; Videbaek, Dovile; Gentsch, Jon R.; Bowen, Michael D.; Samoilovich, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This study describes group A rotavirus (RVA) genotype prevalence in Belarus from 2008–2012. In 2008, data from 3 sites in Belarus (Brest, Mogilev, Minsk) indicated that G4P[8] was the predominant genotype. Data from Minsk (2008–2012) showed that G4P[8] was the predominant RVA genotype in all years except in 2011 when G3P[8] was most frequently detected. Other RVA genotypes common in Europe (G1P[8], G2P[4]) were detected each year of the study. This study reveals the dominance of genotype G4P[8] in Belarus and helps to establish the baseline genotype prevalence prior to RVA vaccine introduction in the country. PMID:25218086

  7. A non membrane-targeted human soluble CD59 attenuates choroidal neovascularization in a model of age related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Siobhan M; Ramo, Kasmir; Kumar-Singh, Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness amongst the elderly. Approximately 10% of AMD patients suffer from an advanced form of AMD characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Recent evidence implicates a significant role for complement in the pathogenesis of AMD. Activation of complement terminates in the incorporation of the membrane attack complex (MAC) in biological membranes and subsequent cell lysis. Elevated levels of MAC have been documented on choroidal blood vessels and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of AMD patients. CD59 is a naturally occurring membrane bound inhibitor of MAC formation. Previously we have shown that membrane bound human CD59 delivered to the RPE cells of mice via an adenovirus vector can protect those cells from human complement mediated lysis ex vivo. However, application of those observations to choroidal blood vessels are limited because protection from MAC- mediated lysis was restricted only to the cells originally transduced by the vector. Here we demonstrate that subretinal delivery of an adenovirus vector expressing a transgene for a soluble non-membrane binding form of human CD59 can attenuate the formation of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization and murine MAC formation in mice even when the region of vector delivery is distal to the site of laser induced CNV. Furthermore, this same recombinant transgene delivered to the intravitreal space of mice by an adeno-associated virus vector (AAV) can also attenuate laser-induced CNV. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a non-membrane targeting CD59 having biological potency in any animal model of disease in vivo. We propose that the above approaches warrant further exploration as potential approaches for alleviating complement mediated damage to ocular tissues in AMD. PMID:21552568

  8. Repeated administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor attenuates nicotine taking in rats and smoking behavior in human smokers.

    PubMed

    Ashare, R L; Kimmey, B A; Rupprecht, L E; Bowers, M E; Hayes, M R; Schmidt, H D

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death worldwide and current smoking cessation medications have limited efficacy. Thus, there is a clear need for translational research focused on identifying novel pharmacotherapies for nicotine addiction. Our previous studies demonstrated that acute administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) attenuates nicotine taking and seeking in rats and suggest that AChEIs could be repurposed for smoking cessation. Here, we expand upon these findings with experiments designed to determine the effects of repeated AChEI administration on voluntary nicotine taking in rats as well as smoking behavior in human smokers. Rats were trained to self-administer intravenous infusions of nicotine (0.03 mg kg(-1) per 0.59 ml) on a fixed-ratio-5 schedule of reinforcement. Once rats maintained stable nicotine taking, galantamine or donepezil was administered before 10 consecutive daily nicotine self-administration sessions. Repeated administration of 5.0 mg kg(-1) galantamine and 3.0 mg kg(-1) donepezil attenuated nicotine self-administration in rats. These effects were reinforcer-specific and not due to adverse malaise-like effects of drug treatment as repeated galantamine and donepezil administration had no effects on sucrose self-administration, ad libitum food intake and pica. The effects of repeated galantamine (versus placebo) on cigarette smoking were also tested in human treatment-seeking smokers. Two weeks of daily galantamine treatment (8.0 mg (week 1) and 16.0 mg (week 2)) significantly reduced smoking rate as well as smoking satisfaction and reward compared with placebo. This translational study indicates that repeated AChEI administration reduces nicotine reinforcement in rats and smoking behavior in humans at doses not associated with tolerance and/or adverse effects. PMID:26784967

  9. Metagenomic identification of novel enteric viruses in urban wild rats and genome characterization of a group A rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Sachsenröder, Jana; Braun, Anne; Machnowska, Patrycja; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Deng, Xutao; Guenther, Sebastian; Bernstein, Samuel; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Delwart, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Rats are known as reservoirs and vectors for several zoonotic pathogens. However, information on the viruses shed by urban wild rats that could pose a zoonotic risk to human health is scare. Here, intestinal contents from 20 wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) collected in the city of Berlin, Germany, were subjected to metagenomic analysis of viral nucleic acids. The determined faecal viromes of rats consisted of a variety of known and unknown viruses, and were highly variable among the individuals. Members of the families Parvoviridae and Picobirnaviridae represented the most abundant species. Novel picornaviruses, bocaviruses, sapoviruses and stool-associated circular ssDNA viruses were identified, which showed only low sequence identity to known representatives of the corresponding taxa. In addition, noroviruses and rotaviruses were detected as potential zoonotic gastroenteritis viruses. However, partial-genome sequence analyses indicated that the norovirus was closely related to the recently identified rat norovirus and the rotavirus B was closely related to the rat rotavirus strain IDIR; both viruses clustered separately from respective human virus strains in phylogenetic trees. In contrast, the rotavirus A sequences showed high identity to human and animal strains. Analysis of the nearly complete genome of this virus revealed the known genotypes G3, P[3] and N2 for three of the genome segments, whereas the remaining eight genome segments represented the novel genotypes I20–R11–C11–M10–A22–T14–E18–H13. Our results indicated a high heterogeneity of enteric viruses present in urban wild rats; their ability to be transmitted to humans remains to be assessed in the future. PMID:25121550

  10. Elevation of iron storage in humans attenuates the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bart, Nicole K; Curtis, M Kate; Cheng, Hung-Yuan; Hungerford, Sara L; McLaren, Ross; Petousi, Nayia; Dorrington, Keith L; Robbins, Peter A

    2016-08-01

    Sustained hypoxia over several hours induces a progressive rise in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). Administration of intravenous iron immediately prior to the hypoxia exposure abrogates this effect, suggesting that manipulation of iron stores may modify hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Iron (ferric carboxymaltose) administered intravenously has a plasma half-life of 7-12 h. Thus any therapeutic use of intravenous iron would require its effect on PASP to persist long after the iron-sugar complex has been cleared from the blood. To examine this, we studied PASP during sustained (6 h) hypoxia on 4 separate days (days 0, 1, 8, and 43) in 22 participants. On day 0, the rise in PASP with hypoxia was well matched between the iron and saline groups. On day 1, each participant received either 1 g of ferric carboxymaltose or saline in a double-blind manner. After administration of intravenous iron, the rise in PASP with hypoxia was attenuated by ∼50%, and this response remained suppressed on both days 8 and 43 (P < 0.001). Following administration of intravenous iron, values for ferritin concentration, transferrin saturation, and hepcidin concentration rose significantly (P < 0.001, P < 0.005, and P < 0.001, respectively), and values for transferrin concentration fell significantly (P < 0.001). These changes remained significant at day 43 We conclude that the attenuation of the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia by elevation of iron stores persists long after the artificial iron-sugar complex has been eliminated from the blood. The persistence of this effect suggests that intravenous iron may be of benefit in some forms of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:27418684

  11. Determinants of Parents' Decision to Vaccinate Their Children against Rotavirus: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, E.; Bettinger, J. A.; Halperin, B.; Bradet, R.; Lavoie, F.; Sauvageau, C.; Gilca, V.; Boulianne, N.

    2012-01-01

    Rotavirus disease is a common cause of health care utilization and almost all children are affected by the age of 5 years. In Canada, at the time of this survey (2008-09), immunization rates for rotavirus were less than 20%. We assessed the determinants of a parent's acceptance to have their child immunized against rotavirus. The survey…

  12. Expression and function of the B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA/CD272) on human T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuki, Noriko; Kamimura, Yousuke; Hashiguchi, Masaaki; Azuma, Miyuki . E-mail: miyuki.mim@tmd.ac.jp

    2006-06-16

    Co-signal receptors provide crucial activating or attenuating signals for T cells. The B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA/CD272) is a third member of co-inhibitory receptors, which belongs to the CD28 immunoglobulin-superfamily. Using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human BTLA, we show that BTLA is constitutively expressed on most CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells and its expression progressively decreases upon T cell activation. Polarized Th1 and Th2 cells contained both BTLA-positive and BTLA-negative populations, but the extended culture diminished BTLA expression. Cross-linking BTLA with an agonistic mAb inhibited T cell proliferation and the production of the cytokines IFN-{gamma} and IL-10 in response to anti-CD3 stimulation. BTLA-mediated inhibition of T cell activation occurred during both primary CD4{sup +} T cell responses and secondary CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cell responses, suggesting that BTLA ligation sends a constitutive 'off' signal to T cells and thus might play an important role in the maintenance of T cell tolerance.

  13. The presence of a dog attenuates cortisol and heart rate in the Trier Social Stress Test compared to human friends.

    PubMed

    Polheber, John P; Matchock, Robert L

    2014-10-01

    Limited research has addressed how social support in the form of a pet can affect both sympathetic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity in response to a psychological challenge. The present study examined the effects of social support on salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR). Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to three different conditions (human friend, novel dog, or control). All participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test and provided cortisol, HR, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measures. For participants paired with a dog, overall cortisol levels were attenuated throughout the experimental procedure, and HR was attenuated during the Trier Social Stress Test. For all groups, state anxiety increased after the Trier Social Stress Test, and HR during the Trier Social Stress Test was a predictor of cortisol. These results suggest that short-term exposure to a novel dog in an unfamiliar setting can be beneficial. They also suggest a possible mechanism for the beneficial effect associated with affiliation with pets. PMID:24170391

  14. Surfactant Protein A Prevents IFN-γ/IFN-γ Receptor Interaction and Attenuates Classical Activation of Human Alveolar Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Minutti, Carlos M; García-Fojeda, Belén; Sáenz, Alejandra; de Las Casas-Engel, Mateo; Guillamat-Prats, Raquel; de Lorenzo, Alba; Serrano-Mollar, Anna; Corbí, Ángel L; Casals, Cristina

    2016-07-15

    Lung surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays an important function in modulating inflammation in the lung. However, the exact role of SP-A and the mechanism by which SP-A affects IFN-γ-induced activation of alveolar macrophages (aMϕs) remains unknown. To address these questions, we studied the effect of human SP-A on rat and human aMϕs stimulated with IFN-γ, LPS, and combinations thereof and measured the induction of proinflammatory mediators as well as SP-A's ability to bind to IFN-γ or IFN-γR1. We found that SP-A inhibited (IFN-γ + LPS)-induced TNF-α, iNOS, and CXCL10 production by rat aMϕs. When rat macrophages were stimulated with LPS and IFN-γ separately, SP-A inhibited both LPS-induced signaling and IFN-γ-elicited STAT1 phosphorylation. SP-A also decreased TNF-α and CXCL10 secretion by ex vivo-cultured human aMϕs and M-CSF-derived macrophages stimulated by either LPS or IFN-γ or both. Hence, SP-A inhibited upregulation of IFN-γ-inducible genes (CXCL10, RARRES3, and ETV7) as well as STAT1 phosphorylation in human M-CSF-derived macrophages. In addition, we found that SP-A bound to human IFN-γ (KD = 11 ± 0.5 nM) in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and prevented IFN-γ interaction with IFN-γR1 on human aMϕs. We conclude that SP-A inhibition of (IFN-γ + LPS) stimulation is due to SP-A attenuation of both inflammatory agents and that the binding of SP-A to IFN-γ abrogates IFN-γ effects on human macrophages, suppressing their classical activation and subsequent inflammatory response. PMID:27271568

  15. Gene deleted live attenuated Leishmania vaccine candidates against visceral leishmaniasis elicit pro-inflammatory cytokines response in human PBMCs.

    PubMed

    Avishek, Kumar; Kaushal, Himanshu; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Dey, Ranadhir; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Ramesh, V; Negi, Narender Singh; Dubey, Uma S; Nakhasi, Hira L; Salotra, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Currently no effective vaccine is available for human visceral leishmaniasis(VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. Previously, we showed that centrin1 and p27gene deleted live attenuated Leishmania parasites (LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-)) are safe, immunogenic and protective in animal models. Here, to assess the correlates of protection, we evaluated immune responses induced by LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-) in human blood samples obtained from healthy, healed VL (HVL), post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) and VL subjects. Both parasites infected human macrophages, as effectively as the wild type parasites. Further, LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-) strongly stimulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including, IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-17 in the PBMCs obtained from individuals with a prior exposure to Leishmania (HVL and PKDL). There was no significant stimulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Induction of Th1 biased immune responses was supported by a remarkable increase in IFN-γ secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and IL-17 secreting CD4(+) cells in PBMCs from HVL cases with no increase in IL-10 secreting T cells. Hence, LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-) are promising as live vaccine candidates against VL since they elicit strong protective immune response in human PBMCs from HVL, similar to the wild type parasite infection, mimicking a naturally acquired protection following cure. PMID:27624408

  16. Macrophage-stimulating protein attenuates gentamicin-induced inflammation and apoptosis in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ko Eun; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Chang Seong; Choi, Joon Seok; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Kyung Keun; Lee, Jong Un; Kim, Soo Wan

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •MSP/RON system is activated in rat kidney damaged by gentamicin. •MSP inhibits GM-induced cellular apoptosis and inflammation in HK-2 cells. •MSP attenuates GM-induced activation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways in HK-2 cells. -- Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate whether macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) treatment attenuates renal apoptosis and inflammation in gentamicin (GM)-induced tubule injury and its underlying molecular mechanisms. To examine changes in MSP and its receptor, recepteur d’origine nantais (RON) in GM-induced nephropathy, rats were injected with GM for 7 days. Human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells were incubated with GM for 24 h in the presence of different concentrations of MSP and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry of cells stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated annexin V protein and propidium iodide. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), IκB-α, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was analyzed by semiquantitative immunoblotting. MSP and RON expression was significantly greater in GM-treated rats, than in untreated controls. GM-treatment reduced HK-2 cell viability, an effect that was counteracted by MSP. Flow cytometry and DAPI staining revealed GM-induced apoptosis was prevented by MSP. GM reduced expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and induced expression of Bax and cleaved caspase 3; these effects and GM-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS were also attenuated by MSP. GM caused MSP-reversible induction of phospho-ERK, phospho-JNK, and phospho-p38. GM induced NF-κB activation and degradation of IκB-α; the increase in nuclear NF-κB was blocked by inhibitors of ERK, JNK, p-38, or MSP pretreatment. These findings suggest that MSP attenuates GM-induced inflammation and apoptosis by inhibition of the MAPKs

  17. Multi-frequency characterization of the speed of sound and attenuation coefficient for longitudinal transmission of freshly excised human skulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichardo, Samuel; Sin, Vivian W.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2011-01-01

    For medical applications of ultrasound inside the brain, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the apparent density of skull bone and its corresponding speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. Although there have been previous studies exploring this phenomenon, there is still a need to extend the measurements to cover more of the clinically relevant frequency range. The results of measurements of the longitudinal speed of sound and attenuation coefficient are presented for specimens of human calvaria. The study was performed for the frequencies of 0.27, 0.836, 1.402, 1.965 and 2.525 MHz. Specimens were obtained from fresh cadavers through a protocol with the Division of Anatomy of the University of Toronto. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. The specimens were mounted in polycarbonate supports that were marked for stereoscopic positioning. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skulls mounted on their supports were performed, and a three-dimensional skull surface was reconstructed. This surface was used to guide a positioning system to ensure the normal sound incidence of an acoustic signal. This signal was produced by a focused device with a diameter of 5 cm and a focal length of 10 cm. Measurements of delay in time of flight were carried out using a needle hydrophone. Measurements of effective transmitted energy were carried out using a radiation force method with a 10 µg resolution scale. Preliminary functions of speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, both of which are related to apparent density, were established using a multi-layer propagation model that takes into account speed of sound, density and thickness of the layer. An optimization process was executed from a large set of random functions and the best functions were chosen for those ones that closest reproduced the experimental observations. The final functions were obtained after a second pass of the optimization

  18. Anti-rotaviral effects of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract in piglets with rotavirus diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since rotavirus is one of the leading pathogens that cause severe gastroenteritis and represents a serious threat to human and animal health, researchers have been searching for cheap, safe, and effective anti-rotaviral drugs. There is a widespread of interest in using natural products as antiviral agents, and among them, licorice derived from Glycyrrhiza spp. has exerted antiviral properties against several viruses. In this study, anti-rotaviral efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract (GUE) as an effective and cheaper remedy without side-effects was evaluated in colostrums-deprived piglets after induction of rotavirus diarrhea. Methods Colostrums-deprived piglets were inoculated with porcine rotavirus K85 (G5P[7]) strain. On the onset of diarrhea, piglets were treated with different concentration of GUE. To evaluate the antiviral efficacy of GUE, fecal consistency score, fecal virus shedding and histological changes of the small intestine, mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL8, IL10, IFN-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α), signaling molecules (p38 and JNK), and transcription factor (NFκB) in the small intestine and spleen were determined. Results Among the dosages (100-400 mg/ml) administrated to animals, 400 mg/ml of GUE cured diarrhea, and markedly improved small intestinal lesion score and fecal virus shedding. mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL8, IL10, IFN-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α), signaling molecules (p38 and JNK), and transcription factor (NFκB) in the small intestine and spleen were markedly increased in animals with RVA-induced diarrhea, but dose- dependently decreased in GUE treated animals after RVA-induced diarrhea. Conclusions GUE cures rotaviral enteritis by coordinating antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Therapy of this herbal medicine can be a viable medication for curing rotaviral enteritis in animals and humans. PMID:23244491

  19. Gracilaria bursa-pastoris (Gmelin) Silva extract attenuates ultraviolet B radiation-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Piao, M J; Kim, K C; Zheng, J; Yao, C W; Cha, J W; Kang, H K; Yoo, E S; Koh, Y S; Ko, M H; Lee, N H; Hyun, Jin Won

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the protective effects of an ethanol extract derived from the red alga Gracilaria bursa-pastoris (Gmelin) Silva (GBE) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated human HaCaT keratinocytes. GBE exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular reactive oxygen species that were induced by either hydrogen peroxide or UVB radiation. In addition, both the superoxide anion and the hydroxyl radical were scavenged by GBE in cell-free systems. GBE absorbed light in the UVB range (280-320 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum and lessened the extent of UVB-induced oxidative damage to cellular lipids, proteins, and DNA. Finally, GBE-treated keratinocytes showed a reduction in UVB-induced apoptosis, as exemplified by fewer apoptotic bodies. These results suggest that GBE exerts cytoprotective actions against UVB-stimulated oxidative stress by scavenging ROS and absorbing UVB rays, thereby attenuating injury to cellular constituents and preventing cell death. PMID:24579808

  20. Psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition are attenuated by ketanserin in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Quednow, Boris B; Kometer, Michael; Geyer, Mark A; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-02-01

    The serotonin-2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related inhibitory gating and behavioral inhibition deficits of schizophrenia patients. The hallucinogen psilocybin disrupts automatic forms of sensorimotor gating and response inhibition in humans, but it is unclear so far whether the 5-HT(2A)R or 5-HT(1A)R agonist properties of its bioactive metabolite psilocin account for these effects. Thus, we investigated whether psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition in healthy humans could be attenuated by the 5-HT(2A/2C)R antagonist ketanserin. A total of 16 healthy participants received placebo, ketanserin (40 mg p.o.), psilocybin (260 μg/kg p.o.), or psilocybin plus ketanserin in a double-blind, randomized, and counterbalanced order. Sensorimotor gating was measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. The effects on psychopathological core dimensions and behavioral inhibition were assessed by the altered states of consciousness questionnaire (5D-ASC), and the Color-Word Stroop Test. Psilocybin decreased PPI at short lead intervals (30 ms), increased all 5D-ASC scores, and selectively increased errors in the interference condition of the Stroop Test. Stroop interference and Stroop effect of the response latencies were increased under psilocybin as well. Psilocybin-induced alterations were attenuated by ketanserin pretreatment, whereas ketanserin alone had no significant effects. These findings suggest that the disrupting effects of psilocybin on automatic and controlled inhibition processes are attributable to 5-HT(2A)R stimulation. Sensorimotor gating and attentional control deficits of schizophrenia patients might be due to changes within the 5-HT(2A)R system. PMID:21956447

  1. Sialic acid attenuates puromycin aminonucleoside-induced desialylation and oxidative stress in human podocytes.

    PubMed

    Pawluczyk, Izabella Z A; Ghaderi Najafabadi, Maryam; Patel, Samita; Desai, Priyanka; Vashi, Dipti; Saleem, Moin A; Topham, Peter S

    2014-01-15

    Sialoglycoproteins make a significant contribution to the negative charge of the glomerular anionic glycocalyx-crucial for efficient functioning of the glomerular permselective barrier. Defects in sialylation have serious consequences on podocyte function leading to the development of proteinuria. The aim of the current study was to investigate potential mechanisms underlying puromycin aminonucleosisde (PAN)-induced desialylation and to ascertain whether they could be corrected by administration of free sialic acid. PAN treatment of podocytes resulted in a loss of sialic acid from podocyte proteins. This was accompanied by a reduction, in the expression of sialyltransferases and a decrease in the key enzyme of sialic acid biosynthesis N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE). PAN treatment also attenuated expression of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (mSOD) and concomitantly increased the generation of superoxide anions. Sialic acid supplementation rescued podocyte protein sialylation and partially restored expression of sialyltransferases. Sialic acid also restored mSOD mRNA expression and quenched the oxidative burst. These data suggest that PAN-induced aberrant sialylation occurs as a result of modulation of enzymes involved sialic acid metabolism some of which are affected by oxidative stress. These data suggest that sialic acid therapy not only reinstates functionally important negative charge but also acts a source of antioxidant activity. PMID:24200502

  2. Binding Patterns of Rotavirus Genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8] in China with Histo-Blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Li, Dan-di; Sun, Xiao-Man; Guo, Yan-Qing; Xiang, Jing-Yao; Wang, Wei-Huan; Zhang, Li-Xia; Gu, Qing-Jiu; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It has been found that RV may recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as ligands or receptors and bind HBGAs in a type-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the binding specificity of VP8* proteins from human rotaviruses (RV) that are prevalent in China including genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8]. Through the saliva- and oligosaccharide-based binding assays, we found that the VP8* proteins of P[4] and P[8] RV showed similar reactivity with the Leb and H type 1 antigens, while P[6] RV weakly bound the Leb antigen. These findings may facilitate further research into RV host specificity and vaccine development. PMID:26274396

  3. Binding Patterns of Rotavirus Genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8] in China with Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Li, Dan-di; Sun, Xiao-man; Guo, Yan-qing; Xiang, Jing-yao; Wang, Wei-huan; Zhang, Li-xia; Gu, Qing-jiu; Duan, Zhao-jun

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It has been found that RV may recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as ligands or receptors and bind HBGAs in a type-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the binding specificity of VP8* proteins from human rotaviruses (RV) that are prevalent in China including genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8]. Through the saliva- and oligosaccharide-based binding assays, we found that the VP8* proteins of P[4] and P[8] RV showed similar reactivity with the Leb and H type 1 antigens, while P[6] RV weakly bound the Leb antigen. These findings may facilitate further research into RV host specificity and vaccine development. PMID:26274396

  4. Rotavirus infection activates the UPR but modulates its activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rotaviruses are known to modulate the innate antiviral defense response driven by IFN. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the cellular proteome in response to rotavirus infection in the context of the IFN response. We also sought to identify proteins outside the IFN induction and signaling pathway that were modulated by rotavirus infection. Methods 2D-DIGE and image analysis were used to identify cellular proteins that changed in levels of expression in response to rotavirus infection, IFN treatment, or IFN treatment prior to infection. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to determine the subcellular localization of proteins associated with the unfolded protein response (UPR). Results The data show changes in the levels of multiple proteins associated with cellular stress in infected cells, including levels of ER chaperones GRP78 and GRP94. Further investigations showed that GRP78, GRP94 and other proteins with roles in the ER-initiated UPR including PERK, CHOP and GADD34, were localized to viroplasms in infected cells. Conclusions Together the results suggest rotavirus infection activates the UPR, but modulates its effects by sequestering sensor, transcription factor, and effector proteins in viroplasms. The data consequently also suggest that viroplasms may directly or indirectly play a fundamental role in regulating signaling pathways associated with cellular defense responses. PMID:21774819

  5. Effects of wastewater sludge and its detergents on the stability of rotavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.L.; Ashley, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    Wastewater sludge reduced the heat required to inactivate rotavirus SA-11, and ionic detergents were identified as the sludge components responsible for this effect. A similar result was found previously with reovirus. The quantitative effects of individual ionic detergents on rotavirus and reovirus were very different, and rotavirus was found to be extremely sensitive to several of these detergents. However, neither virus was destabilized by nonionic detergents. On the contrary, rotavirus was stabilized by a nonionic detergent against the potent destabilizing effects of the ionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate. The destabilizing effects of both cationic and anionic detergents on rotavirus were greatly altered by changes in the pH of the medium.

  6. Comparison of two commercial kits and an in-house ELISA for the detection of equine rotavirus in foal feces.

    PubMed

    Miño, S; Kern, A; Barrandeguy, M; Parreño, V

    2015-09-15

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are important infectious agents associated with diarrhea in the young of several animal species including foals. Currently, a variety of diagnosis methods are commercially available, like ELISA, latex agglutination and immunochromatographic assays. These commercial tests are mainly designed for the detection of human RVA; its applicability in veterinary diagnosis has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of two commercial diagnostic kits, Pathfinder™ Rotavirus and FASTest Rota® strip, with an in-house KERI ELISA, for the detection of equine RVA. A total of 172 stool samples from Thoroughbred foals with diarrhea were analyzed. The presence of equine RVA in samples in which only one of the three methods showed positive results was confirmed by RT-PCR. A sample was considered "true positive" when RVA was detected by at least two of the methods, and "true negative" when it tested negative by the three assays. Following these criteria, 50 samples were found positive and 122 were found negative, and were handled as reference population for the assay validation. Pathfinder™ Rotavirus assay showed 32% sensitivity and 97% specificity, FASTest Rota® strip, 92% sensitivity and 97% specificity, and KERI ELISA, 76% sensitivity and 93% specificity. Pathfinder™ Rotavirus showed 77%, FASTest Rota® strip 95%, and KERI ELISA 88% accuracy to correctly classify the samples as equine RVA positive or negative. Pathfinder failed specifically to detect equine RVA G3P12I6 genotype; such performance might be related to the specificity of the monoclonal antibody included in this kit. According to our results, differences among VP6 genotypes could influence the sensitivity to detect equine RVA in foal feces, and thus assay validation of diagnostic kits for each species is necessary. In conclusion, FASTest Rota® strip is more suitable than ELISA Pathfinder™ Rotavirus for the screening of rotavirus

  7. Comparison of the rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP1 (NS53) from different species by sequence analysis and northern blot hybridization.

    PubMed

    Dunn, S J; Cross, T L; Greenberg, H B

    1994-08-15

    The nucleotide sequence of gene 5 encoding the rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP1 (NS53) of 6 strains (EW, EHP, RRV, I321, OSU, and Gottfried) was determined and compared to 6 previously reported strains (SA11, UK, RF, Hu803, DS-1, and Wa). The 12 rotavirus strains were derived from a total of five separate species (murine, bovine, simian, porcine, and human). Gene sizes ranged from 1564 to 1611 nucleotides in length and the deduced protein sequences were found to be 486 to 495 amino acids in length. Comparisons of NSP1 amino acid sequences showed identities ranging from 36 to 92%. This diversity was most evident between strains from different species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a clustering of NSP1 sequences according to species origin with the exception that the human and porcine strains were included in a single grouping. Northern blot hybridizations using additional rotavirus strains from the five species confirmed the grouping found by sequence analysis. The species specificity of NSP1 is consistent with the hypothesis that NSP1 plays a role in host range restriction. PMID:8030275

  8. HUMAN ADRENOMEDULLIN AND ITS BINDING PROTEIN ATTENUATE ORGAN INJURY AND REDUCE MORTALITY AFTER HEPATIC ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juntao; Wu, Rongqian; Qiang, Xiaoling; Zhou, Mian; Dong, Weifeng; Ji, Youxin; Marini, Corrado P.; Ravikumar, Thanjavur S.; Wang, Ping

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether administration of a vasoactive peptide, human adrenomedullin (AM), in combination with its binding protein (i.e., AMBP-1), prevents or minimizes hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Summary Background Data Hepatic I/R injury results from tissue hypoxia and subsequent inflammatory responses. Even though numerous pharmacological modalities and substances have been studied to reduce I/R-induced mortality, none have been entirely successful. We have shown that administration of AM/AMBP-1 produces significant beneficial effects under various pathophysiological conditions. However, it remains unknown if human AM/AMBP-1 has any protective effects on hepatic I/R-induced tissue damage and mortality. Methods 70% hepatic ischemia was induced in male adult rats by placing a microvascular clip across the hilum of the left and median lobes for 90 min. After removing the clip, human AM alone, human AMBP-1 alone, human AM in combination with human AMBP-1 or vehicle was administered intravenously over a period of 30 min. Blood and tissue samples were collected 4 h after reperfusion for various measurements. In additional groups of animals, the non-ischemic liver lobes were resected at the end of 90-min ischemia. The animals were monitored for 7 days and survival was recorded. Results After hepatic I/R, plasma levels of AM were significantly increased while AMBP-1 levels were markedly decreased. Likewise, gene expression of AM in the liver was increased significantly while AMBP-1 expression was markedly decreased. Administration of AM in combination with AMBP-1 immediately after the onset of reperfusion downregulated inflammatory cytokines, decreased hepatic neutrophil infiltration, inhibited liver cell apoptosis and necrosis, and reduced liver injury and mortality in a rat model of hepatic I/R. On the other hand, administration of human AM alone or human AMBP-1 alone after hepatic I/R failed to produce significant protection. Conclusions Human

  9. Partial blockade of skeletal muscle somatosensory afferents attenuates baroreflex resetting during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott A; Querry, Ross G; Fadel, Paul J; Gallagher, Kevin M; Strømstad, Morten; Ide, Kojiro; Raven, Peter B; Secher, Niels H

    2003-09-15

    During exercise, the carotid baroreflex is reset to operate around the higher arterial pressures evoked by physical exertion. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the contribution of somatosensory input from the exercise pressor reflex to this resetting during exercise. Nine subjects performed seven minutes of dynamic cycling at 30% of maximal work load and three minutes of static one-legged contraction at 25% maximal voluntary contraction before (control) and after partial blockade of skeletal muscle afferents with epidural anaesthesia. Carotid baroreflex function was assessed by applying rapid pulses of hyper- and hypotensive stimuli to the neck via a customised collar. Using a logistic model, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to carotid sinus stimulation were used to develop reflex function stimulus-response curves. Compared with rest, control dynamic and static exercise reset carotid baroreflex-HR and carotid baroreflex-MAP curves vertically upward on the response arm and laterally rightward to higher operating pressures. Inhibition of exercise pressor reflex input by epidural anaesthesia attenuated the bi-directional resetting of the carotid baroreflex-MAP curve during both exercise protocols. In contrast, the effect of epidural anaesthesia on the resetting of the carotid baroreflex-HR curve was negligible during dynamic cycling whereas it relocated the curve in a laterally leftward direction during static contraction. The data suggest that afferent input from skeletal muscle is requisite for the complete resetting of the carotid baroreflex during exercise. However, this neural input appears to modify baroreflex control of blood pressure to a greater extent than heart rate. PMID:12819303

  10. NT-3 attenuates the growth of human neuron cells through the ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Yimin; Jiang, Dianming

    2016-08-01

    Spinal cord injury is a devastating health problem that affects thousands of individuals each year. The neurons were destroyed. NT-3 is a recently discovered neurotrophin. This study sought to understand the potential involvement of MAPKs in NT-3-mediated growth inhibition of human neurons. We applied different concentrations of NT-3 and observed the growth rate of the cells and the changes in the phosphorylation state of the MAPKs ERK1/2, JNK and p38. This study discovered that NT-3-induced HNC growth was promoted primarily by phosphorylated ERK1/2, and that this phosphorylation, as well p90(rsk)phosphorylation, was mediated by TrkC. The ERK1/2 pathway is known to play an essential role in the NT-3-mediated growth of human neurons. In conclusion, our study suggests that NT-3 promotes the growth of human neurons cells primarily through the TrkC/ERK pathway. PMID:25501303

  11. Neonatal Gut Microbiota and Human Milk Glycans Cooperate to Attenuate Infection and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Newburg, David S; He, Yingying

    2015-12-01

    Glycans of the intestinal mucosa and oligosaccharides of human milk influence the early colonization of the infant gut and establishment of mucosal homeostasis, and differences in colonization of the gut influence the ontogeny of glycans on the surface of the intestinal mucosa, proinflammatory signaling, homeostasis, and resilience to insult. This interkingdom reciprocal interaction is typical of a mutualistic symbiotic relationship. The period in which the infant gut most needs protection from hypersensitive inflammation overlaps with the recommended period of exclusive nursing; electively substituting artificial formula that lacks human milk protective glycans seems ill advised, especially for premature infants. PMID:26457857

  12. Hypoxia attenuates inflammatory mediators production induced by Acanthamoeba via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in human corneal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hong; Wu, Xinyi

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia attenuates Acanthamoeba-induced the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits TLR4 expression in a time-dependent manner in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits Acanthamoeba-induced the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2 in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia decreases Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory response via TLR4 signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS-induced the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 is abated by hypoxia via TLR4 signaling. -- Abstract: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a vision-threatening corneal infection that is intimately associated with contact lens use which leads to hypoxic conditions on the corneal surface. However, the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced host inflammatory response of corneal epithelial cells has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced production of inflammatory mediators interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) in human corneal epithelial cells and then evaluated its effects on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, including TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) expression as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-{kappa}B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). We then studied the effect of hypoxia on a TLR4-specific inflammatory response triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our data showed that hypoxia significantly decreased the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Furthermore, hypoxia attenuated Acanthamoeba-triggered TLR4 expression as well as the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2, indicating that hypoxia abated Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory responses by affecting TLR4 signaling. Hypoxia also inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88

  13. Accelerating the introduction of rotavirus immunization in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Suwantika, Auliya A; Zakiyah, Neily; Lestari, Keri; Postma, Maarten J

    2014-04-01

    The introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in Indonesia is currently in its infancy. Delay in its development might be caused by factors related to the perceived value of the vaccine, health system characteristics and policy considerations. Other factors, which may also interfere with optimizing the introduction, are financial barriers because Indonesia is a lower-middle-income country. Creating fiscal space to finance new immunization programs, such as for the rotavirus immunization, is very important to ensure the sustainability of new programs so that such programs would be financed over the long term and not endanger the sustainability of the Indonesian government's financial position. This article provides an illustration of the various steps needed to accelerate the introduction of the rotavirus immunization. PMID:24580504

  14. Preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis: do you have the facts?

    PubMed

    Davidson, Geoffrey; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Kirkwood, Carl; Pearce, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    From 1 July 2007 two new rotavirus vaccines licensed for use in Australia (RotaTeq CSL Biotherapies/Merck and Rotarix Glaxo Smith Kline) will be funded for the National Immunisation Program. The vaccines differ with respect to their composition and the timing and mode of administration. Both have been evaluated in huge randomised trials and shown to be highly effective in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis, including severe disease requiring hospital admission. Neither has been associated with an increased rate of intussusception; however, surveillance for adverse effects following vaccination will be important. As rotavirus infection is ubiquitous in young children, funding of this vaccine will significantly decrease the enormous morbidity and costs associated with this disease in our community. PMID:17635688

  15. Demographic variability, vaccination, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of rotavirus epidemics.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Virginia E; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Steiner, Claudia; Panozzo, Catherine A; Alonso, Wladimir J; Miller, Mark A; Glass, Roger I; Glasser, John W; Parashar, Umesh D; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2009-07-17

    Historically, annual rotavirus activity in the United States has started in the southwest in late fall and ended in the northeast 3 months later; this trend has diminished in recent years. Traveling waves of infection or local environmental drivers cannot account for these patterns. A transmission model calibrated against epidemiological data shows that spatiotemporal variation in birth rate can explain the timing of rotavirus epidemics. The recent large-scale introduction of rotavirus vaccination provides a natural experiment to further test the impact of susceptible recruitment on disease dynamics. The model predicts a pattern of reduced and lagged epidemics postvaccination, closely matching the observed dynamics. Armed with this validated model, we explore the relative importance of direct and indirect protection, a key issue in determining the worldwide benefits of vaccination. PMID:19608910

  16. Attenuation of monocyte adhesion and oxidised LDL uptake in luteolin-treated human endothelial cells exposed to oxidised LDL.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yu-Jin; Choi, Yean-Jung; Choi, Jung-Suk; Kwon, Hyang-Mi; Kang, Sang-Wook; Bae, Ji-Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Kang, Jung-Sook; Han, Seoung Jun; Kang, Young-Hee

    2007-03-01

    Oxidative modification of LDL is causally involved in the development of atherosclerosis and occurs in vivo in the blood as well as within the vascular wall. The present study attempted to explore whether polyphenolic flavonoids influence monocyte-endothelium interaction and lectin-like oxidised LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) expression involved in the early development of atherosclerosis. The flavones luteolin and apigenin inhibited THP-1 cell adhesion onto oxidised LDL-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), while the flavanols of (-)epigallocatechin gallate and (+)catechin, the flavonols of quercetin and rutin, and the flavanones of naringin, naringenin, hesperidin and hesperetin did not have such effects. Consistently, Western blot analysis revealed that the flavones at 25 microM dramatically and significantly abolished HUVEC expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin evidently enhanced by oxidised LDL; these inhibitory effects were exerted by drastically down regulating mRNA levels of these cell adhesion molecules. In addition, quercetin and luteolin significantly attenuated expression of LOX-1 protein up regulated in oxidised LDL-activated HUVEC with a fall in transcriptional mRNA levels of LOX-1. In addition, quercetin and luteolin clearly blunted oxidised LDL uptake by HUVEC treated with oxidised LDL. The results demonstrate that the flavones luteolin and apigenin as well as quercetin were effective in the different initial steps of atherosclerosis process by inhibiting oxidised LDL-induced endothelial monocyte adhesion and/or oxidised LDL uptake. Therefore, certain flavonoids qualify as anti-atherogenic agents in LDL systems, which may have implications for strategies attenuating endothelial dysfunction-related atherosclerosis. PMID:17313705

  17. Limited Protection from a Pathogenic Chimeric Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge following Immunization with Attenuated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Mark G.; Yalley-Ogunro, Jake; Greenhouse, Jack J.; Brennan, Terry P.; Jiang, Jennifer Bo; VanCott, Thomas C.; Lu, Yichen; Eddy, Gerald A.; Birx, Deborah L.

    1999-01-01

    Two live attenuated single-deletion mutant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) constructs, SIV239Δnef and SIVPBj6.6Δnef, were tested for their abilities to stimulate protective immunity in macaques. During the immunization period the animals were examined for specific immune responses and virus growth. Each construct generated high levels of specific immunity in all of the immunized animals. The SIV239Δnef construct was found to grow to high levels in all immunized animals, with some animals remaining positive for virus isolation and plasma RNA throughout the immunization period. The SIVPBj6.6Δnef was effectively controlled by all of the immunized animals, with virus mostly isolated only during the first few months following immunization and plasma RNA never detected. Following an extended period of immunization of over 80 weeks, the animals were challenged with a pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) isolate, SIV89.6PD, by intravenous injection. All of the SIV239Δnef-immunized animals became infected with the SHIV isolate; two of five animals eventually controlled the challenge and three of five animals, which failed to check the immunizing virus, progressed to disease state before the unvaccinated controls. One of five animals immunized with SIVPBj6.6Δnef totally resisted infection by the challenge virus, while three others limited its growth and the remaining animal became persistently infected and eventually died of a pulmonary thrombus. These data indicate that vaccination with attenuated SIV can protect macaques from disease and in some cases from infection by a divergent SHIV. However, if animals are unable to control the immunizing virus, potential damage that can accelerate the disease course of a pathogenic challenge virus may occur. PMID:9882330

  18. Analysis by rotavirus gene 6 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of rotavirus-positive gastroenteritis cases observed during the vaccination phase of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST)

    PubMed Central

    Matson, David O; Vesikari, Timo; Dennehy, Penelope; Dallas, Michael D; Goveia, Michelle G; Itzler, Robbin F; Ciarlet, Max

    2014-01-01

    During the vaccination phase of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST), the period between the administration of dose 1 through 13 days after the administration of dose 3, there were more wild-type rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases among vaccine recipients compared with placebo recipients using the protocol-specified microbiological plaque assay in the clinical-efficacy cohort, a subset of subjects where vaccine efficacy against RVGE of any severity was assessed. In this study, a rotavirus genome segment 6-based reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction assay was applied post hoc to clarify the accuracy of type categorization of all these RVGE cases in vaccine recipients during the vaccination phase of REST. The assay characterized 147 (90%) of 163 re-assayed RVGE cases or rotavirus-associated health care contacts as type-determinable: either wild-type or vaccine-type rotavirus strains. In the clinical-efficacy cohort (N = 5673), 19 (18.8%) of 101 samples from RVGE cases contained wild-type rotavirus, 70 (69.3%) vaccine virus, and 12 (11.9%) were indeterminable. In the large-scale cohort (N = 68,038), 10 (34.5%) of 29 samples from RVGE-related health care contacts contained wild-type rotavirus strains, 15 (51.7%) vaccine-type rotavirus strains, and 4 (13.8%) were indeterminable. Of the 33 samples from RVGE cases in placebo recipients, all were confirmed to contain wild-type rotaviruses. Altogether, this post-hoc re-evaluation showed that the majority (75%) of type-determinable RVGE cases or health care contacts that occurred during the vaccination phase of REST in vaccine recipients were associated with vaccine-type rotavirus strains rather than wild-type rotavirus strains. PMID:25424931

  19. New Insights into Rotavirus Entry Machinery: Stabilization of Rotavirus Spike Conformation Is Independent of Trypsin Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Javier M.; Chichón, Francisco J.; Martín-Forero, Esther; González-Camacho, Fernando; Carrascosa, José L.; Castón, José R.; Luque, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The infectivity of rotavirus, the main causative agent of childhood diarrhea, is dependent on activation of the extracellular viral particles by trypsin-like proteases in the host intestinal lumen. This step entails proteolytic cleavage of the VP4 spike protein into its mature products, VP8* and VP5*. Previous cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) analysis of trypsin-activated particles showed well-resolved spikes, although no density was identified for the spikes in uncleaved particles; these data suggested that trypsin activation triggers important conformational changes that give rise to the rigid, entry-competent spike. The nature of these structural changes is not well understood, due to lack of data relative to the uncleaved spike structure. Here we used cryo-EM and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to characterize the structure of the uncleaved virion in two model rotavirus strains. Cryo-EM three-dimensional reconstruction of uncleaved virions showed spikes with a structure compatible with the atomic model of the cleaved spike, and indistinguishable from that of digested particles. Cryo-ET and subvolume average, combined with classification methods, resolved the presence of non-icosahedral structures, providing a model for the complete structure of the uncleaved spike. Despite the similar rigid structure observed for uncleaved and cleaved particles, trypsin activation is necessary for successful infection. These observations suggest that the spike precursor protein must be proteolytically processed, not to achieve a rigid conformation, but to allow the conformational changes that drive virus entry. PMID:24873828

  20. Determination of cholesterol concentration in human milk samples using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamelska, A. M.; Pietrzak-Fiećko, R.; Bryl, K.

    2013-03-01

    Results of an inexpensive and rapid evaluation of the cholesterol concentration in human milk using ATR-FTIR techniques are presented. The FTIR spectrum of pure cholesterol was characterized and quantitatively estimated in the region between 2800 and 3200 cm-1. 125 samples at different stages of lactation were analyzed. There were no differences between the cholesterol concentrations in the samples of early (1-3 months), medium (4-6 months), and late (> 6 months) lactation stages ( p = 0.096968). The cholesterol concentration ranged from 4.30 to 21.77 mg/100 cm3. Such a broad range was due to the differences between the samples from different women ( p = 0.000184). The results indicate that ATR-FTIR has potential for rapid estimation of cholesterol concentration in human milk.

  1. Kanglaite attenuates UVB-induced down-regulation of aquaporin-3 in cultured human skin keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    SHAN, SHI-JUN; XIAO, TING; CHEN, JOHN; GENG, SHI-LING; LI, CHANG-PING; XU, XUEGANG; HONG, YUXIAO; JI, CHAO; GUO, YING; WEI, HUACHEN; LIU, WEI; LI, DAPENG; CHEN, HONG-DUO

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of skin photoaging. Depending on the wavelength of UV, the epidermis is affected primarily by UVB. One major characteristic of photoaging is the dehydration of the skin. Membrane-inserted water channels (aquaporins) are involved in this process. In this study we demonstrated that UVB radiation induced aquaporin-3 (AQP3) down-regulation in cultured human skin keratinocytes. Kanglaite is a mixture consisting of extractions of Coix Seed, which is an effective anti-neoplastic agent and can inhibit the activities of protein kinase C and NF-κB. We demonstrated that Kanglaite inhibited UVB-induced AQP3 down-regulation of cultured human skin keratinocytes. Our findings provide a potential new agent for anti-photoaging. The related molecular mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. PMID:22211241

  2. Comparison of fecal indicators with pathogenic bacteria and rotavirus in groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Andrew S.; Layton, Alice C.; Mailloux, Brian J; Culligan, Patricia J.; Williams, Daniel E.; Smartt, Abby E.; Sayler, Gary S.; Feighery, John; McKay, Larry; Knappett, Peter S.K.; Alexandrova, Ekaterina; Arbit, Talia; Emch, Michael; Escamilla, Veronica; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Alam, Md. Jahangir; Streatfield, P. Kim; Yunus, Mohammad; van Geen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is routinely analyzed for fecal indicators but direct comparisons of fecal indicators to the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens are rare. This study was conducted in rural Bangladesh where the human population density is high, sanitation is poor, and groundwater pumped from shallow tubewells is often contaminated with fecal bacteria. Five indicator microorganisms (E. coli, total coliform, F+RNA coliphage, Bacteroides and human-associated Bacteroides) and various environmental parameters were compared to the direct detection of waterborne pathogens by quantitative PCR in groundwater pumped from 50 tubewells. Rotavirus was detected in groundwater filtrate from the largest proportion of tubewells (40%), followed by Shigella (10%), Vibrio (10%), and pathogenic E. coli (8%). Spearman rank correlations and sensitivity-specificity calculations indicate that some, but not all, combinations of indicators and environmental parameters can predict the presence of pathogens. Culture-dependent fecal indicator bacteria measured on a single date did not predict total bacterial pathogens, but annually averaged monthly measurements of culturable E. coli did improve prediction for total bacterial pathogens. A qPCR-based E. coli assay was the best indicator for the bacterial pathogens. F+RNA coliphage were neither correlated nor sufficiently sensitive towards rotavirus, but were predictive of bacterial pathogens. Since groundwater cannot be excluded as a significant source of diarrheal disease in Bangladesh and neighboring countries with similar characteristics, the need to develop more effective methods for screening tubewells with respect to microbial contamination is necessary. PMID:22705866

  3. Zinc sulphate attenuates chloride secretion in human colonic mucosae in vitro.

    PubMed

    Medani, Mekki; Bzik, Victoria A; Rogers, Ailin; Collins, Danielle; Kennelly, Rory; Winter, Des C; Brayden, David J; Baird, Alan W

    2012-12-01

    Zinc's usefulness in the treatment of diarrhoea is well established as an addition to oral rehydration. Mechanisms of action of zinc have been explored in intestinal epithelia from rodents and in cell lines. The aim was to examine how zinc alters ion transport and signal transduction in human colon in vitro. Voltage clamped colonic sheets obtained at the time of surgical resection were used to quantify ion transport responses to established secretagogues. Nystatin permeabilisation was used to study basolaterally-sited ion channels. Direct actions of zinc were determined using preparations of colonic crypts isolated from human mucosal sheets. Electrophysiological measurements revealed zinc to be an inhibitor of electrogenic ion transport stimulated by forskolin, PGE(2), histamine and carbachol in isolated human colonic epithelium. Basolateral addition of zinc sulphate had no direct effect on the epithelium. To further outline the mechanism of action, levels of secondary intracellular messengers (3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate; cAMP) were determined in isolated colonic crypts, and were found to be reduced by zinc sulphate. Finally, indirect evidence from nystatin-permeabilised mucosae further suggested that zinc inhibits basolateral K(+) channels, which are critical for transepithelial Cl(-) secretion linked to water flux. Anti-secretory, and therefore anti-diarrhoeal, actions of exogenous zinc are due, at least in part, to direct basolateral epithelial K(+) channel inhibition. PMID:23022335

  4. The Rotavirus Interferon Antagonist NSP1: Many Targets, Many Questions.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Michelle M

    2016-06-01

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of death due to diarrhea among young children across the globe. Despite the limited coding capacity that is characteristic of RNA viruses, rotavirus dedicates substantial resources to avoiding the host innate immune response. Among these strategies is use of the interferon antagonist protein NSP1, which targets cellular proteins required for interferon production to be degraded by the proteasome. Although numerous cellular targets have been described, there remain many questions about the mechanism of NSP1 activity and its role in promoting replication in specific host species. PMID:27009959

  5. Connective tissue growth factor hammerhead ribozyme attenuates human hepatic stellate cell function

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Run-Ping; Brigstock, David R

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of hammerhead ribozyme targeting connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) on human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) function. METHODS: CCN2 hammerhead ribozyme cDNA plus two self-cleaving sequences were inserted into pTriEx2 to produce pTriCCN2-Rz. Each vector was individually transfected into cultured LX-2 human HSCs, which were then stimulated by addition of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 to the culture medium. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine mRNA levels for CCN2 or collagen I, while protein levels of each molecule in cell lysates and conditioned medium were measured by ELISA. Cell-cycle progression of the transfected cells was assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: In pTriEx2-transfected LX-2 cells, TGF-β1 treatment caused an increase in the mRNA level for CCN2 or collagen I, and an increase in produced and secreted CCN2 or extracellular collagen I protein levels. pTriCCN2-Rz-transfected LX-2 cells showed decreased basal CCN2 or collagen mRNA levels, as well as produced and secreted CCN2 or collagen I protein. Furthermore, the TGF-β1-induced increase in mRNA or protein for CCN2 or collagen I was inhibited partially in pTriCCN2-Rz-transfected LX-2 cells. Inhibition of CCN2 using hammerhead ribozyme cDNA resulted in fewer of the cells transitioning into S phase. CONCLUSION: Endogenous CCN2 is a mediator of basal or TGF-β1-induced collagen I production in human HSCs and regulates entry of the cells into S phase. PMID:19673024

  6. Characterization of a Novel G3P[3] Rotavirus Isolated from a Lesser Horseshoe Bat: a Distant Relative of Feline/Canine Rotaviruses

    PubMed Central

    He, Biao; Yang, Fanli; Yang, Weihong; Zhang, Yuzhen; Feng, Yun; Zhou, Jihua; Xie, Jinxin; Feng, Ye; Bao, Xiaolei; Guo, Huancheng; Li, Yingying; Xia, Lele; Li, Nan; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    Bats are considered important animal reservoirs for many viruses pathogenic to humans. An approach based on viral metagenomics was used to study gut specimens from 78 insectivorous bats in Yunnan Province, China. Seventy-four reads were found to be related to group A rotavirus (RVA). Further reverse transcription-PCR screening and viral isolation on cell cultures confirmed the presence of a novel RVA strain, named RVA/Bat-tc/MSLH14/2012/G3P[3], in 1 (6%) of 16 lesser horseshoe bats. Full genomic sequencing analyses showed that MSLH14 possessed the genotype constellation G3-P[3]-I8-R3-C3-M3-A9-N3-T3-E3-H6, which is akin to human and animal rotaviruses believed to be of feline/canine origin. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that VP7 was most closely related to bovine RVA strains from India, whereas VP4 was most closely related to an unusual human RVA strain, CMH222, with animal characteristics isolated in Thailand. The remaining gene segments were only distantly related to a range of animal RVA strains, most of which are believed to be related to feline/canine RVAs. Experimental infection showed that bat RVA strain MSLH14 was highly pathogenic to suckling mice, causing 100% mortality when they were inoculated orally with a titer as low as 5 × 102 50% tissue culture infective doses. As this virus is not closely related to any known RVA strain, it is tempting to speculate that it is a true bat RVA strain rather than a virus transmitted between species. However, further screening of bat populations, preferably juvenile animals, will be crucial in determining whether or not this virus is widely distributed in the bat population. PMID:24027312

  7. The Human Cytomegalovirus UL133-138 Gene Locus Attenuates the Lytic Viral Cycle in Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Nirmal; Lashmit, Philip; Yuan, Jinxiang; Meier, Jeffery; Stinski, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    The genomes of HCMV clinical strains (e.g. FIX, TR, PH, etc) contain a 15 kb region that encodes 20 putative ORFs. The region, termed ULb’, is lost after serial passage of virus in human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cell culture. Compared to clinical strains, laboratory strains replicate faster and to higher titers of infectious virus. We made recombinant viruses with 22, 14, or 7 ORFs deleted from the ULb’ region using FIX and TR as model clinical strains. We also introduced a stop codon into single ORFs between UL133 and UL138 to prevent protein expression. All deletions within ULb’ and all stop codon mutants within the UL133 to UL138 region increased to varying degrees, viral major immediate early RNA and protein, DNA, and cell-free infectious virus compared to the wild type viruses. The wild type viral proteins slowed down the viral replication process along with cell-free infectious virus release from human fibroblast cells. PMID:25799165

  8. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody directed to the surface of MA104 cells that blocks the infectivity of rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    López, S; Espinosa, R; Isa, P; Merchant, M T; Zárate, S; Méndez, E; Arias, C F

    2000-07-20

    Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) binds to sialic acid residues on the surface of target cells, and treatment of these cells with neuraminidase greatly reduces virus binding with the consequent reduction of infectivity. Variants that can efficiently infect neuraminidase-treated cells have been isolated, indicating that attachment to sialic acid is not an essential step for animal rotaviruses to infect cells. To identify and characterize the neuraminidase-resistant receptor for rotaviruses, we have isolated a hybridoma that secrets a monoclonal antibody (MAb) (2D9) that specifically blocks the infectivity of wild-type (wt) RRV and of its sialic acid-independent variant nar3, in untreated as well as in neuraminidase-treated cells. The infectivity of a human rotavirus was also inhibited, although to a lesser extent. MAb 2D9 blocks the binding of the variant to MA104 cells, while not affecting the binding of wt RRV; in addition, this MAb blocked the attachment of a recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST)-VP5 fusion protein, but did not affect the binding of GST-VP8. Altogether these results suggest that MAb 2D9 is directed to the neuraminidase-resistant receptor. This receptor seems to mediate the direct attachment of the variant to the cell, through VP5, while the receptor is used by wt RRV for a secondary interaction, after its initial binding to sialic acid, through VP8. MAb 2D9 interacts specifically with the cell surface by indirect immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy, and FACS. By a solid-phase immunoisolation technique, MAb 2D9 was found to react with three proteins of ca. 47, 55, and 220 kDa, which might form a complex. PMID:10891418

  9. Exploration of attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration to measure immunoglobulin G in human sera.

    PubMed

    Hou, Siyuan; Riley, Christopher B; Mitchell, Cynthia A; Shaw, R Anthony; Bryanton, Janet; Bigsby, Kathryn; McClure, J Trenton

    2015-09-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is crucial for the protection of the host from invasive pathogens. Due to its importance for human health, tools that enable the monitoring of IgG levels are highly desired. Consequently there is a need for methods to determine the IgG concentration that are simple, rapid, and inexpensive. This work explored the potential of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy as a method to determine IgG concentrations in human serum samples. Venous blood samples were collected from adults and children, and from the umbilical cord of newborns. The serum was harvested and tested using ATR infrared spectroscopy. Partial least squares (PLS) regression provided the basis to develop the new analytical methods. Three PLS calibrations were determined: one for the combined set of the venous and umbilical cord serum samples, the second for only the umbilical cord samples, and the third for only the venous samples. The number of PLS factors was chosen by critical evaluation of Monte Carlo-based cross validation results. The predictive performance for each PLS calibration was evaluated using the Pearson correlation coefficient, scatter plot and Bland-Altman plot, and percent deviations for independent prediction sets. The repeatability was evaluated by standard deviation and relative standard deviation. The results showed that ATR infrared spectroscopy is potentially a simple, quick, and inexpensive method to measure IgG concentrations in human serum samples. The results also showed that it is possible to build a united calibration curve for the umbilical cord and the venous samples. PMID:26003699

  10. Paeoniflorin attenuates ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes by inhibiting the ROS-p38-p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingwen; Wang, Shangshang; Wu, Xiao; Zuo, Fuguo; Qin, Haihong; Wu, Jinfeng

    2016-04-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is one of the most harmful environmental factors that contribute to skin damage. Exposure to UV induces extensive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and results in photoaging and skin cancer development. One approach to protecting human skin against UV radiation is the use of antioxidants. In recent years, naturally occurring herbal compounds have gained considerable attention as protective agents for UV exposure. Paeoniflorin (PF) is a novel natural antioxidant, which is isolated from peony root (Radix Paeoniae Alba). The present study evaluated the protective effects of PF on UV‑induced skin damage in vitro, and demonstrated that the effects were mediated via the ROS‑p38‑p53 pathway. The results of the present study demonstrated that treatment with PF (25, 50, and 100 µM) significantly increased the percentage of viable keratinocytes after UV‑B exposure. In addition, cell death analysis indicated that PF treatment markedly reduced UV‑B‑radiation‑induced apoptosis in keratinocytes, which was accompanied by increased procaspase 3 expression and decreased cleaved caspase 3 expression. Treatment with PF markedly reduced the production of ROS, and inhibited the activation of p38 and p53 in human keratinocytes, thus suggesting that the ROS‑p38‑p53 pathway has a role in UV‑B‑induced skin damage. In conclusion, the present study reported that PF was able to attenuate UV‑B‑induced cell damage in human keratinocytes. Notably, these effects were shown to be mediated, at least in part, via inhibition of the ROS-p38-p53 pathway. PMID:26936104

  11. S1PR4 Signaling Attenuates ILT 7 Internalization To Limit IFN-α Production by Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Dillmann, Christina; Ringel, Christian; Ringleb, Julia; Mora, Javier; Olesch, Catherine; Fink, Annika F; Roberts, Edward; Brüne, Bernhard; Weigert, Andreas

    2016-02-15

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce large amounts of type I IFN in response to TLR7/9 ligands. This conveys antiviral effects, activates other immune cells (NK cells, conventional DCs, B, and T cells), and causes the induction and expansion of a strong inflammatory response. pDCs are key players in various type I IFN-driven autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus or psoriasis, but pDCs are also involved in (anti-)tumor immunity. The sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signals through five G-protein-coupled receptors (S1PR1-5) to regulate, among other activities, immune cell migration and activation. The present study shows that S1P stimulation of human, primary pDCs substantially decreases IFN-α production after TLR7/9 activation with different types of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides or tick-borne encephalitis vaccine, which occurred in an S1PR4-dependent manner. Mechanistically, S1PR4 activation preserves the surface expression of the human pDC-specific inhibitory receptor Ig-like transcript 7. We provide novel information that Ig-like transcript 7 is rapidly internalized upon receptor-mediated endocytosis of TLR7/9 ligands to allow high IFN-α production. This is antagonized by S1PR4 signaling, thus decreasing TLR-induced IFN-α secretion. At a functional level, attenuated IFN-α production failed to alter Ag-driven T cell proliferation in pDC-dependent T cell activation assays, but shifted cytokine production of T cells from a Th1 (IFN-γ) to a regulatory (IL-10) profile. In conclusion, S1PR4 agonists block human pDC activation and may therefore be a promising tool to restrict pathogenic IFN-α production. PMID:26783340

  12. Insulin Attenuates Beta-Amyloid-Associated Insulin/Akt/EAAT Signaling Perturbations in Human Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaojuan; Yang, Liling; Du, Heng; Sun, Qinjian; Wang, Xiang; Cong, Lin; Liu, Xiaohui; Yin, Ling; Li, Shan; Du, Yifeng

    2016-08-01

    The excitatory amino acid transporters 1 and 2 (EAAT1 and EAAT2), mostly located on astrocytes, are the main mediators for glutamate clearance in humans. Malfunctions of these transporters may lead to excessive glutamate accumulation and subsequent excitotoxicity to neurons, which has been implicated in many kinds of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yet, the specific mechanism of the glutamate system dysregulation remains vague. To explore whether the insulin/protein kinase B (Akt)/EAAT signaling in human astrocytes could be disturbed by beta-amyloid protein (Aβ) and be protected by insulin, we incubated HA-1800 cells with varying concentrations of Aβ1-42 oligomers and insulin. Then the alterations of several key substrates in this signal transduction pathway were determined. Our results showed that expressions of insulin receptor, phospho-insulin receptor, phospho-protein kinase B, phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin, and EAAT1 and EAAT2 were decreased by the Aβ1-42 oligomers in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05) and this trend could be recovered by insulin treatment (p < 0.05). However, the expressions of total Akt and mTOR were invariant (p > 0.05), and the mRNA levels of EAAT1 and EAAT2 were also unchanged (p > 0.05). Taken together, this study indicates that Aβ1-42 oligomers could cause disturbances in insulin/Akt/EAAT signaling in astrocytes, which might be responsible for AD onset and progression. Additionally, insulin can exert protective functions to the brain by modulating protein modifications or expressions. PMID:26358886

  13. Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease attenuates oxidative stress in a model of eosinophilic pulmonary response in mice.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Aline Andrea; Nuñez, Nailê Karine; de Souza, Rodrigo Godinho; Vargas, Mauro Henrique Moraes; Silveira, Josiane Silva; Antunes, Géssica Luana; Schmitz, Felipe; de Souza Wyse, Angela Terezinha; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio

    2016-02-01

    The inflammatory cells infiltrating the airways produce several mediators, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS and the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance might play an important role in the modulation of airways inflammation. In order to avoid the undesirable effects of ROS, various endogenous antioxidant strategies have evolved, incorporating both enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase) in clinical studies demonstrated a reduction in sputum viscosity, cleaving extracellular DNA in the airways, and facilitating mucus clearance, but an antioxidant effect was not studied so far. Therefore, we evaluated whether the administration of rhDNase improves oxidative stress in a murine model of asthma. Mice were sensitized by two subcutaneous injections of ovalbumin (OVA), on days 0 and 7, followed by three lung challenges with OVA on days 14, 15, and 16. On days 15 and 16, after 2 h of the challenge with OVA, mice received 1 mg/mL of rhDNase in the lungs. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were obtained on day 17, for inflammatory and oxidative stress analysis. We showed that rhDNase did not alter the population of inflammatory cells, such as eosinophil cells, in OVA-treated rhDNase group but significantly improved oxidative stress in lung tissue, by decreasing oxygen reactive species and increasing superoxide dismutase/catalase ratio, glutathione peroxidase activity, and thiol content. Our data provide the first evidence that rhDNase decreases some measures of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in a murine model of asthma, with a potential antioxidant effect to be further studied in human asthma. PMID:26738487

  14. Whole genome analyses of G1P[8] rotavirus strains from vaccinated and non-vaccinated South African children presenting with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Magagula, Nonkululeko B; Esona, Mathew D; Nyaga, Martin M; Stucker, Karla M; Halpin, Rebecca A; Stockwell, Timothy B; Seheri, Mapaseka L; Steele, A Duncan; Wentworth, David E; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis and eventually death among infants and young children worldwide, and disease prevention and management through vaccination is a public health priority. In August 2009, Rotarix™ was introduced in the South African Expanded Programme on Immunisation. As a result, substantial reductions in RVA disease burden have been reported among children younger than 5 years old. Rotavirus strain surveillance post-vaccination is crucial to, inter alia, monitor and study the evolution of vaccine escape strains. Here, full-genome sequence data for the 11 gene segments from 11 South African G1P[8] rotavirus strains were generated, including 5 strains collected from non-vaccinated children during the 2004-2009 rotavirus seasons and 6 strains collected from vaccinated children during the 2010 rotavirus season. These data were analyzed to gain insights into the overall genetic makeup and evolution of South African G1P[8] rotavirus strains and to compare their genetic backbones with those of common human Wa-like RVAs from other countries, as well as with the Rotarix™ and RotaTeq™ G1P[8] vaccine components. All 11 South African G1P[8] strains revealed a complete Wa-like genotype constellation of G1-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. On the basis of sequence similarities, the South African G1P[8] strains (with the exception of strain RVA/Human-wt/ZAF/1262/2004/G1P[8]) were closely related to each other (96-100% identity in all gene segments). Comparison to the Rotarix™ and RotaTeq™ G1P[8] vaccine components revealed a moderate nucleotide identity of 89-96% and 93-95%, respectively. The results indicated that none of the gene segments of these 11 South African G1P[8] strains were vaccine-derived. This study illustrates that large-scale next generation sequencing will provide crucial information on the influence of the vaccination program on evolution of rotavirus strains. This is the first report to describe

  15. G (VP7) serotype-dependent preferential VP7 gene selection detected in the genetic background of simian rotavirus SA11.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, N; Taniguchi, K; Kojima, K; Urasawa, T; Urasawa, S

    1996-01-01

    We previously found the preferential selection of VP7 gene from a parent rotavirus strain SA11 with G serotype 3 (G3) in the sequential passages after mixed infection of simian rotavirus SA11 and SA11-human rotavirus single-VP7 gene-substitution reassortants with G1, G2, or G4 specificity. However, it has not been known whether or not VP7 genes derived from other strains with G3 specificity (G3-VP7 gene) are preferentially selected in the genetic background of SA11. To address this question, mixed infections followed by multiple passages were performed with a reassortant SA11-L2/KU-R1 (SKR1) (which possesses VP7 gene derived from G1 human rotavirus KU and other 10 genes of SA11 origin) and one of the five G3-rotaviruses, RRV, K9, YO, AK35, and S3. After the 10th passage, selection rates of SA11-L2/KU-R1 gene 9 (G1-VP7 gene) and gene 5 (NSP1 gene) reduced considerably (0 to 20.4%) in the clones obtained from all the coinfection experiments, while all or some of other segments were preferentially selected from SKR1 depending on the pairs of coinfection. When viral growth kinetics was examined, SKR1 exhibited better growth and reached a higher titer than any G3 viruses. Although the generated reassortants with VP7 gene and NSP1 gene derived from G3 viruses showed almost similar growth kinetics to that of SKR1 during the first 20 h of replication, the titers of these reassortants were higher than that of SKR1 after 36 h postinfection. The results obtained in this study suggested that G3-VP7 gene is functionally more adapted to the genetic background of SA11. PMID:8774679

  16. Detection of emerging rotavirus G12P[8] in Sonora, México.

    PubMed

    González-Ochoa, G; J, G de; Calleja-García, P M; Rosas-Rodríguez, J A; Virgen-Ortíz, A; Tamez-Guerra, P

    2016-06-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children up to five years of age worldwide. The aim of the present study was to analyze the genotypes of rotavirus strains isolated from children with gastroenteritis, after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in México. Rotavirus was detected in 14/100 (14%) fecal samples from children with gastroenteritis, using a commercial test kit. The viral genome was purified from these samples and used as a template in RT-PCR amplification of the VP4 and VP7 genes, followed by gene cloning and sequencing. Among the rotavirus strains, 4/14 (28.5%) were characterized as G12P[8], 2/14 (14.3%), as G12P (not typed), and 3/14 (21.42%) as G (not typed) P[8]. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene showed that G12 genotypes clustered in lineage III. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that VP4 genotype P[8] sequences clustered in lineage V, whereas other P[8] sequences previously reported in Mexico (2005-2008) clustered in different lineages. Rotavirus genotype G12 is currently recognized as a globally emerging rotavirus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this emerging rotavirus strain G12P[8] in México. Ongoing surveillance is recommended to monitor the distribution of rotavirus genotypes and to continually reassess the suitability of currently available rotavirus vaccines. PMID:27265462

  17. Attenuation of human nasal airway responses to bradykinin and histamine by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Dear, J. W.; Ghali, S.; Foreman, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and local anaesthetics were studied on changes in human nasal airway patency and albumin extravasation in response to bradykinin and histamine, in vivo. 2. Compared with the action of the vasoconstrictor, ephedrine, 2.5 mumol, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 1 mumol alone, did not change the resting value of the minimal cross-sectional area (A min) of the human nasal airway. L-NAME, 0.1 to 10 mumol, produced a dose-related inhibition of the reduction in A min caused by bradykinin, 300 micrograms. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), 1 mumol, similarly reduced the effect of bradykinin, 300 micrograms, on A min, but NG-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (D-NAME), had no effect. L-NAME, 0.1 to 10 mumol, or L-NMMA, 10 mumol, failed to inhibit the effect of histamine, 300 micrograms on A min. 3. The inhibition by L-NAME, 1 mumol of the action of bradykinin, 300 micrograms on A min was maximal between 15 and 30 min after pretreatment with L-NAME. 4. L-NAME, 1 and 10 mumol, inhibited the extravasation of albumin into the nasal cavity induced by bradykinin, 300 micrograms, and also by histamine, 300 micrograms. D-NAME, 1 and 10 mumol had no effect on the extravasation of albumin in response to bradykinin or histamine. 5. L-Arginine, 30 mumol, reversed the effect of L-NAME, 1 mumol, on the bradykinin- and histamine-induced albumin extravasation into the nasal airway. 6. Local anaesthesia of the nasal airway with lignocaine, 10 mg, or benzocaine, 10 mg, failed to inhibit the reduction in A min or the albumin extravasation induced by either bradykinin, 300 micrograms, and histamine, 300 micrograms. 7. We conclude that the extravasation of plasma albumin caused by bradykinin and by histamine involves the generation of nitric oxide. The nasal blockage induced by bradykinin involves nitric oxide generation but the nasal blockage induced by histamine does not. PMID:8818341

  18. Marked hyperglycemia attenuates anesthetic preconditioning in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Canfield, Scott G.; Sepac, Ana; Sedlic, Filip; Muravyeva, Maria Y.; Bai, Xiaowen; Bosnjak, Zeljko J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Anesthetic preconditioning protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-induced injury, but it is ineffective in patients with diabetes mellitus. To address the role of hyperglycemia in the inability of diabetic individuals to be preconditioned, we used human cardiomyocytes differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells generated from patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-iPSC- and N-iPSC-CMs, respectively) to investigate the efficacy of preconditioning in varying glucose conditions (5, 11, and 25 mM). Methods Induced pluripotent stem cells were induced to generate cardiomyocytes by directed differentiation. For subsequent studies, cardiomyocytes were identified by genetic labeling with enhanced green fluorescent protein driven by a cardiac-specific promoter. Cell viability was analyzed by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Confocal microscopy was utilized to measure opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the mitochondrial adenosine-5′-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels. Results Isoflurane (0.5 mM) preconditioning protected N-iPSC- and DM-iPSC-CMs from oxidative stress-induced lactate dehydrogenase release and mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in 5 mM and 11 mM glucose. Isoflurane triggered mitochondrial adenosine-5′-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opening in N-iPSC-CMs in 5 mM and 11 mM glucose and in DM-iPSC-CMs in 5 mM glucose. 25 mM glucose disrupts anesthetic preconditioning-mediated protection in DM-iPSC- and N-iPSC-CMs. Conclusions The opening of mitochondrial adenosine-5′-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels are disrupted in DM-iPSC-CMs in 11 mM and 25 mM glucose and in N-iPSC-CMs in 25 mM glucose. Cardiomyocytes derived from healthy donors and patients with a specific disease, such as diabetes in this study, open possibilities in studying genotype and phenotype related pathologies in a human relevant model. PMID:22820846

  19. First Evidence that Ecklonia cava-Derived Dieckol Attenuates MCF-7 Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Tang, Yujiao; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Choi, Eun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Lee, Seung-Hong; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Ecklonia cava (E. cava)-derived dieckol on movement behavior and the expression of migration-related genes in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell. Phlorotannins (e.g., dieckol, 6,6′-biecko, and 2,7″-phloroglucinol-6,6′-bieckol) were purified from E. cava by using centrifugal partition chromatography. Among the phlorotannins, we found that dieckol inhibited breast cancer cell the most and was selected for further study. Radius™-well was used to assess cell migration, and dieckol (1–100 µM) was found to suppress breast cancer cell movement. Metastasis-related gene expressions were evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, dieckol inhibited the expression of migration-related genes such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). On the other hand, it stimulated the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2. These results suggest that dieckol exerts anti-breast cancer activity via the regulation of the expressions of metastasis-related genes, and this is the first report on the anti-breast cancer effect of dieckol. PMID:25830682

  20. Sodium imaging of the human knee using soft inversion recovery fluid attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Rebecca E.; Stobbe, Robert; Watts, Alexander; Beaulieu, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Sodium signal strength in MRI is low when compared with 1H. Thus, image voxel volumes must be relatively large in order to produce a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The measurement of sodium in cartilage is hindered by conflation with signal from the adjacent fluid spaces. Inversion recovery can be used to null signal from fluid, but reduces SNR. The purpose of this work was to optimize inversion recovery sodium MRI to enhance cartilage SNR while nulling fluid. Sodium relaxation was first measured for knee cartilage (T1 = 21 ± 1 ms, T2 fast∗=0.8±0.2 ms, T2 slow∗=19.7±0.5 ms) and fluid (T1 = 48 ± 3 ms, T2∗=47±4 ms) in nine healthy subjects at 4.7 T. The rapid relaxation of cartilage in relation to fluid permits the use of a lengthened inversion pulse to preferentially invert the fluid components. Simulations of inversion pulse length were performed to yield a cartilage SNR enhancing combination of parameters that nulled fluid. The simulations were validated in a phantom and then invivo. B0 inhomogeneity was measured and the effect of off-resonance during the soft inversion pulse was assessed with simulation. Soft inversion recovery yielded twice the SNR and much improved sodium images of cartilage in human knee with little confounding signal from fluid.

  1. First evidence that Ecklonia cava-derived dieckol attenuates MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Tang, Yujiao; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Choi, Eun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Lee, Seung-Hong; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the effect of Ecklonia cava (E. cava)-derived dieckol on movement behavior and the expression of migration-related genes in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell. Phlorotannins (e.g., dieckol, 6,6'-biecko, and 2,7″-phloroglucinol-6,6'-bieckol) were purified from E. cava by using centrifugal partition chromatography. Among the phlorotannins, we found that dieckol inhibited breast cancer cell the most and was selected for further study. Radius™-well was used to assess cell migration, and dieckol (1-100 µM) was found to suppress breast cancer cell movement. Metastasis-related gene expressions were evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, dieckol inhibited the expression of migration-related genes such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). On the other hand, it stimulated the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2. These results suggest that dieckol exerts anti-breast cancer activity via the regulation of the expressions of metastasis-related genes, and this is the first report on the anti-breast cancer effect of dieckol. PMID:25830682

  2. Cannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Celia J A; Freeman, Tom P; Schafer, Gráinne L; Curran, H Valerie

    2010-08-01

    Worldwide cannabis dependence is increasing, as is the concentration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in street cannabis. At the same time, the concentration of the second most abundant cannabinoid in street cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), is decreasing. These two cannabinoids have opposing effects both pharmacologically and behaviorally when administered in the laboratory. No research has yet examined how the ratio of these constituents impacts on the appetitive/reinforcing effects of cannabis in humans. A total of 94 cannabis users were tested 7 days apart, once while non-intoxicated and once while acutely under the influence of their own chosen smoked cannabis on dependence-related measures. Using an unprecedented methodology, a sample of cannabis (as well as saliva) was collected from each user and analyzed for levels of cannabinoids. On the basis of CBD : THC ratios in the cannabis, individuals from the top and bottom tertiles were directly compared on indices of the reinforcing effects of drugs, explicit liking, and implicit attentional bias to drug stimuli. When intoxicated, smokers of high CBD : THC strains showed reduced attentional bias to drug and food stimuli compared with smokers of low CBD : THC. Those smoking higher CBD : THC strains also showed lower self-rated liking of cannabis stimuli on both test days. Our findings suggest that CBD has potential as a treatment for cannabis dependence. The acute modulation of the incentive salience of drug cues by CBD may possibly generalize to a treatment for other addictive disorders. PMID:20428110

  3. Vanillin attenuates negative effects of ultraviolet A on the stemness of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yeol; Park, See-Hyoung; Kim, Mi Ok; Lim, Inhwan; Kang, Mingyeong; Oh, Sae Woong; Jung, Kwangseon; Jo, Dong Gyu; Cho, Il-Hoon; Lee, Jongsung

    2016-10-01

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation induces various changes in cell biology. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vanillin on UVA irradiation-induced damages in the stemness properties of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). UVA-antagonizing mechanisms of vanillin were also examined. The results revealed that vanillin attenuated UVA-induced reduction of the proliferative potential and stemness of hAMSCs evidenced by increased proliferative activity in BrdU incorporation assay and upregulation of stemness-related genes (OCT4, NANOG and SOX2) in response to vanillin treatment. UVA-induced reduction in mRNA level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was significantly recovered by vanillin. In addition, the antagonizing effect of vanillin on UVA was found to be mediated by reduced production of PGE2 through inhibiting JNK and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these findings showed that vanillin could improve the reduced stemness of hAMSCs induced by UVA. The effect of vanillin is mediated by upregulating HIF-1α via inhibiting PGE2-cAMP signaling. Therefore, vanillin might be used as an antagonizing agent to mitigate the effects of UVA. PMID:27470612

  4. Donepezil attenuates high glucose-accelerated senescence in human umbilical vein endothelial cells through SIRT1 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Tian, Feng; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Shanshan; Dong, Xueqing; Guo, Kai; Jing, Jing; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Yundai

    2015-09-01

    Cellular senescence of endothelial cells is a damage and stress response which induces pro-inflammatory, pro-atherosclerotic, and pro-thrombotic phenotypes. Donepezil is a drug used for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the attenuation of endothelial cell senescence by donepezil and to explore the mechanisms underlying the anti-aging effects of donepezil. Our results indicated that high glucose (HG) markedly decreased cell viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and this phenomenon was reversed by treatment with donepezil. Importantly, our results displayed that the frequency of senescent (SA-ß-gal-positive) cells and the expression level of senescence genes (PAI-1 and p21) were significantly higher in the HG group compared with the normal glucose (NG) group, and these changes were blocked by treatment with donepezil. Also, our results showed that donepezil inhibits the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which promotes cellular senescence. Pretreatment with nicotinamide (NAM), a sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) inhibitor, inhibited the reduction in senescence associated with donepezil. Indeed, our results indicated that donepezil increased the SIRT1 enzyme activity. Therefore, these results show that donepezil delays cellular senescence that is promoted under HG condition via activation of SIRT1. PMID:26194321

  5. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax attenuates the ATM-mediated cellular DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Chandhasin, Chandtip; Ducu, Razvan I; Berkovich, Elijahu; Kastan, Michael B; Marriott, Susan J

    2008-07-01

    Genomic instability, a hallmark of leukemic cells, is associated with malfunctioning cellular responses to DNA damage caused by defective cell cycle checkpoints and/or DNA repair. Adult T-cell leukemia, which can result from infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is associated with extensive genomic instability that has been attributed to the viral oncoprotein Tax. How Tax influences cellular responses to DNA damage to mediate genomic instability, however, remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of Tax on cellular pathways involved in recognition and repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Premature attenuation of ATM kinase activity and reduced association of MDC1 with repair foci were observed in Tax-expressing cells. Following ionizing radiation-induced S-phase checkpoint activation, Tax-expressing cells progressed more rapidly than non-Tax-expressing cells toward DNA replication. These results demonstrate that Tax expression may allow premature DNA replication in the presence of genomic lesions. Attempts to replicate in the presence of these lesions would result in gradual accumulation of mutations, leading to genome instability and cellular transformation. PMID:18434398

  6. Anti-rotavirus effects by combination therapy of stevioside and Sophora flavescens extract.

    PubMed

    Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Jun-Gyu; Kim, Deok-Song; Hosmillo, Myra; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Lee, Ju-Hwan; Park, Sang-Ik; Kang, Mun-Il; Ryu, Young Bae; Park, Ki Hun; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Seung Woong; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Woo Song; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2014-06-01

    Anti-rotaviral activities of Sophora flavescens extract (SFE) and stevioside (SV) from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni either singly or in various combinations were examined in vitro and in vivo using a porcine rotavirus G5[P7] strain. Combination of SFE and SV inhibited in vitro virus replication more efficiently than each single treatment. In the piglet model, SV had no effect on rotavirus enteritis, whereas SFE improved but did not completely cure rotaviral enteritis. Interestingly, combination therapy of SFE and SV alleviated diarrhea, and markedly improved small intestinal lesion score and fecal virus shedding. Acute toxicity tests including the piglet lethal dose 50, and body weight, organ weight and pathological changes for the combination therapy did not show any adverse effect on the piglets. These preliminary data suggest that the combination therapy of SV and SFE is a potential curative medication for rotaviral diarrhea in pigs. Determination of the efficacy of this combination therapy in other species including humans needs to be addressed in the future. PMID:24704033

  7. Rapid detection of infectious rotavirus group A using a molecular beacon assay.

    PubMed

    Bertol, Jéssica Wildgrube; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari

    2016-08-01

    Rapid, sensitive and specific methods are necessary to detect and quantify infectious viruses. Cultivating and detecting enteric viruses in cell culture are difficult, thus impairing the advancement of knowledge regarding virus-induced diarrhea. Rotavirus (RV) detection has been conducted by serological or molecular biology methods, which do not provide information regarding viral infectivity. Molecular beacons (MBs) have demonstrated efficacy for viral detection in cell culture. We propose a MB assay to detect human rotavirus group A (HuRVA) in cell culture. MA104 cells were mock-infected or infected with HuRVA strains (RotaTeq(®) vaccine and K8 strains), and a specific MB for the HuRVA VP6 gene was used for virus detection. Mock-infected cells showed basal fluorescence, while infected cells exhibited increased fluorescence emission. MB hybridization to the viral mRNA target of HuRVA was confirmed. Fluorescence increased according to the increase in the number of infectious viral particles per cell (MOI 0.5-MOI 1). This technique provides quick and efficient HuRVA detection in cell culture without a need for viral culture for several days or many times until cytopathic effects are visualized. This methodology could be applied in the selection of samples for developing RV vaccines. PMID:27131514

  8. Ferulic acid attenuates adhesion molecule expression in gamma-radiated human umbilical vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zeng-Chun; Hong, Qian; Wang, Yu-Guang; Tan, Hong-Ling; Xiao, Cheng-Rong; Liang, Qian-De; Cai, Shao-Hua; Gao, Yue

    2010-01-01

    Radiation induces an important inflammatory response in the irradiated organs, characterized by leukocyte infiltration and vascular changes. Since adhesion molecules play an important role in facilitating the immune response at the inflammation sites, interfering with the expression of these molecules may be an important therapeutic target of radiation induced inflammation. Many adhesion molecules such as intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) have been identified in radiation. Ferulic acid (FA), an effective radioprotector during radiotherapy, is widely used in endothelium protection. The present study examined the effect of FA on the induction of adhesion molecules by gamma-radiation and the mechanisms of its effect in gamma-irradiated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were pretreated for 18 h with FA and then exposed to 10 Gy radiation. The result of cell adhesion assay showed FA inhibited radiation-induced U937 adhesion to HUVECs. FA prevented induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner after stimulation with radiation at the level of mRNA and protein. Inhibitors of the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were used to determine which pathway was involved in FA action; the result showed that the inhibitory effect of FA on adhesion molecule expression was mediated by the blockade of JNK. FA appears to be a potential therapeutic agent for treating various inflammatory disorders including radiation induced inflammation. PMID:20460750

  9. Equine rotaviruses--current understanding and continuing challenges.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kirsten E; Gilkerson, James R; Browning, Glenn F

    2013-11-29

    Equine rotaviruses were first detected in foals over 30 years ago and remain a major cause of infectious diarrhoea in foals. During this time, there has been substantial progress in the development of sensitive methods to detect rotaviruses in foals, enabling surveillance of the genotypes present in various horse populations. However, there has been limited epidemiological investigation into the significance of these circulating genotypes, their correlation with disease and the use of vaccination in these animal populations. Our knowledge of the pathogenesis of rotavirus infection in foals is based on a limited number of studies on a small number of foals and, therefore, most of our understanding in this area has been extrapolated from studies in other species. Questions such as the concentrations of rotavirus particles shed in the faeces of infected foals, both with and without diarrhoea, and factors determining the presence or absence of clinical disease remain to be investigated, as does the relative and absolute efficacy of currently available vaccines. The answer to these questions may help direct research into the development of more effective control measures. PMID:23932076

  10. Recurrent rotavirus diarrhoea outbreaks in a stud farm, in Italy.

    PubMed

    Monini, M; Biasin, A; Valentini, S; Cattoli, G; Ruggeri, F M

    2011-04-21

    A total of 47 stool samples were collected at the same stud farm from young foals with rotavirus diarrhoea and from their stud mares. Illness involved foals during three consecutive winter seasons. Infection in the farm appeared firstly in January-February 2008. After vanishing in the warm seasons, cases reappeared in March 2009 and 2010. Determination of the rotavirus G- and P-types was carried out using nested RT-PCR in samples collected in 2009 and 2010. A total of 19 of 47 samples resulted positive for rotavirus. The G type was determined in 19/47 samples, whereas the P genotype was determined in 17/47 samples. All equine strains presented a G14 VP7 in combination with a P[12] VP4, suggesting persistence of the same viral strain in the stud farm, during at least two consecutive winter periods. Sequence analysis of the genes encoding the outer capsid rotavirus proteins VP7 and VP4 revealed that the virus had a close relationship between strains recently isolated in the rest of Europe. PMID:21129862

  11. Dynamic modeling of cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination, Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Freiesleben de Blasio, Birgitte; Flem, Elmira; Latipov, Renat; Kuatbaeva, Ajnagul; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2014-01-01

    The government of Kazakhstan, a middle-income country in Central Asia, is considering the introduction of rotavirus vaccination into its national immunization program. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination spanning 20 years by using a synthesis of dynamic transmission models accounting for herd protection. We found that a vaccination program with 90% coverage would prevent ≈880 rotavirus deaths and save an average of 54,784 life-years for children <5 years of age. Indirect protection accounted for 40% and 60% reduction in severe and mild rotavirus gastroenteritis, respectively. Cost per life year gained was US $18,044 from a societal perspective and US $23,892 from a health care perspective. Comparing the 2 key parameters of cost-effectiveness, mortality rates and vaccine cost at

  12. Rotavirus-Like Particles: A Novel Nanocarrier for the Gut

    PubMed Central

    Cortes-Perez, Naima G.; Sapin, Catherine; Jaffrelo, Loïc; Daou, Sabine; Grill, Jean Pierre; Langella, Philippe; Seksik, Philippe; Beaugerie, Laurent; Chwetzoff, Serge; Trugnan, Germain

    2010-01-01

    The delivery of bioactive molecules directly to damaged tissues represents a technological challenge. We propose here a new system based on virus-like particles (VLP) from rotavirus, with a marked tropism for the gut to deliver bio-active molecules to intestinal cells. For this, nonreplicative VLP nanoparticles were constructed using a baculovirus expression system and used to deliver an exogenous biomolecule, the green fluorescent protein (GFP), into either MA104 cells or intestinal cells from healthy and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated mice. Our results show that expression of rotavirus capsid proteins in baculovirus led to the auto assembly of VLP that display similar properties to rotavirus. In vitro experiments showed that VLP were able to enter into MA104 cells and deliver the reporter protein. Intragastric administration of fluorescent VLP in healthy and TNBS-treated mice resulted in the detection of GFP and viral proteins in intestinal samples. Our results demonstrate an efficient entry of non-replicative rotavirus VLP into the epithelial cell line MA104 and provide the first in vivo evidence of the potential of these nanoparticles as a promising safe candidate for drug delivery to intestinal cells. PMID:20414353

  13. The live attenuated dengue vaccine TV003 elicits complete protection against dengue in a human challenge model.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Whitehead, Stephen S; Pierce, Kristen K; Tibery, Cecilia M; Grier, Palmtama L; Hynes, Noreen A; Larsson, Catherine J; Sabundayo, Beulah P; Talaat, Kawsar R; Janiak, Anna; Carmolli, Marya P; Luke, Catherine J; Diehl, Sean A; Durbin, Anna P

    2016-03-16

    A dengue human challenge model can be an important tool to identify candidate dengue vaccines that should be further evaluated in large efficacy trials in endemic areas. Dengue is responsible for about 390 million infections annually. Protective efficacy results for the most advanced dengue vaccine candidate (CYD) were disappointing despite its ability to induce neutralizing antibodies against all four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. TV003 is a live attenuated tetravalent DENV vaccine currently in phase 2 evaluation. To better assess the protective efficacy of TV003, a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which recipients of TV003 or placebo were challenged 6 months later with a DENV-2 strain, rDEN2Δ30, was conducted. The primary endpoint of the trial was protection against dengue infection, defined as rDEN2Δ30 viremia. Secondary endpoints were protection against rash and neutropenia. All 21 recipients of TV003 who were challenged with rDEN2Δ30 were protected from infection with rDEN2Δ30. None developed viremia, rash, or neutropenia after challenge. In contrast, 100% of the 20 placebo recipients who were challenged with rDEN2Δ30 developed viremia, 80% developed rash, and 20% developed neutropenia. TV003 induced complete protection against challenge with rDEN2Δ30 administered 6 months after vaccination. TV003 will be further evaluated in dengue-endemic areas. The controlled dengue human challenge model can accelerate vaccine development by evaluating the protection afforded by the vaccine, thereby eliminating poor candidates from further consideration before the initiation of large efficacy trials. PMID:27089205

  14. Impact of vaccination uptake on hospitalizations due to rotavirus acute gastroenteritis in 2 different socioeconomic areas of Spain.

    PubMed

    Giménez Sánchez, Francisco; Nogueira, Esperanza Jiménez; Sánchez Forte, Miguel; Ibáñez Alcalde, Mercedes; Cobo, Elvira; Angulo, Raquel; Garrido Fernández, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of hospitalization due to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and toddlers. However, rotavirus vaccination has been associated with a decline in hospitalization rates due to rotavirus AGE. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted to analyze the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the rate of hospitalizations due to AGE among children ≤2 years old in 2 areas of the province of Almería, Spain. After eight years of rotavirus vaccination, rates of hospitalizations due to rotavirus AGE are diminished. This decline is closely related to vaccine coverage in the studied areas. PMID:26810147

  15. Lithocholic acid attenuates cAMP-dependent Cl- secretion in human colonic epithelial T84 cells.

    PubMed

    Ao, Mei; Domingue, Jada C; Khan, Nabihah; Javed, Fatima; Osmani, Kashif; Sarathy, Jayashree; Rao, Mrinalini C

    2016-06-01

    Bile acids (BAs) play a complex role in colonic fluid secretion. We showed that dihydroxy BAs, but not the monohydroxy BA lithocholic acid (LCA), stimulate Cl(-) secretion in human colonic T84 cells (Ao M, Sarathy J, Domingue J, Alrefai WA, Rao MC. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 305: C447-C456, 2013). In this study, we explored the effect of LCA on the action of other secretagogues in T84 cells. While LCA (50 μM, 15 min) drastically (>90%) inhibited FSK-stimulated short-circuit current (Isc), it did not alter carbachol-stimulated Isc LCA did not alter basal Isc, transepithelial resistance, cell viability, or cytotoxicity. LCA's inhibitory effect was dose dependent, acted faster from the apical membrane, rapid, and not immediately reversible. LCA also prevented the Isc stimulated by the cAMP-dependent secretagogues 8-bromo-cAMP, lubiprostone, or chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). The LCA inhibitory effect was BA specific, since CDCA, cholic acid, or taurodeoxycholic acid did not alter FSK or carbachol action. While LCA alone had no effect on intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP]i), it decreased FSK-stimulated [cAMP]i by 90%. Although LCA caused a small increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), chelation by BAPTA-AM did not reverse LCA's effect on Isc LCA action does not appear to involve known BA receptors, farnesoid X receptor, vitamin D receptor, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3, or bile acid-specific transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor 5. LCA significantly increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which was completely abolished by the MEK inhibitor PD-98059. Surprisingly PD-98059 did not reverse LCA's effect on Isc Finally, although LCA had no effect on basal Isc, nystatin permeabilization studies showed that LCA both stimulates an apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl(-) current and inhibits a basolateral K(+) current. In summary, 50 μM LCA greatly inhibits cAMP-stimulated Cl(-) secretion, making low doses of LCA of

  16. Ocimum sanctum extracts attenuate hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxic ultrastructural changes in human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Halder, Nabanita; Joshi, Sujata; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Tandon, Radhika; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the major oxidant involved in cataract formation. The present study investigated the effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) against H2O2 induced cytotoxic changes in human lens epithelial cells (HLEC). Donor eyes of the age range 20-40 years were procured within 5-8 h of death. After several washings with gentamicin (50 mL/L) and betadine (10 mL/L), clear transparent lenses (n=6 in each group) were incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) alone (normal) or in DMEM containing 100 microm of H2O2 (control) or in DMEM containing both H2O2 (100 microm) and 150 microg/mL of Ocimum sanctum extract (treated) for 30 min at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 and 95% air. Following incubation, the semi-hardened epithelium of each lens was carefully removed, fixed and processed for electron microscopic studies. Thin sections (60-70 mm) were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and viewed under a transmission electron microscope. Normal epithelial cells showed intact, euchromatic nucleus with few small vacuoles (diameter 0.58+/-0.6 microm) in well-demarcated cytoplasm. After treatment with H2O2, they showed pyknotic nuclei with clumping of chromatin and ill-defined edges. The cytoplasm was full of vacuoles (diameter 1.61+/-0.7 microm). The overall cellular morphology was typical of dying cells. Treatment of cells with Ocimum sanctum extract protected the epithelial cells from H2O2 insult and maintained their normal architecture. The mean diameter of the vacuoles was 0.66+/-0.2 microm. The results indicate that extracts of O. sanctum have an important protective role against H2O2 injury in HLEC by maintaining the normal cellular architecture. The protection could be due to its ability to reduce H2O2 through its antioxidant property and thus reinforcing the concept that the extracts can penetrate the HLEC membrane. PMID:19441070

  17. Measurements of the thermal coefficient of optical attenuation at different depth regions of in vivo human skins using optical coherence tomography: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ya; Yao, X. Steve; Li, Zhihong; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Tiegen; Wang, Longzhi

    2015-01-01

    We present detailed measurement results of optical attenuation’s thermal coefficients (referenced to the temperature of the skin surface) in different depth regions of in vivo human forearm skins using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We first design a temperature control module with an integrated optical probe to precisely control the surface temperature of a section of human skin. We propose a method of using the correlation map to identify regions in the skin having strong correlations with the surface temperature of the skin and find that the attenuation coefficient in these regions closely follows the variation of the surface temperature without any hysteresis. We observe a negative thermal coefficient of attenuation in the epidermis. While in dermis, the slope signs of the thermal coefficient of attenuation are different at different depth regions for a particular subject, however, the depth regions with a positive (or negative) slope are different in different subjects. We further find that the magnitude of the thermal coefficient of attenuation coefficient is greater in epidermis than in dermis. We believe the knowledge of such thermal properties of skins is important for several noninvasive diagnostic applications, such as OCT glucose monitoring, and the method demonstrated in this paper is effective in studying the optical and biological properties in different regions of skin. PMID:25780740

  18. Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine in Infants With Surgical Gastrointestinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Eric J.; Thomas, Ron; Duggan, Christopher; Asmar, Basim I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) has been shown to be well-tolerated and efficacious in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis in healthy infants. Safety and immunogenicity of RV5 in infants with surgical gastrointestinal disease have not been studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of RV5 in infants with a history of congenital or acquired intestinal disease requiring resection compared with healthy infants. Methods Infants with intestinal resection were matched by gestational age and chronological age to healthy infants (controls). Dose 1 of RV5 was given at 10 to 12 weeks of chronological age. Doses 2 and 3 were given at intervals of 4 to 10 weeks, with all 3 doses given by 32 weeks. All infants were monitored for adverse events (AEs) by telephone calls, clinic visits, and parental written reports during the first 42 days after each dose and monthly thereafter by telephone for 12 months. Serum anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) titers were measured prevaccination and 2 weeks after dose 3. Results A total of 5 infants with surgical gastrointestinal disease and 3 control subjects were enrolled. All participants (100%) mounted a 3-fold increase in serum anti-rotavirus IgA geometric mean titer postvaccination. RV5 administration to surgical infants was well tolerated with a majority of AEs being attributed to the underlying medical condition. Conclusions Postvaccination serum anti-rotavirus IgA levels indicate that RV5 is immunogenic in infants with a history of bowel resection, despite varying lengths of residual bowel. RV5 was well tolerated with few vaccine-related AEs. PMID:24614127

  19. The cost effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mousavi Jarrahi, Yasaman; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Sadigh, Nader; Esmaeelpoor Langeroudy, Keyhan; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Ranjbaran, Mehdi; Sanjari Moghaddam, Ali; Besharat, Mehdi; Mosavi Jarrahi, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea leading to hospitalization or disease-specific death among young children. Effective vaccines have recently been approved and successful vaccination program implemented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of mass rotavirus vaccination program in Iran. We developed a Markov model that reflects key features of rotavirus natural history. Parameters of the model were assessed by field study or developed through literature search and published data. We applied the model to the 2009 Iranian birth cohort and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of including the rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) into Iranian expanded immunization program (EPI). With an estimated hospitalization rate of 0.05 and outpatient rate of 0.23 cases per person-year, vaccinating cohort of 1231735 infants in Iran with 2 doses of (Rotarix®), would prevent 32092 hospitalizations, 158750 outpatient visits, and 1591 deaths during 5 y of follow-up. Under base-case assumption of $10 cost per course of vaccine, the vaccination would incur an extra cost of $1,019,192 from health care perspective and would avert 54680 DALYs. From societal perspective, there would be $15,192,568 saving for the society with the same averted DALYs. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio showed a cost of $19 US dollars per averted DALY from health care perspective and a saving of $278 US dollars for each averted DALY from societal perspective. Introducing rotavirus vaccine into EPI program would be highly cost-effective public health intervention in Iran. PMID:26360331

  20. 1998-1999 rotavirus seasons in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil: detection of an unusual G3P[4] epidemic strain.

    PubMed

    Rosa E Silva, Maria Luzia; Pires De Carvalho, Iná; Gouvea, Vera

    2002-08-01

    An epidemiologic survey on the rotavirus strains causing gastroenteritis in young children was conducted in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, in Southern Brazil during two consecutive seasons. Rotavirus was detected in 94 of the 1,056 fecal specimens collected from January 1998 to December 1999. Among the 13 discernible long electrophoretic profiles found, one was highly prevalent (73.4%) and represented the rotavirus strain responsible for the May-August winter epidemic outbreak of 1998, as clearly shown in a three-dimensional graph. This epidemic strain, designated JF98, was characterized as subgroup II and genotype G3P[4] by the original reverse transcription-PCR typing assays. Besides the unusual combination of G and P types, this G3 strain lacked reactivity with anti-G3-specific monoclonal antibodies and presented an uncommon pattern upon digestion of its cDNA-copied VP7 gene with the BstYI restriction enzyme. Strain JF98 affected primarily 6- to 24-month-old children and accounted for 85.5% of the severe rotavirus-associated dehydrating diarrhea cases that required hospitalization. As in our previous studies in neighboring Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, a remarkably large proportion (44%) of mixed infections was detected, generating a complex set of circulating strains in the community, represented by the many distinct electropherotypes. Other common human types were detected as minor strains in single or in mixed infections, including the JF98 strain. Those were types G1, G4, G8, G9, P[8], and P[6], but not G2 or G5. One specimen contained a mixture of group A and C rotaviruses. PMID:12149339

  1. Noninterference of Rotavirus Vaccine With Measles-Rubella Vaccine at 9 Months of Age and Improvements in Antirotavirus Immunity: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, K.; Fleming, Jessica A.; Victor, John C.; Yunus, Mohammad; Bari, Tajul Islam A.; Azim, Tasnim; Rahman, Mustafizur; Mowla, Syed Mohammad Niaz; Bellini, William J.; McNeal, Monica; Icenogle, Joseph P.; Lopman, Ben; Parashar, Umesh; Cortese, Margaret M.; Steele, A. Duncan; Neuzil, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The burden of rotavirus morbidity and mortality is high in children aged <5 years in developing countries, and evaluations indicate waning protection from rotavirus immunization in the second year. An additional dose of rotavirus vaccine may enhance the immune response and lengthen the period of protection against disease, but coadministration of this dose should not interfere with immune responses to concurrently given vaccines. Methods. A total of 480 9-month-old participants from Matlab, Bangladesh, were enrolled in a study with a primary objective to establish noninferiority of concomitant administration of measles-rubella vaccine (MR) and a third dose of human rotavirus vaccine (HRV; MR + HRV), compared with MR given alone. Secondary objectives included noninferiority of rubella antibody seroconversion and evaluating rotavirus IgA/IgG seroresponses in MR + HRV recipients. Results. Two months after vaccination, 75.3% and 74.3% of MR + HRV and MR recipients, respectively, had seroprotective levels of measles virus antibodies; 100.0% and 99.6%, respectively, showed anti–rubella virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroprotection. In the MR + HRV group, antirotavirus immunoglobulin A and IgG seropositivity frequencies before vaccination (52.7% and 66.3%, respectively) increased to 69.6% and 88.3% after vaccination. Conclusions. Vaccine-induced measles and rubella antibody responses are not negatively affected by concomitant administration of HRV. The HRV dose increases antirotavirus serum antibody titers and the proportion of infants with detectable antirotavirus antibody. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01700621. PMID:26823338

  2. Challenging the Roles of NSP3 and Untranslated Regions in Rotavirus mRNA Translation.

    PubMed

    Gratia, Matthieu; Vende, Patrice; Charpilienne, Annie; Baron, Hilma Carolina; Laroche, Cécile; Sarot, Emeline; Pyronnet, Stéphane; Duarte, Mariela; Poncet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus NSP3 is a translational surrogate of the PABP-poly(A) complex for rotavirus mRNAs. To further explore the effects of NSP3 and untranslated regions (UTRs) on rotavirus mRNAs translation, we used a quantitative in vivo assay with simultaneous cytoplasmic NSP3 expression (wild-type or deletion mutant) and electroporated rotavirus-like and standard synthetic mRNAs. This assay shows that the last four GACC nucleotides of viral mRNA are essential for efficient translation and that both the NSP3 eIF4G- and RNA-binding domains are required. We also show efficient translation of rotavirus-like mRNAs even with a 5'UTR as short as 5 nucleotides, while more than eleven nucleotides are required for the 3'UTR. Despite the weak requirement for a long 5'UTR, a good AUG environment remains a requirement for rotavirus mRNAs translation. PMID:26727111

  3. Attenuation and efficacy of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) vaccine candidates containing stabilized mutations in the P/C and L genes

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Emmalene J; Castaño, Adam; Surman, Sonja R; Collins, Peter L; Skiadopoulos, Mario H; Murphy, Brian R

    2007-01-01

    Background Two recombinant, live attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) mutant viruses have been developed, using a reverse genetics system, for evaluation as potential intranasal vaccine candidates. These rHPIV1 vaccine candidates have two non-temperature sensitive (non-ts) attenuating (att) mutations primarily in the P/C gene, namely CR84GHNT553A (two point mutations used together as a set) and CΔ170 (a short deletion mutation), and two ts att mutations in the L gene, namely LY942A (a point mutation), and LΔ1710–11 (a short deletion), the last of which has not been previously described. The latter three mutations were specifically designed for increased genetic and phenotypic stability. These mutations were evaluated on the HPIV1 backbone, both individually and in combination, for attenuation, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in African green monkeys (AGMs). Results The rHPIV1 mutant bearing the novel LΔ1710–11 mutation was highly ts and attenuated in AGMs and was immunogenic and efficacious against HPIV1 wt challenge. The rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALY942A and rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALΔ1710–11 vaccine candidates were highly ts, with shut-off temperatures of 38°C and 35°C, respectively, and were highly attenuated in AGMs. Immunization with rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALY942A protected against HPIV1 wt challenge in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. In contrast, rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALΔ1710–11 was not protective in AGMs due to over-attenuation, but it is expected to replicate more efficiently and be more immunogenic in the natural human host. Conclusion The rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALY942A and rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALΔ1710–11 vaccine candidates are clearly highly attenuated in AGMs and clinical trials are planned to address safety and immunogenicity in humans. PMID:17605811

  4. Whole genomic characterization of Korean porcine G8P[7] reassortant rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Gyu; Park, Sang-Ik; Woo, Nam-Il; Kim, Deok-Song; Seo, Ja-Young; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Kim, Ji-Yun; Soliman, Mahmoud; Baek, Yeong-Bin; Cho, Eun-Hyo; Kwon, Joseph; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kang, Mun-Il; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2016-10-01

    This study analyzed eleven genomic segments of three Korean porcine G8P[7] group A rotavirus (RVA) strains. Phylogenetically, these strains contained two bovine-like and nine porcine-like genomic segments. Eight genes (VP1, VP2, VP6 and NSP1-NSP5) of strains 156-1 and 42-1 and seven genes (VP1, VP2, VP6 and NSP2-NSP5) of strain C-1 clustered closely with porcine and porcine-like animal strains and distantly from typical human Wa-like strains. The VP3-M2 genotype of these strains clustered closely with bovine-like strains, but distantly with typical human DS-1-like strains. These data indicate that multiple reassortments involving porcine and bovine RVA strains in Korea must have occurred. PMID:27393603

  5. Catching-up with pentavalent vaccine: Exploring reasons behind lower rotavirus vaccine coverage in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Castaneda, Eduardo; Burnett, Eleanor; Elas, Miguel; Baltrons, Rafael; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Flannery, Brendan; Kleinbaum, David; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina

    2015-11-27

    Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in El Salvador in 2006 and is recommended to be given concomitantly with DTP-HepB-Haemophilus influenzae type b (pentavalent) vaccine at ages 2 months (upper age limit 15 weeks) and 4 months (upper age limit 8 months) of age. However, rotavirus vaccination coverage continues to lag behind that of pentavalent vaccine, even in years when national rotavirus vaccine stock-outs have not occurred. We analyzed factors associated with receipt of oral rotavirus vaccine among children who received at least 2 doses of pentavalent vaccine in a stratified cluster survey of children aged 24-59 months conducted in El Salvador in 2011. Vaccine doses included were documented on vaccination cards (94.4%) or in health facility records (5.6%). Logistic regression and survival analysis were used to assess factors associated with vaccination status and age at vaccination. Receipt of pentavalent vaccine by age 15 weeks was associated with rotavirus vaccination (OR: 5.1; 95% CI 2.7, 9.4), and receipt of the second pentavalent dose by age 32 weeks was associated with receipt of two rotavirus vaccine doses (OR: 5.0; 95% CI 2.1-12.3). Timely coverage with the first pentavalent vaccine dose was 88.2% in the 2007 cohort and 91.1% in the 2008 cohort (p=0.04). Children born in 2009, when a four-month national rotavirus vaccine stock-out occurred, had an older median age of receipt of rotavirus vaccine and were less likely to receive rotavirus on the same date as the same dose of pentavalent vaccine than children born in 2007 and 2008. Upper age limit recommendations for rotavirus vaccine administration contributed to suboptimal vaccination coverage. Survey data suggest that late rotavirus vaccination and co-administration with later doses of pentavalent vaccine among children born in 2009 helped increase rotavirus vaccine coverage following shortages. PMID:26263200

  6. Emergence and Characterization of Unusual DS-1-Like G1P[8] Rotavirus Strains in Children with Diarrhea in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Komoto, Satoshi; Tacharoenmuang, Ratana; Guntapong, Ratigorn; Ide, Tomihiko; Haga, Kei; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kato, Takema; Ouchi, Yuya; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Tsuji, Takao; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Taniguchi, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and rapid spread of unusual DS-1-like G1P[8] rotaviruses in Japan have been recently reported. During rotavirus surveillance in Thailand, three DS-1-like G1P[8] strains (RVA/Human-wt/THA/PCB-180/2013/G1P[8], RVA/Human-wt/THA/SKT-109/2013/G1P[8], and RVA/Human-wt/THA/SSKT-41/2013/G1P[8]) were identified in stool specimens from hospitalized children with severe diarrhea. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the complete genomes of strains PCB-180, SKT-109, and SSKT-41. On whole genomic analysis, all three strains exhibited a unique genotype constellation including both genogroup 1 and 2 genes: G1-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. This novel genotype constellation is shared with Japanese DS-1-like G1P[8] strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the G/P genes of strains PCB-180, SKT-109, and SSKT-41 appeared to have originated from human Wa-like G1P[8] strains. On the other hand, the non-G/P genes of the three strains were assumed to have originated from human DS-1-like strains. Thus, strains PCB-180, SKT-109, and SSKT-41 appeared to be derived through reassortment event(s) between Wa-like G1P[8] and DS-1-like human rotaviruses. Furthermore, strains PCB-180, SKT-109, and SSKT-41 were found to have the 11-segment genome almost indistinguishable from one another in their nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic lineages, indicating the derivation of the three strains from a common origin. Moreover, all the 11 genes of the three strains were closely related to those of Japanese DS-1-like G1P[8] strains. Therefore, DS-1-like G1P[8] strains that have emerged in Thailand and Japan were assumed to have originated from a recent common ancestor. To our knowledge, this is the first report on whole genome-based characterization of DS-1-like G1P[8] strains that have emerged in an area other than Japan. Our observations will provide important insights into the evolutionary dynamics of emerging DS-1-like G1P[8] rotaviruses. PMID:26540260

  7. Silencing of ILK attenuates the abnormal proliferation and migration of human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts induced by TGF-β2

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yao; Cui, Lijun; Kang, Qianyan

    2016-01-01

    The cytokine, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), plays a key role in wound healing and tissue repair. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a downstream factor of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Research on ILK has mainly focused on its role in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. However, little has been reported on the effects of ILK in human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTFs). In this study, we investigated the role of ILK in the proliferation and migration of HTFs exposed to TGF-β2. A lentiviral vector targeting ILK was screened from three candidates and the experimental result indicated that RNA interference can be used to inhibit ILK expression at both the mRNA and protein level. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to assess ILK mRNA expression. Cell proliferation was quantified by MTT assay and cell cycle progression was detected by flow cytometric analysis. Migration was measured by wound healing assay. It was observed that the silencing of ILK suppressed the TGF-β2-induced proliferation of HTFs and led to G1 phase cell cycle arrest and the significant downregulation of cyclin D1 expression. The migration ability of the HTFs decreased following the silencing of ILK, while the downregulation of α-smooth muscle actin expression and the upregulation of E-cadherin expression were observed. The findings of our study indicate that the silencing of ILK attenuates the abnormal proliferation and migration of HTFs induced by TGF-β2, which reveals the therapeutic potential of ILK inhibition in the prevention of scarring following glaucoma filtration surgery. PMID:27315599

  8. Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 Attenuation of Protein Kinase C-Induced Inflammation in Human Ovarian Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yi-Ning; Sun, David; Peng, Yen-Chun; Wu, Yuh-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are two important inflammatory mediators in ovulation. Ghrelin may modulate inflammatory signaling via growth hormone secretagogue receptors. We investigated the role of ghrelin in KGN human ovarian granulosa cells using protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (PDD) and synthetic ghrelin analog growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2). GHRP-2 attenuated PDD-induced expression of protein and mRNA, the promoter activity of COX-2 and IL-8 genes, and the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-8. GHRP-2 promoted the degradation of PDD-induced COX-2 and IL-8 proteins with the involvement of proteasomal and lysosomal pathways. PDD-mediated COX-2 production acts via the p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathways; PDD-mediated IL-8 production acts via the p38, JNK and ERK pathways. GHRP-2 reduced the PDD-induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and activator protein 1 (AP-1) reporter activation and PDD-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and reporter activation. The inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) reduced the inhibitory effect of GHRP-2 on PDD-induced COX-2 and IL-8 expression. Our findings demonstrate an anti-inflammatory role for ghrelin (GHRP-2) in PKC-mediated inflammation of granulosa cells, at least in part, due to its inhibitory effect on PKC-induced activation of p38, JNK and NF-κB, possibly by targeting to MKP-1 and PP2A. PMID:27548147

  9. Attenuation of skeletal muscle wasting with recombinant human growth hormone secreted from a tissue-engineered bioartificial muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Del Tatto, M.; Shansky, J.; Goldstein, L.; Russell, K.; Genes, N.; Chromiak, J.; Yamada, S.

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is a significant problem in elderly and debilitated patients. Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic growth factor for skeletal muscle but is difficult to deliver in a therapeutic manner by injection owing to its in vivo instability. A novel method is presented for the sustained secretion of recombinant human GH (rhGH) from genetically modified skeletal muscle implants, which reduces host muscle wasting. Proliferating murine C2C12 skeletal myoblasts stably transduced with the rhGH gene were tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (C2-BAMs) containing organized postmitotic myofibers secreting 3-5 microg of rhGH/day in vitro. When implanted subcutaneously into syngeneic mice, C2-BAMs delivered a sustained physiologic dose of 2.5 to 11.3 ng of rhGH per milliliter of serum. rhGH synthesized and secreted by the myofibers was in the 22-kDa monomeric form and was biologically active, based on downregulation of a GH-sensitive protein synthesized in the liver. Skeletal muscle disuse atrophy was induced in mice by hindlimb unloading, causing the fast plantaris and slow soleus muscles to atrophy by 21 to 35% ( < 0.02). This atrophy was significantly attenuated 41 to 55% (p < 0.02) in animals that received C2-BAM implants, but not in animals receiving daily injections of purified rhGH (1 mg/kg/day). These data support the concept that delivery of rhGH from BAMs may be efficacious in treating muscle-wasting disorders.

  10. Silencing of ILK attenuates the abnormal proliferation and migration of human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts induced by TGF-β2.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yao; Cui, Lijun; Kang, Qianyan

    2016-08-01

    The cytokine, transforming growth factor-β (TGF‑β), plays a key role in wound healing and tissue repair. Integrin‑linked kinase (ILK) is a downstream factor of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Research on ILK has mainly focused on its role in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. However, little has been reported on the effects of ILK in human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTFs). In this study, we investigated the role of ILK in the proliferation and migration of HTFs exposed to TGF-β2. A lentiviral vector targeting ILK was screened from three candidates and the experimental result indicated that RNA interference can be used to inhibit ILK expression at both the mRNA and protein level. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to assess ILK mRNA expression. Cell proliferation was quantified by MTT assay and cell cycle progression was detected by flow cytometric analysis. Migration was measured by wound healing assay. It was observed that the silencing of ILK suppressed the TGF-β2-induced proliferation of HTFs and led to G1 phase cell cycle arrest and the significant downregulation of cyclin D1 expression. The migration ability of the HTFs decreased following the silencing of ILK, while the downregulation of α-smooth muscle actin expression and the upregulation of E-cadherin expression were observed. The findings of our study indicate that the silencing of ILK attenuates the abnormal proliferation and migration of HTFs induced by TGF-β2, which reveals the therapeutic potential of ILK inhibition in the prevention of scarring following glaucoma filtration surgery. PMID:27315599

  11. Early Transcriptional Signatures of the Immune Response to a Live Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Candidate in Non-human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Strouts, Fiona R.; Popper, Stephen J.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Stinchcomb, Dan T.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Relman, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of a vaccine against dengue faces unique challenges, including the complexity of the immune responses to the four antigenically distinct serotypes. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling provides insight into the pathways and molecular features that underlie responses to immune system stimulation, and may facilitate predictions of immune protection. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we measured early transcriptional responses in the peripheral blood of cynomolgus macaques following vaccination with a live, attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate, TDV, which is based on a DENV-2 backbone. Different doses and routes of vaccine administration were used, and viral load and neutralizing antibody titers were measured at different time-points following vaccination. All 30 vaccinated animals developed a neutralizing antibody response to each of the four dengue serotypes, and only 3 of these animals had detectable serum viral RNA after challenge with wild-type dengue virus (DENV), suggesting protection of vaccinated animals to DENV infection. The vaccine induced statistically significant changes in 595 gene transcripts on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 as compared with baseline and placebo-treated animals. Genes involved in the type I interferon (IFN) response, including IFI44, DDX58, MX1 and OASL, exhibited the highest fold-change in transcript abundance, and this response was strongest following double dose and subcutaneous (versus intradermal) vaccine administration. In addition, modules of genes involved in antigen presentation, dendritic cell activation, and T cell activation and signaling were enriched following vaccination. Increased abundance of gene transcripts related to T cell activation on day 5, and the type I IFN response on day 7, were significantly correlated with the development of high neutralizing antibody titers on day 30. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that early transcriptional responses may be

  12. Topical application of superoxide dismutase mediated by HIV-TAT peptide attenuates UVB-induced damages in human skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochao; Liu, Shutao; Rao, Pingfan; Bradshaw, Jeremy; Weller, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether topical application of superoxide dismutase with cell penetrating peptide (HIV-TAT) could protect against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation in humans. The permeability through stratum corneum of large proteins linked to TAT peptide was firstly confirmed by confocal microscopy and tape stripping. Ten healthy volunteers with either Fitzpatrick skin type II or III were recruited in this clinical study. TAT-SOD (300units/cm(2)) and vehicle cream were applied on two symmetric areas of both inner upper arms 1h prior to UVB irradiation. After one hour of pretreatment, subjects received 10 incremental doses of UVB on pretreated areas. 24h later, erythema, blood flow and apoptotic cells were measured. Pretreatment with TAT-SOD 1h prior to UVB radiation promoted a mean minimal erythema dose (MED) increase of 36.6±18.4% (p=0.013<0.05. n=10) compared to vehicle control. The median blood flow values of all subjects following 2 and 3-MED of UVB were 107.8±51.0units and 239.5±88.0units respectively, which account for 26% and 25% decrease with respect to vehicle groups. These data suggest that TAT-SOD significantly suppresses UVB induced erythema formation and blood flow rise. Furthermore, pretreatment with TAT-SOD 1h prior to 2-MED of UVB irradiation reduced the apoptotic sunburn cell formation by 47.6±8.6% (p<0.0001) in all subjects. Evaluating results generated from all measurements, we conclude that topical application of TAT-SOD significantly attenuates UVB-induced skin damage in man. These biological effects of TAT-SOD are probably mediated via its free radical scavenging properties, clearly differentiating it from other physical sunscreen agents. PMID:27460952

  13. Human CD34+ Progenitor Cells Freshly Isolated from Umbilical Cord Blood Attenuate Inflammatory Lung Injury following LPS Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaojia; Sun, Kai; Zhao, Yidan D.; Vogel, Stephen M.; Song, Yuanling; Mahmud, Nadim; Zhao, You-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Adult stem cell-based therapy is a promising novel approach for treatment of acute lung injury. Here we investigated the therapeutic potential of freshly isolated human umbilical cord blood CD34+ progenitor cells (fCB-CD34+ cells) in a mouse model of acute lung injury. At 3 h post-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, fCB-CD34+ cells were transplanted i.v. to mice while CD34− cells or PBS were administered as controls in separate cohorts of mice. We observed that fCB-CD34+ cell treatment inhibited lung vascular injury evident by decreased lung vascular permeability. In contrast, CD34− cells had no effects on lung vascular injury. Lung inflammation determined by myeloperoxidase activity, neutrophil sequestration and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators was attenuated in fCB-CD34+ cell-treated mice at 26 h post-LPS challenge compared to PBS or CD34− cell-treated controls. Importantly, lung inflammation in fCB-CD34+ cell-treated mice was returned to normal levels as seen in basal mice at 52 h post-LPS challenge whereas PBS or CD34− cell-treated control mice exhibited persistent lung inflammation. Accordingly, fCB-CD34+ cell-treated mice exhibited a marked increase of survival rate. Employing in vivo 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay, we found a drastic induction of lung endothelial proliferation in fCB-CD34+ cell-treated mice at 52 h post-LPS compared to PBS or CD34− cell-treated controls, which contributed to restoration of vascular integrity and thereby inhibition of lung inflammation. Taken together, these data have demonstrated the protective effects of fCB-CD34+ cell on acute lung injury induced by LPS challenge, suggesting fCB-CD34+ cells are an important source of stem cells for the treatment of acute lung injury. PMID:24558433

  14. Serum albumin attenuates the open-channel blocking effects of propofol on the human Kv1.5 channel.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Akiko; Bai, Jia-Yu; Ito, Yuki; Ding, Wei-Guang; Kitagawa, Hirotoshi; Matsuura, Hiroshi

    2016-07-15

    The intravenous anesthetic propofol modulates various ion channel functions. It is generally accepted that approximately 98% of propofol binds to blood constituents and that the free (unbound) drug preferentially affects target proteins including ion channels. However, modulatory effects of propofol on ion channels have not been previously explored in the presence of serum albumin. This study was designed to investigate the effects of serum albumin on the blocking action of propofol on the human Kv1.5 (hKv1.5) current. Whole-cell patch-clamp method was used to record the hKv1.5 channel current, heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, in the absence and presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Propofol induced a time-dependent decline of the hKv1.5 current during depolarizing steps and slowed the time course of tail current decay upon repolarization, supporting that propofol acts as an open-channel blocker. This blocking effect was reversible and concentration-dependent with an IC50 of 62.9±3.1μM (n = 6). Bath application of 1% BSA markedly reduced the blocking potency of propofol on hKv1.5 current (IC50 of 1116.0±491.4μM; n = 6). However, in the presence of BSA, the propofol-induced inhibition of hKv1.5 current was also accompanied by a gradual decline of activated current during depolarization and deceleration of deactivating tail current upon repolarization. The presence of BSA greatly attenuated the blocking potency of propofol on hKv1.5 channel without affecting the mode of action of propofol on the channel. Serum albumin thus appears to bind to propofol and thereby reducing effective concentrations of the drug for inhibition of hKv1.5 channel. PMID:27164421

  15. Lipoxin A4 Attenuates Constitutive and TGF-β1–Dependent Profibrotic Activity in Human Lung Myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Feghali-Bostwick, Carol A.; Amrani, Yassine; Bradding, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a common, progressive, and invariably lethal interstitial lung disease with no effective therapy. The key cell driving the development of fibrosis is the myofibroblast. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is an anti-inflammatory lipid, important in the resolution of inflammation, and it has potential antifibrotic activity. However, the effects of LXA4 on primary human lung myofibroblasts (HLMFs) have not previously been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of LXA4 on TGF-β1–dependent responses in IPF- and nonfibrotic control (NFC)–derived HLMFs. HLMFs were isolated from IPF and NFC patients and grown in vitro. The effects of LXA4 on HLMF proliferation, collagen secretion, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression, and Smad2/3 activation were examined constitutively and following TGF-β1 stimulation. The LXA4 receptor (ALXR) was expressed in both NFC- and IPF-derived HLMFs. LXA4 (10−10 and 10−8 mol) reduced constitutive αSMA expression, actin stress fiber formation, contraction, and nuclear Smad2/3, indicating regression from a myofibroblast to fibroblast phenotype. LXA4 also significantly inhibited FBS-dependent proliferation and TGF-β1–dependent collagen secretion, αSMA expression, and Smad2/3 nuclear translocation in IPF-derived HLMFs. LXA4 did not inhibit Smad2/3 phosphorylation. In summary, LXA4 attenuated profibrotic HLMF activity and promoted HLMF regression to a quiescent fibroblast phenotype. LXA4 or its stable analogs delivered by aerosol may offer a novel approach to the treatment of IPF. PMID:26276873

  16. Potent Paracrine Effects of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Doxorubicin-induced Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuelin; Liang, Xiaoting; Liao, Songyan; Wang, Weixin; Wang, Junwen; Li, Xiang; Ding, Yue; Liang, Yingmin; Gao, Fei; Yang, Mo; Fu, Qingling; Xu, Aimin; Chai, Yuet-Hung; He, Jia; Tse, Hung-Fat; Lian, Qizhou

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can protect cardiomyocytes against anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy (AIC) through paracrine effects. Nonetheless the paracrine effects of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iPSC-MSCs) on AIC are poorly understood. In vitro studies reveal that doxorubicin (Dox)-induced reactive oxidative stress (ROS) generation and cell apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) are significantly reduced when treated with conditioned medium harvested from BM-MSCs (BM-MSCs-CdM) or iPSC-MSCs (iPSC-MSCs-CdM). Compared with BM-MSCs-CdM, NRCMs treated with iPSC-MSCs-CdM exhibit significantly less ROS and cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Transplantation of BM-MSCs-CdM or iPSC-MSCs-CdM into mice with AIC remarkably attenuated left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and dilatation. Compared with BM-MSCs-CdM, iPSC-MSCs-CdM treatment showed better alleviation of heart failure, less cardiomyocyte apoptosis and fibrosis. Analysis of common and distinct cytokines revealed that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) were uniquely overpresented in iPSC-MSC-CdM. Immunodepletion of MIF and GDF-15 in iPSC-MSCs-CdM dramatically decreased cardioprotection. Injection of GDF-15/MIF cytokines could partially reverse Dox-induced heart dysfunction. We suggest that the potent paracrine effects of iPSC-MSCs provide novel “cell-free” therapeutic cardioprotection against AIC, and that MIF and GDF-15 in iPSC-MSCs-CdM are critical for these enhanced cardioprotective effects. PMID:26057572

  17. Detection of group A rotavirus strains circulating among children with acute diarrhea in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nirwati, Hera; Wibawa, Tri; Aman, Abu Tholib; Wahab, Abdul; Soenarto, Yati

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is the major cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5 years old in developed and developing countries. Since improvements in sanitation and hygiene have limited impact on reducing the incidence of rotavirus diarrhea, implementation of a vaccine will be a better solution. We conducted an observational study to determine the disease burden and to identify the genotype of circulating rotavirus in Indonesia. Hospitalized children due to acute diarrhea were enrolled from four teaching hospitals in Indonesia. Stool samples were collected based on WHO protocol and were tested for the presence of group A rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay. Then, rotavirus positive samples were genotyped using RT-PCR. Fisher's Exact tests, Chi square tests and logistic regression were performed to determine differences across hospital and year in rotavirus prevalence and genotype distribution. There were 4235 samples from hospitalized children with diarrhea during 2006, 2009 and 2010. Among them, the rotavirus positive were 2220 samples (52.42 %) and incidence rates varied between hospitals. The G1P[8], G1P[6], and G2P[4] were recognized as the dominant genotypes circulating strains in Indonesia and the proportion of predominant strains changed by year. Our study showed the high incidence of rotavirus infection in Indonesia with G1P[8], G1P[6], and G2P[4] as the dominant strains circulating in Indonesia. These results reinforce the need for a continuing surveillance of rotavirus strain in Indonesia. PMID:26848437

  18. Detection of equine rotavirus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP).

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Manabu; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio

    2010-06-01

    Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was applied to detection of equine rotavirus. Because equine rotavirus of the single P genotype, P[12], is predominant in the equine population worldwide, an RT-LAMP primer set was designed to target the genotype P[12] sequence and thus detect equine rotavirus. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 10(3) copies of viral RNA, whereas that of semi-nested RT-PCR for genotype P[12] was 10(5) copies. The RT-LAMP assay specifically amplified genotype P[12] but did not amplify the other P genotype strains. The RT-LAMP assay did not amplify any pathogens related to equine intestinal disorder other than rotavirus. Using 96 diarrheal stools, the RT-LAMP assay detected equine rotavirus in 58 samples, whereas semi-nested RT-PCR only detected equine rotavirus in 25 samples. The RT-LAMP assay did not detect equine rotavirus with fecal samples collected from nine healthy foals. These results indicate that the RT-LAMP assay is specific for equine rotavirus and more sensitive than semi-nested RT-PCR. Because it is easy to manipulate without the need for a thermal cycler or gel electrophoresis, the RT-LAMP assay should be applicable to diagnosis of equine rotavirus infections in diagnostic laboratories. PMID:20160420

  19. Detection of rotavirus in food associated with a gastroenteritis outbreak in a mother and child sanatorium.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Constanze; Strohe, Gerald; Contzen, Matthias

    2009-10-31

    In the course of a rotavirus outbreak in a mother and child sanatorium 74 food samples from the sanatorium kitchen were taken and tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus particles were isolated from 25 g food samples by a simple method including ultrafiltration, originally designed for the detection of norovirus in various food matrices. Rotavirus was successfully detected in a sample of potato stew by conventional RT-seminested-PCR. Sequence comparison of the amplification products obtained from the potato stew and a stool sample from an infected child verified that the two viruses were identical. PMID:19717201

  20. SEASONALITY OF ROTAVIRUS IN SOUTH ASIA: A META-ANALYSIS APPROACH ASSESSING ASSOCIATIONS WITH TEMPERATURE, PRECIPTATION, AND VEGETATION INDEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Rotavirus infection causes a significant proportion of diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide leading to dehydration, hospitalization, and in some cases death. Rotavirus infection represents a significant burden of disease in developing countries, such as th...

  1. Emergence of a novel equine-like G3P[8] inter-genogroup reassortant rotavirus strain associated with gastroenteritis in Australian children.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Daniel; Donato, Celeste M; Roczo-Farkas, Susie; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2016-02-01

    During 2013, a novel equine-like G3P[8] rotavirus emerged as the dominant strain in Australian children with severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Full genome analysis demonstrated that the strain was an inter-genogroup reassortant, containing an equine-like G3 VP7, a P[8] VP4 and a genogroup 2 backbone I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. The genome constellation of the equine-like G3P[8] was distinct to Australian and global G3P[8] strains. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a genetic relationship to multiple gene segments of Japanese strains RVA/JPN/S13-30/2013/G3P[4] and RVA/Human-wt/JPN/HC12016/2012/G1P[8]. The Australian equine-like G3P[8] strain displayed a distinct VP7 antigenic profile when compared with the previously circulating Australian G3P[8] strains. Identification of similar genes in strains from several geographical regions suggested the equine-like G3P[8] strain was derived by multiple reassortment events between globally co-circulating strains from both human and animal sources. This study reinforces the dynamic nature of rotavirus strains and illustrates the potential for novel human/animal reassortant strains to emerge within the human population. PMID:26588920

  2. Cost effectiveness of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Oman

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) is the leading cause of diarrhea in young children in Oman, incurring substantial healthcare and economic burden. We propose to formally assess the potential cost effectiveness of implementing universal vaccination with a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) on reducing the health care burden and costs associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) in Oman Methods A Markov model was used to compare two birth cohorts, including children who were administered the RV5 vaccination versus those who were not, in a hypothetical group of 65,500 children followed for their first 5 years of life in Oman. The efficacy of the vaccine in reducing RGE-related hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) and office visits, and days of parental work loss for children receiving the vaccine was based on the results of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST). The outcome of interest was cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained from health care system and societal perspectives. Results A universal RV5 vaccination program is projected to reduce, hospitalizations, ED visits, outpatient visits and parental work days lost due to rotavirus infections by 89%, 80%, 67% and 74%, respectively. In the absence of RV5 vaccination, RGE-related societal costs are projected to be 2,023,038 Omani Rial (OMR) (5,259,899 United States dollars [USD]), including 1,338,977 OMR (3,481,340 USD) in direct medical costs. However, with the introduction of RV5, direct medical costs are projected to be 216,646 OMR (563,280 USD). Costs per QALY saved would be 1,140 OMR (2,964 USD) from the health care payer perspective. An RV5 vaccination program would be considered cost saving, from the societal perspective. Conclusions Universal RV5 vaccination in Oman is likely to significantly reduce the health care burden and costs associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis and may be cost-effective from the payer perspective and cost saving from the societal

  3. [THE COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF SETS OF REAGENTS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF ANTIGENS OF ROTAVIRUSES USED ON THE TERRITORY OF RUSSIA].

    PubMed

    Podkolzin, A T; Guseva, A N; Veselova, O A; Kurochkina, D E; Shipulin, G A

    2015-06-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate and compare analytical characteristics of reagents kits for identification of antigens of rotaviruses SD BIOLINE Rotavirus (Standard Diagnostics, Korea), RIDA Quick Rotavirus (R-biopharm AG, Germany), RotaStick One-Step Test (Novamed Ltd., Israel), QuickStripe Rotavirus (Savyon doagnostics Ltd., Israel), Rotavirus-antigen-IFA-BEST (Vector-Best, the Russian Federation), Rota-antigen (NPP AKVAPAST, the Russian Federation). The panel included 84 positive and 43 negative samples of rotaviruses group A according their content. The reagents kit "Amplisense OKI screen-FL" with confirming [P]G typing of positive samples was used for comparison. The comparison of analytical sensitivity of reagents kits was implemented on panel characterized by using technique of droplet digital polymerase chain-reaction. The indicators of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of reagents kits amounted to 84.52% and 100%for SD BIOLINE Rotavirus and RIDA Quick Rotavirus, 71.43% and 100% for RotaStick One-Step Test, 75.00% and 100%for QuickStripe Rotavirus, 83.33% and 100% for Rotavirus-antigen-FA-BEST, 83.33% and 100%for Rota-antigen. The analytical sensitivity of immunochromatographic and immunoenzyme kits amounted to 5 x 106 GE/ml for [P]8G4 genotype of rotaviruses of group A. The reagents kits SD BIOLINE Rotavirus, RIDA Quick Rotavirus and Rotavirus-antigen-IFA-BESTdemonstrated matched high indicators of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity sufficient for etiological diagnostic of rotavirus infection at acute stage of disease. The analytical sensitivity of compared kits does not allow recommending them to apply in analysis of samples characterized by lower concentrations of rotaviruses (asymptomatic agents, objects of environment). PMID:26466453

  4. Full genomic analysis of rabbit rotavirus G3P[14] strain N5 in China: identification of a novel VP6 genotype.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongchun; Liu, Jiasen; Lu, Yan; Sun, Yan; Yuan, Dongwei; Jiang, Qian; Lin, Huan; Li, Changwen; Si, Changde; Qu, Liandong

    2012-10-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are major pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis in young children and in a wide variety of domestic animals. The full-length genome of a rabbit RVA strain, RVA/Rabbit-tc/CHN/N5/1992/G3P[14], showed a G3-P[14]-I17-R3-C3-M3-A9-N1-T1-E3-H2 genomic configuration. A novel VP6 genotype, I17, was confirmed by the Rotavirus Classification Working Group. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain N5 possessed VP1-3, VP7, NSP1-2 and NSP4 genes closely related to those of the simian strain TUCH, NSP3 and NSP5 genes closely related to the human strains Wa and 69M, and a VP4 gene closely related to the rabbit strain 30/96 and sheep strain OVR762. The RRV and TUCH shared their ancestry with canine/feline RVAs and showed a close relationship to the human T152/feline-like RVAs. Comparison with the genotypes of the simian strains TUCH and RRV, canine strains A79-10, CU-1, K9, feline strains Cat2 and Cat97, and human strains T152 and 69M showed that RVA/Rabbit-tc/CHN/N5/1992/G3P[14] was possibly of feline/canine origin, or was a multiple reassortment involving canine, feline and human rotaviruses. The sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of rotavirus genomes is critical to the elucidation of the patterns of virus evolution. PMID:22750552

  5. Captopril Pretreatment Produces an Additive Cardioprotection to Isoflurane Preconditioning in Attenuating Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rabbits and in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yi; Li, Haobo; Liu, Peiyu; Xu, Jun-mei; Irwin, Michael G.; Xia, Zhengyuan; Tian, Guogang

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pretreatment with the angiotensin-converting inhibitor captopril or volatile anesthetic isoflurane has, respectively, been shown to attenuate myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MI/R) injury in rodents and in patients. It is unknown whether or not captopril pretreatment and isoflurane preconditioning (Iso) may additively or synergistically attenuate MI/R injury. Methods and Results. Patients selected for heart valve replacement surgery were randomly assigned to five groups: untreated control (Control), captopril pretreatment for 3 days (Cap3d), or single dose captopril (Cap1hr, 1 hour) before surgery with or without Iso (Cap3d+Iso and Cap1hr+Iso). Rabbit MI/R model was induced by occluding coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2-hour reperfusion. Rabbits were randomized to receive sham operation (Sham), MI/R (I/R), captopril (Cap, 24 hours before MI/R), Iso, or the combination of captopril and Iso (Iso+Cap). In patients, Cap3d+Iso but not Cap1hr+Iso additively reduced postischemic myocardial injury and attenuated postischemic myocardial inflammation. In rabbits, Cap or Iso significantly reduced postischemic myocardial infarction. Iso+Cap additively reduced cellular injury that was associated with improved postischemic myocardial functional recovery and reduced myocardial apoptosis and attenuated oxidative stress. Conclusion. A joint use of 3-day captopril treatment and isoflurane preconditioning additively attenuated MI/R by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:26273143

  6. Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide attenuates LPS-induced cellular injury in human fetal lung fibroblasts via inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi; Zhao, Xiu; Liu, Martin; Jin, Hongxu; Cui, Yan; Hou, Mingxiao; Gao, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory responses are vital in lung injury diseases, particularly acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) has been shown to exhibit anti‑inflammatory effects in vivo in our previous studies. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti‑inflammatory effects of rhBNP on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1). The results showed that LPS induced a significant increase in the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and the secretion of interleukin (IL)‑1β. Activation of p38, extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, c‑Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPK)s, and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB in HFL‑1 cells was also observed following treatment with LPS. Treatment with rhBNP (0.1 µM) reduced the production of IL‑1β at the protein and mRNA levels. Moreover, rhBNP decreased the phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2 and JNK induced by LPS. However, the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, significantly inhibited LPS‑induced IL‑1β production. These results indicate that the inhibition of IL‑1β by may dependent upon the JNK signaling pathway. The LPS‑induced NF‑κB activation was also suppressed by rhBNP, and IL‑1β production was inhibited by the NF‑κB inhibitor. Furthermore, NF‑κB activation was attenuated by the JNK inhibitor, indicating that NF‑κB activation was dependent on the JNK signaling pathway. The present study suggests that rhBNP exhibits an anti‑inflammatory effect on LPS‑induced HFL‑1 cell injury via the inhibition of MAPK and NF‑κB signaling pathways and may exhibit therapeutic potential for acute lung injury and ARDS. PMID:27314600

  7. Predicted Structure and Domain Organization of Rotavirus Capping Enzyme and Innate Immune Antagonist VP3

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Matthew J.; Dennis, Allison F.; Patton, John T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rotaviruses and orbiviruses are nonturreted Reoviridae members. The rotavirus VP3 protein is a multifunctional capping enzyme and antagonist of the interferon-induced cellular oligoadenylate synthetase-RNase L pathway. Despite mediating important processes, VP3 is the sole protein component of the rotavirus virion whose structure remains unknown. In the current study, we used sequence alignment and homology modeling to identify features common to nonturreted Reoviridae capping enzymes and to predict the domain organization, structure, and active sites of rotavirus VP3. Our results suggest that orbivirus and rotavirus capping enzymes share a domain arrangement similar to that of the bluetongue virus capping enzyme. Sequence alignments revealed conserved motifs and suggested that rotavirus and orbivirus capping enzymes contain a variable N-terminal domain, a central guanine-N7-methyltransferase domain that contains an additional inserted domain, and a C-terminal guanylyltransferase and RNA 5′-triphosphatase domain. Sequence conservation and homology modeling suggested that the insertion in the guanine-N7-methyltransferase domain is a ribose-2′-O-methyltransferase domain for most rotavirus species. Our analyses permitted putative identification of rotavirus VP3 active-site residues, including those that form the ribose-2′-O-methyltransferase catalytic tetrad, interact with S-adenosyl-l-methionine, and contribute to autoguanylation. Previous reports have indicated that group A rotavirus VP3 contains a C-terminal 2H-phosphodiesterase domain that can cleave 2′-5′ oligoadenylates, thereby preventing RNase L activation. Our results suggest that a C-terminal phosphodiesterase domain is present in the capping enzymes from two additional rotavirus species. Together, these findings provide insight into a poorly understood area of rotavirus biology and are a springboard for future biochemical and structural studies of VP3. IMPORTANCE Rotaviruses are an

  8. A Combination DNA and Attenuated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine Strategy Provides Enhanced Protection from Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Induced Disease†

    PubMed Central

    Amara, Rama Rao; Patel, Kalpana; Niedziela, Genevieve; Nigam, Pragati; Sharma, Sunita; Staprans, Silvija I.; Montefiori, David C.; Chenareddi, Lakshmi; Herndon, James G.; Robinson, Harriet L.; McClure, Harold M.; Novembre, Francis J.

    2005-01-01

    Among the most effective vaccine candidates tested in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque system, live attenuated viruses have been shown to provide the best protection from challenge. To investigate if preimmunization would increase the level of protection afforded by live attenuated SIVmac239Δnef (Δnef), macaques were given two priming immunizations of DNA encoding SIV Gag and Pol proteins, with control macaques receiving vector DNA immunizations. In macaques receiving the SIV DNA inoculation, SIV-specific cellular but not humoral responses were readily detectable 2 weeks after the second DNA inoculation. Following boosting with live attenuated virus, control of Δnef replication was superior in SIV-DNA-primed macaques versus vector-DNA-primed macaques and was correlated with higher levels of CD8+/gamma-interferon-positive and/or interleukin-2-positive cells. Challenge with an intravenous inoculation of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strain SHIV89.6p resulted in infection of all animals. However, macaques receiving SIV DNA as the priming immunizations had statistically lower viral loads than control animals and did not develop signs of disease, whereas three of seven macaques receiving vector DNA showed severe CD4+ T-cell decline, with development of AIDS in one of these animals. No correlation of immune responses to protection from disease could be derived from our analyses. These results demonstrate that addition of a DNA prime to a live attenuated virus provided better protection from disease following challenge than live attenuated virus alone. PMID:16306607

  9. Predominance of genotype P[9]G3 in rotavirus gastroenteritis in Polish children

    PubMed Central

    Kacerka, Anna; Majda-Stanisławska, Ewa; Jóźwiak, Barbara; Sidorkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rotavirus (RV) infection is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children. This paper identifies the most common genotypes of rotaviruses isolated from children hospitalized with gastroenteritis and attempts to determine any relationship between infection with a certain rotavirus genotype. Material and methods The investigated group consisted of 68 consecutive children with rotavirus gastroenteritis (confirmed by an agglutination test). Rotavirus genotype was determined in stool samples obtained from each child. Results The P[9]VP4 genotype was observed in 41/61 positive samples (over 67.2%) that were permanently associated with the G3 VP7 genotype. Moreover, G3 was determined as the most commonly isolated G type (77.94%). As well as the P[9]G3 type, G3 was also found in the P[4] type (5 cases). Twenty-six out of 61 (42.6%) children in whom rotavirus genotype was determined were co-infected with pathogenic bacteria. No statistical correlation was observed between rotavirus P[9]G3 gastroenteritis and digestive tract co-infection with pathogenic bacteria (p > 0.05). Elevated ALT activity was found in 34/59 (57.6%) cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Elevated ALT serum level was found to correlate with P[9]G3 rotavirus genotype but concomitant infections did not. Conclusions The most common genotype of rotaviruses observed in our group of children, P[9]G3, has rarely been described. Co-infection of the digestive tract with pathogenic bacteria and elevated serum ALT concentrations were found to be the most frequent phenomena. A correlation between P[9]G3 rotavirus genotype and elevated serum ALT level was found, but no significant relationship was identified between concomitant infections and P[9]G3 genotype. PMID:26170851

  10. Critical role of cellular cholesterol in bovine rotavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is a non-enveloped dsRNA virus that cause neonatal calf diarrhea. Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enrich membrane mircodomains that play a vital role in many cellular processes. In this study, the effect of cellular cholesterol depletion on infection of MA-104 cells with bovine rotavirus was investigated. Results We demonstrated that cholesterol depletion of the plasma membrane by MβCD had no effect on BRV binding to cells but significantly impaired BRV entry in a dose-dependent manner and the effect was partially reversed by addition of exogenous cholesterol, suggesting the reduction of BRV infection by MβCD was specifically due to cholesterol depletion. Cholesterol depletion after virus entry did not reduce BRV replication, whereas affected virus assembly. Conclusions Taken together, our results demonstrate that cell membrane cholesterol is essential to BRV infectivity. PMID:24884772

  11. Dielectrophoresis and dielectrophoretic impedance detection of adenovirus and rotavirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Michihiko; Ding, Zhenhao; Suehiro, Junya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is the electrical detection of pathogenic viruses, namely, adenovirus and rotavirus, using dielectrophoretic impedance measurement (DEPIM). DEPIM consists of two simultaneous processes: dielectrophoretic trapping of the target and measurement of the impedance change and increase in conductance with the number of trapped targets. This is the first study of applying DEPIM, which was originally developed to detect bacteria suspended in aqueous solutions, to virus detection. The dielectric properties of the viruses were also investigated in terms of their dielectrophoretic behavior. Although their estimated dielectric properties were different from those of bacteria, the trapped viruses increased the conductance of the microelectrode in a manner similar to that in bacteria detection. We demonstrated the electrical detection of viruses within 60 s at concentrations as low as 70 ng/ml for adenovirus and 50 ng/ml for rotavirus.

  12. Dietary Leucine Supplementation Improves the Mucin Production in the Jejunal Mucosa of the Weaned Pigs Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangbing; Liu, Minghui; Tang, Jun; Chen, Hao; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The present study was mainly conducted to determine whether dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the decrease of the mucin production in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs infected by porcine rotavirus (PRV). A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets supplemented with 1.00% L-leucine or 0.68% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) for 17 d. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused PRV or the sterile essential medium. During the first 10 d of trial, dietary leucine supplementation could improve the feed efficiency (P = 0.09). The ADG and feed efficiency were impaired by PRV infusion (P<0.05). PRV infusion also increased mean cumulative score of diarrhea, serum rotavirus antibody concentration and crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and decreased villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.07), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 and 2 concentrations (P<0.05) and phosphorylated mTOR level (P<0.05) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. Dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the effects of PRV infusion on feed efficiency (P = 0.09) and mean cumulative score of diarrhea (P = 0.09), and improve the effects of PRV infusion on villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.06), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 (P = 0.08) and 2 (P = 0.07) concentrations and phosphorylated mTOR level (P = 0.08) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. These results suggest that dietary 1% leucine supplementation alleviated the decrease of mucin production and goblet cell numbers in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs challenged by PRV possibly via activation of the mTOR signaling. PMID:26336074

  13. Dietary Leucine Supplementation Improves the Mucin Production in the Jejunal Mucosa of the Weaned Pigs Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiangbing; Liu, Minghui; Tang, Jun; Chen, Hao; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The present study was mainly conducted to determine whether dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the decrease of the mucin production in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs infected by porcine rotavirus (PRV). A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets supplemented with 1.00% L-leucine or 0.68% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) for 17 d. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused PRV or the sterile essential medium. During the first 10 d of trial, dietary leucine supplementation could improve the feed efficiency (P = 0.09). The ADG and feed efficiency were impaired by PRV infusion (P<0.05). PRV infusion also increased mean cumulative score of diarrhea, serum rotavirus antibody concentration and crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and decreased villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.07), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 and 2 concentrations (P<0.05) and phosphorylated mTOR level (P<0.05) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. Dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the effects of PRV infusion on feed efficiency (P = 0.09) and mean cumulative score of diarrhea (P = 0.09), and improve the effects of PRV infusion on villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.06), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 (P = 0.08) and 2 (P = 0.07) concentrations and phosphorylated mTOR level (P = 0.08) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. These results suggest that dietary 1% leucine supplementation alleviated the decrease of mucin production and goblet cell numbers in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs challenged by PRV possibly via activation of the mTOR signaling. PMID:26336074

  14. Emerging OP354-Like P[8] Rotaviruses Have Rapidly Dispersed from Asia to Other Continents.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Mark; Heylen, Elisabeth; Damanka, Susan; Pietsch, Corinna; Donato, Celeste; Tamura, Tsutomu; Kulkarni, Ruta; Arora, Ritu; Cunliffe, Nigel; Maunula, Leena; Potgieter, Christiaan; Tamim, Sana; Coster, Sarah De; Zhirakovskaya, Elena; Bdour, Salwa; O'Shea, Helen; Kirkwood, Carl D; Seheri, Mapaseka; Nyaga, Martin Monene; Mphahlele, Jeffrey; Chitambar, Shobha D; Dagan, Ron; Armah, George; Tikunova, Nina; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2015-08-01

    The majority of human group A rotaviruses possess the P[8] VP4 genotype. Recently, a genetically distinct subtype of the P[8] genotype, also known as OP354-like P[8] or lineage P[8]-4, emerged in several countries. However, it is unclear for how long the OP354-like P[8] gene has been circulating in humans and how it has spread. In a global collaborative effort 98 (near-)complete OP354-like P[8] VP4 sequences were obtained and used for phylogeographic analysis to determine the viral migration patterns. During the sampling period, 1988-2012, we found that South and East Asia acted as a source from which strains with the OP354-like P[8] gene were seeded to Africa, Europe, and North America. The time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all OP354-like P[8] genes was estimated at 1987. However, most OP354-like P[8] strains were found in three main clusters with TMRCAs estimated between 1996 and 2001. The VP7 gene segment of OP354-like P[8] strains showed evidence of frequent reassortment, even in localized epidemics, suggesting that OP354-like P[8] genes behave in a similar manner on the evolutionary level as other P[8] subtypes. The results of this study suggest that OP354-like P[8] strains have been able to disperse globally in a relatively short time period. This, in combination with a relatively large genetic distance to other P[8] subtypes, might result in a lower vaccine effectiveness, underscoring the need for a continued surveillance of OP354-like P[8] strains, especially in countries where rotavirus vaccination programs are in place. PMID:25858434

  15. Intussusception following rotavirus vaccination in the Valencia Region, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Vilar, Silvia; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Romio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown high intussusception rates in Spain. We performed a hospital-based retrospective observational study of the intussusception risk following rotavirus vaccinations among infants in Valencia, a region of Spain with an annual birth cohort of approximately 48,000 children, during 2007–2011, using a self-controlled case series design. We performed medical record review of all cases using Brighton Collaboration´s case definition and assessed the positive predictive value (PPV) of the intussusception diagnosis code. Among 151 hospitalized cases discharged as intussusception, we confirmed 136 as Brighton Collaboration's Levels 1 or 2, resulting in a PPV of 93% (95% CI: 87%–96%). Three confirmed cases occurred within days 1–7 following the first rotavirus vaccination. The incidence rate ratio was 9.0 (95% CI: 0.9–86.5) (crude) and 4.7 (95% CI:0.3–74.1)(age adjusted). In this first study in Europe, the intussusception risk point estimate was comparable to other studies, although results were not statistically significant, maybe due to limited power. The high PPV found will facilitate implementation of a larger study without requiring medical record review. Our finding of very few vaccinated cases despite a thorough 5-year investigation in a country that, according to previous studies, may have a large background rate of intussusception is reassuring and should contribute to deliberations about the need to include rotavirus vaccines in the official Spanish calendars. PMID:26083707

  16. Electron microscopic analysis of rotavirus assembly-replication intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Crystal E.; Kelly, Deborah F.; McDonald, Sarah M.

    2015-03-15

    Rotaviruses (RVs) replicate their segmented, double-stranded RNA genomes in tandem with early virion assembly. In this study, we sought to gain insight into the ultrastructure of RV assembly-replication intermediates (RIs) using transmission electron microscopy (EM). Specifically, we examined a replicase-competent, subcellular fraction that contains all known RV RIs. Three never-before-seen complexes were visualized in this fraction. Using in vitro reconstitution, we showed that ~15-nm doughnut-shaped proteins in strings were nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) bound to viral RNA transcripts. Moreover, using immunoaffinity-capture EM, we revealed that ~20-nm pebble-shaped complexes contain the viral RNA polymerase (VP1) and RNA capping enzyme (VP3). Finally, using a gel purification method, we demonstrated that ~30–70-nm electron-dense, particle-shaped complexes represent replicase-competent core RIs, containing VP1, VP3, and NSP2 as well as capsid proteins VP2 and VP6. The results of this study raise new questions about the interactions among viral proteins and RNA during the concerted assembly–replicase process. - Highlights: • Rotaviruses replicate their genomes in tandem with early virion assembly. • Little is known about rotavirus assembly-replication intermediates. • Assembly-replication intermediates were imaged using electron microscopy.

  17. A novel group A rotavirus G serotype: serological and genomic characterization of equine isolate FI23.

    PubMed Central

    Browning, G F; Fitzgerald, T A; Chalmers, R M; Snodgrass, D R

    1991-01-01

    Equine rotavirus FI23 was shown to be prototypic of a novel G serotype, provisionally G14, by cross-neutralization and VP7 sequence determination. Although distinct, there are as few as six differing amino acid residues (92, 94, 96, 146, 147, and 221) in the VP7 antigenic regions of FI23 and G3 rotaviruses. PMID:1663521

  18. Complete Genomic Sequence for an Avian Group G Rotavirus from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stucker, Karla M.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Nyaga, Martin M.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Fedorova, Nadia; Akopov, Asmik; Ngoveni, Harry; Peenze, Ina; Seheri, Mapaseka L.; Mphahlele, M. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    We report the first complete sequence for an avian group G rotavirus (RVG) genome from Africa, which is the third publically available RVG genome. These RVG genomes are highly diverse, especially in their VP4, VP7, NSP4, and NSP3 segments, indicating that RVG diversity is comparable to that of rotavirus A. PMID:25767240

  19. Complete genomic sequence for an avian group G rotavirus from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stucker, Karla M; Stockwell, Timothy B; Nyaga, Martin M; Halpin, Rebecca A; Fedorova, Nadia; Akopov, Asmik; Ngoveni, Harry; Peenze, Ina; Seheri, Mapaseka L; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Wentworth, David E

    2015-01-01

    We report the first complete sequence for an avian group G rotavirus (RVG) genome from Africa, which is the third publically available RVG genome. These RVG genomes are highly diverse, especially in their VP4, VP7, NSP4, and NSP3 segments, indicating that RVG diversity is comparable to that of rotavirus A. PMID:25767240

  20. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Increased Rotavirus Prevalence in Diarrheal Outbreak Precipitated by Localized Flooding, Solomon Islands, 2014.

    PubMed

    Jones, Forrest K; Ko, Albert I; Becha, Chris; Joshua, Cynthia; Musto, Jennie; Thomas, Sarah; Ronsse, Axelle; Kirkwood, Carl D; Sio, Alison; Aumua, Audrey; Nilles, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Flooding on 1 of the Solomon Islands precipitated a nationwide epidemic of diarrhea that spread to regions unaffected by flooding and caused >6,000 cases and 27 deaths. Rotavirus was identified in 38% of case-patients tested in the city with the most flooding. Outbreak potential related to weather reinforces the need for global rotavirus vaccination. PMID:27088272

  2. Increased Rotavirus Prevalence in Diarrheal Outbreak Precipitated by Localized Flooding, Solomon Islands, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Forrest K.; Ko, Albert I.; Becha, Chris; Joshua, Cynthia; Musto, Jennie; Thomas, Sarah; Ronsse, Axelle; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Sio, Alison; Aumua, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Flooding on 1 of the Solomon Islands precipitated a nationwide epidemic of diarrhea that spread to regions unaffected by flooding and caused >6,000 cases and 27 deaths. Rotavirus was identified in 38% of case-patients tested in the city with the most flooding. Outbreak potential related to weather reinforces the need for global rotavirus vaccination. PMID:27088272

  3. Survival and detection of rotaviruses on environmental surfaces in day care centers.

    PubMed Central

    Keswick, B H; Pickering, L K; DuPont, H L; Woodward, W E

    1983-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that children in day care centers commonly experience diarrhea due to rotavirus, giardia, and bacterial pathogens. Multiple agents frequently coexist, and the environment is heavily contaminated with enteric bacteria during outbreaks. A study of environmental surface contamination with rotavirus was performed during three non-outbreak periods. Of 25 samples collected from environmental surfaces and teachers hands at a day care center, 4 (16%) were positive for rotavirus antigen when a fluorescence assay was used. We also examined the survival of two animal viruses, rotavirus SA-11 and poliovirus type 1, and bacteriophage 12 on similar environmental surfaces in a laboratory. Poliovirus type 1 and bacteriophage f2 were more resistant to drying than rotavirus SA-11 and could be recovered after a 90-min exposure on a dry surface. Rotavirus SA-11 could be detected for 30 min. All three viruses survived longer when they were suspended in fecal material than when they were suspended in distilled water. These data suggest that several agents, including rotavirus, can remain viable on contaminated surfaces long enough to be transmitted to susceptible children. This finding helps explain why rotavirus shows a mode of spread like that of parasitic and bacterial agents within day care center settings. PMID:6314896

  4. A universal infant rotavirus vaccine program in two delivery models: Effectiveness and adverse events following immunization

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, Carolyn; Langley, Joanne M; Halperin, Scott A; Zelman, Mitchell; Maritime Universal Rotavirus Vaccination Program, MURVP

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhea leading to hospitalization in young children. Rotavirus vaccines are available in Canada but have not been introduced in all provinces. In a controlled trial, 2 study sites (Prince Edward Island and the Capital District Health Authority (District 9, Nova Scotia) introduced universal rotavirus vaccine programs for infants at 2 and 4 months of age beginning 1 December 2010, using public health nurse or general practitioner-delivery models, respectively. A third site (Saint John, NB) served as the non-intervention control setting. Vaccine coverage, rotavirus hospitalizations, intussusception and all-cause diarrhea were monitored. A universal rotavirus vaccine program with >90% coverage was associated with reductions in rotavirus-associated hospitalizations (from a peak of 52.8 hospitalizations/100,000 population to 0 hospitalizations) in infants < 12 months and 1 to < 2 y of age 12 months after program implementation. No apparent reduction occurred in the site with vaccine coverage of < 40%, or in the non-intervention control site. No cases of intussusception were associated with vaccine receipt, and no increase in all-cause diarrhea was observed. A universal infant rotavirus vaccine program with high coverage was associated with reductions in rotavirus and no safety signals; no reduction was observed in settings with low vaccine coverage. PMID:25746110

  5. Exceptionally low rotavirus incidence in the Netherlands in 2013/14 in the absence of rotavirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Hahné, S; Hooiveld, M; Vennema, H; van Ginkel, A; de Melker, H; Wallinga, J; van Pelt, W; Bruijning-Verhagen, P

    2014-01-01

    An unexpected drop in rotavirus (RV) detections was observed in the Netherlands in 2014, without RV vaccination. The estimated decrease in RV detections and gastroenteritis consultations in under five year-olds, in January-April 2014, compared to the same months in previous years, was 72% and 36%, respectively. The low birth rate, mild winter, high RV incidence in the previous year and the introduction of RV vaccination in neighbouring countries may have contributed to this decrease. PMID:25375899

  6. Detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Like, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Like Bat Coronaviruses and Group H Rotavirus in Faeces of Korean Bats.

    PubMed

    Kim, H K; Yoon, S-W; Kim, D-J; Koo, B-S; Noh, J Y; Kim, J H; Choi, Y G; Na, W; Chang, K-T; Song, D; Jeong, D G

    2016-08-01

    Bat species around the world have recently been recognized as major reservoirs of several zoonotic viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Nipah virus and Hendra virus. In this study, consensus primer-based reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) and high-throughput sequencing were performed to investigate viruses in bat faecal samples collected at 11 natural bat habitat sites from July to December 2015 in Korea. Diverse coronaviruses were first detected in Korean bat faeces, including alphacoronaviruses, SARS-CoV-like and MERS-CoV-like betacoronaviruses. In addition, we identified a novel bat rotavirus belonging to group H rotavirus which has only been described in human and pigs until now. Therefore, our results suggest the need for continuing surveillance and additional virological studies in domestic bat. PMID:27213718

  7. [Selection and Identification of the Biological Characteristics of a Cold-adapted Genotype G1P[8] ZTR-68 Rotavirus by Serial Cold-adapted Passaging].

    PubMed

    Xie, Li; Mi, Kai; Ye, Jing; Niu, Xianglian; Sun, Xiaoqin; Yi, Shan; Li, Hongjun; Sun, Maosheng

    2015-09-01

    We wished to select a cold-adapted genotype G1P[8] ZTR-68 rotavirus (China southwest strain) in MA104 cells for possible use as a live vaccine. ZTR-68 was recovered originally from children with diarrhea. The virus was cultivated at 37 degrees C at the first passage. Then, the cultivation temperature was decreased stepwise by 3 degrees C per eight passages. In total, the virus was passaged 32 times, and cultivation was terminated at 28 degrees C. Biological characteristics of the virus were analyzed during serial passages. There was no difference between the migration patterns of genomic dsRNA segments according to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of original and cold-adapted viruses. Infectious and red cell-agglutination titers of cold-adapted virus were lower than those of the parent virus. Also, the virus formed small-size plaques with irregular shapes at 31 degrees C and 28 degrees C. These results suggested that a genetically stable attenuated virus can be obtained through serial cold-adapted passages. Thus, an alternative strategy is provided by cold-adaption for development of attenuated live rotavirus vaccines. PMID:26738294

  8. Rotavirus - A Retrospective Study of Incidence at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)

    PubMed Central

    Ludin, C.M. Mat; Radzi, J. Md.; Maimunah, A.

    2003-01-01

    The present study, analyzes data from 1991 to 2000 for rotavirus infection among children with diarrhoea and acute gastroenteritis admitted to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The Latex Slide Agglutination Test was used for the detection of rotavirus antigens. Out of 1097 stool samples tested, 207 samples or 18.8 % were found to be positive for rotavirus. The infection occurred most frequently in infants and young children from 6 months to 2 years of age. The infection was recorded highest in the year of 2000 – 48 cases (34.1%) and the lowest in 1999 – 5 cases (6.6%). Stool examination and cultures from the rotavirus positive samples revealed no parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria. These observations suggested that rotavirus could still remain as an important agent causing diarrhoea and gastroenteritis in young children admitted to HUSM. PMID:23386803

  9. Rotavirus - A Retrospective Study of Incidence at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM).

    PubMed

    Ludin, C M Mat; Radzi, J Md; Maimunah, A

    2003-07-01

    The present study, analyzes data from 1991 to 2000 for rotavirus infection among children with diarrhoea and acute gastroenteritis admitted to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The Latex Slide Agglutination Test was used for the detection of rotavirus antigens. Out of 1097 stool samples tested, 207 samples or 18.8 % were found to be positive for rotavirus. The infection occurred most frequently in infants and young children from 6 months to 2 years of age. The infection was recorded highest in the year of 2000 - 48 cases (34.1%) and the lowest in 1999 - 5 cases (6.6%). Stool examination and cultures from the rotavirus positive samples revealed no parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria. These observations suggested that rotavirus could still remain as an important agent causing diarrhoea and gastroenteritis in young children admitted to HUSM. PMID:23386803

  10. Lipid droplets form complexes with viroplasms and are crucial for rotavirus replication.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Sue E; Desselberger, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that a variety of pathogens target cellular lipid metabolism for their replication. Lipid droplets are a major contributor to lipid homeostasis and contain neutral fats but are also recognized as dynamic organelles involved in signal transduction, membrane trafficking and modulation of immune and inflammatory responses. Rotaviruses co-opt lipid droplets for their replication. Rotavirus viroplasms, sites of viral RNA replication and immature particle assembly, form complexes with cellular lipid droplets early in infection. Chemical compounds blocking fatty acid synthesis or interfering with lipid droplet homeostasis decrease viroplasm formation and the yield of infectious viral progeny. Lipid droplets are vital for the replication of rotaviruses as well as various members of the Flaviviridae family and several intracellular bacteria. Chemical compounds decreasing intracellular triglyceride content reduced rotavirus replication in an animal model and should be considered as potential therapeutic agents against disease caused by rotaviruses, flaviviruses and intracellular bacteria. PMID:27341619

  11. Early impact of rotavirus vaccination in a large paediatric hospital in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, D; Read, J M; Cooke, R P D; Vivancos, R; Iturriza-Gómara, M; Allen, D J; French, N; Cunliffe, N

    2016-06-01

    The impact of routine rotavirus vaccination on community-acquired (CA) and healthcare-associated (HA) rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) at a large paediatric hospital, UK, was investigated over a 13-year period. A total of 1644 hospitalized children aged 0-15 years tested positive for rotavirus between July 2002 and June 2015. Interrupted time-series analysis demonstrated that, post vaccine introduction (July 2013 to June 2015), CA- and HA-RVGE hospitalizations were 83% [95% confidence interval (CI): 72-90%) and 83% (95% CI: 66-92%] lower than expected, respectively. Rotavirus vaccination has rapidly reduced the hospital rotavirus disease burden among both CA- and HA-RVGE cases. PMID:26876744

  12. Symptomatic Infection and Detection of Vaccine and Vaccine-Reassortant Rotavirus Strains in 5 Children: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Boom, Julie A.; Sahni, Leila C.; Payne, Daniel C.; Gautam, Rashi; Lyde, Freda; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Bowen, Michael D.; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Rench, Marcia A.; Gentsch, Jon R.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Baker, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine or vaccine-reassortant rotavirus strains were detected in fecal specimens from 5 of 106 (4.7%) immunocompetent children who required treatment for rotavirus gastroenteritis at a large pediatric hospital in Texas in 2009–2010. Four strains were related to pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, whereas one was related to monovalent rotavirus vaccine. The contribution of these strains to each patient’s illness was unclear given that 2 patients had prominent respiratory symptoms and 2 were concurrently infected with another pathogen (group F adenovirus and norovirus). Continued monitoring is necessary to assess the role of vaccine strains and vaccine-reassortant strains in pediatric rotavirus infections. PMID:22872730

  13. Rotavirus Controls Activation of the 2′-5′-Oligoadenylate Synthetase/RNase L Pathway Using at Least Two Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Tacuba, Liliana; Rojas, Margarito; Arias, Carlos F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The innate immune response is the first line of defense of the host cell against a viral infection. In turn, viruses have evolved a wide variety of strategies to hide from, and to directly antagonize, the host innate immune pathways. One of these pathways is the 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)/RNase L pathway. OAS is activated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to produce 2′-5′ oligoadenylates, which are the activators of RNase L; this enzyme degrades viral and cellular RNAs, restricting viral infection. It has been recently found that the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of rotavirus VP3 has a 2′-5′-phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity that is able to functionally substitute for the PDE activity of the mouse hepatitis virus ns2 protein. This particular phosphodiesterase cleaves the 2′-5′-phosphodiester bond of the oligoadenylates, antagonizing the OAS/RNase L pathway. However, whether this activity of VP3 is relevant during the replication cycle of rotavirus is not known. Here, we demonstrate that after rotavirus infection the OAS/RNase L complex becomes activated; however, the virus is able to control its activity using at least two distinct mechanisms. A virus-cell interaction that occurs during or before rotavirus endocytosis triggers a signal that prevents the early activation of RNase L, while later on the control is taken by the newly synthesized VP3. Cosilencing the expression of VP3 and RNase L in infected cells yields viral infectious particles at levels similar to those obtained in control infected cells, where no genes were silenced, suggesting that the capping activity of VP3 is not essential for the formation of infectious viral particles. IMPORTANCE Rotaviruses represent an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in the young of many animal species, including humans. In this work, we have found that the OAS/RNase L pathway is activated during rotavirus infection, but the virus uses two different strategies to prevent the

  14. Characterization of a G1P[8] rotavirus causing an outbreak of gastroenteritis in the Northern Territory, Australia, in the vaccine era

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Celeste M; Cowley, Daniel; Snelling, Thomas L; Akopov, Asmik; Kirkness, Ewen F; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, a large outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred in the Alice Springs region of the Northern Territory, Australia. The outbreak occurred 43 months after the introduction of the G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine Rotarix®. Forty-three infants were hospitalized during the outbreak and analysis of fecal samples from each infant revealed a G1P[8] rotavirus strain. The outbreak strain was adapted to cell culture and neutralization assays were performed using VP7 and VP4 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The outbreak strain exhibited a distinct neutralization resistance pattern compared to the Rotarix® vaccine strain. Whole genome sequencing of the 2010 outbreak virus strain demonstrated numerous amino acid differences compared to the Rotarix® vaccine strain in the characterized neutralization epitopes of the VP7 and VP4 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of the outbreak strain revealed a close genetic relationship to global strains, in particular RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE0098/2009/G1P[8] and RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE00038/2008/G1P[8] for numerous genes. The 2010 outbreak strain was likely introduced from a globally circulating population of strains rather than evolving from an endemic Australian strain. The outbreak strain possessed antigenic differences in the VP7 and VP4 proteins compared to the Rotarix® vaccine strain. The outbreak was associated with moderate vaccine coverage and possibly low vaccine take in the population. PMID:26038746

  15. Characterization of a G1P[8] rotavirus causing an outbreak of gastroenteritis in the Northern Territory, Australia, in the vaccine era.

    PubMed

    Donato, Celeste M; Cowley, Daniel; Snelling, Thomas L; Akopov, Asmik; Kirkness, Ewen F; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2014-07-01

    In 2010, a large outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred in the Alice Springs region of the Northern Territory, Australia. The outbreak occurred 43 months after the introduction of the G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine Rotarix(®). Forty-three infants were hospitalized during the outbreak and analysis of fecal samples from each infant revealed a G1P[8] rotavirus strain. The outbreak strain was adapted to cell culture and neutralization assays were performed using VP7 and VP4 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The outbreak strain exhibited a distinct neutralization resistance pattern compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain. Whole genome sequencing of the 2010 outbreak virus strain demonstrated numerous amino acid differences compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain in the characterized neutralization epitopes of the VP7 and VP4 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of the outbreak strain revealed a close genetic relationship to global strains, in particular RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE0098/2009/G1P[8] and RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE00038/2008/G1P[8] for numerous genes. The 2010 outbreak strain was likely introduced from a globally circulating population of strains rather than evolving from an endemic Australian strain. The outbreak strain possessed antigenic differences in the VP7 and VP4 proteins compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain. The outbreak was associated with moderate vaccine coverage and possibly low vaccine take in the population. PMID:26038746

  16. Curcumin attenuates quinocetone induced apoptosis and inflammation via the opposite modulation of Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-kB pathway in human hepatocyte L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chongshan; Li, Bin; Zhou, Yan; Li, Daowen; Zhang, Shen; Li, Hui; Xiao, Xilong; Tang, Shusheng

    2016-09-01

    The potential toxicity of quinocetone (QCT) has raised widely concern, but its mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin on QCT induced apoptosis and the underlying mechanism in human hepatocyte L02 cells. The results showed that QCT treatment significantly decreased the cell viability of L02 cell and increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which was attenuated by curcumin pre-treatment at 1.25, 2.5 and 5 μM. Compared to the QCT alone group, curcumin pre-treatment significantly attenuated QCT induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. In addition, curcumin pretreatment markedly attenuated QCT-induced increase of iNOS activity and NO production in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, curcumin pretreatment markedly down-regulated the expression of nuclear factor -kB (NF-kB) and iNOS mRNAs, but up-regulated the expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 mRNAs, compared to the QCT alone group. Zinc protoporphyrin IX, a HO-1 inhibitor, markedly partly abolished the cytoprotective effect of curcumin against QCT-induced caspase activation, NF-kB mRNA expression. These results indicate that curcumin could effectively inhibit QCT induced apoptosis and inflammatory response in L02 cells, which may involve the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 and inhibition of NF-kB pathway. PMID:27375190

  17. Rotavirus mortality in India: estimates based on a nationally representative survey of diarrhoeal deaths

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shally; Khera, Ajay; Bassani, Diego G; Kang, Gagandeep; Parashar, Umesh D; Kumar, Rajesh; Shet, Anita; Glass, Roger I; Jha, Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the number of rotavirus-associated deaths among Indian children younger than five years. Methods We surveyed more than 23 000 child deaths from a nationally representative survey of 1.1 million Indian households during 2001–2003. Diarrhoeal deaths were characterized by region, age and sex and were combined with the proportion of deaths attributable to rotavirus, as determined by hospital microbiologic data collected by the Indian Rotavirus Strain Surveillance Network from December 2005 to November 2007. Rotavirus vaccine efficacy data from clinical trials in developing countries were used to estimate the number of deaths preventable by a national vaccination programme. Data were analysed using Stata SE version 10. Findings Rotavirus caused an estimated 113 000 deaths (99% confidence interval, CI: 86 000–155 000); 50% (54 700) and 75% (85 400) occurred before one and two years of age, respectively. One child in 242 died from rotavirus infection before five years of age. Rotavirus-associated mortality rates overall, among girls and among boys were 4.14 (99% CI: 3.14–5.68), 4.89 (99% CI: 3.75–6.79) and 3.45 (99% CI: 2.58–4.66) deaths per 1000 live births, respectively. Rates were highest in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, which together accounted for > 50% of deaths (64 400) nationally. Rotavirus vaccine could prevent 41 000–48 000 deaths among children aged 3–59 months. Conclusion The burden of rotavirus-associated mortality is high among Indian children, highlighting the potential benefits of rotavirus vaccination. PMID:23109739

  18. Recombinant Outer Capsid Glycoprotein (VP7) of Rotavirus Expressed in Insect Cells Induces Neutralizing Antibodies in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Khodabandehloo, M; Shahrabadi, M Shamsi; Keyvani, H; Bambai, B; Sadigh, ZA

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rotaviruses cause diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Rotavirus outer capsid protein, VP7 is major neutralizing antigen that is important component of subunit vaccine to prevent rotavirus infection. Many efforts have been done to produce recombinant VP7 that maintain native characteristics. We used baculovirus expression system to produce rotavirus VP7 protein and to study its immunogenicity. Methods: Simian rotavirus SA11 full-length VP7 ORF was cloned into a cloning plasmid and then the cloned gene was inserted into the linear DNA of baculovirus Autographa californica Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (AcNPV) downstream of the polyhedrin promoter by in vitro recombination reactions. The expressed VP7 in the insect cells was recognized by rabbit hyperimmune serum raised against SA11 rotavirus by Immunofluorescence and western blotting assays. Rabbits were immunized subcutaneously by cell extracts expressing VP7 protein. Results: Reactivity with anti-rotavirus antibody suggested that expressed VP7 protein had native antigenic determinants. Injection of recombinant VP7 in rabbits elicited the production of serum antibodies, which were able to recognize VP7 protein from SA11 rotavirus by Western blotting test and neutralized SA11 rotavirus in cell culture. Conclusion: Recombinant outer capsid glycoprotein (VP7) of rotavirus expressed in insect cells induces neutralizing antibodies in rabbits and may be a candidate of rotavirus vaccine. PMID:23113180

  19. One-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting and genotyping wild-type group A rotavirus strains and vaccine strains (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) in stool samples.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Rashi; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Esona, Mathew D; Tam, Ka Ian; Quaye, Osbourne; Bowen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Background. Group A rotavirus (RVA) infection is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children worldwide. Introduction of two live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq® and Rotarix®, has dramatically reduced RVA associated AGE and mortality in developed as well as in many developing countries. High-throughput methods are needed to genotype rotavirus wild-type strains and to identify vaccine strains in stool samples. Quantitative RT-PCR assays (qRT-PCR) offer several advantages including increased sensitivity, higher throughput, and faster turnaround time. Methods. In this study, a one-step multiplex qRT-PCR assay was developed to detect and genotype wild-type strains and vaccine (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) rotavirus strains along with an internal processing control (Xeno or MS2 RNA). Real-time RT-PCR assays were designed for VP7 (G1, G2, G3, G4, G9, G12) and VP4 (P[4], P[6] and P[8]) genotypes. The multiplex qRT-PCR assay also included previously published NSP3 qRT-PCR for rotavirus detection and Rotarix® NSP2 and RotaTeq® VP6 qRT-PCRs for detection of Rotarix® and RotaTeq® vaccine strains respectively. The multiplex qRT-PCR assay was validated using 853 sequence confirmed stool samples and 24 lab cultured strains of different rotavirus genotypes. By using thermostable rTth polymerase enzyme, dsRNA denaturation, reverse transcription (RT) and amplification (PCR) steps were performed in single tube by uninterrupted thermocycling profile to reduce chances of sample cross contamination and for rapid generation of results. For quantification, standard curves were generated using dsRNA transcripts derived from RVA gene segments. Results. The VP7 qRT-PCRs exhibited 98.8-100% sensitivity, 99.7-100% specificity, 85-95% efficiency and a limit of detection of 4-60 copies per singleplex reaction. The VP7 qRT-PCRs exhibited 81-92% efficiency and limit of detection of 150-600 copies in multiplex reactions. The VP4 qRT-PCRs exhibited 98

  20. One-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting and genotyping wild-type group A rotavirus strains and vaccine strains (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) in stool samples

    PubMed Central

    Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Esona, Mathew D.; Tam, Ka Ian; Quaye, Osbourne; Bowen, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Group A rotavirus (RVA) infection is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children worldwide. Introduction of two live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq® and Rotarix®, has dramatically reduced RVA associated AGE and mortality in developed as well as in many developing countries. High-throughput methods are needed to genotype rotavirus wild-type strains and to identify vaccine strains in stool samples. Quantitative RT-PCR assays (qRT-PCR) offer several advantages including increased sensitivity, higher throughput, and faster turnaround time. Methods. In this study, a one-step multiplex qRT-PCR assay was developed to detect and genotype wild-type strains and vaccine (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) rotavirus strains along with an internal processing control (Xeno or MS2 RNA). Real-time RT-PCR assays were designed for VP7 (G1, G2, G3, G4, G9, G12) and VP4 (P[4], P[6] and P[8]) genotypes. The multiplex qRT-PCR assay also included previously published NSP3 qRT-PCR for rotavirus detection and Rotarix® NSP2 and RotaTeq® VP6 qRT-PCRs for detection of Rotarix® and RotaTeq® vaccine strains respectively. The multiplex qRT-PCR assay was validated using 853 sequence confirmed stool samples and 24 lab cultured strains of different rotavirus genotypes. By using thermostable rTth polymerase enzyme, dsRNA denaturation, reverse transcription (RT) and amplification (PCR) steps were performed in single tube by uninterrupted thermocycling profile to reduce chances of sample cross contamination and for rapid generation of results. For quantification, standard curves were generated using dsRNA transcripts derived from RVA gene segments. Results. The VP7 qRT-PCRs exhibited 98.8–100% sensitivity, 99.7–100% specificity, 85–95% efficiency and a limit of detection of 4–60 copies per singleplex reaction. The VP7 qRT-PCRs exhibited 81–92% efficiency and limit of detection of 150–600 copies in multiplex reactions. The VP4 qRT-PCRs exhibited 98.8

  1. A Nampt inhibitor FK866 mimics vitamin B3 deficiency by causing senescence of human fibroblastic Hs68 cells via attenuation of NAD(+)-SIRT1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Song, Tuzz-Ying; Yeh, Shu-Lan; Hu, Miao-Lin; Chen, Mei-Yau; Yang, Nae-Cherng

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency can cause pellagra with symptoms of dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia. However, it is unclear whether the vitamin B3 deficiency causes human aging. FK866 (a Nampt inhibitor) can reduce intracellular NAD(+) level and induce senescence of human Hs68 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells are unclear. In this study, we used FK866 to mimic the effects of vitamin B3 deficiency to reduce the NAD(+) level and investigated the mechanisms of FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells. We hypothesized that FK866 induced the senescence of Hs68 cells via an attenuation of NAD(+)-silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) signaling. We found that FK866 induced cell senescence and diminished cellular NAD(+) levels and SIRT1 activity (detected by acetylation of p53), and these effects were dramatically antagonized by co-treatment with nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, or NAD(+). In contrast, the protein expression of SIRT1, AMP-activated protein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) was not affected by FK866. In addition, the role of GSH in the FK866-induced cells senescence may be limited, as N-acetylcysteine did not antagonize FK866-induced cell senescence. These results suggest that FK866 induces cell senescence via attenuation of NAD(+)-SIRT1 signaling. The effects of vitamin B3 deficiency on human aging warrant further investigation. PMID:26330291

  2. Comparison of PremierTM Rotaclone®, ProSpecTTM, and RIDASCREEN® Rotavirus Enzyme Immunoassay Kits for Detection of Rotavirus Antigen in Stool Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Rashi; Lyde, Freda; Esona, Mathew D.; Quaye, Osbourne; Bowen, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotaviruses are the major cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in children throughout the world. Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) have been the standard method for detection of rotavirus in stool specimens since the 1980s. The World Health Organization (WHO) Rotavirus Surveillance Network has proposed including three EIA kits in the WHO-GSM (Global Management System/Système Mondial de Gestion ) catalogue for easy procurement of EIA kits by participating rotavirus surveillance network laboratories. Objectives In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis of 3 commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits: PremierTM Rotaclone® (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.), ProSpecTTM (Oxoid, Ltd.) and RIDASCREEN® (R-biopharm AG) for rotavirus diagnostics. Study design Using reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) as the gold standard, the 3 EIA kits were evaluated by testing a stool panel consisting of 56 rotavirus-positive and