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Sample records for attenuation coefficient lac

  1. Emission-based estimation of lung attenuation coefficients for attenuation correction in time-of-flight PET/MR.

    PubMed

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib

    2015-06-21

    In standard segmentation-based MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) of PET data on hybrid PET/MRI systems, the inter/intra-patient variability of linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) is ignored owing to the assignment of a constant LAC to each tissue class. This can lead to PET quantification errors, especially in the lung regions. In this work, we aim to derive continuous and patient-specific lung LACs from time-of-flight (TOF) PET emission data using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) algorithm. The MLAA algorithm was constrained for estimation of lung LACs only in the standard 4-class MR attenuation map using Gaussian lung tissue preference and Markov random field smoothness priors. MRAC maps were derived from segmentation of CT images of 19 TOF-PET/CT clinical studies into background air, lung, soft tissue and fat tissue classes, followed by assignment of predefined LACs of 0, 0.0224, 0.0864 and 0.0975 cm(-1), respectively. The lung LACs of the resulting attenuation maps were then estimated from emission data using the proposed MLAA algorithm. PET quantification accuracy of MRAC and MLAA methods was evaluated against the reference CT-based AC method in the lungs, lesions located in/near the lungs and neighbouring tissues. The results show that the proposed MLAA algorithm is capable of retrieving lung density gradients and compensate fairly for respiratory-phase mismatch between PET and corresponding attenuation maps. It was found that the mean of the estimated lung LACs generally follow the trend of the reference CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) method. Quantitative analysis revealed that the MRAC method resulted in average relative errors of -5.2 ± 7.1% and -6.1 ± 6.7% in the lungs and lesions, respectively. These were reduced by the MLAA algorithm to -0.8 ± 6.3% and -3.3 ± 4.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated the potential and capability of emission-based methods in deriving patient-specific lung LACs to improve the accuracy of attenuation correction in TOF PET/MR imaging, thus paving the way for their adaptation in the clinic. PMID:26047036

  2. Emission-based estimation of lung attenuation coefficients for attenuation correction in time-of-flight PET/MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib

    2015-06-01

    In standard segmentation-based MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) of PET data on hybrid PET/MRI systems, the inter/intra-patient variability of linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) is ignored owing to the assignment of a constant LAC to each tissue class. This can lead to PET quantification errors, especially in the lung regions. In this work, we aim to derive continuous and patient-specific lung LACs from time-of-flight (TOF) PET emission data using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) algorithm. The MLAA algorithm was constrained for estimation of lung LACs only in the standard 4-class MR attenuation map using Gaussian lung tissue preference and Markov random field smoothness priors. MRAC maps were derived from segmentation of CT images of 19 TOF-PET/CT clinical studies into background air, lung, soft tissue and fat tissue classes, followed by assignment of predefined LACs of 0, 0.0224, 0.0864 and 0.0975 cm-1, respectively. The lung LACs of the resulting attenuation maps were then estimated from emission data using the proposed MLAA algorithm. PET quantification accuracy of MRAC and MLAA methods was evaluated against the reference CT-based AC method in the lungs, lesions located in/near the lungs and neighbouring tissues. The results show that the proposed MLAA algorithm is capable of retrieving lung density gradients and compensate fairly for respiratory-phase mismatch between PET and corresponding attenuation maps. It was found that the mean of the estimated lung LACs generally follow the trend of the reference CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) method. Quantitative analysis revealed that the MRAC method resulted in average relative errors of  -5.2   ±   7.1% and  -6.1   ±   6.7% in the lungs and lesions, respectively. These were reduced by the MLAA algorithm to  -0.8   ±   6.3% and  -3.3   ±   4.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated the potential and capability of emission-based methods in deriving patient-specific lung LACs to improve the accuracy of attenuation correction in TOF PET/MR imaging, thus paving the way for their adaptation in the clinic.

  3. Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin

    2014-06-17

    Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio. PMID:24866482

  4. Attenuation Coefficient Estimation of the Healthy Human Thyroid In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouyer, J.; Cueva, T.; Portal, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Lavarello, R.

    Previous studies have demonstrated that attenuation coefficients can be useful towards characterizing thyroid tissues. In this work, ultrasonic attenuation coefficients were estimated from healthy human thyroids in vivo using a clinical scanner. The selected subjects were five young, healthy volunteers (age: 26 ± 6 years old, gender: three females, two males) with no reported history of thyroid diseases, no palpable thyroid nodules, no smoking habits, and body mass index less than 30 kg/m2. Echographic examinations were conducted by a trained sonographer using a SonixTouch system (Ultrasonix Medical Corporation, Richmond, BC) equipped with an L14-5 linear transducer array (nominal center frequency of 10 MHz, transducer footprint of 3.8 cm). Radiofrequency data corresponding to the collected echographic images in both transverse and longitudinal views were digitized at a sampling rate of 40 MHz and processed with Matlab codes (MathWorks, Natick, MA) to estimate attenuation coefficients using the spectral log difference method. The estimation was performed using an analysis bandwidth spanning from 4.0 to 9.0 MHz. The average value of the estimated ultrasonic attenuation coefficients was equal to 1.34 ± 0.15 dB/(cm.MHz). The standard deviation of the estimated average attenuation coefficient across different volunteers suggests a non-negligible inter-subject variability in the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient of the human thyroid.

  5. Measurements of spectral attenuation coefficients in the lower Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, W. M.

    1983-01-01

    The spectral transmission was measured for water samples taken in the lower Chesapeake Bay to allow characterization of several optical properties. The coefficients of total attenuation, particle attenuation, and absorption by dissolved organic matter were determined over a wavelength range from 3500 A to 8000 A. The data were taken over a 3 year period and at a number of sites so that an indication of spatial and temporal variations could be obtained. The attenuations determined in this work are, on the average, 10 times greater than those obtained by Hulburt in 1944, which are commonly accepted in the literature for Chesapeake Bay attenuation.

  6. Optical attenuation coefficient in individual ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Little, Anree; Hoffman, Abigail; Haegel, Nancy M

    2013-03-11

    Attenuation coefficient measurements for the propagation of bandedge luminescence are made on individual ZnO nanowires by combining the localized excitation capability of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to record the distribution and intensity of wave-guided emission. Measurements were made for individual nanostructures with triangular cross-sections ranging in diameter from 680 to 2300 nm. The effective attenuation coefficient shows an inverse dependence on nanowire diameter (d(-1)), indicating scattering losses due to non-ideal waveguiding behavior. PMID:23482201

  7. Changes in the linear attenuation coefficient of canine appendicular bone following intravenous infusion of strontium lactate, measured using gamma-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Overton, T R; Snyder, R E; Hangartner, T N; Girgis, S; Audette, R J; Secord, D C

    1992-04-01

    Changes in the average linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) within a fixed measurement volume in the proximal end of the dog tibia, which contains trabecular bone and associated soft tissues (the trabecular bone "space"), were monitored continuously using gamma-ray computed tomography (gamma-CT) prior to, during, and following intravenous infusion of strontium (Sr) lactate. An infusion of 1.3-4.7 g of Sr over a period of 110-160 minutes into 20-kg dogs resulted, within 6-8 hours, in an increase of 0.019-0.045 cm-1 (P less than 0.002) in the LAC. Calibration of the gamma-CT system showed that 0.44 mg/cm3 of Sr produced a change of 0.01 cm-1 in the LAC. Using this conversion factor, the Sr concentration in the trabecular bone space resulting from infusion, as measured by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, agreed with that predicted by the change observed in the LAC. Sr present in the serum and urine was consistent with the changes observed in the LAC over the study period. Control dogs infused with mineral-free solutions showed no change in LAC. Calcium equivalents required to give the changes observed in the LAC using Sr indicate that variations in skeletal turnover in man can be monitored in the peripheral skeleton using gamma-CT. PMID:1571847

  8. Relation between the diffuse attenuation coefficient and the Secchi depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankovsky, V. I.

    2014-02-01

    A semi-empirical model of the relation between the diffuse attenuation coefficient ?? and the Secchi depth Z w is suggested. According to the model, the parameter ? = ?? Z w is not a constant value; it increases when Z w increases. From experimental observation data, the relationship ? = f( Z w) has been established, which confirms the model calculations.

  9. A study on photon attenuation coefficients of different wood materials with different densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saritha, B.; Nageswara Rao, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    A study on the variation of linear attenuation coefficients with the densities of the wood samples is under taken. The soft wood and hard wood samples were collected from the forest area of Pakal in Warangal district. The linear and mass attenuation coefficients are measured using gamma ray spectrometry based on NaI (Tl) scintillation detector with energies of 662 KeV and 59.5 KeV respectively. The mass attenuation coefficient values measured from experiment and are compared with theoretical methods using XCOM program. The plots of density versus linear attenuation coefficient for different wood materials correspond to higher order polynomial are presented. It is observed that variation of linear attenuation coefficient depends on densities of materials. The Chloroxylon swietenia with more density has more linear attenuation coefficient at 59.5 KeV and 662 KeV. The variation in attenuation coefficient attributed to chemical composition of wood used in the experiment.

  10. Uranium soft x-ray total attenuation coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Oliver, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium total attenuation coefficients were measured continuously from 0.84 to 6.0 keV and at selected higher energies using a vacuum single crystal diffractometer and flow-proportional counter. Statistical fluctuations ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The overall accuracy was 3%. Prominent structure was measured within 20 eV of the M/sub 5/ (3.552 keV) and M/sub 4/ (3.728 keV) edges. Jump ratios were determined from log-log polynomial fits to data at energies apart from the near-edge regions. These data were compared with calculations based on a relativistic HFS central potential model and with previously tabulated data.

  11. Representative Elementary Length to Measure Soil Mass Attenuation Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Borges, J. A. R.; Pires, L. F.; Costa, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    With increasing demand for better yield in agricultural areas, soil physical property representative measurements are more and more essential. Nuclear techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GAT) have been widely employed with this purpose. The soil mass attenuation coefficient (?s) is an important parameter for CT and GAT analysis. When experimentally determined (?es), the use of suitable sized samples enable to evaluate it precisely, as well as to reduce measurement time and costs. This study investigated the representative elementary length (REL) of sandy and clayey soils for ?es measurements. Two radioactive sources were employed (241Am and 137Cs), three collimators (24?mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (215?cm). Results indicated ideal thickness intervals of 1215 and 24?cm for the sources 137Cs and 241Am, respectively. The application of such results in representative elementary area (REA) evaluations in clayey soil clods via CT indicated that ?es average values obtained for x?>?4?cm and source 241Am might induce to the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations (?s). As a consequence, ?s might be under- or overestimated, generating inaccurate conclusions about the physical quality of the soil under study. PMID:24672338

  12. Depth-resolved model-based reconstruction of attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, K. A.; Mo, J.; Weda, J. J. A.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method, based on a single scattering model, to calculate the attenuation coefficient of each pixel in optical coherence tomography (OCT) depth profiles. Numerical simulations were used to determine the models response to different depths and attenuation coefficients. Experiments were performed on uniform and layered phantoms with varying attenuation coefficients. They were measured by a 1300 nm OCT system and their attenuation coefficients were evaluated by our proposed method and by fitting the OCT slope as the gold standard. Both methods showed largely consistent results for the uniform phantoms. On the layered phantom, only our proposed method accurately estimated the attenuation coefficients. For all phantoms, the proposed method largely reduced the variability of the estimated attenuation coefficients. The method was illustrated on an in-vivo retinal OCT scan, effectively removing common imaging artifacts such as shadowing. By providing localized, per-pixel attenuation coefficients, this method enables tissue characterization based on attenuation coefficient estimates from OCT data. PMID:24466497

  13. The Attenuation of Correlation Coefficients: A Statistical Literacy Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafimow, David

    2016-01-01

    Much of the science reported in the media depends on correlation coefficients. But the size of correlation coefficients depends, in part, on the reliability with which the correlated variables are measured. Understanding this is a statistical literacy issue.

  14. Monitoring changes of optical attenuation coefficients of acupuncture points during laser acupuncture by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Zheng, Liqin; Xie, Shusen

    2010-11-01

    The physical properties of acupuncture point were important to discover the mechanism of acupuncture meridian. In this paper, we used an optical coherence tomography to monitor in vivo the changes of optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point during laser irradiation on Yangxi acupuncture point. The optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point were obtained by fitting the raw data according to the Beer-Lambert's law. The experimental results showed that the optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point decreased during the laser acupuncture, in contrast to a barely changed result in that of non-acupuncture point. The significant change of optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point indicated that there was a correlation between Hegu and Yangxi acupuncture points to some extent.

  15. Derivation of linear attenuation coefficients from CT numbers for low-energy photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoichi

    1999-09-01

    One can estimate photon attenuation properties from the CT number. In a standard method one assumes that the linear attenuation coefficient is proportional to electron density and ignores its nonlinear dependence on atomic number. When the photon energy is lower than about 50 keV, such as for brachytherapy applications, however, photoelectric absorption and Rayleigh scattering become important. Hence the atomic number must be explicitly considered in estimating the linear attenuation coefficient. In this study we propose a method to more accurately estimate the linear attenuation coefficient of low-energy photons from CT numbers. We formulate an equation that relates the CT number to the electron density and the effective atomic number. We use a CT calibration phantom to determine unknown coefficients in the equation. The equation with a given CT number is then solved for the effective atomic number, which in turn is used to calculate the linear attenuation coefficient for low-energy photons. We use the CT phantom to test the new method. The method significantly improves the standard method in estimating the attenuation coefficient at low photon energies (20 keVle Ele40 keV) for materials with high atomic numbers.

  16. Comparison of RNFL thickness and RPE-normalized RNFL attenuation coefficient for glaucoma diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeer, K. A.; van der Schoot, J.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a method to determine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) attenuation coefficient, based on normalization on the retinal pigment epithelium, was introduced. In contrast to conventional RNFL thickness measures, this novel measure represents a scattering property of the RNFL tissue. In this paper, we compare the RNFL thickness and the RNFL attenuation coefficient on 10 normal and 8 glaucomatous eyes by analyzing the correlation coefficient and the receiver operator curves (ROCs). The thickness and attenuation coefficient showed moderate correlation (r=0.82). Smaller correlation coefficients were found within normal (r=0.55) and glaucomatous (r=0.48) eyes. The full separation between normal and glaucomatous eyes based on the RNFL attenuation coefficient yielded an area under the ROC (AROC) of 1.0. The AROC for the RNFL thickness was 0.9875. No statistically significant difference between the two measures was found by comparing the AROC. RNFL attenuation coefficients may thus replace current RNFL thickness measurements or be combined with it to improve glaucoma diagnosis.

  17. Calculation and validation of the use of effective attenuation coefficient for attenuation correction in In-111 SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Youngho; Wong, Kenneth H.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2005-12-15

    Nuclear medicine tracers using {sup 111}In as a radiolabel are increasing in their use, especially in the domain of oncologic imaging. In these applications, it often is critical to have the capability of quantifying radionuclide uptake and being able to relate it to the biological properties of the tumor. However, images from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be degraded by photon attenuation, photon scattering, and collimator blurring; without compensation for these effects, image quality can be degraded, and accurate and precise quantification is impossible. Although attenuation correction for SPECT is becoming more common, most implementations can only model single energy radionuclides such as {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I. Thus, attenuation correction for {sup 111}In is challenging because it emits two photons (171 and 245 keV) at nearly equal rates (90.2% and 94% emission probabilities). In this paper, we present a method of calculating a single 'effective' attenuation coefficient for the dual-energy emissions of {sup 111}In, and that can be used to correct for photon attenuation in radionuclide images acquired with this radionuclide. Using this methodology, we can derive an effective linear attenuation coefficient {mu}{sub eff} and an effective photon energy E{sub eff} based on the emission probabilities and linear attenuation coefficients of the {sup 111}In photons. This approach allows us to treat the emissions from {sup 111}In as a single photon with an effective energy of 210 keV. We obtained emission projection data from a tank filled with a uniform solution of {sup 111}In. The projection data were reconstructed using an iterative maximum-likelihood algorithm with no attenuation correction, and with attenuation correction assuming photon energies of 171, 245, and 210 keV (the derived E{sub eff}). The reconstructed tomographic images demonstrate that the use of no attenuation correction, or correction assuming photon energies of 171 or 245 keV introduces inaccuracies into the reconstructed radioactivity distribution when compared against the effective energy method. In summary, this work provides both a theoretical framework and experimental methodology of attenuation correction for the dual-energy emissions from {sup 111}In. Although these results are specific to {sup 111}In, the foundation could easily be extended to other multiple-energy isotopes.

  18. Attenuation of the Squared Canonical Correlation Coefficient under Varying Estimates of Score Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Celia M.

    2010-01-01

    Research pertaining to the distortion of the squared canonical correlation coefficient has traditionally been limited to the effects of sampling error and associated correction formulas. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of attenuation of the squared canonical correlation coefficient under varying conditions of score reliability.

  19. Mass attenuation coefficient calculations of different detector crystals by means of FLUKA Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebru Ermis, Elif; Celiktas, Cuneyt

    2015-07-01

    Calculations of gamma-ray mass attenuation coefficients of various detector materials (crystals) were carried out by means of FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) method at different gamma-ray energies. NaI, PVT, GSO, GaAs and CdWO4 detector materials were chosen in the calculations. Calculated coefficients were also compared with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) values. Obtained results through this method were highly in accordance with those of the NIST values. It was concluded from the study that FLUKA MC method can be an alternative way to calculate the gamma-ray mass attenuation coefficients of the detector materials.

  20. The role of the reflection coefficient in precision measurement of ultrasonic attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation measurements using contact, pulse-echo techniques are sensitive to surface roughness and couplant thickness variations. This can reduce considerable inaccuracies in the measurement of the attenuation coefficient for broadband pulses. Inaccuracies arise from variations in the reflection coefficient at the buffer-couplant-sample interface. The reflection coefficient is examined as a function of the surface roughness and corresponding couplant thickness variations. Interrelations with ultrasonic frequency are illustrated. Reliable attenuation measurements are obtained only when the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient is incorporated in signal analysis. Data are given for nickel 200 samples and a silicon nitride ceramic bar having surface roughness variations in the 0.3 to 3.0 microns range for signal bandwidths in the 50 to 100 MHz range.

  1. Beam hardening: analytical considerations of the effective attenuation coefficient of X-ray tomography.

    PubMed

    Alles, J; Mudde, R F

    2007-07-01

    Polychromatic x-ray beams traveling though material are prone to beam hardening, i.e., the high energy part of the incident spectrum gets over represented when traveling farther into the material. This study discusses the concept of a mean attenuation coefficient in a formal way. The total energy fluence is one-to-one related to the traveled distance in case of a polychromatic beam moving through a given, inhomogeneous material. On the basis of this one-to-one relation, it is useful to define a mean attenuation coefficient and study its decrease with depth. Our results are based on a novel parametrization of the energy dependence of the attenuation coefficient that allows for closed form evaluation of certain spectral integrals. This approach underpins the ad hoc semianalytical expressions given in the literature. An analytical model for the average attenuation coefficient is proposed that uses a simple fit of the attenuation coefficient as a function of the photon energy as input. It is shown that a simple extension of this model gives a rather good description of beam hardening for x-rays traveling through water. PMID:17821996

  2. Beam hardening: Analytical considerations of the effective attenuation coefficient of x-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Alles, J.; Mudde, R. F.

    2007-07-15

    Polychromatic x-ray beams traveling though material are prone to beam hardening, i.e., the high energy part of the incident spectrum gets over represented when traveling farther into the material. This study discusses the concept of a mean attenuation coefficient in a formal way. The total energy fluence is one-to-one related to the traveled distance in case of a polychromatic beam moving through a given, inhomogeneous material. On the basis of this one-to-one relation, it is useful to define a mean attenuation coefficient and study its decrease with depth. Our results are based on a novel parametrization of the energy dependence of the attenuation coefficient that allows for closed form evaluation of certain spectral integrals. This approach underpins the ad hoc semianalytical expressions given in the literature. An analytical model for the average attenuation coefficient is proposed that uses a simple fit of the attenuation coefficient as a function of the photon energy as input. It is shown that a simple extension of this model gives a rather good description of beam hardening for x-rays traveling through water.

  3. Investigation of photon attenuation coefficient of some building materials used in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, B.; Altinsoy, N.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, some building materials regularly used in Turkey, such as concrete, gas concrete, pumice and brick have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient at different gamma-ray energies. Measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry containing NaI(Tl) detector. Narrow beam gamma-ray transmission geometry was used for the attenuation measurements. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation of XCOM code.

  4. Investigation of photon attenuation coefficient of some building materials used in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, B.; Altinsoy, N.

    2015-03-30

    In this study, some building materials regularly used in Turkey, such as concrete, gas concrete, pumice and brick have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient at different gamma-ray energies. Measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry containing NaI(Tl) detector. Narrow beam gamma-ray transmission geometry was used for the attenuation measurements. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation of XCOM code.

  5. Trends in attenuation coefficients in Athens, Greece, from 1954 to 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jacovides, C.P.; Kaltsounides, N.A.; Giannourakos, G.P.; Kallos, G.B.

    1995-06-01

    Unsworth and Monteith`s attenuation coefficient T{sub UM} was calculated from midday cloudless sky data in Athens, Greece, for the period 1954 to 1991. An interdependence between T{sub UM} and the Linke factor T{sub L} was found and is expressed as a mathematical function. It was also shown that the minimum turbidity levels occur during the winter and maximum levels occur during summer. An analysis of the long-term variation of the attenuation coefficients depicts the deterioration of air quality during the same period. The dependence of the ratio of diffuse to global radiation on the attenuation coefficient T{sub UM}, is also presented. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, R. H.; Alone, S. T.; Bichile, G. K.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2007-05-01

    Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (?), mass attenuation coefficient (?/?), total atomic cross-section (?_{tot}), total electronic cross-section (?_{ele}) and the effective atomic number (Z_{eff}) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe_{2}O_{4}). The values of ?-ray mass attenuation coefficient were obtained using a NaI energy selective scintillation counter with radioactive ?-ray sources having energy 0.36, 0.511, 0.662, 1.17 and 1.28 MeV. The experimentally obtained values of ?/? and Z_{eff} agreed fairly well with those obtained theoretically.

  7. Estimation of ultrasound attenuation coefficient using log-spectrum domain processing.

    PubMed

    Jirik, R; Taxt, T; Jan, J

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasound attenuation coefficient is an important diagnostic parameter in medical ultrasonography. Furthermore, it is a parameter of a component related to the attenuation process of the space-variant point spread function, which can be used to improve the spatial resolution of ultrasound images through deconvolution. A recently published approach to the estimation of the ultrasound attenuation coefficient from B-scan radiofrequency data is extended and explained in a detail. First, a parametric image of the mean attenuation coefficients between the probe and a given pixel position is computed by applying linear regression to log-spectra of short segments of radiofrequency signals. Three methods of forming the parametric image are presented. As a second step, the local tissue-specific attenuation coefficients are estimated in small regions of the obtained parametric image. The method has been tested on synthetic radiofrequency data and on radiofrequency data recorded from a tissue-mimicking phantom. A fairly good correlation with the known reference values was achieved. PMID:17271958

  8. A calibration transmission method to determine the gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient without a collimator.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jong-In; Yun, Ju-Yong

    2015-08-01

    It is shown that the gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient of a sample with unknown chemical composition can be determined through a systematic calibration of the correlation between the linear attenuation coefficient, gamma-ray energy and the relative degree of attenuation. For calibration, H2O, MnO2, NaCl, Na2CO3 and (NH4)2SO4 were used as reference materials. Point-like gamma-ray sources with modest activity of approximately 37kBq, along with an HPGe detector, were used in the measurements. A semi-empirical formula was derived to calculate the linear attenuation coefficients as a function of the relative count rate and the gamma-ray energy. The method was applied to the determination of the linear attenuation coefficients for K2CrO4 and SiO2 test samples in the same setup used in calibration. The experimental result agreed well with the ones calculated by elementary data. PMID:25997111

  9. Measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by synchrotron radiation computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. C.; Longo, R.; Rigon, L.; Zanconati, F.; De Pellegrin, A.; Arfelli, F.; Dreossi, D.; Menk, R.-H.; Vallazza, E.; Xiao, T. Q.; Castelli, E.

    2010-09-01

    The measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues is of fundamental importance in the field of breast x-ray diagnostic imaging. Different groups have evaluated the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by carrying out direct attenuation measurements in which the specimens were thin and selected as homogeneous as possible. Here, we use monochromatic and high-intensity synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) to evaluate the linear attenuation coefficients of surgical breast tissues in the energy range from 15 to 26.5 keV. X-ray detection is performed by a custom digital silicon micro-strip device, developed in the framework of the PICASSO INFN experiment. Twenty-three human surgical breast samples were selected for SR CT and histological study. Six of them underwent CT, both as fresh tissue and after formalin fixation, while the remaining 17 were imaged only as formalin-fixed tissues. Our results for fat and fibrous tissues are in good agreement with the published values. However, in contrast to the published data, our measurements show no significant differences between fibrous and tumor tissues. Moreover, our results for fresh and formalin-fixed tissues demonstrate a reduction of the linear attenuation coefficient for fibrous and tumor tissues after fixation.

  10. Measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by synchrotron radiation computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Chen, R C; Longo, R; Rigon, L; Zanconati, F; De Pellegrin, A; Arfelli, F; Dreossi, D; Menk, R-H; Vallazza, E; Xiao, T Q; Castelli, E

    2010-09-01

    The measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues is of fundamental importance in the field of breast x-ray diagnostic imaging. Different groups have evaluated the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by carrying out direct attenuation measurements in which the specimens were thin and selected as homogeneous as possible. Here, we use monochromatic and high-intensity synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) to evaluate the linear attenuation coefficients of surgical breast tissues in the energy range from 15 to 26.5 keV. X-ray detection is performed by a custom digital silicon micro-strip device, developed in the framework of the PICASSO INFN experiment. Twenty-three human surgical breast samples were selected for SR CT and histological study. Six of them underwent CT, both as fresh tissue and after formalin fixation, while the remaining 17 were imaged only as formalin-fixed tissues. Our results for fat and fibrous tissues are in good agreement with the published values. However, in contrast to the published data, our measurements show no significant differences between fibrous and tumor tissues. Moreover, our results for fresh and formalin-fixed tissues demonstrate a reduction of the linear attenuation coefficient for fibrous and tumor tissues after fixation. PMID:20702925

  11. A simplified model of radiation attenuation and energy absorption coefficients of the elements.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, John F

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a model to predict mass attenuation and mass energy absorption coefficients of the elements for photons of energy from 1keV to 20MeV. The Compton scattering component is modeled by the attenuation and energy absorption of hydrogen at photon energies above 10keV. Photoelectric attenuation and absorption is modeled as a simple power law of photon energy, modified by a simple function of the difference between the photon energy and the K shell binding energy of the absorber atoms. Attenuation and absorption by pair production above 1.022MeV is modeled as a quadratic function of the square root of the photon energy. The mass attenuation and mass energy absorption coefficients of compounds can be predicted by the mixture rule. The errors in the model are greatest at the lowest photon energies, in part due to a lack of experimental data for photon energies below 1keV. Worked examples are presented for the attenuation of photons at various energies in several elements and also in water over the whole range of photon energies. PMID:26319092

  12. Comparison of attenuation coefficients for VVER-440 and VVER-1000 pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, M.; Rataj, J.; Vandlik, S.

    2011-07-01

    The paper summarizes the attenuation coefficient of the neutron fluence with E > 0.5 MeV through a reactor pressure vessel for vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactor (VVER) reactor types measured and/or calculated for mock-up experiments, as well as for operated nuclear power plant (NPP) units. The attenuation coefficient is possible to evaluate directly only by using the retro-dosimetry, based on a combination of the measured activities from the weld sample and concurrent ex-vessel measurement. The available neutron fluence attenuation coefficients (E > 0.5 MeV), calculated and measured at a mock-up experiment simulating the VVER-440-unit conditions, vary from 3.5 to 6.15. A similar situation is used for the calculations and mock-up experiment measurements for the VVER-1000 RPV, where the attenuation coefficient of the neutron fluence varies from 5.99 to 8.85. Because of the difference in calculations for the real units and the mock-up experiments, the necessity to design and perform calculation benchmarks both for VVER-440 and VVER-1000 would be meaningful if the calculation model is designed adequately to a given unit. (authors)

  13. Total photon attenuation coefficients in some rare earth elements using selective excitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SitaMahalakshmi, N. V.; Kareem, M. A.; Premachand, K.

    2015-01-01

    The total mass attenuation coefficients were measured in the elements La, Nd, Sm, Gd and Dy belonging to rare earth region in the energy range 30-55 keV by employing the selective excitation method. This method facilitates selection of excitation energies near the K edge. The present experimental results were compared with the theoretical values due to Chantler and XCOM.

  14. Estimation of near-surface quality factors by constrained inversion of Rayleigh-wave attenuation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Yixian; Miller, Richard D.; Ivanov, Julian

    2012-07-01

    Quality factors (Q) of near-surface materials are as important as velocities of the materials in many applications. Only phase information of surface-wave data is utilized when high-frequency (? 2 Hz) surface-wave data are routinely inverted to determine near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities. Amplitude information of high-frequency surface-wave data can be used to determine quality factors of near-surface materials. Given S-wave velocity, compressional (P)-wave velocity, and Rayleigh-wave phase velocities, it is feasible to solve for S-wave quality factor QS and P-wave quality factor QP (for some specific velocity models) down to 30 m below the ground surface in many settings by inverting high-frequency Rayleigh-wave attenuation coefficients in a layered earth model. Amplitude of seismic data is an exponential function of attenuation coefficients. When calculating attenuation coefficients from changes in amplitude, this nonlinear nature would result in that small variations in amplitude cause huge changes in attenuation coefficients. This result suggests data (attenuation coefficients) that normally possess large errors could eventually transfer to a model (quality factors); therefore, constraints (or a priori information) on models are necessary. Because an inversion system to solve this problem is unstable, a regularization parameter must be introduced into an inversion algorithm to stabilize the inversion. These characteristics of the inversion problem allow us to solve the problem as a constrained and regularized linear system. Usually, a set of models that meet the defined constraints can be obtained by solving the system. Based on the linear nature of the inversion system, a smooth model can be selected from the set of models as a solution of the inversion using the L-curve method. This approach is a trade-off solution between data misfit and model length. Several real-world examples demonstrate the importance of constraints in finding acceptable realistic quality factors from empirical data.

  15. Quantitative RNFL attenuation coefficient measurements by RPE-normalized OCT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeer, K. A.; van der Schoot, J.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate significantly different scattering coefficients of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) between normal and glaucoma subjects. In clinical care, SD-OCT is routinely used to assess the RNFL thickness for glaucoma management. In this way, the full OCT data set is conveniently reduced to an easy to interpret output, matching results from older (non- OCT) instruments. However, OCT provides more data, such as the signal strength itself, which is due to backscattering in the retinal layers. For quantitative analysis, this signal should be normalized to adjust for local differences in the intensity of the beam that reaches the retina. In this paper, we introduce a model that relates the OCT signal to the attenuation coefficient of the tissue. The average RNFL signal (within an A-line) was then normalized based on the observed RPE signal, resulting in normalized RNFL attenuation coefficient maps. These maps showed local defects matching those found in thickness data. The average (normalized) RNFL attenuation coefficient of a fixed band around the optic nerve head was significantly lower in glaucomatous eyes than in normal eyes (3.0mm-1 vs. 4.9mm-1, P<0.01, Mann-Whitney test).

  16. Attenuation coefficient and propagation speed estimates of intercostal tissue as a function of pig age.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rita J; Frizzell, Leon A; Zachary, James F; O'Brien, William D

    2002-10-01

    Attention coefficient and propagation speed of intercostal tissues were estimated from chest walls removed postmortem (pm) from 15 5.3+/-2.3-day-old, 19 31+/-6-day-old, and 15 61+/-3-day-old crossbred pigs. These ultrasonic propagation properties were determined from measurements through the intercostal tissues, from the surface of the skin to the parietal pleura. The chest walls were placed in a 0.9% sodium chloride solution, sealed in freezer bags, and stored at -15 degrees C prior to measurements. When evaluated, chest-wall storage time ranged between 1 and 477 days pm. All chest walls were allowed to equilibrate to 22 degrees C in a water bath prior to evaluation. There was an age dependency of the intercostal tissue propagation speed, with the speed increasing with increasing age. The attenuation coefficient of intercostal tissue was shown to be independent of the age of the pig at the discrete frequencies of 3.1 and 6.2 MHz. For pig intercostal tissues, the estimated attenuation coefficient over the 3.1-9.2 MHz frequency range was A = 1.94f(0.90) where A is in decibels per centimeter (dB/cm) and f is the ultrasonic frequency in megahertz. In order to determine if there was an effect of storage time pm on estimates of attenuation coefficient, a second experiment was conducted. Five of the youngest pig chest walls measured on day 1 pm in the first experiment were stored at 4 degrees C prior to the first evaluation then stored at -15 degrees C before being measured again at 108 days pm. There was no difference in the estimated intercostal tissue attenuation coefficient as a function of storage time pm. PMID:12403143

  17. A generalized method of converting CT image to PET linear attenuation coefficient distribution in PET/CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Wu, Li-Wei; Wei, Le; Gao, Juan; Sun, Cui-Li; Chai, Pei; Li, Dao-Wu

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of attenuation correction in positron emission tomography scanners depends mainly on deriving the reliable 511-keV linear attenuation coefficient distribution in the scanned objects. In the PET/CT system, the linear attenuation distribution is usually obtained from the intensities of the CT image. However, the intensities of the CT image relate to the attenuation of photons in an energy range of 40 keV-140 keV. Before implementing PET attenuation correction, the intensities of CT images must be transformed into the PET 511-keV linear attenuation coefficients. However, the CT scan parameters can affect the effective energy of CT X-ray photons and thus affect the intensities of the CT image. Therefore, for PET/CT attenuation correction, it is crucial to determine the conversion curve with a given set of CT scan parameters and convert the CT image into a PET linear attenuation coefficient distribution. A generalized method is proposed for converting a CT image into a PET linear attenuation coefficient distribution. Instead of some parameter-dependent phantom calibration experiments, the conversion curve is calculated directly by employing the consistency conditions to yield the most consistent attenuation map with the measured PET data. The method is evaluated with phantom experiments and small animal experiments. In phantom studies, the estimated conversion curve fits the true attenuation coefficients accurately, and accurate PET attenuation maps are obtained by the estimated conversion curves and provide nearly the same correction results as the true attenuation map. In small animal studies, a more complicated attenuation distribution of the mouse is obtained successfully to remove the attenuation artifact and improve the PET image contrast efficiently.

  18. Method for computing the attenuation coefficient of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic plasma columns

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanashev, I.; Zhelyazkov, I. )

    1994-12-01

    A new and efficient method for calculating the attenuation coefficient of weakly damped electromagnetic waves traveling along wave-guiding structures partially or entirely filled by a lossy anisotropic dielectric, in particular cold axially magnetized plasma, is proposed. The structure cross-section geometry can be arbitrary and any nonradiating mode can be considered. In the case of plasma columns, they might be transversely inhomogeneous. Having obtained the attenuation coefficient, it is straightforward to find out the axial structure of plasma columns sustained by the waves themselves. The method is applied to azimuthally symmetric and dipolar waves in cylindrical plasma columns and it is found to reproduce all known theoretical results within its applicability.

  19. Mass attenuation coefficients of X-rays in different medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Morabad, R B; Kerur, B R

    2010-02-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients of specific parts of several plants, (fruits, leaves, stem and seeds) often used as medicines in the Indian herbal system, have been measured employing NaI (TI)) detector. The electronic setup used is a NaI (TI) detector, which is coupled to MCA for analysis of the spectrum. A source of (241)Am is used to get X-rays in the energy range 8-32keV from Cu, Rb, Mo, Ag and Ba targets. In the present study, the measured mass attenuation coefficient of Ocimum sanctum, Catharanthus roseus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Azadirachta indica, Aegle marmelos, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, Anacardium occidentale, Momordica charantia and Syzygium cumini show a linear relation with the energy. PMID:19910203

  20. Total attenuation coefficient of intralipid dilutions for discrete laser wavelengths between 405 and 1315 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreischuh, Tanja N.; Gurdev, Ljuan L.; Vankov, Orlin I.; Avramov, Lachezar A.; Stoyanov, Dimitar V.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental investigations on different aspects of optical tomography require the knowledge of the optical parameters of tissues and tissue-like phantoms in order to unambiguously interpret the experimental data and specify characteristic inhomogeneities in tissue diagnostics. The main optical parameters of interest are the absorption coefficient, the scattering, backscattering, and reduced-scattering coefficients, the total attenuation (extinction) coefficient and the anisotropy factor. In this work, we extend our investigations of the optical properties of tissuemimicking phantoms, such as Intralipid-20% fat emulsion, using an approach we have developed recently based on the peculiarities of laser radiation beams propagating through semi-infinite turbid media. The dependence of the total attenuation coefficient on the Intralipid concentration, for laser radiation wavelengths ?=405, 672, 850, and 1314 nm, is studied, by using a set of phantoms consisting of different dilutions of Intralipid in distilled water. The experimental results for the extinction are in agreement with our previous results and with empiric formulae found by other authors concerning the wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient of Intralipid -10% and Intralipid - 20%. They are also in agreement with known data of the water absorptance. As a whole, the results obtained in this work confirm the consideration of the experimental phantoms as semi-infinite media. They also confirm and extend theoretical and experimental results obtained previously, and reveal advantages of using longer wavelengths for deeper diagnostics of tissues and mimic turbid media.

  1. Total mass attenuation coefficient evaluation of ten materials commonly used to simulate human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C. C.; Ximenes, R. E.; Garcia, C. A. B.; Vieira, J. W.; Maia, A. F.

    2010-11-01

    To study the doses received by patient submitted to ionizing radiation, several materials are used to simulate the human tissue and organs. The total mass attenuation coefficient is a reasonable way for evaluating the usage in dosimetry of these materials. The total mass attenuation coefficient is determined by photon energy and constituent elements of the material. Currently, the human phantoms are composed by a unique material that presents characteristics similar to the mean proprieties of the different tissues within the region. Therefore, the phantoms are usually homogeneous and filled with a material similar to soft tissue. We studied ten materials used as soft tissue-simulating. These materials were named: bolus, nylon, orange articulation wax, red articulation wax, PMMA, modelling clay, bee wax, paraffin 1, paraffin 2 and pitch. The objective of this study was to verify the best material to simulate the human cerebral tissue. We determined the elementary composition, mass density and, therefore, calculated the total mass attenuation coefficient of each material. The results were compared to the values established by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements - ICRU, report n 44, and by the International Commission on Radiation Protection - ICRP, report n 89, to determine the best material for this energy interval. These results indicate that new head phantoms can be constructed with nylon.

  2. Results of a monte carlo investigation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Concannon, B M; Davis, J P

    1999-08-20

    There has been a large effort to relate the apparent optical properties of ocean water to the inherent optical properties, which are the absorption coefficient a, the scattering coefficient b, and the scattering phase function rho(theta). The diffuse attenuation coefficient kdiff' has most often been considered an apparent optical property. However, kdiff' can be considered a quasi-inherent property kdiff' when defined as a steady-state light distribution attenuation coefficient. The Honey-Wilson research empirically relates kdiff' to a and b. The Honey-Wilson relation most likely applies to a limited range of water types because it does not include dependence on rho(theta). A series of Monte Carlo simulations were initiated to calculate kdiff' in an unstratified water column. The calculations, which reflected open ocean water types, used ranges of the single-scattering albedo omega(0) and the mean forward-scattering angle theta(m) for two analytic phase functions with different shapes. It was found that kdiff' is nearly independent of the shape of rho(theta) and can be easily parameterized in terms of a, b, and theta(m) for 0.11

  3. Simultaneous reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution from TOF data, acquired with external transmission source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, V. Y.; Aykac, M.; Casey, M. E.

    2013-06-01

    The simultaneous PET data reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution is presented, where the attenuation image is constrained by exploiting an external transmission source. Data are acquired in time-of-flight (TOF) mode, allowing in principle for separation of emission and transmission data. Nevertheless, here all data are reconstructed at once, eliminating the need to trace the position of the transmission source in sinogram space. Contamination of emission data by the transmission source and vice versa is naturally modeled. Attenuated emission activity data also provide additional information about object attenuation coefficient values. The algorithm alternates between attenuation and emission activity image updates. We also proposed a method of estimation of spatial scatter distribution from the transmission source by incorporating knowledge about the expected range of attenuation map values. The reconstruction of experimental data from the Siemens mCT scanner suggests that simultaneous reconstruction improves attenuation map image quality, as compared to when data are separated. In the presented example, the attenuation map image noise was reduced and non-uniformity artifacts that occurred due to scatter estimation were suppressed. On the other hand, the use of transmission data stabilizes attenuation coefficient distribution reconstruction from TOF emission data alone. The example of improving emission images by refining a CT-based patient attenuation map is presented, revealing potential benefits of simultaneous CT and PET data reconstruction.

  4. Attenuation coefficients of soils and some building materials of Bangladesh in the energy range 276-1332 keV.

    PubMed

    Alam, M N; Miah, M M; Chowdhury, M I; Kamal, M; Ghose, S; Rahman, R

    2001-06-01

    The linear and mass attenuation coefficients of different types of soil, sand, building materials and heavy beach mineral samples from the Chittagong and Cox's Bazar area of Bangladesh were measured using a high-resolution HPGe detector and the gamma-ray energies 276.1, 302.8, 356.0, 383.8, 661.6 and 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV emitted from point sources of 133Ba, 137Cs and 60Co, respectively. The linear attenuation coefficients show a linear relationship with the corresponding densities of the samples studied. The variations of the mass attenuation coefficient with gamma-ray energy were exponential in nature. The measured mass attenuation coefficient values were compared with measurements made in other countries for similar kinds of materials. The values are in good agreement with each other in most cases. PMID:11300413

  5. Learning curve and interobserver variance in quantification of the optical coherence tomography attenuation coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Ronni; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Faber, Dirk J.; Sanders, Joyce; Vincent, Andrew D.; van Beurden, Marc; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Ruers, Theo J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The learning curve and interobserver variance of attenuation coefficient (?OCT) determination from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were quantified. The ?OCT of normal and diseased vulvar tissues was determined at five time points by three novice students and three OCT experts who reached consensus for reference. Students received feedback between time points. Eventually, variance in ?OCT was smaller in images of diseased tissue than in images of normal vulvar tissue. The difference between the consensus and student ?OCT values was larger for smaller values of ?OCT. We conclude that routine ?OCT determination for tissue classification does not require extensive training.

  6. Learning curve and interobserver variance in quantification of the optical coherence tomography attenuation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Ronni; de Bruin, Daniel M; Faber, Dirk J; Sanders, Joyce; Vincent, Andrew D; van Beurden, Marc; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Ruers, Theo J M

    2015-12-01

    The learning curve and interobserver variance of attenuation coefficient (?OCT ) determination from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were quantified. The ?OCT of normal and diseased vulvar tissues was determined at five time points by three novice students and three OCT experts who reached consensus for reference. Students received feedback between time points. Eventually, variance in ?OCT was smaller in images of diseased tissue than in images of normal vulvar tissue. The difference between the consensus and student ?OCT values was larger for smaller values of ?OCT . We conclude that routine ?OCT determination for tissue classification does not require extensive training. PMID:26662606

  7. Variability of the downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficient with consideration of inelastic scattering.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaobing; Dickey, Tommy; Chang, Grace

    2002-10-20

    In situ time-series measurements of spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring are presented. Averaged diffuse attenuation coefficients of downwelling irradiance, Kd,and their elastic and inelastic components are investigated at seven wavelengths. At shorter wavelengths (<510 nm), Kd is weakly dependent on the solar zenith angle owing to the prevailing scattering effect and therefore can be considered a quasi-inherent optical property. At longer wavelengths (>510 nm), Kd shows a strong dependence on the solar zenith angle. As depth increases, inelastic scattering plays a greater role for the underwater light field at red wavelengths. PMID:12396201

  8. Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the China seas from surface reflectance.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongfeng; Wu, Tingting; Su, Yuanyuan

    2013-07-01

    Accurate estimation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient is important for our understanding the availability of light to underwater communities, which provide critical information for the China seas ecosystem. However, algorithm developments and validations of the diffuse attenuation coefficient in the China seas have been seldom performed before and therefore our knowledge on the quality of retrieval of the diffuse attenuate coefficient is poor. In this paper optical data at 306 sites collected in coastal waters of the China seas between July 2000 and February 2004 are used to evaluate three typical existing Kd(490) models. The in situ Kd(490) varied greatly among different sites from 0.029 m(-1) to 10.3 m(-1), with a mean of 0.92 1.59 m(-1). Results show that the empirical model and the semi-analytical model significantly underestimate the Kd(490) value, with estimated mean values of 0.24 m(-1) and 0.5 m(-1), respectively. The combined model also shows significant differences when the in situ Kd(490) range from 0.2 m(-1) to 1 m(-1). Thus, the present study proposes that the three algorithms cannot be directly used to appropriately estimate Kd(490) in the turbid coastal waters of the China seas without a fine tuning for regional applications. In this paper, new Kd(490) algorithms are developed based on the semi-analytical retrieval of the absorption coefficient a(m(-1)) and the backscattering coefficient bb(m(-1)) from the reflectance at two wavelengths, 488 and 667 nm for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and 490 and 705 nm for the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) applications, respectively. With the new approaches, the mean ratio and the relative percentage difference are 1.05 and 4.6%, respectively, based on an independent in situ data set. Furthermore, the estimates are reliable within a factor of 1.9 (95% confidence interval). Comparisons also show that the Kd(490) derived with the new algorithms are well correlated with the in situ measurements. Our results showed a good improvement in the estimation for Kd(490) using the new approaches, contrasting with existing empirical, semi-analytical and combined models. Therefore, we propose the new approaches for accurate retrieval of Kd(490) in the China seas. PMID:23842315

  9. Dynamic changes of integrated backscatter, attenuation coefficient and bubble activities during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siyuan; Wan, Mingxi; Zhong, Hui; Xu, Cheng; Liao, Zhenzhong; Liu, Huanqing; Wang, Supin

    2009-11-01

    This paper simultaneously investigated the transient characteristics of integrated backscatter (IBS), attenuation coefficient and bubble activities as time traces before, during and after HIFU treatment, with different HIFU parameters (acoustic power and duty cycle) in both transparent tissue-mimicking phantoms and freshly excised bovine livers. These dynamic changes of acoustic parameters and bubble activities were correlated with the visualization of lesion development selected from photos, conventional B-mode ultrasound images and differential IBS images over the whole procedure of HIFU treatment. Two-dimensional radiofrequency (RF) data were acquired by a modified diagnostic ultrasound scanner to estimate the changes of mean IBS and attenuation coefficient averaged in the lesion region, and to construct the differential IBS images and B-mode ultrasound images simultaneously. Bubble activities over the whole procedure of HIFU treatment were investigated by the passive cavitation detection (PCD) method and the changes in subharmonic and broadband noise were correlated with the transient characteristics of IBS and attenuation coefficient. When HIFU was switched on, IBS and attenuation coefficient increased with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode and differential IBS image. At the same time, the level of subharmonic and broadband noise rose abruptly. Then, there was an initial decrease in the attenuation coefficient, followed by an increase when at lower HIFU power. As the lesion appeared, IBS and attenuation coefficient both increased rapidly to a value twice that of normal. Then the changes in IBS and attenuation coefficient showed more complex patterns, but still showed a slower trend of increases with lesion development. Violent bubble activities were visible in the gel and were evident as strongly echogenic regions in the differential IBS images and B-mode images simultaneously. This was detected by a dramatic high level of subharmonic and broadband noise at the same time. These bubble activities caused fluctuations in IBS and attenuation coefficient during HIFU treatment. After HIFU, IBS and attenuation coefficient decreased gradually accompanied by the fadeout of bright hyperechoic spot in the B-mode and differential IBS image, but were still higher than normal when they were stable. The increases of IBS and attenuation coefficient were greater when using higher acoustic power or a higher duty cycle of the therapeutic emission. These experiments indicated that the bubble activities had the dominant effects on the transient characteristics of IBS and attenuation. This should be taken into consideration when using the dynamic acoustic-property changes for the potentially real-time monitoring imaging of HIFU treatment. PMID:19716225

  10. Characterization of the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and its frequency dependence in a polymer gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescenti, Remo A.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Partridge, Mike; Bush, Nigel L.; Webb, Steve

    2007-11-01

    Research on polymer-gel dosimetry has been driven by the need for three-dimensional dosimetry, and because alternative dosimeters are unsatisfactory or too slow for that task. Magnetic resonance tomography is currently the most well-developed technique for determining radiation-induced changes in polymer structure, but quick low-cost alternatives remain of significant interest. In previous work, ultrasound attenuation and speed of sound were found to change as a function of absorbed radiation dose in polymer-gel dosimeters, although the investigations were restricted to one ultrasound frequency. Here, the ultrasound attenuation coefficient ? in one polymer gel (MAGIC) was investigated as a function of radiation dose D and as a function of ultrasonic frequency f in a frequency range relevant for imaging dose distributions. The nonlinearity of the frequency dependence was characterized, fitting a power-law model ? = afb; the fitting parameters were examined for potential use as additional dose readout parameters. In the observed relationship between the attenuation coefficient and dose, the slopes in a quasi-linear dose range from 0 to 30 Gy were found to vary with the gel batch but lie between 0.0222 and 0.0348 dB cm-1 Gy-1 at 2.3 MHz, between 0.0447 and 0.0608 dB cm-1 Gy-1 at 4.1 MHz and between 0.0663 and 0.0880 dB cm-1 Gy-1 at 6.0 MHz. The mean standard deviation of the slope for all samples and frequencies was 15.8%. The slope was greater at higher frequencies, but so were the intra-batch fluctuations and intra-sample standard deviations. Further investigations are required to overcome the observed variability, which was largely associated with the sample preparation technique, before it can be determined whether any frequency is superior to others in terms of accuracy and precision in dose determination. Nevertheless, lower frequencies will allow measurements through larger samples. The fit parameter a of the frequency dependence, describing the attenuation coefficient at 1 MHz, was found to be dose dependent, which is consistent with our expectations, as polymerization is known to be associated with increased absorption of ultrasound. No significant dose dependence was found for the fit parameter b, which describes the nonlinearity with frequency. This is consistent with the increased absorption being due to the introduction of new relaxation processes with characteristic frequencies similar to those of existing processes. The data presented here will help with optimizing the design of future 3D dose-imaging systems using ultrasound methods.

  11. Measurements of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2014-05-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as DL-aspartic acid-LR(C4H7NO4), L-glutamine (C4H10N2O3), creatine monohydrate LR(C4H9N3O2H2O), creatinine hydrochloride (C4H7N3OHCl) L-asparagine monohydrate(C4H9N3O2H2O), L-methionine LR(C5H11NO2S), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 0.101785 at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) initially decrease and tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. Zeff and Neff experimental values showed good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error for amino acids.

  12. Linear attenuation coefficients of tissues from 1 keV to 150 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bke, Aysun

    2014-09-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients and three interaction processes have been computed for liver, kidney, muscle, fat and for a range of x-ray energies from 1 keV to 150 keV. Molecular photoelectric absorption cross sections were calculated from atomic cross section data. Total coherent (Rayleigh) and incoherent (Compton) scattering cross sections were obtained by numerical integration over combinations of F2m(x) with the Thomson formula and Sm(x) with the Klein-Nishina formula, respectively. For the coherent (Rayleigh) scattering cross section calculations, molecular form factors were obtained from recent experimental data in the literature for values of x<1 -1 and from the relativistic modified atomic form factors for values of x?1 -1. With the inclusion of molecular interference effects in the coherent (Rayleigh) scattering, more accurate knowledge of the scatter from these tissues will be provided. The number of elements involved in tissue composition is 5 for liver, 47 for kidney, 44 for muscle and 3 for fat. The results are compared with previously published experimental and theoretical linear attenuation coefficients. In general, good agreement is obtained. The molecular form factors and scattering functions and cross sections are incorporated into a Monte Carlo program. The energy distributions of x-ray photons scattered from tissues have been simulated and the results are presented.

  13. Effective atomic numbers and mass attenuation coefficients of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds for total photon interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shivaramu; Amutha, R.; Ramprasath, V.

    1999-05-01

    Effective atomic numbers for total gamma-ray interaction with some selected thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds such as barium acetate, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate dihydrate, cadmium sulfate (anhydrous), cadmium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and lithium fluoride have been calculated in the 1-keV to 20-MeV energy region. Experimental mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers for these compounds at selected photon energies of 26.3, 33.2, 59.54, and 661.6 keV have been obtained from good geometry transmission measurements and compared with theoretical values. The effect of absorption edge on effective atomic numbers and its variation with energy, and nonvalidity of the Bragg`s mixture rule at incident photon energies closer to the absorption edges of constituent elements of compounds are discussed.

  14. Different methods of mass attenuation coefficient evaluation: Influences in the measurement of some soil physical properties.

    PubMed

    Pires, L F; Medhat, M E

    2016-05-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients of Brazilian soils (μs) and water (μw) were measured and calculated at 59.5keV ((241)Am) photon energy. The μs and μw experimental values were compared using XCOM and Monte Carlo computer codes (FLUKA, GEANT4 and MCNP). The influence of different methods of µ evaluation on the measurement of soil bulk density (ρs) and soil water content (θ) distributions and soil water retention (SWRC) was investigated. ρs and θ distributions were analyzed by using computed tomography (CT). Distinct ρs distributions were obtained even for similar µs values measured among methods. θ distributions were also greatly influenced by the different methods of μw evaluation. Regarding the SWRC, the results exhibited great differences in the region of structural pores, which directly affected the pore size distribution. PMID:26926378

  15. Temperature Increase Dependence on Ultrasound Attenuation Coefficient in Innovative Tissue-mimicking Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccaro, R.; Magnetto, C.; Albo, P. A. Giuliano; Troia, A.; Lago, S.

    Although high intensity focused ultrasound beams (HIFU) have found rapid agreement in clinical environment as a tool for non invasive surgical ablation and controlled destruction of cancer cells, some aspects related to the interaction of ultrasonic waves with tissues, such as the conversion of acoustic energy into heat, are not thoroughly understood. In this work, innovative tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs), based on Agar and zinc acetate, have been used to conduct investigations in order to determine a relation between the sample attenuation coefficient and its temperature increase measured in the focus region when exposed to an HIFU beam. An empirical relation has been deduced establishing useful basis for further processes of validations of numerical models to be adopted for customizing therapeutic treatments.

  16. Calculation of solar attenuation coefficient using ACCOS V along a critical scattering path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Alan J.

    1989-01-01

    An appraisal of the optical properties of the AVHRR is made for a proposed orbital trajectory which results in an unexpected solar stray-light path; i.e., bypassing the external scan mirror and Cassegrain telescope and proceeding directly to the inner conical baffle. This stray-light path is directed onto an internal beamsplitter which, in turn, is directly observed by the detectors. Stray-light analysis, as a goal, seeks to remove or minimize the influence of such critical scattering paths. The AVHRR path is evaluated using a standard optical ray-tracing program, ACCOS V. To determine the expected sensor degradation, a calculation of the expected attenuation coefficient of scattered sunlight in the AVHRR sensor is estimated based on this important critical scattering path.

  17. A method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient (KdPAR)from paired temperature sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Read, Jordan S.; Rose, Kevin C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Emily Kara

    2015-01-01

    A new method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation (KdPAR) from paired temperature sensors was derived. We show that during cases where the attenuation of penetrating shortwave solar radiation is the dominant source of temperature changes, time series measurements of water temperatures at multiple depths (z1 and z2) are related to one another by a linear scaling factor (a). KdPAR can then be estimated by the simple equation KdPAR ln(a)/(z2/z1). A suggested workflow is presented that outlines procedures for calculating KdPAR according to this paired temperature sensor (PTS) method. This method is best suited for conditions when radiative temperature gains are large relative to physical noise. These conditions occur frequently on water bodies with low wind and/or high KdPARs but can be used for other types of lakes during time periods of low wind and/or where spatially redundant measurements of temperatures are available. The optimal vertical placement of temperature sensors according to a priori knowledge of KdPAR is also described. This information can be used to inform the design of future sensor deployments using the PTS method or for campaigns where characterizing sub-daily changes in temperatures is important. The PTS method provides a novel method to characterize light attenuation in aquatic ecosystems without expensive radiometric equipment or the user subjectivity inherent in Secchi depth measurements. This method also can enable the estimation of KdPAR at higher frequencies than many manual monitoring programs allow.

  18. Diel variability of the beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE site)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheireddine, Malika; Antoine, David

    2014-08-01

    The diel variability of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient, cp, and of the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, were investigated during five seasonal cycles at an oceanic site in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, covering contrasting physical and trophic situations. We observed a diel cycle in cp and bbp, related to changes in phytoplankton properties (i.e., size and refractive index) induced by the accumulation of carbon within phytoplankton cells associated with photosynthetic processes, during the winter mixing of the water column, the development of the spring phytoplankton bloom, its decline, and during the summer oligotrophy. The relative amplitude of the cp diel variability was much larger during the spring bloom (20-50%) than during other seasons (10-20%), whereas that of bbp is steadily around 20% and does not show significant seasonal variability. The minimal cp and bbp occurred at sunrise and are synchronized, whereas maximum bbp values are often reached 3-6 h before those for cp (except during bloom conditions), which occur near sunset. These different amplitudes and timing are tentatively explained using Mie computations, which allow discerning the respective roles of changes in the particle size distribution and refractive index. The differences observed here in the diel cycles of cp and bbp show that they cannot be used interchangeably to determine the daily increase of the particle pool. This result has implications on the feasibility to determine net community production from the bbp diel changes, when only bbp is measured in situ or available from ocean color observations.

  19. Dependence of optical attenuation coefficient and mechanical tension of irradiated human cartilage measured by optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Martinho Junior, A C; Freitas, A Z; Raele, M P; Santin, S P; Soares, F A N; Herson, M R; Mathor, M B

    2015-03-01

    As banked human tissues are not widely available, the development of new non-destructive and contactless techniques to evaluate the quality of allografts before distribution for transplantation is very important. Also, tissues will be processed accordingly to standard procedures and to minimize disease transmission most tissue banks will include a decontamination or sterilization step such as ionizing radiation. In this work, we present a new method to evaluate the internal structure of frozen or glycerol-processed human cartilages, submitted to various dosis of irradiation, using the total optical attenuation coefficient retrieved from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Our results show a close relationship between tensile properties and the total optical attenuation coefficient of cartilages. Therefore, OCT associated with the total optical attenuation coefficient open a new window to evaluate quantitatively biological changes in processed tissues. PMID:24322969

  20. Noninvasive monitoring of photodynamic therapy on skin neoplastic lesions using the optical attenuation coefficient measured by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulart, Viviane P.; dos Santos, Moiss O.; Latrive, Anne; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Correa, Luciana; Zezell, Denise M.

    2015-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become a promising alternative for treatment of skin lesions such as squamous cell carcinoma. We propose a method to monitor the effects of PDT in a noninvasive way by using the optical attenuation coefficient (OAC) calculated from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. We conducted a study on mice with chemically induced neoplastic lesions and performed PDT on these lesions using homemade photosensitizers. The response of neoplastic lesions to therapy was monitored using, at the same time, macroscopic clinical visualization, histopathological analysis, OCT imaging, and OCT-based attenuation coefficient measurement. Results with all four modalities demonstrated a positive response to treatment. The attenuation coefficient was found to be 1.4 higher in skin lesions than in healthy tissue and it decreased after therapy. This study shows that the OAC is a potential tool to noninvasively assess the evolution of skin neoplastic lesions with time after treatment.

  1. Frequency-dependent attenuation and backscatter coefficients in bovine trabecular bone from 0.2 to 1.2 MHz.

    PubMed

    Il Lee, Kang; Joo Choi, Min

    2012-01-01

    The frequency-dependent attenuation and backscatter coefficients were measured in 25 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples from 0.2 to 1.2 MHz. When the average attenuation coefficient was fitted to a nonlinear power law ?(f)=?(0)+?(1)f(n), the exponent n was found to be 1.65. In contrast, the average backscatter coefficient was fitted to a power law ?(f)=?(1)f(n) and the exponent n was measured as 3.25. The apparent bone density was significantly correlated with the parameter ?(1) (0.2-0.7 MHz: r = 0.852, 0.6-1.2 MHz: r = 0.832) as well as the backscatter coefficient (0.5 MHz: r = 0.751, 1.0 MHz: r = 0.808). PMID:22280732

  2. Evaluation of Moisture-Related Attenuation Coefficient and Water Diffusion Velocity in Human Skin Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Chang, Feng-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Shen, Su-Chin; Yuan, Ouyang; Yang, Chih-He

    2013-01-01

    In this study, time-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning images of the process of water diffusion in the skin that illustrate the enhancement in the backscattered intensities due to the increased water concentration are presented. In our experiments, the water concentration in the skin was increased by soaking the hand in water, and the same region of the skin was scanned and measured with the OCT system and a commercial moisture monitor every three minutes. To quantitatively analyze the moisture-related optical properties and the velocity of water diffusion in human skin, the attenuation coefficients of the skin, including the epidermis and dermis layers, were evaluated. Furthermore, the evaluated attenuation coefficients were compared with the measurements made using the commercial moisture monitor. The results demonstrate that the attenuation coefficient increases as the water concentration increases. Furthermore, by evaluating the positions of center-of mass of the backscattered intensities from OCT images, the diffusion velocity can be estimated. In contrast to the commercial moisture monitor, OCT can provide three-dimensional structural images of the skin and characterize its optical property, which together can be used to observe morphological changes and quantitatively evaluate the moisture-related attenuation coefficients in different skin layers. PMID:23529149

  3. Attenuation coefficient of the light in skin of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, C. R.; Camargo, C. F. M.; Aureliano, D. P.; De Pretto, L. R.; Freitas, A. Z.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    Optical properties of the biological tissue play an important role to a correct use of optical techniques for therapy and diagnosis. The mice skin presents morphological differences due to characteristics such as gender, body mass and age. Murine models are frequently used in pre-clinical trials in optical therapy and diagnosis. Therefore, the assessment of the skin tissue in animal models is needed for a proper understanding of how light interacts with skin. Noninvasive techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been used to obtain optical information of the tissue, as the attenuation coefficient, with the advantage of obtaining sectional images in real time. In this study, eight female BALB/c albino mice (twenty-four weeks old) and eight male C57BL/6 black mice (eight weeks old) were used to measure the attenuation coefficient of the light in the skin, utilizing the OCT technique, aiming to check for influence of the aging process. Two moments were assessed twenty-two weeks apart from each other. Our data show that the aging process significantly affects the light attenuation coefficient in mice skin. Twenty-two weeks after, statistical significant differences were observed between groups within a same strain. We conclude that light attenuation coefficient of mice skin may be influenced by factors such as disorganization of the dermis. Morphological aspects of skin should be taken into account in studies that involve optical strategies in murine models.

  4. Estimating the beam attenuation coefficient in coastal waters from AVHRR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Richard W.; Arnone, Robert A.

    1997-09-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to estimate particle beam attenuation at 660 nm ( cp660) in coastal areas using the red and near-infrared channels of the NOAA AVHRR satellite sensor. In situ reflectance spectra and cp660 measurements were collected at 23 stations in Case I and II waters during an April 1993 cruise in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The reflectance spectra were weighted by the spectral response of the AVHRR sensor and integrated over the channel 1 waveband to estimate the atmospherically corrected signal recorded by the satellite. An empirical relationship between integrated reflectance and cp660 values was derived with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.88. Because the AVHRR sensor requires a strong channel 1 signal, the algorithm is applicable in highly turbid areas ( cp660 > 1.5 m -1) where scattering from suspended sediment strongly controls the shape and magnitude of the red (550-650 nm) reflectance spectrum. The algorithm was tested on a data set collected 2 years later in different coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico and satellite estimates of cp660 averaged within 37% of measured values. Application of the algorithm provides daily images of nearshore regions at 1 km resolution for evaluating processes affecting ocean color distribution patterns (tides, winds, currents, river discharge). Further validation and refinement of the algorithm are in progress to permit quantitative application in other coastal areas. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd

  5. The precise measurement of the attenuation coefficients of various IR optical materials applicable to immersion grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, Sayumi; Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kondo, Sohei; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2014-07-01

    Immersion grating is a next-generation diffraction grating which has the immersed the diffraction surface in an optical material with high refractive index of n > 2, and can provide higher spectral resolution than a classical reflective grating. Our group is developing various immersion gratings from the near- to mid-infrared region (Ikeda et al.1, 2, 3, 4, Sarugaku et al.5, and Sukegawa et al.6). The internal attenuation ?att of the candidate materials is especially very important to achieve the high efficiency immersion gratings used for astronomical applications. Nevertheless, because there are few available data as ?att < 0.01cm-1 in the infrared region, except for measurements of CVD-ZnSe, CVD-ZnS, and single-crystal Si in the short near-infrared region reported by Ikeda et al.7, we cannot select suitable materials as an immersion grating in an aimed wavelength range. Therefore, we measure the attenuation coefficients of CdTe, CdZnTe, Ge, Si, ZnSe, and ZnS that could be applicable to immersion gratings. We used an originally developed optical unit attached to a commercial FTIR which covers the wide wavelength range from 1.3?m to 28?m. This measurement system achieves the high accuracy of (triangle)?att ~ 0.01cm-1. As a result, high-resistivity single-crystal CdZnTe, single-crystal Ge, single-crystal Si, CVD-ZnSe, and CVD-ZnS show ?att < 0.01cm-1 at the wavelength range of 5.5 - 19.0?m, 2.0 - 10.5?m, 1.3 - 5.4?m, 1.7 - 13.2?m, and 1.9 - 9.2?m, respectively. This indicates that these materials are good candidates for high efficiency immersion grating covering those wavelength ranges. We plan to make similar measurement under the cryogenic condition as T <= 10K for the infrared, especially mid-infrared applications.

  6. Development of in vivo characterization of breast tissues through absolute attenuation coefficients using dedicated cone-beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhav, Priti; Li, Christina M.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2010-04-01

    With advances in 3D in vivo imaging technology, non-invasive procedures can be used to characterize tissues to identify tumors and monitor changes over time. Using a dedicated breast CT system with a quasi-monochromatic cone-beam x-ray source and flat-panel digital detector, this study was performed in an effort to directly characterize different materials in vivo based on their absolute attenuation coefficients. CT acquisitions were first acquired using a multi-material rod phantom with acrylic, delrin, polyethylene, fat-equivalent, and glandular-equivalent plastic rods, and also with a human cadaver breast. Projections were collected with and without a beam stop array for scatter correction. For each projection, the 2D scatter was estimated with cubic spline interpolation of the average values behind the shadow of each beam stop overlapping the object. Scatter-corrected projections were subsequently calculated by subtracting the scatter images containing only the region of the object from corresponding projections (consisting of primary and scatter x-rays) without the beam stop array. Iterative OSTR was used to reconstruct the data and estimate the non-uniform attenuation distribution. Preliminary results show that with reduced beam hardening from the x-ray beam, scatter correction further reduces the cupping artifact, improves image contrast, and yields attenuation coefficients < 8% of narrow-beam values of the known materials (range 1.2 - 7.8%). Peaks in the histogram showed clear separation between the different material attenuation coefficients. These findings indicate that minimizing beam hardening and applying scatter correction make it practical to directly characterize different tissues in vivo using absolute attenuation coefficients.

  7. Calibration of a turbidity meter for making estimates of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in field experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    Management of water resources such as a reservoir requires using analytical models which describe such parameters as the suspended sediment field. To select or develop an appropriate model requires making many measurements to describe the distribution of this parameter in the water column. One potential method for making those measurements expeditiously is to measure light transmission or turbidity and relate that parameter to total suspended solids concentrations. An instrument which may be used for this purpose was calibrated by generating curves of transmission measurements plotted against measured values of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients. Results of these experiments indicate that field measurements made with this instrument using curves generated in this study should correlate with total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in the water column within 20 percent.

  8. Determination of mass attenuation coefficients of some boron ores at 59.54keV by using scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Demir, Faruk

    2010-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients of the 59.54keV radiation of (241)Am point source in boron ores such as tincal, ulexite and colemanite were determined experimentally by a scintillation detector and theoretically. Since boron ores contain boron, hydrogen, and a lot of elements, they may be used as shielding against neutrons and gammas simultaneously, e.g. for shielding (241)Am/Be neutron sources, as they emit both gammas and neutrons. PMID:19800806

  9. Improved Algorithms for Accurate Retrieval of UV - Visible Diffuse Attenuation Coefficients in Optically Complex, Inshore Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Fang; Fichot, Cedric G.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Miller, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical processes driven by high-energy ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in inshore, estuarine, and coastal waters play an important role in global bio geochemical cycles and biological systems. A key to modeling photochemical processes in these optically complex waters is an accurate description of the vertical distribution of UVR in the water column which can be obtained using the diffuse attenuation coefficients of down welling irradiance (Kd()). The Sea UV Sea UVc algorithms (Fichot et al., 2008) can accurately retrieve Kd ( 320, 340, 380,412, 443 and 490 nm) in oceanic and coastal waters using multispectral remote sensing reflectances (Rrs(), Sea WiFS bands). However, SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms are currently not optimized for use in optically complex, inshore waters, where they tend to severely underestimate Kd(). Here, a new training data set of optical properties collected in optically complex, inshore waters was used to re-parameterize the published SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, resulting in improved Kd() retrievals for turbid, estuarine waters. Although the updated SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms perform best in optically complex waters, the published SeaUVSeaUVc models still perform well in most coastal and oceanic waters. Therefore, we propose a composite set of SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, optimized for Kd() retrieval in almost all marine systems, ranging from oceanic to inshore waters. The composite algorithm set can retrieve Kd from ocean color with good accuracy across this wide range of water types (e.g., within 13 mean relative error for Kd(340)). A validation step using three independent, in situ data sets indicates that the composite SeaUVSeaUVc can generate accurate Kd values from 320 490 nm using satellite imagery on a global scale. Taking advantage of the inherent benefits of our statistical methods, we pooled the validation data with the training set, obtaining an optimized composite model for estimating Kd() in UV wavelengths for almost all marine waters. This optimized composite set of SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms will provide the optical community with improved ability to quantify the role of solar UV radiation in photochemical and photobiological processes in the ocean.

  10. Measurements of attenuation coefficient for evaluating the hardness of a cataract lens by a high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Ruimin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Zhou, Qifa; Humayun, Mark S.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2009-10-01

    A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Phacoemulsification is the mostly common surgical method for treating cataracts, and determining that the optimal phacoemulsification energy is dependent on measuring the hardness of the lens. This study explored the use of an ultrasound needle transducer for invasive measurements of ultrasound attenuation coefficient to evaluate the hardness of the cataract lens. A 47 MHz high-frequency needle transducer with a diameter of 0.9 mm was fabricated by a polarized PMN-33%PT single crystal in the present study. The attenuation coefficients at different stages of an artificial porcine cataract lens were measured using the spectral shift approach. The hardness of the cataract lens was also evaluated by mechanical measurement of its elastic properties. The results demonstrated that the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient was increased from 0.048 0.02 to 0.520 0.06 dB mm-1 MHz-1 corresponding to an increase in Young's modulus from 6 0.4 to 96 6.2 kPa as the cataract further developed. In order to evaluate the feasibility of combining needle transducer and phacoemulsification probe for real-time measurement during cataract surgery, the needle transducer was mounted on the phacoemulsification probe for a vibration test. The results indicated that there was no apparent damage to the tip of the needle transducer and the pulse-echo test showed that a good performance in sensitivity was maintained after the vibration test.

  11. Measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in biological and geological samples in the energy range of 7-12keV.

    PubMed

    Trunova, Valentina; Sidorina, Anna; Kriventsov, Vladimir

    2014-10-17

    Information about X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in different materials is necessary for accurate X-ray fluorescent analysis. The X-ray mass attenuation coefficients for energy of 7-12keV were measured in biological (Mussel and Oyster tissues, blood, hair, liver, and Cabbage leaves) and geological (Baikal sludge, soil, and Alaskite granite) samples. The measurements were carried out at the EXAFS Station of Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Center (VEPP-3). Obtained experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values calculated for some samples. PMID:25464176

  12. Extracting seismic attenuation coefficients from cross-correlations of ambient noise at linear triplets of stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Zigone, Dimitri

    2015-11-01

    We develop and apply an algorithm for deriving interstation seismic attenuation from cross-correlations of ambient noise recorded by linear arrays. Theoretical results on amplitude decay due to attenuation are used to form a linear least-square inversion for interstation QR values of Rayleigh surface waves propagating along linear arrays having three or more stations. The noise wave field is assumed stationary within each day and the interstation distances should be greater than the employed wavelength. The inversion uses differences of logarithmic amplitude decay curves measured at different stations from cross-correlation functions within a given frequency band. The background attenuation between noise sources and receivers is effectively cancelled with this method. The site amplification factors are assumed constant (or following similar patterns) in the frequency band of interest. The inversion scheme is validated with synthetic tests using ambient noise generated by ray-theory-based calculations with heterogeneous attenuation and homogenous velocity structure. The interstation attenuation and phase velocity dispersion curves are inverted from cross-correlations of the synthetic data. The method is then applied to triplets of stations from the regional southern California seismic network crossing the Mojave section of the San Andreas fault, and a dense linear array crossing the southern San Jacinto Fault zone. Bootstrap technique is used to derive empirical mean and confidence interval for the obtained inverse Q values. The results for the regional stations yield QR values around 25 for a frequency band 0.2-0.36 Hz. The results for the San Jacinto fault zone array give QR values of about 6-30 for frequencies in the range 15-25 Hz.

  13. Effective atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient of PbO-BaO-B2O3 glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Shams A. M.

    2016-03-01

    Gamma-rays attenuation coefficient, half-value layer, mean free path, effective atomic number and electron density have been measured in glass system of xPbO-(50-x) BaO-50B2O3 (where 5≤x≤45 mol%) for gamma ray photon energies of 0.356, 0.662, 1.173 and 1.33 MeV. The emitted gamma ray was detected by 3×3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation gamma ray spectrometers. The results were found in good agreement with the theoretical values which calculated from WinXcom.

  14. Multi-frequency characterization of the speed of sound and attenuation coefficient for longitudinal transmission of freshly excised human skulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichardo, Samuel; Sin, Vivian W.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2011-01-01

    For medical applications of ultrasound inside the brain, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the apparent density of skull bone and its corresponding speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. Although there have been previous studies exploring this phenomenon, there is still a need to extend the measurements to cover more of the clinically relevant frequency range. The results of measurements of the longitudinal speed of sound and attenuation coefficient are presented for specimens of human calvaria. The study was performed for the frequencies of 0.27, 0.836, 1.402, 1.965 and 2.525 MHz. Specimens were obtained from fresh cadavers through a protocol with the Division of Anatomy of the University of Toronto. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. The specimens were mounted in polycarbonate supports that were marked for stereoscopic positioning. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skulls mounted on their supports were performed, and a three-dimensional skull surface was reconstructed. This surface was used to guide a positioning system to ensure the normal sound incidence of an acoustic signal. This signal was produced by a focused device with a diameter of 5 cm and a focal length of 10 cm. Measurements of delay in time of flight were carried out using a needle hydrophone. Measurements of effective transmitted energy were carried out using a radiation force method with a 10 µg resolution scale. Preliminary functions of speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, both of which are related to apparent density, were established using a multi-layer propagation model that takes into account speed of sound, density and thickness of the layer. An optimization process was executed from a large set of random functions and the best functions were chosen for those ones that closest reproduced the experimental observations. The final functions were obtained after a second pass of the optimization process was executed, but this time using a finite-difference time-difference solution of the Westervelt equation, which is more precise than the multi-layer model but much more time consuming for computation. For six of seven specimens, measurements were carried out on five locations on the calvaria, and for the other specimen three measurements were made. In total, measurements were carried out on 33 locations. Results indicated the presence of dispersion effects and that these effects are different according to the type of bone in the skull (cortical and trabecular). Additionally, both the speed of sound and attenuation showed dependence on the skull density that varied with the frequency. Using the optimal functions and the information of density from the CT scans, the average values (±s.d.) of the speed of sound for cortical bone were estimated to be 2384(± 130), 2471(± 90), 2504(± 120), 2327(± 90) and 2053(± 40) m s-1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, 1402, 1965 and 2526 kHz, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the speeds of sound were 2140(± 130), 2300(± 100), 2219(± 200), 2133(± 130) and 1937(± 40) m s-1, respectively. The average values of the attenuation coefficient for cortical bone were 33(± 9), 240(± 9) and 307(± 30) Np m-1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, and 1402, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the average values of the attenuation coefficient were 34(± 13), 216(± 16) and 375(± 30) Np m-1, respectively. For frequencies of 1.965 and 2.525 MHz, no measurable radiation force was detected with the setup used.

  15. An Empirical Expression to Estimate Specific Attenuation Coefficient due to fog at Frequencies from 100 to 300GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun-Long; Hu, Meng-Hao

    2013-08-01

    A simple expression is presented to quickly estimate specific attenuation coefficient due to fog within the ranges of 100~300GHz and -8~20°C based on the Rayleigh approximation which is not very convenient. To evaluate the expression's estimation performance, the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and maximal absolute value of the relative errors (MAVRE) are calculated. The maximum value of PCC is 1 and it reflects the fitting performance of an empirical expression. MAVRE denotes the largest deviation between a set of estimated values and corresponding theoretical values. Calculations show the PCC and MAVRE of the proposed expression are 0.99985 and 4.162%, respectively. Furthermore, a comparison analysis shows that the new expression has much better estimation performance than other two empirical expressions: the modified Mao expression and the Zhao expression.

  16. Measurements of the thermal coefficient of optical attenuation at different depth regions of in vivo human skins using optical coherence tomography: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ya; Yao, X. Steve; Li, Zhihong; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Tiegen; Wang, Longzhi

    2015-01-01

    We present detailed measurement results of optical attenuations thermal coefficients (referenced to the temperature of the skin surface) in different depth regions of in vivo human forearm skins using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We first design a temperature control module with an integrated optical probe to precisely control the surface temperature of a section of human skin. We propose a method of using the correlation map to identify regions in the skin having strong correlations with the surface temperature of the skin and find that the attenuation coefficient in these regions closely follows the variation of the surface temperature without any hysteresis. We observe a negative thermal coefficient of attenuation in the epidermis. While in dermis, the slope signs of the thermal coefficient of attenuation are different at different depth regions for a particular subject, however, the depth regions with a positive (or negative) slope are different in different subjects. We further find that the magnitude of the thermal coefficient of attenuation coefficient is greater in epidermis than in dermis. We believe the knowledge of such thermal properties of skins is important for several noninvasive diagnostic applications, such as OCT glucose monitoring, and the method demonstrated in this paper is effective in studying the optical and biological properties in different regions of skin. PMID:25780740

  17. Spectral modification of Beer's law and relation to the humidity attenuation coefficient in atmospheric maritime mist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vul'fson, A. N.

    2000-12-01

    Similarity theory and dimensional analysis are applied to the construction of a relationship for the spectral aerosol extinction coefficient in the visible atmospheric window 0.48 (DOT) 10-4 cm < (lambda) < 0.76 (DOT) 10-4 cm. For maritime mist the results allow one to compare the dependence of the spectral extinction coefficient on humidity as determined in situ with known laboratory observations on the variation in the radius of aerosol particle in moist air. Raoult's modified law is used to show that the variation in the optical properties of soluble aerosol is entirely determined by the variation in the average radius of particles depending on humidity.

  18. Sound velocity and attenuation coefficient of hard and hollow microparticle suspensions observed by ultrasound spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Kohjiro; Norisuye, Tomohisa; Tran, Thao Nguyen; Shibata, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Hideyuki; Tran-Cong-Miyata, Qui

    2015-09-01

    Size and elastic properties of micro-particles suspended in liquid can be acoustically determined by ultrasound attenuation and velocity measurements with the aid of elastic scattering theories and a dispersion relation. While quantitative evaluation for hard micron-sized spheres using the theories is available in literature, that for hollow particles is not yet achieved. In this study, we show that the shell thickness and the elastic modulus of hollow particles can be quantitatively evaluated by ultrasound spectroscopy. Several kinds of microparticles including polystyrene rigid particles, polydivinylbenzene rigid particles, borosilicate hollow particles, and phenolic-resin hollow particles were examined as a function of the particle concentration. PMID:26067926

  19. Estimation of the Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient KdPAR Using MERIS Satellite Reflections for European Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulquin, Bertand; Hamdi, Anouar; Populus, Jacques; Loutier, Romain; Demaria, Julien; Mangin, Antoine; D'Andon, Odile Fanton

    2010-12-01

    Accurate estimations of the diffuse attenuation coefficient is critical to understand physical processes such as the heat transfer in the upper layer of the ocean and also biological processes such as phytoplankton photosynthesis in the ocean euphotic zone. Light availability in the water column and the seabed determine the euphotic zone and constraints the type and distribution of the algae species. The EuSeaMap project's aim is to characterize at a resolution of 250m the European infralitoral benthic zone, according to biology, physic and geology criteriums and using observations and models. Satellite observations of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of the downwelling spectral irradiance at wavelength 490 nm (Kd490) or the diffuse attenuation coefficient for the downwelling photosynthetically available radiation (KdPAR) is an effective method to provide large scale maps of these parameters at high spatial and temporal resolution. Several empirical and semi-analytical models are commonly used to derive the Kd490 and KdPAR maps from ocean colour satellite sensors such as the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS), the Sea- viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Most of these existing empirical or semi- analytical models have been calibrated on open ocean waters and provide good results in these areas, but tend to underestimate the attenuation of light in coastal waters, our area of interest. We propose here a new estimation of the euphotic depth and the KdPAR for coastal European waters using MERIS reflectances at the resolution of 1km and 250 m. First, a semi-analytical model is used to estimate the Kd490, and in a second step, two relationships have been developed between the KdPAR and the Kd490 for respectively clear and turbid waters. Satellite-derived fields of Kd490 and the deduced KdPAR are validated using matchups collected over the world. Distribution maps of seabed algae are compared with the satellite-derived euphotic limit and the influence of the KdPAR on a hydrodynamic simulation is also illustrated.

  20. Estimating the Underwater Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient with a Low-Cost Instrument: The KdUINO DIY Buoy.

    PubMed

    Bardaji, Raul; Sánchez, Albert-Miquel; Simon, Carine; Wernand, Marcel R; Piera, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    A critical parameter to assess the environmental status of water bodies is the transparency of the water, as it is strongly affected by different water quality related components (such as the presence of phytoplankton, organic matter and sediment concentrations). One parameter to assess the water transparency is the diffuse attenuation coefficient. However, the number of subsurface irradiance measurements obtained with conventional instrumentation is relatively low, due to instrument costs and the logistic requirements to provide regular and autonomous observations. In recent years, the citizen science concept has increased the number of environmental observations, both in time and space. The recent technological advances in embedded systems and sensors also enable volunteers (citizens) to create their own devices (known as Do-It-Yourself or DIY technologies). In this paper, a DIY instrument to measure irradiance at different depths and automatically calculate the diffuse attenuation Kd coefficient is presented. The instrument, named KdUINO, is based on an encapsulated low-cost photonic sensor and Arduino (an open-hardware platform for the data acquisition). The whole instrument has been successfully operated and the data validated comparing the KdUINO measurements with the commercial instruments. Workshops have been organized with high school students to validate its feasibility. PMID:26999132

  1. Assessment of natural radiation exposure levels and mass attenuation coefficients of lime and gypsum samples used in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Damla, Nevzat; Cevik, U?ur; Kobya, Ali Ihsan; Celik, Ahmet; Celik, Necati

    2010-11-01

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in lime and gypsum samples used as building materials in Turkey were measured using gamma spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were found to be 3816, 209, and 15654 Bq kg(-1) for lime and found to be 176, 135, and 42924 Bq kg(-1) for gypsum, respectively. The radiological hazards due to the natural radioactivity in the samples were inferred from calculations of radium equivalent activities (Raeq), indoor absorbed dose rate in the air, the annual effective dose, and gamma and alpha indices. These radiological parameters were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended limits. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients (?/?) of the samples were determined in the energy range 81-1,332 keV. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values obtained using XCOM. It is found that the calculated values and the experimental results are in good agreement. PMID:19921450

  2. Region specific optimization of continuous linear attenuation coefficients based on UTE (RESOLUTE): application to PET/MR brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Ladefoged, Claes N; Benoit, Didier; Law, Ian; Holm, Sren; Kjr, Andreas; Hjgaard, Liselotte; Hansen, Adam E; Andersen, Flemming L

    2015-10-21

    The reconstruction of PET brain data in a PET/MR hybrid scanner is challenging in the absence of transmission sources, where MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The main challenge of MR-AC is to separate bone and air, as neither have a signal in traditional MR images, and to assign the correct linear attenuation coefficient to bone. The ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR sequence was proposed as a basis for MR-AC as this sequence shows a small signal in bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new clinically feasible MR-AC method with patient specific continuous-valued linear attenuation coefficients in bone that provides accurate reconstructed PET image data. A total of 164 [(18)F]FDG PET/MR patients were included in this study, of which 10 were used for training. MR-AC was based on either standard CT (reference), UTE or our method (RESOLUTE). The reconstructed PET images were evaluated in the whole brain, as well as regionally in the brain using a ROI-based analysis. Our method segments air, brain, cerebral spinal fluid, and soft tissue voxels on the unprocessed UTE TE images, and uses a mapping of R(*)2 values to CT Hounsfield Units (HU) to measure the density in bone voxels. The average error of our method in the brain was 0.1% and less than 1.2% in any region of the brain. On average 95% of the brain was within??10% of PETCT, compared to 72% when using UTE. The proposed method is clinically feasible, reducing both the global and local errors on the reconstructed PET images, as well as limiting the number and extent of the outliers. PMID:26422177

  3. Region specific optimization of continuous linear attenuation coefficients based on UTE (RESOLUTE): application to PET/MR brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Benoit, Didier; Law, Ian; Holm, Søren; Kjær, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Hansen, Adam E.; Andersen, Flemming L.

    2015-10-01

    The reconstruction of PET brain data in a PET/MR hybrid scanner is challenging in the absence of transmission sources, where MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The main challenge of MR-AC is to separate bone and air, as neither have a signal in traditional MR images, and to assign the correct linear attenuation coefficient to bone. The ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR sequence was proposed as a basis for MR-AC as this sequence shows a small signal in bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new clinically feasible MR-AC method with patient specific continuous-valued linear attenuation coefficients in bone that provides accurate reconstructed PET image data. A total of 164 [18F]FDG PET/MR patients were included in this study, of which 10 were used for training. MR-AC was based on either standard CT (reference), UTE or our method (RESOLUTE). The reconstructed PET images were evaluated in the whole brain, as well as regionally in the brain using a ROI-based analysis. Our method segments air, brain, cerebral spinal fluid, and soft tissue voxels on the unprocessed UTE TE images, and uses a mapping of R2* values to CT Hounsfield Units (HU) to measure the density in bone voxels. The average error of our method in the brain was 0.1% and less than 1.2% in any region of the brain. On average 95% of the brain was within  ±10% of PETCT, compared to 72% when using UTE. The proposed method is clinically feasible, reducing both the global and local errors on the reconstructed PET images, as well as limiting the number and extent of the outliers.

  4. Measurements of the thermal coefficient of optical attenuation at different depth regions of in vivo human skins using optical coherence tomography: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Su, Ya; Yao, X Steve; Li, Zhihong; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Tiegen; Wang, Longzhi

    2015-02-01

    We present detailed measurement results of optical attenuation's thermal coefficients (referenced to the temperature of the skin surface) in different depth regions of in vivo human forearm skins using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We first design a temperature control module with an integrated optical probe to precisely control the surface temperature of a section of human skin. We propose a method of using the correlation map to identify regions in the skin having strong correlations with the surface temperature of the skin and find that the attenuation coefficient in these regions closely follows the variation of the surface temperature without any hysteresis. We observe a negative thermal coefficient of attenuation in the epidermis. While in dermis, the slope signs of the thermal coefficient of attenuation are different at different depth regions for a particular subject, however, the depth regions with a positive (or negative) slope are different in different subjects. We further find that the magnitude of the thermal coefficient of attenuation coefficient is greater in epidermis than in dermis. We believe the knowledge of such thermal properties of skins is important for several noninvasive diagnostic applications, such as OCT glucose monitoring, and the method demonstrated in this paper is effective in studying the optical and biological properties in different regions of skin. PMID:25780740

  5. Studies on effective atomic numbers, electron densities from mass attenuation coefficients near the K edge in some samarium compounds.

    PubMed

    Akman, F; Durak, R; Turhan, M F; Kaçal, M R

    2015-07-01

    The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some samarium compounds were determined using the experimental total mass attenuation coefficient values near the K edge in the X-ray energy range from 36.847 up to 57.142 keV. The measurements, in the region from 36.847 to 57.142 keV, were done in a transmission geometry utilizing the Kα2, Kα1, Kβ1 and Kβ2 X-rays from different secondary source targets excited by the 59.54 keV gamma-photons from an Am-241 annular source. This paper presents the first measurement of the effective atomic numbers and electron densities for some samarium compounds near the K edge. The results of the study showed that the measured values were in good agreement with the theoretically calculated ones. PMID:25880612

  6. New consistency tests for high-accuracy measurements of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by the X-ray extended-range technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chantler, C.T.; Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Tran, C.Q.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z.

    2012-09-25

    An extension of the X-ray extended-range technique is described for measuring X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by introducing absolute measurement of a number of foils - the multiple independent foil technique. Illustrating the technique with the results of measurements for gold in the 38-50 keV energy range, it is shown that its use enables selection of the most uniform and well defined of available foils, leading to more accurate measurements; it allows one to test the consistency of independently measured absolute values of the mass attenuation coefficient with those obtained by the thickness transfer method; and it tests the linearity of the response of the counter and counting chain throughout the range of X-ray intensities encountered in a given experiment. In light of the results for gold, the strategy to be ideally employed in measuring absolute X-ray mass attenuation coefficients, X-ray absorption fine structure and related quantities is discussed.

  7. Determination of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic and electron numbers, mean free paths and kermas for PbO, barite and some boron ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Un, A.; Sahin, Y.

    2011-07-01

    The total mass attenuation coefficients, ? m, for PbO, barite, colemanite, tincal and ulexite were determined at 80.1, 302.9, 356.0, 661.7 and 1250.0 keV photon energies by using NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. Effective atomic number, Z eff, effective electron number, N eff, total atomic cross-section, ? t, total electronic cross-section, ? e, mean free path, mfp, and kerma relative to air were determined experimentally and theoretically. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using mixture rule. The calculated values were compared with the experimental values for all samples.

  8. Towards a quantitative, measurement-based estimate of the uncertainty in photon mass attenuation coefficients at radiation therapy energies.

    PubMed

    Ali, E S M; Spencer, B; McEwen, M R; Rogers, D W O

    2015-02-21

    In this study, a quantitative estimate is derived for the uncertainty in the XCOM photon mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of interest to external beam radiation therapy-i.e. 100 keV (orthovoltage) to 25 MeV-using direct comparisons of experimental data against Monte Carlo models and theoretical XCOM data. Two independent datasets are used. The first dataset is from our recent transmission measurements and the corresponding EGSnrc calculations (Ali et al 2012 Med. Phys. 39 5990-6003) for 10-30 MV photon beams from the research linac at the National Research Council Canada. The attenuators are graphite and lead, with a total of 140 data points and an experimental uncertainty of ∼0.5% (k = 1). An optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor that minimizes the discrepancies between measurements and calculations is used to deduce cross section uncertainty. The second dataset is from the aggregate of cross section measurements in the literature for graphite and lead (49 experiments, 288 data points). The dataset is compared to the sum of the XCOM data plus the IAEA photonuclear data. Again, an optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor is used to deduce the cross section uncertainty. Using the average result from the two datasets, the energy-independent cross section uncertainty estimate is 0.5% (68% confidence) and 0.7% (95% confidence). The potential for energy-dependent errors is discussed. Photon cross section uncertainty is shown to be smaller than the current qualitative 'envelope of uncertainty' of the order of 1-2%, as given by Hubbell (1999 Phys. Med. Biol 44 R1-22). PMID:25622289

  9. Towards a quantitative, measurement-based estimate of the uncertainty in photon mass attenuation coefficients at radiation therapy energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, E. S. M.; Spencer, B.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a quantitative estimate is derived for the uncertainty in the XCOM photon mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of interest to external beam radiation therapyi.e. 100 keV (orthovoltage) to 25 MeVusing direct comparisons of experimental data against Monte Carlo models and theoretical XCOM data. Two independent datasets are used. The first dataset is from our recent transmission measurements and the corresponding EGSnrc calculations (Ali et al 2012 Med. Phys. 39 5990-6003) for 10-30 MV photon beams from the research linac at the National Research Council Canada. The attenuators are graphite and lead, with a total of 140 data points and an experimental uncertainty of 0.5% (k = 1). An optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor that minimizes the discrepancies between measurements and calculations is used to deduce cross section uncertainty. The second dataset is from the aggregate of cross section measurements in the literature for graphite and lead (49 experiments, 288 data points). The dataset is compared to the sum of the XCOM data plus the IAEA photonuclear data. Again, an optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor is used to deduce the cross section uncertainty. Using the average result from the two datasets, the energy-independent cross section uncertainty estimate is 0.5% (68% confidence) and 0.7% (95% confidence). The potential for energy-dependent errors is discussed. Photon cross section uncertainty is shown to be smaller than the current qualitative envelope of uncertainty of the order of 1-2%, as given by Hubbell (1999 Phys. Med. Biol 44 R1-22).

  10. Validation of quantitative attenuation and backscattering coefficient measurements by optical coherence tomography in the concentration-dependent and multiple scattering regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasian, Mitra; Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2015-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to quantitatively measure optical properties of tissue such as the attenuation coefficient and backscattering coefficient. However, to obtain reliable values for strong scattering tissues, accurate consideration of the effects of multiple scattering and the nonlinear relation between the scattering coefficient and scatterer concentration (concentration-dependent scattering) is required. We present a comprehensive model for the OCT signal in which we quantitatively account for both effects, as well as our system parameters (confocal point spread function and sensitivity roll-off). We verify our model with experimental data from controlled phantoms of monodisperse silica beads (scattering coefficients between 1 and 30 mm-1 and scattering anisotropy between 0.4 and 0.9). The optical properties of the phantoms are calculated using Mie theory combined with the Percus-Yevick structure factor to account for concentration-dependent scattering. We demonstrate excellent agreement between the OCT attenuation and backscattering coefficient predicted by our model and experimentally derived values. We conclude that this model enables us to accurately model OCT-derived parameters (i.e., attenuation and backscattering coefficients) in the concentration-dependent and multiple scattering regime for spherical monodisperse samples.

  11. High accuracy experimental determination of copper and zinc mass attenuation coefficients in the 100 eV to 30 keV photon energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménesguen, Y.; Gerlach, M.; Pollakowski, B.; Unterumsberger, R.; Haschke, M.; Beckhoff, B.; Lépy, M.-C.

    2016-02-01

    The knowledge of atomic fundamental parameters such as mass attenuation coefficients with low uncertainties, is of decisive importance in elemental quantification using x-ray fluorescence analysis techniques. Several databases are accessible and frequently used within a large community of users. These compilations are most often in good agreement for photon energies in the hard x-ray ranges. However, they significantly differ for low photon energies and around the absorption edges of any element. In a joint cooperation of the metrology institutes of France and Germany, mass attenuation coefficients of copper and zinc were determined experimentally in the photon energy range from 100 eV to 30 keV by independent approaches using monochromatized synchrotron radiation at SOLEIL (France) and BESSY II (Germany), respectively. The application of high-accuracy experimental techniques resulted in mass attenuation coefficient datasets determined with low uncertainties that are directly compared to existing databases. The novel datasets are expected to enhance the reliability of mass attenuation coefficients.

  12. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold in the 38-50-keV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, M T; Rae, N A; Glover, J L; Barnea, Z; de Jonge, M D; Tran, C Q; Wang, J; Chantler, C T

    2010-11-12

    We used synchrotron x rays to measure the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold at nine energies from 38 to 50 keV with accuracies of 0.1%. Our results are much more accurate than previous measurements in this energy range. A comparison of our measurements with calculated mass attenuation coefficients shows that our measurements fall almost exactly midway between the XCOM and FFAST calculated theoretical values, which differ from one another in this energy region by about 4%, even though the range includes no absorption edge. The consistency and accuracy of these measurements open the way to investigations of the x-ray attenuation in the region of the L absorption edge of gold.

  13. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients of Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboards for X-ray in the 16.63-25.30 keV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tousi, E. T.; Bauk, S.; Hashim, R.; Jaafar, M. S.; Abuarra, A.; Aldroobi, K. S. A.; Al-Jarrah, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The roots of Eremurus spp. were used as a bio-adhesive in the fabrication of Rhizophora spp. particleboards. The mass attenuation coefficients of Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard of six samples with two different weight percentages of the Eremurus spp. root (6% and 12%) and three various Rhizophora spp. particle sizes (?149 ?m, 149-500 ?m and 500-1000 ?m) were determined by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) photons in 16.63 keV and 25.30 keV of the photon energy range. The results were compared with theoretically calculated mass attenuations using the XCOM computer program for younger-age (breast 1: 75% muscle+25% fat), middle-age (breast 2: 50% muscle+50% fat), and old-age (breast 3: 25% muscle+75% fat) breasts. The results indicated that Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard is the appropriate suitable phantom in the diagnostic energy region. The mass attenuation coefficient in the low weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and the large Rhizophora spp. particle size were found very close to breast 1. Moreover the mass attenuation coefficient of the sample with high weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and small Rhizophora spp. particle size was found very close to water as a standard material phantom. In addition, the viscosity of dissolved Eremurus spp. root in water could be considerably higher than that of formaldehyde-based adhesives, which affects on some properties such as high strength and high binding.

  14. Effective permittivity and attenuation coefficient of microstrip transmission line determined by 1-port and 2-port measuring methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemppinen, Esa

    2000-01-01

    Both 1-port and 2-port measuring methods have been demonstrated and compared to determine the real part of the frequency-dependent effective relative permittivity, icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> re (f ), of microstrip lines fabricated on an alumina substrate. Signal flow diagram analysis has been used to derive equations from which icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> re (f ) was calculated at discrete frequencies for the substrate with a known dielectric constant, icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> r = 9.5. Both methods gave similar results for icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> re (f ) from 45 MHz to 50 GHz. In addition, the measured frequency dependence of icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> re (f ) was in agreement with the Kirschning-Jansen dispersion model within better than 2%. From the measured S -parameter data it was also possible to determine approximately the attenuation coefficient of the microstrips. Measured values obtained by the 2-port method were about 1.5-2 times the calculated values whereas the 1-port method suffered from radiation loss at the open end of the microstrips in the millimetre wave region. Both 1-port and 2-port methods can be used, for example, for quality checking purposes to verify how well the icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> r value of the substrate material employed is within the specified range in a broad frequency band. However, the 1-port method can be more easily used to determine icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> r of the substrate material at low microwave frequencies because it is faster than the 2-port method, the test structure is simpler and the calibration routine is easier to perform.

  15. Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of bladder biopsies using optical coherence tomography for grading urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauberg, Evelyne C. C.; de Bruin, Danil M.; Faber, Dirk J.; de Reijke, Theo M.; Visser, Mike; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2010-11-01

    Real-time grading of bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC) is clinically important, but the current standard for grading (histopathology) cannot provide this information. Based on optical coherence tomography (OCT)-measured optical attenuation (?t), the grade of bladder UC could potentially be assessed in real time. We evaluate ex vivo whether ?t differs between different grades of UC and benign bladder tissue. Human bladder tissue specimens are examined ex vivo by 850-nm OCT using dynamic focusing. Three observers independently determine the ?t from the OCT images, and three pathologists independently review the corresponding histology slides. For both methods, a consensus diagnosis is made. We include 76 OCT scans from 54 bladder samples obtained in 20 procedures on 18 patients. The median (interquartile range) ?t of benign tissue is 5.75 mm-1 (4.77 to 6.14) versus 5.52 mm-1 (3.47 to 5.90), 4.85 mm-1 (4.25 to 6.50), and 5.62 mm-1 (5.01 to 6.29) for grade 1, 2, and 3 UC, respectively (p = 0.732). Interobserver agreement of histopathology is ``substantial'' [Kappa 0.62, 95% confidence interval (IC) 0.54 to 0.70] compared to ``almost perfect'' [interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.87, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.92] for OCT. Quantitative OCT analysis (by ?t) does not detect morphological UC changes. This may be due to factors typical for an ex-vivo experimental setting.

  16. lac repressor-lac operator interaction: NMR observations.

    PubMed Central

    Nick, H; Arndt, K; Boschelli, F; Jarema, M A; Lillis, M; Sadler, J; Caruthers, M; Lu, P

    1982-01-01

    We show here the changes in the NMR spectra of the Escherichia coli lac repressor when bound to isolated lac operator DNA. The observations focus on the aromatic residues--four tyrosines and a single histidine--in the amino-terminal DNA binding domain of the lac repressor. There is a good correlation between chemical shift changes seen by 19F NMR when compared with 1 H NMR of otherwise identical repressor--DNA complexes. The results suggest that the tyrosines do not intercalate in the DNA. The NMR spectral changes with similarly sized DNA fragments, not containing the lac operator DNA sequence, are different. Thus, the amino-terminal domain of the lac repressor is independently capable of discriminating between lac operator and nonspecific DNA sequences. There can be two amino-terminal fragments per operator in the specific complex. PMID:7043455

  17. Mass attenuation coefficient of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using 16.59 - 25.26 keV photon energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz

    2015-04-01

    The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941).

  18. Determination of mass attenuation coefficient by numerical absorption calibration with Monte-Carlo simulations at 59.54 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degrelle, D.; Mavon, C.; Groetz, J.-E.

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a numerical method in order to determine the mass attenuation coefficient of a sample with an unknown chemical composition at low energy. It is compared with two experimental methods: a graphic method and a transmission method. The method proposes to realise a numerical absorption calibration curve to process experimental results. Demineralised water with known mass attenuation coefficient (0.2066cm2g-1 at 59.54 keV) is chosen to confirm the method. 0.1964 ± 0.0350cm2g-1 is the average value determined by the numerical method, that is to say less than 5% relative deviation compared to more than 47% for the experimental methods.

  19. SS Lac Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.; Schiller, S. J.; Munari, U.; Kallrath, J.

    1999-05-01

    We have evidence confirming changes in light curve amplitude of the former eclipsing and current SB2 system SS Lac in the open cluster NGC 7209. Remeasured Harvard plate data and published and compiled data sets reveal that the depth of the primary minimum increased between the 1890s and early 1900s and decreased in the 1920s and 1930s. Peak fittings of the amplitude with phase suggests a peak amplitude centered ca. 1911.5, with eclipse onset at about 1885 and effective eclipse cessation late in 1937. We thus concur with the findings of Lehmann (IBVS 3610, 1991), that the apparent inclination varies with time and that a central eclipse occurred about 1911, and of Mossakovskaya (Astron. Lett., 19, 35, 1993), that eclipses ceased prior to 1940. Estimates of SS Lac from plates taken at Tashkent between 1937 and 1940 serve to confirm these results. We have completed now an exhaustive study of the radial velocity curves of Tomasella & Munari (1998, A&A, 335, 561) and all three potentially useful archival light curves available to us, and will discuss the implications of the solutions for models of the system and the cluster to which it belongs. This work was supported in part by grants to Milone from NSERC of Canada, and the URGC of the University of Calgary.

  20. Comparison of hyperspectral measurements of the attenuation and scattering coefficients spectra with modeling results in the north-eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipelgas, Liis; Raudsepp, Urmas

    2015-11-01

    The spectral variations in the attenuation and scattering coefficients measured with a hyperspectral ac-spectra (Wetlabs) instrument were analyzed from a dataset collected in the vicinity of commercial harbors on the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. In total, the measured TSM concentration varied from 0.4 to 30 mg L-1 and the concentration of Chl a varied from values below the detection limit (0.05) to 23 mg m-3. The reliability of the power law describing the particle attenuation cp (λ) and scattering bp(λ) coefficients was evaluated by means of a determination coefficient (R2). The power law described the particle attenuation spectra with high accuracy (R2 > 0.67), giving the dataset an average cp (λ) slope of 1.3. In the case of particle scattering coefficients, the power law did not represent the whole dataset. Depending on a particular spectrum, the R2 varied from 0 to 1.0 and the slope varied from 1.15 to -0.56. Decomposition of bp(λ) into dominant modes using principal component analyses resulted in the first principal mode accounting for the power law dependence of bp(λ), i.e. the "mineral-type" spectrum, and the second and third mode representing the characteristic bp(λ) of dominant algal particles, i.e. the "algae-type" spectrum. From our dataset we estimated that if Chl a concentration is above 10 mg m-3 or below 5 mg m-3 then most likely the "algae-type" or the "mineral-type" spectrum is dominant, respectively. There was strong linear relationship (R2 > 0.92) between TSM concentration and cp(555) and bp(555),irrespective of the dominant shape of the particle scattering spectra. The estimated TSM-specific attenuation and scattering coefficients at 555 nm were 0.8 m2 g-1 and 0.68 m2 g-1, respectively. Corresponding values for water samples with a dominant "mineral-type" spectrum were 0.85 m2 g-1 and 0.73 m2 g-1, respectively and for water samples with a dominant "algae-type" spectrum were 0.64 m2 g-1 and 0.52 m2 g-1, respectively.

  1. Tables of x-ray mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy-absorption coefficients 1 keV to 20 meV for elements z = 1 to 92 and 48 additional substances of dosimetric interest

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, J.H.; Seltzer, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    Tables and graphs of the photon mass attenuation coefficient mu/rho and the mass energy-absorption coefficient mu(en)/rho are presented for all of the elements Z=1 to 92, and for 48 compounds and mixtures of radiological interest. The tables cover energies of the photon (x ray, gamma ray, bremsstrahlung) from 1 keV to 20 MeV. The mu/rho values are taken from the current photon interaction database at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the mu(en)/rho values are based on the new calculations by Seltzer described in Radiation Research. These tables of mu/rho and mu(en)/rho replace and extend the tables given by Hubbell in the International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes.

  2. Mass attenuation coefficient of the Earth, Moon and Mars samples over 1keV-100GeV energy range.

    PubMed

    Camargo Moreira, Anderson; Roberto Appoloni, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    This work presents the calculation of the mass attenuation coefficient (micro) of lunar, Martian and terrestrial samples in function of the energy. WinXCOM software was employed to determine the micro values for the samples in the range from 1 keV to 100 GeV. The obtained values were practically the same for energies larger than 100 keV, but marked differences among the samples were observed for energies below 25 keV, which is the energy range of interest for the XRF system used in space probes. PMID:16725330

  3. Quantitative measurement on optical attenuation coefficient of cell lines 5-8F and 6-10B using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianghua; Shen, Zhiyuan; He, Yonghong; Tu, Ziwei; Xia, Yunfei; Chen, Changshui; Liu, Songhao

    2012-10-01

    Oncogenesis and metastasis of tumor are difficult to detect during the clinic therapy. To explore the optical properties of tumorigenesis and metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), we assessed the NPC cell lines 5-8F and 6-10B by optical coherence tomography (OCT): first, the OCT images of the two different types of cell pellets were captured. Second, by fitting Beer's law to the averaged A-scans in these OCT datasets, the attenuation coefficients (?t) of the cells were extracted. The median attenuation coefficients (interquartile range (IQR)) of 5-8F and 6-10B were 6.79 mm-1 (IQR 6.52 to 7.23 mm-1) versus 8.06 mm-1 (IQR 7.65 to 8.40 mm-1), respectively (p < 0.01, df = 39). Subsequently, the results were compared with those obtained by polarization sensitive OCT, which further confirmed that the quantitative OCT analysis (by ?t) could differentiate the oncogenesis and metastasis NPC cell lines in real time non-invasively.

  4. Assessment of the effective attenuation coefficient of scattering media illuminated by an LED array: effect of the beam size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pommellec, Jean-Yves; Piron, Vianney; Askoura, Mohamed-Lamine; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    The knowledge of the light fluence rate distribution inside a biological tissue irradiated by a Laser (or LED) is fundamental to achieve medical treatments. In this paper, we present a semi-analytical model based on the 2-D Fourier Transform of the diffusion equation. This method can be applied to any irradiation source (cylindrically symmetric or not) at the surface of the tissue. Two particular beam shapes are studied: planar irradiation and flat beam with finite radius. The total fluence rate along the depth in tissues was computed by adding the collimated and the diffuse components. The analytical solution was also used to study the effect of the beam radius on the light attenuation. Measurements were performed using a tank filled with a liquid-simulating medium (Milk), illuminated with a LED array (660 nm, 100mm×100mm). Several circular diaphragms were used to obtain uniform circular beams with well defined radii. An optical fibre (with an isotropic tip) was used to measure the fluence rate inside the medium. Preliminary experimental results are in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  5. Element analysis and calculation of the attenuation coefficients for gold, bronze and water matrixes using MCNP, WinXCom and experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandiari, M.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Medhat, M. E.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, element analysis and the mass attenuation coefficient for matrixes of gold, bronze and water with various impurities and the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are evaluated and calculated by the MCNP simulation code for photons emitted from Barium-133, Americium-241 and sources with energies between 1 and 100 keV. The MCNP data are compared with the experimental data and WinXCom code simulated results by Medhat. The results showed that the obtained results of bronze and gold matrix are in good agreement with the other methods for energies above 40 and 60 keV, respectively. However for water matrixes with various impurities, there is a good agreement between the three methods MCNP, WinXCom and the experimental one in low and high energies.

  6. Absorption and Attenuation Coefficients Using the WET Labs ac-s in the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Field Measurements and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.

    2008-01-01

    Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.

  7. Evaluation of Compton attenuation and photoelectric absorption coefficients by convolution of scattering and primary functions and counts ratio on energy spectra

    PubMed Central

    Ashoor, Mansour; Asgari, Afrouz; Khorshidi, Abdollah; Rezaei, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Estimation of Compton attenuation and the photoelectric absorption coefficients were explored at various depths. Methods: A new method was proposed for estimating the depth based on the convolution of two exponential functions, namely convolution of scattering and primary functions (CSPF), which the convolved result will conform to the photopeak region of energy spectrum with the variable energy-window widths (EWWs) and a theory on the scattering cross-section. The triple energy-windows (TEW) and extended triple energy-windows scatter correction (ETEW) methods were used to estimate the scattered and primary photons according to the energy spectra at various depths due to a better performance than the other methods in nuclear medicine. For this purpose, the energy spectra were employed, and a distinct phantom along with a technetium-99 m source was simulated by Monte Carlo method. Results: The simulated results indicate that the EWW, used to calculate the scattered and primary counts in terms of the integral operators on the functions, was proportional to the depth as an exponential function. The depth will be calculated by the combination of either TEW or ETEW and proposed method resulting in the distinct energy-window. The EWWs for primary photons were in good agreement with those of scattered photons at the same as depths. The average errors between these windows for both methods TEW, and ETEW were 7.25% and 6.03% at different depths, respectively. The EWW value for functions of scattered and primary photons was reduced by increasing the depth in the CSPF method. Conclusions: This coefficient may be an index for the scattering cross-section. PMID:26170567

  8. Evolution and Biophysics of the Escherichia coli lac Operon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, J. Christian; Igoshin, Oleg; Quan, Selwyn; Monds, Russell; Cooper, Tim; Balzsi, Gbor

    2011-03-01

    To understand, predict, and control the evolution of living organisms, we consider biophysical effects and molecular network architectures. The lactose utilization system of E. coli is among the most well-studied molecular networks in biology, making it an ideal candidate for such studies. Simulations show how the genetic architecture of the wild-type operon attenuates large metabolic intermediate fluctuations that are predicted to occur in an equivalent system with the component genes on separate operons. Quantification of gene expression in the lac operon evolved in growth conditions containing constant lactose, alternating with glucose, or constant glucose, shows characteristic gene expression patterns depending on conditions. We are simulating these conditions to show context-dependent biophysical sources and costs of different lac operon architectures.

  9. Energy spectrum based calculation of the half and the tenth value layers for brachytherapy sources using a semiempirical parametrized mass attenuation coefficient formulism

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Ning J.

    2008-06-15

    As different types of radionuclides (e.g., {sup 131}Cs source) are introduced for clinical use in brachytherapy, the question is raised regarding whether a relatively simple method exists for the derivation of values of the half value layer (HVL) or the tenth value layer (TVL). For the radionuclide that has been clinically used for years, such as {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd, the sources have been manufactured and marketed by several vendors with different designs and structures. Because of the nature of emission of low energy photons for these radionuclides, energy spectra of the sources are very dependent on their individual designs. Though values of the HVL or the TVL in certain commonly used shielding materials are relatively small for these low energy photon emitting sources, the question remains how the variations in energy spectra affect the HVL (or TVL) values and whether these values can be calculated with a relatively simple method. A more fundamental question is whether a method can be established to derive the HVL (TVL) values for any brachytherapy sources and for different materials in a relatively straightforward fashion. This study was undertaken to answer these questions. Based on energy spectra, a well established semiempirical mass attenuation coefficient computing scheme was utilized to derive the HVL (TVL) values of different materials for different types of brachytherapy sources. The method presented in this study may be useful to estimate HVL (TVL) values of different materials for brachytherapy sources of different designs and containing different radionuclides.

  10. Mass attenuation coefficient of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using 16.59 – 25.26 keV photon energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah

    2015-04-29

    The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941)

  11. Influence of compensator thickness, field size, and off-axis distance on the effective attenuation coefficient of a cerrobend compensator for intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Haghparast, Abbas; Hashemi, Bijan; Eivazi, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-04-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be performed by using compensators. To make a compensator for an IMRT practice, it is required to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient (μ{sub eff}) of its material, which is affected by various factors. We studied the effect of the variation of the most important factors on the calculation of the μ{sub eff} of the cerrobend compensator for 6-MV photon beams, including the field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis distance. Experimental measurements were carried out at 100 cm source-to-surface distance and 10 cm depth for the 6-MV photon beams of an Elekta linac using various field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis settings. The field sizes investigated ranged from 4 × 4 to 25 × 25 cm{sup 2} and the cerrobend compensator thicknesses from 0.5–6 cm. For a fixed compensator thickness, variation of the μ{sub eff} with the field size ranged from 3.7–6.8%, with the highest value attributed to the largest compensator thickness. At the reference field size of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}, the μ{sub eff} varied by 16.5% when the compensator thickness was increased from 0.5–6 cm. However, the variation of the μ{sub eff} with the off-axis distance was only 0.99% at this field size, whereas for the largest field size, it was more significant. Our results indicated that the compensator thickness and field size have the most significant effect on the calculation of the compensator μ{sub eff} for the 6-MV photon beam. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these parameters when calculating the compensator thickness for an IMRT practice designed for these beams. The off-axis distance had a significant effect on the calculation of the μ{sub eff} only for the largest field size. Hence, it is recommended to consider the effect of this parameter only for field sizes larger than 25 × 25 cm{sup 2}.

  12. Des Lacs River and Souris River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

     The Des Lacs River coming in to the Souris River. Des Lacs River is the darker water, which is sediment and the Souris River is the lighter water. >Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

  13. [Dye decolorization by bacterial laccase Lac15].

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Fang, Zemin; Chang, Fei; Peng, Hui; Zhang, Xuecheng; Xiao, Yazhong

    2012-08-01

    We screened for laccase from a marine metagenomic library and obtained a bacterial laccase Lac15 and studied its decolorization ability. Using synthetic azo dyes and anthraquinonic dyes as substrates, we investigated the dye decolorization ability of recombinant Lac15 (rLac15). The purified rLac15 had better decolorization ability towards the azo dyes than the anthraquinonic dyes. When incubated at 45 degrees C and pH 8.5 for 1 h with methylsyringate as the mediator, 20 U/L of rLac15 could decolorize 95% of 100 micromol/L Acid Red 6B (AR-6B), 93% of Reactive Blue 194 (M-2GE), 76% of Reactive Brilliant Orange (K-7R) and 66% of Reactive Blue 171 (KE-R). The decolorization ability of rLac15 decreased with the dye concentration increasing. However, more than 80% of M-2GE and AR-6B were degraded even when the dye concentration was up to 200 micromol/L. At room temperature, rLac51 exhibited significant decolorization ability, with 96% of AR-6B, 86% of M-2GE, 66% of K-7R and 66% of KE-Rdegraded within 24 h at 25 degrees C. rLac15 has the potential of industrial applications. PMID:23185897

  14. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form-factor of tin over the energy range of 29 keV-60 keV.

    SciTech Connect

    de Jonge, M. D.; Tran, C. Q.; Chantler, C. T.; Barnea, Z.; Dhal, B. P.; Paterson, D.; Kanter, E. P.; Southworth, S. H.; Young, L.; Beno, M. A.; Linton, J. A.; Jennings, G.; Univ. of Melbourne; Australian Synchrotron Project

    2007-01-01

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60 keV to 0.04-3 % accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2 %. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct a number of potential experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for tin and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of x-ray absorption fine structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray absorption near-edge structure. The imaginary component of the atomic form factor f{sub 2} is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-2 % persist between calculated and observed values.

  15. Use of SeaWiFS for Detecting and Mapping Persistent Large-scale Turbidity Features in Chesapeake Bay Waters -- Phase I: Validation of Satellite Derived Light Attenuation Coefficients (Kd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, T. T.; Pirhalla, D. E.; Ransi, V.; Christensen, J. D.

    2006-05-01

    Turbidity and light attenuation, indicators of suspended and dissolved materials in the euphotic zone, are key water clarity parameters measured in the Chesapeake Bay Program's Water Quality Monitoring Network. Chesapeake Bay resources affected by reduced clarity often include critical seagrass habitats where much of the sediment and organic inputs to the Bay are resuspended and deposited. These critical habitats are used by a variety of organisms as nursery, spawning and feeding grounds. Relatively little information is known about the spatio-temporal variability of these areas in the Bay, mainly because the required field effort to synoptically characterize variability would be costly. In December 2005, a new SeaWiFS algorithm to estimate light attenuation was made available in the standardized NASA processing software (SeaDAS). This enabled generation of a diffuse attenuation coefficient as one of the SeaWiFS derived products. Although ocean color data from SeaWiFS is freely accessible and applicable to this line of research, light attenuation derived from this product can only be derived from blue wavelengths, where a naturally occurring abundance of dissolved organic materials would likely reduce our confidence in the estimate. Unlike previous algorithms, light attenuation can be estimated at any wavelength, including 670 nm, a wavelength that would be least affected by the presence of dissolved organic materials. We constructed a 9 year time series of SeaWiFS- derived light attenuation to characterize turbidity features, and to describe seasonal and spatial variability in the Bay. A first step in this process is the work presented here; namely, a validation of the derived light attenuation against optical field data in Chesapeake Bay.

  16. Transcriptional and functional analysis of galactooligosaccharide uptake by lacS in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Joakim M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Abou Hachem, Maher; Lahtinen, Sampo; Goh, Yong Jun; Svensson, Birte; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2011-10-25

    Probiotic microbes rely on their ability to survive in the gastrointestinal tract, adhere to mucosal surfaces, and metabolize available energy sources from dietary compounds, including prebiotics. Genome sequencing projects have proposed models for understanding prebiotic catabolism, but mechanisms remain to be elucidated for many prebiotic substrates. Although ?-galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are documented prebiotic compounds, little is known about their utilization by lactobacilli. This study aimed to identify genetic loci in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM responsible for the transport and catabolism of GOS. Whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays were used to survey the differential global transcriptome during logarithmic growth of L. acidophilus NCFM using GOS or glucose as a sole source of carbohydrate. Within the 16.6-kbp gal-lac gene cluster, lacS, a galactoside-pentose-hexuronide permease-encoding gene, was up-regulated 5.1-fold in the presence of GOS. In addition, two ?-galactosidases, LacA and LacLM, and enzymes in the Leloir pathway were also encoded by genes within this locus and up-regulated by GOS stimulation. Generation of a lacS-deficient mutant enabled phenotypic confirmation of the functional LacS permease not only for the utilization of lactose and GOS but also lactitol, suggesting a prominent role of LacS in the metabolism of a broad range of prebiotic ?-galactosides, known to selectively modulate the beneficial gut microbiota. PMID:22006318

  17. Mutagenesis in the lacI gene target of E. coli: improved analysis for lacI(d) and lacO mutants.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, Sarah J; Schaaper, Roel M

    2014-12-01

    The lacI gene of Escherichia coli has been a highly useful target for studies of mutagenesis, particularly for analysis of the specificity (spectrum) of mutations generated under a variety of conditions and in various genetic backgrounds. The gene encodes the repressor of the lac operon, and lacI-defective mutants displaying constitutive expression of the operon are readily selected. DNA sequencing of the lacI mutants has often been confined to the N-terminal region of the protein, as it presents a conveniently short target with a high density of detectably mutable sites. Mutants in this region are easily selected due to their dominance in a genetic complementation test (lacI(d) mutants). A potential complication in these studies is that constitutive expression of lac may also arise due to mutations in the lac operator (lacO mutants). Under some conditions, for example when analyzing spontaneous mutations, lacO mutants can comprise a very high fraction of the constitutive mutants due to a strong base-substitution hotspot in the lac operator. Such mutational hot spots diminish the return of the sequencing effort and do not yield significant new information. For this reason, a procedure to eliminate the lacO mutants prior to DNA sequencing is desirable. Here, we report a simple method that allows screening out of lacO mutants. This method is based on the lack of resistance of lacO mutants to kanamycin under conditions when the kan gene is expressed from a plasmid under control of the lac promoter-operator (lacPO). We show data validating the new approach with sets of known lacI(d) and lacO mutants, and further apply it to the generation of a new collection of spontaneous mutations, where lacO mutants have historically been a significant contributor. PMID:25771873

  18. Prospects for in vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients using postprocessing dual-energy CT imaging on a commercial scanner: Comparison of analytic and polyenergetic statistical reconstruction algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Joshua D. Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Whiting, Bruce R.; O’Sullivan, Joseph A.; Politte, David G.; Klahr, Paul H.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasivein vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 × 1 × 3 mm{sup 3} grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean. Reconstruction with the statistical AM algorithm led to standard deviations roughly 40% to 60% less than FBP reconstruction. Additional tin filtration of the high energy beam exhibits similar pDECT estimation accuracy as the unfiltered beam, even when scanning with only 25% of the dose. Using the law of propagated uncertainty, low Z materials are found to be more sensitive to image reconstruction errors than high Z materials. Furthermore, it is estimated that reconstructed CT image uncertainty must be limited to less than 0.25% to achieve a target linear-attenuation coefficient estimation uncertainty of 3% at 28 keV. Conclusions: That pDECT supports mean linear attenuation coefficient measurement accuracies of 1% of reference values for energies greater than 30 keV is encouraging. However, the sensitivity of the pDECT measurements to noise and systematic errors in reconstructed CT images warrants further investigation in more complex phantom geometries. The investigated statistical reconstruction algorithm, AM, reduced random measurement uncertainty relative to FBP owing to improved noise performance. These early results also support efforts to increase DE spectral separation, which can further reduce the pDECT sensitivity to measurement uncertainty.

  19. Prospects for in vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients using postprocessing dual-energy CT imaging on a commercial scanner: Comparison of analytic and polyenergetic statistical reconstruction algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Joshua D. Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Whiting, Bruce R.; OSullivan, Joseph A.; Politte, David G.; Klahr, Paul H.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasivein vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 1 3 mm{sup 3} grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean. Reconstruction with the statistical AM algorithm led to standard deviations roughly 40% to 60% less than FBP reconstruction. Additional tin filtration of the high energy beam exhibits similar pDECT estimation accuracy as the unfiltered beam, even when scanning with only 25% of the dose. Using the law of propagated uncertainty, low Z materials are found to be more sensitive to image reconstruction errors than high Z materials. Furthermore, it is estimated that reconstructed CT image uncertainty must be limited to less than 0.25% to achieve a target linear-attenuation coefficient estimation uncertainty of 3% at 28 keV. Conclusions: That pDECT supports mean linear attenuation coefficient measurement accuracies of 1% of reference values for energies greater than 30 keV is encouraging. However, the sensitivity of the pDECT measurements to noise and systematic errors in reconstructed CT images warrants further investigation in more complex phantom geometries. The investigated statistical reconstruction algorithm, AM, reduced random measurement uncertainty relative to FBP owing to improved noise performance. These early results also support efforts to increase DE spectral separation, which can further reduce the pDECT sensitivity to measurement uncertainty.

  20. Towards improved hardware component attenuation correction in PET/MR hybrid imaging.

    PubMed

    Paulus, D H; Tellmann, L; Quick, H H

    2013-11-21

    In positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) hybrid imaging attenuation correction (AC) of the patient tissue and patient table is performed by converting the CT-based Hounsfield units (HU) to linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of PET. When applied to the new field of hardware component AC in PET/magnetic resonance (MR) hybrid imaging, this conversion method may result in local overcorrection of PET activity values. The aim of this study thus was to optimize the conversion parameters for CT-based AC of hardware components in PET/MR. Systematic evaluation and optimization of the HU to LAC conversion parameters has been performed for the hardware component attenuation map (-map) of a flexible radiofrequency (RF) coil used in PET/MR imaging. Furthermore, spatial misregistration of this RF coil to its -map was simulated by shifting the -map in different directions and the effect on PET quantification was evaluated. Measurements of a PET NEMA standard emission phantom were performed on an integrated hybrid PET/MR system. Various CT parameters were used to calculate different -maps for the flexible RF coil and to evaluate the impact on the PET activity concentration. A 511keV transmission scan of the local RF coil was used as standard of reference to adapt the slope of the conversion from HUs to LACs at 511keV. The average underestimation of the PET activity concentration due to the non-attenuation corrected RF coil in place was calculated to be 5.0% in the overall phantom. When considering attenuation only in the upper volume of the phantom, the average difference to the reference scan without RF coil is 11.0%. When the PET/CT conversion is applied, an average overestimation of 3.1% (without extended CT scale) and 4.2% (with extended CT scale) is observed in the top volume of the NEMA phantom. Using the adapted conversion resulting from this study, the deviation in the top volume of the phantom is reduced to-0.5% and shows the lowest standard deviation inside the phantom in comparison to all other conversions. Simulation of a -map misregistration shows acceptable results for shifts below 5mm for the flexible surface RF coil. The adapted conversion from HUs to LAC at 511keV within this study can improve hardware component AC in PET/MR hybrid imaging as shown for a flexible RF surface coil. Furthermore, these results have a direct impact on the improvement of the hardware component AC of the examined flexible RF coil in conjunction with position determination. PMID:24168832

  1. Multiband Microvariability of BL Lac During Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Carini, M. T.; Noble, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The blazar BL Lac recently underwent a major outburst. A search for microvariability was made with the 0.76 m telescope at the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory. Nearly 300 CCD observations in V and R were made over ten nights in July. During that time, BL Lac varied by more than 1.5 magnitudes and exhibited substantial microvariability. In fact, it exhibited microvariability each of the eight nights multiple exposures were made, being most active when brightest on July 29. On this night, four mini-flares were seen within 7 hours. During one of these flares, BL Lac brightened by more than 0.5 magnitude in less than 2.5 hours. The variations in V and R were simultaneous within the limits of the observations. However, the V and R magnitudes did not always change at the same rate. On July 3, BL Lac brightened in R faster than in V. Then on July 4, it dimmed in V faster than in R. Yet over the ten nights observed, BL Lac became bluer as it brightened. Another interesting difference between the V and R data was seen on July 4 when a mini-flare was seen in V but not in R. Clearly, while the V and R variations are highly correlated, there are compelling differences. Here we present these observations and discuss them in relation to models intended to explain microvariability. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA grant NCC5-228.

  2. Optical and NIR photometry of BL Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermak, H. E.; Barnsley, R. M.; Steele, I. A.

    2014-10-01

    We report optical and NIR data for the blazar BL Lac, associated with the Gamma ray source 2FGLJ2202.8+4216 (z = 0.0686). NIR data were obtained during early commissioning of the new IO:I imaging camera installed on the 2.0 metre Liverpool Telescope (LT), La Palma.

  3. Physiological regulation of a decontrolled lac operon.

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, B L; Kodaira, R; Neidhardt, F C

    1977-01-01

    The expression of the lac operon was studied under a variety of growth conditions in induced and in constitutive cells of Escherichia coli that carried different catabolite-insensitive lac promoters. Use of such "decontrolled" lac operons permitted a study of the expression of an operon that was presumably subject only to passive control. Since the use of toluenized cells was demonstrated not to be completely reliable, all enzyme assays were performed on sonic supernatant fluids. The cells contained different catabolite-insensitive promoters, which included the L1 and UV5 lac promoters, as well as others isolated in this study. There were three major observations. First, small but real carbon source effects were seen. Second, there was only a small change in beta-galactosidase specific activity with changes in the growth rate. This result implies a limited transcription and/or translation capacity within the cell. Third, at rapid growth rates, most promoters exhibited a decreased expression. The UV5 promoter, which was the "strongest" promoter, was an exception. A mechanism to explain this promoter-dependent control is discussed. PMID:323228

  4. The interaction of the recognition helix of lac repressor with lac operator.

    PubMed Central

    Lehming, N; Sartorius, J; Niemller, M; Genenger, G; v Wilcken-Bergmann, B; Mller-Hill, B

    1987-01-01

    We have constructed a system which allows systematic testing of repressor--operator interactions. The system consists of two plasmids. One of them carries a lac operon in which lac operator has been replaced by a unique restriction site into which synthetic operators can be cloned. The other plasmid carries the gene coding for the repressor, in our case a semisynthetic lacI gene of which parts can be exchanged in a cassette-like manner. A galE host allows us to select for mutants which express repressors with altered specificities. Here we report the change of specificity in the lac system by changing residues 1 and 2 of the recognition helix of lac repressor. The specificity changes are brought about cooperatively by the change of both residues. Exchanges of just one residue broaden the specificity. Our results hint that the recognition helix of lac repressor may possibly have the opposite orientation to those in Lambda cro protein or 434 CI repressor. Images Fig. 4. PMID:2826131

  5. Origin of Bistability in the lac Operon

    PubMed Central

    Santilln, M.; Mackey, M. C.; Zeron, E. S.

    2007-01-01

    Multistability is an emergent dynamic property that has been invoked to explain multiple coexisting biological states. In this work, we investigate the origin of bistability in the lac operon. To do this, we develop a mathematical model for the regulatory pathway in this system and compare the model predictions with other experimental results in which a nonmetabolizable inducer was employed. We investigate the effect of lactose metabolism using this model, and show that it greatly modifies the bistable region in the external lactose (Le) versus external glucose (Ge) parameter space. The model also predicts that lactose metabolism can cause bistability to disappear for very low Ge. We have also carried out stochastic numerical simulations of the model for several values of Ge and Le. Our results indicate that bistability can help guarantee that Escherichia coli consumes glucose and lactose in the most efficient possible way. Namely, the lac operon is induced only when there is almost no glucose in the growing medium, but if Le is high, the operon induction level increases abruptly when the levels of glucose in the environment decrease to very low values. We demonstrate that this behavior could not be obtained without bistability if the stability of the induced and uninduced states is to be preserved. Finally, we point out that the present methods and results may be useful to study the emergence of multistability in biological systems other than the lac operon. PMID:17351004

  6. VHE BL Lacs through the MAGIC glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra Gonzlez, Josefa; MAGIC Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    In this contribution an overview of the latest results on the study of BL Lac objects with the MAGIC telescopes at the very high energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-rays is presented. Three new VHE sources were detected during 2014, two BL Lac objects and the gravitational lensed blazar S3 0218+357. MAGIC detected very fast intra-night variability from IC 310. This detection points to smaller emitting regions than the event horizon, this is hard to be explained in the framework of the current theoretical models. The long term multi wavelength (MWL) study of the BL Lac PKS 1424+240 shows correlation between the radio and optical emission, pointing to a common origin. The MWL SED is not well fitted by a one-zone synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) model, but a two-zone SSC model can explain both, the MWL light curve and the SED. Spectral curvature has been found in the observed VHE spectrum from PG 1553+113. This is the first time that spectral curvature compatible with the EBL absorption is found in an individual object.

  7. Sound wave attenuation in foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faerman, V. T.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental measurements are presented for sound wave attenuation in foam without additives (standing wave method) and in foam with added particles (pulse method). A setup is developed that makes it possible to obtain a standing sound wave in stable foam and estimate the attenuation coefficient. A comparison is made of the coefficients of sound attenuation in foam in the sonic and ultrasonic frequency ranges, which have been published in a number of works. It is shown that the introduction of particles into foam leads to an increase in sound wave attenuation and may be the result of the viscous mechanism of sound wave energy loss.

  8. Cloning and expression of Kluyveromyces fragilis LAC4 gene.

    PubMed

    Huo, K; Li, Y

    1995-11-01

    The genomic library of Kluyveromyces fragilis was constructed in E. coli TG1, and 5 beta-galactosidase gene (LAC4) clones have been obtained from the library by complementation of the Kluyveromyces lactis lac4-8 mutation. The studies on the structure and the function of the LAC4 gene revealed that (i) the gene can also complement E. coli lacZ mutation; (ii) the physical map of the K. fragilis LAC4 gene was very similar to that of K. lactis; (iii) the beta-galactosidase levels expressed by the clone strains were much higher than that expressed by the original strain; (iv) the variation of the beta-galactosidase level of different clone strains induced by lactose or galactose was related to the retained degree of the 5' flanking region of LAC4 gene, suggesting that there might be a lactose specific transcription activating element in the region. PMID:8745531

  9. BL LAC CANDIDATES FOR TeV OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Funk, S.; Paggi, A.; D'Abrusco, R.; Errando, M.; Masetti, N.; Tosti, G.

    2013-07-15

    BL Lac objects are the most numerous class of extragalactic TeV-detected sources. One of the biggest difficulties in investigating their TeV emission is due to their limited number, since only 47 BL Lac objects are known to be TeV emitters. In this paper, we propose new criteria to select TeV BL Lac candidates based on infrared and X-ray observations. We apply our selection criteria to the BL Lac objects listed in the ROMA-BZCAT catalog, thereby identifying 41 potential TeV emitters. We then perform a search over a more extended sample combining the ROSAT bright source catalog and the WISE all-sky survey, revealing 54 additional candidates for TeV observations. Our investigation also led to a tentative classification of 16 unidentified X-ray sources as BL Lac candidates. This analysis provides new interesting BL Lac targets for future observations with ground-based Cherenkov telescopes.

  10. The Energy Landscape of Hyperstable LacI-DNA Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Jason

    2009-03-01

    The Escherichia coli LacI protein represses transcription of the lac operon by blocking access to the promoter through binding at a promoter-proximal DNA operator. The affinity of tetrameric LacI (and therefore the repression efficiency) is enhanced by simultaneous binding to an auxiliary operator, forming a DNA loop. Hyperstable LacI-DNA loops were previously shown to be formed on DNA constructs that include a sequence-directed bend flanked by operators. Biochemical experiments showed that two such constructs (9C14 and 11C12) with different helical phasing between the operators and the DNA bend form different DNA loop shapes. The geometry and topology of the loops and the relevance of alternative conformations suggested by probable flexible linkers in LacI remain unclear. Bulk and single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (SM-FRET, with D. English) experiments on a dual fluorophore-labeled 9C14-LacI loop demonstrate that it adopts a single, stable, rigid closed-form loop conformation. Here, we characterize the LacI-9C14 loop by SM-FRET as a function of inducer isopropyl-?,D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) concentration. Energy transfer measurements reveal partial but incomplete destabilization of loop formation by IPTG. Surprisingly, there is no change in the energy transfer efficiency of the remaining looped population. Models for the regulation of the lac operon often assume complete disruption of LacI-operator complexes upon inducer binding to LacI. Our work shows that even at saturating IPTG there is still a significant population of LacI-DNA complexes in a looped state, in accord with previous in vivo experiments that show incomplete induction (with J. Maher). Finally, we will report progress on characterizing the ``energy landscape'' for DNA looping upon systematic variation of the DNA linkers between the operators and the bending locus. Rod mechanics simulations (with N. Perkins) provide testable predictions on loop stability, topology, and FRET.

  11. Specificities of three tight-binding Lac repressors.

    PubMed

    Kolkhof, P

    1992-10-11

    Tight binding mutants of Lac repressor exhibit complex repression phenomena. In this work, in vivo Lac operator binding of three such mutants of E. coli Lac repressor (X86: ser 61-leu, l12: pro 3-tyr and the double mutant l12X86: pro 3-tyr, ser 61-leu) was analyzed. Repression of beta-galactosidase synthesis controlled by ideal lac operator and its 27 symmetric operator variants containing each possible base-pair at each single half-operator position in the presence of the tight-binding Lac repressor mutants was determined. The average increase of repression with all operator variants was about 3 fold with the X86 mutant. It was about 4 fold with the l12 mutant and about 2 fold with the double mutant l12X86 as compared to wildtype Lac repressor. The X86 mutant showed the same increase of affinity to all operator variants, whereas the l12 and l12X86 mutants exhibited lower repression with some variants than with most others. These results suggest that the X86 mutant has gained no additional specificity. In contrast the l12 mutant and the l12X86 mutant exhibit a relaxed specificity for certain base pairs in positions 1 and 3 of lac operator. This suggests that the extreme N-terminus of Lac repressor may interact with the inner base-pairs in the minor groove. PMID:1408819

  12. Specificities of three tight-binding Lac repressors.

    PubMed Central

    Kolkhof, P

    1992-01-01

    Tight binding mutants of Lac repressor exhibit complex repression phenomena. In this work, in vivo Lac operator binding of three such mutants of E. coli Lac repressor (X86: ser 61-leu, l12: pro 3-tyr and the double mutant l12X86: pro 3-tyr, ser 61-leu) was analyzed. Repression of beta-galactosidase synthesis controlled by ideal lac operator and its 27 symmetric operator variants containing each possible base-pair at each single half-operator position in the presence of the tight-binding Lac repressor mutants was determined. The average increase of repression with all operator variants was about 3 fold with the X86 mutant. It was about 4 fold with the l12 mutant and about 2 fold with the double mutant l12X86 as compared to wildtype Lac repressor. The X86 mutant showed the same increase of affinity to all operator variants, whereas the l12 and l12X86 mutants exhibited lower repression with some variants than with most others. These results suggest that the X86 mutant has gained no additional specificity. In contrast the l12 mutant and the l12X86 mutant exhibit a relaxed specificity for certain base pairs in positions 1 and 3 of lac operator. This suggests that the extreme N-terminus of Lac repressor may interact with the inner base-pairs in the minor groove. PMID:1408819

  13. Intranight Variability During the 1997 Outburst of BL Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Sandra D.; Carini, Michael T.; Noble, John C.

    1998-02-01

    The blazar BL Lac underwent a major outburst this summer. To search for intranight variability during the outburst, observations of BL Lac were made with the 30 inch telescope at the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory. During ten nights in July, nearly 300 CCD observations were made. BL Lac was seen to vary by more than 1.5 magnitudes over those ten nights. Substantial intranight variability was also observed. For example, on July 29, BL Lac increased in brightness by more than 0.5 magnitude in less than 2.5 hours. The observations of BL Lac taken in July are reported here and discussed in relation to the models intended to explain intranight variability.

  14. The lactose transporter in Leuconostoc lactis is a new member of the LacS subfamily of galactoside-pentose-hexuronide translocators.

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, E E; David, S; de Vos, W M

    1996-01-01

    The gene encoding the lactose transport protein (lacS) of Leuconostoc lactis NZ6009 has been cloned from its native lactose plasmid, pNZ63, by functional complementation of lactose permease-deficient Escherichia coli mutants. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame with the capacity to encode a protein of 639 amino acids which had limited but significant identity to the lactose transport carriers (LacS) of Streptococcus thermophilus (34.5%) and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (35.6%). This similarity was present both in the amino-terminal hydrophobic carrier domain, which is homologous to the E. coli melibiose transporter, and in the carboxy-terminal enzyme IIA-like regulatory domain. The flanking regions of DNA surrounding lacS were also sequenced. Preceding the lacS gene was a small open reading frame in the same orientation encoding a deduced 95-amino-acid protein with a sequence similar to the amino-terminal portion of beta-galactosidase I from Bacillus stearothermophilus. The lacS gene was separated from the downstream beta-galactosidase genes (lacLM) by 2 kb of DNA containing an IS3-like insertion sequence, which is a novel arrangement for lac genes in comparison with that in other lactic acid bacteria. The lacS gene was cloned in an E. coli-Streptococcus shuttle vector and was expressed both in a lacS deletion derivative of S. thermophilus and in a pNZ63-cured strain, L. lactis NZ6091. The role of the LacS protein was confirmed by uptake assays in which substantial uptake of radiolabeled lactose or galactose was observed with L. lactis or S. thermophilus plasmids harboring an intact lacS gene. Furthermore, galactose uptake was observed in NZ6091, suggesting the presence of at least one more transport system for galactose in L. lactis. PMID:8633855

  15. DNA supercoiling, a critical signal regulating the basal expression of the lac operon in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fulcrand, Geraldine; Dages, Samantha; Zhi, Xiaoduo; Chapagain, Prem; Gerstman, Bernard S.; Dunlap, David; Leng, Fenfei

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli lac repressor (LacI) is a paradigmatic transcriptional factor that controls the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon. This tetrameric protein specifically binds to the O1, O2 and O3 operators of the lac operon and forms a DNA loop to repress transcription from the adjacent lac promoter. In this article, we demonstrate that upon binding to the O1 and O2 operators at their native positions LacI constrains three (−) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter and forms a topological barrier. The stability of LacI-mediated DNA topological barriers is directly proportional to its DNA binding affinity. However, we find that DNA supercoiling modulates the basal expression from the lac operon in E. coli. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that LacI functions as a topological barrier to constrain free, unconstrained (−) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter. These constrained (−) supercoils enhance LacI’s DNA-binding affinity and thereby the repression of the promoter. Thus, LacI binding is superhelically modulated to control the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon under varying growth conditions. PMID:26763930

  16. 76 FR 68124 - Television Broadcasting Services; Fond du Lac, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Fond du Lac, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission denies a petition...

  17. A computational study of ?-lac mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Maria; Aurell, Erik

    2009-12-01

    We present a comprehensive, computational study of the properties of bacteriophage ? mutants designed by Atsumi and Little (2006 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 103 4558-63). These phages underwent a genetic reconstruction where Cro was replaced by a dimeric form of the Lac repressor. To clarify the theoretical characteristics of these mutants, we built a detailed thermodynamic model. The mutants all have a different genetic wiring than the wild-type ?. One group lacks regulation of PRM by the lytic protein. These mutants only exhibit the lysogenic equilibrium, with no transiently active PR. The other group lacks the negative feedback from CI. In this group, we identify a handful of bi-stable mutants, although the majority only exhibit the lysogenic equilibrium. The experimental identification of functional phages differs from our predictions. From a theoretical perspective, there is no reason why only 4 out of 900 mutants should be functional. The differences between theory and experiment can be explained in two ways. Either, the view of the ? phage as a bi-stable system needs to be revised, or the mutants have in fact not undergone a modular replacement, as intended by Atsumi and Little, but constitute instead a wider systemic change.

  18. On the magnetization of BL Lac jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.

    2016-03-01

    The current paradigm foresees that relativistic jets are launched as magnetically dominated flows, whose magnetic power is progressively converted to kinetic power of the matter of the jet, until equipartition is reached. Therefore, at the end of the acceleration phase, the jet should still carry a substantial fraction (≈half) of its power in the form of a Poynting flux. It has been also argued that, in these conditions, the best candidate particle acceleration mechanism is efficient reconnection of magnetic field lines, for which it is predicted that magnetic field and accelerated relativistic electron energy densities are in equipartition. Through the modelling of the jet non-thermal emission, we explore if equipartition is indeed possible in BL Lac objects, i.e. low-power blazars with weak or absent broad emission lines. We find that one-zone models (for which only one region is involved in the production of the radiation we observe) the particle energy density is largely dominating (by 1-2 orders of magnitude) over the magnetic one. As a consequence, the jet kinetic power largely exceeds the magnetic power. Instead, if the jet is structured (i.e. made by a fast spine surrounded by a slower layer), the amplification of the inverse Compton emission due to the radiative interplay between the two components allows us to reproduce the emission in equipartition conditions.

  19. Tetramer opening in LacI-mediated DNA looping.

    PubMed

    Rutkauskas, Danielis; Zhan, Hongli; Matthews, Kathleen S; Pavone, Francesco S; Vanzi, Francesco

    2009-09-29

    Lactose repressor protein (LacI) controls transcription of the genes involved in lactose metabolism in bacteria. Essential to optimal LacI-mediated regulation is its ability to bind simultaneously to two operators, forming a loop on the intervening DNA. Recently, several lines of evidence (both theoretical and experimental) have suggested various possible loop structures associated with different DNA binding topologies and LacI tetramer structural conformations (adopted by flexing about the C-terminal tetramerization domain). We address, specifically, the role of protein opening in loop formation by employing the single-molecule tethered particle motion method on LacI protein mutants chemically cross-linked at different positions along the cleft between the two dimers. Measurements on the wild-type and uncross-linked LacI mutants led to the observation of two distinct levels of short tether length, associated with two different DNA looping structures. Restricting conformational flexibility of the protein by chemical cross-linking induces pronounced effects. Crosslinking the dimers at the level of the N-terminal DNA binding head (E36C) completely suppresses looping, whereas cross-linking near the C-terminal tetramerization domain (Q231C) results in changes of looping geometry detected by the measured tether length distributions. These observations lead to the conclusion that tetramer opening plays a definite role in at least a subset of LacI/DNA loop conformations. PMID:19805348

  20. Lac Courte Oreilles Energy Analysis Project

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Isham; Denise Johnson

    2009-04-01

    The Lac Courte Oreilles Tribe applied for first step funding in 2007 and was awarded in October of that year. We wanted to perform an audit to begin fulfilling two commitments we made to our membership and resolutions that we adopted. One was the Kyoto Protocol and reduce our carbon emissions by 25% and to produce 25% of our energy by sustainable means. To complete these goals we needed to begin with first assessing what our carbon emissions are and begin taking the steps to conserve on the energy we currently use. The First Step Grant gave us the opportunity to do this. Upon funding the Energy Project was formed under the umbrella of the LCO Public Works Department and Denise Johnson was hired as the coordinator. She quickly began fulfilling the objectives of the project. Denise began by contact the LCO College and hiring interns who were able to go to each Tribal entity and perform line logging to read and document the energy used for each electrical appliance. Data was also gathered for one full year from each entity for all their utility bills (gasoline, electric, natural gas, fuel oil, etc.). Relationships were formed with the Green Team and other Green Committees in the area that could assist us in this undertaking. The Energy Task Force was of great assistance as well recommending other committees and guidance to completing our project. The data was gathered, compiled and placed into spreadsheets that would be understandable for anyone who didn't have a background in Renewable Resources. While gathering the data Denise was also looking for ways to conserve energy usage, policies changes to implement and any possible viable renewable energy resources. Changes in the social behaviors of our members and employees will require further education by workshops, energy fairs, etc.. This will be looked into and done in coordination with our schools. The renewable resources seem most feasible are wind resources as well as Bio Mass both of which need further assessment and funding to do so will be sought. While we already are in ownership of a Hydro Dam it is currently not functioning to its full capacity we are seeking operation and maintenance firm proposals and funding sources. One of our biggest accomplishment this project gave us was our total Carbon Emissions 9989.45 tons, this will be the number that we will use to base our reductions from. It will help us achieve our goals we have set for ourselves in achieving the Kyoto Protocol and saving our Earth for our future generations. Another major accomplishment and lesson learned is we need to educate ourselves and our people on how to conserve energy to both impact the environment and our own budgets. The Lac Courte Oreilles (LCO) Energy Analysis Project will perform an energy audit to gather information on the Tribe's energy usage and determine the carbon emissions. By performing the audit we will be able to identify areas where conservation efforts are most viable and recommend policies that can be implemented. These steps will enable LCO to begin achieving the goals that have been set by the Tribal Governing Board and adopted through resolutions. The goals are to reduce emissions by 25% and to produce 25% of its energy using sustainable sources. The project objectives were very definitive to assist the Tribe in achieving its goals; reducing carbon emissions and obtaining a sustainable source of energy. The following were the outlined objectives: (1) Coordinate LCO's current and future conservation and renewable energy projects; (2) Establish working relationships with outside entities to share information and collaborate on future projects; (3) Complete energy audit and analyze LCO's energy load and carbon emissions; (4) Identify policy changes, education programs and conservation efforts which are appropriate for the LCO Reservation; and (5) Create a plan to identify the most cost effective renewable energy options for LCO.

  1. Sugar recognition by CscB and LacY.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Junichi; Smirnova, Irina; Kasho, Vladimir; Kaback, H Ronald

    2011-12-27

    The sucrose permease (CscB) and lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli belong to the oligosaccharide/H(+) symporter subfamily of the major facilitator superfamily, and both catalyze sugar/H(+) symport across the cytoplasmic membrane. Thus far, there is no common substrate for the two permeases; CscB transports sucrose, and LacY is highly specific for galactopyranosides. Determinants for CscB sugar specificity are unclear, but the structural organization of key residues involved in sugar binding appears to be similar in CscB and LacY. In this study, several sugars containing galactopyranosyl, glucopyranosyl, or fructofuranosyl moieties were tested for transport with cells overexpressing either CscB or LacY. CscB recognizes not only sucrose but also fructose and lactulose, but glucopyranosides are not transported and do not inhibit sucrose transport. The findings indicate that CscB exhibits practically no specificity with respect to the glucopyranosyl moiety of sucrose. Inhibition of sucrose transport by CscB tested with various fructofuranosides suggests that the C(3)-OH group of the fructofuranosyl ring may be important for recognition by CscB. Lactulose is readily transported by LacY, where specificity is directed toward the galactopyranosyl ring, and the affinity of LacY for lactulose is similar to that observed for lactose. The studies demonstrate that the substrate specificity of CscB is directed toward the fructofuranosyl moiety of the substrate, while the specificity of LacY is directed toward the galactopyranosyl moiety. PMID:22106930

  2. Sugar recognition by CscB and LacY

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, Junichi; Smirnova, Irina; Kasho, Vladimir; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2011-01-01

    The sucrose permease (CscB) and lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli belong to the oligosaccharide/H+ symporter sub-family of the Major Facilitator Superfamily, and both catalyze sugar/H+ symport across the cytoplasmic membrane. Thus far, there is no common substrate for the two permeases; CscB transports sucrose and LacY is highly specific for galactopyranosides. Determinants for CscB sugar specificity are unclear, but the structural organization of key residues involved in sugar binding appears to be similar in CscB and LacY. In this study, several sugars containing galactopyranosyl, glucopyranosyl, or fructofuranosyl moieties were tested for transport with cells overexpressing either CscB or LacY. CscB recognizes not only sucrose but also fructose and lactulose, but glucopyranosides are not transported and do not inhibit sucrose transport. The findings indicate that CscB exhibits practically no specificity with respect to the glucopyranosyl moiety of sucrose. Inhibition of sucrose transport by CscB tested with various fructofuranosides suggests that the C3-OH of the fructofuranosyl ring may be important for recognition by CscB. Lactulose is readily transported by LacY, where specificity is directed toward the galactopyranosyl ring, and the affinity of LacY for lactulose is similar to that observed for lactose. The studies demonstrate that the substrate specificity of the CscB is directed towards the fructofuranosyl moiety of substrate, while the specificity of LacY is directed towards the galactopyranosyl moiety. PMID:22106930

  3. The CLASS BL Lac sample: the radio luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, M. J. M.; Caccianiga, A.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new sample of BL Lac objects selected from a deep (30 mJy) radio survey of flat spectrum radio sources (the CLASS blazar survey). The sample is one of the largest well-defined samples in the low-power regime with a total of 130 sources of which 55 satisfy the `classical' optical BL Lac selection criteria, and the rest have indistinguishable radio properties. The primary goal of this study is to establish the radio luminosity function (RLF) on firm statistical ground at low radio luminosities where previous samples have not been able to investigate. The gain of taking a peek at lower powers is the possibility to search for the flattening of the luminosity function which is a feature predicted by the beaming model but which has remained elusive to observational confirmation. In this study, we extend for the first time the BL Lac RLF down to very low radio powers 1022 W Hz-1, i.e. two orders of magnitude below the RLF currently available in the literature. In the process, we confirm the importance of adopting a broader, and more physically meaningful set of classification criteria to avoid the systematic missing of low-luminosity BL Lacs. Thanks to the good statistics we confirm the existence of weak but significant positive cosmological evolution for the BL Lac population, and we detect, for the first time the flattening of the RLF at L 1025 W Hz-1 in agreement with the predictions of the beaming model.

  4. Boolean models can explain bistability in the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Stigler, Brandilyn

    2011-06-01

    The lac operon in Escherichia coli has been studied extensively and is one of the earliest gene systems found to undergo both positive and negative control. The lac operon is known to exhibit bistability, in the sense that the operon is either induced or uninduced. Many dynamical models have been proposed to capture this phenomenon. While most are based on complex mathematical formulations, it has been suggested that for other gene systems network topology is sufficient to produce the desired dynamical behavior. We present a Boolean network as a discrete model for the lac operon. Our model includes the two main glucose control mechanisms of catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. We show that this Boolean model is capable of predicting the ON and OFF steady states and bistability. Further, we present a reduced model which shows that lac mRNA and lactose form the core of the lac operon, and that this reduced model exhibits the same dynamics. This work suggests that the key to model qualitative dynamics of gene systems is the topology of the network and Boolean models are well suited for this purpose. PMID:21563979

  5. Diffuse ?-Ray Emission from Unresolved BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, M.; Donato, F.; Lamanna, G.; Sanchez, D. A.; Serpico, P. D.

    2014-05-01

    Blazars, active galactic nuclei with a jet pointing toward the Earth, represent the most abundant class of high-energy extragalactic ?-ray sources. The subset of blazars known as BL Lac objects is on average closer to Earth (i.e., younger) and characterized by harder spectra at high energy than the whole sample. The fraction of BL Lacs that is too dim to be detected and resolved by current ?-ray telescopes is therefore expected to contribute to the high-energy isotropic diffuse ?-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB has been recently measured over a wide energy range by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). We present a new prediction of the diffuse ?-ray flux due to the unresolved BL Lac blazar population. The model is built upon the spectral energy distribution and the luminosity function derived from the fraction of BL Lacs detected (and spectrally characterized) in the ?-ray energy range. We focus our attention on the {\\cal O}(100) GeV energy range, predicting the emission up to the TeV scale and taking into account the absorption on the extragalactic background light. In order to better shape the BL Lac spectral energy distribution, we combine the Fermi-LAT data with Imaging Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope measurements of the most energetic sources. Our analysis is carried on separately for low- and intermediate-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacs on the one hand and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacs on the other hand: we find in fact statistically different features for the two. The diffuse emission from the sum of both BL Lac classes increases from about 10% of the measured IGRB at 100 MeV to ~100% of the data level at 100 GeV. At energies greater than 100 GeV, our predictions naturally explain the IGRB data, accommodating their softening with increasing energy. Uncertainties are estimated to be within of a factor of two of the best-fit flux up to 500 GeV.

  6. Diffuse ?-ray emission from unresolved BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect

    Di Mauro, M.; Donato, F.; Lamanna, G.; Sanchez, D. A.

    2014-05-10

    Blazars, active galactic nuclei with a jet pointing toward the Earth, represent the most abundant class of high-energy extragalactic ?-ray sources. The subset of blazars known as BL Lac objects is on average closer to Earth (i.e., younger) and characterized by harder spectra at high energy than the whole sample. The fraction of BL Lacs that is too dim to be detected and resolved by current ?-ray telescopes is therefore expected to contribute to the high-energy isotropic diffuse ?-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB has been recently measured over a wide energy range by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). We present a new prediction of the diffuse ?-ray flux due to the unresolved BL Lac blazar population. The model is built upon the spectral energy distribution and the luminosity function derived from the fraction of BL Lacs detected (and spectrally characterized) in the ?-ray energy range. We focus our attention on the O(100) GeV energy range, predicting the emission up to the TeV scale and taking into account the absorption on the extragalactic background light. In order to better shape the BL Lac spectral energy distribution, we combine the Fermi-LAT data with Imaging Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope measurements of the most energetic sources. Our analysis is carried on separately for low- and intermediate-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacs on the one hand and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacs on the other hand: we find in fact statistically different features for the two. The diffuse emission from the sum of both BL Lac classes increases from about 10% of the measured IGRB at 100 MeV to ?100% of the data level at 100 GeV. At energies greater than 100 GeV, our predictions naturally explain the IGRB data, accommodating their softening with increasing energy. Uncertainties are estimated to be within of a factor of two of the best-fit flux up to 500 GeV.

  7. Elimination of bandwidth effect in attenuation measurement with picosecond ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, Atsushi; Nakamura, Nobutomo; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Hirao, Masahiko

    2014-08-01

    We study the broadening effect of probing pulse light on the apparent attenuation of the Brillouin oscillation measured with picosecond ultrasonics. We observe experimentally that the attenuation of the Brillouin oscillation is sensitive to the bandwidth, and the apparent attenuation coefficient increases as the bandwidth increases, being far from the intrinsic attenuation coefficient. Theoretical calculation is performed to reconstruct the observed oscillations, and it is confirmed that there are several factors affecting the apparent attenuation in addition to the bandwidth. We finally propose equations that deduce the contribution of the broadening to the apparent attenuation of the Brillouin oscillation.

  8. Structural Explanation for Allolactose (lac Operon Inducer) Synthesis by lacZ β-Galactosidase and the Evolutionary Relationship between Allolactose Synthesis and the lac Repressor

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Robert W.; Lo, Summie; Jancewicz, Larisa J.; Dugdale, Megan L.; Huber, Reuben E.

    2013-01-01

    β-Galactosidase (lacZ) has bifunctional activity. It hydrolyzes lactose to galactose and glucose and catalyzes the intramolecular isomerization of lactose to allolactose, the lac operon inducer. β-Galactosidase promotes the isomerization by means of an acceptor site that binds glucose after its cleavage from lactose and thus delays its exit from the site. However, because of its relatively low affinity for glucose, details of this site have remained elusive. We present structural data mapping the glucose site based on a substituted enzyme (G794A-β-galactosidase) that traps allolactose. Various lines of evidence indicate that the glucose of the trapped allolactose is in the acceptor position. The evidence includes structures with Bis-Tris (2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2′,2″-nitrilotriethanol) and l-ribose in the site and kinetic binding studies with substituted β-galactosidases. The site is composed of Asn-102, His-418, Lys-517, Ser-796, Glu-797, and Trp-999. Ser-796 and Glu-797 are part of a loop (residues 795–803) that closes over the active site. This loop appears essential for the bifunctional nature of the enzyme because it helps form the glucose binding site. In addition, because the loop is mobile, glucose binding is transient, allowing the release of some glucose. Bioinformatics studies showed that the residues important for interacting with glucose are only conserved in a subset of related enzymes. Thus, intramolecular isomerization is not a universal feature of β-galactosidases. Genomic analyses indicated that lac repressors were co-selected only within the conserved subset. This shows that the glucose binding site of β-galactosidase played an important role in lac operon evolution. PMID:23486479

  9. Evidence for an intermediate conformational state of LacY.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoxu; Guan, Lan; Zhou, Yonggang; Hong, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Qinghai; Kaback, H Ronald

    2012-03-20

    LacY mutant Cys154 ? Gly exhibits a periplasmic-closed crystal structure identical to the WT, but is periplasmic-open in the membrane. The mutant hardly catalyzes transport, but binds galactosides from either side of the membrane with the same affinity and is resistant to site-directed proteolysis relative to the pseudo-WT. Site-directed alkylation was also applied to 11 single-Cys mutants in Cys154 ? Gly LacY in right-side-out membrane vesicles or after solubilization and purification in dodecyl-?-D-maltopyranoside (DDM). Unlike the pseudo-WT, Cys replacements on the periplasmic side of the Cys154 ? Gly mutant label rapidly in the membrane without sugar, but labeling decreases markedly after the mutant proteins are purified. Thus, Cys154 ? Gly LacY likely favors a higher-energy intermediate periplasmic-open conformation in situ, but collapses to a lower-energy periplasmic-closed conformation in DDM after purification. Notably, branched-chain or neopentyl glycol maltoside detergents stabilize Cys154 ? Gly LacY in the membrane-embedded form. PMID:22355148

  10. LUNSORT list of lunar orbiter data by LAC area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, S.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar orbiter (missions 1-5) photographic data are listed sequentially according to the number (1 to 147) LAC (Lunar Aeronautical Chart) areas by use of a computer program called LUNSORT. This listing, as well as a similar one from Apollo would simplify the task of identifying images of a given Lunar area. Instructions and sample case are included.

  11. Are some BL Lacs artefacts of gravitational lensing?

    PubMed

    Ostriker, J P; Vietri, M

    1990-03-01

    WE suggested in 1985 that a significant fraction of BL Lacertae objects, a kind of lineless quasar, seen in nearby galaxies are in fact images, gravitationally lensed and substantially amplified by stars in the nearby galaxy, of background objects, optically violent variable (OVV) quasars at redshifts z > 1 (ref. 1). This hypothesis was made on the basis of certain general similarities between BL Lacs and O Ws, but for two recently observed BL Lacs(2,3) a strong case can be made that the accompanying elliptical galaxy is a foreground object. In addition, we argue that the distribution of BL Lac redshifts is hard to understand without gravitational lensing, unless we happen to be at a very local maximum of the spatial cosmic distribution of BL Lacs. Our analysis also indicates that the galaxies whose stars are likely to act as microlenses will be found in two peaks, one nearby, with redshift 0.05-0.10, and the other near the distant quasar. PMID:18278021

  12. Genetic Characterization of a Stable F? lac Plasmid1

    PubMed Central

    Macrina, Francis L.; Balbinder, Elias

    1972-01-01

    A mutant F? plasmid has been isolated in a strain of Salmonella typhimurium harboring Fts114lac. This mutant, designated FlacS, exhibits unique genetic stability in strains of S. typhimurium and Escherichia coli. It shows no thermolability and is lost at frequencies of 20 to 100 times less than the wild-type F?lac (F42) in the same genetic backgrounds. The FlacS is also insensitive to conventional plasmid curing agents, whereas both Fts114lac and F42 are readily cured. The nature of the mutation(s) conferring stability to the FlacS is unclear, but plasmid linkage has been established. The high frequency of conjugal transfer of the FlacS and its behavior in recombination-deficient strains of S. typhimurium and E. coli argue against its stability being due to stable chromosomal integration. The FlacS is also capable of transferring chromosomal markers in S. typhimurium and E. coli mating systems. No major differences in chromosomal mobilization have been observed among F42, Fts114lac, and FlacS donors of either genus. PMID:16559163

  13. Genetic Characterization of a Stable F' lac Plasmid.

    PubMed

    Macrina, F L; Balbinder, E

    1972-10-01

    A mutant F' plasmid has been isolated in a strain of Salmonella typhimurium harboring F(ts114)lac. This mutant, designated FlacS, exhibits unique genetic stability in strains of S. typhimurium and Escherichia coli. It shows no thermolability and is lost at frequencies of 20 to 100 times less than the wild-type F'lac (F42) in the same genetic backgrounds. The FlacS is also insensitive to conventional plasmid curing agents, whereas both F(ts114)lac and F42 are readily cured. The nature of the mutation(s) conferring stability to the FlacS is unclear, but plasmid linkage has been established. The high frequency of conjugal transfer of the FlacS and its behavior in recombination-deficient strains of S. typhimurium and E. coli argue against its stability being due to stable chromosomal integration. The FlacS is also capable of transferring chromosomal markers in S. typhimurium and E. coli mating systems. No major differences in chromosomal mobilization have been observed among F42, F(ts114)lac, and FlacS donors of either genus. PMID:16559163

  14. Radio-quiet BL Lacs - fact or fiction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londish, D.; Croom, S. M.; Heidt, J.; Boyle, B. J.

    2004-12-01

    We present further studies of the 2dF BL Lac sample (the 2BL, Londish et al. 2002 MNRAS 334,941), the first optically selected sample of BL Lac objects identified from scrutiny of over 8000 spectra in two redshift surveys, the 2QZ and 6QZ (Croom et al. 2001, MNRAS, 325, 483; MNRAS, 2004, 349, 1397). BL Lac objects are thought to be the beamed counterparts of FRI/FRII radio galaxies (cf. review by Urry & Padovani 1995, PASP, 107,803); at optical wavelengths these objects are dominated by Doppler boosted, synchrotron radiation, the resultant featureless continuum making them all but impossible to target in optical surveys. To date, therefore, all BL Lac samples have been initially identified in radio and/or X-ray surveys, with obvious bias against radio-quiet objects. In contrast the majority of 2BL objects (38/52) are radio-quiet. Recent high signal-to-noise VLT spectra of 33 2BL objects has led us to re-classify 12 objects as weak-lined QSOs and a further 6 as white dwarfs/stars. Seven of the 15 remaining continuum objects are undetected at radio and X-ray frequencies. The puzzle remains as to why these radio-quiet QSOs are lineless, or why these beamed continuum objects are radio-quiet - is there a mechanism that produces radio-quiet jets?

  15. Program Evaluation of Community College Learning Assistance Centers: What Do LAC Directors Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Doug; Blankenberger, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study seeks to determine the nature of current program evaluation practices for learning assistance centers (LACs), the practices being used for program evaluation, and whether LAC directors believe their practices are appropriate for evaluating program effectiveness. Method: We conducted a survey (n = 61) of community college LAC

  16. Mechanism of negative thermal expansion in LaC2 from first-principles prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaming; Jia, Yu; Sun, Qiang; Liang, Erjun

    2015-01-01

    Based on density functional theory and quasiharmonic approximation, the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) and negative thermal expansion (NTE) mechanism of tetragonal LaC2 are studied. Numerical results show that there is an obvious NTE parallel to c-axis, and the CTE is approximately ?c = - 1.67 10-6K-1, which coincides with the experimental data - 1.0 10-6K-1. In particular, a tiny NTE phenomenon along a-axis below 10 K has been predicted. The vibrational modes Eu and Eg at ? (0 , 0 , 0), and other three modes at M (0.5 , 0.5 , 0) and Z (0 , 0 , 0.5), give rise to negative Grneisen parameters and therefore contribute to the NTE along a- and c-axis. Additionally, the bulk CTE was calculated to be positive, our CTE values and temperature intervals agree well with the presented experiments.

  17. CcpA and LacD.1 Affect Temporal Regulation of Streptococcus pyogenes Virulence Genes ?

    PubMed Central

    Kietzman, Colin C.; Caparon, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Production of H2O2 follows a growth phase-dependent pattern that mimics that of many virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes. To gain greater insight into mechanisms coupling virulence factor expression to growth phase, we investigated the molecular basis for H2O2 generation and its regulation. Deletion of the gene encoding lactate oxidase (lctO) or culture in the presence of glucose eliminated H2O2 production, implicating carbohydrate regulation of lctO as a key element of growth phase control. In examining known carbohydrate-responsive regulators, deletion of the gene encoding CcpA but not that encoding LacD.1 resulted in both derepression and an uncoupling of lctO transcription from its growth phase pattern. Expanding this analysis to additional virulence factors demonstrated both negative (cfa, encoding CAMP factor) and positive (speB, encoding a cysteine protease) regulation by CcpA and that CcpA mutants were highly cytotoxic for cultured macrophages. This latter property resulted from enhanced transcription of the streptolysin S biogenesis operon. Examination of CcpA-promoter interactions using a DNA pull-down assay mimicking physiological conditions showed direct binding to the promoters of lctO and speB but not those of sagA. CcpA but not LacD.1 mutants were attenuated in a murine model of soft-tissue infection, and analysis of gene expression in infected tissue indicated that CcpA mutants had altered expression of lctO, cfa, and speB but not the indirectly regulated sagA gene. Taken together, these data show that CcpA regulates virulence genes via at least three distinct mechanisms and that disruption of growth phase regulation alters transcriptional patterns in infected tissues. PMID:19841076

  18. Role of protons in sugar binding to LacY.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Irina; Kasho, Vladimir; Sugihara, Junichi; Vzquez-Ibar, Jos Luis; Kaback, H Ronald

    2012-10-16

    WT lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) reconstituted into proteoliposomes loaded with a pH-sensitive fluorophore exhibits robust uphill H(+) translocation coupled with downhill lactose transport. However, galactoside binding by mutants defective in lactose-induced H(+) translocation is not accompanied by release of an H(+) on the interior of the proteoliposomes. Because the pK(a) value for galactoside binding is ?10.5, protonation of LacY likely precedes sugar binding at physiological pH. Consistently, purified WT LacY, as well as the mutants, binds substrate at pH 7.5-8.5 in detergent, but no change in ambient pH is observed, demonstrating directly that LacY already is protonated when sugar binds. However, a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) on the rate of binding is observed, indicating that deuterium substitution for protium affects an H(+) transfer reaction within LacY that is associated with sugar binding. At neutral pH or pD, both the rate of sugar dissociation (k(off)) and the forward rate (k(on)) are slower in D(2)O than in H(2)O (KIE is ?2), and, as a result, no change in affinity (K(d)) is observed. Alkaline conditions enhance the effect of D(2)O on k(off), the KIE increases to 3.6-4.0, and affinity for sugar increases compared with H(2)O. In contrast, LacY mutants that exhibit pH-independent high-affinity binding up to pH 11.0 (e.g., Glu325 ? Gln) exhibit the same KIE (1.5-1.8) at neutral or alkaline pH (pD). Proton inventory studies exhibit a linear relationship between k(off) and D(2)O concentration at neutral and alkaline pH, indicating that internal transfer of a single H(+) is involved in the KIE. PMID:23033496

  19. Distinct signatures for mutator sensitivity of lacZ reversions and for the spectrum of lacI/lacO forward mutations on the chromosome of nondividing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Bharatan, Shanti M; Reddy, Manjula; Gowrishankar, J

    2004-01-01

    A conditional lethal galE(Ts)-based strategy was employed in Escherichia coli, first to eliminate all growth-associated chromosomal reversions in lacZ or forward mutations in lacI/lacO by incubation at the restrictive temperature and subsequently to recover (as papillae) spontaneous mutations that had arisen in the population of nondividing cells after shift to the permissive temperature. Data from lacZ reversion studies in mutator strains indicated that the products of all genes for mismatch repair (mutHLS, dam, uvrD), of some for oxidative damage repair (mutMT), and of that for polymerase proofreading (dnaQ) are required in dividing cells; some others for oxidative damage repair (mutY, nth nei) are required in both dividing and nondividing cells; and those for alkylation damage repair (ada ogt) are required in nondividing cells. The spectrum of lacI/lacO mutations in nondividing cells was distinguished both by lower frequencies of deletions and IS1 insertions and by the unique occurrence of GC-to-AT transitions at lacO +5. In the second approach to study mutations that had occurred in nondividing cells, lacI/lacO mutants were selected as late-arising papillae from the lawn of a galE+ strain; once again, transitions at lacO +5 were detected among the mutants that had been obtained from populations initially grown on poor carbon sources such as acetate, palmitate, or succinate. Our results indicate that the lacO +5 site is mutable only in nondividing cells, one possible mechanism for which might be that random endogenous alkylation (or oxidative) damage to DNA in these cells is efficiently corrected by the Ada Ogt (or Nth Nei) repair enzymes at most sites but not at lacO +5. Furthermore, the late-arising papillae from the second approach were composed almost exclusively of dominant lacI/lacO mutants. This finding lends support to "instantaneous gratification" models in which a spontaneous lesion, occurring at a random site in DNA of a nondividing cell, is most likely to be fixed as a mutation if it allows the cell to immediately exit the nondividing state. PMID:15020459

  20. Distinct signatures for mutator sensitivity of lacZ reversions and for the spectrum of lacI/lacO forward mutations on the chromosome of nondividing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bharatan, Shanti M; Reddy, Manjula; Gowrishankar, J

    2004-02-01

    A conditional lethal galE(Ts)-based strategy was employed in Escherichia coli, first to eliminate all growth-associated chromosomal reversions in lacZ or forward mutations in lacI/lacO by incubation at the restrictive temperature and subsequently to recover (as papillae) spontaneous mutations that had arisen in the population of nondividing cells after shift to the permissive temperature. Data from lacZ reversion studies in mutator strains indicated that the products of all genes for mismatch repair (mutHLS, dam, uvrD), of some for oxidative damage repair (mutMT), and of that for polymerase proofreading (dnaQ) are required in dividing cells; some others for oxidative damage repair (mutY, nth nei) are required in both dividing and nondividing cells; and those for alkylation damage repair (ada ogt) are required in nondividing cells. The spectrum of lacI/lacO mutations in nondividing cells was distinguished both by lower frequencies of deletions and IS1 insertions and by the unique occurrence of GC-to-AT transitions at lacO +5. In the second approach to study mutations that had occurred in nondividing cells, lacI/lacO mutants were selected as late-arising papillae from the lawn of a galE+ strain; once again, transitions at lacO +5 were detected among the mutants that had been obtained from populations initially grown on poor carbon sources such as acetate, palmitate, or succinate. Our results indicate that the lacO +5 site is mutable only in nondividing cells, one possible mechanism for which might be that random endogenous alkylation (or oxidative) damage to DNA in these cells is efficiently corrected by the Ada Ogt (or Nth Nei) repair enzymes at most sites but not at lacO +5. Furthermore, the late-arising papillae from the second approach were composed almost exclusively of dominant lacI/lacO mutants. This finding lends support to "instantaneous gratification" models in which a spontaneous lesion, occurring at a random site in DNA of a nondividing cell, is most likely to be fixed as a mutation if it allows the cell to immediately exit the nondividing state. PMID:15020459

  1. Wind Resource Assessment Report: Mille Lacs Indian Reservation, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians to evaluate the wind resource and examine the feasibility of a wind project at a contaminated site located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The wind monitoring effort involved the installation of a 60-m met tower and the collection of 18 months of wind data at multiple heights above the ground. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of a potential wind project sited this site.

  2. Protonation and sugar binding to LacY.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Irina N; Kasho, Vladimir; Kaback, H Ronald

    2008-07-01

    The effect of bulk-phase pH on the apparent affinity (K(d)(app)) of purified wild-type lactose permease (LacY) for sugars was studied. K(d)(app) values were determined by ligand-induced changes in the fluorescence of either of two covalently bound fluorescent reporters positioned away from the sugar-binding site. K(d)(app) for three different galactopyranosides was determined over a pH range from 5.5 to 11. A remarkably high pK(a) of approximately 10.5 was obtained for all sugars. Kinetic data for thiodigalactoside binding measured from pH 6 to 10 show that decreased affinity for sugar at alkaline pH is due specifically to increased reverse rate. A similar effect was also observed with nitrophenylgalactoside by using a direct binding assay. Because affinity for sugar remains constant from pH 5.5 to pH 9.0, it follows that LacY is fully protonated with respect to sugar binding under physiological conditions of pH. The results are consistent with the conclusion that LacY is protonated before sugar binding during lactose/H(+) symport in either direction across the membrane. PMID:18567672

  3. Clogging the periplasmic pathway in LacY

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yiling; Zhou, Yonggang; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2008-01-01

    The lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) is a highly dynamic membrane transport protein. Crystal structures of wild-type and mutant LacY all exhibit an inward-facing conformation with an open cytoplasmic pathway and a tightly packed periplasmic side, which makes the binding site inaccessible from the outside. However, biochemical and biophysical findings provide strong evidence that occupation of the sugar-binding site leads to increased probability of opening of a hydrophilic pathway on the periplasmic side and closing of the cytoplasmic cavity. By this means, the sugar-binding site becomes accessible to either side of the membrane in alternating fashion. In order to extend studies on the relationship between the periplasmic pathway and transport activity, engineered single-Cys replacements in the periplasmic pathway were reacted to completion with thiol reagents, and the effects on transport and sugar binding were tested. Inactivation correlates for the most part with the size of the modifying reagent, although the position of the Cys replacement is also important. However, sugar binding is unaffected. The results suggest that placement of a relatively large moiety in the putative periplasmic cleft of LacY likely prevents closure, an essential step in the transport cycle, without significantly altering access of sugar to the binding site. PMID:19128028

  4. Protonation and sugar binding to LacY

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Irina N.; Kasho, Vladimir; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2008-01-01

    The effect of bulk-phase pH on the apparent affinity (Kdapp) of purified wild-type lactose permease (LacY) for sugars was studied. Kdapp values were determined by ligand-induced changes in the fluorescence of either of two covalently bound fluorescent reporters positioned away from the sugar-binding site. Kdapp for three different galactopyranosides was determined over a pH range from 5.5 to 11. A remarkably high pKa of ?10.5 was obtained for all sugars. Kinetic data for thiodigalactoside binding measured from pH 6 to 10 show that decreased affinity for sugar at alkaline pH is due specifically to increased reverse rate. A similar effect was also observed with nitrophenylgalactoside by using a direct binding assay. Because affinity for sugar remains constant from pH 5.5 to pH 9.0, it follows that LacY is fully protonated with respect to sugar binding under physiological conditions of pH. The results are consistent with the conclusion that LacY is protonated before sugar binding during lactose/H+ symport in either direction across the membrane. PMID:18567672

  5. Structure determination from XAFS using high-accuracy measurements of x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silver, 11 keV-28 keV, and development of an all-energies approach to local dynamical analysis of bond length, revealing variation of effective thermal contributions across the XAFS spectrum.

    PubMed

    Tantau, L J; Chantler, C T; Bourke, J D; Islam, M T; Payne, A T; Rae, N A; Tran, C Q

    2015-07-01

    We use the x-ray extended range technique (XERT) to experimentally determine the mass attenuation coefficient of silver in the x-ray energy range 11 kev-28 kev including the silver K absorption edge. The results are accurate to better than 0.1%, permitting critical tests of atomic and solid state theory. This is one of the most accurate demonstrations of cross-platform accuracy in synchrotron studies thus far. We derive the mass absorption coefficients and the imaginary component of the form factor over this range. We apply conventional XAFS analytic techniques, extended to include error propagation and uncertainty, yielding bond lengths accurate to approximately 0.24% and thermal Debye-Waller parameters accurate to 30%. We then introduce the FDMX technique for accurate analysis of such data across the full XAFS spectrum, built on full-potential theory, yielding a bond length accuracy of order 0.1% and the demonstration that a single Debye parameter is inadequate and inconsistent across the XAFS range. Two effective Debye-Waller parameters are determined: a high-energy value based on the highly-correlated motion of bonded atoms (?(DW) = 0.1413(21) ), and an uncorrelated bulk value (?(DW) = 0.1766(9) ) in good agreement with that derived from (room-temperature) crystallography. PMID:26075571

  6. BL Lacs from the EMSS: Number-counts and implications for the luminosity function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolter, Anna; Gioia, Isabella M.; Maccacaro, Tommaso; Schild, Rudy E.; Morris, Simon L.; Stocke, John T.

    1989-01-01

    BL Lac objects, extracted from the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS), are examined. X-ray selection proved to be a powerful tool to find new BL Lacs, and allows the creation of complete, well defined and sizable samples. X-ray selected BL Lac objects (XBL) have in general more starlight in the optical spectra than radio selected BL Lacs. Redshifts for a significant fraction of objects in samples of XBL can be determined. It is thus possible to study the cosmological properties of BL Lac objects. Different models of luminosity functions of BL Lacs, including relativistic beaming, are considered and integrated over luminosity and redshift. The results are compared with the observed number-counts. The observed redshift distribution and the models' predictions are analyzed.

  7. Mapping DNA-Lac repressor interaction with ultra-fast optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monico, Carina; Tempestini, Alessia; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco S.; Capitanio, Marco

    2015-03-01

    The lac operon is a well-known example of gene expression regulation, based on the specific interaction of Lac repressor protein (LacI) with its target DNA sequence (operator). We recently developed an ultrafast force-clamp laser trap technique capable of probing molecular interactions with sub-ms temporal resolution, under controlled pN-range forces. With this technique, we tested the interaction of LacI with different DNA constructs. Based on position along the DNA sequence, the observed interactions can be interpreted as specific binding to operator sequences and transient interactions with nonspecific sequences.

  8. Lac operator repeats generate a traceable fragile site in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Jacome, Ariana; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2011-10-01

    One limitation for the study of chromosomal fragile sites is that they must be studied on metaphase spreads, after the breakage. We show here that bacterial lac operator (lacO) repeats are prone to spontaneous breakage, which when combined with a fluorescent lac repressor (lacR) has allowed us to track a fragile site through the cell cycle. By using this system, we show that Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase (PICH) is already present at fragile sites during interphase, suggesting roles for this helicase beyond mitosis. In addition, we report that the oncogene Myc promotes the formation of anaphase bridges and micronuclei containing fragile-site sequences. PMID:21836640

  9. What powers the most relativistic jets? - I. BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Emma; Done, Chris

    2014-02-01

    The dramatic relativistic jets pointing directly at us in BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects can be well modelled by bulk motion beaming of synchrotron self-Compton emission powered by a low Eddington fraction accretion flow. Nearly 500 of these active galactic nuclei (AGN) are seen in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope catalogue of AGN. We combine the jet models which describe individual spectra with the expected jet parameter scalings with mass and mass accretion rate to predict the expected number of Fermi detected sources given the number densities of AGN from cosmological simulations. We select only sources with Eddington scaled mass accretion rate <0.01 (i.e. radiatively inefficient flows), and include cooling, orientation effects and the effects of absorption from pair production on the extragalactic infrared background. These models overpredict the number of Fermi detected BL Lacs by a factor of 1000! This clearly shows that one of the underlying assumptions is incorrect, almost certainly that jets do not scale simply with mass and accretion rate. The most plausible additional parameter which can affect the region producing the Fermi emission is black hole spin. We can reproduce the observed numbers of BL Lacs if such relativistic jets are only produced by the highest spin (a* > 0.8) black holes, in agreement with the longstanding spin-jet paradigm. This also requires that high spins are intrinsically rare, as predicted by the cosmological simulations for growing black hole mass via chaotic (randomly aligned) accretion episodes, where only the most massive black holes have high spin due to black hole-black hole mergers.

  10. CLUSTERING OF γ-RAY-SELECTED 2LAC FERMI BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A.; Cappelluti, N.

    2014-12-20

    We present the first measurement of the projected correlation function of 485 γ-ray-selected blazars, divided into 175 BL Lacertae (BL Lacs) and 310 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) detected in the 2 year all-sky survey by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope. We find that Fermi BL Lacs and FSRQs reside in massive dark matter halos (DMHs) with log M{sub h} = 13.35{sub −0.14}{sup +0.20} and log M{sub h} = 13.40{sub −0.19}{sup +0.15} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}, respectively, at low (z ∼ 0.4) and high (z ∼ 1.2) redshift. In terms of clustering properties, these results suggest that BL Lacs and FSRQs are similar objects residing in the same dense environment typical of galaxy groups, despite their different spectral energy distributions, power, and accretion rates. We find no difference in the typical bias and hosting halo mass between Fermi blazars and radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), supporting the unification scheme simply equating radio-loud objects with misaligned blazar counterparts. This similarity in terms of the typical environment they preferentially live in, suggests that blazars tend to occupy the center of DMHs, as already pointed out for radio-loud AGNs. This implies, in light of several projects looking for the γ-ray emission from DM annihilation in galaxy clusters, a strong contamination from blazars to the expected signal from DM annihilation.

  11. Comparative genomics and evolution of regulons of the LacI-family transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Ravcheev, Dmitry A.; Khoroshkin, Matvei S.; Laikova, Olga N.; Tsoy, Olga V.; Sernova, Natalia V.; Petrova, Svetlana A.; Rakhmaninova, Aleksandra B.; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

    2014-01-01

    DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) are essential components of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria. LacI-family TFs (LacI-TFs) are broadly distributed among certain lineages of bacteria. The majority of characterized LacI-TFs sense sugar effectors and regulate carbohydrate utilization genes. The comparative genomics approaches enable in silico identification of TF-binding sites and regulon reconstruction. To study the function and evolution of LacI-TFs, we performed genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of their regulons. For over 1300 LacI-TFs from over 270 bacterial genomes, we predicted their cognate DNA-binding motifs and identified target genes. Using the genome context and metabolic subsystem analyses of reconstructed regulons, we tentatively assigned functional roles and predicted candidate effectors for 78 and 67% of the analyzed LacI-TFs, respectively. Nearly 90% of the studied LacI-TFs are local regulators of sugar utilization pathways, whereas the remaining 125 global regulators control large and diverse sets of metabolic genes. The global LacI-TFs include the previously known regulators CcpA in Firmicutes, FruR in Enterobacteria, and PurR in Gammaproteobacteria, as well as the three novel regulators—GluR, GapR, and PckR—that are predicted to control the central carbohydrate metabolism in three lineages of Alphaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of regulators combined with the reconstructed regulons provides a model of evolutionary diversification of the LacI protein family. The obtained genomic collection of in silico reconstructed LacI-TF regulons in bacteria is available in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov). It provides a framework for future structural and functional classification of the LacI protein family and identification of molecular determinants of the DNA and ligand specificity. The inferred regulons can be also used for functional gene annotation and reconstruction of sugar catabolic networks in diverse bacterial lineages. PMID:24966856

  12. Galactoside-Binding Site in LacY

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although an X-ray crystal structure of lactose permease (LacY) has been presented with bound galactopyranoside, neither the sugar nor the residues ligating the sugar can be identified with precision at ?3.5 . Therefore, additional evidence is important for identifying side chains likely to be involved in binding. On the basis of a clue from site-directed alkylation suggesting that Asn272, Gly268, and Val264 on one face of helix VIII might participate in galactoside binding, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted initially. The simulations indicate that Asn272 (helix VIII) is sufficiently close to the galactopyranosyl ring of a docked lactose analogue to play an important role in binding, the backbone at Gly268 may be involved, and Val264 does not interact with the bound sugar. When the three side chains are subjected to site-directed mutagenesis, with the sole exception of mutant Asn272 ? Gln, various other replacements for Asn272 either markedly decrease affinity for the substrate (i.e., high KD) or abolish binding altogether. However, mutant Gly268 ? Ala exhibits a moderate 8-fold decrease in affinity, and binding by mutant Val264 ? Ala is affected only minimally. Thus, Asn272 and possibly Gly268 may comprise additional components of the galactoside-binding site in LacY. PMID:24520888

  13. Radiocarbon measurements at LAC-UFF: Recent performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, Roberto; Macario, Kita D.; Santos, Guaciara M.; Carvalho, Carla; dos Santos, Hellen C.; Gomes, Paulo R. S.; Castro, Maikel D.; Oliveira, Fabiana M.; Alves, Eduardo Q.

    2015-10-01

    In 2012 a single stage accelerator mass spectrometer from NEC was installed at the Radiocarbon Laboratory of Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF), Niteri, Brazil. Here, we present a status report of our facility. We discuss some modifications applied to our combustion protocol in an attempt to reduce our procedural blank, mostly to processed organic samples. Measurements of reference materials indicate low precision and accuracy that are partially related to beam optics through the acceleration tube. We observed that once the beam current intensity increases the measured 13C+/12C+ becomes erratic. Therefore, in order to maintain the AMS-?13C values within reasonable values, so that fractionation corrections using the spectrometer 13C+/12C+ values does not affect the final 14C results, we are forced to limit the 12C- beam intensity to ?30 ?A. This requirement was confirmed during our accuracy tests, when measuring selected annual tree-rings wood samples from a Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia) between 1927 and 1997 previously measured at the Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Facility (KCCAMS), at the University of California, Irvine (UCI). At the LAC-UFF tree-ring wood samples were processed and measured in 4 different batches during a period of about 5 months. The 14C results were later compared to the high-precision data obtained at KCCAMS/UCI and reached a good agreement. Recently a problem associated with graphitization yield were finally identified and new measurements with secondary standards are promising.

  14. The sedentary survey of extreme high energy peaked BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giommi, P.; Piranomonte, S.; Perri, M.; Padovani, P.

    2005-04-01

    The multi-frequency "Sedentary Survey" is a deep, statistically complete, radio flux limited sample comprising 150 BL Lacertae objects distinguished by their extremely high X-ray to radio flux ratio (f_x/f_r), ranging from five hundred to over five thousand times that of typical BL Lacs discovered in radio surveys. This large excess of high energy photons compared to radio emission is thought to be due to synchrotron radiation that in these sources reaches the UV or the X-ray band. The name "Sedentary Survey" originates from the multi-frequency technique used to select the sample that was expected to be so efficient as to allow the conduction of some preliminary statistical studies even without the need to identify the candidates through optical spectroscopy. The details of the selection criteria and the preliminary results have been published in Giommi et al. (1999, MNRAS, 310, 465). In this paper we present the final, 100% identified, catalog together with the optical, X-ray and broad-band Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) constructed combining literature multi-frequency data with non-simultaneous optical observations and BeppoSAX~X-ray data, when available. The SEDs confirm that the peak of the synchrotron power in these objects is located at very high energies. BeppoSAX~wide band X-ray observations show that, in most cases, the X-ray spectra are convex and well described by a logarithmic parabola model peaking (in a ? f(?)~vs.~? representation) between 0.02 to several keV. Although detailed X-ray spectral data are available for only about one fifth of the sources the observed peaks never reach energies well above 10 keV (as in Mkn 501 during the large X-ray flare of April 1997 and in 1ES 2344+514 in December 1996) implying that hard X-ray synchrotron peak energies are rare and probably associated with strong flaring events. Owing to the high synchrotron energies involved most of the sources in the catalog are likely to be TeV emitters, with the closest and brightest ones probably detectable by the present generation of Cherenkov telescopes. However, only 50% (3 out of 6) of the presently established TeV BL Lacs are actually included in the survey suggesting that the hardest peaks may be associated with secondary synchrotron components that can be detected only above the soft X-ray band. The existence of secondary emission regions is suggested by the strong X-ray spectral curvature that in some objects predicts an optical flux much below the observed emission. The optical spectrum of about one fourth of the sources is totally featureless hampering any redshift or luminosity determination. Because this implies that the non-thermal nuclear emission must be well above that of the host galaxy, these objects are likely to be the most powerful sources in the survey and therefore be examples of the yet unreported high radio luminosity high energy peaked BL Lacs. The existence of such objects would be at odds with the claimed inverse proportionality between radio power and synchrotron peak energy known as the "blazar sequence". At the low-power end of the luminosity dynamical range, where the non-thermal optical continuum falls below the emission from the host galaxy, recognition issues start becoming important since BL Lacs in this luminosity regime can hardly be recognized as such, but rather as radio galaxies or simply as elliptical galaxies. We have found a small sample of bright nearby elliptical galaxies that are candidate low radio power high energy peaked BL Lacs.

  15. Program Evaluation of Community College Learning Assistance Centers: What Do LAC Directors Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Doug; Blankenberger, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study seeks to determine the nature of current program evaluation practices for learning assistance centers (LACs), the practices being used for program evaluation, and whether LAC directors believe their practices are appropriate for evaluating program effectiveness. Method: We conducted a survey (n = 61) of community college LAC…

  16. DC attenuation meter

    DOEpatents

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  17. Light attenuation characteristics of glacially-fed lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Kevin C.; Hamilton, David P.; Williamson, Craig E.; McBride, Chris G.; Fischer, Janet M.; Olson, Mark H.; Saros, Jasmine E.; Allan, Mathew G.; Cabrol, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    Transparency is a fundamental characteristic of aquatic ecosystems and is highly responsive to changes in climate and land use. The transparency of glacially-fed lakes may be a particularly sensitive sentinel characteristic of these changes. However, little is known about the relative contributions of glacial flour versus other factors affecting light attenuation in these lakes. We sampled 18 glacially-fed lakes in Chile, New Zealand, and the U.S. and Canadian Rocky Mountains to characterize how dissolved absorption, algal biomass (approximated by chlorophyll a), water, and glacial flour contributed to attenuation of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm). Variation in attenuation across lakes was related to turbidity, which we used as a proxy for the concentration of glacial flour. Turbidity-specific diffuse attenuation coefficients increased with decreasing wavelength and distance from glaciers. Regional differences in turbidity-specific diffuse attenuation coefficients were observed in short UVR wavelengths (305 and 320 nm) but not at longer UVR wavelengths (380 nm) or PAR. Dissolved absorption coefficients, which are closely correlated with diffuse attenuation coefficients in most non-glacially-fed lakes, represented only about one quarter of diffuse attenuation coefficients in study lakes here, whereas glacial flour contributed about two thirds across UVR and PAR. Understanding the optical characteristics of substances that regulate light attenuation in glacially-fed lakes will help elucidate the signals that these systems provide of broader environmental changes and forecast the effects of climate change on these aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Pseudorevertants of a lac promoter mutation reveal overlapping nascent promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Karls, R; Schulz, V; Jovanovich, S B; Flynn, S; Pak, A; Reznikoff, W S

    1989-01-01

    Four pseudorevertants of a -10 region lacP mutation were isolated. Three of these mutations were found to activate nascent promoters. These mutations were: a -2 G/C----A/T change (-2A) promoting transcription at position +11, a +1 A/T----T/A change (+1T) promoting transcription initiation at position +13, and a +10 C/G----A/T change (+10A) promoting transcription initiation at a complex series of positions. The fourth mutation [a -12 T/A----A/T change (-12A)] promotes transcription initiation at -1. The promoters activated by mutations -12A, -2A and +1T resembled the canonical sigma 70 promoter sequences. The +10A promoter activity is also dependent upon the sigma 70 holoenzyme but can not be readily assigned to a specific promoter sequence. Images PMID:2499870

  19. SPECTROSCOPY OF BROAD-LINE BLAZARS FROM 1LAC

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.; Healey, Stephen E.; Michelson, Peter F.; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; King, Oliver G.

    2012-03-20

    We report on optical spectroscopy of 165 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the Fermi 1LAC sample, which have helped allow a nearly complete study of this population. Fermi FSRQs show significant evidence for non-thermal emission even in the optical; the degree depends on the {gamma}-ray hardness. They also have smaller virial estimates of hole mass than the optical quasar sample. This appears to be largely due to a preferred (axial) view of the {gamma}-ray FSRQ and non-isotropic (H/R {approx} 0.4) distribution of broad-line velocities. Even after correction for this bias, the Fermi FSRQs show higher mean Eddington ratios than the optical population. A comparison of optical spectral properties with Owens Valley Radio Observatory radio flare activity shows no strong correlation.

  20. X-ray observations of BL Lac objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. A.; Pravdo, S. H.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.; Rothschild, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The BL Lac objects MK501 and MK421 were observed with OSO-8 and HEAO-1 X-ray detectors in the 2-60 keV band. Their spectra are similar with best fitting power laws having energy index -.4 alpha 4. A soft X-ray excess is indicated in their spectra. There was no detectable X-ray absorption with implied column densities N sub H 1.5 x 10 to the 22d power at sq cm. MK421 was a factor 6 weaker in November 1977 than in May 1977. An identification of PKS0548-322 with a new source H0548,-32 is suggested.

  1. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four

  2. Attenuation measurements in solutions of some carbohydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Gagandeep; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-02-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C{sub 6}H{sub 12} O{sub 6}), maltose monohydrate (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}{center{underscore}dot}H{sub 2}O), and sucrose (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1,173, and 1,332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm{sup 3}) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form.

  3. Attenuation Measurements in Solutions of Some Carbohydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Gagandeep; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-02-15

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}O{sub 6}), maltose monohydrate (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}.H{sub 2}O), and sucrose (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173, and 1332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm{sup 3}) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form.

  4. X-Ray Form Factor, Attenuation and Scattering Tables

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 66 X-Ray Form Factor, Attenuation and Scattering Tables (Web, free access)   This database collects tables and graphs of the form factors, the photoabsorption cross section, and the total attenuation coefficient for any element (Z <= 92).

  5. Low energy gamma ray attenuation in multiphase water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Eftekhari, Abe

    1990-01-01

    A gauging system is proposed to enable monitoring of slush density, solid-liquid interface, and slush level as well as its flow rate. It is based on the principle that the electromagnetic radiation mass attenuation coefficient of a multiphase chemical compound is constant for all relative phase concentrations. Results showing the essential constancy of mass attenuation coefficients for single-phase water vapor, liquid water, ice, and multiphase mixtures of water/ice are described.

  6. Second coefficient of viscosity in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert L.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Zheng, Zhonquan

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic attenuation measurements in air were analyzed in order to estimate the second coefficient of viscosity. Data over a temperature range of 11 C to 50 C and at relative humidities between 6 percent and 91 percent were used. This analysis showed that the second coefficient of viscosity varied between 1900 and 20,000 times larger than the dynamic or first coefficient of viscosity over the temperature and humidity range of the data. In addition, the data showed that the molecular relaxation effects, which are responsible for the magnitude of the second coefficient of viscosity, place severe limits on the use of time-independent, thermodynamic equations of state. Compressible flows containing large streamwise velocity gradients, like shock waves, which cause significant changes in particle properties to occur during time intervals shorter than hundredths of seconds, must be modeled using dynamic equations of state. The dynamic model approach is described briefly.

  7. Attenuation of external Bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Dhaliwal, A.S.; Powar, M.S.; Singh, M. )

    1990-12-01

    In this paper attenuation of bremsstrahlung from {sup 147}Pm and {sup 170}Tm beta emitters has been studied in aluminum, copper, tin, and lead metallic absorbers. Bremsstrahlung spectra and mass attenuation coefficients for monoenergetic gamma rays are used to calculate theoretical attenuation curves. Magnetic deflection and beta stopping techniques are used to measure the integral bremsstrahlung intensities above 30 keV in different target thicknesses. Comparison of measured and calculated attenuation curves shows a good agreement for various absorbers, thus providing a test of this technique, which may be useful in understanding bremsstrahlung intensity buildup and in the design of optimum shielding for bremsstrahlung sources. It is found that the absorption of bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers does not obey an exponential law and that absorbers act as energy filters.

  8. Light attenuation on unicellular marine phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Tadeusz; Lotocka, Maria

    1994-10-01

    Sea phytoplankton plays a considerable role in the interactive processes between light and the sea. Its species composition and the physiological development phase influence the spectrum of the light attenuation coefficient in the sea. Laboratory measurements of light attenuation spectrum were carried out on three different phytoplankton monocultures of the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris and the larger Chlorella kesleri and the blue-green alga Chroococcus minor. The cultures were subjected to chemical (NaOH and temperature) or physical (ultrasounds) factors which altered their internal cell structures. Distinct changes in the light attenuation spectrum were observed as a result of the modification of the internal cell structures. Light attenuation cross-sections of those phytoplankton cells were also determined.

  9. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  10. The design of a new mutation model for active genes: expression of the Escherichia coli lac operon in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    van Sloun, P P; Lohman, P H; Vrieling, H

    1997-09-01

    The design of a novel transgenic mouse model is described that should allow analysis of mutations at a single cell level in all tissues of a model animal. The model is based on the correct regulation of the Escherichia coli lac operon in mammalian cells. Induction of a mutation in the lacI gene will result in the loss of transcriptional repression of the lacZ gene in mutated cells. Expression of beta-galactosidase can subsequently be detected at the single cell level. The model was first tested in vitro using transfection of mouse LTK- cells. LacZ expression was very heterogeneous in most of the stable transfectants and seemed to be subject to epigenetic inactivation. One clone (IIB1) was isolated that stably expressed lacZ in more than 99% of its cells. Subsequent introduction of the lacI gene into IIB1 cells resulted in correct transcriptional repression of the lacZ gene that could be alleviated by IPTG, an allosteric inducer of lacI repression. However, in time the extent of beta-galactosidase induction gradually declined suggesting that the prolonged repressed transcriptional state triggers epigenetic inactivation. Variegated expression of the lacZ gene was not confined to cultured cells since several transgenic lines also did not express the lacZ transgene. This study shows that while the susceptibility of the lacZ gene to inactivation processes poses a fundamental problem, correct regulation of the expression of a reporter gene by the lacI repressor protein is feasible in mammalian cells when assayed at the single cell level. Thus, the model can in principle be used for the detection of mutagenic events at the lacI locus. Targeting of the lacZ gene to an endogenous housekeeping gene might prevent epigenetic inactivation. Alternatively, with the use of another reporter gene in the mutation detection system the proposed transgenic mouse model could be realized. PMID:9360635

  11. Experimental Investigation of Wave Attenuation Through Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    Wetlands and coastal vegetation can reduce the surge and wave impact on coastal areas. Yet, the primary mechanisms of wave mitigation by vegetation are still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate and quantify the attenuation of waves through vegetation using laboratory experiments. The wave attenuation properties of artificial vegetation and live and dormant S. alterniflora and J. roemerianus were investigated under monochromatic and irregular wave conditions at full scale in a wave tank facility at the USDA-ARS-National Sedimentation Laboratory in Oxford, Mississippi. Water level sensors and a video camera were used to record water level data. Drag coefficients were estimated for artificial and natural plants and regression equations were derived for the drag coefficients as functions of both Reynolds and Keulegan-Carpenter number. It was observed that vertical variation of vegetation density had an important effect on the drag coefficient.

  12. Probing of electronic structures of La@C82 superatoms upon clustering realized using glycine nanocavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taninaka, Atsushi; Ochiai, Takahiro; Kanazawa, Ken; Takeuchi, Osamu; Shigekawa, Hidemi

    2015-12-01

    We have succeeded in the first direct probe of the change in the electronic structures of La@C82 superatoms upon clustering by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS). An array of ∼1.3-nm-diameter glycine nanocavities self-assembled on a Cu(111) surface was used as a template. Isolated La@C82 superatoms were stably observed on terraces without diffusion to step edges, which enabled us to observe the change in the electronic structures associated with single, dimer, and clustered La@C82. A cluster with four La@C82 superatoms showed electronic structures similar to those obtained for thin films in previous works.

  13. Sustaining the natural and economical resources of the Lac Courte Oreilles, Leslie Isham; Jason Weaver

    SciTech Connect

    Isham, Leslie; Weaver, Jason

    2013-09-30

    The Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, located in northwest Wisconsin has developed a project, entitled Sustaining the Natural and Economic Resources of the LCO Ojibwe. This technical report is a summary of the project.

  14. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  15. eLac - Conceptual Model for Flood Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rata, Marius; Florentin Draghia, Aurelian; Drobot, Radu; Matreata, Marius; Corbus, Ciprian

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the conceptual model of the decision support system (DSS) for flood management activities introduced in the scope of e-LAC project. Following the general system architecture which has an emphasize on the water management decision processes, hydrologic and hydraulic models are introduced and discussed according to their specific DSS integration potential. Three directions are discussed in dedicated sections corresponding to the main modules defined in the conceptual model : the Water Basin Management Module (mainly implements the management decision flow, but manages also data exchange between hydrologic modeling module and hydraulic modeling module, allow real time visualization for hydrological data), the Hydrologic Modeling Module (manages all the modeling functionalities of rainfalls - runoff processes, providing continuous hydrologic forecasts with a variable time-step depending on the actual basin situation) and the Hydraulic Modeling Module (computes the flood's waves routing having as boundary upstream conditions the discharge hydrographs, generated both by catchment's upper area, river tributaries and inter-basins, respectively the rating curves, water level hydrograph or water surface slope as downstream condition). The GIS concepts are contextually reviewed based on their use as geospatial database for water management modeling, integration within hydrologic time courses, hydraulic modeling (from both software and management perspective), expert knowledge or mathematical modeling results (knowledge database, rules).

  16. Plans of lightning and airglow measurements with LAC/Akatsuki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yukihiro; Hoshino, Naoya; Sato, Mitsuteru; Yair, Yoav; Galand, Marina; Fukuhara, Tetsuya

    Though there are extensive researches on the existence of lightning discharge in Venus over few decades, this issue is still under controversial. Recently it is reported that the magnetometer on board Venus Express detected whistler mode waves whose source could be lightning discharge occurring well below the spacecraft. However, it is too early to determine the origin of these waves. On the other hand, night airglow is expected to provide essential information on the atmospheric circulation in the upper atmosphere of Venus. But the number of consecutive images of airglow obtained by spacecraft is limited and even the variations of most enhanced location is still unknown. In order to identify the discharge phenomena in the atmosphere of Venus separating from noises and to know the daily variation of airglow distribution in night-side disk, we plan to observe the lightning and airglow optical emissions with high-speed and high-sensitivity optical detector with narrow-band filters on board Akatsuki. We are ready to launch the flight model of lightning and airglow detector, LAC (Lightning and Airglow Camera). Main difference from other previous equipments which have provided evidences of lightning existence in Venus is the high-speed sampling rate at 32 us interval for each pixel, enabling us to distinguish the optical lightning flash from other pulsing noises. In this presentation the observation strategies, including ground-based support with optical telescopes, are shown and discussed.

  17. On the hadronic cascade scenario for extreme BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2014-03-01

    The peculiar high-energy emission spectrum of the so-called extreme BL Lacs (EHBL) challenges the standard emission models of blazars. Among the possible solutions, the so-called hadronic cascade scenario assumes that the observed high-energy radiation is produced in the intergalactic space through photo-hadronic reactions by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies up to 1019-20 eV beamed by the blazar jet. Under the assumption - implicit in this model - that the intrinsic high-energy synchrotron self-Compton emission of the blazar does not substantially contribute to the observed γ-ray spectrum, we derive constraints to the basic physical quantities of the jet and we compare them with the requirements of the hadronic cascade scenario. We found that, for a plausible range of relativistic jet Doppler factors (δ = 10-50), the maximum achievable energy of the accelerated protons can exceed 2 × 1019 eV with jet powers of the order of ≈1044 erg s-1, parameters compatible with the requests of the hadronic scenario even if EHBL are embedded in magnetic fields of cosmic filaments. We also discuss the consequences of our results for the possibility that local EHBL contribute to the observed UHECR.

  18. Gene repression by minimal lac loops in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bond, Laura M; Peters, Justin P; Becker, Nicole A; Kahn, Jason D; Maher, L James

    2010-12-01

    The inflexibility of double-stranded DNA with respect to bending and twisting is well established in vitro. Understanding apparent DNA physical properties in vivo is a greater challenge. Here, we exploit repression looping with components of the Escherichia coli lac operon to monitor DNA flexibility in living cells. We create a minimal system for testing the shortest possible DNA repression loops that contain an E. coli promoter, and compare the results to prior experiments. Our data reveal that loop-independent repression occurs for certain tight operator/promoter spacings. When only loop-dependent repression is considered, fits to a thermodynamic model show that DNA twisting limits looping in vivo, although the apparent DNA twist flexibility is 2- to 4-fold higher than in vitro. In contrast, length-dependent resistance to DNA bending is not observed in these experiments, even for the shortest loops constraining <0.4 persistence lengths of DNA. As observed previously for other looping configurations, loss of the nucleoid protein heat unstable (HU) markedly disables DNA looping in vivo. Length-independent DNA bending energy may reflect the activities of architectural proteins and the structure of the DNA topological domain. We suggest that the shortest loops are formed in apical loops rather than along the DNA plectonemic superhelix. PMID:21149272

  19. Structural and electronic properties of la@c82.

    PubMed

    Laasonen, K; Andreoni, W; Parrinello, M

    1992-12-18

    The structural and electronic properties of the La@C(82) fullerene have been investigated by means of the Car-Parrinello method, which is based on the local density approximation of the density functional theory. The topological arrangement of the C(82) cage was assumed to be a C(3v) symmetry isomer. Three configurations were considered, one with the lanthanum atom at the center of the cluster, one with it along the threefold axis, and one with it at a low-symmetry, highly coordinated site. The structure was fully relaxed and it was found that the last of these configurations is energetically preferred. In this position, the lanthanum atom is nearly in a La(3+) state and the unpaired electron is somewhat delocalized on the cage, in agreement with available experimental data. This arrangement suggests that the chemical shifts of the 5s and 5p lanthanum states can be used as a structural probe and as a way of further validating this picture. It is argued that this conclusion is not affected by the assumed fullerene structure. PMID:17836183

  20. Genotype to Phenotype Mapping of the E. coli lac Promoter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otwinowski, Jakub; Nemenman, Ilya

    2014-03-01

    Genotype-to-phenotype maps and the related fitness landscapes that include epistatic interactions are difficult to measure because of their high dimensional structure. Here we construct such a map using the recently collected corpora of high-throughput sequence data from the 75 base pairs long mutagenized E. coli lac promoter region, where each sequence is associated with induced transcriptional activity measured by a fluorescent reporter. We find that the additive (non-epistatic) contributions of individual mutations account for about two-thirds of the explainable phenotype variance, while pairwise epistasis explains about 7% of the variance for the full mutagenized sequence and about 15% for the subsequence associated with protein binding sites. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for third order epistatic contributions, and our inferred fitness landscape is essentially single peaked, with a small amount of antagonistic epistasis. We identify transcription factor (CRP) and RNA polymerase binding sites in the promotor region and their interactions. We conclude with a cautionary note that inferred properties of fitness landscapes may be severely influenced by biases in the sequence data. Funded in part by HFSP and James S. McDonnell Foundation.

  1. Multiple LacI-mediated loops revealed by Bayesian statistics and tethered particle motion

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stephanie; van de Meent, Jan-Willem; Phillips, Rob; Wiggins, Chris H.; Lindn, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial transcription factor LacI loops DNA by binding to two separate locations on the DNA simultaneously. Despite being one of the best-studied model systems for transcriptional regulation, the number and conformations of loop structures accessible to LacI remain unclear, though the importance of multiple coexisting loops has been implicated in interactions between LacI and other cellular regulators of gene expression. To probe this issue, we have developed a new analysis method for tethered particle motion, a versatile and commonly used in vitro single-molecule technique. Our method, vbTPM, performs variational Bayesian inference in hidden Markov models. It learns the number of distinct states (i.e. DNAprotein conformations) directly from tethered particle motion data with better resolution than existing methods, while easily correcting for common experimental artifacts. Studying short (roughly 100 bp) LacI-mediated loops, we provide evidence for three distinct loop structures, more than previously reported in single-molecule studies. Moreover, our results confirm that changes in LacI conformation and DNA-binding topology both contribute to the repertoire of LacI-mediated loops formed in vitro, and provide qualitatively new input for models of looping and transcriptional regulation. We expect vbTPM to be broadly useful for probing complex proteinnucleic acid interactions. PMID:25120267

  2. Population dynamics of a Lac- strain of Escherichia coli during selection for lactose utilization.

    PubMed

    Foster, P L

    1994-10-01

    During selection for lactose utilization, Lac+ revertants of FC40, a Lac- strain of Escherichia coli, appear at a high rate. Yet, no Lac+ revertants appear in the absence of lactose, or in its presence if the cells have another, unfulfilled requirement for growth. This study investigates more fully the population dynamics of FC40 when incubated in the absence of a carbon source or when undergoing selection for lactose utilization. In the absence of a carbon source, the viable cell numbers do not change over 6 days. When incubated in liquid lactose medium, Lac- cells do not undergo any measurable increase in numbers or in turbidity for at least 2 days. When FC40 is plated on lactose minimum medium in the presence of scavenger cells, the upper limit to the amount of growth of Lac- cells during 5 days is one doubling, and there is no evidence for turnover (i.e., a balance between growth and death). The presence of a minority population that could form microcolonies was not detected. The implications of these results, plus the fact that the appearance of Lac+ revertants during lactose selection is nearly constant with time, are discussed in reference to several models that have been postulated to account for adaptive mutations. PMID:7828809

  3. Modification of natural matrix lac-bagasse for matrix composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhayati, Nanik Dwi; Widjaya, Karna; Triyono

    2016-02-01

    Material technology continues to be developed in order to a material that is more efficient with composite technology is a combination of two or more materials to obtain the desired material properties. The objective of this research was to modification and characterize the natural matrix lac-bagasse as composite films. The first step, natural matrix lac was changed from solid to liquid using an ethanol as a solvent so the matrix homogenly. Natural matrix lac was modified by adding citric acid with concentration variation. Secondly, the bagasse delignification using acid hydrolysis method. The composite films natural matrix lac-bagasse were prepared with optimum modified the addition citric acid 5% (v/v) and delignification bagasse optimum at 1,5% (v/v) in hot press at 80°C 6 Kg/cm-1. Thirdly, composite films without and with modification were characterized functional group analysis using FTIR spectrophotometer and mechanical properties using Universal Testing Machine. The result of research showed natural matrix lac can be modified by reaction with citric acid. FTIR spectra showed without and with modification had functional groups wide absorption 3448 cm-1 group -OH, C=O ester strong on 1712 cm-1 and the methylene group -CH2 on absorption 1465 cm-1. The mechanical properties showed tensile strength 0,55 MPa and elongation at break of 0,95 %. So that composite films natural matrix lac can be made with reinforcement bagasse for material application.

  4. Developmental expression of Fos-lacZ in the brains of postnatal transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Kasof, G M; Smeyne, R J; Curran, T; Morgan, J I

    1996-05-31

    Previously, we reported the production and characterization of fos-lacZ transgenic mice [41] and rats [19] that can be used to monitor both constitutive and evoked expression of c-fos in vivo. When we compared the sites of spontaneous fos-lacZ expression in the brains of developing transgenic fos-lacZ mice and rats, the patterns were almost identical. However, throughout the first postnatal month, the rat striatum contained a large number of Fos-lacZ-positive cells whereas only a few positive cells were seen in the mouse. By adulthood, the number of Fos-lacZ-positive cells in the rat striatum had declined dramatically to the low basal values seen in mice. To establish whether this species difference was evident in the adult striatum, rats and mice were treated with metamphetamine. This indirect D1 agonist, triggered a pronounced induction of fos-lacZ in the rat striatum while only a modest response was observed in the mouse. These data imply: (1) there are differences in dopamine-dependent stimulus-transcription coupling between the two species. (2) Maturation of dopaminergic signalling pathways may underlie the spontaneous immediate-early gene response in the developing rat striatum. PMID:8804706

  5. FRET studies of a landscape of Lac repressor-mediated DNA loops

    PubMed Central

    Haeusler, Aaron R.; Goodson, Kathy A.; Lillian, Todd D.; Wang, Xiaoyu; Goyal, Sachin; Perkins, Noel C.; Kahn, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA looping mediated by the Lac repressor is an archetypal test case for modeling protein and DNA flexibility. Understanding looping is fundamental to quantitative descriptions of gene expression. Systematic analysis of LacIDNA looping was carried out using a landscape of DNA constructs with lac operators bracketing an A-tract bend, produced by varying helical phasings between operators and the bend. Fluorophores positioned on either side of both operators allowed direct Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET) detection of parallel (P1) and antiparallel (A1, A2) DNA looping topologies anchored by V-shaped LacI. Combining fluorophore position variant landscapes allows calculation of the P1, A1 and A2 populations from FRET efficiencies and also reveals extended low-FRET loops proposed to form via LacI opening. The addition of isopropyl-?-d-thio-galactoside (IPTG) destabilizes but does not eliminate the loops, and IPTG does not redistribute loops among high-FRET topologies. In some cases, subsequent addition of excess LacI does not reduce FRET further, suggesting that IPTG stabilizes extended or other low-FRET loops. The data align well with rod mechanics models for the energetics of DNA looping topologies. At the peaks of the predicted energy landscape for V-shaped loops, the proposed extended loops are more stable and are observed instead, showing that future models must consider protein flexibility. PMID:22307389

  6. A quantitative understanding of lac repressors binding specificity and flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zheng; Chang, Yiming; Stormo, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Lac repressor, the first discovered transcriptional regulator, has been shown to confer multiple-modes of binding to its operator sites depending on the central spacer length. Other homolog members in the LacI/GalR family (PurR and YcjW) cannot bind their operator sites with similar structural flexibility. To decipher the underlying mechanism for this unique property, we used Spec-seq approach combined with site-directed mutagenesis to quantify the DNA binding specificity of multiple hybrids of lacI and PurR. We find that lac repressors recognition di-residues YQ and its hinge helix loop regions are both critical for its structural flexibility. Also, specificity profiling of the whole lac operator suggests that a simple additive model from single variants suffice to predict other multivariant sites energy reasonably well, and the genome occupancy model based on this specificity data correlates well with in vivo lac repressor binding profile. PMID:26752632

  7. Aspartoacylase-LacZ Knockin Mice: An Engineered Model of Canavan Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mersmann, Nadine; Tkachev, Dmitri; Jelinek, Ruth; Rth, Philipp Thomas; Mbius, Wiebke; Ruhwedel, Torben; Rhle, Sabine; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Sartorius, Alexander; Klugmann, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Canavan Disease (CD) is a recessive leukodystrophy caused by loss of function mutations in the gene encoding aspartoacylase (ASPA), an oligodendrocyte-enriched enzyme that hydrolyses N-acetylaspartate (NAA) to acetate and aspartate. The neurological phenotypes of different rodent models of CD vary considerably. Here we report on a novel targeted aspa mouse mutant expressing the bacterial ?-Galactosidase (lacZ) gene under the control of the aspa regulatory elements. X-Gal staining in known ASPA expression domains confirms the integrity of the modified locus in heterozygous aspa lacZ-knockin (aspalacZ/+) mice. In addition, abundant ASPA expression was detected in Schwann cells. Homozygous (aspalacZ/lacZ) mutants are ASPA-deficient, show CD-like histopathology and moderate neurological impairment with behavioural deficits that are more pronounced in aspalacZ/lacZ males than females. Non-invasive ultrahigh field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed increased levels of NAA, myo-inositol and taurine in the aspalacZ/lacZ brain. Spongy degeneration was prominent in hippocampus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum, whereas white matter of optic nerve and corpus callosum was spared. Intracellular vacuolisation in astrocytes coincides with axonal swellings in cerebellum and brain stem of aspalacZ/lacZ mutants indicating that astroglia may act as an osmolyte buffer in the aspa-deficient CNS. In summary, the aspalacZ mouse is an accurate model of CD and an important tool to identify novel aspects of its complex pathology. PMID:21625469

  8. Regulatory pathways governing modulation of fungal gene expression by a virulence-attenuating mycovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Larson, T G; Choi, G H; Nuss, D L

    1992-01-01

    A viral double-stranded RNA associated with virulence attenuation (hypovirulence) in the chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) has been shown by DNA-mediated transformation to be responsible for transmissible hypovirulence. In addition to reduced virulence, the fungal strain harboring this virus exhibits a diverse array of characteristics, termed hypovirulence-associated traits, which distinguish it from an isogenic virus-free strain. We have investigated one of these traits, suppressed lac-1 (laccase) transcript accumulation. Two different and opposing regulatory pathways appear to govern lac-1 transcript levels in the virus-free strain: a stimulatory pathway was found to be dependent on the inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and calcium second messenger systems. A second pathway limiting transcript accumulation was shown to require ongoing protein synthesis. Additionally, changes in the level of lac-1 transcript accumulation were found to be related to modulation of promoter activity and this activity was shown to be suppressed in the virus-containing strain. We conclude that this hypovirulence-associated virus interferes with transduction of an IP3-calcium-dependent signal that is required for stimulation of lac-1 transcription. The perturbation of such signal transduction pathways by hypovirulence-associated viruses may account for the manifold symptoms associated with transmissible hypovirulence. Images PMID:1425588

  9. Yellowstone Attenuation Tomography from Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doungkaew, N.; Seats, K.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study is to create a tomographic attenuation image for the Yellowstone region by analyzing ambient seismic noise. An attenuation image generated from ambient noise should provide more information about the structure and properties beneath Yellowstone, especially the caldera, which is known to be active. I applied the method of Lawrence & Prieto [2011] to examine lateral variations in the attenuation structure of Yellowstone. Ambient noise data were collected from broadband seismic stations located around Yellowstone National Park from 1999-2013. Noise correlation functions derived from cross correlations of the ambient noise at two stations were used to calculate a distance dependent decay (an attenuation coefficient) at each period and distance. An inversion was then performed to isolate and localize the spatial attenuation coefficients within the study area. I observe high amplitude decay of the ambient noise at the Yellowstone caldera, most likely due to elevated temperature and crustal melts caused by volcanism, geothermal heat flow, and hydrothermal activity such as geysers.

  10. Fusion of the Escherichia coli lac genes to the ara promoter: a general technique using bacteriophage Mu-1 insertions.

    PubMed Central

    Casadaban, M J

    1975-01-01

    The lac genes were fused to the ara promoter by means of phage phi 80 translocations of the lac and ara genes to att80. Homology for a crossover between the nonhomologous ara and lac operons was provided by mu insertions. Selection for recombinants within the mu insertions generated strains that had the ara promoter on one side of a mu insertion and the lac genes on the other side. ara-lac fusions were obtained from these strains by deleting the mu insertion. These fusions extend the techniques available for studies on the lac operon to studies on the ara operon. It should be possible to fuse other operons by this method. PMID:1093171

  11. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, S.R.

    1987-05-29

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

  12. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  13. Controlled expression of the transcriptional activator gene virG in Agrobacterium tumefaciens by using the Escherichia coli lac promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C Y; Winans, S C

    1991-01-01

    The Agrobacterium VirG protein is normally expressed from two promoters in response to multiple stimuli, including plant-released phenolics (at promoter P1) and acidic growth media (at promoter P2). To simplify the analysis of vir gene induction, we sought to create Agrobacterium strains in which virG could be expressed in a controllable fashion. To study the possibility of using the lac promoter and repressor, we constructed a plasmid containing the lac promoter fused to the lacZ structural gene. A derivative of this plasmid containing the lacIq gene was also constructed. The plasmid not containing lacIq expressed high levels of beta-galactosidase. The plasmid containing lacIq expressed beta-galactosidase at very low levels in the absence of o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside (IPTG) and at moderate levels in the presence of IPTG. We also fused the lac promoter to a virG::lacZ translational fusion and found that IPTG elevated expression of this translational fusion to moderate levels, though not to levels as high as from the stronger of the two native virG promoters. Finally, the lac promoter was used to express the native virG gene in strains containing a virB::lacZ translational fusion. virB expression in this strain depended on addition of IPTG as well as the vir gene inducer acetosyringone. In a similar strain lacking lacIq, virB expression was greater than in a strain in which virG was expressed from its native promoters. Expression of virG from the lac promoter did not alter the acidic pH optimum for vir gene induction, indicating that the previously observed requirement for acidic media was not due solely to the need to induce P2. PMID:1991713

  14. The Study of Rain Specific Attenuation for the Prediction of Satellite Propagation in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeep, J. S.; Ng, Y. Y.; Abdullah, H.; Abdullah, M.

    2010-06-01

    Specific attenuation is the fundamental quantity in the calculation of rain attenuation for terrestrial path and slant paths representing as rain attenuation per unit distance (dB/km). Specific attenuation is an important element in developing the predicted rain attenuation model. This paper deals with the empirical determination of the power law coefficients which allow calculating the specific attenuation in dB/km from the knowledge of the rain rate in mm/h. The main purpose of the paper is to obtain the coefficients of k and α of power law relationship between specific attenuation. Three years (from 1st January 2006 until 31st December 2008) rain gauge and beacon data taken from USM, Nibong Tebal have been used to do the empirical procedure analysis of rain specific attenuation. The data presented are semi-empirical in nature. A year-to-year variation of the coefficients has been indicated and the empirical measured data was compared with ITU-R provided regression coefficient. The result indicated that the USM empirical measured data was significantly vary from ITU-R predicted value. Hence, ITU-R recommendation for regression coefficients of rain specific attenuation is not suitable for predicting rain attenuation at Malaysia.

  15. RegR, a Global LacI/GalR Family Regulator, Modulates Virulence and Competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Ogunniyi, A. David; Diallo, Nicole; Huet, Yvette; Desnottes, Jean-François; Paton, James C.; Escaich, Sonia; Trombe, Marie-Claude

    2003-01-01

    The homolactic and catalase-deficient pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is not only tolerant to oxygen but requires the activity of its NADH oxidase, Nox, to develop optimal virulence and competence for genetic transformation. In this work, we show that the global regulator RegR is also involved in these traits. Genetic dissection revealed that RegR regulates competence and the expression of virulence factors, including hyaluronidase. In bacteria grown in vitro, RegR represses hyaluronidase. At neutral pH, it increases adherence to A549 epithelial cells, and at alkaline pH, it acts upstream of the CiaRH two-component signaling system to activate competence. These phenotypes are not associated with changes in antibiotic resistance, central metabolism, and carbohydrate utilization. Although the RegR0 (where 0 indicates the loss of the protein) mutation is sufficient to attenuate experimental virulence of strain 23477 in mice, the introduction of an additional hyl0 (where 0 indicates the loss of function) mutation in the RegR0 strain 23302 dramatically reduces its virulence. This indicates that residual virulence of the RegR0 Hyl+ derivative is due to hyaluronidase and supports the dual role of RegR in virulence. This LacI/GalR regulator, not essential for in vitro growth in rich media, is indeed involved in the adaptive response of the pneumococcus via its control of competence, adherence, and virulence. PMID:12704136

  16. A novel LacZ reporter mouse reveals complex regulation of the progesterone receptor promoter during mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Preeti M; Li, Jie; DeMayo, Francesco J; O'Malley, Bert W; Lydon, John P

    2002-11-01

    To further our understanding of progesterone (P) as an endocrine mammogen, a PR(lacz) knockin mouse was generated in which the endogenous progesterone receptor (PR) promoter directly regulated lacZ reporter expression. The PR(lacz) mouse revealed PR promoter activity was restricted to the epithelial compartment during the prenatal and postnatal stages of mammary gland development. At puberty, PR promoter activity was unexpectedly robust and restricted to the body cells within the terminal end buds and to the luminal epithelial cells in the subtending ducts. In the adult, the preferential localization of PR(lacz) positive cells to the distal regions of ductal side branches provided a cellular context to the recognized mandatory role of P in ductal side-branching, and segregation of these cells from cells that undergo proliferation supported an intraepithelial paracrine mode of action for P in branching morphogenesis. Toward the end of pregnancy, the PR(lacz) mouse disclosed a progressive attenuation in PR promoter activity, supporting the postulate that the preparturient removal of the proliferative signal of P is a prerequisite for the emergence of a functional lactating mammary gland. The data suggest that PR expression before pregnancy is to ensure the specification and spatial organization of ductal and alveolar progenitor cell lineages, whereas abrogation of PR expression before lactation is required to enable terminal differentiation of the mammary gland. PMID:12403837

  17. Compensation for non-uniform attenuation in SPECT brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, S.J.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S.

    1994-05-01

    Photon attenuation is a major limitation in performing quantitative SPECT brain imaging. A number of methods have been proposed for compensation of attenuation in regions of the body that can be modelled as a uniform attenuator. The magnitude of the errors introduced into reconstructed brain images by assuming the head to be a uniform attenuator are uncertain (the skull, sinus cavities and head holder all have different attenuation properties than brain tissue). Brain imaging is unique in that the radioisotope, for the most part, is taken up within a uniform attenuation medium (i.e., brain tissue) which is surrounded by bone (i.e., the skull) of a different density. Using this observation, Bellini`s method for attenuation compensation (which is an exact solution to the exponential Radon transform) has been modified to account for the different attenuation properties of the skull. To test this modified Bellini method, a simple mathematical phantom was designed to model the brain and a skull of varying thickness less than 7.5 mm. To model brain imaging with Tc-99m HMPAO, the attenuation coefficient of the brain tissue and skull were set to 0.15 cm{sup -1} and 0.22 cm{sup -1} respectively. A ray-driven projector which accounted for non-uniform attenuation was used to simulate projection data from 128 views. The detector response and scatter were not simulated. It was observed that reconstructions processed with uniform attenuation compensation (i.e., where it was assumed that the brain tissue and the skull had the same attenuation coefficient) provided errors of 6-20%, whereas those processed with the non-uniform Bellini algorithm were biased by only 0-5%.

  18. Identification of the lacZ insertion site and beta-galactosidase expression in transgenic chickens.

    PubMed

    Mozdziak, Paul E; Wu, Qian; Bradford, Jennifer M; Pardue, Samuel L; Borwornpinyo, Suparerk; Giamario, Carol; Petitte, James N

    2006-04-01

    The quail:chick chimera system is a classical research model in developmental biology. An improvement over the quail:chick chimera system would be a line of transgenic chickens expressing a reporter gene. Transgenic chickens carrying lacZ and expressing bacterial beta-galactosidase have been generated, but complete characterization of the insertion event and characterization of beta-galactosidase expression have not previously been available. The genomic sequences flanking the retroviral insertion site have now been identified by using inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR), homozygous individuals have been identified by using PCR-based genotyping, and beta-galactosidase expression has been evaluated by using Western analysis and histochemistry. Based upon the current draft of the chicken genome, the viral insertion carrying the lacZ gene has been located on chromosome 11 within the predicted gene for neurotactin/fractalkine (CX3CL1); neurotactin mRNA expression appears to be missing from the brain of homozygous individuals. When Generation 2 (G2) lacZ-positive individuals were inter-mated, they generated 361 G3 progeny; 82 were homozyous for lacZ (22.7%), 97 were wild-type non-transgenic (26.9%), and 182 (50.4%) were hemizygous for lacZ. Western analysis revealed the highest expression in the muscle and liver. With the identification of homozygous birds, the line of chickens is now designated NCSU-Blue1. PMID:16408197

  19. Mutational analysis of the lac regulatory region: second-site changes that activate mutant promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Rothmel, R K; LeClerc, J E

    1989-01-01

    Second-site mutations that restored activity to severe lacP1 down-promoter mutants were isolated. This was accomplished by using a bacteriophage f1 vector containing a fusion of the mutant E. coli lac promoters with the structural gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), so that a system was provided for selecting phage revertants (or pseudorevertants) that conferred resistance of phage-infected cells to chloramphenicol. Among the second-site changes that relieved defects in mutant lac promoters, the only one that restored lacP1 activity was a T----G substitution at position -14, a weakly conserved site in E. coli promoters. Three other sequence changes, G----A at -2, A----T at +1, and C----A at +10, activated nascent promoters in the lac regulatory region. The nascent promoters conformed to the consensus rule, that activity is gained by sequence changes toward homology with consensus sequences at the -35 and -10 regions of the promoter. However, the relative activities of some promoters cannot be explained solely by consideration of their conserved sequence elements. Images PMID:2660105

  20. Mechanisms for attenuation in cancellous-bone-mimicking phantoms.

    PubMed

    Wear, Keith A

    2008-11-01

    Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in cancellous bone is useful for prediction of osteoporotic fracture risk, but its causes are not well understood. To investigate attenuation mechanisms, 9 cancellous-bone-mimicking phantoms containing nylon filaments (simulating bone trabeculae) embedded within soft-tissue-mimicking fluid (simulating marrow) were interrogated. The measurements of frequency-dependent attenuation coefficient had 3 separable components: 1) a linear (with frequency) component attributable to absorption in the soft-tissue-mimicking fluid, 2) a quasilinear (with frequency) component, which may include absorption in and longitudinal-shear mode conversion by the nylon filaments, and 3) a nonlinear (with frequency) component, which may be attributable to longitudinal-longitudinal scattering by the nylon filaments. The slope of total linear (with frequency) attenuation coefficient (sum of components #1 and #2) versus frequency was found to increase linearly with volume fraction, consistent with reported measurements on cancellous bone. Backscatter coefficient measurements in the 9 phantoms supported the claim that the nonlinear (with frequency) component of attenuation coefficient (component #3) was closely associated with longitudinal-longitudinal scattering. This work represents the first experimental separation of these 3 components of attenuation in cancellous bone-mimicking phantoms. PMID:19049921

  1. Generalized Hansen Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Sławomir; Métris, Gilles; Vokrouhlický, David

    2004-02-01

    Hansen coefficients X kn,j were originally defined for integer superscript n referring to the power of distance. We show, that most of the theory of Hansen coefficients remains valid for X kγ,j, when γ is a real number. The generalized coefficients can be applied in a variety of perturbed problems that involve some drag effects. A more detailed discussion of the case X 0(2n+1)/2,j is given.

  2. GPR measurements of attenuation in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenmann, David Margetan, Frank J. Pavel, Brittney

    2015-03-31

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals from concrete structures are affected by several phenomenon, including: (1) transmission and reflection coefficients at interfaces; (2) the radiation patterns of the antenna(s) being used; and (3) the material properties of concrete and any embedded objects. In this paper we investigate different schemes for determining the electromagnetic (EM) attenuation of concrete from measured signals obtained using commercially-available GPR equipment. We adapt procedures commonly used in ultrasonic inspections where one compares the relative strengths of two or more signals having different travel paths through the material of interest. After correcting for beam spread (i.e., diffraction), interface phenomena, and equipment amplification settings, any remaining signal differences are assumed to be due to attenuation thus allowing the attenuation coefficient (say, in dB of loss per inch of travel) to be estimated. We begin with a brief overview of our approach, and then discuss how diffraction corrections were determined for our two 1.6 GHz GPR antennas. We then present results of attenuation measurements for two types of concrete using both pulse/echo and pitch/catch measurement setups.

  3. Coefficients of Effective Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)

  4. Two different mechanisms for urea action at the LAC and TNA operons in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Blazy, B; Ullmann, A

    1990-02-01

    Urea, at concentrations which do not interfere with bacterial growth, specifically inhibits the expression of catabolite sensitive operons. To search for the target and the mechanism of urea action we measured lactose (lac) and tryptophanase (tna) specific mRNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro. We show that urea acts by two different mechanisms at these two catabolite sensitive operons, resembling the manner in which catabolite repression regulates lac and tna. At the lac promoter, urea abolishes transcription initiation or blocks an early step in mRNA elongation without interfering with the binding of RNA polymerase and catabolite gene activator protein (CAP). At the tna promoter, urea does not abolish transcription initiation but could interfere with tnaC translation. PMID:2160052

  5. Spectroscopy of optically selected BL Lac objects and their ?-ray emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A.; Farina, E. P.; Landoni, M.; Falomo, R.; Foschini, L.; Sbarufatti, B.

    2013-12-01

    We present Very Large Telescope optical spectroscopy of nine BL Lac objects of unknown redshift belonging to the list of optically selected radio-loud BL Lac candidates. We explore their spectroscopic properties and possible link with gamma-ray emission. From the new observations we determine the redshifts of four objects from faint emission lines or from absorption features of their host galaxies. In three cases we find narrow intervening absorptions from which a lower limit to the redshift is inferred. For the remaining two featureless sources, lower limits to the redshift are deduced from the absence of spectral lines. A search for ? counterpart emission shows that six out of the nine candidates are Fermi ?-ray emitters and we find two new detections. Our analysis suggests that most of the BL Lac objects still lacking redshift information are most likely located at high redshifts.

  6. Laser Measurement Of Convective-Heat-Transfer Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. Robert; Hingst, Warren R.; Chriss, Randall M.; Seablom, Kirk D.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Coefficient of convective transfer of heat at spot on surface of wind-tunnel model computed from measurements acquired by developmental laser-induced-heat-flux technique. Enables non-intrusive measurements of convective-heat-transfer coefficients at many points across surfaces of models in complicated, three-dimensional, high-speed flows. Measurement spot scanned across surface of model. Apparatus includes argon-ion laser, attenuator/beam splitter electronic shutter infrared camera, and subsystem.

  7. A lacZ reporter gene expression atlas for 313 adult KOMP mutant mouse lines

    PubMed Central

    Pasumarthi, Ravi K.; Baridon, Brian; Djan, Esi; Trainor, Amanda; Griffey, Stephen M.; Engelhard, Eric K.; Rapp, Jared; Li, Bowen; de Jong, Pieter J.; Lloyd, K.C. Kent

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter gene (lacZ) in the vector used for the Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) is driven by the endogenous promoter of the target gene. In tissues from KOMP mice, histochemical staining for LacZ enzyme activity can be used to determine gene expression patterns. With this technique, we have produced a comprehensive resource of gene expression using both whole mount (WM) and frozen section (FS) LacZ staining in 313 unique KOMP mutant mouse lines. Of these, ∼80% of mutants showed specific staining in one or more tissues, while ∼20% showed no specific staining, ∼13% had staining in only one tissue, and ∼25% had staining in >6 tissues. The highest frequency of specific staining occurred in the brain (∼50%), male gonads (42%), and kidney (39%). The WM method was useful for rapidly identifying whole organ and some substructure staining, while the FS method often revealed substructure and cellular staining specificity. Both staining methods had >90% repeatability in biological replicates. Nonspecific LacZ staining occurs in some tissues due to the presence of bacteria or endogenous enzyme activity. However, this can be effectively distinguished from reporter gene activity by the combination of the WM and FS methods. After careful annotation, LacZ staining patterns in a high percentage of mutants revealed a unique structure-function not previously reported for many of these genes. The validation of methods for LacZ staining, annotation, and expression analysis reported here provides unique insights into the function of genes for which little is currently known. PMID:25591789

  8. The sedentary survey of extreme high-energy peaked BL Lacs. III. Results from optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piranomonte, S.; Perri, M.; Giommi, P.; Landt, H.; Padovani, P.

    2007-08-01

    Aims:The multi-frequency sedentary survey is a flux-limited, statistically well-defined sample of highly X-ray dominated (i.e., with a very high X-ray to radio flux ratio) BL Lacertae objects, which includes 150 sources. In this paper, the third of the series, we report the results of a dedicated optical spectroscopy campaign that, together with results from other independent optical follow-up programs, led to the spectroscopic identification of all sources in the sample. Methods: We carried out a systematic spectroscopic campaign for the observation of all unidentified objects of the sample using the ESO 3.6 m, the KPNO 4 m, and the TNG optical telescopes. Results: We present new identifications and optical spectra for 76 sources, 50 of which are new BL Lac objects, 18 are sources previously referred as BL Lacs but for which no redshift information was available, and 8 are broad emission-line AGNs. We find that the multi-frequency selection technique used to build the survey is highly efficient (~90%) in selecting BL Lacs objects. We present positional and spectroscopic information for all confirmed BL Lac objects. Our data allowed us to determine 36 redshifts out of the 50 new BL Lacs and 5 new redshifts for the previously known objects. The redshift distribution of the complete sample is presented and compared with that of other BL Lacs samples. For 26 sources without recognizable absorption features, we calculated lower limits to the redshift using a method based on simulated optical spectra with different ratios between jet and galaxy emission. For a subsample of 38 object with high-quality spectra, we find a correlation between the optical spectral slope, the 1.4 GHz radio luminosity, and the Ca H&K break value, indicating that for powerful/beamed sources the optical light is dominated by the non-thermal emission from the jet.

  9. Sound attenuation in amorphous silica at frequencies near the boson peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhi; Keblinski, Pawel

    2016-02-01

    We use molecular dynamics phonon wave packet (WP) simulations to study acoustic propagation and attenuation in amorphous silica (a -Si O2 ) at frequencies near the boson peak (BP) position and compare them with the results of equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations. The sound attenuation coefficients obtained from WP simulations are generally consistent with those from EMD predictions and have reasonable agreement with the existing experimental data. Near the BP position, we found the frequency-dependent sound attenuation coefficients for longitudinal and transverse modes both follow the Rayleigh-scattering fourth power law. Above the BP frequency, however, the propagating phonon is essentially attenuated in a -Si O2 within a few nanometers, and the accurate determination of the sound attenuation coefficients by the WP simulation becomes challenging. The modeling results provide a reference for future experimental investigations of sound attenuation in a -Si O2 thin film using narrow-band coherent phonons.

  10. High-energy cosmic neutrinos from spine-sheath BL Lac jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.

    2015-08-01

    We recently proposed that structured (spine-sheath) jets associated with BL Lac objects could offer a suitable environment for the production of the extragalactic high-energy (E > 100 TeV) neutrino recently revealed by IceCube. Our previous analysis was limited to low-power BL Lac objects. We extend our preliminary study to the entire BL Lac population, assuming that the entire diffuse emission is accounted for by these sources. The neutrino output from a single source depends on a relatively large number of parameters. However, for several of them we have constraints coming from observations and previous application of the structured jet model to blazar and radiogalaxy emission. The observed neutrino spectrum then fixes the remaining free parameters. We assume that the power of cosmic rays as well as the radiative luminosity of the sheath depends linearly on the jet power. In turn, we assume that the latter is well traced by the γ-ray luminosity. We exploit the BL Lac γ-ray luminosity function and its cosmic evolution as recently inferred from Fermi-LAT data to derive the expected neutrino cumulative intensity from the entire BL Lac population. When considering only the low-power BL Lacs, a large cosmic ray power for each source is required to account for the neutrino flux. Instead, if BL Lacs of all powers produce neutrinos, the power demand decreases, and the required cosmic ray power becomes of the same order of the radiative jet power. In our scheme, the maximum energy of cosmic rays is constrained to be ≲ few PeV by the lack of events above few PeV. Although such a value is obtained through a fine-tuning with the data, we show that it could be possibly related to the equilibrium between cooling and acceleration processes for high-energy cosmic rays. We also discuss the prospects for the direct association of IceCube events with BL Lacs, providing an estimate of the expected counts for the most promising sources.

  11. SSC Model Fits to Simultaneous Fermi and CAO observations of Bl Lac's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Tyler; Macomb, Daryl J.; Hand, Jared; Norris, Jay P.; Long, Min

    2016-01-01

    The Challis Astronomical Observatory (CAO) has been surveying a sample of blazar-type AGN since 2010. The CAO blazar sample includes4 3 sources - comprising 30 FSRQs, 15 BL Lacs, one radio galaxy and four unclassified sources - covering a redshift range 0.02 < z < 2. Observations are carried out in BVRI filters. Here we describe photometric results on a small sample emphasizing BL Lacs. We combine the CAO data with Fermi/LAT data and explore the suitability of fits to the data using the uniform conical jet model of Potter and Cotter (MNRAS, 2012, 423, 756-765).

  12. Ultraviolet and X-ray observations of the BL Lac object PKS 05 8-322

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Hackney, K. R. H.; Hackney, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of the BL Lac object PKS 0548-322 were made with ultraviolet and X-ray instruments on the IUE and HEAO-2 satellites. Two observations in each spectral region, one set of which was obtained simultaneously are presented. A power law of energy index approximately 1.0 gives a good description of the data from ultraviolet through X-ray frequencies. This source is reported to be variable on short timescales (Gilmore 1980); the implications of the spectral properties and apparent variability are discussed in light of a relativistic jet model. Findings support the jet picture of BL Lac objects.

  13. Optical behaviour of 8 BL Lac objects and the properties of their central nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangzhong, X.; Ruwei, L.; Yuan, Z.; Pengjin, H.; Yun, Z.; Xiaoyu, L.; Xinde, L.; Jianxin, W.

    1988-01-01

    CCD image photometry results for 8 BL Lac objects have been obtained at Yunnan Observatory. The main results show that: (1) BL Lac has a very short characteristic timescale of about 80 min with an amplitude of Delta B of about 0.6 mag; (2) Mark 421 has a short timescale variability of about 2.5 hours with an amplitude of Delta B of about 1.4 mag; and (3) 0109 + 22 has a rapid optical variation whose amplitude exceeds 0.68 mag in about 70 min.

  14. A numeric evaluation of attenuation from ambient noise correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Jesse F.; Denolle, Marine; Seats, Kevin J.; Prieto, Germn. A.

    2013-12-01

    The ambient noise correlation function (NCF) calculated between seismic stations contains, under appropriate conditions, accurate travel time information. However, NCF amplitudes are highly debated due to noise source intensity and distribution, seismic intrinsic attenuation, scattering, and elastic path effects such as focusing and defocusing. We prove with various numerical simulations that the NCFs calculated for a uniformly dispersive medium using the coherency method preserve accurate geometrical spreading and attenuation decay. We show that for a wide range of noise source distributions, the coherency of the noise correlation functions matches a Bessel function decaying exponentially with a specific attenuation coefficient. Conditions needed to obtain these results include averaging over long enough time intervals, a uniformly distributed seismic network, and a good distribution of far-field noise sources. We also show that the estimated attenuation coefficient corresponds to the interstation and not the noise-source-to-receiver structure.

  15. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  16. RADIO FREQUENCY ATTENUATOR

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, S.

    1963-11-12

    A high peak power level r-f attenuator that is readily and easily insertable along a coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer annular conductor without breaking the ends thereof is presented. Spaced first and second flares in the outer conductor face each other with a slidable cylindrical outer conductor portion therebetween. Dielectric means, such as water, contact the cable between the flares to attenuate the radio-frequency energy received thereby. The cylindrical outer conductor portion is slidable to adjust the voltage standing wave ratio to a low level, and one of the flares is slidable to adjust the attenuation level. An integral dielectric container is also provided. (AFC)

  17. Synthesis of tetravalent LacNAc-glycoclusters as high-affinity cross-linker against Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Makoto; Chuma, Yasushi; Yasumoto, Yoshinori; Onoda, Takashi; Umemura, Myco; Usui, Taichi; Park, Enoch Y

    2016-01-01

    Four kinds of tetravalent double-headed glycoclusters [(LacNAc)4-DHGs] were designed with linkers of varying lengths consisting of alkanedioic carboxyamido groups (C6, C12, C18 and C24) between two bi-antennary LacNAc-glycosides. These glycoclusters served as high-affinity cross-linking ligands for the LacNAc-binding lectin Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin (ECA). The binding activity and cross-linking between each ligand and ECA were characterized by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), a quantitative precipitation assay and dynamic light scattering (DLS). For the precipitation assay and DLS measurement, the synthesized (LacNAc)4-DHGs were found to be capable of binding and precipitating the ECA as multivalent ligands. ITC analysis indicated the binding of (LacNAc)4-DHGs was driven by a favorable enthalpy change. Furthermore, the entropy penalty from binding (LacNAc)4-DHGs clearly decreased in a spacer length-dependent manner. The binding affinities of flexible (LacNAc)4-DHGs (C18 and C24) with long spacers were found to be more favorable than those of the clusters having short spacers (C6 and C12). These results were supported by molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water molecules for the tetravalent glycoclusters with ECA. We concluded that the subtle modification in the epitope-presenting scaffolds exerts the significant effect in the recognition efficiency involved in the LacNAc moieties by ECA. PMID:26672510

  18. The Hinge Region Strengthens the Nonspecific Interaction between Lac-Repressor and DNA: A Computer Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lili; Tabaka, Marcin; Hou, Sen; Li, Lin; Burdzy, Krzysztof; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Maffeo, Christopher; Zhang, Xuzhu; Holyst, Robert

    2016-01-01

    LacI is commonly used as a model to study the protein-DNA interaction and gene regulation. The headpiece of the lac-repressor (LacI) protein is an ideal system for investigation of nonspecific binding of the whole LacI protein to DNA. The hinge region of the headpiece has been known to play a key role in the specific binding of LacI to DNA, whereas its role in nonspecific binding process has not been elucidated. Here, we report the results of explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation and continuum electrostatic calculations suggesting that the hinge region strengthens the nonspecific interaction, accounting for up to 50% of the micro-dissociation free energy of LacI from DNA. Consequently, the rate of microscopic dissociation of LacI from DNA is reduced by 2~3 orders of magnitude in the absence of the hinge region. We find the hinge region makes an important contribution to the electrostatic energy, the salt dependence of electrostatic energy, and the number of salt ions excluded from binding of the LacI-DNA complex. PMID:27008630

  19. Program Evaluation: Outcomes of Participation in Lac Du Bois, the French Language Village of Concordia Language Villages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clementi, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe perceptions of stakeholders (leadership of Concordia Language Villages, staff members and villagers of "Lac du Bois", the French Language Village of Concordia Language Villages), related to achievement of the mission statement. The research question was: How do stakeholders in "Lac du…

  20. Backscatter and attenuation properties of mammalian brain tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijekularatne, Pushpani Vihara

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a common category of brain injuries, which contributes to a substantial number of deaths and permanent disability all over the world. Ultrasound technology plays a major role in tissue characterization due to its low cost and portability that could be used to bridge a wide gap in the TBI diagnostic process. This research addresses the ultrasonic properties of mammalian brain tissues focusing on backscatter and attenuation. Orientation dependence and spatial averaging of data were analyzed using the same method resulting from insertion of tissue sample between a transducer and a reference reflector. Apparent backscatter transfer function (ABTF) at 1 to 10 MHz, attenuation coefficient and backscatter coefficient (BSC) at 1 to 5 MHz frequency ranges were measured on ovine brain tissue samples. The resulting ABTF was a monotonically decreasing function of frequency and the attenuation coefficient and BSC generally were increasing functions of frequency, results consistent with other soft tissues such as liver, blood and heart.

  1. Attenuator And Conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R. (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (Albuquerque, NM); Carson, Richard F. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM); Duckett, III, Edwin B. (Albuquerque, NM); Kemme, Shanalyn Adair (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick B. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, David W. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2006-04-04

    An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

  2. Time domain attenuation estimation method from ultrasonic backscattered signals

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Goutam; Oelze, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation is important not only as a parameter for characterizing tissue but also for compensating other parameters that are used to classify tissues. Several techniques have been explored for estimating ultrasonic attenuation from backscattered signals. In the present study, a technique is developed to estimate the local ultrasonic attenuation coefficient by analyzing the time domain backscattered signal. The proposed method incorporates an objective function that combines the diffraction pattern of the source/receiver with the attenuation slope in an integral equation. The technique was assessed through simulations and validated through experiments with a tissue mimicking phantom and fresh rabbit liver samples. The attenuation values estimated using the proposed technique were compared with the attenuation estimated using insertion loss measurements. For a data block size of 15 pulse lengths axially and 15 beamwidths laterally, the mean attenuation estimates from the tissue mimicking phantoms were within 10% of the estimates using insertion loss measurements. With a data block size of 20 pulse lengths axially and 20 beamwidths laterally, the error in the attenuation values estimated from the liver samples were within 10% of the attenuation values estimated from the insertion loss measurements. PMID:22779499

  3. On the sound attenuation in fluid due to the thermal diffusion and viscous dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hanping; Wang, Yandong; Wang, Dongdong

    2015-09-01

    We review the sound attenuation in fluid due to the thermal diffusion and viscous dissipation and derive the formula of the sound attenuation coefficient in fluid by solving a fully thermally-mechanically coupled equation set. Problem occurring in Stokes-Kirchhoff relation, the well-known and widely used classical formula for sound attenuation coefficient, is therefore found and pointed out. The reason for its generation is analyzed and verified. An improved formula to replace Stokes-Kirchhoff relation is suggested and the typical case for the error in calculating sound pressure level (SPL) of attenuated sound wave in fluid between the two formulas is also given.

  4. Measuring Seebeck Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus and method with various features to minimize typical sources of errors is described. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement errors which may impact accurate measurement are identified and reduced. Applying the identified principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus and method employing a uniaxial, four-point geometry is described to operate from room temperature up to 1300K. These techniques for non-destructive Seebeck coefficient measurements are simple to operate, and are suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.

  5. JKTLD: Limb darkening coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, John

    2015-11-01

    JKTLD outputs theoretically-calculated limb darkening (LD) strengths for equations (LD laws) which predict the amount of LD as a function of the part of the star being observed. The coefficients of these laws are obtained by bilinear interpolation (in effective temperature and surface gravity) in published tables of coefficients calculated from stellar model atmospheres by several researchers. Many observations of stars require the strength of limb darkening (LD) to be estimated, which can be done using theoretical models of stellar atmospheres; JKTLD can help in these circumstances.

  6. A direct measurement of skull attenuation for quantitative SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Turkington, T.G.; Gilland, D.R.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E. . Dept. of Radiology); Smith, M.F. . Dept. of Biomedical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    The attenuation of 140 keV photons was measured in three empty skulls by placing a [sup 99m]Tc line source inside each one and acquiring projection data. These projections were compared to projections of the line source alone to determine the transmission through each point in the skull surrounding the line source. The effective skull thickness was calculated for each point using an assumed dense bone attenuation coefficient. The relative attenuation for this thickness of bone was compared to that of an equivalent amount of soft tissue to evaluate the increased attenuation of photons in brain SPECT relative to a uniform soft tissue approximation. For the skull regions surrounding most of the brain, the effective bone thickness varied considerably, but was generally less than 6 mm, resulting in a relative attenuation increases of less than 6%.

  7. Photometric study of the short-period eclipsing binary V441 Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Daimei; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Agerer, Franz; Pi, Qingfeng; Wang, Shuai

    2015-04-01

    We present the first multi-color VRI CCD light curves of a short-period eclipsing binary star v441 Lac in this paper. We obtained our light curves on Oct. 4 and 8, 2013 at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, China. We updated the ephemeris of V441 Lac based on three new minima derived by our new observational data together with previously available light curve minima. By fitting the O-C (observed minus calculated) values of the minima, we found that the orbital period of V441 Lac exhibits an increasing trend of P ? = 5.67 (0.35) 10-7 days/year, which might be explained by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one, or angular momentum exchange by magnetic activities. We also obtained the photometric orbital parameters with the Wilson & Devinney program. Our final result shows that the V441 Lac system is a semi-detached binary with the secondary component filling roche lobe.

  8. Spectroscopy of the Largest Ever ?-Ray-selected BL Lac Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.; Cotter, Garret; Healey, Stephen E.; Michelson, Peter F.; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; King, Oliver G.; Potter, William J.

    2013-02-01

    We report on spectroscopic observations covering most of the 475 BL Lacs in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Including archival measurements (correcting several erroneous literature values) we now have spectroscopic redshifts for 44% of the BL Lacs. We establish firm lower redshift limits via intervening absorption systems and statistical lower limits via searches for host galaxies for an additional 51% of the sample leaving only 5% of the BL Lacs unconstrained. The new redshifts raise the median spectroscopic \\tilde{z} from 0.23 to 0.33 and include redshifts as large as z = 2.471. Spectroscopic redshift minima from intervening absorbers have \\tilde{z}= 0.70, showing a substantial fraction at large z and arguing against strong negative evolution. We find that detected BL Lac hosts are bright ellipticals with black hole masses M ~ 108.5 - 109, substantially larger than the mean of optical AGNs and LAT Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar samples. A slow increase in M with z may be due to selection bias. We find that the power-law dominance of the optical spectrum extends to extreme values, but this does not strongly correlate with the ?-ray properties, suggesting that strong beaming is the primary cause of the range in continuum dominance.

  9. Weak operator binding enhances simulated Lac repressor-mediated DNA looping.

    PubMed

    Colasanti, Andrew V; Grosner, Michael A; Perez, Pamela J; Clauvelin, Nicolas; Lu, Xiang-Jun; Olson, Wilma K

    2013-12-01

    The 50th anniversary of Biopolymers coincides closely with the like celebration of the discovery of the Escherichia coli (lac) lactose operon, a classic genetic system long used to illustrate the influence of biomolecular structure on function. The looping of DNA induced by the binding of the Lac repressor protein to sequentially distant operator sites on DNA continues to serve as a paradigm for understanding long-range genomic communication. Advances in analyses of DNA structures and in incorporation of proteins in computer simulations of DNA looping allow us to address long-standing questions about the role of protein-mediated DNA loop formation in transcriptional control. Here we report insights gained from studies of the sequence-dependent contributions of the natural lac operators to Lac repressor-mediated DNA looping. Novel superposition of the ensembles of protein-bound operator structures derived from NMR measurements reveals variations in DNA folding missed in conventional structural alignments. The changes in folding affect the predicted ease with which the repressor induces loop formation and the ways that DNA closes between the protein headpieces. The peeling of the auxiliary operators away from the repressor enhances the formation of loops with the 92-bp wildtype spacing and hints of a structural reason behind their weak binding. PMID:23818216

  10. Characteristic and development report SA3581/MC4196 lightning arrestor connector (LAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Konnick, P.J. ); Gabert, G.; Bradley, K.; Washington, W. )

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the design, development, manufacturing processes, acceptance equipment, test results, and conclusions for the SA3581/MC4196 LAC program. Four development groups (Identified as Groups 1 through 3 and a Proof of Development Build) provided the evaluation criteria for the PPI/TMS production units.

  11. HOST PLANT RANGE OF LOBATE LAC SCALE, PARATACHARDINA LOBATA, IN FLORIDA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lobate lac scale (Paratacharidina lobata) is a serious pest of woody native and ornamental plants in Florida and the Bahamas. This insect, which is native to India and Sri Lanka, was known to attack many plants the number of plants it attacked in Florida was unknown. Field observation and field ...

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: High energy peaked BL Lacs optical spectros. (Piranomonte+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piranomonte, S.; Perri, M.; Giommi, P.; Landt, H.; Padovani, P.

    2007-10-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the Sedentary sources still unidentified and of BL Lacs without redshift were carried out during the period 1999-2003 at the KPNO 4m, at the ESO 3.6m and at the TNG telescopes. (3 data files).

  13. Bolometric luminosities and brightness temperatures of BL Lac Objects and FR I radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal Braun, P.

    2012-07-01

    To understand the connection among the subclasses of BL Lac Objects, FR I radio galaxies and Flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), here the correlations of the bolometric luminosities with redshifts and brightness temperatures of these objects are studied. The bolometric luminosities vary linearly with redshifts, but few objects are scattered at high redshift. The bolometric luminosity versus brightness temperature distribution shows a correlation between these two components, except a few scattered objects, mostly RBLs. The bolometric luminosities and brightness temperatures of FR I radio galaxies with low redshift (<0.1) and low spectral index (?rx < 0.75) are comparable to those of XBLs and those characteristics of FR I radio galaxies, with relatively high redshift (>0.2) and high spectral index, can be comparable with RBLs with low redshift (z < 0.5) and low bolometric luminosity. Those scattered RBLs with high redshifts (z > 0.5) are believed to be in complex environment with companion galaxies, most of these RBLs are still unresolved. The bolometric luminosity and brightness temperature of these scattered RBLs are comparable to those of quasars. The FSRQs are at high redshifts and bolometric luminosities and the brightness temperatures are also high relative to BL Lac Objects. These results support the FRI/BL Lac unification scheme. It suggests that, the FR I radio galaxies may be the parent populations of the BL Lac Objects, but it needs more investigation to confirm the unification of FR I radio galaxies, XBLs and RBLs.

  14. Determining the bistability parameter ranges of artificially induced lac operon using the root locus method.

    PubMed

    Avcu, N; Alyrk, H; Demir, G K; Pekergin, F; Cavas, L; Gzeli?, C

    2015-06-01

    This paper employs the root locus method to conduct a detailed investigation of the parameter regions that ensure bistability in a well-studied gene regulatory network namely, lac operon of Escherichia coli (E. coli). In contrast to previous works, the parametric bistability conditions observed in this study constitute a complete set of necessary and sufficient conditions. These conditions were derived by applying the root locus method to the polynomial equilibrium equation of the lac operon model to determine the parameter values yielding the multiple real roots necessary for bistability. The lac operon model used was defined as an ordinary differential equation system in a state equation form with a rational right hand side, and it was compatible with the Hill and Michaelis-Menten approaches of enzyme kinetics used to describe biochemical reactions that govern lactose metabolism. The developed root locus method can be used to study the steady-state behavior of any type of convergent biological system model based on mass action kinetics. This method provides a solution to the problem of analyzing gene regulatory networks under parameter uncertainties because the root locus method considers the model parameters as variable, rather than fixed. The obtained bistability ranges for the lac operon model parameters have the potential to elucidate the appearance of bistability for E. coli cells in in vivo experiments, and they could also be used to design robust hysteretic switches in synthetic biology. PMID:25864166

  15. Typical near surface layer current patterns in Lake Geneva's main basin (Grand Lac)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razmi, A.; Barry, D. A.; Bouffard, D.; Lemmin, U.

    2014-12-01

    The Lake Geneva current field is controlled by a variable wind field and thermal stratification. Typical current patterns in the Grand Lac which is oriented roughly in the East-West direction were determined under real time wind conditions and thermal stratifications using the DELFT3D-FLOW hydrodynamic model. The model solves the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, combined with a k-? turbulence closure in ? (lakebed-following) coordinates. The model was forced by a space-time dependent wind stress and heat flux over a 2.2 km 2.2 km horizontal grid (interpolated onto the model grid) provided by the Swiss Meteorological office (COSMO2, MeteoSwiss) in 2012. Modeling results revealed stronger circulation for the large scale gyres in the non-stratified season (winter), compared with the stratified season (summer). A clockwise circulation pattern in the western part and a counter-clockwise current pattern in the central part of the Grand Lac are identified under large scale north-easterly winds (Bise), which occur frequently. For large scale south-westerly winds (Vent), another frequent wind, a long-fetch (up to ~ 30 km) leads to a clockwise circulation pattern in the central part of the main basin while a counter-clockwise recirculating gyre is induced in the eastern part. Strong eastward currents are observed near the Grand Lac north-shore. The simulation results compared well with ADCP data and time series of temperature profiles from the middle of the Grand Lac.

  16. The environment of x ray selected BL Lacs: Host galaxies and galaxy clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtz, Ron; Stocke, John T.; Ellingson, Erica; Yee, Howard K. C.

    1993-01-01

    Using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we have imaged a complete, flux-limited sample of Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey BL Lacertae objects in order to study the properties of BL Lac host galaxies and to use quantitative methods to determine the richness of their galaxy cluster environments.

  17. Single molecule study of non-specific binding kinetics of LacI in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Caccianini, Laura; Normanno, Davide; Izeddin, Ignacio; Dahan, Maxime

    2015-12-12

    Many key cellular processes are controlled by the association of DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) to specific sites. The kinetics of the search process leading to the binding of DBPs to their target locus are largely determined by transient interactions with non-cognate DNA. Using single-molecule microscopy, we studied the dynamics and non-specific binding to DNA of the Lac repressor (LacI) in the environment of mammalian nuclei. We measured the distribution of the LacI-DNA binding times at non-cognate sites and determined the mean residence time to be τ1D = 182 ms. This non-specific interaction time, measured in the context of an exogenous system such as that of human U2OS cells, is remarkably different compared to that reported for the LacI in its native environment in E. coli (<5 ms). Such a striking difference (more than 30 fold) suggests that the genome, its organization, and the nuclear environment of mammalian cells play important roles on the dynamics of DBPs and their non-specific DNA interactions. Furthermore, we found that the distribution of off-target binding times follows a power law, similar to what was reported for TetR in U2OS cells. We argue that a possible molecular origin of such a power law distribution of residence times is the large variability of non-cognate sequences found in the mammalian nucleus by the diffusing DBPs. PMID:26387491

  18. SPECTROSCOPY OF THE LARGEST EVER {gamma}-RAY-SELECTED BL LAC SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.; Healey, Stephen E.; Michelson, Peter F.; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; King, Oliver G.

    2013-02-20

    We report on spectroscopic observations covering most of the 475 BL Lacs in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Including archival measurements (correcting several erroneous literature values) we now have spectroscopic redshifts for 44% of the BL Lacs. We establish firm lower redshift limits via intervening absorption systems and statistical lower limits via searches for host galaxies for an additional 51% of the sample leaving only 5% of the BL Lacs unconstrained. The new redshifts raise the median spectroscopic z-tilde from 0.23 to 0.33 and include redshifts as large as z = 2.471. Spectroscopic redshift minima from intervening absorbers have z-tilde = 0.70, showing a substantial fraction at large z and arguing against strong negative evolution. We find that detected BL Lac hosts are bright ellipticals with black hole masses M {sub .} {approx} 10{sup 8.5} - 10{sup 9}, substantially larger than the mean of optical AGNs and LAT Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar samples. A slow increase in M {sub .} with z may be due to selection bias. We find that the power-law dominance of the optical spectrum extends to extreme values, but this does not strongly correlate with the {gamma}-ray properties, suggesting that strong beaming is the primary cause of the range in continuum dominance.

  19. In vivo role of the relA+ gene in regulation of the lac operon.

    PubMed Central

    Primakoff, P

    1981-01-01

    Under conditions of amino acid limitation, beta-galactosidase was produced at a 70-fold higher rate in a relA+ strain than in an isogenic relA strain of Escherichia coli K-12. Under identical conditions with the relA+ and relA strains carrying various lac promoter mutations, rates of beta-galactosidase synthesis in relA+ (relative to relA) ranged from 26-fold higher (promoter mutant Pr 13) to only 5-fold higher (promoter mutant PrL8uv5). This promoter specificity was independent of strain background and the means of eliciting amino acid limitation. Addition of cyclic AMP to the growth medium altered the relA+/relA difference for beta-galactosidase synthesis from the wild-type lac promoter. The experiments suggest that the relA+/relA difference in lac expression arises primarily at the point of transcription initiation. The results are discussed in relation to recent in vitro data showing a promoter-specific guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate stimulation of lac transcription (P. Primakoff and S. W. Artz, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:1726-1730). PMID:6257637

  20. Coupling of lac mRNA transcription to translation in Escherichia coli cell extracts

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, K. A.; Shen, V.; Schlessinger, D.

    1978-01-01

    In an extract containing all the components for lac gene expression except washed ribosomes, lac mRNA formation was increased 4- to 6-fold by the addition of washed ribosomes. The formation of β-galactosidase mRNA and enzyme showed very different dependency on added ribosomes. Enzyme was formed in proportion to the number of ribosomes added, whereas 10% of the standard level of ribosomes promoted full levels of transcription. Consistent with their action in vivo, chloramphenicol and erythromycin blocked the ribosome-dependent lac transcription. The same inhibition was seen with RNA pulse-labeled for 1 or 5 min, so that the effect was truly a blockage of formation rather than an increased hyperlability of nascent mRNA. The effect was specified for some RNA species, as it is in vivo: phage λ N gene transcription was increased rather than inhibited in the presence of chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol did not stop lac transcription as a result of its blockage of formation of the regulatory nucleotide tetraphosphate (ppGpp), because addition of the nucleotide did not restore mRNA formation in chloramphenicol-treated extracts. Rather, the data are consistent with the ideas that one or a few ribosomes moving closely behind RNA polymerase can prevent its arrest and that, when ribosome movement is blocked by chloramphenicol, the RNA polymerase is exposed to factors that provoke premature RNA chain termination. PMID:415305

  1. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of lac insects (Hemiptera: Kerriidae) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hang; Chen, Xiaoming; Feng, Ying; Yang, Hui; He, Rui; Zhang, Wenfeng; Yang, Zixiang

    2013-10-01

    Lac insects are commercial scale insects with high economic value. The combined molecular phylogeny of 20 lac insect populations was generated using elongation factor 1 alpha, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene loci. The 20 populations of lac insects clustered into four distinct clades supported by high bootstrap values in maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Clade A at the base of the dendrogram comprises Kerria ruralis and two populations of Kerria lacca and is the branch with most primitive species. Clade B includes K. lacca, Kerria sindica and the three populations P, V and Z from India. They clustered with high bootstrap support and have evolved later than those in Clade A. The three unidentified populations P, V and Z exhibited a close relationship with K. lacca and are the same species. In Clade C, three populations of Kerria yunnanensis (Ym, Yj and Yl), population Ys from Thailand and population H from India clustered as a group, in which population H clustered with Ym with 100 % bootstrap in all three analysis methods. In Clade D, Kerria chinensis, Kerria pusana and three populations of K. yunnanensis clustered together with strong support, and are located in the upper branches of the dendrogram and are recently evolved taxa. The majority of populations from the Indian subcontinent clade are more closely related to outgroup taxa from the primitive family Pseudococcidae, as compared to the Eurasian populations. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the Indian subcontinent is the centre of original of lac insects which have translocated to the Eurasian Continent. Based on the theory of continental drift and existing fossil records, it is suggested that lac insect evolved from ancient scale insects during the late Cretaceous period when the Indian subcontinent drifted towards the Eurasian Continent. Changes in the global environment have impacted on the distribution and evolution of lac insects during the mid-Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. With increasing temperatures lac insects are likely to translocate to subtropical areas. PMID:24078090

  2. Spin-coefficient formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Ezra Ted; Penrose, Roger

    2009-06-01

    The spin-coefficient formalism (SC formalism) (also known in the literature as Newman-Penrose formalism (NP formalism) ) is a commonly used technique based on the use of null tetrads, with ideas taken from 2-component spinors, for the detailed treatment of 4-dimensional space-times satisfying the equations of Einstein's theory of general relativity.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The CLASS BL Lac sample (Marcha+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcha, M. J. M.; Caccianiga, A.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a new sample of BL Lac objects selected from a deep (30mJy) radio survey of flat spectrum radio sources (the CLASS blazar survey). The sample is one of the largest well-defined samples in the low-power regime with a total of 130 sources of which 55 satisfy the 'classical' optical BL Lac selection criteria, and the rest have indistinguishable radio properties. The primary goal of this study is to establish the radio luminosity function (RLF) on firm statistical ground at low radio luminosities where previous samples have not been able to investigate. The gain of taking a peek at lower powers is the possibility to search for the flattening of the luminosity function which is a feature predicted by the beaming model but which has remained elusive to observational confirmation. In this study, we extend for the first time the BL Lac RLF down to very low radio powers ~1022W/Hz, i.e. two orders of magnitude below the RLF currently available in the literature. In the process, we confirm the importance of adopting a broader, and more physically meaningful set of classification criteria to avoid the systematic missing of low-luminosity BL Lacs. Thanks to the good statistics we confirm the existence of weak but significant positive cosmological evolution for the BL Lac population, and we detect, for the first time the flattening of the RLF at L~1025W/Hz in agreement with the predictions of the beaming model. (1 data file).

  4. Are many radio-selected BL Lacs radio quasars in disguise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Elia, V.; Padovani, P.; Giommi, P.; Turriziani, S.

    2015-06-01

    We show that a blazar classification in BL Lacs and flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) may not be adequate when it relies solely on the equivalent widths (EWs) of optical lines. In fact, depending on redshift, some strong emission lines can fall in the infrared window and be missed. We selected a sample of BL Lacs with firm redshift identification and good visibility from Paranal. We targeted with the X-shooter spectrograph the five BL Lacs with z > 0.7, i.e. those for which the H? line, one of the strongest among blazars, falls outside the optical window and determined the EW of emission lines in both the infrared and optical bands. Two out of five sources show an observed H? EW >5 (one has rest frame EW > 5 ) and could be classified as FSRQs by one of the classification schemes used in the literature. A third object is border-line with an observed EW of 4.4 0.5 . In all these cases, H? is the strongest emission line detected. The H? line of the other two blazars is not detected, but in one case it falls in a region strongly contaminated by sky lines and in the other one the spectrum is featureless. We conclude that a blazar classification based on EW width only can be inaccurate and may lead to an erroneous determination of blazar evolution. This effect is more severe for the BL Lac class, since FSRQs can be misclassified as BL Lacs especially at high redshifts (z > 0.7), where the latter are extremely rare.

  5. The Physics Analysis of a Gas Attenuator with Argon as a Working Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov,, D.D.

    2010-12-07

    A gas attenuator is an important element of the LCLS facility. The attenuator must operate in a broad range of x-ray energies, provide attenuation coefficient between 1 and 10{sup 4} with the accuracy of 1% and, at the same time, be reliable and allow for many months of un-interrupted operation. S. Shen has recently carried out a detailed design study of the attenuator based on the use of nitrogen as a working gas. In this note we assess the features of the attenuator based on the use of argon. We concentrate on the physics issues, not the design features.

  6. Generalized Reflection Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remling, Christian

    2015-07-01

    I consider general reflection coefficients for arbitrary one-dimensional whole line differential or difference operators of order 2. These reflection coefficients are semicontinuous functions of the operator: their absolute value can only go down when limits are taken. This implies a corresponding semicontinuity result for the absolutely continuous spectrum, which applies to a very large class of maps. In particular, we can consider shift maps (thus recovering and generalizing a result of Last-Simon) and flows of the Toda and KdV hierarchies (this is new). Finally, I evaluate an attempt at finding a similar general setup that gives the much stronger conclusion of reflectionless limit operators in more specialized situations.

  7. Use of EDTA in modified kinetic testing for contaminated drainage prediction from waste rocks: case of the Lac Tio mine.

    PubMed

    Plante, Benoît; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Bussière, Bruno; Kandji, El-Hadji-Babacar; Chopard, Aurélie; Bouzahzah, Hassan

    2015-05-01

    The tools developed for acid mine drainage (AMD) prediction were proven unsuccessful to predict the geochemical behavior of mine waste rocks having a significant chemical sorption capacity, which delays the onset of contaminated neutral drainage (CND). The present work was performed in order to test a new approach of water quality prediction, by using a chelating agent solution (0.03 M EDTA, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in kinetic testing used for the prediction of the geochemical behavior of geologic material. The hypothesis underlying the proposed approach is that the EDTA solution should chelate the metals as soon as they are released by sulfide oxidation, inhibiting their sorption or secondary precipitation, and therefore reproduce a worst-case scenario where very low metal attenuation mechanisms are present in the drainage waters. Fresh and weathered waste rocks from the Lac Tio mine (Rio tinto, Iron and Titanium), which are known to generate Ni-CND at the field scale, were submitted to small-scale humidity cells in control tests (using deionized water) and using an EDTA solution. Results show that EDTA effectively prevents the metals to be sorbed or to precipitate as secondary minerals, therefore enabling to bypass the delay associated with metal sorption in the prediction of water quality from these materials. This work shows that the use of a chelating agent solution is a promising novel approach of water quality prediction and provides general guidelines to be used in further studies, which will help both practitioners and regulators to plan more efficient management and disposal strategies of mine wastes. PMID:25604563

  8. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.

    2009-11-10

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  9. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  10. Poly-LacNAc as an Age-Specific Ligand for Rotavirus P[11] in Neonates and Infants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Huang, Pengwei; Jiang, Baoming; Tan, Ming; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Jiang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) P[11] is an unique genotype that infects neonates. The mechanism of such age-specific host restriction remains unknown. In this study, we explored host mucosal glycans as a potential age-specific factor for attachment of P[11] RVs. Using in vitro binding assays, we demonstrated that VP8* of a P[11] RV (N155) could bind saliva of infants (60.3%, N?=?151) but not of adults (0%, N?=?48), with a significantly negative correlation between binding of VP8* and ages of infants (P<0.01). Recognition to the infant saliva did not correlate with the ABO, secretor and Lewis histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) but with the binding of the lectin Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA) that is known to recognize the oligomers of N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc), a precursor of human HBGAs. Direct evidence of LacNAc involvement in P[11] binding was obtained from specific binding of VP8* with homopolymers of LacNAc in variable lengths through a glycan array analysis of 611 glycans. These results were confirmed by strong binding of VP8* to the Lec2 cell line that expresses LacNAc oligomers but not to the Lec8 cell line lacking the LacNAc. In addition, N155 VP8* and authentic P[11] RVs (human 116E and bovine B223) hemagglutinated human red blood cells that are known to express poly-LacNAc. The potential role of poly-LacNAc in host attachment and infection of RVs has been obtained by abrogation of 116E replication by the PAA-conjugated poly-LacNAc, human milk, and LEA positive infant saliva. Overall, our results suggested that the poly-LacNAc could serve as an age-specific receptor for P[11] RVs and well explained the epidemiology that P[11] RVs mainly infect neonates and young children. PMID:24244290

  11. Measurement of Ligand-Induced Activation in Single Viable T Cells Using the lacZ Reporter Gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karttunen, Jaana; Shastri, Nilabh

    1991-05-01

    We have used the bacterial ?-galactosidase gene (lacZ) as a reporter gene for the rapid measurement of T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of individual T cells. The reporter construct contained the lacZ gene under the control of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) element of the human interleukin 2 enhancer [Fiering, S., Northrop, J. P., Nolan, G. P., Matilla, P., Crabtree, G. R. & Herzenberg, L. A. (1990) Genes Dev. 4, 1823-1834]. The activity of the intracellular lacZ enzyme was analyzed by flow cytometric measurement of fluorescein accumulation in cells loaded with the fluorogenic ?-galactosidase substrate fluorescein di-?-D-galactopyranoside. As a model system, the T-cell hybridoma BO4H9.1, which is specific for the lysozyme peptide (amino acids 74-88)/A^b complex, was transfected with the NF-AT-lacZ construct. lacZ activity was induced in 50-100% of the transfectant cells following exposure to pharmacological agents, to the physiological peptide/major histocompatibility complex ligand, or to other TCR-specific stimuli. Interestingly, increasing concentrations of the stimulus increased the fraction of lacZ^+ cells, but not the level of lacZ activity per cell. Even under widely varying levels of stimulus, the level of lacZ activity in individual lacZ^+ cells remained within a remarkably narrow range. These results demonstrate that TCR-mediated activation can be readily measured in single T cells and strongly suggest that, once committed to activation, the level of NF-AT transcriptional activity in individual T cells is independent of the form or concentration of stimulus. This assay is likely to prove useful for the study of early activation events in individual T cells and of TCR ligands.

  12. Measurement of ligand-induced activation in single viable T cells using the lacZ reporter gene.

    PubMed Central

    Karttunen, J; Shastri, N

    1991-01-01

    We have used the bacterial beta-galactosidase gene (lacZ) as a reporter gene for the rapid measurement of T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of individual T cells. The reporter construct contained the lacZ gene under the control of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) element of the human interleukin 2 enhancer [Fiering, S., Northrop, J. P., Nolan, G. P., Matilla, P., Crabtree, G. R. & Herzenberg, L. A. (1990) Genes Dev. 4, 1823-1834]. The activity of the intracellular lacZ enzyme was analyzed by flow cytometric measurement of fluorescein accumulation in cells loaded with the fluorogenic beta-galactosidase substrate fluorescein di-beta-D-galactopyranoside. As a model system, the T-cell hybridoma BO4H9.1, which is specific for the lysozyme peptide (amino acids 74-88)/Ab complex, was transfected with the NF-AT-lacZ construct. lacZ activity was induced in 50-100% of the transfectant cells following exposure to pharmacological agents, to the physiological peptide/major histocompatibility complex ligand, or to other TCR-specific stimuli. Interestingly, increasing concentrations of the stimulus increased the fraction of lacZ+ cells, but not the level of lacZ activity per cell. Even under widely varying levels of stimulus, the level of lacZ activity in individual lacZ+ cells remained within a remarkably narrow range. These results demonstrate that TCR-mediated activation can be readily measured in single T cells and strongly suggest that, once committed to activation, the level of NF-AT transcriptional activity in individual T cells is independent of the form or concentration of stimulus. This assay is likely to prove useful for the study of early activation events in individual T cells and of TCR ligands. PMID:1902576

  13. Spatial and seasonal variation in wave attenuation over Zostera noltii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, M.; Amos, C. L.

    2011-08-01

    Wave attenuation is a recognized function of sea grass ecosystems which is believed to depend on plant characteristics. This paper presents field data on wave attenuance collected over a 13 month period in a Zostera noltii meadow. The meadow showed a strong seasonality with high shoot densities in summer (approximately 4,600 shoots/m2) and low densities in winter (approximately 600 shoots/m2). Wave heights and flow velocities were measured along a transect at regular intervals during which the site was exposed to wind waves and boat wakes that differ in wave period and steepness. This difference was used to investigate whether wave attenuation by sea grass changes with hydrodynamic conditions. A seasonal change in wave attenuation was observed from the data. Results suggest that a minimum shoot density is necessary to initiate wave attenuation by sea grass. Additionally, a dependence of wave attenuation on hydrodynamics was found. Results suggest that the threshold shoot density varies with wave period and a change in energy dissipation toward the shore was observed once this threshold was exceeded. An attempt was made to quantify the bed roughness of the meadow; the applicability of this roughness value in swaying vegetation is discussed. Finally, the drag coefficient for the meadow was computed: A relationship between wave attenuance and vegetation Reynolds number was found which allows comparing the wave attenuating effect of Zostera noltii to other plant species.

  14. Use of Urea and Glycine Betaine to Quantify Coupled Folding and Probe the Burial of DNA Phosphates in Lac Repressor Lac Operator Binding

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiang; Capp, Mike W.; Saecker, Ruth M.; Record, M. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of urea-biopolymer interactions and urea effects on folding of proteins and ?-helical peptides shows that urea interacts primarily with polar amide surface. Urea is therefore predicted to be a quantitative probe of coupled folding, remodeling and other large-scale changes in the amount of water-accessible polar amide surface in protein processes. A parallel analysis indicates that glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethyl glycine; GB) can be used to detect burial or exposure of anionic (carboxylate, phosphate) biopolymer surface. To test these predictions, we have investigated the effects of these solutes (0 to 3 molal) on the formation of 1:1 complexes between lac repressor (LacI) and its symmetric operator site (SymL) at constant KCl molality. Urea reduces the binding constant KTO (initial slope dln KTO/dmurea = ?1.7 0.2) and GB increases KTO (initial slope dln KTO/dmGB = + 2.1 0.2). For both solutes, this derivative decreases with increasing solute concentration. Analysis of these initial slopes predicts that (1.5 0.3) 103 2 of polar amide surface and (4.5 1.0) 102 2 of anionic surface are buried in the association process. Analysis of published structural data, together with modeling of unfolded regions of free LacI as extended chains, indicates that 1.5 103 2 of polar amide surface and 6.3 102 2 of anionic surface are buried in complexation. Quantitative agreement between structural and thermodynamic results is obtained for amide surface (urea); for anionic surface (GB), the experimental value is ~70% of the structural value. For LacI-SymL binding, two thirds of the structurally-predicted change in amide surface (1.0 103 2) occurs outside the protein-DNA interface in protein-protein interfaces formed by folding of the hinge helices and interactions of the DNA binding domain (DBD) with the core of repressor. Since urea interacts principally with amide surface, it is particularly well-suited to detect and quantify the extent of coupled folding and other large-scale remodeling events in the steps of protein-nucleic acid interactions and other protein associations. PMID:16363803

  15. Regulation of nitrogen fixation in Klebsiella pneumoniae: isolation and characterization of strains with nif-lac fusions.

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, D; Zhu, J; Brill, W J

    1981-01-01

    Strains with lac fused to each of the seven nif operons were isolated by two different methods. Repressing conditions prevented expression of all nif operons, whereas derepressing conditions led to the expression of all nif operons. No differences in Nif regulation were observed between Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with the same nif-lac fusions. Most derivatives of nif-lac fusion strains selected on lactose and NH4+ contained nif operator mutations. Some derivative contained deletions, which establishes that the direction of transcription of all seven nif operons is toward his Images PMID:7007318

  16. Properties of sound attenuation around a two-dimensional underwater vehicle with a large cavitation number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Peng-Cheng; Pan, Guang

    2015-06-01

    Due to the high speed of underwater vehicles, cavitation is generated inevitably along with the sound attenuation when the sound signal traverses through the cavity region around the underwater vehicle. The linear wave propagation is studied to obtain the influence of bubbly liquid on the acoustic wave propagation in the cavity region. The sound attenuation coefficient and the sound speed formula of the bubbly liquid are presented. Based on the sound attenuation coefficients with various vapor volume fractions, the attenuation of sound intensity is calculated under large cavitation number conditions. The result shows that the sound intensity attenuation is fairly small in a certain condition. Consequently, the intensity attenuation can be neglected in engineering. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51279165 and 51479170) and the National Defense Basic Scientific Research Program of China (Grant No. B2720133014).

  17. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  18. X-Ray Attenuation and Absorption for Materials of Dosimetric Interest

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 126 X-Ray Attenuation and Absorption for Materials of Dosimetric Interest (Web, free access)   Tables and graphs of the photon mass attenuation coefficient and the mass energy-absorption coefficient are presented for all of the elements Z = 1 to 92, and for 48 compounds and mixtures of radiological interest. The tables cover energies of the photon (x-ray, gamma ray, bremsstrahlung) from 1 keV to 20 MeV.

  19. Quantitative approaches to the study of bistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Santilln, Moiss; Mackey, Michael C

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, the history and importance of the lac operon in the development of molecular and systems biology are briefly reviewed. We start by presenting a description of the regulatory mechanisms in this operon, taking into account the most recent discoveries. Then we offer a survey of the history of the lac operon, including the discovery of its main elements and the subsequent influence on the development of molecular and systems biology. Next the bistable behaviour of the operon is discussed, both with respect to its discovery and its molecular origin. A review of the literature in which this bistable phenomenon has been studied from a mathematical modelling viewpoint is then given. We conclude with some brief remarks. PMID:18426771

  20. Flexibility and Disorder in Gene Regulation: LacI/GalR and Hox Proteins.

    PubMed

    Bondos, Sarah E; Swint-Kruse, Liskin; Matthews, Kathleen S

    2015-10-01

    To modulate transcription, a variety of input signals must be sensed by genetic regulatory proteins. In these proteins, flexibility and disorder are emerging as common themes. Prokaryotic regulators generally have short, flexible segments, whereas eukaryotic regulators have extended regions that lack predicted secondary structure (intrinsic disorder). Two examples illustrate the impact of flexibility and disorder on gene regulation: the prokaryotic LacI/GalR family, with detailed information from studies on LacI, and the eukaryotic family of Hox proteins, with specific insights from investigations of Ultrabithorax (Ubx). The widespread importance of structural disorder in gene regulatory proteins may derive from the need for flexibility in signal response and, particularly in eukaryotes, in protein partner selection. PMID:26342073

  1. Differential expression of lacZ in the liver and kidney of transgenic mice carrying chimeric lacZ-erythropoietin gene constructs with or without its 1.2 kb 3'-flanking sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Haidar, M A; Loya, F; Yang, Y; Lin, H; Glassman, A; Keating, M J; Goldwasser, E; Albitar, M

    1996-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) plays a key role in erythropoiesis and is expressed predominantly in the fetal liver and in the adult kidney. The EPO gene is up-regulated at the transcriptional level under hypoxic/anemic conditions. We studied the role of the 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences of the mouse EPO gene in its tissue-specific and hypoxia-induced expression by developing transgenic mouse lines carrying chimeric EPO-lacZ gene constructs. Transgenic mice carrying a 6.5 kb segment of the 5'-sequence and most of the EPO gene in which lacZ was substituted for exon 1 (5'-lacZ-EPO) demonstrated induction of lacZ expression following hypoxia/ anemia induction in both the liver and kidney of adult mice. However, transgenic mice carrying the above construct along with the 1.2 kb 3'-flanking sequence (5'-lacZ-EPO-3') showed a high level of lacZ expression following hypoxia/anemia induction in adult kidney but not in adult liver. With the aim of further understanding the role of the 3'-flanking sequence in tissue-specific expression of the EPO gene, we studied the interactions of protein factors with this 1.2 kb 3' region and demonstrated that multiple sets of protein factors interact tissue specifically with a 10 bp sequence, TCAAAGATGG, located downstream of the previously characterized 3' hypoxia-responsive enhancer element. PMID:8836192

  2. Modeling, evaluation, and asymptotic analysis of attenuation anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekar, Bharath Chandra

    Seismic attenuation is sensitive to the physical properties of the subsurface, which makes attenuation analysis a useful tool for reservoir characterization. In this thesis, I present algorithms for estimating directionally dependent attenuation coefficients and perform asymptotic and numerical analysis of wave propagation in attenuative anisotropic media. First, I introduce a methodology to estimate the S-wave interval attenuation coefficient by extending the layer-stripping method of Behura and Tsvankin (2009) to mode-converted (PS) waves. Kinematic reconstruction of pure shear (SS) events in the target layer and the overburden is performed by combining velocity-independent layer stripping with the PP+PS=SS method. Then, application of the spectral-ratio method and the dynamic version of velocity-independent layer stripping to the constructed SS reflections yields the S-wave interval attenuation coefficient in the target layer. The attenuation coefficient estimated for a range of source-receiver offsets can be inverted for the interval attenuation-anisotropy parameters. The method is tested on synthetic data generated with the anisotropic reflectivity method for layered VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media and vertical symmetry planes of orthorhombic media. Then, I analyze a cross-hole data set generated by perforation shots set off in a horizontal borehole to induce hydraulic fracturing in a tight gas reservoir. The spectral-ratio method is applied to pairs of traces to set up a system of equations for directionally-dependent effective attenuation. Although the inversion provides clear evidence of attenuation anisotropy, the narrow range of propagation directions impairs the accuracy of anisotropy analysis. The observed variations of the attenuation coefficient between different perforation stages appear to be related to changes in the medium due to hydraulic fracturing and stimulation. Important insights into point-source radiation in attenuative anisotropic media can be gained by applying asymptotic methods. I derive the asymptotic Green's function in homogeneous, attenuative, arbitrarily anisotropic media using the steepest-descent method. The saddle-point condition helps describe the behavior of the far field slowness and group-velocity vectors and evaluate the inhomogeneity angle (the angle between the real and imaginary parts of the slowness vector). The results from the asymptotic analysis are compared with those from the ray-perturbation method for P-waves in TI media. Finally, I address the problem of efficient viscoelastic modeling in heterogeneous anisotropic media. The Kirchhoff scattering integral is employed to generate reflected P-waves, with the required Green's functions computed by summation of Gaussian beams. The influence of attenuation on the Gaussian beams is incorporated using ray-perturbation theory. The method is applied to generate synthetic data from a highly attenuative VTI medium above a horizontal reflector and a structurally complex acoustic model with a salt body.

  3. Influence of Catabolite Repression and Inducer Exclusion on the Bistable Behavior of the lac Operon

    PubMed Central

    Santilln, Moiss; Mackey, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model of the lac operon which includes all of the known regulatory mechanisms, including external-glucose-dependent catabolite repression and inducer exclusion, as well as the time delays inherent to transcription and translation, is presented. With this model we investigate the influence of external glucose, by means of catabolite repression and the regulation of lactose uptake, on the bistable behavior of this system. PMID:14990461

  4. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis genomic lacZ fusions induced during partial purine starvation.

    PubMed Central

    Saxild, H H; Jensen, C L; Hubrechts, P; Hammer, K

    1994-01-01

    Random genomic Bacillus subtilis lacZ fusions were screened in order to identify the possible existence of regulons responding to the stimuli generated by partial purine starvation. A leaky pur mutation (purL8) was isolated and used to generate the partial purine starvation conditions in the host strain used for screening. On the basis of their induction during partial purine starvation, seven genomic lacZ fusions were isolated. None of the fusions map in loci previously reported to contain purine-regulated genes. One fusion maps very close to the citB locus and may very well be a citB fusion. The fusions were divided into two types on the basis of their response to complete starvation for either ATP or GTP or both components at the same time. Except for one, type 2 fusions were induced by specific starvation for ATP and by simultaneous starvation for ATP and GTP, but not by specific GTP starvation in a gua strain or by GTP starvation induced by the addition of decoyinine. Type 1 fusions were equally well induced by all three kinds of purine starvation including GTP starvation induced by decoyinine. Further subdivisions of the fusions were obtained on the basis of their responses to the spo0A gene product. A total of five fusions showed that spo0A affected expression. One class was unable to induce lacZ expression in the absence of the spo0A gene product, whereas the other class had increased lacZ expression during partial purine starvation in a spo0A background. PMID:8288519

  5. Model for the possible origin of anorthosite-syenite associations like the Laramie anorthosite complex (lac)

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsley, D.H.; Kolker, A.; Fuhrman, M.; Frost, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Proterozoic massif anorthosites (ANT) have several unique attributes. Compared to typical tholeiitic layered mafic intrusions, they are distinctly evolved, with low mg numbers and high Ab/An ratios, and are also more potassic, with 1-2 wt% K/sub 2/O - 5-10% normative Or that occurs as antiperthite. They are closely associated in time and space with still more potassic rocks (MSY: monzonites, syenites, mangerites, etc.) considered by some to be comagmatic with the ANT and by others to be partial melts of the country rock. If the MSY are comagmatic, the parent magma is must be relatively potassic. Such a magma might pond and fractionate at the base of thin continental crust, with olivines and pyroxenes sinking and plagioclase floating, thereby depleting the magma in Mg and Eu. Crystal mushes of plagioclase would then intrude the crust diapirically to depths of 8-15 km, forming ANT. With continued fractionation the K- and Fe-enriched liquid would begin crystallizing ternary feldspars (as found at LAC); these too would float, forming crystal mushes (MSY) that would rise diapirically and intrude the ANT. The cumulate MSY would have no Eu anomaly (or a small positive one) as found at LAC; the liquid would have a strong negative Eu anomaly. Some contamination of the MSY suite by partial melts from the country rock is likely. This model can explain the virtual continuum in mineral compositions from ANT to MSY reported for LAC by Fuhrman and others (this volume). Parent magmas might be trachyandesitic; another candidate is the biotite gabbro found throughout the LAC.

  6. The variable V381 Lac and its possible connection with the R CrB phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, C.; Dell'Agli, F.; Di Paola, A.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Nesci, R.

    2016-03-01

    We have performed new medium resolution spectroscopy, optical and near-infrared photometry to monitor the variability of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon star V 381 Lac. Our observations revealed rapid and deep changes in the spectrum and extreme variability in the optical and near-infrared bands. Most notably we observed the change of Na I D lines from deep absorption to emission, and the progressive growing of the [N II] doublet 6548-6584 Å emission, strongly related to the simultaneous photometric fading. V381 Lac occupies regions of Two Micron All-Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer colour-colour diagrams typical of stars with dust formation in the envelope. The general framework emerging from the observations of V381 Lac is that of a cool AGB carbon star undergoing episodes of high mass ejection and severe occultation of the stellar photosphere reminiscent of those characterizing the RCB phenomenon. Comparing the spectral energy distribution obtained with the theoretical model for AGB evolution with dust in the circumstellar envelope, we can identify V381 Lac as the descendant of a star of initial mass ˜2 M⊙, in the final AGB phases, evolved into a carbon star by repeated Third Dredge Up episodes. According to our model, the star is moderately obscured (τ10 ˜ 0.22) by dust, mainly formed by amorphous carbon (˜80 per cent) and SiC (˜20 per cent), with dust grain dimensions around ˜0.2 and 0.08 μm, respectively.

  7. Contemporaneous Broadband Observations of Three High-redshift BL LAC Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; An, H.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonino, R.; Bregeon, J.; Britto, R. J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Costanza, F.; Cutini, S.; D’Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Domínguez, A.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Finke, J.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Horan, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; Katsuragawa, M.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mirabal, N.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okada, C.; Orlando, E.; Paneque, D.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, O.; Rau, A.; Romani, R. W.; Schady, P.; Sgrò, C.; Simone, D.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stern, D.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.

    2016-03-01

    We have collected broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three BL Lac objects 3FGL J0022.1‑1855 (z = 0.689), 3FGL J0630.9‑2406 (z\\quad ≳ 1.239), and 3FGL J0811.2‑7529 (z = 0.774), detected by Fermi with relatively flat gigaelectronvolt spectra. By observing simultaneously in the near-infrared to hard X-ray band, we can well characterize the high end of the synchrotron component of the SED. Thus, fitting the SEDs to synchro-Compton models of the dominant emission from the relativistic jet, we can constrain the underlying particle properties and predict the shape of the gigaelectronvolt Compton component. Standard extragalactic background light (EBL) models explain the high-energy absorption well, with poorer fits for high-ultraviolet models. The fits show clear evidence for EBL absorption in the Fermi spectrum of our highest-redshift source 3FGL J0630.9‑2406. While synchrotron self-Compton models adequately describe the SEDs, the situation may be complicated by possible external Compton components. For 3FGL J0811.2‑7529, we also discover a nearby serendipitous source in the X-ray data, which is almost certainly another lower synchrotron peak frequency ({ν }{{pk}}{{sy}}) BL Lac, that may contribute flux in the Fermi band. Since our sources are unusual high-luminosity, moderate {ν }{{pk}}{{sy}} BL Lacs, we compare these quantities and the Compton dominance, the ratio of peak inverse Compton to peak synchrotron luminosities ({L}{{pk}}{{IC}}/{L}{{pk}}{{sy}}), with those of the full Fermi BL Lac population.

  8. DNA looping increases the range of bistability in a stochastic model of the lac genetic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earnest, Tyler M.; Roberts, Elijah; Assaf, Michael; Dahmen, Karin; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2013-04-01

    Conditions and parameters affecting the range of bistability of the lac genetic switch in Escherichia coli are examined for a model which includes DNA looping interactions with the lac repressor and a lactose analogue. This stochastic gene-mRNA-protein model of the lac switch describes DNA looping using a third transcriptional state. We exploit the fast bursting dynamics of mRNA by combining a novel geometric burst extension with the finite state projection method. This limits the number of protein/mRNA states, allowing for an accelerated search of the model's parameter space. We evaluate how the addition of the third state changes the bistability properties of the model and find a critical region of parameter space where the phenotypic switching occurs in a range seen in single molecule fluorescence studies. Stochastic simulations show induction in the looping model is preceded by a rare complete dissociation of the loop followed by an immediate burst of mRNA rather than a slower build up of mRNA as in the two-state model. The overall effect of the looped state is to allow for faster switching times while at the same time further differentiating the uninduced and induced phenotypes. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters are consistent with free energies derived from thermodynamic studies suggesting that this minimal model of DNA looping could have a broader range of application.

  9. Ultrafast force-clamp spectroscopy to probe lac repressor-DNA interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monico, Carina; Capitanio, Marco; Belcastro, Gionata; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2013-06-01

    We recently developed an ultrafast force-clamp laser trap capable to probe, under controlled force, bimolecular interactions with unprecedented temporal resolution. Here we present the technique in the framework of protein-DNA interactions, specifically on Lactose repressor protein (LacI). The high temporal resolution of the method reveals the kinetics of both short- and long-lived interactions of LacI along the DNA template (from ˜100 μs to tens of seconds), as well the dependence on force of such interaction kinetics. The two kinetically well-distinct populations of interactions observed clearly represent specific interactions with the operator sequences and a fast scanning of LacI along non-cognate DNA. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method to study the sequence-dependent affinity of DNA-binding proteins along the DNA and the effects of force on a wide range of interaction durations, including μs time scales not accessible to other single-molecule methods. This improvement in time resolution provides also important means of investigation on the long-puzzled mechanism of target search on DNA and possible protein conformational changes occurring upon target recognition.

  10. X-Ray Spectral Variability Signatures of Flares in BL Lac Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettcher, Markus; Chiang, James; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We are presenting a detailed parameter study of the time-dependent electron injection and kinematics and the self-consistent radiation transport in jets of intermediate and low-frequency peaked BL Lac objects. Using a time-dependent, combined synchrotron-self-Compton and external-Compton jet model, we study the influence of variations of several essential model parameters, such as the electron injection compactness, the relative contribution of synchrotron to external soft photons to the soft photon compactness, the electron- injection spectral index, and the details of the time profiles of the electron injection episodes giving rise to flaring activity. In the analysis of our results, we focus on the expected X-ray spectral variability signatures in a region of parameter space particularly well suited to reproduce the broadband spectral energy distributions of intermediate and low-frequency peaked BL Lac objects. We demonstrate that SSC- and external-Compton dominated models for the gamma-ray emission from blazars are producing significantly different signatures in the X-ray variability, in particular in the soft X-ray light curves and the spectral hysteresis at soft X-ray energies, which can be used as a powerful diagnostic to unveil the nature of the high-energy emission from BL Lac objects.

  11. Monzonites (MZ) and monzosyenites (MSY) associated with the Laramie anorthoside complex (LAC), Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrman, M.; Kolker, A.; Lindsley, D.H.; Frost, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between Proterozoic massif anorthosites and the associated syenitic rocks remains controversial. Unlike most such complexes, the LAC is unmetamorphosed and hence is ideally suited to petrologic and geochemical tests of a possible comagmatic origin. The authors detailed mapping and petrologic studies of the MZ and MSY show that these rocks were nearly anhydrous and crystallized at 3-5 kbar, 950-1050/sup 0/C, and oxygen fugacities several log units below FMQ buffer. They intrude the anorthosite, although the radiometric ages are identical within error. They have found strong petrologic evidence for a close genetic relationship between the anorthositic rocks and the MZ and MSY: mineral-chemical trends - as expressed by feldspars; augites, and low-Ca pyroxenes - are virtually continuous from the anorthosite through MZ to MSY. In contrast, recent geochemical studies of the LAC indicate that the MSY cannot represent a liquid complementary to the anorthosite. Their studies suggest a possible explanation: the MSY, like the anorthosite, may be a cumulate rather than a liquid. Fine-grained MZ that forms a border facies of the MSY probably represents a liquid. The authors are also considering several other highly evolved units as possible liquids residual to the MSY; such liquids should show strong negative Eu anomalies. Rare-earth studies on the fine-grained MZ and on other rocks are under way. A model for the possible comagmatic formation of the LAC is given by Lindsley and others.

  12. 'Muprints' of the lac operon demonstrate physiological control over the randomness of in vivo transposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Higgins, N P

    1994-05-01

    A method called Muprinting has been developed that uses PCR to generate a detailed picture of the bacteriophage Mu transposition sites in chosen domains of the bacterial chromosome. Muprinting experiments in Escherichia coli show that the frequency of phage integration changes dramatically near two repressor binding sites in the lac operon. When the lac operon was repressed, hotspots for Mu transposition were found near the O1 and O2 operators that are proposed to make a repression loop. When cells were grown in lactose, Mu transposition near these operators was greatly diminished. Striking changes in transposition frequencies were limited to the control region and were not found in a region of the lacZ gene lying beyond the O2 operator. Muprints of the bgl operon showed a different pattern; hotspots for Mu transposition detected in sequences upstream of the bglC promoter when the operon was silenced changed when the operon became activated by mutation. By targeting transposition to the regulatory regions around non-expressed genes, Mu may demonstrate a self-restraint mechanism that allows the virus to move through its host genome without disrupting the functions that contribute to a healthy cell physiology. PMID:7934890

  13. The use of lacZ marker in enumeration of Azotobacter chroococcum in carrier based inoculants.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Manu; Garg, Faquir C

    2014-01-01

    A transconjugant of Azotobacter chroococcum Mac 27 tagged with lac Z(A. chroococcum Mac27 L) was found to possess high levels of ?-galactosidase activity constitutively. Further, the lac Z marker was found to be stably integrated into the chromosome of the A. chroococcum Mac 27 and did not have any adverse effect on growth, nitrogen fixation and excretion of ammonia. A quick method to determine the viable cell number in broth culture and carrier based inoculants has been developed on the basis of ?-galactosidase assay. It was found that there was a direct relationship between the number of cell as determined by standard plate count and intensity of colour that developed upon degradation of ONPG due to ?-galactosidase activity. The method was found to be sensitive enough to determine 1.7 10(6) CFU mL(-1) in broth culture as well as carrier based Azotobacter inoculants. Further, it was observed that when A. chroococcum Mac27 L was inoculated on Brassica campestris, it could be detected in the presence of other bacteria capable of growing on Burks agar medium containing X-gal on the basis of lac Z genetic marker. PMID:25242946

  14. Color Variations of Two Blazars: BL Lac and PKS 0736+017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.

    2002-12-01

    Multi-night campaigns to monitor sources for microvariability were undertaken in the summer of 1997 for BL Lac and in early 2002 for PKS 0736+017. BL Lac was observed at Rosemary Hill Observatory in Bronson, Florida and PKS 0736+017 was observed with the SARA telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona. Both sources underwent dramatic flares and exhibited substantial microvariability. During each campaign, the source was observed alternately through V and R filters so that color variations could be monitored as well. The most commonly reported behavior for such objects is that they become redder when fainter. This is observed in the BL Lac data. These data do not indicate that the point source varies in color however. Instead, they support the notion that the underlying host galaxy contributes a larger fraction of the total flux when the source is faint than when it is bright. More unusual was the observation that PKS 0736+017 was observed to be redder when brighter. The data support the notion that the observed color variation may be related more to the nature of the variation (flaring, subsiding, or quiescent) than to the flux level.

  15. STRUCTURED JETS IN BL LAC OBJECTS: EFFICIENT PeV NEUTRINO FACTORIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Guetta, Dafne

    2014-09-20

    The origin of high-energy neutrinos (0.1–1 PeV range) detected by IceCube remains a mystery. In this work, we explore the possibility that efficient neutrino production can occur in structured jets of BL Lac objects, characterized by a fast inner spine surrounded by a slower layer. This scenario has been widely discussed in the framework of the high-energy emission models for BL Lac objects and radio galaxies. One of the relevant consequences of a velocity structure is the enhancement of the inverse Compton emission caused by the radiative coupling of the two zones. We show that a similar boosting could occur for the neutrino output of the spine through the photo-meson reaction of high-energy protons scattering off the amplified soft target photon field of the layer. Assuming the local density and the cosmological evolution of γ-ray BL Lac object derived from Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we calculate the expected diffuse neutrino intensity, which can match the IceCube data for a reasonable choice of parameters.

  16. The use of lacZ marker in enumeration of Azotobacter chroococcum in carrier based inoculants

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Manu; Garg, Faquir C.

    2014-01-01

    A transconjugant of Azotobacter chroococcum Mac 27 tagged with lac Z(A. chroococcum Mac27 L) was found to possess high levels of ?-galactosidase activity constitutively. Further, the lac Z marker was found to be stably integrated into the chromosome of the A. chroococcum Mac 27 and did not have any adverse effect on growth, nitrogen fixation and excretion of ammonia. A quick method to determine the viable cell number in broth culture and carrier based inoculants has been developed on the basis of ?-galactosidase assay. It was found that there was a direct relationship between the number of cell as determined by standard plate count and intensity of colour that developed upon degradation of ONPG due to ?-galactosidase activity. The method was found to be sensitive enough to determine 1.7 106 CFU mL?1 in broth culture as well as carrier based Azotobacter inoculants. Further, it was observed that when A. chroococcum Mac27 L was inoculated on Brassica campestris, it could be detected in the presence of other bacteria capable of growing on Burks agar medium containing X-gal on the basis of lac Z genetic marker. PMID:25242946

  17. UVB-induced mutagenesis in hairless {lambda}lacZ-transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Frijhoff, A.F.W.; Rebel, H.; Mientjes, E.J.

    1997-06-01

    UVB-induced mutagenesis was studied in hairless 40.6 transgenic mice (Muta{trademark}Mouse), which contain the {lambda}gt1OlacZ shuttle vector as a target for mutagenesis. Mice were exposed at the dorsal side to either single doses of 200, 500, 800, or 1000 J/m{sup 2} UVB or to two successive irradiations of either 200 and 800 J/m{sup 2} UVB, with intervals of 1,3, or 5 days, or to 800 and 200 J/m{sup 2} UVB with a 5-day interval. At 23 days after the last exposure, lacZ mutant frequencies (MF) were determined in the epidermis. The lacZ MF increased linearly with increasing dose of UVB. The mutagenic effect of two successive irradiations appeared to be additive. The UV-induced mutation spectrum was dominated by G:C{r_arrow}A:T transitions at dipyrimidine sites. DNA-sequence analysis of spontaneously mutated phages showed a diverse spectrum consisting of insertions, deletions and G:C {r_arrow} A:T transitions at CpG sites. the results indicate that the hairless {lambda}lacZ-transgenic mouse is a suitable in vivo model for studying UVB-induced mutations. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Sound dispersion and attenuation in the thickness direction of paper materials

    SciTech Connect

    Brodeur, P.H.; Hall, M.S.; Esworthy, C. )

    1993-10-01

    A through-transmission, dry-contact ultrasonic technique aimed at investigating sound propagation in the thickness direction of paper materials is presented. The method uses piezoelectric ceramic transducers immersed in fluid-filled rubber wheels. Thickness and longitudinal velocity are determined from time domain measurements for several commercial paper specimens between 40 and 1750 [mu]m. dispersion and attenuation are reported at frequencies up to 1.5 MHz. Dispersion is less than 10% between 0.25 and 1.25 MHz. Amplitude calculations are used to evaluate the attenuation coefficient versus the frequency. Using a nearly local form of the Kramers-Kronig relationships, the attenuation coefficient is also obtained from the phase information. By comparing the amplitude- and phase-determined attenuation coefficients, an apparent reflection coefficient is predicted. It is shown that the Kramers-Kronig relationships can be applied to papers thicker than 200 [mu]m under dry coupling conditions. The attenuation coefficient is inversely related to the elastic stiffness for homogeneous specimens. A linear relationship is observed between the attenuation loss and the thickness. The apparent reflection coefficient correlates to the apparent surface roughness of paper. 21 refs., 15 figs.

  19. Tunable active vibration attenuation using highly deformable dielectric elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junshi; Chen, Hualing; Li, Bo; McCoul, David; Pei, Qibing

    2015-11-01

    Subject to a voltage, dielectric elastomers (DEs) undergo large deformations, resulting in a wide array of applications in actuators and energy generators. In this paper, a novel potential application of DEs is presented that employs a DE as a vibration damper to achieve the vibration attenuation of a spring oscillator. Based on the developed model, the passive vibration control of the spring oscillator is investigated by utilizing the viscoelastic damping of the DE itself. Subsequently, the active vibration attenuation is studied by applying alternating oppositely-phased voltages at different frequencies, which applies to DEs with a relatively lower viscoelastic damping coefficient. In order to obtain a tunable and controllable vibration attenuation process, the corresponding desired voltage is calculated through the prescribed trend of stretch. The results indicate that the vibration attenuation can be tuned and specified by applying the calculated voltage.

  20. Attenuation Measurements of Cell Pellets Using Through Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadas, Justin; Greene, Claudia; Grygotis, Emma; Kuhn, Stephen; Mahlalela, Sanele; Newland, Tinisha; Ovutmen, Idil; Herd, Maria-Teresa

    2011-10-01

    A better understanding of differences in ultrasound tissue characteristics (such as speed of sound, attenuation, and backscatter coefficients) of benign compared to malignant cells could lead to improved cancer detection and diagnosis. A narrow band technique for measuring ultrasonic speed of sound and attenuation of small biological materials was developed and tested. Several mechanical improvements were made to the system to drastically improve alignment, allowing for accurate measurements of small cell pellets. Narrow band attenuation measurements were made first with tissue-mimicking phantoms and then with three different types of cell pellets: Chinese hamster ovary cells, healthy human prostate cells, and cancerous human prostate cells. Attenuation and speed of sound results for all three cell types, as well as the culture medium and tissue mimicking phantoms, are presented for a frequency range of 5 to 25 MHz.

  1. AlloRep: A Repository of Sequence, Structural and Mutagenesis Data for the LacI/GalR Transcription Regulators.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Filipa L; Parente, Daniel J; Shis, David L; Hessman, Jacob A; Chazelle, Allen; Bennett, Matthew R; Teichmann, Sarah A; Swint-Kruse, Liskin

    2016-02-22

    Protein families evolve functional variation by accumulating point mutations at functionally important amino acid positions. Homologs in the LacI/GalR family of transcription regulators have evolved to bind diverse DNA sequences and allosteric regulatory molecules. In addition to playing key roles in bacterial metabolism, these proteins have been widely used as a model family for benchmarking structural and functional prediction algorithms. We have collected manually curated sequence alignments for >3000 sequences, in vivo phenotypic and biochemical data for >5750 LacI/GalR mutational variants, and noncovalent residue contact networks for 65 LacI/GalR homolog structures. Using this rich data resource, we compared the noncovalent residue contact networks of the LacI/GalR subfamilies to design and experimentally validate an allosteric mutant of a synthetic LacI/GalR repressor for use in biotechnology. The AlloRep database (freely available at www.AlloRep.org) is a key resource for future evolutionary studies of LacI/GalR homologs and for benchmarking computational predictions of functional change. PMID:26410588

  2. Characterization of the mutational specificity of DNA cross-linking mutagens by the Lac+ reversion assay with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ohta, T; Ohmae, S; Yamaya, K; Kanemichi, Y; Tokishita, S; Yamagata, H

    2001-01-01

    The mutational specificities of DNA cross-linking compounds such as cisplatin, transplatin, carboplatin, mitomycin C, psoralen, and 8-methoxypsoralen were investigated in lacZ reversion assay systems of Escherichia coli. Tester strains were constructed by introducing the six kinds of F' plasmids (lacI-, lacZ461, and proAB+), each of which carries a different base-substitution mutation within the lacZ gene. Each of the six possible base-substitution mutations was assayed by Lac+ reversion. Cisplatin induced G.C-->A.T transitions and G.C-->T.A transversions, with the former predominating. Transplatin induced A.T-->G.C transitions in addition to G.C-->A.T transitions and G.C-->T.A. Carboplatin weakly induced G.C-->A.T transitions. On the other hand, mitomycin C induced only G.C-->T.A transversions, while psoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen reactivated with near-UV irradiation induced A.T-->G.C transitions preferentially. The Lac(+) reversion system was very convenient for rapidly determining mutational spectra. PMID:11406833

  3. Fluid dynamic bowtie attenuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Hermus, James

    2015-03-01

    Fluence field modulated CT allows for improvements in image quality and dose reduction. To date, only 1-D modulators have been proposed, the extension to 2-D modulation is difficult with solid-metal attenuation-based modulators. This work proposes to use liquids and gas to attenuate the x-ray beam which can be arrayed allowing for 2-D fluence modulation. The thickness of liquid and the pressure for a given path length of gas were determined that provided the same attenuation as 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Gaseous Xenon and liquid Iodine, Zinc Chloride, and Cerium Chloride were studied. Additionally, we performed some proof-of-concept experiments in which (1) a single cell of liquid was connected to a reservoir which allowed the liquid thickness to be modulated and (2) a 96 cell array was constructed in which the liquid thickness in each cell was adjusted manually. Liquid thickness varied as a function of kV and chemical composition, with Zinc Chloride allowing for the smallest thickness; 1.8, 2.25, 3, and 3.6 cm compensated for 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV respectively. The 96 cell Iodine attenuator allowed for a reduction in both dynamic range to the detector and scatter to primary ratio. Successful modulation of a single cell was performed at 0, 90, and 130 degrees using a simple piston/actuator. The thickness of liquids and the Xenon gas pressure seem logistically implementable within the constraints of CBCT and diagnostic CT systems.

  4. Coefficients of associated Legendre functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peasley, Q. D.

    1976-01-01

    The exact coefficients for the explicit forms of the associated Legendre functions Pm for integer values of m,n=0,1,2,...25 are presented in tabular form together with two cross-referenced listings of the zeroes for these functions rounded to five decimal places. The unfactored coefficients and the interger coefficients are presented in adjacent columns for each function. The greatest common factor and divisor have been removed and listed separately for the integer coefficients.

  5. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current modulation) without increasing peak variance. The 15-element piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator reduces dose by an average of 42%, and the perfect attenuator reduces dose by an average of 50%. Improvements in peak variance are several times larger than improvements in mean variance. Heuristic control eliminates the need for a prescan. For the piecewise-linear attenuator, the cost of heuristic control is an increase in dose of 9%. The proposed iterated WMV minimization produces results that are within a few percent of the true solution. Conclusions: Dynamic attenuators show potential for significant dose reduction. A wide class of dynamic attenuators can be accurately controlled using the described methods.

  6. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not require a priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current modulation) without increasing peak variance. The 15-element piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator reduces dose by an average of 42%, and the perfect attenuator reduces dose by an average of 50%. Improvements in peak variance are several times larger than improvements in mean variance. Heuristic control eliminates the need for a prescan. For the piecewise-linear attenuator, the cost of heuristic control is an increase in dose of 9%. The proposed iterated WMV minimization produces results that are within a few percent of the true solution. Conclusions: Dynamic attenuators show potential for significant dose reduction. A wide class of dynamic attenuators can be accurately controlled using the described methods. PMID:24877818

  7. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  8. SIMULTANEOUS BACKSCATTER AND ATTENUATION ESTIMATION USING A LEAST SQUARES METHOD WITH CONSTRAINTS

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kibo; Zagzebski, James A.; Hall, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Backscatter and attenuation variations are essential contrast mechanisms in ultrasound B-mode imaging. Emerging Quantitative Ultrasound methods extract and display absolute values of these tissue properties. However, in clinical applications, backscatter and attenuation parameters sometimes are not easily measured because of tissues inhomogeneities above the region of interest. We describe a least squares method (LSM) that fits the echo signal power spectra from a region of interest (ROI) to a 3-parameter tissue model that simultaneously yields estimates of attenuation losses and backscatter coefficients. To test the method, tissue-mimicking phantoms with backscatter and attenuation contrast as well as uniform phantoms were scanned with linear array transducers on a Siemens S2000. Attenuation and backscatter coefficients estimated by the LSM were compared with those derived using a reference phantom method (Yao et al. 1990). Results show that the LSM yields effective attenuation coefficients for uniform phantoms comparable to values derived using the reference phantom method. For layered phantoms exhibiting non-uniform backscatter, the LSM resulted in smaller attenuation estimation errors than the reference phantom method. Backscatter coefficients derived using the LSM were in excellent agreement with values obtained from laboratory measurements on test samples and with theory. The LSM is more immune to depth-dependent backscatter changes than commonly used reference phantom methods. PMID:21963038

  9. LacR mutations are frequently observed in Streptococcus intermedius and are responsible for increased intermedilysin production and virulence.

    PubMed

    Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Imaki, Hidenori; Masuda, Sachiko; Okamoto, Ayumi; Kim, Hyejin; Waite, Richard D; Whiley, Robert A; Kikuchi, Ken; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2013-09-01

    Streptococcus intermedius secretes a human-specific cytolysin, intermedilysin (ILY), which is considered to be the major virulence factor of this pathogen. We screened for a repressor of ily expression by using random gene disruption in a low-ILY-producing strain (PC574). Three independent high-ILY-producing colonies that had plasmid insertions within a gene that has high homology to lacR were isolated. Validation of these observations was achieved through disruption of lacR in strain PC574 with an erythromycin cassette, which also led to higher hemolytic activity, increased transcription of ily, and higher cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, compared to the parental strain. The direct binding of LacR within the ily promoter region was shown by a biotinylated DNA probe pulldown assay, and the amount of ILY secreted into the culture supernatant by PC574 cells was increased by adding lactose or galactose to the medium as a carbon source. Furthermore, we examined lacR nucleotide sequences and the hemolytic activity of 50 strains isolated from clinical infections and 7 strains isolated from dental plaque. Of the 50 strains isolated from infections, 13 showed high ILY production, 11 of these 13 strains had one or more point mutations and/or an insertion mutation in LacR, and almost all mutations were associated with a marked decline in LacR function. These results strongly suggest that mutation in lacR is required for the overproduction of ILY, which is associated with an increase in pathogenicity of S. intermedius. PMID:23798532

  10. Lyn-coupled LacCer-enriched lipid rafts are required for CD11b/CD18-mediated neutrophil phagocytosis of nonopsonized microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hitoshi; Yoshizaki, Fumiko; Prinetti, Alessandro; Sonnino, Sandro; Mauri, Laura; Takamori, Kenji; Ogawa, Hideoki; Iwabuchi, Kazuhisa

    2008-03-01

    The integrin CD11b/CD18 plays a central role in neutrophil phagocytosis. Although CD11b/CD18 binds a wide range of ligands, including C3bi and beta-glucan, and transmits outside-in signaling, the mechanism of this signaling responsible for phagocytosis remains obscure. Here, we report that lactosylceramide (LacCer)-enriched lipid rafts are required for CD11b/CD18-mediated phagocytosis of nonopsonized zymosans (NOZs) by human neutrophils. Anti-CD11b and anti-LacCer antibodies inhibited the binding of NOZs to neutrophils and the phagocytosis of NOZs. During phagocytosis of NOZ, CD11b and LacCer were accumulated and colocalized in the actin-enriched phagocytic cup regions. Immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that CD11b/CD18 was mobilized into the LacCer-enriched lipid rafts during phagocytosis of NOZs. DMSO-treated, neutrophil-like HL-60 cells (D-HL-60 cells) lacking Lyn-coupled, LacCer-mediated signaling showed little phagocytosis of NOZs. However, loading of D-HL-60 cells with C24 fatty acid chain-containing LacCer (C24-LacCer) reconstructed functional Lyn-associated, LacCer-enriched lipid rafts, and restored D-HL-60 cell NOZ phagocytic activity, which was inhibited by anti-LacCer and anti-CD11b antibodies. Lyn knockdown by small interfering RNA blocked the effect of C24:1-LacCer loading on D-HL-60 cell phagocytosis of NOZs. CD11b/CD18 activation experiments indicated phosphorylation of LacCer-associated Lyn by activation of CD11b. Taken together, these observations suggest that CD11b activation causes translocation of CD11b/CD18 into Lyn-coupled, LacCer-enriched lipid rafts, allowing neutrophils to phagocytose NOZs via CD11b/CD18. PMID:18055569

  11. Gamma and neutron attenuation properties of barite-cement mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picha, R.; Channuie, J.; Khaweerat, S.; Liamsuwan, T.; Promping, J.; Ratanatongchai, W.; Silva, K.; Wonglee, S.

    2015-05-01

    For the neutron radiography facility renovation plan at Thai Research Reactor, mixed barite-concrete blocks of different compositions were tested for their photon and neutron radiation attenuation properties. 60Co and 137Cs isotopes were used as the gamma sources; 241Am-Be was used as the neutron source. For detection, a scintillation counter and a BF3 tube were used. The intensities at various energies were measured and attenuation coefficients were calculated. Samples of barite mixture were analyzed with X-ray. The results involving the effects of barite are reported and discussed.

  12. Light attenuation in a shallow, turbid reservoir, Lake Houston, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Roger W.; Rast, Walter

    1997-01-01

    Results of measurements of light penetration at sites in Lake Houston near Houston, Texas, indicate that light-extinction coefficients during 1989?90 range from about 2.49 to 7.93 meters-1 and euphotic zone depth ranges from about 0.61 to 1.85 meters. The coefficients are largest near the inflow site of West Fork San Jacinto River (upstream) and decrease slightly toward the dam (downstream). Total suspended solids and total organic carbon concentrations also are largest at the upstream end. Chlorophyll a+b concentrations are smallest near the dam, increase slightly upstream, and are largest during growing-season months. Color and turbidity show the strongest correlations with light-extinction coefficients in Lake Houston. Dissolved phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations are greater than growth-limiting concentrations during the study period, indicating that nutrient availability did not limit primary productivity or the phytoplankton biomass in Lake Houston. Light-extinction coefficients in relation to selected water-quality constituents indicate that more than one constituent affects the light-attenuating properties of Lake Houston. Attenuation of light in water depends on total suspended solids for predominant light scattering and on dissolved organic matter (color) and chlorophyll a+b for absorption of light. A statistical analytical model using Spearman rank order correlation shows that color and turbidity are the most useful water-quality constituents sampled to determine light-attenuating properties of water in Lake Houston. Multiple-regression analysis of measured light-extinction coefficients as the dependent variable and measured color and turbidity as independent variables for water from Lake Houston produced the relation: light-extinction coefficient (h) = 2.78 + 0.007 x color + 0.036 x turbidity, with an average error of the computed coefficient to measured value of ?13 percent. The model can be useful in computing the thickness of the euphotic zone to determine primary productivity in the reservoir.

  13. The SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Horneck, G.

    In the 21 st century, an increasing number of astronauts will visit the International Space Station (ISS) for prolonged times. Therefore it is of utmost importance to provide necessary basic knowledge concerning risks to their health and their ability to work on the station and during extravehicular activities (EVA) in free space. It is the aim of one experiment of the German project TRIPLE-LUX (to be flown on the ISS) to provide an estimation of health risk resulting from exposure of the astronauts to the radiation in space inside the station as well as during extravehicular activities on one hand, and of exposure of astronauts to unavoidable or as yet unknown ISS-environmental genotoxic substances on the other. The project will (i) provide increased knowledge of the biological action of space radiation and enzymatic repair of DNA damage, (ii) uncover cellular mechanisms of synergistic interaction of microgravity and space radiation and (iii) examine the space craft milieu with highly specific biosensors. For these investigations, the bacterial biosensor SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test will be used, combining the SOS-LUX-Test invented at DLR Germany (Patent) with the commercially available LAC-FLUORO-Test. The SOS-LUX-Test comprises genetically modified bacteria transformed with the pBR322-derived plasmid pPLS-1. This plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as a reporter element under control of the DNA-damage dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element. This system reacts to radiation and other agents that induce DNA damages with a dose dependent measurable emission of bioluminescence of the transformed bacteria. The analogous LAC-FLUORO-Test has been developed for the detection of cellular responses to cytotoxins. It is based on the constitutive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by the bacterial protein expression vector pGFPuv (Clontech, Palo Alto, USA). In response to cytotoxic agents, this system reacts with a dose-dependent reduction of GFP-fluorescence. Currently, a fully automated miniaturized hardware system for the bacterial set up, which includes measurements of luminescence and fluorescence or absorption and the image analysis based evaluation is under development. During the first mission of the SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-Test on the ISS, a standardized, DNA-damaging radiation source still to be determined will be used as a genotoxic inducer. A panel of recombinant Salmonella typhimurium strains carrying either the SOS-LUX plasmid or the fluorescence-mediating lac-GFPuv plasmid will be used to determine in parallel on one microplate the genotoxic and the cytotoxic action of the applied radiation in combination with microgravity. Either in addition to or in place of the fluorometric measurements of the cytotoxic agents, photometric measurements will simultaneously monitor cell growth, giving additional data on survival of the cells. The obtained data will be available on line during the TRIPLE-LUX mission time. Though it is the main goal during the TRIPLE-LUX mission to measure the radiation effect in microgravity, the SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test in principle is also applicable as a biomonitor for the detection and measurement of genotoxic substances in air or in the (recycled) water system on the ISS or on earth in general.

  14. The SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test on the International Space Station (ISS).

    PubMed

    Rabbow, E; Rettberg, P; Baumstark-Khan, C; Horneck, G

    2003-01-01

    In the 21st century, an increasing number of astronauts will visit the International Space Station (ISS) for prolonged times. Therefore it is of utmost importance to provide necessary basic knowledge concerning risks to their health and their ability to work on the station and during extravehicular activities (EVA) in free space. It is the aim of one experiment of the German project TRIPLE-LUX (to be flown on the ISS) to provide an estimation of health risk resulting from exposure of the astronauts to the radiation in space inside the station as well as during extravehicular activities on one hand, and of exposure of astronauts to unavoidable or as yet unknown ISS-environmental genotoxic substances on the other. The project will (i) provide increased knowledge of the biological action of space radiation and enzymatic repair of DNA damage, (ii) uncover cellular mechanisms of synergistic interaction of microgravity and space radiation and (iii) examine the space craft milieu with highly specific biosensors. For these investigations, the bacterial biosensor SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test will be used, combining the SOS-LUX-Test invented at DLR Germany (Patent) with the commercially available LAC-FLUORO-Test. The SOS-LUX-Test comprises genetically modified bacteria transformed with the pBR322-derived plasmid pPLS-1. This plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as a reporter element under control of the DNA-damage dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element. This system reacts to radiation and other agents that induce DNA damages with a dose dependent measurable emission of bioluminescence of the transformed bacteria. The analogous LAC-FLUORO-Test has been developed for the detection of cellular responses to cytotoxins. It is based on the constitutive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by the bacterial protein expression vector pGFPuv (Clontech, Palo Alto, USA). In response to cytotoxic agents, this system reacts with a dose-dependent reduction of GFP-fluorescence. Currently, a fully automated miniaturized hardware system for the bacterial set up, which includes measurements of luminescence and fluorescence or absorption and the image analysis based evaluation is under development. During the first mission of the SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-Test on the ISS, a standardized, DNA-damaging radiation source still to be determined will be used as a genotoxic inducer. A panel of recombinant Salmonella typhimurium strains carrying either the SOS-LUX plasmid or the fluorescence-mediating lac-GFPuv plasmid will be used to determine in parallel on one microplate the genotoxic and the cytotoxic action of the applied radiation in combination with microgravity. Either in addition to or in place of the fluorometric measurements of the cytotoxic agents, photometric measurements will simultaneously monitor cell growth, giving additional data on survival of the cells. The obtained data will be available on line during the TRIPLE-LUX mission time. Though it is the main goal during the TRIPLE-LUX mission to measure the radiation effect in microgravity, the SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test in principle is also applicable as a biomonitor for the detection and measurement of genotoxic substances in air or in the (recycled) water system on the ISS or on earth in general. PMID:12971406

  15. Fusions of flagellar operons to lactose genes on a mu lac bacteriophage.

    PubMed Central

    Komeda, Y

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies have defined 29 genes necessary for synthesis of the Escherichia coli flagellar apparatus. This study analyzed the transcriptional control of flagellar genes, using Mu d (Apr lac) phage to generate flagellar mutants by insertion. These mutants contained operon fusions of flagellar genes to the lac genes of the Mu d phage and allowed the measurement of flagellar operon expression by detection of beta-galactosidase activity. These fusion mutants expressed the enzyme activity constitutively, and an autogenous regulation mechanism was not revealed. Lambda transducing phages carrying these chromosomal fla-lac fusions were also isolated and used to examine the effect of different fla mutations on expression of each flagellar operon. The results showed that flagellar operons are divided into six classes; (class 1) the flbB operon, which controls all of the other flagellar operons; (class 2) the flaU and flbC operons, which are controlled by the flbB operon gene products and are not required for the expression of other Fla operons; (class 3) the flbA, flaG, flaD, flaN, flaB, and flaA operons, which are under flbB operon control and are required for the expression of other fla operons; (class4) the flaZ operon, which is controlled by the gene products of the group 1 and 3 operons and is required for hag transcription; (class 5) the mocha and flaS operons, which are controlled by the gene products of the group 1 and 3 operons; and (class 6) the hag operon. These results are discussed with respect to the possible assembly sequence of the fla gene products. PMID:7037746

  16. Direct sugar binding to LacY measured by resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Irina N; Kasho, Vladimir N; Kaback, H Ronald

    2006-12-26

    Trp151 in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) is an important component of the sugar-binding site and the only Trp residue out of six that is in close proximity to the galactopyranoside in the structure (1PV7). The short distance between Trp151 and the sugar is favorable for Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to nitrophenyl or dansyl derivatives with the fluorophore at the anomeric position of galactose. Modeling of 4-nitrophenyl-alpha-d-galactopyranoside (alpha-NPG) in the binding-site of LacY places the nitrophenyl moiety about 12 A away from Trp151, a distance commensurate with the Frster distance for a Trp-nitrobenzoyl pair. We demonstrate here that alpha-NPG binding to LacY containing all six native Trp residues causes galactopyranoside-specific FRET from Trp151. Moreover, binding of alpha-NPG is sufficiently slow to resolve time-dependent fluorescence changes by stopped-flow. The rate of change in Trp --> alpha-NPG FRET is linearly dependent upon sugar concentration, which allows estimation of kinetic parameters for binding. Furthermore, 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (MIANS) covalently attached to the cytoplasmic end of helix X is sensitive to sugar binding, reflecting a ligand-induced conformational change. Stopped-flow kinetics of Trp --> alpha-NPG FRET and sugar-induced changes in MIANS fluorescence in the same protein reveal a two-step process: a relatively rapid binding step detected by Trp151 --> alpha-NPG FRET followed by a slower conformational change detected by a change in MIANS fluorescence. PMID:17176050

  17. Direct sugar binding to LacY measured by resonance energy transfer *

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Irina N.; Kasho, Vladimir N.; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Trp151 in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) is an important component of the sugar-binding site and the only Trp residue out of six in close proximity to the galactopyranoside in the structure (PDB ID: 1PV7). The short distance between Trp151 and the sugar is favorable for Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to nitrophenyl or dansyl derivatives with the fluorophore at the anomeric position of galactose. Modeling of 4nitrophenyl-?-d-galactopyranoside (?-NPG) in the binding-site of LacY places the nitrophenyl moiety about 12 away from Trp151, a distance commensurate with the Frster distance for a Trp-nitrobenzoyl pair. We demonstrate here that ?-NPG binding to LacY containing all six native Trp residues causes galactopyranoside-specific FRET from Trp151. Moreover, binding of ? NPG is sufficiently slow to resolve time-dependent fluorescence changes by stopped-flow. The rate of change in Trp??-NPG FRET is linearly dependent upon sugar concentration, which allows estimation of kinetic parameters for binding. Furthermore, 2-(4-maleimidylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic (MIANS) covalently attached to the cytoplasmic end of helix X is sensitive to sugar binding, reflecting a ligand-induced conformational change. Stopped-flow kinetics of Trp??-NPG FRET and sugar-induced changes in MIANS fluorescence in the same protein reveal a two-step process: a relatively rapid binding step detected by Trp151??-NPG FRET followed by a slower conformational change detected by a change in MIANS fluorescence. PMID:17176050

  18. Probing of the rates of alternating access in LacY with Trp fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Irina; Kasho, Vladimir; Sugihara, Junichi; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Sugar/H+ symport by lactose permease (LacY) utilizes an alternating access mechanism in which sugar and H+ binding sites in the middle of the molecule are alternatively exposed to either side of the membrane by sequential opening and closing of inward- and outward-facing hydrophilic cavities. Here, we introduce Trp residues on either side of LacY where they are predicted to be in close proximity to side chains of natural Trp quenchers in either the inward- or outward-facing conformers. In the inward-facing conformer, LacY is tightly packed on the periplasmic side, and Trp residues placed at positions 245 (helix VII) or 378 (helix XII) are in close contact with His-35 (helix I) or Lys-42 (helix II), respectively. Sugar binding leads to unquenching of Trp fluorescence in both mutants, a finding clearly consistent with opening of the periplasmic cavity. The pH dependence of Trp-245 unquenching exhibits a pKa of 8, typical for a His side chain interacting with an aromatic group. As estimated from stopped-flow studies, the rate of sugar-induced opening is ?100 s?1. On the cytoplasmic side, Phe-140 (helix V) and Phe-334 (helix X) are located on opposite sides of a wide-open hydrophilic cavity. In precisely the opposite fashion from the periplasmic side, mutant Phe-140?Trp/Phe-334?His exhibits sugar-induced Trp quenching. Again, quenching is pH dependent (pKa = 8), but remarkably, the rate of sugar-induced quenching is only ?0.4 s?1. The results provide yet another strong, independent line of evidence for the alternating access mechanism and demonstrate that the methodology described provides a sensitive probe to measure rates of conformational change in membrane transport proteins. PMID:19959662

  19. High-Level Expression of Bacillus naganoensis Pullulanase from Recombinant Escherichia coli with Auto-Induction: Effect of lac Operator

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Chen, Wen Bo; Mu, Xiao Qing; Wang, Xinye; Xiao, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Pullulanase plays an important role in specific hydrolysis of branch points in amylopectin and is generally employed as an important enzyme in starch-processing industry. So far, however, the production level of pullulanase is still somewhat low from wide-type strains and even heterologous expression systems. Here the gene encoding Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase was amplified and cloned. For expression of the protein, two recombinant systems, Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pET-20b(+)-pul and E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-22b(+)-pul, were constructed, both bearing T7 promoter and signal peptide sequence, but different in the existance of lac operator and lacI gene encoding lac repressor. Recombinant pullulanase was initially expressed with the activity of up to 14 U/mL by E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-20b(+)-pul with IPTG induction in LB medium, but its expression level reduced continually with the extension of cryopreservation time and basal expression was observed. However, E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-22b(+)-pul , involving lac operator downstream of T7 promoter to regulate foreign gene transcription, exhibited pullulanase activity consistently without detected basal expression. By investigating the effect of lac operator, basal expression of foreign protein was found to cause expression instability and negative effect on production of target protein. Thus double-repression strategy was proposed that lac operators in both chromosome and plasmid were bound with lac repressor to repress T7 RNA polymerase synthesis and target protein expression before induction. Consequently, the total activity of pullulanase was remarkably increased to 580 U/mL with auto-induction by lac operator-involved E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-22b(+)-pul. When adding 0.6% glycine in culture, the extracellular production of pullulanase was significantly improved with the extracellular activity of 502 U/mL, which is a relatively higher level achieved to date for extracellular production of pullulanase. The successful expression of pullulanase with lac operator regulation provides an efficient way for enhancement of expression stability and hence high-level production of target protein in recombinant E. coli. PMID:24194930

  20. Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan Hoover

    2009-11-16

    This plan discusses the current energy use on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, the current status of the Tribe's energy program, as well as the issues and concerns with energy on the reservation. This plan also identifies and outlines energy opportunities, goals, and objectives for the Tribe to accomplish. The overall goal of this plan is to address the energy situation of the reservation in a holistic manner for the maximum benefit to the Tribe. This plan is an evolving document that will be re-evaluated as the Tribe's energy situation changes.

  1. Fermi LAT Detection of a Gamma-ray Flare from the BL Lac Object ON 246

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Josefa

    2015-06-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has observed increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with the BL Lac object ON 246 (RA=187.55871 deg, Dec=25.30198 deg, J2000, Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13; with redshift z=0.135, Nass et al. 1996, A&A, 309, 419), also known as S3 1227+25 and 3FGL J1230.3+2519 (3FGL; Acero et al. 2015, arXiv:1501.02003).

  2. Evaluation of critical indicators in the process of acquiring supplies and services LAC-UFPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caetano, V. F.; Ferreira, C. V.; dos Santos, M. J.; Honorato, F. A.

    2015-01-01

    In laboratories linked to public universities and accredited by the NBR ISO/IEC 17025, to meet efficiently item 4.6 (procurement of supplies and services) is a challenge that can be accomplished by programming based on historical purchases and services. In this study, we evaluated the critical procurement items to meet the quality management system of the LAC-UFPE: reagents, certified reference material, of equipment parts, maintenance and calibration of equipment and instruments. It was found that the most critical item is the certified reference material, the purchase or repair of which must be expedited within 125 days prior to the receipt to occur within the desired period.

  3. Broad-band radio behaviour of flaring BL Lac (J2202+4216)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Nestoras, I.; Schmidt, R.; Zensus, J. A.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Ungerechts, H.; Sievers, A.; Riquelme, D.

    2011-05-01

    Responding to the ATels #3368, #3371, #3375 and #3377 reporting the recent activity of BL Lac (J2202+4216, RA= 22:02:43, DEC=+42:16:39 in J2000) at different high energy bands, we here report its behaviour in the cm-to-mm radio bands as observed by the F-GAMMA program. Recent activity: Observations performed with the Effelsberg 100-m and the IRAM 30-m telescope over the last months on May 1, 7, 20 and 25, show a persistent increase in the flux at all frequencies observed.

  4. Analysis of LAC Observations of Clusters of Galaxies and Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J.

    1996-01-01

    The following publications are included and serve as the final report: The X-ray Spectrum of Abell 665; Clusters of Galaxies; Ginga Observation of an Oxygen-rich Supernova Remnant; Ginga Observations of the Coma Cluster and Studies of the Spatial Distribution of Iron; A Measurement of the Hubble Constant from the X-ray Properties and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect of Abell 2218; Non-polytropic Model for the Coma Cluster; and Abundance Gradients in Cooling Flow Clusters: Ginga LAC (Large Area Counter) and Einstein SSS (Solid State Spectrometer) Spectra of A496, A1795, A2142, and A2199.

  5. The effect of LacI autoregulation on the performance of the lactose utilization system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Semsey, Szabolcs; Jauffred, Liselotte; Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Erdossy, János; Stéger, Viktor; Hansen, Sabine; Krishna, Sandeep

    2013-07-01

    The lactose operon of Escherichia coli is a paradigm system for quantitative understanding of gene regulation in prokaryotes. Yet, none of the many mathematical models built so far to study the dynamics of this system considered the fact that the Lac repressor regulates its own transcription by forming a transcriptional roadblock at the O3 operator site. Here we study the effect of autoregulation on intracellular LacI levels and also show that cAMP-CRP binding does not affect the efficiency of autoregulation. We built a mathematical model to study the role of LacI autoregulation in the lactose utilization system. Previously, it has been argued that negative autoregulation can significantly reduce noise as well as increase the speed of response. We show that the particular molecular mechanism, a transcriptional roadblock, used to achieve self-repression in the lac system does neither. Instead, LacI autoregulation balances two opposing states, one that allows quicker response to smaller pulses of external lactose, and the other that minimizes production costs in the absence of lactose. PMID:23658223

  6. Isolation and Structure Determination of a Missing Endohedral Fullerene La@C70 through In Situ Trifluoromethylation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyong; Aoyagi, Shinobu; Omachi, Haruka; Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori

    2016-01-01

    D5h -symmetric fullerene C70 (D5h -C70 ) is one of the most abundant members of the fullerene family. One longstanding mystery in the field of fullerene chemistry is whether D5h -C70 is capable of accommodating a rare-earth metal atom to form an endohedral metallofullerene M@D5h -C70 , which would be expected to show novel electronic properties. The molecular structure of La@C70 remains unresolved since its discovery three decades ago because of its extremely high instability under ambient conditions and insolubility in organic solvents. Herein, we report the single-crystal X-ray structure of La@C70 (CF3 )3 , which was obtained through in situ exohedral functionalization by means of trifluoromethylation. The X-ray crystallographic study reveals that La@C70 (CF3 )3 is the first example of an endohedral rare-earth fullerene based on D5h -C70 . The dramatically enhanced stability of La@C70 (CF3 )3 compared to La@C70 can be ascribed to trifluoromethylation-induced bandgap enlargement. PMID:26530527

  7. Crystal structure of VmoLac, a tentative quorum quenching lactonase from the extremophilic crenarchaeon Vulcanisaeta moutnovskia

    PubMed Central

    Hiblot, Julien; Bzdrenga, Janek; Champion, Charlotte; Chabriere, Eric; Elias, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    A new representative of the Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonases (PLLs) family from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Vulcanisaeta moutnovskia has been characterized and crystallized. VmoLac is a native, proficient lactonase with promiscuous, low phosphotriesterase activity. VmoLac therefore represents an interesting candidate for engineering studies, with the aim of developing an efficient bacterial quorum-quenching agent. Here, we provide an extensive biochemical and kinetic characterization of VmoLac and describe the X-ray structures of the enzyme bound to a fatty acid and to its cognate substrate 3-oxo-C10 AHL (Acyl-Homoserine Lactone). The structures highlight possible structural determinants that may be involved in its extreme thermal stability (Tm = 128C). Moreover, the structure reveals that the substrate binding mode of VmoLac significantly differs from those of its close homologues, possibly explaining the substrate specificity of the enzyme. Finally, we describe the specific interactions between the enzyme and its substrate, and discuss the possible lactone hydrolysis mechanism of VmoLac. PMID:25670483

  8. Chopping-Wheel Optical Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    1988-01-01

    Star-shaped rotating chopping wheel provides adjustable time-averaged attenuation of narrow beam of light without changing length of optical path or spectral distribution of light. Duty cycle or attenuation factor of chopped beam controlled by adjusting radius at which beam intersects wheel. Attenuation factor independent of wavelength. Useful in systems in which chopping frequency above frequency-response limits of photodetectors receiving chopped light. Used in systems using synchronous detection with lock-in amplifiers.

  9. Ultrasonic Attenuation in Zircaloy-4

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M.P.; Banchik, A.D.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Ruzzante, J.E.

    2005-04-09

    In this work the relationship between Zircaloy-4 grain size and ultrasonic attenuation behavior was studied for longitudinal waves in the frequency range of 10-90 MHz. The attenuation was analyzed as a function of frequency for samples with different mechanical and heat treatments having recrystallized and Widmanstatten structures with different grain size. The attenuation behavior was analyzed by different scattering models, depending on grain size, wavelength and frequency.

  10. Natural attenuation of contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Catherine N; Yong, Raymond N

    2004-06-01

    Natural attenuation is increasing in use as a low cost means of remediating contaminated soil and groundwater. Modelling of contaminant migration plays a key role in evaluating natural attenuation as a remediation option and in ensuring that there will be no adverse impact on humans and the environment. During natural attenuation, the contamination must be characterized thoroughly and monitored through the process. In this paper, attenuation mechanisms for both organic and inorganic contaminants, use of models and protocols, role of monitoring and field case studies will be reviewed. PMID:15031019

  11. Analytic properties of Hansen coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadov, Sergey Yu.

    2008-04-01

    Hansen’s coefficients in the theory of elliptic motion with eccentricity e are studied as functions of the parameter η = (1 - e 2)1/2. Their analytic behavior in the complex η plane is described and some symmetry relations are derived. In particular, for every Hansen coefficient, multiplication by suitable powers of e and η results in an entire analytic function of η. Consequently, Hansen’s coefficients can be in principle computed by means of rapidly convergent series in powers of η. A representation of Hansen’s coefficients in terms of two entire functions of e 2 follows.

  12. Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2011-01-01

    Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions

  13. THE ATTENUATED RADON TRANSFORM: APPLICATION TO SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE PRESENCE OF A VARIABLE ATTENUATING MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Gullberg, Grant T.

    1980-03-01

    The properties of the attenuated Radon transform and its application to single-photon emission computed tomography (ECT) are analyzed in detail. In nuclear medicine and biological research, the objective of ECT is to describe quantitatively the position and strengths of internal sources of injected radiopharmaceuticals and radionuclides where the attenuation between the sources and detector is unknown. The problem is mathematically and practically quite different from well-known methods in transmission computed tomography (TCT) where only the attenuation is unknown. A mathematical structure using function theory and the theory of linear operators on Hilbert spaces is developed to better understand the spectral properties of the attenuated Radon transform. The continuous attenuated Radon transform is reduced to a matrix operator for discrete angular and lateral sampling, and the reconstruction problem reduces to a system of linear equations. For variable attenuation coefficients frequently found in imaging internal organs, the numerical methods developed in this paper involve iterative techniques of performing the generalized inverse. Its application to nuclear medicine is demonstrated by reconstructions of transverse sections of the brain, heart, and liver.

  14. An attenuated philosophical gentleman.

    PubMed

    Christie, John R R

    2014-06-20

    Dr. Joseph Black had at one time, a house near us to the west. He was a striking and beautiful person; tall, very thin, and cadaverously pale; his hair carefully powdered, though there was little of it except what was collected in a long thin queue; his eyes dark, clear and large, like deep pools of pure water. He wore black speckless clothes, silk stockings, silver buckles, and either a slim green umbrella, or a genteel brown cane. The general frame and air were feeble and slender. The wildest boy respected Black. No lad could be irreverent toward a man so pale, so gentle, so elegant and so illustrious. So he glided, like a spirit, through our rather mischievous sportiveness, unharmed. He died seated, with a bowl of milk upon his knee, of which his ceasing to be did not spill a drop; a departure which it seemed, after the event, might have been foretold of this attenuated philosophical gentleman. PMID:24921110

  15. Fiber optic attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fiber optic attenuator of the invention is a mandrel structure through which a bundle of optical fibers is wrapped around in a complete circle. The mandrel structure includes a flexible cylindrical sheath through which the bundle passes. A set screw on the mandrel structure impacts one side of the sheath against two posts on the opposite side of the sheath. By rotating the screw, the sheath is deformed to extend partially between the two posts, bending the fiber optic bundle to a small radius controlled by rotating the set screw. Bending the fiber optic bundle to a small radius causes light in each optical fiber to be lost in the cladding, the amount depending upon the radius about which the bundle is bent.

  16. Optical absorption coefficient of magneto-optic garnet films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Gong-qiang; Yu Zhi-qiang; Liu Xianglin

    1986-02-01

    This paper analyzes various factors contributing to optical attenuation in magneto-optic garnet films and derives expressions for the optical absorption and scattering coefficients ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma... The values of ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. for (BiTm)/sub 3/(FeGa)/sub 5/O/sub 12/ films were measured in a magneto-optic modulation device by comparing the magneto-optic rotations. Compared with other methods, this technique has two advantages: (1) absorption in the substrate is eliminated, and the measured values ..cap alpha.. are not affected by reflection at the film/substrate interface; (2) the optical scattering coefficient ..gamma.. can be separated from the optical absorption ..cap alpha.., so that the measured value ..cap alpha.. closely approximates the true optical absorption coefficient for magneto-optic garnet film materials.

  17. A Catalogue of X-ray BL Lacs: Statistics applied to the study of X-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouco, Alicia; de la Calle, Ignacio; Racero, Elena

    2015-09-01

    An XMM-Newton catalogue of 163 BL Lacs has been assembled based on the cross-correlation of the XMM-Newton archive with the 1374 BL Lac objects listed in the 13th edition of the Veron-Cetty and Veron (2010) catalogue. Phenomenological BL Lac emission models have been fitted systematically to all the X-ray spectra in order to characterize the X-ray properties of the sample. We present the results of a study that investigates the use of different statistical methods for fitting X-ray spectra. With the fitting statistics defined, we compare the results of using two phenomenological models to characterize the X-ray emission, powerlaw versus log-parabolic, and look into the implications of using one versus the other in terms of model parameters.

  18. Low synonymous site variation at the lacY locus in Escherichia coli suggests the action of positive selection.

    PubMed

    Wagner, R R; Riley, M A

    1996-02-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequences of seven lacY alleles isolated from natural isolates of Escherichia coli. Nucleotide heterozygosity estimates for this locus were compared to those obtained from previous studies of intraspecific variation at chromosomal loci, revealing that lacY has unusually low synonymous site variation. The average pairwise heterozygosity of synonymous sites (Ks = 0.0112 +/- 0.0100) is the second lowest reported and the lowest for loci that have an equivalent level of nonsynonymous variation. We consider several hypotheses to explain how different forces in evolution could act to create the observed pattern of polymorphism, including selection for translational efficiency and positive selection. Our analysis most strongly supports the hypothesis that positive selection has acted on the lacY locus in E. coli. PMID:8919858

  19. The attenuation of seismic intensity in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasolini, C.; Gasperini, P.; Albarello, D.; Lolli, B.; D'Amico, V.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic intensity is, by definition, an index for the classification of the severity of earthquake effects observed in a settlement. However the experience of many decades of its use within functional relations with other parametric quantities have shown that it represents a quite reliable estimator of ground motion amplitude and that it can be confidently related to instrumentally measured quantities by a logarithmic relation. Most intensity attenuation relations from the literature model empirically the difference between epicentral intensity I_0 (defined as the maximum observed intensity or something less that that) and the intensity at the site. This means assuming that I_0 is actually the average intensity observed at the epicenter and that it scales with site intensity with coefficient equal to 1. We analyzed the Italian macroseismic dataset that can be obtained by combining the two major Italian macroseismic databases following the choices made by the compilers of the parametric catalog of Italian earthquakes. It contains about 50,000 observations from ancient times to 1992. We considered an attenuation equation with log-linear dependence with hypocentral distance (depth fixed to 10 km) and an additional empirical term proportional to I_0 I_s=a + b D + c log{D} + d I_0 We found that: i) the intensity data observed at sites located at distance larger than the one at which the expected average intensity is below the limit of diffuse perceptibility (degree IV) are clearly incomplete and might bias the resulting attenuation relation, ii) intensity data with uncertain estimates (i.e. VI-VII) have frequencies lower of about 30-50% than regular ones and thus must be modeled separately, iii) the average intensity at the epicenter is on average from one to two degrees lower than I_0, iv) epicentral intensity contributes to the attenuation relation with a coefficient significantly different from 1.0 (about 0.7-08) thus indicating the it cannot be considered a reference ground-motion level but rather an estimator of the energy of the earthquake, v) the statistical distribution of intensity residuals closely resembles a normal one but with a significant skewness that can be appropriately modeled by a modified Azzalini distribution.

  20. A plasmid-based lacZα gene assay for DNA polymerase fidelity measurement

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Brian J.; Jozwiakowski, Stanislaw K.; Connolly, Bernard A.

    2013-01-01

    A significantly improved DNA polymerase fidelity assay, based on a gapped plasmid containing the lacZα reporter gene in a single-stranded region, is described. Nicking at two sites flanking lacZα, and removing the excised strand by thermocycling in the presence of complementary competitor DNA, is used to generate the gap. Simple methods are presented for preparing the single-stranded competitor. The gapped plasmid can be purified, in high amounts and in a very pure state, using benzoylated–naphthoylated DEAE–cellulose, resulting in a low background mutation frequency (∼1 × 10−4). Two key parameters, the number of detectable sites and the expression frequency, necessary for measuring polymerase error rates have been determined. DNA polymerase fidelity is measured by gap filling in vitro, followed by transformation into Escherichia coli and scoring of blue/white colonies and converting the ratio to error rate. Several DNA polymerases have been used to fully validate this straightforward and highly sensitive system. PMID:23098700

  1. Small-scale field test of the genetically engineered lacZY marker

    SciTech Connect

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Brandt, E.J.; Travis, C.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Commercial genetic engineering is advancing into areas that require the small-scale introduction of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to better quantify variables that affect microorganism distribution and survival and to document potential long-term consequences. A recombinant DNA marker system, the lacZY marker, developed by the Monsanto Agricultural Co., enables the distribution and fate of marked fluorescent pseudomonad organisms to be monitored under actual field conditions. Critical evaluation of GEMs under field conditions is imperative if plant-beneficial effects are to be correlated with organism release. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this marker system and its ability to facilitate the assessment of risks associated with deliberate environmental introductions of genetically engineered microorganisms. Results of prerelease contained growth chamber and field experiments demonstrated that: (1) the scientific risk assessment methodology adopted by Monsanto and approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was appropriate and comprehensive; (2) the deliberate introduction of a GEM did not pose unacceptable or unforeseen risks to human health or the environment; (3) the lacZY marker is an effective environmental tracking tool; and (4) regulatory oversight should reflect the expected risk and not be excessively burdensome for all GEMs.

  2. An extracellular laccase with potent dye decolorizing ability from white rot fungus Trametes sp. LAC-01.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zhuo-Ren; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Meng-Juan; Ning, Ying-Jie; Wang, Shou-Nan; Li, Bing; Yang, Ai-Zhen; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Xiao-Meng

    2015-11-01

    A novel laccase was purified from fermentation broth of white rot fungus Trametes sp. LAC-01 using an isolation procedure involving three ion-exchange chromatography steps on DEAE-cellulose, SP-Sepharose, and Q-Sepharose, and one gel-filtration step. The purified enzyme (TSL) was proved as a monomeric protein with a Mr of 59kDa based on SDS-PAGE and FPLC. Partial amino acid sequences were obtained by LC-MS/MS sharing considerably high sequence similarity with that of other laccases. It possessed optimal pH of 2.6 and temperature of 60°C using ABTS as the substrate. The Km of the laccase toward ABTS was estimated to 30.28μM at pH 2.6 and 40°C. TSL manifested considerably high oxidizing activity toward ABTS, but was avoid of degradative activity toward benzidine, caftaric acid, etc. It was effective in the decolorization of phenolic dyes - Bromothymol Blue and Malachite Green with decolorization rate higher than 60% after 24h of incubation. Adjunction of Cu(2+) with the final concentration of 2.0mmol/L significantly activated laccase production with a steady high level of 275.8-282.2U/mL in 96-144h. The high yield and short production period makes Trametes sp. LAC-01 and TSL potentially useful for industrial and environmental application and commercialization. PMID:26361865

  3. Lac repressor hinge flexibility and DNA looping: single molecule kinetics by tethered particle motion

    PubMed Central

    Vanzi, Francesco; Broggio, Chiara; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2006-01-01

    The tethered particle motion (TPM) allows the direct detection of activity of a variety of biomolecules at the single molecule level. First pioneered for RNA polymerase, it has recently been applied also to other enzymes. In this work we employ TPM for a systematic investigation of the kinetics of DNA looping by wild-type Lac repressor (wt-LacI) and by hinge mutants Q60G and Q60 + 1. We implement a novel method for TPM data analysis to reliably measure the kinetics of loop formation and disruption and to quantify the effects of the protein hinge flexibility and of DNA loop strain on such kinetics. We demonstrate that the flexibility of the protein hinge has a profound effect on the lifetime of the looped state. Our measurements also show that the DNA bending energy plays a minor role on loop disruption kinetics, while a strong effect is seen on the kinetics of loop formation. These observations substantiate the growing number of theoretical studies aimed at characterizing the effects of DNA flexibility, tension and torsion on the kinetics of protein binding and dissociation, strengthening the idea that these mechanical factors in vivo may play an important role in the modulation of gene expression regulation. PMID:16835309

  4. An Analysis of Periodic Components in BL Lac Object S5 0716 +714 with MUSIC Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithms are introduced to the estimation of the period of variation of BL Lac objects.The principle of MUSIC spectral analysis method and theoretical analysis of the resolution of frequency spectrum using analog signals are included. From a lot of literatures, we have collected a lot of effective observation data of BL Lac object S5 0716 + 714 in V, R, I bands from 1994 to 2008. The light variation periods of S5 0716 +714 are obtained by means of the MUSIC spectral analysis method and periodogram spectral analysis method. There exist two major periods: (3.33±0.08) years and (1.24±0.01) years for all bands. The estimation of the period of variation of the algorithm based on the MUSIC spectral analysis method is compared with that of the algorithm based on the periodogram spectral analysis method. It is a super-resolution algorithm with small data length, and could be used to detect the period of variation of weak signals.

  5. Lightning Detection by LAC Onboard the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter, Planet-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Yoshida, J.; Yair, Y.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.

    2008-06-01

    Lightning activity in Venus has been a mystery for a long period, although many studies based on observations both by spacecraft and by ground-based telescope have been carried out. This situation may be attributed to the ambiguity of these evidential measurements. In order to conclude this controversial subject, we are developing a new type of lightning detector, LAC (Lightning and Airglow Camera), which will be onboard Planet-C (Venus Climate Orbiter: VCO). Planet-C will be launched in 2010 by JAXA. To distinguish an optical lightning flash from other pulsing noises, high-speed sampling at 50 kHz for each pixel, that enables us to investigate the time variation of each lightning flash phenomenon, is adopted. On the other hand, spatial resolution is not the first priority. For this purpose we developed a new type of APD (avalanche photo diode) array with a format of 8×8. A narrow band interference filter at wavelength of 777.4 nm (OI), which is the expected lightning color based on laboratory discharge experiment, is chosen for lightning measurement. LAC detects lightning flash with an optical intensity of average of Earth’s lightning or less at a distance of 3 Rv. In this paper, firstly we describe the background of the Venus lightning study to locate our spacecraft project, and then introduce the mission details.

  6. Lightning Detection by LAC Onboard the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter, Planet-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Yoshida, J.; Yair, Y.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.

    Lightning activity in Venus has been a mystery for a long period, although many studies based on observations both by spacecraft and by ground-based telescope have been carried out. This situation may be attributed to the ambiguity of these evidential measurements. In order to conclude this controversial subject, we are developing a new type of lightning detector, LAC (Lightning and Airglow Camera), which will be onboard Planet-C (Venus Climate Orbiter: VCO). Planet-C will be launched in 2010 by JAXA. To distinguish an optical lightning flash from other pulsing noises, high-speed sampling at 50 kHz for each pixel, that enables us to investigate the time variation of each lightning flash phenomenon, is adopted. On the other hand, spatial resolution is not the first priority. For this purpose we developed a new type of APD (avalanche photo diode) array with a format of 8×8. A narrow band interference filter at wavelength of 777.4 nm (OI), which is the expected lightning color based on laboratory discharge experiment, is chosen for lightning measurement. LAC detects lightning flash with an optical intensity of average of Earth's lightning or less at a distance of 3 Rv. In this paper, firstly we describe the background of the Venus lightning study to locate our spacecraft project, and then introduce the mission details.

  7. Intelligent Local Avoided Collision (iLAC) MAC Protocol for Very High Speed Wireless Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieu, Dinh Chi; Masuda, Akeo; Rabarijaona, Verotiana Hanitriniala; Shimamoto, Shigeru

    Future wireless communication systems aim at very high data rates. As the medium access control (MAC) protocol plays the central role in determining the overall performance of the wireless system, designing a suitable MAC protocol is critical to fully exploit the benefit of high speed transmission that the physical layer (PHY) offers. In the latest 802.11n standard [2], the problem of long overhead has been addressed adequately but the issue of excessive colliding transmissions, especially in congested situation, remains untouched. The procedure of setting the backoff value is the heart of the 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF) to avoid collision in which each station makes its own decision on how to avoid collision in the next transmission. However, collision avoidance is a problem that can not be solved by a single station. In this paper, we introduce a new MAC protocol called Intelligent Local Avoided Collision (iLAC) that redefines individual rationality in choosing the backoff counter value to avoid a colliding transmission. The distinguishing feature of iLAC is that it fundamentally changes this decision making process from collision avoidance to collaborative collision prevention. As a result, stations can avoid colliding transmissions with much greater precision. Analytical solution confirms the validity of this proposal and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the conventional algorithms by a large margin.

  8. Systemic RNAi delivery to the muscles of ROSA26 mice reduces lacZ expression.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jessica; Chamberlain, Joel R

    2014-01-01

    RNAi has potential for therapeutically downregulating the expression of dominantly inherited genes in a variety of human genetic disorders. Here we used the ROSA26 mouse, which constitutively expresses the bacterial lacZ gene in tissues body wide, as a model to test the ability to downregulate gene expression in striated muscles. Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAVs) were generated that express short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) able to target the lacZ mRNA. Systemic delivery of these rAAV6 vectors led to a decrease of ?-galactosidase expression of 30-50-fold in the striated muscles of ROSA26 mice. However, high doses of vectors expressing 21 nucleotide shRNA sequences were associated with significant toxicity in both liver and cardiac muscle. This toxicity was reduced in cardiac muscle using lower vector doses. Furthermore, improved knockdown in the absence of toxicity was obtained by using a shorter (19 nucleotide) shRNA guide sequence. These results support the possibility of using rAAV vectors to deliver RNAi sequences systemically to treat dominantly inherited disorders of striated muscle. PMID:25127128

  9. Expression of the lacZ gene targeted to the HPRT locus in embryonic stem cells and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shaw-White, J R; Denko, N; Albers, L; Doetschman, T C; Stringer, J R

    1993-01-01

    Transgenes in mice often exhibit different expression patterns in different transgenic lines. While the basis for this phenomenon is not understood, it is widely believed that the site at which the transgene becomes integrated into the mouse genome is a major factor in determining the pattern of expression. Most transgenic mice have been produced by microinjection of DNA into the male pronucleus, which results in integration of tandem arrays of the transgene at random chromosomal sites. In the experiments described in this report, electroporation of embryonic stem (ES) cells was used to place single copies of a lacZ transgene into either random sites or into the HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase) locus of the mouse genome. Expression of lacZ was assayed by histochemical staining for Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase activity in ES cells and in differentiated derivatives obtained by teratocarcinoma formation. Several of the randomly integrated cell lines expressed lacZ at high levels in a variety of cell types present in the tumours, but most notably in epithelial cells. Targeted cell lines with lacZ in opposite orientation to the direction of HPRT gene transcription also expressed well in epithelial cells, but the targeted cell lines did not express in a wider variety of cell types than some of the nontargeted cell lines. Targeted cell lines transcribing lacZ in the same orientation as HPRT transcription did not express high levels of lacZ in any differentiated cell type. Analysis of transcripts suggested that this orientation effect may have been the result of transcriptional interference perpetrated by the HPRT gene promoter. PMID:8513334

  10. Coriolis attenuation in the A congruent 130--150 region

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, M.; Goswami, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Sen, S. )

    1990-10-01

    The particle-rotor model has been applied to calculate the band structure in a number of highly neutron deficient odd-{ital A} rare-earth nuclei in the {ital A}{congruent}130--150 region. Several transitional nuclei are also included in the study. The only adjustable parameter, used in the calculation, is the Coriolis attenuation coefficient. However, it is seen that the observed band structures in these nuclei can be reproduced practically without any {ital ad} {ital hoc} reduction of the Coriolis matrix elements. The systematics of the Coriolis attenuation in the neutron-deficient, transitional, and well-deformed rare-earth nuclei are discussed in the light of the present work and several theoretical studies, made earlier. The importance of the pairing interaction in the Coriolis attenuation study is emphasized.

  11. MASTER serendipitous observations of the gamma-ray flaring BL Lac CGRaBS J0211+1051

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudelina, I.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Kornilov, V.; Belinski, A.; Shatskiy, N.; Tyurina, N.; Kuvshinov, D.; Chazov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Zimnukhov, D.; Kornilov, M.; Tlatov, A.; Parhomenko, A. V.; Dormidontov, D.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Yu.; Varda, D.; Krushinski, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S.; Budnev, N.; Konstantinov, E.; Chuvalaev, O.; Poleschuk, V.; Gres, O.; Shumkov, V.; Shurpakov, S.

    2011-01-01

    Following the gamma-ray flare of the BL Lac object CGRaBS J0211+1051 (also known as MG1 J021114+1051, and 1FGL J0211.2+1049, Abdo et al. 2010, ApJS, 188, 405) detected by Fermi LAT on 2011 January 23 (ATel #3120), we try to find images of the BL Lac in our DATA BASE. We find 16 serendipitous optical unfiltered observations by MASTER-Net sites from 03 feb 2004 to 26 Jan 2011. In all cases we use the same Apogee CCD on the wide field telescopes.

  12. GB6 J1058+5628: A NEW QUASI-PERIODIC BL LAC OBJECT FROM THE ASIAGO PLATE ARCHIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Nesci, R.

    2010-06-15

    We present the historic photographic light curves of three little known blazars (two BL Lac objects and one FSRQ), GB6 J1058+5628, GB6 J1148+5254, and GB6 J1209+4119, spanning a time interval of about 50 years, mostly built using the Asiago plate archive. All objects show evident long-term variability, over which short-term variations are superposed. One source, GB6 J1058+5628, showed a marked quasi-periodic variability of 1 mag on timescale of about 6.3 years, making it one of the few BL Lac objects with a quasi-periodic behavior.

  13. A KPC-scale X-ray jet in the BL LAC Source S5 2007+777

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, Rita; Maraschi, Laura; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The BL Lac S3 2007++777, a classical radio-selected BL Lac from the sample of Stirkel et al. exhibiting an extended (19") radio jet. was observed with Chandra revealing an X-ray jet with simi1ar morphology. The hard X-ray spectrum and broad band SED is consistent with an IC/CMB origin for the X-ray emission, implying a highly relativistic flow at small angle to the line of sight with an unusually large deprojected length, 300 kpc. A structured jet consisting of a fast spine and slow wall is consistent with the observations.

  14. Application of the mini-mu phage for the isolation of lac transcriptional fusions in Bacillus subtilis genes.

    PubMed

    Gardiol, D; Gramajo, H C; Hirschbein, L; de Mendoza, D

    1993-01-15

    A cassette containing a selectable cat gene and the lacZ gene without its own promoter has been incorporated into the mini-Mu bacteriophage genome. This mini-Mu derivative, referred to as mMu-Bs, can be used in Escherichia coli for the generation of lacZ transcriptional fusions to Bacillus subtilis genes cloned into plasmids. The resultant fusions can be analyzed in B. subtilis either as multicopy plasmids or as a single copy integrated via a Campbell-like recombination into the wild-type locus of the cloned fragment. PMID:8423002

  15. Functional Consequences of Exchanging Domains Between LacI and PurR are Mediated by the Intervening Linker Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Tungtur, Sudheer; Egan, Susan M.; Swint-Kruse, Liskin

    2007-01-01

    Homologue function can be differentiated by changing residues that affect binding sites or long-range interactions. LacI and PurR are two proteins that represent the LacI/GalR family (>500 members) of bacterial transcription regulators. All members have distinct DNA-binding and regulatory domains linked by ~18 amino acids. Each homologue has specificity for different DNA and regulatory effector ligands; LacI and PurR also exhibit differences in allosteric communication between DNA and effector binding sites. A comparative study of LacI and PurR suggested that alterations in the interface between the regulatory domain and linker are important for differentiating their functions. Four residues (equivalent to LacI positions 48, 55, 58, and 61) appear particularly important for creating a unique interface and were predicted to be necessary for allosteric regulation. However, nearby residues in the linker interact with DNA ligand. Thus, differences observed in interactions between linker and regulatory domain may be the cause of altered function or an effect of the two proteins binding different DNA ligands. To separate these possibilities, we created a chimeric protein with the LacI DNA-binding domain/linker and the PurR regulatory domain (LLhP). If the interface requires homologue-specific interactions in order to propagate the signal from effector binding, then LLhP repression should not be allosterically regulated by effector binding. Experiments show that LLhP is capable of repression from lacO1 and, contrary to expectation, allosteric response is intact. Further, restoring the potential for PurR-like interactions via substitutions in the LLhP linker tends to diminish repression. These effects are especially pronounced for residues 58 and 61. Clearly, binding affinity of LLhP for the lacO1 DNA site is sensitive to long-range changes in the linker. This result also raises the possibility that mutations at positions 58 and 61 co-evolved with changes in the DNA-binding site. In addition, repression measured in the absence and presence of effector ligand shows that allosteric response increases for several LLhP variants with substitutions at positions 48 and 55. Thus, while side chain variation at these sites does not generally dictate the presence or absence of allostery, the nature of the amino acid can modulate the response to effector. PMID:17436321

  16. Suicide Risk: Amplifiers and Attenuators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plutchik, Robert; Van Praag, Herman M.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to integrate findings on correlates of suicide and violent risk in terms of a theory called a two-stage model of countervailing forces, which assumes that the strength of aggressive impulses is modified by amplifiers and attenuators. The vectorial interaction of amplifiers and attenuators creates an unstable equilibrium making prediction…

  17. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  18. Sound Attenuation in Tubes due to Visco-Thermal Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RODARTE, E.; SINGH, G.; MILLER, N. R.; HRNJAK, P.

    2000-04-01

    The propagation of periodic axial sound waves in gases contained in circular cylindrical structures is a function of four parameters: s=R??/?, the shear wave number or Stokes number, k=?R/c, known as the reduced frequency, ?=?Cp/?, the square root of the Prandtl number and ?=Cp/Cv, the ratio of specific heats. The complete Kirchhoff solution of the sound propagation in tubes problem obtained in 1868 was expressed in terms of these parameters by Tijdeman [1]. In previous works [1, 2] the complex propagation constant was obtained by solving this expression. The results were presented for a limited range in reference [1] and for a broader range in reference [2] but in both cases only for a single fluid, air. In this work the results of a computer code to solve for this propagation constant are presented. The code was used to find the propagation constants (attenuation and phase-shift coefficients) in the range 5attenuation and phase-shift coefficients in terms of simpler polynomial-type expressions as a function of these four parameters. A set of tables to obtain the values of the attenuation and phase shift coefficients for values of these four non-dimensional parameters in the above range is also presented. Sound attenuation measurements using superheated R134a refrigerant agrees reasonably well with the computed attenuation in the plane wave region.

  19. Low-energy gamma ray attenuation characteristics of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Shen, Chih-Ping; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1990-01-01

    Am241 (59.5 keV) gamma ray attenuation characteristics were investigated in 270 aviation fuel (Jet A and Jet A-1) samples from 76 airports around the world as a part of world wide study to measure the variability of aviation fuel properties as a function of season and geographical origin. All measurements were made at room temperature which varied from 20 to 27 C. Fuel densities (rho) were measured concurrently with their linear attenuation coefficients (mu), thus providing a measure of mass attenuation coefficient (mu/rho) for the test samples. In 43 fuel samples, rho and mu values were measured at more than one room temperature, thus providing mu/rho values for them at several temperatures. The results were found to be independent of the temperature at which mu and rho values were measured. It is noted that whereas the individual mu and rho values vary considerably from airport to airport as well as season to season, the mu/rho values for all samples are constant at 0.1843 + or - 0.0013 cu cm/gm. This constancy of mu/rho value for aviation fuels is significant since a nuclear fuel quantity gauging system based on low energy gamma ray attenuation will be viable throughout the world.

  20. Spectral attenuation and backscattering as indicators of average particle size.

    PubMed

    Slade, Wayne Homer; Boss, Emmanuel

    2015-08-20

    Measurements of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient at multiple wavelengths in the ocean typically exhibit a power law dependence on wavelength, and the slope of that power law has been related to the slope of the particle size distribution (PSD), when assumed to be a power law function of particle size. Recently, spectral backscattering coefficient measurements have been made using sensors deployed at moored observatories, on autonomous underwater vehicles, and even retrieved from space-based measurements of remote sensing reflectance. It has been suggested that these backscattering measurements may also be used to obtain information about the shape of the PSD. In this work, we directly compared field-measured PSD with multispectral beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in a coastal bottom boundary later. The results of this comparison demonstrated that (1) the beam attenuation spectral slope correlates with the average particle size as suggested by theory for idealized particles and PSD; and (2) measurements of spectral backscattering also contain information reflective of the average particle size in spite of large deviations of the PSD from a spectral power law shape. PMID:26368762

  1. Normal mode splitting function measurements of anelasticity and attenuation in the Earth's inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkinen, Anna M.; Deuss, Arwen

    2013-07-01

    We have used the iterative spectral fitting method to measure both the elastic and anelastic splitting functions of 20 inner core sensitive normal modes. These modes show significant improvement in spectral fit when anelastic splitting function coefficients dst are introduced in addition to the elastic splitting function coefficients cst. We employ two separate anelastic treatments: (i) fully anelastic measurement, in which a complete set of anelastic splitting function coefficients is measured in addition to the elastic coefficients, and (ii) zonal anelastic measurement, in which anelasticity is only allowed in zonal splitting function coefficients. Together, these two approaches confirm that normal modes sensitive to the Earth's inner core resolve zonally dominant elastic and anelastic structures. The zonal dominance of anelasticity suggests that the inner core exhibit cylindrical attenuation anisotropy in addition to cylindrical velocity anisotropy. In particular, the zonally dominant anelasticity correlates with zonal elastic structure, that is, directions of higher velocity in the inner core also appear more attenuating.

  2. Attenuation of Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yakubitskiy, S. N.; Kolosova, I. V.; Maksyutov, R. A.; Shchelkunov, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1980, in the post-smallpox vaccination era the human population has become increasingly susceptible compared to a generation ago to not only the variola (smallpox) virus, but also other zoonotic orthopoxviruses. The need for safer vaccines against orthopoxviruses is even greater now. The Lister vaccine strain (LIVP) of vaccinia virus was used as a parental virus for generating a recombinant 1421ABJCN clone defective in five virulence genes encoding hemagglutinin (A56R), the IFN-?-binding protein (B8R), thymidine kinase (J2R), the complement-binding protein (C3L), and the Bcl-2-like inhibitor of apoptosis (N1L). We found that disruption of these loci does not affect replication in mammalian cell cultures. The isogenic recombinant strain 1421ABJCN exhibits a reduced inflammatory response and attenuated neurovirulence relative to LIVP. Virus titers of 1421ABJCN were 3 lg lower versus the parent VACV LIVP when administered by the intracerebral route in new-born mice. In a subcutaneous mouse model, 1421ABJCN displayed levels of VACV-neutralizing antibodies comparable to those of LIVP and conferred protective immunity against lethal challenge by the ectromelia virus. The VACV mutant holds promise as a safe live vaccine strain for preventing smallpox and other orthopoxvirus infections. PMID:26798498

  3. Attenuation of Vaccinia Virus.

    PubMed

    Yakubitskiy, S N; Kolosova, I V; Maksyutov, R A; Shchelkunov, S N

    2015-01-01

    Since 1980, in the post-smallpox vaccination era the human population has become increasingly susceptible compared to a generation ago to not only the variola (smallpox) virus, but also other zoonotic orthopoxviruses. The need for safer vaccines against orthopoxviruses is even greater now. The Lister vaccine strain (LIVP) of vaccinia virus was used as a parental virus for generating a recombinant 1421ABJCN clone defective in five virulence genes encoding hemagglutinin (A56R), the IFN-γ-binding protein (B8R), thymidine kinase (J2R), the complement-binding protein (C3L), and the Bcl-2-like inhibitor of apoptosis (N1L). We found that disruption of these loci does not affect replication in mammalian cell cultures. The isogenic recombinant strain 1421ABJCN exhibits a reduced inflammatory response and attenuated neurovirulence relative to LIVP. Virus titers of 1421ABJCN were 3 lg lower versus the parent VACV LIVP when administered by the intracerebral route in new-born mice. In a subcutaneous mouse model, 1421ABJCN displayed levels of VACV-neutralizing antibodies comparable to those of LIVP and conferred protective immunity against lethal challenge by the ectromelia virus. The VACV mutant holds promise as a safe live vaccine strain for preventing smallpox and other orthopoxvirus infections. PMID:26798498

  4. Decadal to millennial scale geomagnetic field variations in the Levantine archaeointensity curve (LAC): methodology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaar, Ron; Tauxe, Lisa; Ron, Hagai; Agnon, Amotz; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Finkelstein, Israel; Zuckerman, Sharon; Levy, Thomas E.

    2014-05-01

    Recovering the absolute intensity of the geomagnetic field on historical and archaeological timescale (archaeointensity) in a sufficient resolution is a fundamental effort in the paleomagnetic research. However, it is a complicated task hampered by some serious methodological difficulties. First, paleointensity experiments should be carefully designed using sufficient number of specimens, and accurate correction for remanence anisotropy, cooling rate effects, and non-linear TRM (NLT). Second, the basic assumption of the paleointensity method - that the natural remanence magnetization (NRM) is a stable thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) carried by single domain (SD) like particles - is hard to test using non-destructive methods. Third, the interpretation of the experimental results is non-unique leading to uncertainty in the final paleointensity calculation. These experimental difficulties compound with dating problems, which are not always easy to overcome. Here, we address each of the issues pointed above in order to construct a high-resolution archaeointensity curve of the Levant using a comprehensive dataset consisting of more than 2000 specimens from over 400 samples. The experimental difficulties are overcome by applying the same treatments to all specimens: Thellier-type IZZI protocol with pTRM checks every second step, and additional anisotropy, cooling rate, and NLT experiments. To ensure consistency, comparability, and objectivity of the interpretations we apply an automatic data analysis technique using a recently published open code computer program (PmagPy Thellier-GUI). We use strict selection criteria for the specimens/samples level and for the correction to screen out any unreliable data. For transparency, we make all the raw data, which include over 80,000 individual measurements, available in the MagIC database for the use of other researchers. We treat the dating problems by assigning a six-level quality scale (form controversial to excellent) according to the dating method employed (archaeological, historical, radiocarbon). In addition, we cross check results from multiple archaeological sites using different source materials dated using different methodologies. The results of this effort are summarized in a regional compilation namely Levantine Archaeomagnetic Curve - LAC. The initial version of the LAC includes recently published data from ancient copper production sites, and new data from two important biblical archaeological mounds in Israel - Tel Megiddo ("Armageddon") and Tel Hazor. In this talk we review our working methodologies, report the current status of the LAC, and discuss its implications on our understanding of geomagnetic secular variations.

  5. Continuously tunable fibre attenuator operating in the wavelength range near 1.5 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Ol'ga I; Mishakov, Gennadii V; Sokolov, Viktor I; Varlamova, Nina V; Zapadinskii, Boris I

    2004-09-30

    A fibre attenuator is fabricated for the telecommunication wavelength range near 1.5 {mu}m in which a single-mode silica fibre with side polishing is used. The fibre surface is covered by a layer of fluorine-containing polymer with a large thermooptic coefficient. The principle of attenuator operation is based on a change in the conditions of total internal reflection for a guided mode in the polished region due to thermally induced variation in the refractive index of the fluoropolymer layer. The attenuator is insensitive to light polarisation, it has a continuously variable attenuation coefficient in the range 0.2-27 dB, and can be easily incorporated into fibreoptic links. (fibre optics)

  6. Diffusion Coefficients in White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saumon, D.; Starrett, C. E.; Daligault, J.

    2015-06-01

    Models of diffusion in white dwarfs universally rely on the coefficients calculated by Paquette et al. (1986). We present new calculations of diffusion coefficients based on an advanced microscopic theory of dense plasmas and a numerical simulation approach that intrinsically accounts for multiple collisions. Our method is validated against a state-of-the-art method and we present results for the diffusion of carbon ions in a helium plasma.

  7. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  8. Large Inversion in Escherichia Coli K-12 1485in between Inversely Oriented Is3 Elements near Lac and Cdd

    PubMed Central

    Komoda, Y.; Enomoto, M.; Tominaga, A.

    1991-01-01

    A companion study has shown that the inversion carried by strain 1485IN has one terminus between lac and proC and the other between his and cdd of the normal strain. Starting with this mapping data, we have done molecular work demonstrating that the inversion occurred by recombination between inversely oriented two IS3 elements, one present near lac and the other near the cdd locus; i.e., the inversion is IN(is3B-is3E). Evidence supporting this conclusion includes: (i) Normal and inversion strains share two short regions with identical restriction maps. One of these regions is near lac and the other near cdd. (ii) IS3 homology was detected in each of the terminus regions of both the normal and inversion strains. (iii) The sequence on one side of the original IS3 element near lac has been exchanged with the sequence on one side of the IS3 near cdd. Whether the inversion has occurred by one event of homologous recombination between the two IS3 elements or has been caused by involvement of IS3 elements on an F factor is discussed. Another rearrangement, probably related to inversion and deletion, was detected between the IS3 and cdd of the inversion strain. PMID:1661252

  9. Fluorescence-activated sorting of totipotent embryonic stem cells expressing developmentally regulated lacZ fusion genes.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, S; Rayburn, H; von Melchner, H; Ruley, H E

    1992-01-01

    Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells were infected with a retrovirus promoter trap vector, and clones expressing lacZ fusion genes (LacZ+) were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Of 12 fusion genes tested, 1 was repressed when ES cells were allowed to differentiate in vitro. Two of three lacZ fusion genes tested were passed into the germ line, indicating that FACS does not significantly affect stem cell totipotency. The pattern of lacZ expression observed in vivo was consistent with that seen in vitro. Both fusion genes were expressed in preimplantation blastulas. However, a fusion gene whose expression was unaffected by in vitro differentiation was ubiquitously expressed in day-10 embryos, while the other, which showed regulated expression in vitro, was restricted to cells located along the posterior neural fold, the optic chiasm, and within the fourth ventricle. These results demonstrate the utility of using promoter trap vectors in conjunction with fluorescence sorting to disrupt developmentally regulated genes in mice. Images PMID:1495960

  10. Construction of targeted single copy lac fusions using lambda Red and FLP-mediated site-specific recombination in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ellermeier, Craig D; Janakiraman, Anuradha; Slauch, James M

    2002-05-15

    A simple method for the construction of targeted transcriptional and translational fusions to the lac operon using FLP mediated site-specific recombination is described. Conditional plasmids containing promoterless lacZY genes and the FLP recognition target (FRT) site in both orientations were constructed for generating transcriptional fusions. Similarly, a plasmid used to create translational fusions was constructed in which the endogenous translational start of lacZ has been removed. These plasmids can be transformed into strains containing a single FRT site, which was previously integrated downstream of the promoter of interest using the lambda Red recombination method. The FLP protein produced from a helper plasmid that contains a conditional origin of replication promotes site-specific recombination between the FRT sites, resulting in an integrated lac fusion to the gene of interest. Transcriptional fusions to the Salmonella typhimurium genes sodCII and sitA were constructed using this method and shown to respond appropriately to mutations in the respective regulatory genes, rpoS and fur. Translational fusions were also constructed using this method. In this case, expression of beta-galactosidase was dependent on translation of the target protein. Given that the FLP recombinase does not require host factors for function and that this method requires no molecular cloning, this method should be applicable for the analysis of gene expression in a variety of organisms. PMID:12062810

  11. The addition of a coarse-grained looping state enhances bistability in a gene expression model of lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earnest, Tyler; Roberts, Elijah; Assaf, Michael; Dahmen, Karin; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2013-03-01

    Bistability of the lac genetic switch in Escherichia coli is known to depend on its ability to form DNA loops with the lac repressor. Here we present a stochastic gene-mRNA-protein model of the lac switch that includes a third transcriptional state describing the DNA loop. We introduce a novel geometric burst extension to the finite state projection method, which allows us to eliminate mRNA as an independent species and rapidly search the parameter space of the model. We evaluate how the addition of the third state changes the model's bistability properties and find a region of parameter space where the system behaves in a way consistent to that seen experimentally for lac. Induction in the looping model is preceded by a rare complete dissociation of the loop followed by an immediate burst of mRNA rather than a slower build up of mRNA as in the two-state model. The overall effect of the looped state is to allow for faster switching times while at the same time further separating the uninduced and induced phenotypes from each other. These properties of loop regulatory elements give them intriguing implications for use in synthetic biology.

  12. Host acceptance tests of parasitoids from Indian Paratachardina lobata on the invasive lobate lac scale in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive lobate lac scale identified as Paratachardina lobata (Hemiptera: Keriidae), native to southern India and Sri Lanka, is a severe threat to native and economic plants in southern Florida. Four parasitoid species, from southern India associated with Paratachardina lobata, were tested in qu...

  13. Evidence for the pulsational origin of the Long Secondary Periods: The red supergiant star V424 Lac (HD 216946)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Sergio

    2007-10-01

    The results of a long-term UBV photometric monitoring of the red supergiant (RSG) star V424 Lac are presented. V424 Lac shows multiperiodic brightness variations which can be attributed to pulsational oscillations. A much longer period ( P = 1601 d), that allows us to classify this star as a long secondary period variable star (LSPV) has been also detected. The B - V and U - B color variations related to the long secondary period (LSP) are similar to those related to the shorter periods, supporting the pulsational nature of LSP. The long period brightness variation of V424 Lac is accompanied by a near-UV (NUV) excess, which was spectroscopically detected in a previous study [Massey, P., Plez, B., Levesque, E.M., et al., 2005. ApJ 634, 1286] and which is now found to be variable from photometry. On the basis of the results found for V424 Lac, the NUV excess recently found in a number of RSGs may be due not solely to circumstellar dust but may also have a contribution from a still undetected LSP variability.

  14. Analysis of In-Vivo LacR-Mediated Gene Repression Based on the Mechanics of DNA Looping

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongli; McEwen, Abbye E.; Crothers, Donald M.; Levene, Stephen D.

    2006-01-01

    Interactions of E. coli lac repressor (LacR) with a pair of operator sites on the same DNA molecule can lead to the formation of looped nucleoprotein complexes both in vitro and in vivo. As a major paradigm for loop-mediated gene regulation, parameters such as operator affinity and spacing, repressor concentration, and DNA bending induced by specific or non-specific DNA-binding proteins (e.g., HU), have been examined extensively. However, a complete and rigorous model that integrates all of these aspects in a systematic and quantitative treatment of experimental data has not been available. Applying our recent statistical-mechanical theory for DNA looping, we calculated repression as a function of operator spacing (58156 bp) from first principles and obtained excellent agreement with independent sets of in-vivo data. The results suggest that a linear extended, as opposed to a closed v-shaped, LacR conformation is the dominant form of the tetramer in vivo. Moreover, loop-mediated repression in wild-type E. coli strains is facilitated by decreased DNA rigidity and high levels of flexibility in the LacR tetramer. In contrast, repression data for strains lacking HU gave a near-normal value of the DNA persistence length. These findings underscore the importance of both protein conformation and elasticity in the formation of small DNA loops widely observed in vivo, and demonstrate the utility of quantitatively analyzing gene regulation based on the mechanics of nucleoprotein complexes. PMID:17205140

  15. The Cys154?Gly Mutation in LacY Causes Constitutive Opening of the Hydrophilic Periplasmic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yiling; Sabetfard, Frances E.; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2009-01-01

    The lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) is a highly dynamic membrane transport protein, while the Cys154?Gly mutant is crippled conformationally. The mutant binds sugar with high affinity, but catalyzes very little translocation across the membrane. In order to further investigate the defect in the mutant, fluorescent maleimides were used to examine the accessibility/reactivity of single-Cys LacY in right-side-out membrane vesicles. As shown previously, sugar binding induces an increase in reactivity of single-Cys replacements in the tightly packed periplasmic domain of wild-type LacY, while decreased reactivity is observed on the cytoplasmic side. Thus, the predominant population of wild-type LacY in the membrane is in an inward-facing conformation in the absence of sugar, sugar binding induces opening of a hydrophilic pathway on the periplasmic side, and the sugar-binding site is alternatively accessible to either side of the membrane. In striking contrast, the accessibility/reactivity of periplasmic Cys replacements in the Cys154?Gly background is very high in the absence of sugar, and sugar binding has little or no effect. The observations indicate that an open hydrophilic pathway is present on the periplasmic side of the Cys154?Gly mutant and that this pathway is unaffected by ligand binding, a conclusion consistent with findings obtained from single-molecule fluorescence and double electronelectron resonance. PMID:18485365

  16. Structure-Based Rational Design to Enhance the Solubility and Thermostability of a Bacterial Laccase Lac15

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zemin; Zhou, Peng; Chang, Fei; Yin, Qiang; Fang, Wei; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Xuecheng; Xiao, Yazhong

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial laccases are ideal alternatives of fungal laccases for specific industrial applications due to specific characteristics such as alkalescence dependence and high chloride tolerance. However, some bacterial laccases presented as inclusion bodies when expressing in Escherichia coli and showed thermal instability. In this study, rational design was employed to enhance the solubility and the thermostablity of the bacterial laccase Lac15-His6 based on the crystal structure obtained previously. After deletion of His-tag and residues323–332, the obtained Lac15D was completely expressed in soluble form even at a higher temperature of 28°C, compared to only 50% of Lac15-His6 expressed solubly at 16°C. It showed a two-time higher activity at temperatures lower than 35°C and a half-life increasing from 72 min to 150 min at 45°C. When used in chromogenic reactions, Lac15D showed constant activity toward dye precursors and their combinations under alkaline conditions, demonstrating its application potential in hair coloring biotechnology. PMID:25036001

  17. Role of translation and attenuation in the control of pyrBI operon expression in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Roland, K L; Powell, F E; Turnbough, C L

    1985-01-01

    Expression of the pyrBI operon of Escherichia coli K-12, which encodes the subunits of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme aspartate transcarbamylase, is negatively regulated by the intracellular levels of UTP. Previous experiments suggested a unique model for regulation of operon expression in which low UTP levels cause close coupling of transcription and translation of the pyrBI leader region. This close coupling suppresses transcriptional termination at an attenuator preceding the structural genes. In this study, we examined the regulatory role of translation and attenuation in operon expression. To determine whether the leader region is translated, we constructed a plasmid, designated pBHM17, in which the pyrBI promoter(s) and the first 11 codons for a putative 44-amino acid leader polypeptide are fused to codon 9 of lacZ. A transformant carrying this plasmid synthesized a beta-galactosidase fusion protein with the amino-terminal sequence of the leader polypeptide, demonstrating that the signals required for leader polypeptide synthesis function in vivo. Synthesis of the fusion protein was nearly insensitive to pyrimidine availability. In uracil-grown cells, the level of fusion protein synthesis encoded by plasmid pBHM17 was much greater than that encoded by a similar plasmid containing a pyrB::lacZ gene fusion, in which the pyrBI promoter-regulatory region is intact. These results indicate that the downstream leader sequence which includes the attenuator is required for regulation and functions as a transcriptional barrier. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to change the ATG leader polypeptide initiation codon of the intact pyrBI operon to ACG, which was shown to strongly inhibit translational initiation. This mutation greatly reduced operon expression and regulation as predicted by the attenuation control model. Images PMID:3928602

  18. Stellar velocity dispersion and black hole mass in the BL Lac object Markarian 501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, A. J.; Ho, L. C.; Sargent, W. L. W.

    2001-12-01

    The recently discovered tight correlation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion in galaxy bulges offers a new way to estimate the black hole masses in nearby galaxies. We have obtained new optical spectra of the BL Lac object Markarian 501 at the Palomar Observatory. From the widths of the Ca II triplet lines, we derive a stellar velocity dispersion of 390 km/s in the nuclear region of the host galaxy. If this galaxy follows the locally-defined M-? correlation, then its central black hole has M ~ (1.5-3.5)*E9 solar masses. This is significantly larger than some previous estimates for the black hole mass in Mrk 501, but similar to central masses observed in nearby radio galaxies in giant elliptical hosts such as M87.

  19. X-RAY FLARES OF EV Lac: STATISTICS, SPECTRA, AND DIAGNOSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Testa, Paola; Drake, Jeremy J.; Osten, Rachel A.; Reale, Fabio

    2010-11-10

    We study the spectral and temporal behavior of X-ray flares from the active M dwarf EV Lac in 200 ks of exposure with the Chandra/HETGS. We derive flare parameters by fitting an empirical function which characterizes the amplitude, shape, and scale. The flares range from very short (<1 ks) to long ({approx}10{sup 4} s) duration events with a range of shapes and amplitudes for all durations. We extract spectra for composite flares to study their mean evolution and to compare flares of different lengths. Evolution of spectral features in the density-temperature plane shows probable sustained heating. The short flares are significantly hotter than the longer flares. We determined an upper limit to the Fe K fluorescent flux, the best-fit value being close to what is expected for compact loops.

  20. Spatial Diagnostics of Potential X-ray Remnants in Old Novae T Aur and DK Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2013-09-01

    We propose 5 and 3 ks ACIS-S snapshots of potentially extended X-ray remnants of two old classical novae, T Aur and DK Lac. They are the likely counterparts of X-ray sources discovered in our Swift survey of old classical novae, and each target has a spatially-resolved optical remnant with a size of order arcseconds. The additional short Chandra snapshots will confirm or reject the tentative Swift identifications through pinpoint astrometry, and will distinguish between extended remnant emission or rejuvenated accretion. Both are important for understanding binary evolution and also potential post-outburst hibernation, while detection of extended emission will represent extremely rare additions to the exclusive club of X-ray emitting classical nova remnants.

  1. Period and Light-Curve Study of the Eclipsing Contact Binary SW Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribulla, T.; Chochol, D.; Parimucha, S.

    1999-10-01

    New photoelectric U,B and V observations of the eclipsing contact binary SW Lac were taken in 1998 and nine new minima times were determined. The (0-C) diagram constructed using photographic and photoelectric minima times can be explained by a secular increase of the period combined with a light-time effect due to the presence of another two bodies in the system with orbital periods P3 = 23 and P4 approx. 90 years. The minimum masses of these bodies are M3 = 0.41 plus or minus 0.03 M and M4 = 1.47 plus or minus 0.03 M. Photometric elements of the contact binary are given.

  2. Polarization structure and variability of the BL Lac object S4 0954+658

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtseva, N.; Gabuzda, D.; Mahmud, M.; O'Sullivan, S.

    We present the results of a multi-frequency analysis of the enigmatic BL Lac object S4 0954+658. We have analyzed three epochs of dense VLBA observations with full polarization at 22 GHz and 8 GHz and one epoch at four frequencies 5 GHz, 8 GHz, 15 GHz, and 22 GHz taken in 1996-1998. We found that the jet is of a prominent helical shape and that the jet ridge line changes dramatically with time. The jet ridge line becomes wider with time and the position of the jet ridge line bend shifts along the jet with a speed of 1.50.1 c. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can explain such changes of the jet ridge line. We estimate the sound speed of the S4 0954+658 jet a_jt = 0.5 0.1c and the Mach number M_jt = 10 0.7.

  3. Sensitive biological detection method for tetracyclines using a tetA-lacZ fusion system.

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, I; Hacker, K; Misulovin, Z; Rothstein, D M

    1990-01-01

    A sensitive microbiological detection system for tetracyclines, utilizing an Escherichia coli strain containing a cloned tetA-lacZ gene fusion, is described. Expression of beta-galactosidase by the fusion plasmid pUB3610 remained subject to regulatory control by the TetR repressor protein, with the presence of tetracyclines in the growth medium leading to a 12-fold induction of beta-galactosidase synthesis. Because synthesis of beta-galactosidase was influenced to a small extent by the carbon source and the addition of cyclic AMP to the medium, cells were grown in the presence of cyclic AMP to enhance the sensitivity of the assay. All commonly marketed tetracyclines and some derivatives at concentrations as low as 0.1 ng/ml could be detected in the growth medium. A plate assay utilizing the fusion plasmid that detects 1 ng of tetracycline has also been developed. Images PMID:2158271

  4. Nutrient status of the lowbush blueberry, Lac-Saint-Jean area, Quebec, Canada. [Vaccinium angustifolium

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, A.R.; Gagnon, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) is an important commercial crop of the Lac-Saint-Jean area (Quebec, Canada). The major blueberry fields are located on sandy soils relatively poor in available mineral nutrients. The nutrients originate from a thin organic layer found on the top of these sandy soils. The leaf mineral contents (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and B) were measured in five blueberry fields during 1984 and 1985. Soil pH and soil available P, K, and Mg were also assessed. The results show that the leaf mineral contents are generally adequate. However, K and Zn might be occasionally deficient when compared to the actual established standards. The available Mg in soil was significantly correlated with the leaf Mg concentration. The data also suggest that the influence of the pH following the burn pruning seems to influence the nutrition of this species.

  5. The variability and periods in the BL Lac AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Kurtanidze, O.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Wang, H. T.; Yuan, Y. H.; Hao, J. M.; Wu, D. X.; Cai, W.; Xiao, H. B.; Pei, Z. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Variability is one of the extreme observational properties of BL Lacertae objects. AO 0235+164 is a well studied BL Lac through the whole electro-magnetic wavebands, it is violently variable in the optical bands. In the present work, we show its optical R band photometric observations carried out during the period of Nov. 2006 to Dec. 2012 using the Ap6E CCD camera attached to the primary focus of the 70 cm meniscus telescope at Abastumani Observatory, Georgia. It shows a large variation of ?R = 4.88 mag (14.20 - 19.08 mag) during our monitoring period. When periodicity analysis methods are adopted to its R observations from our Abastumani monitoring programme and those in the literature, the signs of some periods, P 1 = 8.26 yr, P 2 = 0.55 yr, P 3 = 0.85 yr, P 4 = 1.99 yr are found.

  6. Local elastic constants of LacI and implications for allostery.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andre A S T; Ortiz, Vanessa

    2015-04-01

    Allostery connects subtle changes in a protein's potential energy surface, induced by perturbations like ligand-binding, to significant changes in its function. Understanding this phenomenon and predicting its occurrence are major goals of current research in biophysics and molecular biology. In this paper we introduce a novel approach for studying complex structural transformations such as those typical for allostery. We show that the calculation and analysis of atomic elastic constants of a known allosterically regulated protein, lac repressor, highlights regions that are particularly prone to suffer structural deformation and are experimentally linked to allosteric function. The calculations are based on a high resolution, all-atom description of the protein. We also show that, for the present system, modifying the description of the system from an all-atom forcefield to an elastic network model yields qualitatively different results, indicating the importance of adequately describing the local environment surrounding the different parts of the protein. PMID:25700189

  7. Gene fusions with lacZ by duplication insertion in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans

    SciTech Connect

    Lennon, E.; Minton, K.W. )

    1990-06-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans is the most-studied species of a eubacterial family characterized by extreme resistance to DNA damage. We have focused on developing molecular biological techniques to investigate the genetics of this organism. We report construction of lacZ gene fusions by a method involving both in vitro splicing and the natural transformation of D. radiodurans. Numerous fusion strains were identified by expression of beta-galactosidase. Among these fusion strains, several were inducible by exposure to the DNA-damaging agent mitomycin C, and four of the inducible fusion constructs were cloned in Escherichia coli. Hybridization studies indicate that one of the damage-inducible genes contains a sequence reiterated throughout the D. radiodurans chromosome. Survival measurements show that two of the fusion strains have increased sensitivity to mitomycin C, suggesting that the fusions within these strains inactivate repair functions.

  8. Surface Brightness Variation of the Contact Binary SW Lac: Clues From Doppler Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?enavc?, Hakan Volkan

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we present the preliminary light curve analysis of the contact binary SW Lac, using B, V light curves of the system spanning 2 years (2009 - 2010). During the spot modeling process, we used the information coming from the Doppler maps of the system, which was performed using the high resolution and phase dependent spectra obtained at the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope of the McDonald Observatory, in 2009. The results showed that the spot modeling from the light curve analysis are in accordance with the Doppler maps, while the non-circular spot modeling technique is needed in order to obtain much better and reliable spot models.

  9. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a sample and non-uniform intensity in the reverberation chambers under test. In this study, conversion methods from Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model do not guarantee reliable estimations, particularly at frequencies below 250 Hz and beyond 2500?Hz. PMID:23742349

  10. Interplay of protein and DNA structure revealed in simulations of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Czapla, Luke; Grosner, Michael A; Swigon, David; Olson, Wilma K

    2013-01-01

    The E. coli Lac repressor is the classic textbook example of a protein that attaches to widely spaced sites along a genome and forces the intervening DNA into a loop. The short loops implicated in the regulation of the lac operon suggest the involvement of factors other than DNA and repressor in gene control. The molecular simulations presented here examine two likely structural contributions to the in-vivo looping of bacterial DNA: the distortions of the double helix introduced upon association of the highly abundant, nonspecific nucleoid protein HU and the large-scale deformations of the repressor detected in low-resolution experiments. The computations take account of the three-dimensional arrangements of nucleotides and amino acids found in crystal structures of DNA with the two proteins, the natural rest state and deformational properties of protein-free DNA, and the constraints on looping imposed by the conformation of the repressor and the orientation of bound DNA. The predicted looping propensities capture the complex, chain-length-dependent variation in repression efficacy extracted from gene expression studies and in vitro experiments and reveal unexpected chain-length-dependent variations in the uptake of HU, the deformation of repressor, and the folding of DNA. Both the opening of repressor and the presence of HU, at levels approximating those found in vivo, enhance the probability of loop formation. HU affects the global organization of the repressor and the opening of repressor influences the levels of HU binding to DNA. The length of the loop determines whether the DNA adopts antiparallel or parallel orientations on the repressor, whether the repressor is opened or closed, and how many HU molecules bind to the loop. The collective behavior of proteins and DNA is greater than the sum of the parts and hints of ways in which multiple proteins may coordinate the packaging and processing of genetic information. PMID:23457581

  11. The Megaparsec-scale X-ray Jet of The BL Lac Object OJ287

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.

    2011-03-01

    We present an X-ray image of the BL Lacertae (BL Lac) object OJ287 revealing a long jet, curved by 55 and extending 20'' or 90 kpc from the nucleus. This de-projects to >1 Mpc based on the viewing angle on parsec scales. Radio emission follows the general X-ray morphology but extends even farther from the nucleus. The upper limit to the isotropic radio luminosity, ~2 1024 W Hz-1, places the source in the Fanaroff-Riley 1 (FR 1) class, as expected for BL Lac objects. The spectral energy distribution indicates that the extended X-ray emission is from inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons. In this case, the derived magnetic field is B ? 5 ?G, the minimum electron energy is 7-40m e c 2, and the Doppler factor is ? ? 8 in a knot 8'' from the nucleus. The minimum total kinetic power of the jet is (1-2)1045 erg s-1. Upstream of the bend, the width of the X-ray emission in the jet is about half the projected distance from the nucleus. This implies that the highly relativistic bulk motion is not limited to an extremely thin spine, as has been proposed previously for FR 1 sources. The bending of the jet, the deceleration of the flow from parsec to kiloparsec scales, and the knotty structure can all be caused by standing shocks inclined by ~7 to the jet axis. Moving shocks resulting from major changes in the flow properties can also reproduce the knotty structure, but such a model does not explain as many of the observational details.

  12. TOO_awehrle_4: Extended Observations of Flaring BL Lac in Nov 2012- Feb 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrle, A.

    2012-11-01

    We propose to continue our Herschel TOO observations of the flaring eponymous blazar, BL Lac, which is now 2-6 times brighter than it was when we proposed our current TOO observations two months ago, depending on band. BL Lac has now reached 10-to-30-year historical maxima at centimeter, millimeter, submillimeter, and X-ray bands, and is brighter than any previous far infrared observations (ATEL #4557, Wehrle et al.). Our goal is to use 10 weekly Herschel observations with PACS and SPIRE of 15.9 minutes each, (total 2.7 hrs excluding 1.7 hrs time constraint penalty) in combination with VLBI imaging and ground-based millimeter and submillimeter photometry to determine if the far infrared emission is coming from stationary shock regions identified with bright knots in the parsec scale jet. We do this by seeing if the far-infrared emission brightens at the same time as the stationary knots ``light up" in VLBI images from the passage of an energetic disturbance down the jet. In addition, we will continue our evaluation of the physical cause of the flares as either magnetic field line reconnection or turbulence within shocks, and we will derive the physical conditions in the jet by modelling the SEDs as the flare evolves. We will compare the physics of the jet in this TeV blazar to the non-TeV blazar 3C454.3 which we observed with Herschel in November 2010-January 2011 (Wehrle et al. 2012).

  13. Interplay of Protein and DNA Structure Revealed in Simulations of the lac Operon

    PubMed Central

    Czapla, Luke; Grosner, Michael A.; Swigon, David; Olson, Wilma K.

    2013-01-01

    The E. coli Lac repressor is the classic textbook example of a protein that attaches to widely spaced sites along a genome and forces the intervening DNA into a loop. The short loops implicated in the regulation of the lac operon suggest the involvement of factors other than DNA and repressor in gene control. The molecular simulations presented here examine two likely structural contributions to the in-vivo looping of bacterial DNA: the distortions of the double helix introduced upon association of the highly abundant, nonspecific nucleoid protein HU and the large-scale deformations of the repressor detected in low-resolution experiments. The computations take account of the three-dimensional arrangements of nucleotides and amino acids found in crystal structures of DNA with the two proteins, the natural rest state and deformational properties of protein-free DNA, and the constraints on looping imposed by the conformation of the repressor and the orientation of bound DNA. The predicted looping propensities capture the complex, chain-length-dependent variation in repression efficacy extracted from gene expression studies and in vitro experiments and reveal unexpected chain-length-dependent variations in the uptake of HU, the deformation of repressor, and the folding of DNA. Both the opening of repressor and the presence of HU, at levels approximating those found in vivo, enhance the probability of loop formation. HU affects the global organization of the repressor and the opening of repressor influences the levels of HU binding to DNA. The length of the loop determines whether the DNA adopts antiparallel or parallel orientations on the repressor, whether the repressor is opened or closed, and how many HU molecules bind to the loop. The collective behavior of proteins and DNA is greater than the sum of the parts and hints of ways in which multiple proteins may coordinate the packaging and processing of genetic information. PMID:23457581

  14. A hadronic origin for ultra-high-frequency-peaked BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerruti, M.; Zech, A.; Boisson, C.; Inoue, S.

    2015-03-01

    Current Cherenkov telescopes have identified a population of ultra-high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects (UHBLs), also known as extreme blazars, that exhibit exceptionally hard TeV spectra, including 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 0347-121, RGB J0710+591, 1ES 1101-232, and 1ES 1218+304. Although one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) models have been generally successful in interpreting the high-energy emission observed in other BL Lac objects, they are problematic for UHBLs, necessitating very large Doppler factors and/or extremely high minimum Lorentz factors of the emitting leptonic population. In this context, we have investigated alternative scenarios where hadronic emission processes are important, using a newly developed (lepto-)hadronic numerical code to systematically explore the physical parameters of the emission region that reproduces the observed spectra while avoiding the extreme values encountered in pure SSC models. Assuming a fixed Doppler factor ? = 30, two principal parameter regimes are identified, where the high-energy emission is due to: (1) proton-synchrotron radiation, with magnetic fields B 1-100 G and maximum proton energies Ep; max ? 1019 eV; and (2) synchrotron emission from p-?-induced cascades as well as SSC emission from primary leptons, with B 0.1-1 G and Ep; max ? 1017 eV. This can be realized with plausible, sub-Eddington values for the total (kinetic plus magnetic) power of the emitting plasma, in contrast to hadronic interpretations for other blazar classes that often warrant highly super-Eddington values.

  15. Multiple Ant Species Tending Lac Insect Kerria yunnanensis (Hemiptera: Kerriidae) Provide Asymmetric Protection against Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiao; Hoffmann, Benjamin D.; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ant attendance on the parasitoid community and parasitism of lac insect Kerria yunnanensis aggregations in Yunnan province, China. We manipulated ant attendance to establish three treatments: (1) ant exclusion; (2) low ant attendance by several ant species; and (3) high ant attendance by Crematogaster macaoensis. Five parasitoid species were collected, with two species contributing 82.7 and 13.2% of total abundance respectively. Total parasitoid abundance was lowest in the February sample when K. yunnanensis was in its younger life stage, being significantly lower in the ant exclusion treatment. In April, all three treatments had significantly different parasitoid abundances, being highest in the ant exclusion treatment and the lowest in the high ant attendance treatment. When ants were present, there were strong negative relationships between total parasitoid abundance and ant abundance, with the relationships being dependent upon the ant species composition and abundance. The patterns of total parasitoid abundance were driven by the two most abundant parasitoid species. Parasitoid species richness did not differ among treatments or between sample times, however, multivariate analysis confirmed that overall parasitoid community structure differed significantly among treatments and between sample times, with the high ant attendance treatment differing most from the other two treatments. Interestingly the absence of ants did not result in increased parasitism from four of the five parasitoids. Ants in lac insect farming systems have a clear role for agricultural pest management. A full understanding of the asymmetric abilities of ants to influence parasitoid communities, and affect parasitism of hosts will require further experimental manipulation to assess the relative roles of 1) the abundance of each individual ant species on parasitoid access to hosts, 2) competition among parasitoids, and 3) the interaction between the first two factors. PMID:24887398

  16. A Maximum Likelihood Approach to Determine Sensor Radiometric Response Coefficients for NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Ning; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; Oudrari, Hassan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    Optical sensors aboard Earth orbiting satellites such as the next generation Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) assume that the sensors radiometric response in the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) is described by a quadratic polynomial, in relating the aperture spectral radiance to the sensor Digital Number (DN) readout. For VIIRS Flight Unit 1, the coefficients are to be determined before launch by an attenuation method, although the linear coefficient will be further determined on-orbit through observing the Solar Diffuser. In determining the quadratic polynomial coefficients by the attenuation method, a Maximum Likelihood approach is applied in carrying out the least-squares procedure. Crucial to the Maximum Likelihood least-squares procedure is the computation of the weight. The weight not only has a contribution from the noise of the sensor s digital count, with an important contribution from digitization error, but also is affected heavily by the mathematical expression used to predict the value of the dependent variable, because both the independent and the dependent variables contain random noise. In addition, model errors have a major impact on the uncertainties of the coefficients. The Maximum Likelihood approach demonstrates the inadequacy of the attenuation method model with a quadratic polynomial for the retrieved spectral radiance. We show that using the inadequate model dramatically increases the uncertainties of the coefficients. We compute the coefficient values and their uncertainties, considering both measurement and model errors.

  17. FRACTIONAL WAVE EQUATIONS WITH ATTENUATION

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Peter; Meerschaert, Mark M.; McGough, Robert J.; Zhou, Yuzhen

    2013-01-01

    Fractional wave equations with attenuation have been proposed by Caputo [5], Szabo [27], Chen and Holm [7], and Kelly et al. [11]. These equations capture the power-law attenuation with frequency observed in many experimental settings when sound waves travel through inhomogeneous media. In particular, these models are useful for medical ultrasound. This paper develops stochastic solutions and weak solutions to the power law wave equation of Kelly et al. [11]. PMID:25045309

  18. Prediction of attenuation by rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    A new model is presented for the prediction of attenuation by rain on either terrestrial or slant earth-to-space propagation paths. The model was developed using geophysical observations of the statistics of point rain rate, of the horizontal structure of rainfall, and of the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere. The model was tested by comparison with attenuation distribution observations. The results show excellent agreement; the observations differ from model predictions by less than the rms deviations predicted by the model.

  19. Propagation and attenuation of P-waves in patchy saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui-Xing; He, Bing-Shou

    2015-09-01

    We establish a patchy saturation model and derive the seismic wave equations for patchy saturated porous media on the basis of Biot's equations and Johnson's bulk modulus. We solve the equations, obtain the attenuation coefficients, and analyze the characteristics of wave attenuation in the seismic frequency range. The results suggest that seismic waves show attenuation and dispersion in partially saturated rocks in the low frequency range. With frequency increasing, attenuation increases. The attenuation of P-waves of the second kind is more pronounced in agreement with Biot's theory. We also study the effect of porosity, saturation, and inner sphere radius on the attenuation of the P-waves of the first kind and find that attenuation increases with increasing frequency and porosity, and decreases with increasing frequency and degree of saturation. As for the inner sphere radius, wave attenuation is initially increasing with increasing frequency and inner sphere radius less than half the outer radius. Subsequently, wave attenuation decreases with increasing frequency and inner sphere radius is higher than half the outer sphere radius.

  20. Dual energy CT for attenuation correction with PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors evaluate the energy dependent noise and bias properties of monoenergetic images synthesized from dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisitions. These monoenergetic images can be used to estimate attenuation coefficients at energies suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This is becoming more relevant with the increased use of quantitative imaging by PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners. There are, however, potential variations in the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images as a function of energy. Methods: The authors used analytic approximations and simulations to estimate the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images of water-filled cylinders with different shapes and the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom from 40 to 520 keV, the range of SPECT and PET energies. The dual-kVp spectra were based on the GE Lightspeed VCT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp with added filtration of 0.5 mm Cu. The authors evaluated strategies of noise suppression with sinogram smoothing and dose minimization with reduction of tube currents at the two kVp settings. The authors compared the impact of DECT-based attenuation correction with single-kVp CT-based attenuation correction on PET quantitation for the NCAT phantom for soft tissue and high-Z materials of bone and iodine contrast enhancement. Results: Both analytic calculations and simulations displayed the expected minimum noise value for a synthesized monoenergetic image at an energy between the mean energies of the two spectra. In addition the authors found that the normalized coefficient of variation in the synthesized attenuation map increased with energy but reached a plateau near 160 keV, and then remained constant with increasing energy up to 511 keV and beyond. The bias was minimal, as the linear attenuation coefficients of the synthesized monoenergetic images were within 2.4% of the known true values across the entire energy range. Compared with no sinogram smoothing, sinogram smoothing can dramatically reduce noise in the DECT-derived attenuation map. Through appropriate selection of tube currents for high and low kVp scans, DECT can deliver roughly the same amount of radiation dose as that of a single kVp CT scan, but could be used for PET attenuation correction with reduced bias in contrast agent regions by a factor of ?2.6 and slightly reduced RMSE for the total image. Conclusions: When DECT is used for attenuation correction at higher energies, there is a noise amplification that is dependent on the energy of the synthesized monoenergetic image of linear attenuation coefficients. Sinogram smoothing reduces the noise amplification in DECT-derived attenuation maps without increasing bias. With an appropriate selection of CT techniques, a DECT scan with the same radiation dose as a single CT scan can result in a PET image with improved quantitative accuracy. PMID:24387525

  1. Dual energy CT for attenuation correction with PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The authors evaluate the energy dependent noise and bias properties of monoenergetic images synthesized from dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisitions. These monoenergetic images can be used to estimate attenuation coefficients at energies suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This is becoming more relevant with the increased use of quantitative imaging by PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners. There are, however, potential variations in the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images as a function of energy. Methods: The authors used analytic approximations and simulations to estimate the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images of water-filled cylinders with different shapes and the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom from 40 to 520 keV, the range of SPECT and PET energies. The dual-kVp spectra were based on the GE Lightspeed VCT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp with added filtration of 0.5 mm Cu. The authors evaluated strategies of noise suppression with sinogram smoothing and dose minimization with reduction of tube currents at the two kVp settings. The authors compared the impact of DECT-based attenuation correction with single-kVp CT-based attenuation correction on PET quantitation for the NCAT phantom for soft tissue and high-Z materials of bone and iodine contrast enhancement. Results: Both analytic calculations and simulations displayed the expected minimum noise value for a synthesized monoenergetic image at an energy between the mean energies of the two spectra. In addition the authors found that the normalized coefficient of variation in the synthesized attenuation map increased with energy but reached a plateau near 160 keV, and then remained constant with increasing energy up to 511 keV and beyond. The bias was minimal, as the linear attenuation coefficients of the synthesized monoenergetic images were within 2.4% of the known true values across the entire energy range. Compared with no sinogram smoothing, sinogram smoothing can dramatically reduce noise in the DECT-derived attenuation map. Through appropriate selection of tube currents for high and low kVp scans, DECT can deliver roughly the same amount of radiation dose as that of a single kVp CT scan, but could be used for PET attenuation correction with reduced bias in contrast agent regions by a factor of ?2.6 and slightly reduced RMSE for the total image. Conclusions: When DECT is used for attenuation correction at higher energies, there is a noise amplification that is dependent on the energy of the synthesized monoenergetic image of linear attenuation coefficients. Sinogram smoothing reduces the noise amplification in DECT-derived attenuation maps without increasing bias. With an appropriate selection of CT techniques, a DECT scan with the same radiation dose as a single CT scan can result in a PET image with improved quantitative accuracy.

  2. Dual energy CT for attenuation correction with PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The authors evaluate the energy dependent noise and bias properties of monoenergetic images synthesized from dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisitions. These monoenergetic images can be used to estimate attenuation coefficients at energies suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This is becoming more relevant with the increased use of quantitative imaging by PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners. There are, however, potential variations in the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images as a function of energy. Methods: The authors used analytic approximations and simulations to estimate the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images of water-filled cylinders with different shapes and the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom from 40 to 520 keV, the range of SPECT and PET energies. The dual-kVp spectra were based on the GE Lightspeed VCT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp with added filtration of 0.5 mm Cu. The authors evaluated strategies of noise suppression with sinogram smoothing and dose minimization with reduction of tube currents at the two kVp settings. The authors compared the impact of DECT-based attenuation correction with single-kVp CT-based attenuation correction on PET quantitation for the NCAT phantom for soft tissue and high-Z materials of bone and iodine contrast enhancement. Results: Both analytic calculations and simulations displayed the expected minimum noise value for a synthesized monoenergetic image at an energy between the mean energies of the two spectra. In addition the authors found that the normalized coefficient of variation in the synthesized attenuation map increased with energy but reached a plateau near 160 keV, and then remained constant with increasing energy up to 511 keV and beyond. The bias was minimal, as the linear attenuation coefficients of the synthesized monoenergetic images were within 2.4% of the known true values across the entire energy range. Compared with no sinogram smoothing, sinogram smoothing can dramatically reduce noise in the DECT-derived attenuation map. Through appropriate selection of tube currents for high and low kVp scans, DECT can deliver roughly the same amount of radiation dose as that of a single kVp CT scan, but could be used for PET attenuation correction with reduced bias in contrast agent regions by a factor of ∼2.6 and slightly reduced RMSE for the total image. Conclusions: When DECT is used for attenuation correction at higher energies, there is a noise amplification that is dependent on the energy of the synthesized monoenergetic image of linear attenuation coefficients. Sinogram smoothing reduces the noise amplification in DECT-derived attenuation maps without increasing bias. With an appropriate selection of CT techniques, a DECT scan with the same radiation dose as a single CT scan can result in a PET image with improved quantitative accuracy.

  3. Attenuation correction for small animal SPECT imaging using x-ray CT data

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Andrew B.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2005-09-15

    Photon attenuation in small animal nuclear medicine scans can be significant when using isotopes that emit lower energy photons such as iodine-125. We have developed a method to use microCT data to perform attenuation corrected small animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A microCT calibration phantom was first imaged, and the resulting calibration curve was used to convert microCT image values to linear attenuation coefficient values that were then used in an iterative SPECT reconstruction algorithm. This method was applied to reconstruct a SPECT image of a uniform phantom filled with {sup 125}I-NaI. Without attenuation correction, the image suffered a 30% decrease in intensity in the center of the image, which was removed with the addition of attenuation correction. This reduced the relative standard deviation in the region of interest from 10% to 6%.

  4. A method for monitoring nuclear absorption coefficients of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1989-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  5. Recursive calculation of Hansen coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branham, Richard L., Jr.

    1990-06-01

    Hansen coefficients are used in expansions of the elliptic motion. Three methods for calculating the coefficients are studied: Tisserand's method, the Von Zeipel-Andoyer (VZA) method with explicit representation of the polynomials required to compute the Hansen coefficients, and the VZA method with the values of the polynomials calculated recursively. The VZA method with explicit polynomials is by far the most rapid, but the tabulation of the polynomials only extends to 12th order in powers of the eccentricity, and unless one has access to the polynomials in machine-readable form their entry is laborious and error-prone. The recursive calculation of the VZA polynomials, needed to compute the Hansen coefficients, while slower, is faster than the calculation of the Hansen coefficients by Tisserand's method, up to 10th order in the eccentricity and is still relatively efficient for higher orders. The main advantages of the recursive calculation are the simplicity of the program and one's being able to extend the expansions to any order of eccentricity with ease. Because FORTRAN does not implement recursive procedures, this paper used C for all of the calculations. The most important conclusion is recursion's genuine usefulness in scientific computing.

  6. Identification of base and backbone contacts used for DNA sequence recognition and high-affinity binding by LAC9, a transcription activator containing a C6 zinc finger

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, Yuan-Di C.; Nandabalan, K.; Dickson, R.C. )

    1991-04-01

    The LAC9 protein of Kluyveromyces lactis is a transcriptional regulator of genes in the lactose-galactose regulon. To regulate transcription, LAC9 must bind to 17-bp upstream activator sequences (UASs) located in front of each target gene. LAC9 is homologous to the GAL4 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the two proteins must bind DNA in a very similar manner. In this paper the authors show that high-affinity, sequence-specific binding by LAC9 dimers is mediated primarily by 3 bp at each end of the UAS. In addition, at least one half of the UAS must have a GC or CG base pair at position 1 for high-affinity binding; LAC9k binds preferentially to the half containing the GC base pair. Hydroxyl radical footprinting shows that a LAC9 dimer binds an unusually broad region on one face of the DNA helix. Because of the data, they suggest that LAC9 contacts positions 6, 7, and 8, both plus and minus, of the UAS, which are separated by more than one turn of the DNA helix, and twists part way around the DNA, thus protecting the broad region of the minor groove between the major-groove contacts.

  7. Subdividing repressor function: DNA binding affinity, selectivity, and allostery can be altered by amino acid substitution of nonconserved residues in a LacI/GalR homologue†

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Hongli; Taraban, Marc; Trewhella, Jill; Swint-Kruse, Liskin

    2008-01-01

    Many mutations that impact protein function occur at residues that do not directly contact ligand. To understand the functional contributions from the sequence that links the DNA-binding and regulatory domains of the LacI/GalR homologues, we have created a chimeric protein (LLhP), which comprises the LacI DNA-binding domain, the LacI linker, and the PurR regulatory domain. Although DNA binding site residues are identical in LLhP and LacI, thermodynamic measurements of DNA binding affinity show that LLhP does not discriminate between alternative DNA ligands as well as LacI. In addition, small-angle scattering experiments show that LLhP is more compact than LacI: Upon DNA release, LacI shows a 20Å increase in length that was previously attributed to unfolding the linker. This change is not seen in apo-LLhP, even though the linker sequences of the two proteins are identical. Together, results indicate that long-range functional and structural changes are propagated across the interface that forms between the linker and regulatory domain. These changes could be mediated via the side chains of several linker residues that contact the regulatory domains of the naturally-occurring proteins, LacI and PurR. Substitution of these residues in LLhP leads to a range of functional effects. Four variants show altered affinity for DNA, with no changes in selectivity or allosteric response. Another two result in proteins that bind operator DNA with very low affinity and no allosteric response, similar to LacI binding nonspecific DNA sequences. Two more substitutions simultaneously diminish affinity, enhance allostery, and profoundly alter DNA ligand selectivity. Thus, positions within the linker can be varied to modulate different aspects of repressor function. PMID:18616293

  8. Flow coefficients of monosleeve valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, C D

    1941-01-01

    The flow coefficients of the intake and the exhaust ports of a sleeve-valve cylinder were measured by attaching the cylinder to a large tank and measuring the changes in pressure and temperature in the tank that were caused by short periods of air flow through the valve ports. The derivation of the equations on which the flow coefficients are based is given. The distribution of total pressure in the arms of the sleeve-valve intake manifold was measured. The arms are found to have as little as 75 percent of the total pressure within the manifold entrance.

  9. Transport coefficients of fluid mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, R.; de Haro, M.L.; Martina, E.

    1986-07-01

    On the basis of the successful description of the equilibrium properties of simple fluids and fluid mixtures using perturbation theory, the consequences of including density- and temperature-dependent diameters in the formulas for the transport coefficients of dense hard-sphere fluid mixtures are investigated. The advantages and limitations of this approach for the correlation of the experimental data of real mixtures, together with numerical estimates for particular mixtures, are discussed. On the other hand, recent mean field kinetic theories which include the effect of the attractive tail in the intermolecular potential are employed to derive transport coefficients for mixtures. Numerical results are presented and comparison with other theories is also made.

  10. Seebeck coefficient of one electron

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, Zahid A. K.

    2014-03-07

    The Seebeck coefficient of one electron, driven thermally into a semiconductor single-electron box, is investigated theoretically. With a finite temperature difference ?T between the source and charging island, a single electron can charge the island in equilibrium, directly generating a Seebeck effect. Seebeck coefficients for small and finite ?T are calculated and a thermally driven Coulomb staircase is predicted. Single-electron Seebeck oscillations occur with increasing ?T, as one electron at a time charges the box. A method is proposed for experimental verification of these effects.

  11. Effects of vegetation canopy on the radar backscattering coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, T.; Blanchard, B. J.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne L- and C-band scatterometer data, taken over both vegetation-covered and bare fields, were systematically analyzed and theoretically reproduced, using a recently developed model for calculating radar backscattering coefficients of rough soil surfaces. The results show that the model can reproduce the observed angular variations of radar backscattering coefficient quite well via a least-squares fit method. Best fits to the data provide estimates of the statistical properties of the surface roughness, which is characterized by two parameters: the standard deviation of surface height, and the surface correlation length. In addition, the processes of vegetation attenuation and volume scattering require two canopy parameters, the canopy optical thickness and a volume scattering factor. Canopy parameter values for individual vegetation types, including alfalfa, milo and corn, were also determined from the best-fit results. The uncertainties in the scatterometer data were also explored.

  12. Calculations of radar backscattering coefficient of vegetation-covered soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, T.; Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A model for simulating the measured backscattering coefficient of vegetation-covered soil surfaces includes both coherent and incoherent components of the backscattered radar pulses from a rough sil surface. The effect of vegetation canopy scattering is also incorporated into the model by making the radar pulse subject to two-way attenuation and volume scattering when it passes through the vegetation layer. Model results agree well with the measured angular distributions of the radar backscattering coefficient for HH polarization at the 1.6 GHz and 4.75 GHz frequencies over grass-covered fields. It was found that the coherent scattering component is very important at angles near nadir, while the vegetation volume scattering is dominant at incident angles 30 degrees.

  13. Photon mass energy transfer coefficients for elements z=1 to 92 and 48 additional substances of dosimetric interest.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hideki

    2014-07-01

    Photon mass energy transfer coefficient is an essential factor when converting photon energy fluence into kinetic energy released per unit mass (kerma). Although mass attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficients can be looked up in databases, the mass energy transfer coefficient values are still controversial. In this paper, the photon mass energy transfer coefficients for elements Z=1-92 were calculated based on cross-sectional data for each photon interaction type. Mass energy transfer coefficients for 48 compounds and/or mixtures of dosimetric interest were calculated from coefficient data for elements using Bragg's additivity rule. We additionally developed software that can search these coefficient data for any element or substance of dosimetric interest. The database and software created in this paper should prove useful for radiation measurements and/or dose calculations. PMID:25055949

  14. The HC-LAC: a Platform for Modeling Hydrology and Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreda, F.; Wyatt, A.; Bruhn, M.; Wheaton, W.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Muñoz-Castillo, R.; Rineer, J.

    2013-05-01

    This platform, called the Hydrology and Climate Change in Latin America and The Caribbean, or "HC-LAC", is an integrated quantitative simulation of hydrology and climate change. The HC-LAC is composed of two principal components: the Analytical Hydrography Dataset (AHD) and an enhanced version of the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF). The AHD is a spatially explicit surface water data layer of Central and South America derived from digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and modified by the USGS to provide more accurate flow between cells in the raster data. For the LAC area, AHD consists 230, 000 catchments and stream segments with an average area of 100 km2 and length of 10 km, respectively. The AHD data structure is patterned after the US National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus), thus providing a proven structure for flexible data integration and analyses necessary for spatial models like the HC-LAC. The structure of the AHD enables the implementation of water balance modeling and general routing of flows through the stream network thus supporting a range of environmental models. GWLF is applied on each AHD catchment which is characterized by multiple land use and soil type. The response of each land use in a given catchment is modeled separately in generating stream flow as well as recharge to soil storage. The stream flows generated from each catchment are routed through stream networks, providing total flow at any point in the stream network. A pilot implementation of the HC-LAC was established for the Rio Grande basin in North West Argentina (drainage area 6,700 km2). The model was parameterized and calibrated using readily available data. Three stream flow time series were generated using a reference climate case and two climate change projections. The reference case was based on historical records and assumes no climate change. The two climate change projections were generated using the IPCC "A2" high emissions scenario with two general circulation models: the UKMO Hadley CM3 (used frequently in Argentina) and the CSIRO Mk3 (the "dry" scenario used by World Bank) for the period 2012-2060. The three stream flow time series were used to calculate unmet water demand for urban water supply and irrigation, taking into account various measures to adopt to climate change. The HC-LAC was also used to generate a complete surface flow database for the Rio Grande basin, which is proving useful for analysis of a variety of current and future water resource management issues by the local governmental agencies.

  15. Aerodynamic coefficients and transformation tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Joseph S

    1918-01-01

    The problem of the transformation of numerical values expressed in one system of units into another set or system of units frequently arises in connection with aerodynamic problems. Report contains aerodynamic coefficients and conversion tables needed to facilitate such transformation. (author)

  16. Tables of the coefficients A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, N.

    1974-01-01

    Numerical coefficients required to express the angular distribution for the rotationally elastic or inelastic scattering of electrons from a diatomic molecule were tabulated for the case of nitrogen and in the energy range from 0.20 eV to 10.0 eV. Five different rotational states are considered.

  17. Some properties of Hansen's coefficients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribanov, A. V.

    Precise formulae for Hansen's coefficients X0n,m calculation when |n| ≤ 20 and |m| ≤ 20 are constructed. By using properties of the hypergeometrical function estimates of X0n,m for any higher indexes are obtained.

  18. Prediction of stream volatilization coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    Equations are developed for predicting the liquid-film and gas-film reference-substance parameters for quantifying volatilization of organic solutes from streams. Molecular weight and molecular-diffusion coefficients of the solute are used as correlating parameters. Equations for predicting molecular-diffusion coefficients of organic solutes in water and air are developed, with molecular weight and molal volume as parameters. Mean absolute errors of prediction for diffusion coefficients in water are 9.97% for the molecular-weight equation, 6.45% for the molal-volume equation. The mean absolute error for the diffusion coefficient in air is 5.79% for the molal-volume equation. Molecular weight is not a satisfactory correlating parameter for diffusion in air because two equations are necessary to describe the values in the data set. The best predictive equation for the liquid-film reference-substance parameter has a mean absolute error of 5.74%, with molal volume as the correlating parameter. The best equation for the gas-film parameter has a mean absolute error of 7.80%, with molecular weight as the correlating parameter.

  19. Profile Loss Coefficient Definitions Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Calzada, Pedro

    2011-09-01

    A critical and integrated view on the profile loss coefficient definitions commonly used in turbomachinery is offered. By solving the compressible flow equations in boundary layers (characterized by their integral parameters) mixing at constant area the dependence of different loss coefficients (total pressure loss and kinetic energy loss coefficient, KSI) on the Mach number and boundary layer characteristics is investigated. KSI appears as the best parameter to measure the merit of the process since it is fundamentally independent of Mach number and only dependent on the boundary layer parameters. Results from expressions obtained by different formulations and levels of approximations are compared with the solution of the full set of compressible equations. KSI estimated by the expression 2θ/(t - δ*) + (δ*/t)2 is identified as the best parameter of merit to be used as profile loss coefficient. Additionally a comparison between losses from boundary layers discharging into constant area and discharging into constant pressure is given and the relevance played by the shape parameter, H, in the latter case is remarked.

  20. Frequency dependent Lg attenuation in Northeast China and Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranasinghe, N. R.; Gallegos, A. C.; Trujillo, A. R.; Blanchette, A. R.; Hearn, T. M.; Sandvol, E. A.; Ni, J.; Grand, S. P.; Niu, F.; Chen, Y. J.; Ning, J.; Kawakatsu, H.; Tanaka, S.; Obayashi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Lg spectra are collected from 452 crustal events spanning from 1995 to 2014 in Northeast (NE) China and surrounding areas using 202 seismic stations from Northeast China extended seismic Array (NECESSArray), GSN stations in NE Asia, China national seismic network, IRIS PASSCAL experiments in NE China, Korean and Japanese permanent seismic networks to study Lg attenuation in NE Asia. Using reverse two-station and two-station methods we obtained frequency dependent Lg attenuation models for a frequency range between 0.5 Hz to 5 Hz with a resolution of about 2°. We solved for the geometric spreading term by fitting the amplitude to the two-station distance ratios and the absolute distances. The best fit yields a spreading coefficient of 0.36 instead of the traditional cylindrical spreading term of 0.50. Lg Q values in NE China and the Korean Peninsula vary from 50 to 1600. Q values increase rapidly in the Songliao Basin (SNB) for higher frequencies (≥ 2Hz), while they stay relatively constant in the Great Xing'an Range (GXR). Low attenuation regions are found in the Great Xing'an, Lesser Xing'an (LXR) and Songen-Zhangguangcai Ranges (SZR). Overall, attenuation is high in the Songliao, Sanjiang (SNB), Bohai (BHB), Erlian (EB) and Hailar (HB) basins. The highest attenuation is found in the vicinity of Wudalicanchi (WVF), Changbaishan (CBV), and Quaternary volcanic regions, the southern Songliao Basin, west of Erlian Basin, Bohai Basin and the Sanjiang Basin. In general regions with low attenuation (Q > 800) have a low heat flow value (<70 mW/m2) and very thin (< 1 km) or no sediments.

  1. Prediction of spectral acceleration response ordinates based on PGA attenuation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graizer, V.; Kalkan, E.

    2009-01-01

    Developed herein is a new peak ground acceleration (PGA)-based predictive model for 5% damped pseudospectral acceleration (SA) ordinates of free-field horizontal component of ground motion from shallow-crustal earthquakes. The predictive model of ground motion spectral shape (i.e., normalized spectrum) is generated as a continuous function of few parameters. The proposed model eliminates the classical exhausted matrix of estimator coefficients, and provides significant ease in its implementation. It is structured on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database with a number of additions from recent Californian events including 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes. A unique feature of the model is its new functional form explicitly integrating PGA as a scaling factor. The spectral shape model is parameterized within an approximation function using moment magnitude, closest distance to the fault (fault distance) and VS30 (average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m) as independent variables. Mean values of its estimator coefficients were computed by fitting an approximation function to spectral shape of each record using robust nonlinear optimization. Proposed spectral shape model is independent of the PGA attenuation, allowing utilization of various PGA attenuation relations to estimate the response spectrum of earthquake recordings.

  2. Functional homology between the yeast regulatory proteins GAL4 and LAC9: LAC9-mediated transcriptional activation in Kluyveromyces lactis involves protein binding to a regulatory sequence homologous to the GAL4 protein-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Breunig, K D; Kuger, P

    1987-01-01

    As shown previously, the beta-galactosidase gene of Kluyveromyces lactis is transcriptionally regulated via an upstream activation site (UASL) which contains a sequence homologous to the GAL4 protein-binding site in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (M. Ruzzi, K.D. Breunig, A.G. Ficca, and C.P. Hollenberg, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:991-997, 1987). Here we demonstrate that the region of homology specifically binds a K. lactis regulatory protein. The binding activity was detectable in protein extracts from wild-type cells enriched for DNA-binding proteins by heparin affinity chromatography. These extracts could be used directly for DNase I and exonuclease III protection experiments. A lac9 deletion strain, which fails to induce the beta-galactosidase gene, did not contain the binding factor. The homology of LAC9 protein with GAL4 (J.M. Salmeron and S. A. Johnston, Nucleic Acids Res. 14:7767-7781, 1986) strongly suggests that LAC9 protein binds directly to UASL and plays a role similar to that of GAL4 in regulating transcription. Images PMID:2830492

  3. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY: COMPENSATION FOR CONSTANT ATTENUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gullberg, Grant T.; Budinger, Thomas F.

    1980-06-01

    A back-projection of filtered projection (BKFIL) reconstruction algorithm is presented that is applicable to single-photon emission computed tomography (ECT) in the presence of a constant attenuating medium such as the brain. The filters used in transmission computed tomography (TCT) - comprised of a ramp multiplied by window functions - are modified so that the single-photon ECT filter is a function of the constant attenuation coefficient. The filters give good reconstruction results with sufficient angular and lateral sampling. With continuous samples the BKFIL algorithm has a point spread function that is the Hankel transform of the window function. The resolution and s tistical properties of the filters are demonstrated by various simulations. Statistical formulas for the reconstructed image show that the square of the percent-root-mean square uncertainty (%RMS) of the reconstruction is inversely proportional to the total measured counts. The results indicate that constant attenuation can be compensated for in single-photon ECT by using an attenuation-dependent filter that reconstructs the transverse section reliably. Computer time requirements are two times that of conventional TCT or positron ECT and there is no increase in memory requirements.

  4. The attenuation mechanism of S-waves in the source zone of the 1999 Chamoli earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kumar, A.; Garg, A.; Del-Pezzo, E.; Kayal, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the attenuation mechanism of seismic wave energy in and around the source area of the Chamoli earthquake of 29th March 1999 is estimated using the aftershock data. Most of the analyzed events are from the vicinity of the Main Central Thrust (MCT), which is a well-defined tectonic discontinuity in the Himalayas. Separation of intrinsic (Qi-1) and scattering (Qs-1) attenuation coefficient is done over the frequencies 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 Hz using Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) method. It is observed that S-waves and their coda are primarily attenuated due to scattering attenuation and seismic albedo is very high at all the frequencies. A comparison of attenuation characteristics obtained using these aftershock data with those obtained using data of general seismicity of this region reveal that at lower frequencies both intrinsic and scattering attenuation for Chamoli was much higher compared to those for Garwhal-Kumaun region using general seismicity data. At higher frequencies intrinsic attenuation for Chamoli is lower than and scattering attenuation is comparable to those obtained using general seismicity data of Garwhal-Kumaun region.

  5. Sequence-specific interactions of the tight-binding I12-X86 lac repressor with non-operator DNA.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, A; Galas, D J

    1980-02-11

    The tight-binding I12-X86 lac repressor binds to non-operator DNA in a sequence-specific fashion. Using the DNA of the E. coli I gene we have investigated these sequence-specific interactions and compared them to the operator binding of wild-type repressor. The specific, non-operator DNA interactions are sensitive to the inducer IPTG. One strong binding site in the I gene DNA was found to be one of two expected on the basis of their homology with the lac operator. The binding of I12-X86 repressor to this site was visualized using the footprinting technique, and found to be consistent with an operator-like binding configuration. The protection pattern extends into an adjacent sequence suggesting that two repressor tetramers are bound in tandem. PMID:7003550

  6. Observations of low and intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacs above 100 GeV with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errando, M.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the ~ 50 blazars detected to date at TeV energies (E > 0.1 TeV) are high-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs). Only a handful episodic detections of low- and intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (LBL/IBLs, with synchrotron peak frequencies in the infrared and optical regime) have been reported by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes, typically during high-flux states. The VERITAS array located in southern Arizona has observed five known TeV LBL/IBLs since 2009: 3C 66A, WComae, PKS 1424+240, S5 0716+714 and BL Lacertae, with exposures of 5-10 hours/year, which so far resulted in the detection of a bright, sub-hour timescale gamma-ray flare of BL Lacertae in June 2011. We also report the detection and characterization of two new IBLs: VER J0521+211 and B2 1215+30.

  7. Repression and activation of transcription by Gal and Lac repressors: involvement of alpha subunit of RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Choy, H E; Park, S W; Aki, T; Parrack, P; Fujita, N; Ishihama, A; Adhya, S

    1995-01-01

    Gal or Lac repressor binding to an upstream DNA segment, in the absence of DNA looping, represses the P1 promoter located on the same face and activates the P2 promoter situated on the opposite face of the DNA helix in the gal operon. Both inhibition and stimulation of transcription requires the physical presence of the C-terminal domain of the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase although the latter is not required for transcription itself. We propose that Gal and Lac repressors inhibit or stimulate transcription initiation by disabling or stimulating RNA polymerase activity at a post-binding step by directly or indirectly altering the C-terminal alpha domain to an unfavorable state at P1 or a more favorable state at P2, respectively. Images PMID:7556095

  8. Lactose genes fused to exogenous promoters in one step using a Mu-lac bacteriophage: in vivo probe for transcriptional control sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Casadaban, M J; Cohen, S N

    1979-01-01

    The lactose structural genes, without the lactose promoter, have been incorporated into the bacteriophage Mu genome to form a Mu-lac specialized transducing phage. This phage also carries a gene encoding resistance to ampicillin (Ap)[Mu(Ap, lac)]. After infection and upon establishment of lysogeny, the Mu(Ap, lac) genome can integrate into apparently random sites in the Escherichia coli chromosome. When integration occurs within a gene in the orientation of its transcription, the lactose structural genes are so situated that they become expressed solely from the promoter of that gene. Thus, expression of the lactose genes of Mu(Ap, lac) can be used as an assay for transcription of that gene and for functional and mutational studies of gene regulation. PMID:159458

  9. Assessment of satellite derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Optical data collected in coastal waters off South Florida and in the Caribbean Sea between January 2009 and December 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied to MOIDS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. Th...

  10. The sound attenuation coefficient optimization for a rectangular 2D straight lined duct of finite length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Agneta M.; Balint, Stefan; Szabo, Robert

    2014-12-01

    The ratio of the sound pressure level at the exit to that at the entrance is minimized for a rectangular 2D straight lined duct of finite length carrying a uniform gas flow. The idea is to compute numerically this ratio for a large number of combinations of the values of the liner parameters (inertance, resistance, stiffness) and establish a formula for the dependence of the ratio on these parameters. Using this formula the minimum value of the ratio, as well the values of parameters, for which the minimum is obtained, are found numerically.

  11. The sound attenuation coefficient optimization for an annular straight lined duct of finite length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasie, Loredana; Balint, Agneta M.; Balint, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    The ratio of the sound pressure level at the exit to that at the entrance is minimized for an annular straight lined duct of finite length carrying a uniform gas flow. The idea is to compute numerically this ratio for a large number of combinations of the values of the liner parameters (inertance, resistance, stiffness) and establish a formula for the dependence of the ratio on these parameters. By using this formula the minimum value of the ratio, as well the values of parameters for which the minimum is obtained, are found numerically.

  12. The sound attenuation coefficient optimization for a cylindrical straight lined duct of finite length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Agneta M.; Balint, Stefan; Tanasie, Loredana

    2014-12-01

    The ratio of the sound pressure level at the exit to that at the entrance is minimized for a cylindrical straight lined duct of finite length carrying a uniform gas flow. The idea is to compute numerically this ratio for a large number of combinations of the values of the liner parameters (inertance, resistance, stiffness) and establish a formula for the dependence of the ratio on these parameters. By using this formula the minimum value of the ratio, as well the values of parameters, for which the minimum is obtained, are found numerically.

  13. A method for estimating radiation interaction coefficients for tissues from single energy CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midgley, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    A parametric model for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient is used to describe the compositional dependence of Hounsfield numbers measured by medical CT scanners. Measurements with materials of known density and composition, that span and evenly sample the compositional range of tissues, are written as linear simultaneous equations and solved for model coefficients. An algorithm is identified for this purpose. Results are expressed as atomic cross-sections in units of barn per electron divided by the attenuation coefficient for water. With the CT scanner characterised, a virtual CT scan can be simulated to predict HN for tissues based upon their known density and composition. Similar calculations using the tabulations and mixture rule deliver attenuation coefficients and mass energy absorption coefficients for mono-energetic radiation 10 keV to 20 MeV. Results are presented for measurements with a radiotherapy CT simulator, the RMI-467 phantom with tissue substitute materials, plus common polymer materials and silicon. Published measurements with earlier generations of the phantom and tissue substitutes using different CT scanners are also considered. Measured atomic cross-sections differ from expectations for mono-energetic radiation due to the use of a filtered spectrum and energy integrating detection system. The cross-sections for different CT scanners are similar, without large variations with kVp. Results are presented showing the relationship between predicted HN for tissues, electron density and photon interaction coefficients for healthy tissues and mono-energetic radiation. A strategy is suggested for accommodating strongly attenuating materials such as calculi and metallic implants.

  14. A method for estimating radiation interaction coefficients for tissues from single energy CT.

    PubMed

    Midgley, S M

    2014-12-01

    A parametric model for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient is used to describe the compositional dependence of Hounsfield numbers measured by medical CT scanners. Measurements with materials of known density and composition, that span and evenly sample the compositional range of tissues, are written as linear simultaneous equations and solved for model coefficients. An algorithm is identified for this purpose. Results are expressed as atomic cross-sections in units of barn per electron divided by the attenuation coefficient for water. With the CT scanner characterised, a virtual CT scan can be simulated to predict HN for tissues based upon their known density and composition. Similar calculations using the tabulations and mixture rule deliver attenuation coefficients and mass energy absorption coefficients for mono-energetic radiation 10 keV to 20 MeV. Results are presented for measurements with a radiotherapy CT simulator, the RMI-467 phantom with tissue substitute materials, plus common polymer materials and silicon. Published measurements with earlier generations of the phantom and tissue substitutes using different CT scanners are also considered. Measured atomic cross-sections differ from expectations for mono-energetic radiation due to the use of a filtered spectrum and energy integrating detection system. The cross-sections for different CT scanners are similar, without large variations with kVp. Results are presented showing the relationship between predicted HN for tissues, electron density and photon interaction coefficients for healthy tissues and mono-energetic radiation. A strategy is suggested for accommodating strongly attenuating materials such as calculi and metallic implants. PMID:25393760

  15. Transport coefficients of quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bennaceur, D.; Khalfaoui, A.H. )

    1993-09-01

    Transport coefficients of fully ionized plasmas with a weakly coupled, completely degenerate electron gas and classical ions with a wide range of coupling strength are expressed within the Bloch transport equation. Using the Kohler variational principle the collision integral of the quantum Boltzmann equation is derived, which accounts for quantum effects through collective plasma oscillations. The physical implications of the results are investigated through comparisons with other theories. For practical applications, electrical and thermal conductivities are derived in simple analytical formulas. The relation between these two transport coefficients is expressed in an explicit form, giving a generalized Wiedemann-Franz law, where the Lorentz ratio is a dependent function of the coupling parameter and the degree of degeneracy of the plasma.

  16. Consistent transport coefficients in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Rovira, M.; Ferrofontan, C.

    1986-01-01

    A consistent theory for dealing with transport phenomena in stellar atmospheres starting with the kinetic equations and introducing three cases (LTE, partial LTE, and non-LTE) was developed. The consistent hydrodynamical equations were presented for partial-LTE, the transport coefficients defined, and a method shown to calculate them. The method is based on the numerical solution of kinetic equations considering Landau, Boltzmann, and Focker-Planck collision terms. Finally a set of results for the transport coefficients derived for a partially ionized hydrogen gas with radiation was shown, considering ionization and recombination as well as elastic collisions. The results obtained imply major changes is some types of theoretical model calculations and can resolve some important current problems concerning energy and mass balance in the solar atmosphere. It is shown that energy balance in the lower solar transition region can be fully explained by means of radiation losses and conductive flux.

  17. Video compression by coefficient compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hirohisa

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses a new video compression algorithm called Coefficient Compensation that achieves high performance by optimizing the DCT encoding loop structure, and demonstrates its improvement characteristic as compared with the conventional JPEG or MPEG I/P picture encoding under the condition that movement compensation is not available. The first part of the paper analyzes the performance of the DCT encoding loop structure, the method of optimization and the concept of soft-decision. The second part reports on the simulation results. Encoding performance is tested by various MPEG test sequences compressed in 20 Mbits/sec. The difference between JPEG and MPEG I is in the quantization table. For JPEG, the quantization table widely accepted as one producing a good compression quality is used. All the encoded binary outputs are fully compatible to the MPEG2 syntax but additional 2 bits/block information is coded as the user data for the Coefficient Compensation.

  18. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  19. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, C.

    2010-12-15

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  20. New very large array maps of highly core-dominated BL Lacs: Testing unified schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Stocke, John T.

    1994-01-01

    We present high dyanamic range (greater than 10 000:1) Very Large Array (VLA) maps of four highly c ore-dominated BL Lacertae Objects (PKS 0735+178, OJ 287, 1219+285, and PKS 1413+135), all of which had been reported previously as being unresolved at dynamic ranges approximately 1000-3000:1. Three of the four possess low surface brightness kpc-scale structure, with extended power levels and morphologies reasonable for FR 1 radio galaxies. One, however (PKS 1413+135), possesses no extended structure at dynamic range 9600:1. Only one of the sources exhibits aligned Very Large Array (VLA) and VLBI structures, suggesting bends on approximately 100-1000 pc size scales for the other two. As these four have extremely high core-to-extended flux ratios (f approximately 30-5000), they provide an extreme test of unified schemes. By deriving minimum constraints for the beaming angles and Lorentz factors which are required to produce the degrees of core dominance seen, we find that the three extended radio sources are consistent with being beamed FR 1 radio galaxies. PKS 1413+135 remains an anomalous BL Lac Object for several reasons.

  1. BL LAC OBJECT PKS B1144-379: AN EXTREME SCINTILLATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R. J.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Shabala, S. S.; Blanchard, J.; Lovell, J. E. J.; McCallum, J. N.; Cimo, G.

    2012-08-01

    Rapid variability in the radio flux density of the BL Lac object PKS B1144-379 has been observed at four frequencies, ranging from 1.5 to 15 GHz, with the Very Large Array and the University of Tasmania's Ceduna antenna. Intrinsic and line-of-sight effects were examined as possible causes of this variability, with interstellar scintillation best explaining the frequency dependence of the variability timescales and modulation indices. This scintillation is consistent with a compact source 20-40 {mu}as or 0.15-0.3 pc in size. The inferred brightness temperature for PKS B1144-379 (assuming that the observed variations are due to scintillation) is 6.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} K at 4.9 GHz, with approximately 10% of the total flux in the scintillating component. We show that scintillation surveys aimed at identifying variability timescales of days to weeks are an effective way to identify the active galactic nuclei with the highest brightness temperatures.

  2. THE 2001-2003 LOW STATE OF NOVA LACERTAE 1950 (DK LAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Jacobson, H.; Hoffman, D.; Maxwell, T.; Croxall, K.; Kafka, S.; Henden, A. A.; Robertson, J. W. E-mail: jacob189@msu.edu E-mail: tmaxwell@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: skafka@dtm.ciw.edu E-mail: Jeff.Robertson@atu.edu

    2011-04-15

    We report on extensive photometry of DK Lac obtained during the interval 1990-2009, which includes a 2 mag low state during 2001-2003. Much of the photometry consists of exposures obtained with a typical spacing of several days, but also includes 26 sequences of continuous photometry each lasting 2-7 hr. We find no evidence for periodicities in our data. We do find that the random variations in the low state are approximately twice those in the high state, when expressed in magnitudes. The lack of orbital-timescale variations is attributed to the nearly face-on presentation of the disk. There is a 0.2 mag decline in the high-state brightness of the system over 19 years, which is consistent with the behavior of other old novae in the decades following outburst. High-state spectra are also presented and discussed. We find that the equivalent width of H{alpha} falls by about double from 1991 to 2008. The photometric properties are discussed in the context of the hibernation scenario for the behavior of novae between outbursts, in which we conclude that low states in old novae are probably unrelated to their possible entrance into hibernation.

  3. GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS AS ANALOGS OF HIGH-FREQUENCY-PEAKED BL LAC OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Wei, J. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The spectral properties from radio-to-optical bands are compared between the 18 optically bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows and the well-established power-spectrum sequence in blazars. The comparison shows that the afterglows are in well agreement with the well-known blazar sequence (i.e., the {nu}L{sub {nu}}(5 GHz)-{alpha}{sub RO} correlation, where {alpha}{sub RO} is the broadband spectral slope from radio-to-optical bands). The afterglows are, however, clustered at the low-luminosity end of the sequence, which is typically occupied by high-frequency-peaked BL Lac objects (HBLs). The correlation suggests that GRB afterglows share a similar emission process with HBLs. We further identify a deviation at a significance level larger than 2{sigma} from the sequence for three typical optically 'dark' bursts. The deviation favors a heavy extinction in optical bands for the 'dark' bursts. The extinction A{sub V} is estimated to be larger than 0.5-0.6 mag from the {nu}L{sub {nu}}(5 GHz)-{alpha}{sub RO} sequence.

  4. Mutagenesis by asbestos in the lung of lambda-lacI transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Topinka, J; Loli, P; Georgiadis, P; Dusinská, M; Hurbánková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Kazimírová, A; Barancoková, M; Tatrai, E; Oesterle, D; Wolff, T; Kyrtopoulos, S A

    2004-09-01

    In order to get more insight into the mechanism of asbestos-related lung cancer, the mutagenic potential of asbestos was examined in vivo in rat lung. Groups of five transgenic lambda-lacI (Big Blue) rats were intratracheally instilled with single doses of 1 or 2mg, or with four weekly doses of 2mg, per animal of the amosite asbestos. Sixteen weeks after instillation, the mutation frequency was found to be increased in lung DNA by 2-fold at doses of 2 mg (P = 0.035) and of 4 x 2 mg (P = 0.007) amosite. No significant changes were observed after 4 weeks of exposure. In separate experiments, wild-type F344 rats were treated by the same regimen as described above and markers of inflammation, genotoxicity, cell proliferation and lung tissue damage were analysed. Our results indicate a weak but persistent inflammation and cell proliferation which possibly plays a major role in the observed mutagenic effect. PMID:15288534

  5. Mass balance model of source apportionment, transport and fate of PAHs in Lac Saint Louis, Quebec.

    PubMed

    Mackay, D; Hickie, B

    2000-09-01

    A mass balance model has been developed and calibrated to describe the sources, transport and fate of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, chrysene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) in the water and sediments of, and atmosphere over Lac Saint Louis, Quebec. The model uses specified input rates from background advective flows and emissions from the Alcan aluminum smelting facility at Beauharnois to deduce atmospheric concentrations and rates of wet and dry deposition to the three segment lake. Concentrations in water and sediment as well as relevant mass fluxes and residence times are computed and compared satisfactorily with monitoring data for five of the seven PAHs. Underestimation of concentrations for anthracene and phenanthrene is attributed to unquantified additional sources. The sources of the PAH burden in the lake are apportioned, and the implications of these results are discussed including likely response times to changes in loadings. It is suggested that this mass balance approach is more widely applicable to situations in which water bodies are impacted by a variety of contaminant sources. PMID:10834368

  6. Colorimetry of two large flares of EV Lac according to UBVRI observations in 1996-1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovkaya, M. N.

    2012-06-01

    According to the data of fast UBVRI photometry of the red flaring dwarf star EV Lac obtained in the course of international cooperative observations, a fine temporal structure of two large flares (15 Oct 1996 and 10 Oct 1998) with amplitudes of 3.73 and 2.72 magnitudes in the U band have been studied. A detailed colorimetric analysis allowed us to trace variations in the flare plasma characteristics such as the optical thickness, electron density, and temperature during the development of the flare. It was revealed that, in the time period up to the maximum brightness, both flares are in the state of hydrogen plasma, which is optically thin in the Balmer continuum. In the region of the brightness maximum, both flares emit for about 1 min as an absolutely black body (ABB), the temperature of which varies from 20000 to 12000 K and 16000 to 14000 K, respectively. Then, these flares pass to the plasma state, is optically thick in the Balmer continuum. At the brightness maximum, the flares emitted as an ABB with a temperature of about 15000 and 16000 K. In the ABB approximation, the linear sizes of the flares are approximately 5 and 3% of the stellar radius at luminosity maximum. The area is 5.1 1018 cm2 and 1.6 1018 cm2.

  7. Erratic Flaring of BL Lac in 2012-2013: Multiwavelength Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrle, Ann E.; Grupe, Dirk; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.; Gurwell, Mark; Balokovi?, Mislav; Hovatta, Talvikki; Madejski, Grzegorz M.; Harrison, Fiona H.; Stern, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    BL Lac, the eponymous blazar, flared to historically high levels at millimeter, infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths in 2012. We present observations made with Herschel, Swift, NuSTAR, Fermi, the Submillimeter Array, CARMA, and the VLBA in 2012-2013, including three months with nearly daily sampling at several wavebands. We have also conducted an intensive campaign of 30 hr with every-orbit observations by Swift and NuSTAR, accompanied by Herschel, and Fermi observations. The source was highly variable at all bands. Time lags, correlations between bands, and the changing shapes of the spectral energy distributions can be explained by synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton emission from nonthermal seed photons originating from within the jet. The passage of four new superluminal very long baseline interferometry knots through the core and two stationary knots about 4 pc downstream accompanied the high flaring in 2012-2013. The seed photons for inverse Compton scattering may arise from the stationary knots and from a Mach disk near the core where relatively slow-moving plasma generates intense nonthermal radiation. The 95 spectral energy distributions obtained on consecutive days form the most densely sampled, broad wavelength coverage for any blazar. The observed spectral energy distributions and multi-waveband light curves are similar to simulated spectral energy distributions and light curves generated with a model in which turbulent plasma crosses a conical shock with a Mach disk.

  8. ANTI-CORRELATED OPTICAL FLUX AND POLARIZATION VARIABILITY IN BL LAC

    SciTech Connect

    Gaur, Haritma; Gupta, Alok C.; Wiita, Paul J.; Uemura, Makoto; Itoh, Ryosuke; Sasada, Mahito

    2014-01-20

    We present the results of photometric (V band) and polarimetric observations of the blazar BL Lac during 2008-2010 using TRISPEC attached to the KANATA 1.5m telescope in Japan. The data reveal a great deal of variability ranging from days to months with detection of strong variations in fractional polarization. The V band flux strongly anticorrelates with the degree of polarization during the first of two observing seasons but not during the second. The direction of the electric vector, however, remained roughly constant during all of our observations. These results are consistent with a model with at least two emission regions being present, with the more variable component having a polarization direction nearly perpendicular to that of the relatively quiescent region so that a rising flux can produce a decline in degree of polarization. We also computed models involving helical jet structures and single transverse shocks in jets and show that they might also be able to agree with the anticorrelations between flux and fractional polarization.

  9. The Gamma-Ray Bright BL Lac Object RX J1211+2242

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckmann, V.; Favre, P.; Tavecchio, F.; Bussien, T.; Fliri, J.; Wolter, A.

    2004-01-01

    RX J1211+2242 is an optically faint (B approximately equal to 19.2mag) but X-ray bright (f2-10kev = 5 x l0(exp -12)erg per square centimeter per second) AGN, which has been shown to be a BL Lac object at redshift z = 0.455. The ROSAT X-ray, Calar Alto optical, and NVSS radio data suggest that the peak of the synchrotron emission of this object is at energies as high as several keV. BeppoSAX observations have been carried out simultaneously with optical observations in order to extend the coverage to higher energies. The new data indeed indicate a turn-over in the 2 - 10keV energy region. We propose that RX J1211+2242 is the counterpart of the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1212+2304, making it a gamma-ray emitter with properties similar to, for example, Markarian 501 in its bright state, though being at a much larger distance.

  10. [Alteration of Social Behaviors in Male Mice of CBA/Lac Strain under Agonistic Interactions].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, I L; Kudryavtseva, N N

    2015-01-01

    Ability of people to communicate with each other is a necessary component of social behavior and normal development of individuals living in community. A pronounced impairment in communication may be the result of autism which is characterized by impaired socialization, low communication and restricted and/or repetitive behaviors. It is hypothesized that genes or rare mutations play a key role in the development of autism. However a multifold increase of the cases with autistic spectrum symptoms over the last years cannot be attributed exclusively to genetic mutations or heredity. Environmental contribution to the development of autistic symptoms has to be considered. The paper aimed to analyze the social behaviors of CBA/Lac mice with repeated experience of aggression or social defeats in daily agonistic interactions with accent on searches of associations with autistic symptoms in comparison with previously studied C57BL/6J animals. It has been shown that male mice of both strains with alternative social behaviors demonstrated the changes in social behaviors; however the expression of some form of behaviors was different. The data obtained to assert that long-term hostile social environment lead to development of disturbances in social behaviors, accompanying by autistic-like symptoms. PMID:26601507

  11. Increased Numbers of 6-sulfo LacNAc (slan) Dendritic Cells in Hand Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Baran, Wojciech; Koziol, Maria; Wo?niak, Zdzis?aw; Banasik, Miros?aw; Boraty?ska, Maria; Kunze, Anja; Schakel, Knut

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is a modern option for the treatment of functionally significant limb and tissue defects. In our study we aimed to characterize the morphological and histological features of the hand transplant recipient skin rejection. MATERIAL AND METHODS We clinically evaluated the skin and mucous membranes and microscopically assessed biopsies taken from the patient's own skin and from the allogenic grafted limb (n=5). We also performed immunohistochemistry for presence of T lymphocytes (CD3, CD4, and CD8), B lymphocytes (CD20), macrophages (CD68), Langerhans cells (CD1a+), plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) (CD123+) and 6-sulfo LacNAc+ dendritic cells (slanDCs) (DD2+). RESULTS Only scattered pDCs were present in both own and skin grafts. The number of LC in the epidermis was higher in graft skin in all cases and CD1a+ cells were also present in the dermis in transplanted skin in patients with grade 1 rejection. Most interestingly, we identified far increased numbers of dermal slanDCs in the grafted skin. SlanDCs have a high capacity to produce proinflammatory cytokines and have been described as inflammatory dermal dendritic cells in psoriasis and lupus erythematosus. CONCLUSIONS It may be hypothesized that slanDCs identified in the skin after limb transplantation may support the local inflammatory skin reaction. PMID:26510404

  12. Immobilized glycosylated Fmoc-amino acid for SPR: comparative studies of lectin-binding to linear or biantennary diLacNAc structures.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Sakagami, Hiromi; Asanuma-Date, Kimie; Nagasawa, Nao; Nakahara, Yoshiaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Haruko

    2013-12-15

    A method to immobilize glycan-linked amino acids with protected α-amino groups, which are key intermediates to produce the desired neoglycoprotein, to a Biacore sensor chip was developed and its utility for interaction analyses was demonstrated. Two types of diN-acetyllactosamine (diLacNAc)-containing glycans, a core 2 hexasaccharide involving linear diLacNAc that is O-linked to N-(9-fluorenyl)methoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-Thr and a biantennary diLacNAc that is N-linked to Fmoc-Asn, were used as ligands. For immobilization, the free carboxyl groups of the amino acid residues were activated with EDC/NHS, then reacted with the ethylenediamine-derivatized carboxymethyldextran sensor chip to obtain the desired ligand concentrations. Interactions of the ligands with five plant lectins were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance, and the bindings were compared. The resonance unit of each lectin was corrected by subtracting that of the reference cell on which the Fmoc-Thr-core 1 or Fmoc-Asn was immobilized as a ligand. The carbohydrate specificities of interactions were verified by preincubating lectins with their respective inhibitory sugar before injection. By steady state analysis, the Lycopersicon esculentum lectin showed a 27-fold higher affinity to linear diLacNAc than to biantennary diLacNAc, while Datura stramonium and Solanum tuberosum lectins both showed low Ka,apps of 10(6)M(-1) for these two ligands. In contrast, Ricinus communis agglutinin-120 showed a 3.2-fold higher Ka,app to biantennary LacNAc than to linear diLacNAc. A lectin purified from Pleurocybella porrigens mushroom interacted at the high affinity of 10(8)M(-1) with both linear and biantennary diLacNAcs, which identified it as a unique probe. This method provides a useful and sensitive system to analyze interactions by simulating the glycans on the cell surface. PMID:24211369

  13. Improved universal cloning of influenza A virus genes by LacZα-mediated blue/white selection.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Ute; Stech, Olga; Abdelwhab, El-Sayed M; Judel, Andreas; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Stech, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Reverse genetics of influenza A viruses facilitates both basic research and vaccine development. However, efficient cloning of virus gene segments was cumbersome in established systems due to the necessary cleavage of amplicons with outside cutter restriction enzymes followed by ligation. Occasionally, virus genes may contain cleavage sites for those enzymes. To circumvent that problem, we previously established target-primed plasmid amplification using the negative selection marker ccdB cloned into the plasmid pHW2000, flanked by the highly conserved gene segment termini. Here, we further introduced the LacZα fragment downstream of the ccdB region for additional ad-hoc selection of transformed bacteria by blue/white pre-screening. For comparison, we cloned three gene segments (PA, HA, and NS) from the influenza strain A/Swine/Belgium/1/1979 (H1N1) (SwBelg79) into plasmid vectors pHWSccdB and pHWSccdB-LacZα and observed same cloning efficiency. Furthermore, the plasmid pHWSccdB-LacZα allows easy elimination of bacterial colonies containing empty plasmid clones. Using this improved plasmid, we obtained the complete genomic set of eight functional plasmids for SwBelg79. PMID:26404948

  14. Characterisation and discrimination of various types of lac resin using gas chromatography mass spectrometry techniques with quaternary ammonium reagents.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, K; del Ro, J C

    2014-04-18

    A variety of lac resin samples obtained from artists' suppliers, industrial manufacturers, and museum collections were analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and reactive pyrolysis GCMS with quaternary ammonium reagents. These techniques allowed a detailed chemical characterisation of microgram-sized samples, based on the detection and identification of derivatives of the hydroxy aliphatic and cyclic (sesquiterpene) acids that compose the resin. Differences in composition could be related to the nature of the resin, e.g. wax-containing (unrefined), bleached, or aged samples. Furthermore, differences in the relative abundances of aliphatic hydroxyacids appear to be associated with the biological source of the resin. The diagnostic value of newly characterised lac components, including 8-hydroxyacids, is discussed here for the first time. Identification of derivatised components was aided by AMDIS deconvolution software, and discrimination of samples was enhanced by statistical evaluation of data using principal component analysis. The robustness of the analyses, together with the minimal sample size required, make these very powerful approaches for the characterisation of lac resin in museum objects. The value of such analyses for enhancing the understanding of museum collections is illustrated by two case studies of objects in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art: a restorer's varnish on a painting by Luca Signorelli, and a pictorial inlay in an early nineteenth-century High Chest by George Dyer. PMID:24642395

  15. Drag Coefficients of Drifting Waterbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Ellenrieder, Karl; Kenow, Kevin; Qu, Huajin (Ariel); Su, Tsung-Chow (Joe)

    2013-11-01

    A series of towing tank experiments has been performed to support the development of a probabilistic source tracking model that can be used to estimate the origin of waterbird die-offs. While monitoring the appearance of waterbird carcasses on beaches provides the primary means of assessing the magnitude, as well as the spatial and temporal patterns of die-offs, interpreting the actual site of exposure to toxins is hampered by a lack of information on the drift patterns of carcasses and the confounding influences of wind/current. In this work, a series of experimental measurements were conducted on Common Loon and Lesser Scaup carcasses to obtain steady drag coefficients of representative waterbird species. The tests were designed to capture the drag coefficients associated with current speeds of between 0.2 and 0.8 meters per second and wind speeds of up to 10 meters per second at different levels of carcass submergence. Using the submerged frontal area of an ellipse, together with the frontal area of any submerged portions of the head and neck gives good similarity across the ranges of speeds and submergence levels tested. An example approach to determining waterbird drift velocity and direction from knowledge of the drag coefficients, wind and current is provided. This effort was supported by the US Geological Survey.

  16. Complete genome sequence of hypervirulent and outbreak-associated Acinetobacter baumannii strain LAC-4: epidemiology, resistance genetic determinants and potential virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Ou, Hong-Yu; Kuang, Shan N; He, Xinyi; Molgora, Brenda M; Ewing, Peter J; Deng, Zixin; Osby, Melanie; Chen, Wangxue; Xu, H Howard

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important human pathogen due to its multi-drug resistance. In this study, the genome of an ST10 outbreak A. baumannii isolate LAC-4 was completely sequenced to better understand its epidemiology, antibiotic resistance genetic determinants and potential virulence factors. Compared with 20 other complete genomes of A. baumannii, LAC-4 genome harbors at least 12 copies of five distinct insertion sequences. It contains 12 and 14 copies of two novel IS elements, ISAba25 and ISAba26, respectively. Additionally, three novel composite transposons were identified: Tn6250, Tn6251 and Tn6252, two of which contain resistance genes. The antibiotic resistance genetic determinants on the LAC-4 genome correlate well with observed antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Moreover, twelve genomic islands (GI) were identified in LAC-4 genome. Among them, the 33.4-kb GI12 contains a large number of genes which constitute the K (capsule) locus. LAC-4 harbors several unique putative virulence factor loci. Furthermore, LAC-4 and all 19 other outbreak isolates were found to harbor a heme oxygenase gene (hemO)-containing gene cluster. The sequencing of the first complete genome of an ST10 A. baumannii clinical strain should accelerate our understanding of the epidemiology, mechanisms of resistance and virulence of A. baumannii. PMID:25728466

  17. Complete genome sequence of hypervirulent and outbreak-associated Acinetobacter baumannii strain LAC-4: epidemiology, resistance genetic determinants and potential virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Hong-Yu; Kuang, Shan N.; He, Xinyi; Molgora, Brenda M.; Ewing, Peter J.; Deng, Zixin; Osby, Melanie; Chen, Wangxue; Xu, H. Howard

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important human pathogen due to its multi-drug resistance. In this study, the genome of an ST10 outbreak A. baumannii isolate LAC-4 was completely sequenced to better understand its epidemiology, antibiotic resistance genetic determinants and potential virulence factors. Compared with 20 other complete genomes of A. baumannii, LAC-4 genome harbors at least 12 copies of five distinct insertion sequences. It contains 12 and 14 copies of two novel IS elements, ISAba25 and ISAba26, respectively. Additionally, three novel composite transposons were identified: Tn6250, Tn6251 and Tn6252, two of which contain resistance genes. The antibiotic resistance genetic determinants on the LAC-4 genome correlate well with observed antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Moreover, twelve genomic islands (GI) were identified in LAC-4 genome. Among them, the 33.4-kb GI12 contains a large number of genes which constitute the K (capsule) locus. LAC-4 harbors several unique putative virulence factor loci. Furthermore, LAC-4 and all 19 other outbreak isolates were found to harbor a heme oxygenase gene (hemO)-containing gene cluster. The sequencing of the first complete genome of an ST10 A. baumannii clinical strain should accelerate our understanding of the epidemiology, mechanisms of resistance and virulence of A. baumannii. PMID:25728466

  18. Stability of RNA Virus Attenuation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Joan L.; Volk, Sara M.; Pandya, Jyotsna; Wang, Eryu; Liang, Xiaodong; Weaver, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The greatest risk from live-attenuated vaccines is reversion to virulence. Particular concerns arise for RNA viruses, which exhibit high mutation frequencies. We examined the stability of 3 attenuation strategies for the alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV): a traditional, point mutation-dependent attenuation approach exemplified by TC-83; a rationally designed, targeted-mutation approach represented by V3526; and a chimeric vaccine, SIN/TC/ZPC. Our findings suggest that the chimeric strain combines the initial attenuation of TC-83 with the greater phenotypic stability of V3526, highlighting the importance of the both initial attenuation and stability for live-attenuated vaccines. PMID:21288800

  19. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protocol will simply describe in detail, with references and illustrations, the approach currently used by staff of the SPRD to evaluate natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents in ground water. Staff of SPRD, and staff of the Air Force Center for environmental excellence...

  20. Attenuation of X and Gamma Rays in Personal Radiation Shielding Protective Clothing.

    PubMed

    Kozlovska, Michaela; Cerny, Radek; Otahal, Petr

    2015-11-01

    A collection of personal radiation shielding protective clothing, suitable for use in case of accidents in nuclear facilities or radiological emergency situations involving radioactive agents, was gathered and tested at the Nuclear Protection Department of the National Institute for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Protection, Czech Republic. Attenuating qualities of shielding layers in individual protective clothing were tested via spectra measurement of x and gamma rays, penetrating them. The rays originated from different radionuclide point sources, the gamma ray energies of which cover a broad energy range. The spectra were measured by handheld spectrometers, both scintillation and High Purity Germanium. Different narrow beam geometries were adjusted using a special testing bench and a set of various collimators. The main experimentally determined quantity for individual samples of personal radiation shielding protective clothing was x and gamma rays attenuation for significant energies of the spectra. The attenuation was assessed comparing net peak areas (after background subtraction) in spectra, where a tested sample was placed between the source and the detector, and corresponding net peak areas in spectra, measured without the sample. Mass attenuation coefficients, which describe attenuating qualities of shielding layers materials in individual samples, together with corresponding lead equivalents, were determined as well. Experimentally assessed mass attenuation coefficients of the samples were compared to the referred ones for individual heavy metals. PMID:26425983

  1. Ultrasound characterization of red blood cell aggregation with intervening attenuating tissue-mimicking phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Franceschini, Emilie; Yu, Franois T.H.; Destrempes, Franois; Cloutier, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the ultrasonic frequency-dependent backscatter coefficient of aggregating red blood cells reveals information about blood structural properties. The difficulty in applying this technique in vivo is due to the frequency-dependent attenuation caused by intervening tissue layers that distorts the spectral content of signals backscattered by blood. An optimization method is proposed to simultaneously estimate tissue attenuation and blood structure properties, and was termed the structure factor size and attenuation estimator (SFSAE). An ultrasound scanner equipped with a wide-band 25 MHz probe was used to insonify porcine blood sheared in both Couette and tubular flow devices. Since skin is one of the most attenuating tissue layers during in vivo scanning, four skin-mimicking phantoms with different attenuation coefficients were introduced between the transducer and the blood flow. The SFSAE gave estimates with relative errors below 25% for attenuations between 0.115 and 0.411 dB?MHz and kR<2.08 (k being the wave number and R the aggregate radius). The SFSAE can be useful to examine in vivo and in situ abnormal blood conditions suspected to promote pathophysiological cardiovascular consequences. PMID:20136231

  2. The feasibility of ranking material fracture toughness by ultrasonic attenuation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to assess the feasibility of ultrasonically ranking material fracture toughness. Specimens of two grades of maraging steel for which fracture toughness values were measured were subjected to ultrasonic probing. The slope of the attenuation coefficient versus frequency curve was empirically correlated with the plane strain fracture toughness value for each grade of steel.

  3. The feasibility of ranking material fracture toughness by ultrasonic attenuation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to assess the feasibility of ultrasonically ranking material fracture toughness. Specimens of two grades of maraging steel for which fracture toughness values were measured were subjected to ultrasonic probing. The slope of the attenuation coefficient vs frequency curve was empirically correlated with the plane strain fracture toughness value for each grade of steel.

  4. Stormwater Attenuation by Green Roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Innovative municipal stormwater management technologies are urgently required in urban centers. Inadequate stormwater management can lead to excessive flooding, channel erosion, decreased stream baseflows, and degraded water quality. A major source of urban stormwater is unused roof space. Green roofs can be used as a stormwater management tool to reduce roof generated stormwater and generally improve the quality of runoff. With recent legislation in some North American cities, including Toronto, requiring the installation of green roofs on large buildings, research on the effectiveness of green roofs for stormwater management is important. This study aims to assess the hydrologic response of an extensive sedum green roof in London, Ontario, with emphasis on the response to large precipitation events that stress municipal stormwater infrastructure. A green roof rapidly reaches field capacity during large storm events and can show significantly different behavior before and after field capacity. At field capacity a green roof has no capillary storage left for retention of stormwater, but may still be an effective tool to attenuate peak runoff rates by transport through the green roof substrate. The attenuation of green roofs after field capacity is linked to gravity storage, where gravity storage is the water that is temporarily stored and can drain freely over time after field capacity has been established. Stormwater attenuation of a modular experimental green roof is determined from water balance calculations at 1-minute intervals. Data is used to evaluate green roof attenuation and the impact of field capacity on peak flow rates and gravity storage. In addition, a numerical model is used to simulate event based stormwater attenuation. This model is based off of the Richards equation and supporting theory of multiphase flow through porous media.

  5. Study on laser and infrared attenuation performance of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang-cui; Liu, Qing-hai; Dai, Meng-yan; Cheng, Xiang; Fang, Guo-feng; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Haifeng

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, the weapon systems of laser and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. However, military smoke, a rapid and effective passive jamming method, can effectively counteract the attack of precision-guided weapons by their scattering and absorbing effects. The traditional smoke has good visible light (0.4-0.76?m) obscurant performance, but hardly any effects to other electromagnetic wave bands while the weapon systems of laser and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including the near-infrared (1-3?m), middle-infrared (3-5?m), far-infrared (8-14?m), and so on. Accordingly, exploiting new effective obscurant materials has attracted tremendous interest worldwide nowadays. As is known, the nano-structured materials have lots of unique properties comparing with the traditional materials suggesting that they might be the perfect alternatives to solve the problems above. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are well-ordered, all-carbon hollow graphitic nano-structured materials with a high aspect ratio, lengths from several hundred nanometers to several millimeters. CNTs possess many unique intrinsic physical-chemical properties and are investigated in many areas reported by the previous studies. However, no application research about CNTs in smoke technology field is reported yet. In this paper, the attenuation performances of CNTs smoke to laser and IR were assessed in 20m3 smoke chamber. The testing wavebands employed in experiments are 1.06?m and 10.6?m laser, 3-5?m and 8-14?m IR radiation. The main parameters were obtained included the attenuation rate, transmission rate, mass extinction coefficient, etc. The experimental results suggest that CNTs smoke exhibits excellent attenuation ability to the broadband IR radiation. Their mass extinction coefficients are all above 1m2g-1. Nevertheless, the mass extinction coefficients vary with the sampling time and smoke particles concentrations, even in the same testing waveband. With the time going the mass extinction coefficients will increase gradually. Based on the above results, theoretical calculations are also carried out for further exploitations. In general, CNTs smoke behaves excellent attenuation ability toward laser and IR under the experimental conditions. Therefore, they have great potentials to develop new smoke obscurant materials which could effectively interfere with broadband IR radiation including 1.06?m, 10.6?m, 3-5?m and 8-12?m IR waveband.

  6. Lidar measurement as support to the ocular hazard distance calculation using atmospheric attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, K. Ove S.; Persson, Rolf; Gustafsson, Frank; Berglund, Folke; Malmquist, Jonas

    2015-10-01

    The reduction of the laser hazard distance range using atmospheric attenuation has been tested with series of lidar measurements accomplished at the Vidsel Test Range, Vidsel, Sweden. The objective was to find situations with low level of aerosol backscatter during this campaign, with the implications of low extinction coefficient, since the lowest atmospheric attenuation gives the highest ocular hazards. The work included building a ground based backscatter lidar, performing a series of measurements and analyzing the results. The measurements were performed during the period June to November, 2014. The results of lidar measurements showed at several occasions' very low atmospheric attenuation as a function of height to an altitude of at least 10 km. The lowest limit of aerosol backscatter coefficient possible to measure with this instrument is less than 0.3•10-7 m-1 sr-1. Assuming an aerosol lidar ratio between 30 - 100 sr this leads to an aerosol extinction coefficient of about 0.9 - 3•10-6 m-1. Using a designator laser as an example with wavelength 1064 nm, power 0.180 W, pulse length 15 ns, PRF 11.5 Hz, exposure time of 10 sec and beam divergence of 0.08 mrad, it will have a NOHD of 48 km. With the measured aerosol attenuation and by assuming a molecule extinction coefficient to be 5•10-6 m-1 (calculated using MODTRAN (Ontar Corp.) assuming no aerosol) the laser hazard distance will be reduced with 51 - 58 %, depending on the lidar ratio assumption. The conclusion from the work is; reducing of the laser hazard distance using atmospheric attenuation within the NOHD calculations is possible but should be combined with measurements of the attenuation.

  7. A robust method for determining calibration coefficients for VIIRS reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Qiang; McIntire, Jeffrey; Efremova, Boryana; Schwarting, Thomas; Oudrari, Hassan; Zeng, Jinan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a robust method for determining the calibration coefficients in polynomial calibration equations, and discusses the corresponding calibration uncertainties. An attenuator method that takes into account all measurements with and without an attenuator screen was used to restrict the impact of the absolute calibration of the light source. The originally proposed procedure attempts to simultaneously determine all unknowns nonlinearly using polynomial curve fitting. The newly proposed method divides the task into two simpler parts. For example, in the case of a quadratic calibration equation, the first part becomes a quadratic equation solely for the transmittance of attenuator, which has an analytical solution using three or four sets of measurements. Additionally, it is straightforward to determine the median value and the standard deviation of the transmittance from the solutions using all combinations of measured data points. In conjunction, the second part becomes a linear fit, with the ratio of the zeroth-order to first-order calibration coefficients as the intercept and the ratio of the second-order to first-order calibration coefficients as the slope. These ratios are unaffected by the absolute calibration of the light source and are then used in the calibration equation to calculate the first-order calibration coefficient. How the new method works is straightforward to visualize, which makes its results easier to verify. This is demonstrated using measurements from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) J1 Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) reflective solar bands (RSB) pre-launch testing.

  8. Next Generation - Monitored Natural Attenuation And Enhanced Attenuation - Chlorinated Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    KAREN, VANGELAS

    2005-03-31

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is a necessary part of the remedial action at most chlorinated solvent sites. As a result, site owners, stakeholders, and regulators are identifying and responding to MNAs technical challenges. For example, many contaminated plumes are not in anaerobic settings, making it unlikely the predominant mechanism embodied in existing protocols and guidance documents, reductive dechlorination, will be viable. This is the case for many of the chlorinated solvent sites at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The DOE is conducting a project to explore the possibility of other mechanisms contributing to the attenuation of chlorination solvents in the environment. The project is exploring three key areas: mass balance as a way to evaluate the significance of the different processes occurring at a site, sustainable enhancements as a way to increase the attenuation capacity of a site so that it is sustained allowing remediation goals to be met, and characterization and performance monitoring methods that will support the first two areas in a manner that will support transition to legacy management.

  9. Generation of attenuation map for MR-based attenuation correction of PET data in the head area employing 3D short echo time MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khateri, Parisa; Salighe Rad, Hamidreza; Fathi, Anahita; Ay, Mohammad Reza

    2013-02-01

    Attenuation correction is a crucial step to get accurate quantification of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data. An attenuation map to provide attenuation coefficients at 511 keV can be generated using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). One of the main steps involved in MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC) of PET data is to separate bone from air. Low signal intensity of bone in conventional MRI makes it difficult to separate bone from air in the head area, while their attenuation coefficients are very different. In literature, several groups proposed ultrashort echo-time (UTE) sequences to differentiate bone from air [4,5,7], because these sequences are capable of imaging tissues with short T2* relaxation time, such as cortical bone; however, they are difficult to use, expensive and time-consuming. Employing short echo-time (STE) MRI in combination with long echo-time (LTE) MRI, and along with high performance image processing algorithms is a good substitute for UTE-based PET attenuation correction; they are widely available, easy to use, inexpensive and much faster than UTE pulse sequences. In this work, we propose the use of STE sequences along with LTE ones, as well as a dedicated image processing method to differentiate bone from air cavities in the head area by creating contrast between the tissues. Attenuation coefficients at 511 kev, relying on literature [5], will then be assigned to the voxels. Acquisition was performed on a clinical 3T Tim Trio scanner (Siemens Medical Solution, Erlangen, Germany), employing a dual echo sequence. To achieve an optimized protocol with the best result for discrimination of bone and air, two types of acquisitions were performed, with and without fat suppression; the acquisition parameters were as follows: TE=1.21/5 ms, TR=5/17, FA=30, and TE=1.12/3.16 ms, TR=5/5, FA=12 for non-fat-suppressed and fat-suppressed protocol, respectively. Contrast enhancement and tissue segmentation were applied as processing steps, to successfully classify voxels into bone, air and soft tissue classes, yielding accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 88%, 77% and 94%, for non-fat suppressed acquisition, respectively. This method could potentially be as an efficient method for generation of attenuation map in 511 keV for MR-based attenuation correction of PET data in clinical PET/MR applications with mixed air and bone signals.

  10. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France.

    PubMed

    Certad, Gabriela; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Gantois, Nausicaa; Hammouma-Ghelboun, Ourida; Pottier, Muriel; Guyot, Karine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Osman, Marwan; Delaire, Baptiste; Creusy, Colette; Viscogliosi, Eric; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile Marie; Follet, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh) were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%), distributed as follows: 13 (87%) C. parvum, 1 (7%) C. molnari, and 1 (7%) mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari). C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by the observation of edible fillet contamination. PMID:26213992

  11. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France

    PubMed Central

    Certad, Gabriela; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Gantois, Nausicaa; Hammouma-Ghelboun, Ourida; Pottier, Muriel; Guyot, Karine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Osman, Marwan; Delaire, Baptiste; Creusy, Colette; Viscogliosi, Eric; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile Marie; Follet, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh) were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%), distributed as follows: 13 (87%) C. parvum, 1 (7%) C. molnari, and 1 (7%) mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari). C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by the observation of edible fillet contamination. PMID:26213992

  12. A gene expression resource generated by genome-wide lacZ profiling in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Tuck, Elizabeth; Estabel, Jeanne; Oellrich, Anika; Maguire, Anna Karin; Adissu, Hibret A; Souter, Luke; Siragher, Emma; Lillistone, Charlotte; Green, Angela L; Wardle-Jones, Hannah; Carragher, Damian M; Karp, Natasha A; Smedley, Damian; Adams, Niels C; Bussell, James N; Adams, David J; Ramrez-Solis, Ramiro; Steel, Karen P; Galli, Antonella; White, Jacqueline K

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the expression profile of a gene is a critical piece of information required to build an understanding of the normal and essential functions of that gene and any role it may play in the development or progression of disease. High-throughput, large-scale efforts are on-going internationally to characterise reporter-tagged knockout mouse lines. As part of that effort, we report an open access adult mouse expression resource, in which the expression profile of 424 genes has been assessed in up to 47 different organs, tissues and sub-structures using a lacZ reporter gene. Many specific and informative expression patterns were noted. Expression was most commonly observed in the testis and brain and was most restricted in white adipose tissue and mammary gland. Over half of the assessed genes presented with an absent or localised expression pattern (categorised as 0-10 positive structures). A link between complexity of expression profile and viability of homozygous null animals was observed; inactivation of genes expressed in ?21 structures was more likely to result in reduced viability by postnatal day 14 compared with more restricted expression profiles. For validation purposes, this mouse expression resource was compared with Bgee, a federated composite of RNA-based expression data sets. Strong agreement was observed, indicating a high degree of specificity in our data. Furthermore, there were 1207 observations of expression of a particular gene in an anatomical structure where Bgee had no data, indicating a large amount of novelty in our data set. Examples of expression data corroborating and extending genotype-phenotype associations and supporting disease gene candidacy are presented to demonstrate the potential of this powerful resource. PMID:26398943

  13. A gene expression resource generated by genome-wide lacZ profiling in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Tuck, Elizabeth; Estabel, Jeanne; Oellrich, Anika; Maguire, Anna Karin; Adissu, Hibret A.; Souter, Luke; Siragher, Emma; Lillistone, Charlotte; Green, Angela L.; Wardle-Jones, Hannah; Carragher, Damian M.; Karp, Natasha A.; Smedley, Damian; Adams, Niels C.; Bussell, James N.; Adams, David J.; Ramírez-Solis, Ramiro; Steel, Karen P.; Galli, Antonella; White, Jacqueline K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Knowledge of the expression profile of a gene is a critical piece of information required to build an understanding of the normal and essential functions of that gene and any role it may play in the development or progression of disease. High-throughput, large-scale efforts are on-going internationally to characterise reporter-tagged knockout mouse lines. As part of that effort, we report an open access adult mouse expression resource, in which the expression profile of 424 genes has been assessed in up to 47 different organs, tissues and sub-structures using a lacZ reporter gene. Many specific and informative expression patterns were noted. Expression was most commonly observed in the testis and brain and was most restricted in white adipose tissue and mammary gland. Over half of the assessed genes presented with an absent or localised expression pattern (categorised as 0-10 positive structures). A link between complexity of expression profile and viability of homozygous null animals was observed; inactivation of genes expressed in ≥21 structures was more likely to result in reduced viability by postnatal day 14 compared with more restricted expression profiles. For validation purposes, this mouse expression resource was compared with Bgee, a federated composite of RNA-based expression data sets. Strong agreement was observed, indicating a high degree of specificity in our data. Furthermore, there were 1207 observations of expression of a particular gene in an anatomical structure where Bgee had no data, indicating a large amount of novelty in our data set. Examples of expression data corroborating and extending genotype-phenotype associations and supporting disease gene candidacy are presented to demonstrate the potential of this powerful resource. PMID:26398943

  14. Through a glass, darkly: reflections of mutation from lacI transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, G R; Glickman, B W

    2000-01-01

    The study of mutational frequency (Mf) and specificity in aging Big Blue lacI transgenic mice provides a unique opportunity to determine mutation rates (MR) in vivo in different tissues. We found that MR are not static, but rather, vary with the age or developmental stage of the tissue. Although Mf increase more rapidly early in life, MR are actually lower in younger animals than in older animals. For example, we estimate that the changes in Mf are 4.9x10(-8) and 1.1 x 10(-8) mutations/base pair/month in the livers of younger mice (<1. 5 months old) and older mice (> or =1.5 months old), respectively (a 4-fold decrease), and that the MR are 3.9 x 10(-9) and 1.3 x 10(-7) mutations/base pair/cell division, respectively ( approximately 30-fold increase). These data also permit an estimate of the MR of GC --> AT transitions occurring at 5'-CpG-3' (CpG) dinucleotide sequences. Subsequently, the contribution of these transitions to age-related demethylation of genomic DNA can be evaluated. Finally, to better understand the origin of observed Mf, we consider the contribution of various factors, including DNA damage and repair, by constructing a descriptive mutational model. We then apply this model to estimate the efficiency of repair of deaminated 5-methylcytosine nucleosides occurring at CpG dinucleotide sequences, as well as the influence of the Msh2(-/-) DNA repair defect on overall DNA repair efficiency in Big Blue mice. We conclude that even slight changes in DNA repair efficiency could lead to significant increases in mutation frequencies, potentially contributing significantly to human pathogenesis, including cancer. PMID:10880494

  15. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  16. ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K; W. H. Albright, W; E. S. Becvar, E; C. H. Benson, C; T. O. Early, T; E. Hood, E; P. M. Jardine, P; M. Lorah, M; E. Majche, E; D. Major, D; W. J. Waugh, W; G. Wein, G; O. R. West, O

    2007-05-15

    In 2003 the US Department of Energy (DOE) embarked on a project to explore an innovative approach to remediation of subsurface contaminant plumes that focused on introducing mechanisms for augmenting natural attenuation to achieve site closure. Termed enhanced attenuation (EA), this approach has drawn its inspiration from the concept of monitored natural attenuation (MNA).

  17. Compressional wave attenuation in oceanic basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wepfer, William W.; Christensen, Nikolas I.

    1990-10-01

    To understand better the seismic attenuation in the upper volcanic regions of the oceanic crust, compressional wave attenuations of oceanic basalts have been measured as a function of confining pressure using an ultrasonic pulse-echo spectral ratio technique capable of measuring attenuations to pressures of 500 MPa. Seven basalts, five from Deep Sea Drilling Project cores and two from dredge samples, have wide ranges of densities, porosities, and alterations, making possible an analysis of the parameters influencing basalt attenuation. Attenuation increases with the volume of secondary minerals present and with increasing porosity. Thus vesicularity and compositional changes associated with basalt alteration will produce variations in attenuation. With the application of hydrostatic pressure, cracks close, thereby reducing attenuations. This pressure dependence should be manifested in oceanic layer 2 by decreasing attenuation with depth. An inverse relationship between velocity and attenuation is observed at high hydrostatic pressures. Water saturation increases attenuation at pressures below 200 MPa and enhances the sensitivity of attenuation to pressure, thus making the state of saturation important in the 40 to 100 MPa range generally found in layer 2. These results provide a framework for interpreting marine attenuation data.

  18. Operation of the breeze tunnel to determine mass extinction coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.; Bonfante, R.; Catalano, E.; Rouse, W.G.; Banks, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The breeze tunnel at the Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center (ERDEC) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, is a unique facility for determining the efficacy of released smoke/obscurants in flowing air as a function of controlling variables. Optimum material feed characteristics and generator operating conditions can be determined. The facility allows investigation of the effects of different generator operating variables, airborne concentrations, and airborne particle sizes on mass extinction coefficients. The breeze tunnel is now available for Department of Defense (DoD) trials. During trials in the breeze tunnel, obscurants have been released from the compact-disc-generator, the IR-Log generator, and the XM56 generator. Obscurant release rates have ranged from an instantaneous puff to a continuous release of 10 lb/min. Extinction can be measured in the visual, infrared, and millimeter ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Experimental conditions allow calculation of mass extinction coefficients as a function of generator variables, including material release rates. Average mass extinction coefficients address attenuation from obscurants, both single primary particles and aggregates.

  19. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-01-01

    In Section 1 of this first report we will describe the work we are doing to collect and analyze rock physics data for the purpose of modeling seismic attenuation from other measurable quantities such as porosity, water saturation, clay content and net stress. This work and other empirical methods to be presented later, will form the basis for ''Q pseudo-well modeling'' that is a key part of this project. In Section 2 of this report, we will show the fundamentals of a new method to extract Q, dispersion, and attenuation from field seismic data. The method is called Gabor-Morlet time-frequency decomposition. This technique has a number of advantages including greater stability and better time resolution than spectral ratio methods.

  20. Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2015-11-01

    The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method. PMID:26218450

  1. Neutron attenuation characteristics of polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and heavy aggregate concrete and mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Majid, S.; Othman, F.

    1994-03-01

    Polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride pellets were introduced into concrete to improve its neutron attenuation characteristics while several types of heavy coarse aggregates were used to improve its gamma ray attenuation properties. Neutron and gamma ray attenuation were studied in concrete samples containing coarse aggregates of barite, pyrite, basalt, hematite, and marble as well as polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride pellets in narrow-beam geometry. The highest neutron attenuation was shown by polyethylene mortar, followed by polyvinyl chloride mortar; barite and pyrite concrete showed higher gamma ray attenuation than ordinary concrete. Broad-beam and continuous (infinite) medium geometries were used to study the neutron attenuation of samples containing polymers at different concentrations with and without heavy aggregates, the fitting equations were established, and from these the neutron removal coefficients were deduced. In a radiation field of neutrons and gamma rays, the appropriate concentration of polymer and heavy aggregate can be selected to give the optimum total dose attenuation depending on the relative intensities of each type of radiation. This would give much better design flexibility over ordinary concrete. The compressive strength tests performed on mortar and concrete samples showed that their value, in general, decreases as polymer concentration increases and that the polyvinyl chloride mortar showed higher values than the polyethylene mortar. For general construction purposes, the compression strength was considered acceptable in these samples. 34 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Attenuated internal reflection terahertz imaging.

    PubMed

    Wojdyla, Antoine; Gallot, Guilhem

    2013-01-15

    We present a terahertz (THz) imaging technique based on attenuated internal reflection, which is ideally suited for the analysis of liquid and biological samples. Inserted in a THz time-domain system, and using a high-resistivity low loss silicon prism to couple the THz wave into the sample, the detection scheme is based on the relative differential spectral phase of two orthogonal polarizations. Biological sample imaging as well as subwavelength (?/16) longitudinal resolution are demonstrated. PMID:23454932

  3. The Essential yhcSR Two-Component Signal Transduction System Directly Regulates the lac and opuCABCD Operons of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Meiying; Hall, Jeffrey W.; Yang, Junshu; Ji, Yinduo

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies suggested that the essential two-component signal transduction system, YhcSR, regulates the opuCABCD operon at the transcriptional level, and the Pspac-driven opuCABCD partially complements the lethal effects of yhcS antisense RNA expression in Staphylococcus aureus. However, the reason why yhcSR regulon is required for growth is still unclear. In this report, we present that the lac and opuC operons are directly transcriptionally regulated by YhcSR. Using real-time RT-PCR we showed that the down-regulation of yhcSR expression affected the transcription of lacA encoding galactose-6-phosphotase isomerase subunit LacA, and opuCA encoding a subunit of a glycine betaine/carnitine/choline ABC transporter. Promoter-lux reporter fusion studies further confirmed the transcriptional regulation of lac by YhcSR. Gel shift assays revealed that YhcR binds to the promoter regions of the lac and opuC operons. Moreover, the Pspac-driven lacABC expression in trans was able to partially complement the lethal effect of induced yhcS antisense RNA. Likewise, the Pspac-driven opuCABCD expression in trans complemented the growth defect of S. aureus in a high osmotic strength medium during the depletion of YhcSR. Taken together, the above data indicate that the yhcSR system directly regulates the expression of lac and opuC operons, which, in turn, may be partially associated with the essentiality of yhcSR in S. aureus. These results provide a new insight into the biological functions of the yhcSR, a global regulator. PMID:23226327

  4. Lg wave attenuation in Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargeant, Susanne; Ottemller, Lars

    2009-12-01

    The Lg wave quality factor (QLg) in Britain has been modelled using data from the UK Seismic Network, operated by the British Geological Survey. The data set consists of 631 vertical, mostly short-period recordings of Lg waves from 64 earthquakes (2.7-4.7 ML) and 93 stations. We have inverted for both regional average QLg and tomographic images of QLg, and simultaneously a source term for each event and a site term for each station for 22 frequencies in the band 0.9-10.0 Hz. The regional average model is 266f0.53 between 1.0 and 10.0 Hz and indicates that attenuation in Britain is slightly higher than in France, and significantly higher than in eastern North America and Scandinavia. Tomographic inversions at each frequency indicate that QLg varies spatially. Broadly speaking, southeastern England, the Lake District and parts of the East Irish Sea Basin, and a small region between the Highland Boundary Fault and the Southern Uplands Fault are characterized by higher than average attenuation. Southwestern England, eastern central England and northwestern Scotland are regions of relatively low attenuation. To some extent, these regions correlate with what is known about the tectonics and structure of the crust in the UK.

  5. Quantitative assessment of in vivo breast masses using ultrasound attenuation and backscatter.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kibo; Zagzebski, James A; Hall, Timothy J

    2013-04-01

    Clinical analysis of breast ultrasound imaging is done qualitatively, facilitated with the ultrasound breast imaging-reporting and data system (US BI-RADS) lexicon, which helps to standardize imaging assessments. Two descriptors in that lexicon, "posterior acoustic features" and the "echo pattern" within a mass, are directly related to quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters, namely, ultrasound attenuation and the average backscatter coefficient (BSC). The purpose of this study was to quantify ultrasound attenuation and backscatter in breast masses and to investigate these QUS properties as potential differential diagnostic markers. Radio frequency (RF) echo signals were from patients with breast masses during a special ultrasound imaging session prior to core biopsy. Data were also obtained from a well characterized phantom using identical system settings. Masses include 14 fibroadenomas and 10 carcinomas. Attenuation for the acoustic path lying proximal to the tumor was estimated offline using a least squares method with constraints. BSCs were estimated using a reference phantom method (RPM). The attenuation coefficient within each mass was assessed using both the RPM and a hybrid method, and effective scatterer diameters (ESDs) were estimated using a Gaussian form factor model. Attenuation estimates obtained with the RPM were consistent with estimates done using the hybrid method in all cases except for two masses. The mean slope of the attenuation coefficient versus frequency for carcinomas was 20% greater than the mean slope value for the fibroadenomas. The product of the attenuation coefficient and anteroposterior dimension of the mass was computed to estimate the total attenuation for each mass. That value correlated well with the BI-RADS assessment of "posterior acoustic features" judged qualitatively from gray scale images. Nearly all masses were described as "hypoechoic," so no strong statements could be made about the correlation of echo pattern findings in BI-RADS with the averaged BSC values. However, most carcinomas exhibited lower values for the frequency-average BSC than fibroadenomas. The mean ESD alone did not differentiate the mass type, but fibroadenomas had greater variability in ESDs within the ROI than that found for invasive ductal carcinomas. This study demonstrates the potential to use attenuation and QUS parameters associated with the BSC as quantitative descriptors. PMID:23493613

  6. Observation of Two La(C_3H_2) Isomers Formed by Dehydrogenation of Propyneobservation of Two La(C_3H_2) Isomers Formed by Dehydrogenation of Propyne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewage, Dilrukshi; Roudjane, Mourad; Yang, Dong-Sheng; Hewage, Dilrukshi; Roudjane, Mourad; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2011-06-01

    C-H bond activation of small hydrocarbons is of importance in chemistry and industrial applications. La(C_3H_2) was formed by the reaction of laser-ablated La atoms and propyne (C_3H_4) in supersonic molecular beams. Two isomers of La(C_3H_2) were detected for the first time by mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy. From the MATI spectra, the two isomers exhibit origin bands at 42953(5) and 43609(5) Cm-1 and vibrational intervals of 425 and 535 Cm-1, respectively. They were identified as La(CCCH_2) formed from 1,3-dehydrogantion and La(HCCCH) formed by 3,3-dehydrogenation and were confirmed by measurements with deuterium substituted propyne (C_3D_4) as the precursor. The 1,3-dehydrogenated complex shows a higher ionization energy and larger metal-ligand stretching frequencies than the 3,3-dehydrogenated species. Based on DFT/B3LYP calculations, the electronic transitions responsible for the observed MATI spectrum of La(HCCCH)isomer is ^1A ? ^2A,and that of La(CCCH_2)isomer is ^1A' ? ^2A'. C-H bond activation of small hydrocarbons is of importance in chemistry and industrial applications. La(C_3H_2) was formed by the reaction of laser-ablated La atoms and propyne (C_3H_4) in supersonic molecular beams. Two isomers of La(C_3H_2) were detected for the first time by mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy. From the MATI spectra, the two isomers exhibit origin bands at 42959(5) and 43614(5) Cm-1 and vibrational intervals of 468/540 and 407/448 Cm-1, respectively. They were identified as La(CCCH_2) formed from 1,3-dehydrogantion and La(HCCCH) formed by 3,3-dehydrogenation and were confirmed by measurements with deuterium substituted propyne (C_3D_4) as the precursor. The 1,3-dehydrogenated complex shows a higher ionization energy and larger metal-ligand stretching frequencies than the 3,3-dehydrogenated species. The electronic transitions responsible for the observed MATI spectra of both isomers are ^1A ? ^2A and will be discussed with aid of B3LYP/SDD calculations and Franck-Condon vibrational analysis.

  7. Clustering coefficients of lexical neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Altieri, Nicholas; Gruenenfelder, Thomas; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    High neighborhood density reduces the speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition. The two studies reported here investigated whether Clustering Coefficient (CC) a graph theoretic variable measuring the degree to which a words neighbors are neighbors of one another, has similar effects on spoken word recognition. In Experiment 1, we found that high CC words were identified less accurately when spectrally degraded than low CC words. In Experiment 2, using a word repetition procedure, we observed longer response latencies for high CC words compared to low CC words. Taken together, the results of both studies indicate that higher CC leads to slower and less accurate spoken word recognition. The results are discussed in terms of activation-plus-competition models of spoken word recognition. PMID:21423865

  8. Accuracy of CT-based attenuation correction in PET/CT bone imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abella, Monica; Alessio, Adam M.; Mankoff, David A.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Vaquero, Juan Jose; Desco, Manuel; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-05-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of scaling CT images for attenuation correction of PET data measured for bone. While the standard tri-linear approach has been well tested for soft tissues, the impact of CT-based attenuation correction on the accuracy of tracer uptake in bone has not been reported in detail. We measured the accuracy of attenuation coefficients of bovine femur segments and patient data using a tri-linear method applied to CT images obtained at different kVp settings. Attenuation values at 511 keV obtained with a 68Ga/68Ge transmission scan were used as a reference standard. The impact of inaccurate attenuation images on PET standardized uptake values (SUVs) was then evaluated using simulated emission images and emission images from five patients with elevated levels of FDG uptake in bone at disease sites. The CT-based linear attenuation images of the bovine femur segments underestimated the true values by 2.9 0.3% for cancellous bone regardless of kVp. For compact bone the underestimation ranged from 1.3% at 140 kVp to 14.1% at 80 kVp. In the patient scans at 140 kVp the underestimation was approximately 2% averaged over all bony regions. The sensitivity analysis indicated that errors in PET SUVs in bone are approximately proportional to errors in the estimated attenuation coefficients for the same regions. The variability in SUV bias also increased approximately linearly with the error in linear attenuation coefficients. These results suggest that bias in bone uptake SUVs of PET tracers ranges from 2.4% to 5.9% when using CT scans at 140 and 120 kVp for attenuation correction. Lower kVp scans have the potential for considerably more error in dense bone. This bias is present in any PET tracer with bone uptake but may be clinically insignificant for many imaging tasks. However, errors from CT-based attenuation correction methods should be carefully evaluated if quantitation of tracer uptake in bone is important.

  9. Near-IR extinction and backscatter coefficient measurements in low- and mid-altitude clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sztankay, Z. G.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of the attenuation and backscattering properties of clouds is required to high resolution for several types of optical sensing systems. Such data was obtained in about 15 hours of flights through clouds in the vicinity of Washington, D.C. The flights were mainly through stratocumulus, altocumulus, stratus, and stratus fractus clouds and covered an altitude and temperature range of 300 to 3200 m and -13 to 17 C. Two instruments were flown, each of which measured the backscatter from close range in two range bins to independently determine both the extinction and backscatter coefficients. The extinction and backscatter coefficients can be obtained from the signals in the two channels of each instrument, provided that the aerosol is uniform over the measurement region. When this assumptions holds, the extinction coefficient is derived basically from the ratio of the signal in the two channels; the backscatter coefficient can then be obtained from the signal in either channel.

  10. Topological analysis of a haloacid permease of a Burkholderia sp. bacterium with a PhoA-LacZ reporter

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background 2-Haloacids can be found in the natural environment as degradative products of natural and synthetic halogenated compounds. They can also be generated by disinfection of water and have been shown to be mutagenic and to inhibit glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. We have recently identified a novel haloacid permease Deh4p from a bromoacetate-degrading bacterium Burkholderia sp. MBA4. Comparative analyses suggested that Deh4p is a member of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS), which includes thousands of membrane transporter proteins. Members of the MFS usually possess twelve putative transmembrane segments (TMS). Deh4p was predicted to have twelve TMS. In this study we characterized the topology of Deh4p with a PhoA-LacZ dual reporters system. Results Thirty-six Deh4p-reporter recombinants were constructed and expressed in E. coli. Both PhoA and LacZ activities were determined in these cells. Strength indices were calculated to determine the locations of the reporters. The results mainly agree with the predicted model. However, two of the TMS were not verified. This lack of confirmation of the TMS, using a reporter, has been reported previously. Further comparative analysis of Deh4p has assigned it to the Metabolite:H+ Symporter (MHS) 2.A.1.6 family with twelve TMS. Deh4p exhibits many common features of the MHS family proteins. Deh4p is apparently a member of the MFS but with some atypical features. Conclusion The PhoA-LacZ reporter system is convenient for analysis of the topology of membrane proteins. However, due to the limitation of the biological system, verification of some of the TMS of the protein was not successful. The present study also makes use of bioinformatic analysis to verify that the haloacid permease Deh4p of Burkholderia sp. MBA4 is a MFS protein but with atypical features. PMID:19878597

  11. Residues in the H+ Translocation Site Define the pKa for Sugar Binding to LacY

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Irina; Kasho, Vladimir; Sugihara, Junichi; Choe, Jun-Yong; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A remarkably high pKa of approximately 10.5 has been determined for sugar-binding affinity to the lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY), indicating that, under physiological conditions, substrate binds to fully protonated LacY. We have now systematically tested site-directed replacements for the residues involved in sugar binding, as well as H+ translocation and coupling, in order to determine which residues may be responsible for this alkaline pKa. Mutations in the sugar-binding site (Glu126, Trp151, Glu269) markedly decrease affinity for sugar but do not alter the pKa for binding. In contrast, replacements for residues involved in H+ translocation (Arg302, Tyr236, His322, Asp240, Glu325, Lys319) exhibit pKa values for sugar binding that are either shifted toward neutral pH or independent of pH. Values for the apparent dissociation constant for sugar binding (Kdapp) increase greatly for all mutants except neutral replacements for Glu325 or Lys319, which are characterized by remarkably high affinity sugar binding (i.e., low Kdapp) from pH 5.5 to pH 11. The pH dependence of the on- and off-rate constants for sugar binding measured directly by stopped-flow fluorometry implicates koff as a major factor for the affinity change at alkaline pH and confirms the effects of pH on Kdapp inferred from steady-state fluorometry. These results indicate that the high pKa for sugar binding by wild-type LacY cannot be ascribed to any single amino acid residue but appears to reside within a complex of residues involved in H+ translocation. There is structural evidence for water bound in this complex, and the water could be the site of protonation responsible for the pH dependence of sugar binding. PMID:19689129

  12. Lac Repressor Mediated DNA Looping: Monte Carlo Simulation of Constrained DNA Molecules Complemented with Current Experimental Results

    PubMed Central

    Biton, Yoav Y.; Kumar, Sandip; Dunlap, David; Swigon, David

    2014-01-01

    Tethered particle motion (TPM) experiments can be used to detect time-resolved loop formation in a single DNA molecule by measuring changes in the length of a DNA tether. Interpretation of such experiments is greatly aided by computer simulations of DNA looping which allow one to analyze the structure of the looped DNA and estimate DNA-protein binding constants specific for the loop formation process. We here present a new Monte Carlo scheme for accurate simulation of DNA configurations subject to geometric constraints and apply this method to Lac repressor mediated DNA looping, comparing the simulation results with new experimental data obtained by the TPM technique. Our simulations, taking into account the details of attachment of DNA ends and fluctuations of the looped subsegment of the DNA, reveal the origin of the double-peaked distribution of RMS values observed by TPM experiments by showing that the average RMS value for anti-parallel loop types is smaller than that of parallel loop types. The simulations also reveal that the looping probabilities for the anti-parallel loop types are significantly higher than those of the parallel loop types, even for loops of length 600 and 900 base pairs, and that the correct proportion between the heights of the peaks in the distribution can only be attained when loops with flexible Lac repressor conformation are taken into account. Comparison of the in silico and in vitro results yields estimates for the dissociation constants characterizing the binding affinity between O1 and Oid DNA operators and the dimeric arms of the Lac repressor. PMID:24800809

  13. Lac Télé structure, Republic of Congo: Geological setting of a cryptozoological and biodiversity hotspot, and evidence against an impact origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Master, Sharad

    2010-11-01

    Lac Télé is a large lake, ˜5.6 km in diameter, with an ovoid shape, situated at 17°10'E, 1°20'N, in the great tropical rain forest region of the Republic of Congo. This lake has attracted widespread attention, mainly because of the legends among the local people that it harbours a strange animal known as the Mokele-Mbembe, but also because it is situated in a region that is a hotbed of biodiversity and conservation efforts with respect to various endangered mammalian species, including gorillas and chimpanzees. Because of its appearance, Lac Télé has been regarded as a possible meteorite impact structure. Various expeditions, studying cryptozoology, conservation ecology, biodiversity, and the impact hypothesis, have visited Lac Télé in the past several decades. The Lac Télé structure is located in the NW part of the intracratonic Congo Basin, in a region dominated by Holocene alluvium, dense tropical rain forest, and swamps which form part of the basin of the Likouala aux Herbes, a multi-branched meandering river flowing over very low gradients into the Sangha river, a major tributary of the Congo river. Previous bathymetric studies have shown that the average depth of Lac Télé is only 4 m, including organic-rich silty sediments. The structure is that of a flat-bottomed dish. Modelling of the Lac Télé as an impact structure indicates a number of features which ought to be present. The absence of any of these features, coupled with the irregular ovoid shape, the palynological record, and the location of the structure at the intersection of major regional lineaments, is regarded as evidence against the impact hypothesis. Lac Télé as an isolated lake ecosystem is not unique in the Congo Basin, and there are several other similar small shallow isolated lakes surrounded by rain forest and marshes, some of which formed by damming of drainage systems by neotectonic faults. It is suggested that the formation of Lac Télé may be related to its location over neotectonically reactivated regional lineaments, which are also seismically active. Lac Télé and other similar hydrologic systems may be biodiversity hotspots because they acted as refugia following neotectonic hydrological re-organization of the Congo Basin.

  14. Note on Two Generalizations of Coefficient Alpha.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.

    1979-01-01

    An important relationship is given for two generalizations of coefficient alpha: (1) Rajaratnam, Cronbach, and Gleser's generalizability formula for stratified-parallel tests, and (2) Raju's coefficient beta. (Author/CTM)

  15. Estimation of bounds for the geopotential coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    A numerical analysis of zonal geopotential coefficients and the bounds on the tesseral coefficients is presented. Modifications designed to incorporate data on the earth's density distribution are developed. The nature of the modifications and the application are discussed.

  16. GPR data noise attenuation on the curvelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Qian-Zong; Li, Qing-Chun; Chen, Wen-Chao

    2014-09-01

    Signal extraction is critical in GRP data processing and noise attenuation. When the target depth is shallow, its reflection echo signal will overlap with the background noise, affecting the detection of arrival time and localization of the target. Thus, we propose a noise attenuation method based on the curvelet transform. First, the original signal is transformed into the curvelet domain, and then the curvelet coefficients of the background noise are extracted according to the distribution features that differ from the effective signal. In the curvelet domain, the coarse-scale curvelet atom is isotropic. Hence, a two-dimensional directional filter is designed to estimate the high-energy background noise in the coarsescale domain, and then, attenuate the background noise and highlight the effective signal. In this process, we also use a subscale threshold value of the curvelet domain to filter out random noise. Finally, we compare the proposed method with the average elimination and 2D continuous wavelet transform methods. The results show that the proposed method not only removes the background noise but also eliminates the coherent interference and random noise. The numerical simulation and the real data application suggest and verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Controlling frontal photopolymerization with optical attenuation and mass diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessy, Matthew G.; Vitale, Alessandra; Matar, Omar K.; Cabral, Joo T.

    2015-06-01

    Frontal photopolymerization (FPP) is a versatile directional solidification process that can be used to rapidly fabricate polymer network materials by selectively exposing a photosensitive monomer bath to light. A characteristic feature of FPP is that the monomer-to-polymer conversion profiles take on the form of traveling waves that propagate into the unpolymerized bulk from the illuminated surface. Practical implementations of FPP require detailed knowledge about the conversion profile and speed of these traveling waves. The purpose of this theoretical study is to (i) determine the conditions under which FPP occurs and (ii) explore how optical attenuation and mass transport can be used to finely tune the conversion profile and propagation kinetics. Our findings quantify the strong optical attenuation and slow mass transport relative to the rate of polymerization required for FPP. The shape of the traveling wave is primarily controlled by the magnitude of the optical attenuation coefficients of the neat and polymerized material. Unexpectedly, we find that mass diffusion can increase the net extent of polymerization and accelerate the growth of the solid network. The theoretical predictions are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data acquired for representative systems.

  18. Fullerene derivative attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Lai, Y-L; Murugan, P; Hwang, K C

    2003-01-31

    Reactive oxygen species are the major contributing factors to lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. In this study, we tested whether a water soluble antioxidant fullerene derivative [C(60)(ONO(2))(7 +/- 2)] attenuates IR lung injury. Young Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control and C(60)(ONO(2))(7 +/- 2). Under ventilation with 95% air-5% CO(2) gas mixture and a 2.5 cm H(2)O end-expiratory pressure, the isolated lungs were perfused with a physiological solution. The experimental protocol included three periods: baseline (10 min), ischemia (45 min) and reperfusion (60 min, ventilated with 95% O(2)-5% CO(2) gas mixture). Before and after ischemia, we measured pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), pulmonary venous pressure and lung weight (W). Then, pulmonary capillary pressure and filtration coefficient (K(fc)) were calculated. Ischemia caused increases in Ppa, W and K(fc) in the control group. For most cases, the above ischemia-induced increases were attenuated by the C(60)(ONO(2))(7 +/- 2) pretreatment. Our results suggest that the antioxidant C(60)(ONO(2))(7 +/- 2) attenuates IR-induced lung injury. PMID:12570927

  19. Effective gene transfer of lacZ and P0 into Schwann cells of P0-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Guénard, V; Schweitzer, B; Flechsig, E; Hemmi, S; Martini, R; Suter, U; Schachner, M

    1999-01-15

    Mutations in the gene encoding for the myelinating Schwann cell protein P0 have been linked to inherited peripheral neuropathies, including the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B disease (CMT1B) and Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS). Recently generated mice deficient in the P0 gene (P0-/- mice) resemble cases of CMT1B and DSS with impaired myelin dosage (Martini et al., 1995a). Potential approaches to treat such diseases include the introduction of the normal gene in the nerves of strongly affected patients. In the present study we used P0-/- mice to evaluate the efficiency of a replication-defective, E1-deleted adenovirus vector carrying the lacZ (Ad-RSV-lacZ) or P0 (Ad-RSV-P0) gene to infect abnormally myelinating Schwann cells. The Ad-RSV-lacZ vector suspension was injected into the left sciatic nerve ofPO-/- mice and the nerves examined for beta-galactosidase activity by X-gal histochemistry. Contralateral nerves injected with vehicle solution or non-injected served as controls. Beta-galactosidase activity was detected in nerves injected with the Ad-RSV-lacZ vector up to 2 weeks post-injection. Immunosuppressing the mice with FK506 to decrease the infiltration of activated T-cells in infected nerves lengthened beta-galactosidase activity to 8 weeks, the longest time point examined. Ultrastructural analysis indicated that X-gal crystals were present mostly in abnormally myelinating Schwann cells. These findings demonstrate that an adenovirus vector can successfully infect Schwann cells in P0-/- mice and expression can be maintained for several weeks. The Ad-RSV-P0 suspension was then injected in the sciatic nerve of immunosuppressed P0-/- mice. Two and four weeks post-injection both P0 mRNA and protein could be detected by in situ hybridization and Western blotting in some of the nerves. Furthermore, P0 protein expression was observed in myelin-like structures and onion bulb-like cells by immunohistochemistry. These results indicate that Schwann cells in P0-/- mice can be induced to produce P0 protein after gene transfer. Genetic repair of abnormal Schwann cells by using adenovirus vectors might be a possible technique to treat animal models of inherited peripheral neuropathies. PMID:9890631

  20. Fermi-LAT detection of a GeV flare from the BL Lac object 1ES 2322-409

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano

    2013-10-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed an increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with the BL Lac object 1ES 2322-409 (also know as 2FGL J2324.7-4042, Nolan et al. 2012, ApJS, 199, 31, and as 1FHL J2324.6-4041, Ackermann et al., ApJS, submitted, arXiv:1306.6772), with 2MASS counterpart coordinates, (J2000.0), R.A.: 351.18612 deg, Dec: -40.68036 deg (Mao 2011, New Ast., 16, 503).