Sample records for attenuation coefficient lac

  1. Emission-based estimation of lung attenuation coefficients for attenuation correction in time-of-flight PET/MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib

    2015-06-01

    In standard segmentation-based MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) of PET data on hybrid PET/MRI systems, the inter/intra-patient variability of linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) is ignored owing to the assignment of a constant LAC to each tissue class. This can lead to PET quantification errors, especially in the lung regions. In this work, we aim to derive continuous and patient-specific lung LACs from time-of-flight (TOF) PET emission data using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) algorithm. The MLAA algorithm was constrained for estimation of lung LACs only in the standard 4-class MR attenuation map using Gaussian lung tissue preference and Markov random field smoothness priors. MRAC maps were derived from segmentation of CT images of 19 TOF-PET/CT clinical studies into background air, lung, soft tissue and fat tissue classes, followed by assignment of predefined LACs of 0, 0.0224, 0.0864 and 0.0975?cm?1, respectively. The lung LACs of the resulting attenuation maps were then estimated from emission data using the proposed MLAA algorithm. PET quantification accuracy of MRAC and MLAA methods was evaluated against the reference CT-based AC method in the lungs, lesions located in/near the lungs and neighbouring tissues. The results show that the proposed MLAA algorithm is capable of retrieving lung density gradients and compensate fairly for respiratory-phase mismatch between PET and corresponding attenuation maps. It was found that the mean of the estimated lung LACs generally follow the trend of the reference CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) method. Quantitative analysis revealed that the MRAC method resulted in average relative errors of???5.2???±???7.1% and???6.1???±???6.7% in the lungs and lesions, respectively. These were reduced by the MLAA algorithm to???0.8???±???6.3% and???3.3???±???4.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated the potential and capability of emission-based methods in deriving patient-specific lung LACs to improve the accuracy of attenuation correction in TOF PET/MR imaging, thus paving the way for their adaptation in the clinic.

  2. Emission-based estimation of lung attenuation coefficients for attenuation correction in time-of-flight PET/MR.

    PubMed

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib

    2015-06-21

    In standard segmentation-based MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) of PET data on hybrid PET/MRI systems, the inter/intra-patient variability of linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) is ignored owing to the assignment of a constant LAC to each tissue class. This can lead to PET quantification errors, especially in the lung regions. In this work, we aim to derive continuous and patient-specific lung LACs from time-of-flight (TOF) PET emission data using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) algorithm. The MLAA algorithm was constrained for estimation of lung LACs only in the standard 4-class MR attenuation map using Gaussian lung tissue preference and Markov random field smoothness priors. MRAC maps were derived from segmentation of CT images of 19 TOF-PET/CT clinical studies into background air, lung, soft tissue and fat tissue classes, followed by assignment of predefined LACs of 0, 0.0224, 0.0864 and 0.0975?cm(-1), respectively. The lung LACs of the resulting attenuation maps were then estimated from emission data using the proposed MLAA algorithm. PET quantification accuracy of MRAC and MLAA methods was evaluated against the reference CT-based AC method in the lungs, lesions located in/near the lungs and neighbouring tissues. The results show that the proposed MLAA algorithm is capable of retrieving lung density gradients and compensate fairly for respiratory-phase mismatch between PET and corresponding attenuation maps. It was found that the mean of the estimated lung LACs generally follow the trend of the reference CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) method. Quantitative analysis revealed that the MRAC method resulted in average relative errors of??-5.2???±???7.1% and??-6.1???±???6.7% in the lungs and lesions, respectively. These were reduced by the MLAA algorithm to??-0.8???±???6.3% and??-3.3???±???4.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated the potential and capability of emission-based methods in deriving patient-specific lung LACs to improve the accuracy of attenuation correction in TOF PET/MR imaging, thus paving the way for their adaptation in the clinic. PMID:26047036

  3. Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin

    2014-06-17

    Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio. PMID:24866482

  4. Direct determination of the attenuation coefficient for radionuclide volume measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Keller; T. R. Simon; T. C. Smitherman; C. R. Malloy; G. J. Dehmer

    1987-01-01

    Correcting for the attenuation of photons between the cardiac chambers and chest surface is crucial for accurate nongeometric ventricular volume determinations from equilibrium radionuclide angiograms. Previous techniques have assumed that the attenuation coefficient of water for \\/sup 99m\\/Tc (0.15\\/cm) should be used for this correction. In this study, this assumption was tested directly by measuring attenuation of the activity of

  5. FREQUENCY DEPENDENT ULTRASONIC ATTENUATION COEFFICIENT ASSESSMENT IN FRESH

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    = = where is the average acoustic energy density, I is the acoustic intensity and cois procedures for measuring total acoustic power typically measure the force via a balance apparatus using a phase insensitive, radiation force balance technique. Ultrasonic attenuation coefficient

  6. Measurements of spectral attenuation coefficients in the lower Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, W. M.

    1983-01-01

    The spectral transmission was measured for water samples taken in the lower Chesapeake Bay to allow characterization of several optical properties. The coefficients of total attenuation, particle attenuation, and absorption by dissolved organic matter were determined over a wavelength range from 3500 A to 8000 A. The data were taken over a 3 year period and at a number of sites so that an indication of spatial and temporal variations could be obtained. The attenuations determined in this work are, on the average, 10 times greater than those obtained by Hulburt in 1944, which are commonly accepted in the literature for Chesapeake Bay attenuation.

  7. Direct determination of the attenuation coefficient for radionuclide volume measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.M.; Simon, T.R.; Smitherman, T.C.; Malloy, C.R.; Dehmer, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Correcting for the attenuation of photons between the cardiac chambers and chest surface is crucial for accurate nongeometric ventricular volume determinations from equilibrium radionuclide angiograms. Previous techniques have assumed that the attenuation coefficient of water for /sup 99m/Tc (0.15/cm) should be used for this correction. In this study, this assumption was tested directly by measuring attenuation of the activity of a radioactive source within the right and left cardiac chambers. The balloon of a flow-directed catheter, filled with /sup 99m/Tc, was used as a source and its depth within the body was measured with biplane fluoroscopy. In ten patients, a total of 36 measurements of attenuation were made. With linear regression analysis, the overall calculated attenuation coefficient, mu, was 0.12/cm (standard error of slope = 0.01, R = 0.93). Although the mean value of mu varied from 0.08 to 0.13 for four different intracardiac locations these differences were not significant. These direct measurements indicate that the attenuation of photons in the heart is not equivalent to that of water and suggest that an attenuation coefficient of 0.12/cm should be used in analyzing ventricular activity.

  8. Direct determination of the attenuation coefficient for radionuclide volume measurements.

    PubMed

    Keller, A M; Simon, T R; Smitherman, T C; Malloy, C R; Dehmer, G J

    1987-01-01

    Correcting for the attenuation of photons between the cardiac chambers and chest surface is crucial for accurate nongeometric ventricular volume determinations from equilibrium radionuclide angiograms. Previous techniques have assumed that the attenuation coefficient of water for 99mTc (0.15/cm) should be used for this correction. In this study, this assumption was tested directly by measuring attenuation of the activity of a radioactive source within the right and left cardiac chambers. The balloon of a flow-directed catheter, filled with 99mTc, was used as a source and its depth within the body was measured with biplane fluoroscopy. In ten patients, a total of 36 measurements of attenuation were made. With linear regression analysis, the overall calculated attenuation coefficient, mu, was 0.12/cm (standard error of slope = 0.01, R = 0.93). Although the mean value of mu varied from 0.08 to 0.13 for four different intracardiac locations these differences were not significant. These direct measurements indicate that the attenuation of photons in the heart is not equivalent to that of water and suggest that an attenuation coefficient of 0.12/cm should be used in analyzing ventricular activity. PMID:3794802

  9. Fiber Attenuation To measure the attenuation coefficient of a multi-mode fiber, and to

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Fiber Attenuation Purpose: To measure the attenuation coefficient of a multi-mode fiber, and to see the effect of mode scrambling on the fiber output. Equipment: · optics table, or 2'x2' breadboard · 4 1 -20 (340C) · short rod For the fiber- · F-MLD-500 fiber (~500 meters) · fiber coupler · 20X objective lens

  10. Improved techniques for measuring x-ray mass attenuation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, Martin D.; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi N. M...

    2006-04-01

    We apply the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) to measure mass attenuation coefficients over one order of magnitude more accurately than previously reported in the literature. We describe the application of the XERT to the investigation of systematic effects due to harmonic energy components in the x-ray beam, scattering and fluorescence from the absorbing sample, the bandwidth of the x-ray beam, and thickness variations across the absorber. The high-accuracy measurements are used for comparison with different calculations of mass attenuation coefficients, and to identify particular regions where these calculations fail.

  11. Improved techniques for measuring x-ray mass attenuation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, Martin D.; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi

    2004-10-01

    We have applied the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) to measure mass attenuation coefficients over one order of magnitude more accurately than previously reported in the literature. We describe here the application of the XERT to the investigation of a number of systematic effects which has enabled us to ensure that these recent measurements are free from systematic error. In particular we describe our techniques for quantifying the effects of harmonic components in the x-ray beam, scattering and fluorescence from the absorbing sample, the bandwidth of the x-ray beam, and thickness variations across the absorber.

  12. Measurement of Acoustic Attenuation and Absorption Coefficients using Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Hugh; Rivens, Ian; Shaw, Adam; ter Haar, Gail

    2007-05-01

    Accurate knowledge of both the attenuation and the absorption coefficient of tissue are required when planning an optimal high intensity focused ultrasound treatment. A novel technique for simple measurement of this parameters has been developed in which a thin-film thermocouple (TFT) is placed between two layers of tissue of different thicknesses. The sample can be rotated about an axis through the junction of the TFT so that it can be insonated from either side leaving the tissue adjacent to the junction unchanged, but changing the overlying thickness. The attenuation and absorption coefficients can be calculated from the heating curves measured in the two orientations. Experiments have been carried out in both tissue mimicking material (TMM) and in ex vivo liver tissue. Weakly focused transducers, resonant at 1.05 MHz, 2.4 MHz and 3.55 MHz were used at free-field spatial peak intensities of 9-14 W/cm2. The temperature rise was measured as a function of time using a TFT. These thermocouples are not subject to the viscous heating artefact that is common to other thermocouple devices and so are advantageous for this purpose. Alignment was achieved with a 3D automated gantry system, which was controlled with specialised software. Timing and data acquisition were also controlled with this software. All experiments were carried out in degassed water. Results for TMM and degassed excised bovine liver are presented.

  13. Author's personal copy Assessment of satellite-derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    sensing MODIS SeaWiFS Bio-optical algorithm Diffuse attenuation coefficient Euphotic depth Optical data to MODIS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. The products included the diffuse attenuAuthor's personal copy Assessment of satellite-derived diffuse attenuation coefficients

  14. Representative Elementary Length to Measure Soil Mass Attenuation Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Borges, J. A. R.; Pires, L. F.; Costa, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    With increasing demand for better yield in agricultural areas, soil physical property representative measurements are more and more essential. Nuclear techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GAT) have been widely employed with this purpose. The soil mass attenuation coefficient (?s) is an important parameter for CT and GAT analysis. When experimentally determined (?es), the use of suitable sized samples enable to evaluate it precisely, as well as to reduce measurement time and costs. This study investigated the representative elementary length (REL) of sandy and clayey soils for ?es measurements. Two radioactive sources were employed (241Am and 137Cs), three collimators (2–4?mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (2–15?cm). Results indicated ideal thickness intervals of 12–15 and 2–4?cm for the sources 137Cs and 241Am, respectively. The application of such results in representative elementary area (REA) evaluations in clayey soil clods via CT indicated that ?es average values obtained for x?>?4?cm and source 241Am might induce to the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations (?s). As a consequence, ?s might be under- or overestimated, generating inaccurate conclusions about the physical quality of the soil under study. PMID:24672338

  15. Representative elementary length to measure soil mass attenuation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Borges, J A R; Pires, L F; Costa, J C

    2014-01-01

    With increasing demand for better yield in agricultural areas, soil physical property representative measurements are more and more essential. Nuclear techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GAT) have been widely employed with this purpose. The soil mass attenuation coefficient (?(s)) is an important parameter for CT and GAT analysis. When experimentally determined (?(es)), the use of suitable sized samples enable to evaluate it precisely, as well as to reduce measurement time and costs. This study investigated the representative elementary length (REL) of sandy and clayey soils for ?(es) measurements. Two radioactive sources were employed ((241)Am and (137)Cs), three collimators (2-4 mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (2-15 cm). Results indicated ideal thickness intervals of 12-15 and 2-4 cm for the sources (137)Cs and (241)Am, respectively. The application of such results in representative elementary area (REA) evaluations in clayey soil clods via CT indicated that ?(es) average values obtained for x > 4 cm and source (241)Am might induce to the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations (?(s)). As a consequence, ?(s) might be under- or overestimated, generating inaccurate conclusions about the physical quality of the soil under study. PMID:24672338

  16. The remote sensing algorithm of spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiankun Zhu; Xianqiang He; Zhihua Mao; Fang Gong

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse attenuation coefficient is an apparent optical property (AOP) which directly links to the inherent optical properties in ocean color remote sensing. So far, the study on the satellite retrieve algorithm of water diffuse attenuation coefficient has not been deeply-going, which is mainly discussed using the bands-ratio methods based on the in situ data. Only a few scientists apply the

  17. Calculation and validation of the use of effective attenuation coefficient for attenuation correction in In-111 SPECT.

    PubMed

    Seo, Youngho; Wong, Kenneth H; Hasegawa, Bruce H

    2005-12-01

    Nuclear medicine tracers using 111In as a radiolabel are increasing in their use, especially in the domain of oncologic imaging. In these applications, it often is critical to have the capability of quantifying radionuclide uptake and being able to relate it to the biological properties of the tumor. However, images from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be degraded by photon attenuation, photon scattering, and collimator blurring; without compensation for these effects, image quality can be degraded, and accurate and precise quantification is impossible. Although attenuation correction for SPECT is becoming more common, most implementations can only model single energy radionuclides such as 99mTc and 123I. Thus, attenuation correction for 111In is challenging because it emits two photons (171 and 245 keV) at nearly equal rates (90.2% and 94% emission probabilities). In this paper, we present a method of calculating a single "effective" attenuation coefficient for the dual-energy emissions of 111In, and that can be used to correct for photon attenuation in radionuclide images acquired with this radionuclide. Using this methodology, we can derive an effective linear attenuation coefficient Micro(eff) and an effective photon energy E(eff) based on the emission probabilities and linear attenuation coefficients of the 111In photons. This approach allows us to treat the emissions from 111In as a single photon with an effective energy of 210 keV. We obtained emission projection data from a tank filled with a uniform solution of 111In. The projection data were reconstructed using an iterative maximum-likelihood algorithm with no attenuation correction, and with attenuation correction assuming photon energies of 171, 245, and 210 keV (the derived E(eff)). The reconstructed tomographic images demonstrate that the use of no attenuation correction, or correction assuming photon energies of 171 or 245 keV introduces inaccuracies into the reconstructed radioactivity distribution when compared against the effective energy method. In summary, this work provides both a theoretical framework and experimental methodology of attenuation correction for the dual-energy emissions from 111In. Although these results are specific to 111In, the foundation could easily be extended to other multiple-energy isotopes. PMID:16475761

  18. Factors That Attenuate the Correlation Coefficient and Its Analogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolenz, Beverly

    The correlation coefficient is an integral part of many other statistical techniques (analysis of variance, t-tests, etc.), since all analytic methods are actually correlational (G. V. Glass and K. D. Hopkins, 1984). The correlation coefficient is a statistical summary that represents the degree and direction of relationship between two variables.…

  19. The role of the reflection coefficient in precision measurement of ultrasonic attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation measurements using contact, pulse-echo techniques are sensitive to surface roughness and couplant thickness variations. This can reduce considerable inaccuracies in the measurement of the attenuation coefficient for broadband pulses. Inaccuracies arise from variations in the reflection coefficient at the buffer-couplant-sample interface. The reflection coefficient is examined as a function of the surface roughness and corresponding couplant thickness variations. Interrelations with ultrasonic frequency are illustrated. Reliable attenuation measurements are obtained only when the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient is incorporated in signal analysis. Data are given for nickel 200 samples and a silicon nitride ceramic bar having surface roughness variations in the 0.3 to 3.0 microns range for signal bandwidths in the 50 to 100 MHz range.

  20. Investigation of photon attenuation coefficient of some building materials used in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, B.; Altinsoy, N.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, some building materials regularly used in Turkey, such as concrete, gas concrete, pumice and brick have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient at different gamma-ray energies. Measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry containing NaI(Tl) detector. Narrow beam gamma-ray transmission geometry was used for the attenuation measurements. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation of XCOM code.

  1. Studies on effective atomic numbers, electron densities and mass attenuation coefficients in Au alloys.

    PubMed

    Han, I; Demir, L

    2010-01-01

    The total mass attenuation coefficients (mu/rho) for pure Au and Au99Be1, Au88Ge12, Au95Zn5 alloys were measured at 59.5 and 88.0 keV photon energies. The samples were irradiated with 241Am and 109Cd radioactive point source using transmission arrangement. The gamma- rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Total atomic and electronic cross-sections (sigmat and sigmae), effective atomic and electron densities (Zeff and Nel) were determined using the obtained mass attenuation coefficients for investigated Au alloys. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients of each alloy were estimated using mixture rule. PMID:20421703

  2. Effect of external magnetic field on attenuation coefficient for magnetic substances.

    PubMed

    Kumar Gupta, Manoj; Dhaliwal, A S; Kahlon, K S

    2014-10-29

    The measurement of attenuation coefficient of some magnetic substances, to include diamagnetic: Cu, Zn, Ag, Te, Au, Pb, and Perspex; paramagnetic: Al, Ti, Mo, Dy, Ho, and Pt and ferromagnetic substances: Fe, Co, Ni, Gd, FeO, NiO, FeS, and Fe2O3, both in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field has been carried out using narrow beam transmission geometry by using gamma ray photons of incident energy 59.54keV from 100mCi, (241)Am point source. It was observed very keenly that the value of linear attenuation coefficient of various substances mentioned above decreased remarkably. It varied in the range of 1-2%, 2-6% and 6-9% for diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic substances respectively in the presence of an external magnetic field. Measured results elucidated it very clearly that linear attenuation coefficient at H=0T, 0.6T and 1.2T continued to decrease with a regular increase of magnetic field. It is also manifested that measurements of linear attenuation coefficient is not affected with the change in thickness of the given substance. Within error limits (1-3%) variations are observed with increases of thickness along with magnetic field. Further to it the obtained results of linear attenuation coefficient without magnetic field (H=0T) were compared with theoretical data tables of FFAST and WinXCOM. It was established that values obtained are well within the experimental errors. To the best of our knowledge no other study in relation to the effect of linear attenuation coefficient in the presence of magnetic field available as precedence. PMID:25464197

  3. A calibration transmission method to determine the gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient without a collimator.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jong-In; Yun, Ju-Yong

    2015-08-01

    It is shown that the gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient of a sample with unknown chemical composition can be determined through a systematic calibration of the correlation between the linear attenuation coefficient, gamma-ray energy and the relative degree of attenuation. For calibration, H2O, MnO2, NaCl, Na2CO3 and (NH4)2SO4 were used as reference materials. Point-like gamma-ray sources with modest activity of approximately 37kBq, along with an HPGe detector, were used in the measurements. A semi-empirical formula was derived to calculate the linear attenuation coefficients as a function of the relative count rate and the gamma-ray energy. The method was applied to the determination of the linear attenuation coefficients for K2CrO4 and SiO2 test samples in the same setup used in calibration. The experimental result agreed well with the ones calculated by elementary data. PMID:25997111

  4. Quantification of effective attenuation coefficients using continuous wavelet transform of photoacoustic signals.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Takeshi; Fujita, Masanori; Okawa, Shinpei; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Ishihara, Miya

    2013-12-10

    A method for quantifying the effective attenuation coefficients of optical absorbers by using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) to calculate the time-resolved frequency spectra of photoacoustic signals is proposed. Because the coefficients can be quantified according to the relative intensity of the frequency content of the signals, it is unnecessary to determine the fluences. A computational simulation reveals that the time-resolved frequency spectra exhibit better correlation with the coefficients than do power spectra calculated using a Fourier transformation. The CWT-based method was experimentally verified, and the coefficients were quantified with mean square error of 2.0??cm(-1). PMID:24513902

  5. Extending Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates of the diffuse attenuation coefficient into Case II waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Gould; Robert A. Arnone

    1994-01-01

    An iterative technique has been developed to improve coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) estimates of upwelled subsurface water radiances (Lu) in Case II waters. Regional relationships between the diffuse attenuation coefficient measured at 490 nm (K490) and Lu measured at 443, 520, and 550 nm were developed using data collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico in April 1993. These

  6. Modeling the vertical distributions of downwelling plane irradiance and diffuse attenuation coefficient in optically deep waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoju Pan; Richard C. Zimmerman

    2010-01-01

    The diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) is critical to understand the vertical distribution of underwater downwelling irradiance (Ed). Theoretically Ed is composed of the direct solar beam and the diffuse sky irradiance. Applying the statistical results from Hydrolight radiative transfer simulations, Kd is expressed into a mathematical equation (named as PZ06) integrated from the contribution of direct solar beam and diffuse

  7. Diel cycles of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient under varying trophic conditions in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea: Observations and modeling

    E-print Network

    Antoine, David

    Diel cycles of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient under varying trophic conditions in the diel variability of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient (cp) were investigated at 4 and 9 m physical and trophic situations. We observed a diel cycle in cp during the winter mixing of the water

  8. Acoustic attenuation coefficients for polycrystalline materials containing crystallites of any symmetry class.

    PubMed

    Kube, Christopher M; Turner, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    This letter provides a theoretical extension to the elastic properties of polycrystals in order to describe elastic wave scattering from grain boundaries. The extension allows the longitudinal and shear attenuation coefficients for scattering to be derived and is valid for polycrystals containing crystallites of any symmetry class. Attenuation curves are given for polycrystalline SiO2, ZrO2, and SnF2, which contain monoclinic crystallites. This work will allow ultrasonic techniques to be applied to new classes of materials containing nontrivial microstructures. PMID:26093458

  9. Investigation of the relationship between linear attenuation coefficients and CT Hounsfield units using radionuclides for SPECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saxby Brown; Dale L. Bailey; Kathy Willowson; Clive Baldock

    2008-01-01

    This study has investigated the relationship between linear attenuation coefficients (?) and Hounsfield units (HUs) for six materials covering the range of values found clinically. Narrow-beam ? values were measured by performing radionuclide transmission scans using 99mTc, 123I, 131I, 201Tl and 111In. The ? values were compared to published data. The relationships between ? and HU were determined. These relationships

  10. Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong-Ping Lee; Miroslaw Darecki; Kendall L. Carder; Curtiss O. Davis; Dariusz Stramski; W. Joseph Rhea

    2005-01-01

    The propagation of downwelling irradiance at wavelength ? from surface to a depth (z) in the ocean is governed by the diffuse attenuation coefficient, $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?). There are two standard methods for the derivation of $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?) in remote sensing, which both are based on empirical relationships involving the blue-to-green ratio of ocean color. Recently, a semianalytical method to derive $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?) from

  11. Total mass attenuation coefficient evaluation of ten materials commonly used to simulate human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C. C.; Ximenes, R. E.; Garcia, C. A. B.; Vieira, J. W.; Maia, A. F.

    2010-11-01

    To study the doses received by patient submitted to ionizing radiation, several materials are used to simulate the human tissue and organs. The total mass attenuation coefficient is a reasonable way for evaluating the usage in dosimetry of these materials. The total mass attenuation coefficient is determined by photon energy and constituent elements of the material. Currently, the human phantoms are composed by a unique material that presents characteristics similar to the mean proprieties of the different tissues within the region. Therefore, the phantoms are usually homogeneous and filled with a material similar to soft tissue. We studied ten materials used as soft tissue-simulating. These materials were named: bolus, nylon®, orange articulation wax, red articulation wax, PMMA, modelling clay, bee wax, paraffin 1, paraffin 2 and pitch. The objective of this study was to verify the best material to simulate the human cerebral tissue. We determined the elementary composition, mass density and, therefore, calculated the total mass attenuation coefficient of each material. The results were compared to the values established by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements - ICRU, report n° 44, and by the International Commission on Radiation Protection - ICRP, report n° 89, to determine the best material for this energy interval. These results indicate that new head phantoms can be constructed with nylon®.

  12. Simultaneous reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution from TOF data, acquired with external transmission source.

    PubMed

    Panin, V Y; Aykac, M; Casey, M E

    2013-06-01

    The simultaneous PET data reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution is presented, where the attenuation image is constrained by exploiting an external transmission source. Data are acquired in time-of-flight (TOF) mode, allowing in principle for separation of emission and transmission data. Nevertheless, here all data are reconstructed at once, eliminating the need to trace the position of the transmission source in sinogram space. Contamination of emission data by the transmission source and vice versa is naturally modeled. Attenuated emission activity data also provide additional information about object attenuation coefficient values. The algorithm alternates between attenuation and emission activity image updates. We also proposed a method of estimation of spatial scatter distribution from the transmission source by incorporating knowledge about the expected range of attenuation map values. The reconstruction of experimental data from the Siemens mCT scanner suggests that simultaneous reconstruction improves attenuation map image quality, as compared to when data are separated. In the presented example, the attenuation map image noise was reduced and non-uniformity artifacts that occurred due to scatter estimation were suppressed. On the other hand, the use of transmission data stabilizes attenuation coefficient distribution reconstruction from TOF emission data alone. The example of improving emission images by refining a CT-based patient attenuation map is presented, revealing potential benefits of simultaneous CT and PET data reconstruction. PMID:23648397

  13. Calculation of radiation attenuation coefficients in Portland cements mixed with silica fume, blast furnace slag and natural zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?brahim Türkmen; Yüksel Özdemir; Murat Kurudirek; Faruk Demir; Önder Simsek; Ramazan Demirbo?a

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the radiation attenuation coefficients expressed as mass attenuation coefficients for Portland cement, zeolite, blast furnace slag, silica fume and their mixed types in function of the Photon energy over the energy range of 1keV to 2MeV. It was observed that different percentages of constituents in cement and cement mixed with different additives such as zeolite, silica fume

  14. Dynamic changes of integrated backscatter, attenuation coefficient and bubble activities during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siyuan; Wan, Mingxi; Zhong, Hui; Xu, Cheng; Liao, Zhenzhong; Liu, Huanqing; Wang, Supin

    2009-11-01

    This paper simultaneously investigated the transient characteristics of integrated backscatter (IBS), attenuation coefficient and bubble activities as time traces before, during and after HIFU treatment, with different HIFU parameters (acoustic power and duty cycle) in both transparent tissue-mimicking phantoms and freshly excised bovine livers. These dynamic changes of acoustic parameters and bubble activities were correlated with the visualization of lesion development selected from photos, conventional B-mode ultrasound images and differential IBS images over the whole procedure of HIFU treatment. Two-dimensional radiofrequency (RF) data were acquired by a modified diagnostic ultrasound scanner to estimate the changes of mean IBS and attenuation coefficient averaged in the lesion region, and to construct the differential IBS images and B-mode ultrasound images simultaneously. Bubble activities over the whole procedure of HIFU treatment were investigated by the passive cavitation detection (PCD) method and the changes in subharmonic and broadband noise were correlated with the transient characteristics of IBS and attenuation coefficient. When HIFU was switched on, IBS and attenuation coefficient increased with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode and differential IBS image. At the same time, the level of subharmonic and broadband noise rose abruptly. Then, there was an initial decrease in the attenuation coefficient, followed by an increase when at lower HIFU power. As the lesion appeared, IBS and attenuation coefficient both increased rapidly to a value twice that of normal. Then the changes in IBS and attenuation coefficient showed more complex patterns, but still showed a slower trend of increases with lesion development. Violent bubble activities were visible in the gel and were evident as strongly echogenic regions in the differential IBS images and B-mode images simultaneously. This was detected by a dramatic high level of subharmonic and broadband noise at the same time. These bubble activities caused fluctuations in IBS and attenuation coefficient during HIFU treatment. After HIFU, IBS and attenuation coefficient decreased gradually accompanied by the fadeout of bright hyperechoic spot in the B-mode and differential IBS image, but were still higher than normal when they were stable. The increases of IBS and attenuation coefficient were greater when using higher acoustic power or a higher duty cycle of the therapeutic emission. These experiments indicated that the bubble activities had the dominant effects on the transient characteristics of IBS and attenuation. This should be taken into consideration when using the dynamic acoustic-property changes for the potentially real-time monitoring imaging of HIFU treatment. PMID:19716225

  15. Studies on mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önder, P.; Tur?ucu, A.; Demir, D.; Gürol, A.

    2012-12-01

    Mass attenuation coefficient, ?m , effective atomic number, Zeff, and effective electron density, Nel, were determined experimentally and theoretically for some thermoluminescent dosimetric (TLD) compounds such as MgSO4, CdSO4, Al2O3, Mg2SiO4, ZnSO4, CaSO4, CaF2, NaSO4, Na4P2O7, Ca5F(PO4)3, SiO2, CaCO3 and BaSO4 at 8.04, 8.91, 13.37, 14.97, 17.44, 19.63, 22.10, 24.90, 30.82, 32.06, 35.40, 36.39, 37.26, 43.74, 44.48, 50.38, 51.70, 53.16, 80.99, 276.40, 302.85, 356.01, 383.85 and 661.66 keV photon energies by using an HPGe detector with a resolution of 182 eV at 5.9 keV. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using mixture rule. The calculated values were compared with the experimental values for all compounds. Good agreement has been observed between experimental and theoretical values within experimental uncertainties.

  16. Measurements of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2014-05-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as DL-aspartic acid-LR(C4H7NO4), L-glutamine (C4H10N2O3), creatine monohydrate LR(C4H9N3O2H2O), creatinine hydrochloride (C4H7N3O·HCl) L-asparagine monohydrate(C4H9N3O2H2O), L-methionine LR(C5H11NO2S), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 0.101785 at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) initially decrease and tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. Zeff and Neff experimental values showed good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error for amino acids.

  17. X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficient of Silicon: Theory versus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, C. Q.; Chantler, C. T.; Barnea, Z.

    2003-06-01

    We compare new experimental x-ray total mass attenuation coefficients of silicon obtained with the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) from 5 to 20keV with theoretical calculations and earlier experimental measurements over a 5 to 50keV energy range. The accuracy of between 0.27% and 0.5% of the XERT data allows us to probe alternate atomic and solid state wave function calculations and to test dominant scattering mechanisms. Discrepancies between experimental results and theoretical computations of the order of 5% are discussed in detail. No single theoretical computation is currently able to reproduce the experimental results over the entire 5 to 50keV energy range investigated.

  18. X-ray mass attenuation coefficient of silicon: theory versus experiment.

    PubMed

    Tran, C Q; Chantler, C T; Barnea, Z

    2003-06-27

    We compare new experimental x-ray total mass attenuation coefficients of silicon obtained with the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) from 5 to 20 keV with theoretical calculations and earlier experimental measurements over a 5 to 50 keV energy range. The accuracy of between 0.27% and 0.5% of the XERT data allows us to probe alternate atomic and solid state wave function calculations and to test dominant scattering mechanisms. Discrepancies between experimental results and theoretical computations of the order of 5% are discussed in detail. No single theoretical computation is currently able to reproduce the experimental results over the entire 5 to 50 keV energy range investigated. PMID:12857162

  19. Dependence of optical attenuation coefficient and mechanical tension of irradiated human cartilage measured by optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Martinho Junior, A C; Freitas, A Z; Raele, M P; Santin, S P; Soares, F A N; Herson, M R; Mathor, M B

    2015-03-01

    As banked human tissues are not widely available, the development of new non-destructive and contactless techniques to evaluate the quality of allografts before distribution for transplantation is very important. Also, tissues will be processed accordingly to standard procedures and to minimize disease transmission most tissue banks will include a decontamination or sterilization step such as ionizing radiation. In this work, we present a new method to evaluate the internal structure of frozen or glycerol-processed human cartilages, submitted to various dosis of irradiation, using the total optical attenuation coefficient retrieved from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Our results show a close relationship between tensile properties and the total optical attenuation coefficient of cartilages. Therefore, OCT associated with the total optical attenuation coefficient open a new window to evaluate quantitatively biological changes in processed tissues. PMID:24322969

  20. Dependence of optical attenuation coefficient and mechanical tension of irradiated human cartilage measured by optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Martinho, A C; Freitas, A Z; Raele, M P; Santin, S P; Soares, F A N; Herson, M R; Mathor, M B

    2014-09-01

    As banked human tissues are not widely available, the development of new non-destructive and contactless techniques to evaluate the quality of allografts before distribution for transplantation is very important. Also, tissues will be processed accordingly to standard procedures and to minimize disease transmission most tissue banks will include a decontamination or sterilization step such as ionizing radiation. In this work, we present a new method to evaluate the internal structure of frozen or glycerol processed human cartilages, submitted to various dosis of irradiation, using the total optical attenuation coefficient retrieved from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Our results show a close relationship between tensile properties and the total optical attenuation coefficient of cartilages. Therefore, OCT associated with the total optical attenuation coefficient open a new window to evaluate quantitatively biological changes in processed tissues. PMID:23887800

  1. Determination of mass attenuation coefficients for threshold contrast evaluation in digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Johann; Semturs, Friedrich; Menhart, Susanne; Figl, Michael

    2010-04-01

    According to the 'European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening' (EPQC) image quality digital mammography units has to be evaluated at different breast thicknesses. At the standard thickness of 50 mm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) image quality is determined by the analysis of CDMAM contrast detail phantom images where threshold contrasts are calculated for different gold disc diameters. To extend these results to other breast thicknesses contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and threshold contrast (TC) visibilities have to be calculated for all required thicknesses. To calculate the latter the mass attenuation coefficient (MAC) of gold has to be known for all possible beam qualities in the tube voltage range between 26 and 32 kV. In this paper we first determined the threshold contrast visibility using the CDMAM phantom with the same beam quality at different current-time products (mAs). We can derive from Rose theory that CNR • CT • ? = const, where ? is the diameter of the gold cylinder. From this the corresponding attenuation coefficients can be calculated. This procedure was repeated for four different beam qualities (Mo/Mo 27kV, Rh/Rh 29kV, Rh/Rh 31 kV, and W/Rh 29 kV)). Next, we measured the aluminium half value layer (HVL) of all x-ray spectra relevant for mammography. Using a first order Taylor expansion of MAC as a function of HVL, all other desired MAC can be calculated. The MAC as a function of the HVL was derived to MAChvl = -286.97 * hvl+186.03 with R2 = 0.997, where MAChvl indicates the MAC for all specific x-ray spectrum defined by its aluminium half value layer. Based on this function all necessary MACs needed for quality assurance (QA) were calculated. The results were in good agreement with the data found in the protocol.

  2. Impact of SeaWIFS derived diffuse attenuation coefficients (K d_490) on the dynamics and thermodynamics of OGCM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Neeraj; Sharma, Rashmi; Agarwal, Vijay K.

    2006-12-01

    The realism of the impact of penetrative solar radiation, an effect we refer to as biological heating, on the upper ocean thermodynamics has been studied using an Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM). Daily fields of winds, air temperature, specific humidity, net long-wave and shortwave radiation from NCEP were used to force the model. In the control run (cntl-R), diffuse attenuation coefficient (K d) which signifies the visible radiation penetration is parameterized for clear water condition. In the experimental run (exp-R), attenuation coefficient for blue-green wavelength (K d_490) obtained from SeaWiFS sensor was used to determine the penetrative depth of solar radiation. Use of satellite derived K d_490 alters the upper ocean thermodynamics quite significantly. Model simulated parameters sea surface temperature (SST), current and mixed layer depth (MLD) were found to be sensitive to the choice of diffuse attenuation coefficients that limit the penetration of solar radiation into the ocean. The SST cools and MLD deepens in clear water regions (large attenuation depths) due to heat penetration in deeper layers, while the surface gets heated and MLD shoals in regions of high turbidity (low attenuation depths) due to heat trapping.

  3. In situ measurements of attenuation coefficient for evaluating the hardness of cataract lens by a high frequency ultrasonic needle transducer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Chung Huang; Ruimin Chen; Po-Hsiang Tsui; Qifa Zhou; Mark S. Humayun; K. Kirk Shung

    2009-01-01

    A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Phacoemulsification is the mostly common surgical method for treating cataracts, and determining the optimal phacoemulsification energy is dependent on measuring the hardness of the lens. This study explored the use of an ultrasound needle transducer for in situ minimally invasive measurements of ultrasound attenuation coefficient to

  4. Modeling the vertical distributions of downwelling plane irradiance and diffuse attenuation coefficient in optically deep waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaoju; Zimmerman, Richard C.

    2010-08-01

    The diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) is critical to understand the vertical distribution of underwater downwelling irradiance (Ed). Theoretically Ed is composed of the direct solar beam and the diffuse sky irradiance. Applying the statistical results from Hydrolight radiative transfer simulations, Kd is expressed into a mathematical equation (named as PZ06) integrated from the contribution of direct solar beam and diffuse sky irradiance with the knowledge of sky and water conditions. The percent root mean square errors (RMSE) for the vertical distribution of Ed(z) under various sky and water conditions between PZ06 and Hydrolight results are typically less than 4%. Field observations from the southern Middle Atlantic Bight (SMAB) and global in situ data set (NOMAD) also confirmed the validity of PZ06 in reproducing Kd. PZ06 provides an alternative and improvement to the simpler models (e.g., Gordon, 1989; and Kirk, 1991) and an operational ocean color algorithm, while the latter two kinds of models are valid to limited sky and water conditions. PZ06 can be applied to study Kd from satellite remotely sensed images and seems to improve Kd derivation over current operational ocean color algorithm.

  5. Seasonal variability in the vertical attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (K490) in waters around Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands.

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Virgin Islands, MODIS Aqua, ENVI #12;INTRODUCTION The vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd properties. The vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) was evaluated for the waters around Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. The MODIS K490 of Band 3 Level-2 daily images were processed with a resolution

  6. Determination of the total attenuation coefficient for six contact lens materials using the Beer-Lambert law.

    PubMed

    Hull, C C; Crofts, N C

    1996-03-01

    The Beer-Lambert law has been used to determine the total attenuation coefficient, mu t, of three hard and three soft contact lens materials. The three hard contact lens materials were PMMA, Polycon II and Boston IV whereas the 3 soft materials were chosen with differing water contents of 38, 55 and 70%, respectively. The total attenuation coefficients of all six materials were obtained from measurements of the axial transmission at 632.8 nm of a series of plano powered lenses varying in axial thickness from 0.5 to 3.5 mm. The value of the total attenuation coefficient depends on both scattering and absorption and hence PMMA and Boston IV, which both incorporated a handling tint, showed significantly higher values (P < 0.0001) of mu t (0.562 +/- 0.010 mm-1 and 0.820 +/- 0.008 mm-1, respectively) than Polycon II (mu t = 0.025 +/- 0.005 mm-1). A comparison between Polycon II and the three hydrated soft contact lens materials showed a significant increase (P < 0.02) in the total attenuation coefficients for the 38% and 55% water content materials, and a weakly significant increase for the 70% water content soft lens material (P < 0.1). On the assumption that the absorption coefficients of these four materials are approximately constant, then this change would be due to an increase in the scattering coefficient of the material and could contribute to an increase in intraocular scatter. No significant difference (P > 0.5) was found between any of the hydrated soft contact lens materials tested. PMID:8762777

  7. An explicit formula for the coherent SH waves' attenuation coefficient in random porous materials with low porosities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Ye, Wenjing

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the attenuation coefficient of coherent SH waves in random porous material with uniformly randomly distributed elliptical cavities of different aspect ratios is studied. Based on an analysis of the mechanism for attenuation, a simple macro model for the attenuation coefficient is proposed. The macro model says that the attenuation coefficient can be expressed as a function of the mean scattering cross section and the number density of cavities at low porosities. Then, large-scale numerical simulations using the pre-corrected Fast Fourier Transform (pFFT) algorithm accelerated Boundary Element Method (BEM) are conducted to specify this macro model. Finally, this macro model is compared with four theoretical models derived for composite/porous materials with circular inclusions at the porosity p=3.17% and 5%. Results show this macro model agree well with three of them. Compared to the existing theoretical models, the form of this macro model is simple and has a clear physical meaning. In addition, it is applicable to cases with relatively complex cavities. PMID:25983311

  8. The precise measurement of the attenuation coefficients of various IR optical materials applicable to immersion grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, Sayumi; Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kondo, Sohei; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2014-07-01

    Immersion grating is a next-generation diffraction grating which has the immersed the diffraction surface in an optical material with high refractive index of n > 2, and can provide higher spectral resolution than a classical reflective grating. Our group is developing various immersion gratings from the near- to mid-infrared region (Ikeda et al.1, 2, 3, 4, Sarugaku et al.5, and Sukegawa et al.6). The internal attenuation ?att of the candidate materials is especially very important to achieve the high efficiency immersion gratings used for astronomical applications. Nevertheless, because there are few available data as ?att < 0.01cm-1 in the infrared region, except for measurements of CVD-ZnSe, CVD-ZnS, and single-crystal Si in the short near-infrared region reported by Ikeda et al.7, we cannot select suitable materials as an immersion grating in an aimed wavelength range. Therefore, we measure the attenuation coefficients of CdTe, CdZnTe, Ge, Si, ZnSe, and ZnS that could be applicable to immersion gratings. We used an originally developed optical unit attached to a commercial FTIR which covers the wide wavelength range from 1.3?m to 28?m. This measurement system achieves the high accuracy of (triangle)?att ~ 0.01cm-1. As a result, high-resistivity single-crystal CdZnTe, single-crystal Ge, single-crystal Si, CVD-ZnSe, and CVD-ZnS show ?att < 0.01cm-1 at the wavelength range of 5.5 - 19.0?m, 2.0 - 10.5?m, 1.3 - 5.4?m, 1.7 - 13.2?m, and 1.9 - 9.2?m, respectively. This indicates that these materials are good candidates for high efficiency immersion grating covering those wavelength ranges. We plan to make similar measurement under the cryogenic condition as T <= 10K for the infrared, especially mid-infrared applications.

  9. An improvement to the full-foil mapping technique for high accuracy measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, Nicholas A.; Glover, Jack L.; Chantler, Christopher T.

    2010-07-01

    The limiting uncertainty in recent high accuracy measurements of the mass attenuation coefficient is the measurement of the integrated column density. An improvement in the design of the absorption foil holder is described which reduces the integrated column density uncertainty. The new design allows the edges of the foil to be more accurately mapped by the X-ray beam by reducing the largest source of uncertainty in the foil mapping: the uncertainty in the points along the foil edge. The method is shown to reduce the uncertainty in measurements of the mass attenuation coefficient of zinc foils. The reduced uncertainty in the full-foil mapping will allow the X-ray Extended Range Technique (XERT) to be applied to small non-metallic absorption foils more accurately.

  10. Determination of Mass Attenuation Coefficients for CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Celik, Ahmet; Cevik, Ugur; Baltas, Hasan; Bacaksiz, Emin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2007-04-23

    This work presents mass attenuation coefficients values of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 semiconductor thin films commonly used in photovoltaic devices. The mass attenuation coefficients were measured at different energies from 11.9 to 37.3 keV by using the secondary excitation method. Monochromatic photons were obtained using the Br, Sr, Mo, Cd, Te, Ba and Nd secondary targets. 59.5 keV gamma rays emitted from an annular Am-241 radioactive source were used to excite secondary targets. Characteristic X-rays emitted from secondary target were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 0.16 keV at 5.9 keV. The measured values were compared with theoretical values calculated using WinXCOM program.

  11. Physics of contrast mechanism and averaging effect of linear attenuation coefficients in a computerized transverse axial tomography CTAT) transmission scanner.

    PubMed

    Tsai, C M; Cho, Z H

    1976-07-01

    Detailed studies of the basic contrast mechanisms in computerized transverse axial tomography scanners have been carried out. Contrast is related to the effective atomic numbers and electron densities of materials and the resultant linear attenuation coefficients. We have therefore quantitatively evaluated various samples defined by these parameters. A multienergetic X-ray source causes resolution degrading problems arising from the averaging effect of the linear attenuation coefficients. The controversy regarding the use of fixed length water bath as a reference to compensate the spectral shift (hardening) effect of the multienergetic X-ray source is also analysed and reported. Computer simulations demonstrating the sensitivities of the linear attenuation coefficient measurements and errors, as functions of the energy spectrum, were made for representative cases. Simulation results indicate that by using a full water bath, artifacts stemming from the multienergetic X-ray souce can be significantly reduced. An alternative approach using a count rate equalizer, considered to be another way of reducing the wide dynamic range in count rate when a water bath is not used, is also studied and the results reported. PMID:972920

  12. Measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in biological and geological samples in the energy range of 7-12keV.

    PubMed

    Trunova, Valentina; Sidorina, Anna; Kriventsov, Vladimir

    2014-10-17

    Information about X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in different materials is necessary for accurate X-ray fluorescent analysis. The X-ray mass attenuation coefficients for energy of 7-12keV were measured in biological (Mussel and Oyster tissues, blood, hair, liver, and Cabbage leaves) and geological (Baikal sludge, soil, and Alaskite granite) samples. The measurements were carried out at the EXAFS Station of Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Center (VEPP-3). Obtained experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values calculated for some samples. PMID:25464176

  13. Improved Algorithms for Accurate Retrieval of UV - Visible Diffuse Attenuation Coefficients in Optically Complex, Inshore Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Fang; Fichot, Cedric G.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Miller, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical processes driven by high-energy ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in inshore, estuarine, and coastal waters play an important role in global bio geochemical cycles and biological systems. A key to modeling photochemical processes in these optically complex waters is an accurate description of the vertical distribution of UVR in the water column which can be obtained using the diffuse attenuation coefficients of down welling irradiance (Kd()). The Sea UV Sea UVc algorithms (Fichot et al., 2008) can accurately retrieve Kd ( 320, 340, 380,412, 443 and 490 nm) in oceanic and coastal waters using multispectral remote sensing reflectances (Rrs(), Sea WiFS bands). However, SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms are currently not optimized for use in optically complex, inshore waters, where they tend to severely underestimate Kd(). Here, a new training data set of optical properties collected in optically complex, inshore waters was used to re-parameterize the published SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, resulting in improved Kd() retrievals for turbid, estuarine waters. Although the updated SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms perform best in optically complex waters, the published SeaUVSeaUVc models still perform well in most coastal and oceanic waters. Therefore, we propose a composite set of SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, optimized for Kd() retrieval in almost all marine systems, ranging from oceanic to inshore waters. The composite algorithm set can retrieve Kd from ocean color with good accuracy across this wide range of water types (e.g., within 13 mean relative error for Kd(340)). A validation step using three independent, in situ data sets indicates that the composite SeaUVSeaUVc can generate accurate Kd values from 320 490 nm using satellite imagery on a global scale. Taking advantage of the inherent benefits of our statistical methods, we pooled the validation data with the training set, obtaining an optimized composite model for estimating Kd() in UV wavelengths for almost all marine waters. This optimized composite set of SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms will provide the optical community with improved ability to quantify the role of solar UV radiation in photochemical and photobiological processes in the ocean.

  14. Multi-frequency characterization of the speed of sound and attenuation coefficient for longitudinal transmission of freshly excised human skulls.

    PubMed

    Pichardo, Samuel; Sin, Vivian W; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2011-01-01

    For medical applications of ultrasound inside the brain, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the apparent density of skull bone and its corresponding speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. Although there have been previous studies exploring this phenomenon, there is still a need to extend the measurements to cover more of the clinically relevant frequency range. The results of measurements of the longitudinal speed of sound and attenuation coefficient are presented for specimens of human calvaria. The study was performed for the frequencies of 0.27, 0.836, 1.402, 1.965 and 2.525 MHz. Specimens were obtained from fresh cadavers through a protocol with the Division of Anatomy of the University of Toronto. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. The specimens were mounted in polycarbonate supports that were marked for stereoscopic positioning. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skulls mounted on their supports were performed, and a three-dimensional skull surface was reconstructed. This surface was used to guide a positioning system to ensure the normal sound incidence of an acoustic signal. This signal was produced by a focused device with a diameter of 5 cm and a focal length of 10 cm. Measurements of delay in time of flight were carried out using a needle hydrophone. Measurements of effective transmitted energy were carried out using a radiation force method with a 10 µg resolution scale. Preliminary functions of speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, both of which are related to apparent density, were established using a multi-layer propagation model that takes into account speed of sound, density and thickness of the layer. An optimization process was executed from a large set of random functions and the best functions were chosen for those ones that closest reproduced the experimental observations. The final functions were obtained after a second pass of the optimization process was executed, but this time using a finite-difference time-difference solution of the Westervelt equation, which is more precise than the multi-layer model but much more time consuming for computation. For six of seven specimens, measurements were carried out on five locations on the calvaria, and for the other specimen three measurements were made. In total, measurements were carried out on 33 locations. Results indicated the presence of dispersion effects and that these effects are different according to the type of bone in the skull (cortical and trabecular). Additionally, both the speed of sound and attenuation showed dependence on the skull density that varied with the frequency. Using the optimal functions and the information of density from the CT scans, the average values (±s.d.) of the speed of sound for cortical bone were estimated to be 2384(± 130), 2471(± 90), 2504(± 120), 2327(± 90) and 2053(± 40) m s(-1) for the frequencies of 270, 836, 1402, 1965 and 2526 kHz, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the speeds of sound were 2140(± 130), 2300(± 100), 2219(± 200), 2133(± 130) and 1937(± 40) m s(-1), respectively. The average values of the attenuation coefficient for cortical bone were 33(± 9), 240(± 9) and 307(± 30) Np m(-1) for the frequencies of 270, 836, and 1402, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the average values of the attenuation coefficient were 34(± 13), 216(± 16) and 375(± 30) Np m(-1), respectively. For frequencies of 1.965 and 2.525 MHz, no measurable radiation force was detected with the setup used. PMID:21149950

  15. Multi-frequency characterization of the speed of sound and attenuation coefficient for longitudinal transmission of freshly excised human skulls

    PubMed Central

    Pichardo, Samuel; Sin, Vivian W; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2011-01-01

    For medical applications of ultrasound inside the brain, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the apparent density of skull bone and its corresponding speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. Although there have been previous studies exploring this phenomenon, there is still a need to extend the measurements to cover more of the clinically relevant frequency range. The results of measurements of the longitudinal speed of sound and attenuation coefficient are presented for specimens of human calvaria. The study was performed for the frequencies of 0.27, 0.836, 1.402, 1.965 and 2.525 MHz. Specimens were obtained from fresh cadavers through a protocol with the Division of Anatomy of the University of Toronto. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. The specimens were mounted in polycarbonate supports that were marked for stereoscopic positioning. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skulls mounted on their supports were performed, and a three-dimensional skull surface was reconstructed. This surface was used to guide a positioning system to ensure the normal sound incidence of an acoustic signal. This signal was produced by a focused device with a diameter of 5 cm and a focal length of 10 cm. Measurements of delay in time of flight were carried out using a needle hydrophone. Measurements of effective transmitted energy were carried out using a radiation force method with a 10 ?g resolution scale. Preliminary functions of speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, both of which are related to apparent density, were established using a multi-layer propagation model that takes into account speed of sound, density and thickness of the layer. An optimization process was executed from a large set of random functions and the best functions were chosen for those ones that closest reproduced the experimental observations. The final functions were obtained after a second pass of the optimization process was executed, but this time using a finite-difference time-difference solution of the Westervelt equation, which is more precise than the multi-layer model but much more time consuming for computation. For six of seven specimens, measurements were carried out on five locations on the calvaria, and for the other specimen three measurements were made. In total, measurements were carried out on 33 locations. Results indicated the presence of dispersion effects and that these effects are different according to the type of bone in the skull (cortical and trabecular). Additionally, both the speed of sound and attenuation showed dependence on the skull density that varied with the frequency. Using the optimal functions and the information of density from the CT scans, the average values (±s.d.) of the speed of sound for cortical bone were estimated to be 2384(±130), 2471(±90), 2504(±120), 2327(±90) and 2053(±40) m s?1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, 1402, 1965 and 2526 kHz, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the speeds of sound were 2140(±130), 2300(±100), 2219(±200), 2133(±130) and 1937(±40) m s?1, respectively. The average values of the attenuation coefficient for cortical bone were 33(±9), 240(±9) and 307(±30) Np m?1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, and 1402, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the average values of the attenuation coefficient were 34(±13), 216(±16) and 375(±30) Np m?1, respectively. For frequencies of 1.965 and 2.525 MHz, no measurable radiation force was detected with the setup used. PMID:21149950

  16. Estimation of the Inherent Optical Properties of Natural Waters from the Irradiance Attenuation Coefficient and Reflectance in the Presence of Raman Scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubert Loisel; Dariusz Stramski

    2000-01-01

    By means of radiative transfer simulations we developed a model for estimating the absorption a , the scattering b , and the backscattering b b coefficients in the upper ocean from irradiance reflectance just beneath the sea surface, R ( 0 ), and the average attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance, K d 1 , between the surface and the first

  17. Measurements of the thermal coefficient of optical attenuation at different depth regions of in vivo human skins using optical coherence tomography: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Su, Ya; Yao, X Steve; Li, Zhihong; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Tiegen; Wang, Longzhi

    2015-02-01

    We present detailed measurement results of optical attenuation's thermal coefficients (referenced to the temperature of the skin surface) in different depth regions of in vivo human forearm skins using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We first design a temperature control module with an integrated optical probe to precisely control the surface temperature of a section of human skin. We propose a method of using the correlation map to identify regions in the skin having strong correlations with the surface temperature of the skin and find that the attenuation coefficient in these regions closely follows the variation of the surface temperature without any hysteresis. We observe a negative thermal coefficient of attenuation in the epidermis. While in dermis, the slope signs of the thermal coefficient of attenuation are different at different depth regions for a particular subject, however, the depth regions with a positive (or negative) slope are different in different subjects. We further find that the magnitude of the thermal coefficient of attenuation coefficient is greater in epidermis than in dermis. We believe the knowledge of such thermal properties of skins is important for several noninvasive diagnostic applications, such as OCT glucose monitoring, and the method demonstrated in this paper is effective in studying the optical and biological properties in different regions of skin. PMID:25780740

  18. Determination of power-law attenuation coefficient and dispersion spectra in multi-wall carbon nanotube

    E-print Network

    Gladden, Josh

    for a set of multi-wall carbon nanotube MWCNT -nylon composites from pure nylon to 20% MWCNT by weight coefficients of the respective samples are found to decrease with increasing MWCNT content and a similar trend with increasing MWCNT content indicating an increase in the mechanical moduli. © 2009 Acoustical Society

  19. Images of soft materials: a 3D visualization of interior of the sample in terms of attenuation coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golosio, B.; Brunetti, A.; Cesareo, R.; Amendolia, S. R.; Rao, D. V.; Seltzer, S. M.

    2001-06-01

    Images of soft materials are obtained using image intensifier based X-ray system (Rao et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 437 (1999) 141). The interior of the soft material is visualized using the novel software in order to know the distribution of attenuation coefficient in terms of density. The novel software is based mainly on graphical library and applicable to several operating systems without any change. It can be applied to several applications starting from biomedical to industries, for example, quality control. The results for walnut and brew tooth are presented as a set of images from the internal parts of the sample. A description of the principal parameters required for tomographic visualization is given and some results based on this technique are reported and discussed.

  20. Studies on effective atomic numbers, electron densities from mass attenuation coefficients near the K edge in some samarium compounds.

    PubMed

    Akman, F; Durak, R; Turhan, M F; Kaçal, M R

    2015-07-01

    The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some samarium compounds were determined using the experimental total mass attenuation coefficient values near the K edge in the X-ray energy range from 36.847 up to 57.142keV. The measurements, in the region from 36.847 to 57.142keV, were done in a transmission geometry utilizing the K?2, K?1, K?1 and K?2 X-rays from different secondary source targets excited by the 59.54keV gamma-photons from an Am-241 annular source. This paper presents the first measurement of the effective atomic numbers and electron densities for some samarium compounds near the K edge. The results of the study showed that the measured values were in good agreement with the theoretically calculated ones. PMID:25880612

  1. Optical coherence tomography can assess skeletal muscle tissue from mouse models of muscular dystrophy by parametric imaging of the attenuation coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Klyen, Blake R.; Scolaro, Loretta; Shavlakadze, Tea; Grounds, Miranda D.; Sampson, David D.

    2014-01-01

    We present the assessment of ex vivo mouse muscle tissue by quantitative parametric imaging of the near-infrared attenuation coefficient µt using optical coherence tomography. The resulting values of the local total attenuation coefficient µt (mean ± standard error) from necrotic lesions in the dystrophic skeletal muscle tissue of mdx mice are higher (9.6 ± 0.3 mm?1) than regions from the same tissue containing only necrotic myofibers (7.0 ± 0.6 mm?1), and significantly higher than values from intact myofibers, whether from an adjacent region of the same sample (4.8 ± 0.3 mm?1) or from healthy tissue of the wild-type C57 mouse (3.9 ± 0.2 mm?1) used as a control. Our results suggest that the attenuation coefficient could be used as a quantitative means to identify necrotic lesions and assess skeletal muscle tissue in mouse models of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:24761302

  2. New consistency tests for high-accuracy measurements of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by the X-ray extended-range technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chantler, C.T.; Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Tran, C.Q.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z. (La Trobe); (Melbourne)

    2012-09-25

    An extension of the X-ray extended-range technique is described for measuring X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by introducing absolute measurement of a number of foils - the multiple independent foil technique. Illustrating the technique with the results of measurements for gold in the 38-50 keV energy range, it is shown that its use enables selection of the most uniform and well defined of available foils, leading to more accurate measurements; it allows one to test the consistency of independently measured absolute values of the mass attenuation coefficient with those obtained by the thickness transfer method; and it tests the linearity of the response of the counter and counting chain throughout the range of X-ray intensities encountered in a given experiment. In light of the results for gold, the strategy to be ideally employed in measuring absolute X-ray mass attenuation coefficients, X-ray absorption fine structure and related quantities is discussed.

  3. Irradiance attenuation coefficient in a stratified ocean - A local property of the medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of optically important constituents of water on the absorption (a) and scattering (b) coefficients and the backscattering probability is considered, with emphasis placed on measuring the volume scattering function (B/theta/). Two stratification models are examined; one in which the phase function (B(theta)/b) is depth independent and only b/c is allowed to vary with optical depth, and the other in which both b/c and the phase function depend on depth. The results demonstrate that Gordon's (1977) technique of estimating a and b is applicable without change to a stratified ocean.

  4. Comparison of photon attenuation coefficients (2-150 KeV) for diagnostic imaging simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Charles W., III; Flynn, Michael J.

    2004-05-01

    The Radiology Research Laboratory at the Henry Ford Hospital has been involved in modeling x-ray units in order to predict image quality. A critical part of that modeling process is the accurate choice of interaction coefficients. This paper serves as a review and comparison of existing interaction models. Our objective was to obtain accurate and easily calculated interaction coefficients, at diagnostically relevant energies. We obtained data from: McMaster, Lawrence Berkeley Lab data (LBL), XCOM and FFAST Data from NIST, and the EPDL-97 database via LLNL. Our studies involve low energy photons; therefore, comparisons were limited to Coherent (Rayleigh), Incoherent (Compton) and Photoelectric effects, which were summed to determine a total interaction cross section. Without measured data, it becomes difficult to definitively choose the most accurate method. However, known limitations in the McMaster data and smoothing of photo-edge transitions can be used as a guide to establish more valid approaches. Each method was compared to one another graphically and at individual points. We found that agreement between all methods was excellent when away from photo-edges. Near photo-edges and at low energies, most methods were less accurate. Only the Chanter (FFAST) data seems to have consistently and accurately predicted the placement of edges (through M-shell), while minimizing smoothing errors. The EPDL-97 data by LLNL was the best over method in predicting coherent and incoherent cross sections.

  5. Towards a quantitative, measurement-based estimate of the uncertainty in photon mass attenuation coefficients at radiation therapy energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, E. S. M.; Spencer, B.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a quantitative estimate is derived for the uncertainty in the XCOM photon mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of interest to external beam radiation therapy—i.e. 100 keV (orthovoltage) to 25 MeV—using direct comparisons of experimental data against Monte Carlo models and theoretical XCOM data. Two independent datasets are used. The first dataset is from our recent transmission measurements and the corresponding EGSnrc calculations (Ali et al 2012 Med. Phys. 39 5990–6003) for 10–30 MV photon beams from the research linac at the National Research Council Canada. The attenuators are graphite and lead, with a total of 140 data points and an experimental uncertainty of ˜0.5% (k = 1). An optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor that minimizes the discrepancies between measurements and calculations is used to deduce cross section uncertainty. The second dataset is from the aggregate of cross section measurements in the literature for graphite and lead (49 experiments, 288 data points). The dataset is compared to the sum of the XCOM data plus the IAEA photonuclear data. Again, an optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor is used to deduce the cross section uncertainty. Using the average result from the two datasets, the energy-independent cross section uncertainty estimate is 0.5% (68% confidence) and 0.7% (95% confidence). The potential for energy-dependent errors is discussed. Photon cross section uncertainty is shown to be smaller than the current qualitative ‘envelope of uncertainty’ of the order of 1–2%, as given by Hubbell (1999 Phys. Med. Biol 44 R1–22).

  6. Towards a quantitative, measurement-based estimate of the uncertainty in photon mass attenuation coefficients at radiation therapy energies.

    PubMed

    Ali, E S M; Spencer, B; McEwen, M R; Rogers, D W O

    2015-02-21

    In this study, a quantitative estimate is derived for the uncertainty in the XCOM photon mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of interest to external beam radiation therapy-i.e. 100 keV (orthovoltage) to 25 MeV-using direct comparisons of experimental data against Monte Carlo models and theoretical XCOM data. Two independent datasets are used. The first dataset is from our recent transmission measurements and the corresponding EGSnrc calculations (Ali et al 2012 Med. Phys. 39 5990-6003) for 10-30 MV photon beams from the research linac at the National Research Council Canada. The attenuators are graphite and lead, with a total of 140 data points and an experimental uncertainty of ?0.5% (k = 1). An optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor that minimizes the discrepancies between measurements and calculations is used to deduce cross section uncertainty. The second dataset is from the aggregate of cross section measurements in the literature for graphite and lead (49 experiments, 288 data points). The dataset is compared to the sum of the XCOM data plus the IAEA photonuclear data. Again, an optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor is used to deduce the cross section uncertainty. Using the average result from the two datasets, the energy-independent cross section uncertainty estimate is 0.5% (68% confidence) and 0.7% (95% confidence). The potential for energy-dependent errors is discussed. Photon cross section uncertainty is shown to be smaller than the current qualitative 'envelope of uncertainty' of the order of 1-2%, as given by Hubbell (1999 Phys. Med. Biol 44 R1-22). PMID:25622289

  7. Gamma Ray Attenuation Coefficient Measurement in Energies 1172 keV and 1332 keV for Neutron Absorbent Saturated Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Jalali, Majid [Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center - ENTC (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The compounds, Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, CdCl{sub 2} and NaCl and their solutions, attenuate gamma rays in addition to neutron absorption. These compounds are widely used in shielding of neutron sources, reactor control and neutron converters. Mass attenuation coefficients of gamma related to saturated solutions of the above four compounds, in energies 1172 keV and 1332 keV have been measured by NaI detector and agree very well with the results obtained by Xcom code. Experiment and computation show that, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} has the highest gamma ray attenuation coefficient among the aforementioned compounds. (author)

  8. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold in the 38?50-keV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z.; de Jonge, M.D.; Tran, C.Q.; Wang, J.; Chantler, C.T. (Melbourne)

    2010-11-12

    We used synchrotron x rays to measure the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold at nine energies from 38 to 50 keV with accuracies of 0.1%. Our results are much more accurate than previous measurements in this energy range. A comparison of our measurements with calculated mass attenuation coefficients shows that our measurements fall almost exactly midway between the XCOM and FFAST calculated theoretical values, which differ from one another in this energy region by about 4%, even though the range includes no absorption edge. The consistency and accuracy of these measurements open the way to investigations of the x-ray attenuation in the region of the L absorption edge of gold.

  9. Measurement of the X-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silver in the 5-20?keV range.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Tauhidul; Tantau, Lachlan J; Rae, Nicholas A; Barnea, Zwi; Tran, Chanh Q; Chantler, Christopher T

    2014-03-01

    The X-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silver were measured in the energy range 5-20?keV with an accuracy of 0.01-0.2% on a relative scale down to 5.3?keV, and of 0.09-1.22% on an absolute scale to 5.0?keV. This analysis confirms that with careful choice of foil thickness and careful correction for systematics, especially including harmonic contents at lower energies, the X-ray attenuation of high-Z elements can be measured with high accuracy even at low X-ray energies (<6?keV). This is the first high-accuracy measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silver in the low energy range, indicating the possibility of obtaining high-accuracy X-ray absorption fine structure down to the L1 edge (3.8?keV) of silver. Comparison of results reported here with an earlier data set optimized for higher energies confirms accuracy to within one standard error of each data set collected and analysed using the principles of the X-ray extended-range technique (XERT). Comparison with theory shows a slow divergence towards lower energies in this region away from absorption edges. The methodology developed can be used for the XAFS analysis of compounds and solutions to investigate structural features, bonding and coordination chemistry. PMID:24562564

  10. Analysis of X-ray absorption fine structure using absolute X-ray mass attenuation coefficients: Application to molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, L. F.; Chantler, C. T.; de Jonge, M. D.; Barnea, Z.; Tran, C. Q.

    2006-11-01

    XAFS structures are solved routinely and hundreds of publications appear per annum. Limitations in theoretical predictions and XAFS analytical frameworks lead to significant uncertainty in results. This impairs structural predictions and prevents ab initio determination. The highest accuracy experimental data have been obtained using the XERT and the most popular technique to analyse the structure. We apply an accurate ?2 fitting procedure to the molybdenum attenuation data including error propagation and improve the XAFS determinations by between 5% and 70%.

  11. Quantitative measurement on optical attenuation coefficient of cell lines 5-8F and 6-10B using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianghua; Shen, Zhiyuan; He, Yonghong; Tu, Ziwei; Xia, Yunfei; Chen, Changshui; Liu, Songhao

    2012-10-01

    Oncogenesis and metastasis of tumor are difficult to detect during the clinic therapy. To explore the optical properties of tumorigenesis and metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), we assessed the NPC cell lines 5-8F and 6-10B by optical coherence tomography (OCT): first, the OCT images of the two different types of cell pellets were captured. Second, by fitting Beer's law to the averaged A-scans in these OCT datasets, the attenuation coefficients (?t) of the cells were extracted. The median attenuation coefficients (interquartile range (IQR)) of 5-8F and 6-10B were 6.79 mm-1 (IQR 6.52 to 7.23 mm-1) versus 8.06 mm-1 (IQR 7.65 to 8.40 mm-1), respectively (p < 0.01, df = 39). Subsequently, the results were compared with those obtained by polarization sensitive OCT, which further confirmed that the quantitative OCT analysis (by ?t) could differentiate the oncogenesis and metastasis NPC cell lines in real time non-invasively.

  12. Element analysis and calculation of the attenuation coefficients for gold, bronze and water matrixes using MCNP, WinXCom and experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandiari, M.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Medhat, M. E.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, element analysis and the mass attenuation coefficient for matrixes of gold, bronze and water with various impurities and the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are evaluated and calculated by the MCNP simulation code for photons emitted from Barium-133, Americium-241 and sources with energies between 1 and 100 keV. The MCNP data are compared with the experimental data and WinXCom code simulated results by Medhat. The results showed that the obtained results of bronze and gold matrix are in good agreement with the other methods for energies above 40 and 60 keV, respectively. However for water matrixes with various impurities, there is a good agreement between the three methods MCNP, WinXCom and the experimental one in low and high energies.

  13. Absorption and Attenuation Coefficients Using the WET Labs ac-s in the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Field Measurements and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.

    2008-01-01

    Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.

  14. Loss of the lac operon contributes to Salmonella invasion of epithelial cells through derepression of flagellar synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lingyan; Ni, Zhiwei; Wang, Lei; Feng, Lu; Liu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella, a genus that is closely related to Escherichia coli, includes many pathogens of humans and other animals. A notable feature that distinguishes Salmonella from E. coli is lactose negativity, because the lac operon is lost in most Salmonella genomes. Here, we expressed the lac operon in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and compared the virulence of the Lac(+) strain to that of the wild-type strain in a murine model, invasion assays, and macrophage replication assays. We showed that the Lac(+) strain is attenuated in vivo and the attenuation of virulence is caused by its defect in epithelial cell invasion. However, the invasion-defective phenotype is unrelated to lactose utilization. Through sequencing and the comparison of the transcriptome profile between the Lac(+) and wild-type strains during invasion, we found that most flagellar genes were markedly downregulated in the Lac(+) strain, while other genes associated with invasion, such as the majority of genes encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1, were not differentially expressed. Moreover, we discovered that lacA is the major repressor of flagellar gene expression in the lac operon. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the lac operon decreases Salmonella invasion of epithelial cells through repression of flagellar biosynthesis. As the ability to invade epithelial cells is a critical virulence determinant of Salmonella, our results provide important evidence that the loss of the lac operon contributes to the evolution of Salmonella pathogenicity. PMID:25362512

  15. Observations of OM/OC and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC) in ambient fine PM at a rural site in central Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. W.; Huang, L.; Leaitch, W. R.; Sharma, S.; Brook, J. R.; Slowik, J. G.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brickell, P. C.; Liggio, J.; Li, S.-M.; Moosmüller, H.

    2010-03-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) samples were collected on quartz filters at a rural site in central Ontario during an intensive study in 2007. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC), pyrolysis organic carbon (POC), and elemental carbon (EC) were determined by thermal analysis. The concentrations are compared to the organic aerosol mass concentration (OM) measured with an Aerodyne C-ToF Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and to the particle absorption coefficient (basp) obtained from a Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). The total organic mass to organic carbon ratios (OM/OC) and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC=basp/EC) are derived. Proportionality of the POC mass with the oxygen mass in the aerosols estimated from the AMS offers a potential means to estimate OM/OC from thermal measurements only. The mean SAC for the study is 3.8±0.3 m2 g-1. It is found that the SAC is independent of or decrease with increasing particle mass loading, depending on whether or not the data are separated between aerosols dominated by more recent anthropogenic input and aerosols dominated by longer residence time or biogenic components. There is no evidence to support an enhancement of light absorption by the condensation of secondary material to particles, suggesting that present model simulations built on such an assumption may overestimate atmospheric warming by BC.

  16. Gene Machine: The Lac Operon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The PhET project at the University of Colorado creates "fun, interactive, research-based simulations of physical phenomena." This particular one deals with the lac operon. Build a gene network! The lac operon is a set of genes which are responsible for the metabolism of lactose in some bacterial cells. Explore the effects of mutations within the lac operon by adding or removing genes from the DNA. The simulation is also paired with a user-contirubed Teaching Idea using the simulation in context that can be found near the bottom of the page. The simulation is also available in multiple languages.

  17. OM/OC Ratio and Specific Attenuation Coefficient in Ambient Particulate Matter at a Rural Site in Southern Ontario: Implications for Aerosol Aging and Emission Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. W.; Huang, L.; Leaitch, R.; Sharma, S.; Brook, J.; Slowik, J.; Abbatt, J.

    2008-05-01

    Carbonaceous species (organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)) contribute a large portion of atmospheric fine particle mass and influence air quality, human health, and climate forcing. However, their emission sources and atmospheric aging processes are not well understood. The OM/OC ratio, defined as the organic mass per unit OC mass, is useful to understand the degree of oxidation of aerosol particles in atmospheric processes. We define the modified BC/EC (mod BC/EC) ratio as the ratio of the non-scattering corrected absorption coefficient per unit mass of EC. The mod BC/EC ratio has a similar meaning as the site specific attenuation coefficient, which is an important parameter used to convert light absorption measurements to black carbon mass. The mod BC/EC ratio can vary due to light scattering effect on absorption measurements, in which the oxygenated organics may play a role. The pyrolysis organic carbon (POC) is defined as the carbon mass fraction obtained at T= 870°C under a pure helium environment using the thermal separation method [Huang et al., 2006]. Since POC mass is generally proportional to the amount of oxygenated OC, studying the relationships among OC, EC, POC, as well as OM/OC and mod BC/EC ratios may help us understand the mechanisms of aerosol aging from different emission sources. Two 1-month field studies were conducted at a rural site in southern Ontario (NW of Toronto) during fall 2005 and spring 2007. Quartz filter samples were collected and analyzed for OC, POC, and EC concentrations using a thermal/optical method [Huang et al., 2006]. Together with the total organic matter measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and the absorption coefficient obtained from a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), the OM/OC and mod BC/EC ratios for ambient aerosols were obtained. Our results show that when air mass was mainly from south, OC, POC, and EC were relatively high, with average ratios of OC/EC, OM/OC, and POC/EC as 1.94, 1.41, and 0.52, respectively; this indicates significant anthropogenic impacts and relatively large portion of oxygenated OC, which might be due to either primary emissions or photo-chemical reactions occurred in a short period of time. When air mass was mainly from north, OC, POC, and EC were much lower, with average ratios of OC/EC, OM/OC, and POC/EC as 3.10, 1.20, and 0.79, respectively; this suggests less influence from anthropogenic emissions and relatively aged air mass from biogenic-source dominated clean air. Using POC, we estimate the specific attenuation at the site to be 5.8 m2 g-1 independent of the air mass origin. The relationships among OM/OC, mod BC/EC, and POC will be further discussed. References: Huang, L., Brook, J.R., Zhang, W., Li, S.M., Graham, L., Ernst, D., Chivulescu, A., and Lu, G. (2006) Stable isotope measurements of carbon fractions (OC/EC) in airborne particulate: a new dimension for source characterization and apportionment, Atmospheric Environment, 40, 2690-2705.

  18. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of tin over the energy range of 29-60keV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin D. de Jonge; Chanh Q. Tran; Christopher T. Chantler; Zwi Barnea; Bipin B. Dhal; David Paterson; Elliot P. Kanter; Stephen H. Southworth; Linda Young; Mark A. Beno; Jennifer A. Linton; Guy Jennings

    2007-01-01

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler , Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60keV to 0.04-3% accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2% . Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and

  19. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of tin over the energy range of 29-60 keV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin D. de Jonge; Chanh Q. Tran; Christopher T. Chantler; Zwi Barnea; Bipin B. Dhal; David Paterson; Elliot P. Kanter; Stephen H. Southworth; Linda Young; Mark A. Beno; Jennifer A. Linton; Guy Jennings

    2007-01-01

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60 keV to 0.04-3 % accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2 %. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to

  20. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of molybdenum over the 13.5-41.5-keV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, Martin D.; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Dhal, Bipin B.; Cookson, David J.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Mashayekhi, Ali

    2005-03-01

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [Chantler , Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of molybdenum in the x-ray energy range of 13.5-41.5keV to 0.02-0.15 % accuracy. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct where necessary a number of experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for molybdenum and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of the x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and x-ray-absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The imaginary component of the atomic form-factor f2 is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-15 % persist between the calculated and observed values.

  1. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of tin over the energy range of 29-60keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, Martin D.; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Dhal, Bipin B.; Paterson, David; Kanter, Elliot P.; Southworth, Stephen H.; Young, Linda; Beno, Mark A.; Linton, Jennifer A.; Jennings, Guy

    2007-03-01

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler , Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60keV to 0.04-3% accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2% . Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct a number of potential experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for tin and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of x-ray absorption fine structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray absorption near-edge structure. The imaginary component of the atomic form factor f2 is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-2% persist between calculated and observed values.

  2. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of tin over the energy range of 29-60 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Jonge, Martin D. de; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Dhal, Bipin B.; Paterson, David; Kanter, Elliot P.; Southworth, Stephen H.; Young, Linda; Beno, Mark A.; Linton, Jennifer A.; Jennings, Guy [X-Ray Operations and Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Australian Synchrotron Project, Major Projects Victoria, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); BESSRC-CAT, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60 keV to 0.04-3 % accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2 %. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct a number of potential experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for tin and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of x-ray absorption fine structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray absorption near-edge structure. The imaginary component of the atomic form factor f{sub 2} is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-2 % persist between calculated and observed values.

  3. Des Lacs River and Souris River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

     The Des Lacs River coming in to the Souris River. Des Lacs River is the darker water, which is sediment and the Souris River is the lighter water. >Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

  4. [Effects of lac insect honeydew on the diversity of ground-dwelling ants in lac plantation].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhi-Xing; Chen, You-Qing; Li, Qiao; Wang, Si-Ming; Liu, Chun-Ju; Zhang, Wei

    2012-04-01

    By the method of pitfall trapping, an investigation was conducted on the diversity of ground-dwelling ants in a lac plantation in Yayi Town of Mojiang County, Yunnan Province of Southwest China in December 2009-May 2010, aimed to understand the effects of lac insect honeydew on the diversity of ground-dwelling ants. The presence or absence of lac insect honeydew and its dynamics all affected the species composition, abundance, and diversity of ground-dwelling ants. In the lac plantation with lac insect hosting, a total of 4953 ant individuals were collected, belonging to 34 species, 23 genera, and 5 subfamilies of Formicidae; whereas in the lac plantation without lac insect hosting, a total of 2416 ant individuals were collected, belonging to 30 species, 20 genera, and 5 subfamilies of Formicidae. The relative abundance, species richness (S), and ACE index in the lac plantation with lac insect hosting were higher than those in the lac plantation without lac insect hosting, and the common species and indicator species of ground-dwelling ants in the lac plantation with lac insect hosting differed from those in the lac plantation without lac insect hosting, suggesting that lac insect hosting altered the community structure of ground-dwelling ants. The adult lac insects excreted larger quantity of honeydew than the larval lac insects, and the relative abundance, S, and ACE index of ground-dwelling ants were higher at the adult stage than at the larval stage of lac insects. The common species and indicator species of ground-dwelling ants also had great differences between the two stages of lac insects. PMID:22803483

  5. Determination of self attenuation coefficient and relative TL efficiency of CaSO 4 :Dy, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs - An alternate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, A. K.; Chatterjee, S.; Palani Selvam, T.; Joshi, V. J.; Chougaonkar, M. P.

    2011-10-01

    Self attenuation of TL and relative TL efficiency of polytetra fluoro ethylene (PTFE) embedded CaSO 4:Dy disc, LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS) disc and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N) chip were determined in the present study for photons of energy 10-34 keV. The relative TL efficiency was determined using an alternative approach in which ratio of experimental response and corrected theoretical response was used instead of measuring the absolute TL emission in photon counting mode. For CaSO 4:Dy disc, it was found that with increasing the proportion of CaSO 4:Dy phosphor in the disc, the light attenuation coefficient increases. The light attenuation coefficient of MTS disc and MCP-N chip was found to be 23.4 and 45.5 cm -1, respectively. The relative TL efficiency in the photon energy range of 10-34 keV for MTS discs and MCP-N chips, evaluated in the present study matches well with the reported values in the literature.

  6. Towards improved hardware component attenuation correction in PET/MR hybrid imaging.

    PubMed

    Paulus, D H; Tellmann, L; Quick, H H

    2013-11-21

    In positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) hybrid imaging attenuation correction (AC) of the patient tissue and patient table is performed by converting the CT-based Hounsfield units (HU) to linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of PET. When applied to the new field of hardware component AC in PET/magnetic resonance (MR) hybrid imaging, this conversion method may result in local overcorrection of PET activity values. The aim of this study thus was to optimize the conversion parameters for CT-based AC of hardware components in PET/MR. Systematic evaluation and optimization of the HU to LAC conversion parameters has been performed for the hardware component attenuation map (µ-map) of a flexible radiofrequency (RF) coil used in PET/MR imaging. Furthermore, spatial misregistration of this RF coil to its µ-map was simulated by shifting the µ-map in different directions and the effect on PET quantification was evaluated. Measurements of a PET NEMA standard emission phantom were performed on an integrated hybrid PET/MR system. Various CT parameters were used to calculate different µ-maps for the flexible RF coil and to evaluate the impact on the PET activity concentration. A 511 keV transmission scan of the local RF coil was used as standard of reference to adapt the slope of the conversion from HUs to LACs at 511 keV. The average underestimation of the PET activity concentration due to the non-attenuation corrected RF coil in place was calculated to be 5.0% in the overall phantom. When considering attenuation only in the upper volume of the phantom, the average difference to the reference scan without RF coil is 11.0%. When the PET/CT conversion is applied, an average overestimation of 3.1% (without extended CT scale) and 4.2% (with extended CT scale) is observed in the top volume of the NEMA phantom. Using the adapted conversion resulting from this study, the deviation in the top volume of the phantom is reduced to -0.5% and shows the lowest standard deviation inside the phantom in comparison to all other conversions. Simulation of a µ-map misregistration shows acceptable results for shifts below 5 mm for the flexible surface RF coil. The adapted conversion from HUs to LAC at 511 keV within this study can improve hardware component AC in PET/MR hybrid imaging as shown for a flexible RF surface coil. Furthermore, these results have a direct impact on the improvement of the hardware component AC of the examined flexible RF coil in conjunction with position determination. PMID:24168832

  7. Towards improved hardware component attenuation correction in PET/MR hybrid imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, D. H.; Tellmann, L.; Quick, H. H.

    2013-11-01

    In positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) hybrid imaging attenuation correction (AC) of the patient tissue and patient table is performed by converting the CT-based Hounsfield units (HU) to linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of PET. When applied to the new field of hardware component AC in PET/magnetic resonance (MR) hybrid imaging, this conversion method may result in local overcorrection of PET activity values. The aim of this study thus was to optimize the conversion parameters for CT-based AC of hardware components in PET/MR. Systematic evaluation and optimization of the HU to LAC conversion parameters has been performed for the hardware component attenuation map (µ-map) of a flexible radiofrequency (RF) coil used in PET/MR imaging. Furthermore, spatial misregistration of this RF coil to its µ-map was simulated by shifting the µ-map in different directions and the effect on PET quantification was evaluated. Measurements of a PET NEMA standard emission phantom were performed on an integrated hybrid PET/MR system. Various CT parameters were used to calculate different µ-maps for the flexible RF coil and to evaluate the impact on the PET activity concentration. A 511 keV transmission scan of the local RF coil was used as standard of reference to adapt the slope of the conversion from HUs to LACs at 511 keV. The average underestimation of the PET activity concentration due to the non-attenuation corrected RF coil in place was calculated to be 5.0% in the overall phantom. When considering attenuation only in the upper volume of the phantom, the average difference to the reference scan without RF coil is 11.0%. When the PET/CT conversion is applied, an average overestimation of 3.1% (without extended CT scale) and 4.2% (with extended CT scale) is observed in the top volume of the NEMA phantom. Using the adapted conversion resulting from this study, the deviation in the top volume of the phantom is reduced to -0.5% and shows the lowest standard deviation inside the phantom in comparison to all other conversions. Simulation of a µ-map misregistration shows acceptable results for shifts below 5 mm for the flexible surface RF coil. The adapted conversion from HUs to LAC at 511 keV within this study can improve hardware component AC in PET/MR hybrid imaging as shown for a flexible RF surface coil. Furthermore, these results have a direct impact on the improvement of the hardware component AC of the examined flexible RF coil in conjunction with position determination.

  8. Ultrasonic Attenuation in Lanthanum Monochalcogenides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raja Ram Yadav; Devraj Singh

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation due to phonon-phonon interaction and thermoelastic relaxation are studied in Lanthanum Monochalcogenides in direction at different higher temperatures. For evaluation of ultrasonic absorption coefficients the second and third order elastic constants (SOEC) and (TOEC) are also calculated. Shear wave attenuation shows maximum along propagation direction with polarized along and the attenuation increases at higher temperatures. Thermo-elastic loss is

  9. Prospects for in vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients using postprocessing dual-energy CT imaging on a commercial scanner: Comparison of analytic and polyenergetic statistical reconstruction algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Joshua D.; Whiting, Bruce R.; O’Sullivan, Joseph A.; Politte, David G.; Klahr, Paul H.; Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasive in vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 × 1 × 3 mm3 grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean. Reconstruction with the statistical AM algorithm led to standard deviations roughly 40% to 60% less than FBP reconstruction. Additional tin filtration of the high energy beam exhibits similar pDECT estimation accuracy as the unfiltered beam, even when scanning with only 25% of the dose. Using the law of propagated uncertainty, low Z materials are found to be more sensitive to image reconstruction errors than high Z materials. Furthermore, it is estimated that reconstructed CT image uncertainty must be limited to less than 0.25% to achieve a target linear-attenuation coefficient estimation uncertainty of 3% at 28 keV. Conclusions: That pDECT supports mean linear attenuation coefficient measurement accuracies of 1% of reference values for energies greater than 30 keV is encouraging. However, the sensitivity of the pDECT measurements to noise and systematic errors in reconstructed CT images warrants further investigation in more complex phantom geometries. The investigated statistical reconstruction algorithm, AM, reduced random measurement uncertainty relative to FBP owing to improved noise performance. These early results also support efforts to increase DE spectral separation, which can further reduce the pDECT sensitivity to measurement uncertainty. PMID:24320525

  10. Au Chalet du LacAu Chalet du Lac Samedi 23 septembre 1995

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Au Chalet du LacAu Chalet du Lac Samedi 23 septembre 1995 Paroles offertes à Colette Pétonnet à l..............................................................................29 Un oiseau blanc pour Colette Eliane Daphy................................................................................37 Bibliographie de Colette Pétonnet établie et présentée par Eliane Daphy

  11. Micrometry combined with profile mapping for the absolute measurement of Integrated Column Density (ICD) and for accurate X-ray mass attenuation coefficients using XERT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. Tauhidul; Rae, Nicholas A.; Glover, Jack L.; Barnea, Zwi; Chantler, Christopher T.

    2010-07-01

    Absolute values of the column densities [?t]c of four gold foils were measured using micrometry combined with the 2D X-ray attenuation profile. The absolute calibration of [?t]c was made with a reference foil and the [?t]c of other foils were determined following the thickness transfer method. By this method, we obtain absolute calibration to 0.1% or better which was not possible using only the X-ray map of a single foil over its central region.

  12. Extreme synchrotron BL Lac objects

    E-print Network

    Costamante, L; Giommi, P; Tagliaferri, G; Celotti, A; Chiaberge, M; Fossati, G; Maraschi, L; Tavecchio, F; Treves, A; Wolter, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed an observational program with the X-ray satellite BeppoSAX to study objects with extreme synchrotron peak frequencies (nu_peak > 1 keV). Of the seven sources observed, four showed peak frequencies in the range 1-5 keV, while one (1ES 1426+428) displayed a flat power law spectrum (alpha= 0.92), locating its synchrotron peak at or above 100 keV. This is the third source of this type ever found, after Mkn 501 and 1ES 2344+514. Our data confirm the large nu_peak variability of this class of sources, compared with lower peaked objects. The high synchrotron peak energies, flagging the presence of high energy electrons, make the extreme BL Lacs also good candidates for TeV emission, and therefore good probes for the IR background.

  13. BL Lac Objects at the highest redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajello, Marco

    2013-10-01

    For a long time high-redshift BL Lac objects were deemed not to exist. Fermi showed us that there is relevant population of BL Lacs with redshift beyond 1.0. Some of them belong to the high-synchrotron peaked (HSP) class and are among the hardest gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi showing emission up and beyond 100 GeV. This makes them the most luminous BL Lacs ever detected and rates them among the most powerful accelerators in the Universe. We plan to observe 3 extreme BL Lacs simultaneously with XMM-Newton, GROND and Swift. This will provide unprecedented coverage of the synchrotron peak from IR to hard X-ray allowing us: to understand the nature and the energetic of these objects, to answer long-standing questions on the blazar sequence and to use them as probes of the EBL.

  14. Present research on the composition and application of lac

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xia Wang; Jian-zhang Li; Yong-ming Fan; Xiao-juan Jin

    2006-01-01

    Lac is a natural polymer with atoxigenic, renewable, and naturally degradable characteristics. Nowadays, more and more attentions\\u000a are paid to environment protection and resource conservation, so it has great significance to study the composition and application\\u000a of lac. The paper summarizes the research of lac composition and emphasizes on the present research of lac resin. The applications\\u000a of lac are

  15. Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.

    PubMed

    Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A

    2014-03-01

    Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes. PMID:24268679

  16. Determination of OM/OC ratios and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC) in ambient fine PM at a rural site in southern Ontario: implications for emission sources, particle aging, and radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. W.; Huang, L.; Leaitch, W. R.; Sharma, S.; Brook, J. R.; Slowik, J. G.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brickell, P. C.; Liggio, J.; Li, S.-M.; Moosmüller, H.

    2009-07-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) samples were collected on quartz filters at a rural site in southern Ontario during intensive studies in 2005 and 2007. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC), pyrolysis organic carbon (POC), and elemental carbon (EC) were determined by thermal analysis. These results were compared to the organic aerosol mass concentration (OM) measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and to the particle absorption coefficient (b_asp) obtained from a Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). The total organic mass to organic carbon ratios (OM/OC) and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC) were also derived. According to the results, the POC mass is proportional to the approximated oxygen mass in the aerosols and OM/OC ratios can be estimated directly from thermal measurements. The study also suggests that the air masses from the south, with relatively low OC/EC ratios, high EC, sulphate contents and OM/OC ratios, were originated from urban and industrial emissions and subsequently experienced photo-oxidations in the atmosphere, implying that the oxygenated organics could come from both primary and secondary sources. Whereas the air masses from the north, with relatively high OC/EC ratios, low EC, sulphate contents and OM/OC ratios, were dominant by the background clean air with relatively larger contributions from biogenic emissions. The mean SAC derived from the 2005 and 2007 studies are 4.9 m2 g-1 and 3.8 m2 g-1, respectively. When POC mass approaching zero (i.e. the impact of atmospheric aging is minimized), the SAC for primary emitted soot is estimated to be 5.8 m2 g-1 and 6.3 m2 g-1 for the northern and southern air masses, respectively, supported by the corresponding values when particulate sulphate concentration approaches zero. A decreasing trend in the SAC value with atmospheric aging of the aerosol was observed at the site, suggesting that during the study, the light absorption enhancement due to the presence of coating on particles was likely to be offset by the decrease in light absorption caused by increasing soot particle diameter and collapsing of soot particle structure. This result may imply that model simulations of atmospheric warming by BC could be 50% too high.

  17. Ultrasonic Attenuation in Lanthanum Monochalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Raja; Singh, Devraj

    2001-06-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation due to phonon-phonon interaction and thermoelastic relaxation are studied in Lanthanum Monochalcogenides in <110> direction at different higher temperatures. For evaluation of ultrasonic absorption coefficients the second and third order elastic constants (SOEC) and (TOEC) are also calculated. Shear wave attenuation shows maximum along <110> propagation direction with polarized along <110> and the attenuation increases at higher temperatures. Thermo-elastic loss is very small compared to phonon-viscosity loss. Behavior of temperature dependence of the absorption is the same as in case of pure metals and dielectric crystals.

  18. Jet/accretion and unification for FSRQs/FRII and BL Lac objects/FRI radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongyun; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Haojing; Xiong, Dingrong; Yu, Xiaoling; Cha, Yongjuan; Li, Bijun; Huang, Xia

    2015-06-01

    We compiled a sample of 24 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), 21 BL Lacs, 13 FRI and 12 FRII radio galaxies to study the jet power and broad-line luminosity relation, and the jet power and black hole mass relation. Furthermore, we obtain the histograms of key parameters. Our main results are as follows: (i) We found that the FSRQs are roughly separated from BL Lacs by the Ledlow-Owen FRI/FRII dividing line in the log P jet-log M plane. This result supports the unification model that BL Lacs unify with FRI radio galaxies and FSRQs unify with FRII radio galaxies. (ii) We found that the coefficient of the best-fit linear regression equation of log L BLR-log P jet relation is very close to 1 for our sample. The correlation between broad line luminosity and jet power is significant which supports that jet power has a close link with accretion.

  19. Factor structure of the levels of attribution and change (LAC) scale in samples of psychotherapists and smokers.

    PubMed

    Norcross, J C; Prochaska, J O; Guadagnoli, E; DiClemente, C C

    1984-03-01

    Investigated the factor structure of the Levels of Attribution and Change (LAC) Scale, a 60-item, Likert-format instrument designed to assess the levels and loci of causal attributions about a problem behavior. Principal component analyses were performed on two samples, 194 adult smokers and 140 professional psychotherapists. In both cases, nine distinct and interpretable components were retained, which accounted for 63% and 68% of the total variance, respectively. Coefficients of congruence indicated that the two component patterns were quite similar. Item cross-classification revealed that the nine components closely resemble the 10 theoretical scales, with 2 scales (Familial Conflicts, Interpersonal Conflicts) represented by one component. Estimates of internal consistency averaged .84 and .87 for the two samples. The LAC theoretical scales and the scoring system have considerable empirical justification. The LAC Scale appears to be an internally consistent, multidimensional inventory with a robust factor structure. PMID:6725574

  20. Method for estimating total attenuation from a spatial map of attenuation slope for quantitative ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Pawlicki, Alexander D; O'Brien, William D

    2013-04-01

    Estimating total ultrasound attenuation from backscatter data is essential in the field of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) because of the need to compensate for attenuation when estimating the backscatter coefficient and QUS parameters. This work uses a reference phantom method of attenuation estimation to create a spatial map of attenuation slope (AS) from backscatter radio-frequency (RF) data of three phantoms and a rat mammary adenocarcinoma tumor (MAT). The attenuation maps show changes in attenuation between different regions of the phantoms and the MAT tumor. Analyses of the attenuation maps of the phantoms suggest that the AS estimates are in good quantitative agreement with the known values for the phantoms. Furthermore, estimates of total attenuation from the attenuation maps are likewise in good quantitative agreement with known values. PMID:23493614

  1. On the Difference of Quasars and BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.

    2009-08-01

    We analyze the two differences between radio-loud quasars and BL Lacs: the lack of emission lines in BL Lacs, and the different position angles of the jets. We propose that BL Lacs have much less gas and are possibly optically-thin near the central engine in nuclei. This could be attributed to the orbiting of binary black holes in a very late merging stage.

  2. Attenuation of \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Carlson; M. G. Sanders; A. Tal; W. G. Wood

    1975-01-01

    Tested and confirmed the hypothesis that scopolamine attenuates habituation occurring within a training session as well as that occurring between training sessions. Subcutaneous scopolamine injections (.5 mg\\/kg) reduced spontaneous wheel running in 8 female prairie dogs. The same dosage did not affect the threshold for wheel running induced by electrical brain stimulation (EBS) in 6 Ss in Exp II. Exp

  3. Insertional mutant analysis reveals that long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (LACS1), but not LACS8, functionally overlaps

    E-print Network

    Kunst, Ljerka

    of higher plants. They serve as carbon and energy reserves used for germination and growth of the young as carbon and energy reserves for germination and growth of the seedling. One of the critical reactions in the lacs8 mutant and lacs8 lacs9 double mutant, and over-expression of LACS8, did not affect the seed fatty

  4. Attenuation of Correlation by Measurement Unreliability and Two Approaches for Correcting the Attenuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao

    This study focused on the issue of measurement reliability and its attenuation on correlation between two composites and two seemingly different approaches for correcting the attenuation. As expected, Monte Carlo simulation results show that correlation coefficients uncorrected for measurement error are systematically biased downward. For the data…

  5. Natural LacI from E. coli yields faster response and higher level of expression than the LVA-tagged LacI.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Patrick Rosendahl; Fredberg, Sofie; Horan, Mattias; Knudsen, Maria Højberg; Jacobsen, Kirstine; Kjær, Andreas; Krogh, Thøger Jensen; Kronborg, Tina; Mattsson, Nicky Cordua; Schmidt, Sissel Ida; Wille, Heidi; Andersen, Ann

    2014-12-19

    The lac promoter is one of the most commonly used promoters for expression control of recombinant genes in E. coli. In the absence of galactosides, the lac promoter is repressed by its repressor protein LacI. Since the lac promoter is regulated by a repressor, overexpression of LacI is necessary for regulation when the promoter is introduced on a high-copy plasmid. For that purpose, a modified variant of LacI, a LVA-tagged LacI, was submitted to the Registry of Standard Biological Parts and has been used for more than 500 constructs since then. We have found, however, that natural LacI is superior to the LVA-tagged LacI as controller of expression. PMID:25524095

  6. Probabilistic atlas-based segmentation of combined T1-weighted and DUTE MRI for calculation of head attenuation maps in integrated PET/MRI scanners.

    PubMed

    Poynton, Clare B; Chen, Kevin T; Chonde, Daniel B; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Gollub, Randy L; Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Batchelor, Tracy T; Catana, Ciprian

    2014-01-01

    We present a new MRI-based attenuation correction (AC) approach for integrated PET/MRI systems that combines both segmentation- and atlas-based methods by incorporating dual-echo ultra-short echo-time (DUTE) and T1-weighted (T1w) MRI data and a probabilistic atlas. Segmented atlases were constructed from CT training data using a leave-one-out framework and combined with T1w, DUTE, and CT data to train a classifier that computes the probability of air/soft tissue/bone at each voxel. This classifier was applied to segment the MRI of the subject of interest and attenuation maps (?-maps) were generated by assigning specific linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) to each tissue class. The ?-maps generated with this "Atlas-T1w-DUTE" approach were compared to those obtained from DUTE data using a previously proposed method. For validation of the segmentation results, segmented CT ?-maps were considered to the "silver standard"; the segmentation accuracy was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively through calculation of the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Relative change (RC) maps between the CT and MRI-based attenuation corrected PET volumes were also calculated for a global voxel-wise assessment of the reconstruction results. The ?-maps obtained using the Atlas-T1w-DUTE classifier agreed well with those derived from CT; the mean DSCs for the Atlas-T1w-DUTE-based ?-maps across all subjects were higher than those for DUTE-based ?-maps; the atlas-based ?-maps also showed a lower percentage of misclassified voxels across all subjects. RC maps from the atlas-based technique also demonstrated improvement in the PET data compared to the DUTE method, both globally as well as regionally. PMID:24753982

  7. Applying Echoes Mean Frequency Shift for Attenuation Imaging in Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litniewski, J.; Klimonda, Z.; Nowicki, A.

    The purpose of this study was to develop the attenuation parametric imaging technique and to apply it for in vivo characterization of tissue. Local attenuation coefficient was determined by evaluating the frequency downshift that encounters the amplitude spectrum of the interrogating ultrasonic pulse during propagation in the absorbing tissue. Operation and accuracy of the processing methods were verified by assessing the size-independent region of interest (ROI) for attenuation determination and calculating the attenuation coefficient distribution for experimentally recorded tissue-phantom scattered waveforms. The Siemens Antares scanner equipped with Ultrasound Research Interface unit allowing for direct radiofrequency (RF) signals recording was used for B-scan imaging of the tissue- mimicking phantom in vitro and liver in vivo. RF data were processed to determine attenuation coefficient along the B-scan lines. Also, the preliminary studies of backscattered signals from skin recorded using a skin scanner were performed to calculate parametric-attenuation images.

  8. Lac Courte Oreilles Energy Analysis Project

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Isham; Denise Johnson

    2009-04-01

    The Lac Courte Oreilles Tribe applied for first step funding in 2007 and was awarded in October of that year. We wanted to perform an audit to begin fulfilling two commitments we made to our membership and resolutions that we adopted. One was the Kyoto Protocol and reduce our carbon emissions by 25% and to produce 25% of our energy by sustainable means. To complete these goals we needed to begin with first assessing what our carbon emissions are and begin taking the steps to conserve on the energy we currently use. The First Step Grant gave us the opportunity to do this. Upon funding the Energy Project was formed under the umbrella of the LCO Public Works Department and Denise Johnson was hired as the coordinator. She quickly began fulfilling the objectives of the project. Denise began by contact the LCO College and hiring interns who were able to go to each Tribal entity and perform line logging to read and document the energy used for each electrical appliance. Data was also gathered for one full year from each entity for all their utility bills (gasoline, electric, natural gas, fuel oil, etc.). Relationships were formed with the Green Team and other Green Committees in the area that could assist us in this undertaking. The Energy Task Force was of great assistance as well recommending other committees and guidance to completing our project. The data was gathered, compiled and placed into spreadsheets that would be understandable for anyone who didn't have a background in Renewable Resources. While gathering the data Denise was also looking for ways to conserve energy usage, policies changes to implement and any possible viable renewable energy resources. Changes in the social behaviors of our members and employees will require further education by workshops, energy fairs, etc.. This will be looked into and done in coordination with our schools. The renewable resources seem most feasible are wind resources as well as Bio Mass both of which need further assessment and funding to do so will be sought. While we already are in ownership of a Hydro Dam it is currently not functioning to its full capacity we are seeking operation and maintenance firm proposals and funding sources. One of our biggest accomplishment this project gave us was our total Carbon Emissions 9989.45 tons, this will be the number that we will use to base our reductions from. It will help us achieve our goals we have set for ourselves in achieving the Kyoto Protocol and saving our Earth for our future generations. Another major accomplishment and lesson learned is we need to educate ourselves and our people on how to conserve energy to both impact the environment and our own budgets. The Lac Courte Oreilles (LCO) Energy Analysis Project will perform an energy audit to gather information on the Tribe's energy usage and determine the carbon emissions. By performing the audit we will be able to identify areas where conservation efforts are most viable and recommend policies that can be implemented. These steps will enable LCO to begin achieving the goals that have been set by the Tribal Governing Board and adopted through resolutions. The goals are to reduce emissions by 25% and to produce 25% of its energy using sustainable sources. The project objectives were very definitive to assist the Tribe in achieving its goals; reducing carbon emissions and obtaining a sustainable source of energy. The following were the outlined objectives: (1) Coordinate LCO's current and future conservation and renewable energy projects; (2) Establish working relationships with outside entities to share information and collaborate on future projects; (3) Complete energy audit and analyze LCO's energy load and carbon emissions; (4) Identify policy changes, education programs and conservation efforts which are appropriate for the LCO Reservation; and (5) Create a plan to identify the most cost effective renewable energy options for LCO.

  9. Clustering environment of BL Lac object RGB 1745+398

    E-print Network

    H. Lietzen; K. Nilsson; L. O. Takalo; P. Heinamaki; P. Nurmi; P. Keinanen; S. Wagner

    2008-04-03

    The BL Lac object RGB 1745+398 lies in an environment that makes it possible to study the cluster around it more deeply than the environments of other BL Lac objects. The cluster centered on the BL Lac works as a strong gravitational lens, forming a large arc around itself. The aim of this paper is to study the environment and characteristics of this object more accurately than the environments of other BL Lac objects have been before.We measured the redshifts of galaxies in the cluster from the absorption lines in their spectra. The velocity dispersion was then obtained from the redshifts. The gravitational lensing was used for measuring the mass at the center of the cluster. The mass of the whole cluster could then be estimated using the softened isothermal sphere mass distribution. Finally, the richness of the cluster was determined by counting the number of galaxies near the BL Lac object and obtaining the galaxy-BL Lac spatial covariance function, $B_{gb}$. The redshifts of nine galaxies in the field were measured to be near the redshift of the BL Lac object, confirming the presence of a cluster. The average redshift of the cluster is 0.268, and the velocity dispersion $(470^{+190}_{-110})$ km s$^{-1}$. The mass of the cluster is $M_{500}=(4^{+3}_{-2})\\times10^{14} M_{\\sun}$ which implies a rather massive cluster. The richness measurement also suggests that this is a rich cluster: the result for covariance function is $B_{gb}=(600\\pm200)$ Mpc$^{1.77}$, which corresponds to Abell richness class 1 and which is consistent with the mass and velocity dispersion of the cluster.

  10. Multifrequency Observations of Z-Ray-Bright BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, C. Megan

    Ten BL Lacertae objects discovered in the HEAO1 all-sky survey are brighter than 1 Uhuru flux unit (1 UFU ~= 2.4 x 10^-11 ergs cm^-2 s^-1), bright enough to yield useful spectral and variability information from the Ginga hard-X-ray satellite (2-30 keV) and the ROSAT extreme-ultraviolet/soft-X-ray satellite. These X-ray-selected BL Lacs have their peak emission in the far-ultraviolet or soft X-ray regimes, in contrast to the more traditional radio-selected BL Lacs. The ultraviolet -through- X-ray spectra of BL Lac objects, and any attendant variability, have important implications for the energetics and structure of BL Lacs. Furthermore, broad-band spectroscopy is a sensitive probe of the underlying energygeneration mechanism in BL Lacs, which may be related to that in other AGN. We propose to make coordinated, simultaneous observations using the IUE satellite in conjunction with ROSAT, Ginga, Voyager 2 (a far-ultraviolet spectrometer), and groundbased radio, submillimeter, infrared, and optical telescopes, in order to obtain the best possible broad-band spectra of BL Lac objects. These will be used to constrain models for the emitting region, as we have demonstrated during previous years of our ongoing IUE program. All ten targets will be easily detected in the ROSAT all-sky survey; furthermore, we have already been awarded time for longer ROSAT pointed observations of four of these BL Lacs, for which we therefore propose to repeat the multifrequency experiment. The proposed combination of instruments covers ten decades in frequency with unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution. Understanding AGN is one of the primary questions in astrophysics; IUE has the potential to make important advances toward answering this question.

  11. Mechanism of promoter repression by Lac repressor-DNA loops.

    PubMed

    Becker, Nicole A; Peters, Justin P; Maher, L James; Lionberger, Troy A

    2013-01-01

    The Escherichia coli lactose (lac) operon encodes the first genetic switch to be discovered, and lac remains a paradigm for studying negative and positive control of gene expression. Negative control is believed to involve competition of RNA polymerase and Lac repressor for overlapping binding sites. Contributions to the local Lac repressor concentration come from free repressor and repressor delivered to the operator from remote auxiliary operators by DNA looping. Long-standing questions persist concerning the actual role of DNA looping in the mechanism of promoter repression. Here, we use experiments in living bacteria to resolve four of these questions. We show that the distance dependence of repression enhancement is comparable for upstream and downstream auxiliary operators, confirming the hypothesis that repressor concentration increase is the principal mechanism of repression loops. We find that as few as four turns of DNA can be constrained in a stable loop by Lac repressor. We show that RNA polymerase is not trapped at repressed promoters. Finally, we show that constraining a promoter in a tight DNA loop is sufficient for repression even when promoter and operator do not overlap. PMID:23143103

  12. Gamma-ray observations of BL Lac objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanlon, L.; McBreen, B.; OFlaherty, K.; Metcalfe, L.; Hunter, S.; Tashiro, M.; Wagner, S.; Bouchet, P.; Nicolson, G. D.; Smith, N. J.

    1997-01-01

    The results from observations of a sample of BL Lac objects by the Compton telescope (COMPTEL) and energetic gamma ray experiment telescope (EGRET) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) are presented. The main targets in the sample were selected on the basis of their X-ray brightness and apparent spectral hardening at hard X-ray energies. One of the targets, PKS 0521-365 was detected by EGRET, and these data are presented together with contemporaneous ground-based radio data. Subsequent X-ray observations of this source with the Advanced Satellite for Cosomology and Astrophysics (ASCA) demonstrated that, although originally classified as a BL Lac object, it is better described as a flat spectrum radio quasar. Upper limits on the gamma ray flux from all the non-detected BL lacs are presented.

  13. Structure determination from XAFS using high-accuracy measurements of x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silver, 11 keV-28 keV, and development of an all-energies approach to local dynamical analysis of bond length, revealing variation of effective thermal contributions across the XAFS spectrum.

    PubMed

    Tantau, L J; Chantler, C T; Bourke, J D; Islam, M T; Payne, A T; Rae, N A; Tran, C Q

    2015-07-01

    We use the x-ray extended range technique (XERT) to experimentally determine the mass attenuation coefficient of silver in the x-ray energy range 11 kev-28 kev including the silver K absorption edge. The results are accurate to better than 0.1%, permitting critical tests of atomic and solid state theory. This is one of the most accurate demonstrations of cross-platform accuracy in synchrotron studies thus far. We derive the mass absorption coefficients and the imaginary component of the form factor over this range. We apply conventional XAFS analytic techniques, extended to include error propagation and uncertainty, yielding bond lengths accurate to approximately 0.24% and thermal Debye-Waller parameters accurate to 30%. We then introduce the FDMX technique for accurate analysis of such data across the full XAFS spectrum, built on full-potential theory, yielding a bond length accuracy of order 0.1% and the demonstration that a single Debye parameter is inadequate and inconsistent across the XAFS range. Two effective Debye-Waller parameters are determined: a high-energy value based on the highly-correlated motion of bonded atoms ([Formula: see text] Å), and an uncorrelated bulk value ([Formula: see text] Å) in good agreement with that derived from (room-temperature) crystallography. PMID:26075571

  14. Structure determination from XAFS using high-accuracy measurements of x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of silver, 11 keV–28 keV, and development of an all-energies approach to local dynamical analysis of bond length, revealing variation of effective thermal contributions across the XAFS spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantau, L. J.; Chantler, C. T.; Bourke, J. D.; Islam, M. T.; Payne, A. T.; Rae, N. A.; Tran, C. Q.

    2015-07-01

    We use the x-ray extended range technique (XERT) to experimentally determine the mass attenuation coefficient of silver in the x-ray energy range 11 kev–28 kev including the silver K absorption edge. The results are accurate to better than 0.1%, permitting critical tests of atomic and solid state theory. This is one of the most accurate demonstrations of cross-platform accuracy in synchrotron studies thus far. We derive the mass absorption coefficients and the imaginary component of the form factor over this range. We apply conventional XAFS analytic techniques, extended to include error propagation and uncertainty, yielding bond lengths accurate to approximately 0.24% and thermal Debye–Waller parameters accurate to 30%. We then introduce the FDMX technique for accurate analysis of such data across the full XAFS spectrum, built on full-potential theory, yielding a bond length accuracy of order 0.1% and the demonstration that a single Debye parameter is inadequate and inconsistent across the XAFS range. Two effective Debye–Waller parameters are determined: a high-energy value based on the highly-correlated motion of bonded atoms ({?\\text{DW}}=0.1413(21) Å), and an uncorrelated bulk value ({?\\text{DW}}=0.1766(9) Å) in good agreement with that derived from (room-temperature) crystallography.

  15. Attenuation, scattering, and absorption properties of light emitting planar waveguides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Schrottke

    1995-01-01

    Attenuation, scattering, and absorption coefficients of planar waveguides which contain light emitting areas are investigated by analysis of the lateral intensity distribution of the light scattered out from regions of the waveguides surrounding the active areas. Short attenuation lengths require an experimental method without the use of coupling prisms. This method was succesfully applied to a set of thin film

  16. Low energy gamma ray attenuation in multiphase water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Eftekhari, Abe

    1990-01-01

    A gauging system is proposed to enable monitoring of slush density, solid-liquid interface, and slush level as well as its flow rate. It is based on the principle that the electromagnetic radiation mass attenuation coefficient of a multiphase chemical compound is constant for all relative phase concentrations. Results showing the essential constancy of mass attenuation coefficients for single-phase water vapor, liquid water, ice, and multiphase mixtures of water/ice are described.

  17. Functional Identification of a Putative ?-Galactosidase Gene in the Special lac Gene Cluster of Lactobacillus   acidophilus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qu Pan; Junmin Zhu; Lina Liu; Yanguang Cong; Fuquan Hu; Jinchuan Li; Xiaoping Yu

    2010-01-01

    The putative ?-galactosidase gene (lacZ) of Lactobacillus acidophilus has a very low degree of homology to the Escherichia coli ?-galactosidase gene (lacZ) and locates in a special lac gene cluster which contains two ?-galactosidase genes. No functional characteristic of the putative ?-galactosidase has been\\u000a described so far. In this study, the lacZ gene of L. acidophilus was hetero-expressed in E. coli and the recombinant

  18. Statistical model for diffusion attenuated MR signal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitriy A. Yablonskiy; G. Larry Bretthorst; Joseph J. H. Ackerman

    2003-01-01

    A general statistical model that can describe a rather large number of experimental results related to the structure of the diffusion-attenuated MR signal in biological systems is intro- duced. The theoretical framework relies on a phenomenological model that introduces a distribution function for tissue appar- ent diffusion coefficients (ADC). It is shown that at least two parameters—the position of distribution

  19. Attenuation of external Bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Dhaliwal, A.S.; Powar, M.S.; Singh, M. (Punjabi Univ., Physics Dept., Patiala 147002 (IN))

    1990-12-01

    In this paper attenuation of bremsstrahlung from {sup 147}Pm and {sup 170}Tm beta emitters has been studied in aluminum, copper, tin, and lead metallic absorbers. Bremsstrahlung spectra and mass attenuation coefficients for monoenergetic gamma rays are used to calculate theoretical attenuation curves. Magnetic deflection and beta stopping techniques are used to measure the integral bremsstrahlung intensities above 30 keV in different target thicknesses. Comparison of measured and calculated attenuation curves shows a good agreement for various absorbers, thus providing a test of this technique, which may be useful in understanding bremsstrahlung intensity buildup and in the design of optimum shielding for bremsstrahlung sources. It is found that the absorption of bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers does not obey an exponential law and that absorbers act as energy filters.

  20. Light attenuation on unicellular marine phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Tadeusz; Lotocka, Maria

    1994-10-01

    Sea phytoplankton plays a considerable role in the interactive processes between light and the sea. Its species composition and the physiological development phase influence the spectrum of the light attenuation coefficient in the sea. Laboratory measurements of light attenuation spectrum were carried out on three different phytoplankton monocultures of the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris and the larger Chlorella kesleri and the blue-green alga Chroococcus minor. The cultures were subjected to chemical (NaOH and temperature) or physical (ultrasounds) factors which altered their internal cell structures. Distinct changes in the light attenuation spectrum were observed as a result of the modification of the internal cell structures. Light attenuation cross-sections of those phytoplankton cells were also determined.

  1. Are some BL Lacs artefacts of gravitational lensing?

    PubMed

    Ostriker, J P; Vietri, M

    1990-03-01

    WE suggested in 1985 that a significant fraction of BL Lacertae objects, a kind of lineless quasar, seen in nearby galaxies are in fact images, gravitationally lensed and substantially amplified by stars in the nearby galaxy, of background objects, optically violent variable (OVV) quasars at redshifts z > 1 (ref. 1). This hypothesis was made on the basis of certain general similarities between BL Lacs and O Ws, but for two recently observed BL Lacs(2,3) a strong case can be made that the accompanying elliptical galaxy is a foreground object. In addition, we argue that the distribution of BL Lac redshifts is hard to understand without gravitational lensing, unless we happen to be at a very local maximum of the spatial cosmic distribution of BL Lacs. Our analysis also indicates that the galaxies whose stars are likely to act as microlenses will be found in two peaks, one nearby, with redshift 0.05-0.10, and the other near the distant quasar. PMID:18278021

  2. Genetic Characterization of a Stable F? lac Plasmid1

    PubMed Central

    Macrina, Francis L.; Balbinder, Elias

    1972-01-01

    A mutant F? plasmid has been isolated in a strain of Salmonella typhimurium harboring Fts114lac. This mutant, designated FlacS, exhibits unique genetic stability in strains of S. typhimurium and Escherichia coli. It shows no thermolability and is lost at frequencies of 20 to 100 times less than the wild-type F?lac (F42) in the same genetic backgrounds. The FlacS is also insensitive to conventional plasmid curing agents, whereas both Fts114lac and F42 are readily cured. The nature of the mutation(s) conferring stability to the FlacS is unclear, but plasmid linkage has been established. The high frequency of conjugal transfer of the FlacS and its behavior in recombination-deficient strains of S. typhimurium and E. coli argue against its stability being due to stable chromosomal integration. The FlacS is also capable of transferring chromosomal markers in S. typhimurium and E. coli mating systems. No major differences in chromosomal mobilization have been observed among F42, Fts114lac, and FlacS donors of either genus. PMID:16559163

  3. LUNSORT list of lunar orbiter data by LAC area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, S.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar orbiter (missions 1-5) photographic data are listed sequentially according to the number (1 to 147) LAC (Lunar Aeronautical Chart) areas by use of a computer program called LUNSORT. This listing, as well as a similar one from Apollo would simplify the task of identifying images of a given Lunar area. Instructions and sample case are included.

  4. Global teleseismic S wave attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Y.; Ritsema, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    We have measured 140,000 teleseismic S wave spectra from 150 deep (focal depth > 200 km) earthquakes recorded at 890 broadband global and regional network stations up to 0.7 Hz. We have analyzed these data to constrain the (1) epicentral distance and (2) spatial variation of the shear wave attenuation parameter tS*. tS* increases by about 2 s between 30° and 98°. The increase in tS* is consistent (correlation coefficient of 0.9) with global QS profiles (Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981; Durek and Ekström, 1996; Lawrence and Wysession, 2006). However, there are well resolved departures in the distance dependence of tS*. Most notably, tS* is lower than PREM-predicted values between 58°-64°. This indicates a reduction in shear attenuation from the global average at ~1600 km depth beneath Central America, eastern Asia, and Alaska. These regions have previously been identified as downwelling mantle regions on the basis of seismic tomography (Grand et al., 1997), plate reconstructions (Ricard et al., 1993), and waveform analysis (Lay et al., 2004). Stations terms of tS* represent the spatial variation of attenuation in the upper mantle. Using multi-channel cross-correlation and least-squares inversion of differential spectra we resolve high attenuation in the upper mantle beneath western North America, western Europe, and eastern Africa. Attenuation is low beneath eastern North America, the Baltic regions, and central and southern Africa. This variation correlates well with global variations in heat flow (Pollack et al., 1993) and crustal age (Mooney et al., 1995).

  5. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E; Poole, L; Cherdak, A; Houghton, W

    1980-05-15

    An instrument has been developed that directly measures the multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. The design incorporates methods for compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in background light level. When used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques. PMID:20221099

  6. BL Lac Objects and Blazars: Past, Present, and Future

    E-print Network

    C. Megan Urry

    1998-12-22

    The past 20 years have seen phenomenal progress in our understanding of BL Lac objects. They form part of the blazar class, which are radio-loud AGN whose relativistic jets are aligned along our line of sight. Several critical milestones have helped establish this picture, first proposed at the Pittsburgh BL Lac meeting 20 years ago, most recently the EGRET and TeV detections of beamed gamma-ray emission. The spectral energy distributions are double peaked and follow a self-similar sequence in luminosity, which can be explained by electron cooling on ambient photons. This simple paradigm has yet to be tested, and further questions remain, notably about physical conditions in blazar jets --- the kinetic power, magnetic energy density, acceleration time scales, proton content, etc. --- and how this energy is transported in the innermost regions. Some clues are available from multiwavelength monitoring campaigns although better sampling over longer periods is clearly called for. Recent work on the host galaxies of BL Lac objects supports their unification with low-power, aligned FRI radio galaxies. Nature makes jets with a large range of kinetic powers, but the relative number densities of low-luminosity ("blue" BL Lacs) or high-luminosity ("red" BL Lacs and FSRQ) blazars --- is highly uncertain. Since according to unified schemes blazars are representative of all radio-loud AGN, their jet properties have broad implications. Future EUV/X-ray observations will illuminate the circumnuclear structure, especially the hot, highly ionized, high velocity gas on sub-parsec scales, which could play a role in jet dynamics and could possibly affect the formation of FRI vs. FRII type jets. The study of blazars may also help us eventually understand the difference between radio-quiet and radio-loud AGN. [slightly abridged

  7. The Physics Analysis of a Gas Attenuator with Argon as a Working Gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Ryutov; R. M. Bionta; M. A. McKernan; S. Shen; J. W. Trent

    2010-01-01

    A gas attenuator is an important element of the LCLS facility. The attenuator must operate in a broad range of x-ray energies, provide attenuation coefficient between 1 and 10 with the accuracy of 1% and, at the same time, be reliable and allow for many months of un-interrupted operation. S. Shen has recently carried out a detailed design study of

  8. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  9. Broad beam and narrow beam attenuation in Lipowitz's metal

    SciTech Connect

    el-Khatib, E.E.; Podgorsak, E.B.; Pla, C.

    1987-01-01

    Attenuation properties of Lipowitz's metal have been studied for narrow and broad beams of cobalt-60 gamma rays and 4-10 MV x-rays. The measured transmitted fraction for geometries used in radiotherapy depends on the field size and depth of measurement. Therefore a calculation of dose for partially attenuated beams based on narrow beam attenuation coefficients can cause large errors in dosimetry. Our simple calculation of transmitted fractions based on primary attenuation and scattered radiation agrees quite well with the measured data for therapeutic geometries. Also given is a table for linear, mass attenuation, and mass energy absorption coefficients of Lipowitz's metal in the photon energy range from 10 keV to 10 MeV.

  10. A Catalogue of XMM-Newton BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouco, A.; de la Calle, I.; Held, J.; Racero, E.

    2014-07-01

    A catalogue of XMM-Newton BL Lac is presented based on a cross-correlation with the 1374 BL Lac objects listed in the 13th edition of the Veron-Cetty and Veron (2010) catalogue. X-ray counterparts were searched for in the field of view of more than 10000 pointed observations available in the XMM-Newton Archive (XSA) that were public before June 2012. The cross-correlation yielded around 250 XMM-Newton observations, which correspond to 162 different sources. X-ray data from the three EPIC cameras and Optical Monitor data were uniformly analyzed using the latest XMMNewton Science Analysis System (SAS) version. The catalogue collects X-ray spectral properties, including flux variability, of the sample in the 0.2 - 10 keV energy band.

  11. Wind Resource Assessment Report: Mille Lacs Indian Reservation, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians to evaluate the wind resource and examine the feasibility of a wind project at a contaminated site located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The wind monitoring effort involved the installation of a 60-m met tower and the collection of 18 months of wind data at multiple heights above the ground. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of a potential wind project sited this site.

  12. First photometric study of W UMa binary star LU Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, W.-P.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhao, E.-G.; Jiang, L.-Q.

    2014-08-01

    LU Lac is a neglected W UMa binary star in photometric investigations. In this paper, we present BVRI CCD photometric light curves obtained on one night in 2012. The first photometric solutions of this system are computed by using the Wilson-Devinney code. It is shown that LU Lac is a marginal contact W-type system with a degree of contact factor of f=8.9%, a mass ratio of q=2.085 and a high inclination of i=82°.20. From the first analyses of orbital period changes, we found the period variation of the system includes an oscillation (A3=0.0125 days and T3=51.92 years). The cyclic change may be attributed to the light-travel time effect through the presence of a third body.

  13. A Catalogue of XMM-Newton BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racero, E.; De la Calle, I.; Rouco, A.

    2015-05-01

    A catalogue of XMM-Newton BL Lac is presented based on a cross-correlation with the 1374 BL Lac objects listed in the 13th edition of the Veron-Cetty and Veron (2010) catalogue. X-ray counterparts were searched for in the field of view of more than 10000 pointed observations available in the XMM-Newton Archive (XSA) that were public before June 2012. The cross-correlation yielded around 250 XMM-Newton observations, which correspond to 162 different sources. X-ray data from the three EPIC cameras and Optical Monitor data were uniformly analyzed using the latest XMM-Newton Science Analysis System (SAS) version. The catalogue collects X-ray spectral properties, including flux variability, of the sample in the 0.2--10 KeV energy band. All the catalogue products will be made publicly available to the scientific community.

  14. An SPM8-based Approach for Attenuation Correction Combining Segmentation and Non-rigid Template Formation: Application to Simultaneous PET/MR Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Hansen, Adam E.; Förster, Stefan; Benoit, Didier; Schachoff, Sylvia; Fürst, Sebastian; Chen, Kevin T.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Catana, Ciprian

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach for head MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC) based on the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) software that combines segmentation- and atlas-based features to provide a robust technique to generate attenuation maps (µ-maps) from MR data in integrated PET/MR scanners. Methods Coregistered anatomical MR and CT images acquired in 15 glioblastoma subjects were used to generate the templates. The MR images from these subjects were first segmented into 6 tissue classes (gray and white matter, cerebro-spinal fluid, bone and soft tissue, and air), which were then non-rigidly coregistered using a diffeomorphic approach. A similar procedure was used to coregister the anatomical MR data for a new subject to the template. Finally, the CT-like images obtained by applying the inverse transformations were converted to linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) to be used for AC of PET data. The method was validated on sixteen new subjects with brain tumors (N=12) or mild cognitive impairment (N=4) who underwent CT and PET/MR scans. The µ-maps and corresponding reconstructed PET images were compared to those obtained using the gold standard CT-based approach and the Dixon-based method available on the Siemens Biograph mMR scanner. Relative change (RC) images were generated in each case and voxel- and region of interest (ROI)-based analyses were performed. Results The leave-one-out cross-validation analysis of the data from the 15 atlas-generation subjects showed small errors in brain LACs (RC=1.38%±4.52%) compared to the gold standard. Similar results (RC=1.86±4.06%) were obtained from the analysis of the atlas-validation datasets. The voxel- and ROI-based analysis of the corresponding reconstructed PET images revealed quantification errors of 3.87±5.0% and 2.74±2.28%, respectively. The Dixon-based method performed substantially worse (the mean RC values were 13.0±10.25% and 9.38±4.97%, respectively). Areas closer to skull showed the largest improvement. Conclusion We have presented an SPM8-based approach for deriving the head µ-map from MR data to be used for PET AC in integrated PET/MR scanners. Its implementation is straightforward and only requires the morphological data acquired with a single MR sequence. The method is very accurate and robust, combining the strengths of both segmentation- and atlas-based approaches while minimizing their drawbacks. PMID:25278515

  15. The 2dF BL Lac Survey II

    E-print Network

    D. Londish; S. M. Croom; J. Heidt; B. J. Boyle; E. M. Sadler; M. Whiting; T. A. Rector; T. Pursimo; K. Chynoweth

    2006-10-05

    We report on our further analysis of the expanded and revised sample of potential BL Lac objects (the 2BL) optically identified from two catalogues of blue-selected (UV excess) point sources, the 2dF and 6dF QSO Redshift Surveys (2QZ and 6QZ). The 2BL comprises 52 objects with no apparent proper motion, over the magnitude range 16.0 < bj< 20.0. Follow-up high signal-to-noise spectra of 36 2BL objects and NIR imaging of 18 objects, together with data for 19 2BL objects found in the Sloan Digital Sky survey (SDSS), show 17 objects to be stellar, while a further 16 objects have evidence of weak, broad emission features, although for at least one of these the continuum level has clearly varied. Classification of three objects remains uncertain,with NIR results indicating a marked reduction in flux as compared to SDSS optical magnitudes. Seven objects have neither high signal-to-noise spectra nor NIR imaging. Deep radio observations of 26 2BL objects at the VLA resulted in only three further radio-detections, however none of the three is classed as a featureless continuum object. Seven 2BL objects with a radio detection are confirmed as candidate BL Lac objects while one extragalactic (z=0.494) continuum object is undetected at radio frequencies. One further radio-undetected object is also a potential BL Lac candidate. However it would appear that there is no significant population of radio-quiet BL Lac objects.

  16. Use of argA-lac fusions to generate lambda argA-lac bacteriophages and to determine the direction of argA transcription in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, T

    1977-01-01

    Fusions of lac genes to the argA operator were constructed, and lambda phages carrying these fusions were isolated and characterized. With the aid of a lambda phage carrying an argA-lac fusion, the direction of argA transcription on the Escherichia coli chromosome was determined to be clockwise. PMID:410785

  17. Protonation and sugar binding to LacY

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Irina N.; Kasho, Vladimir; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2008-01-01

    The effect of bulk-phase pH on the apparent affinity (Kdapp) of purified wild-type lactose permease (LacY) for sugars was studied. Kdapp values were determined by ligand-induced changes in the fluorescence of either of two covalently bound fluorescent reporters positioned away from the sugar-binding site. Kdapp for three different galactopyranosides was determined over a pH range from 5.5 to 11. A remarkably high pKa of ?10.5 was obtained for all sugars. Kinetic data for thiodigalactoside binding measured from pH 6 to 10 show that decreased affinity for sugar at alkaline pH is due specifically to increased reverse rate. A similar effect was also observed with nitrophenylgalactoside by using a direct binding assay. Because affinity for sugar remains constant from pH 5.5 to pH 9.0, it follows that LacY is fully protonated with respect to sugar binding under physiological conditions of pH. The results are consistent with the conclusion that LacY is protonated before sugar binding during lactose/H+ symport in either direction across the membrane. PMID:18567672

  18. Compensation for non-uniform attenuation in SPECT brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, S.J.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S. [Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Photon attenuation is a major limitation in performing quantitative SPECT brain imaging. A number of methods have been proposed for compensation of attenuation in regions of the body that can be modelled as a uniform attenuator. The magnitude of the errors introduced into reconstructed brain images by assuming the head to be a uniform attenuator are uncertain (the skull, sinus cavities and head holder all have different attenuation properties than brain tissue). Brain imaging is unique in that the radioisotope, for the most part, is taken up within a uniform attenuation medium (i.e., brain tissue) which is surrounded by bone (i.e., the skull) of a different density. Using this observation, Bellini`s method for attenuation compensation (which is an exact solution to the exponential Radon transform) has been modified to account for the different attenuation properties of the skull. To test this modified Bellini method, a simple mathematical phantom was designed to model the brain and a skull of varying thickness less than 7.5 mm. To model brain imaging with Tc-99m HMPAO, the attenuation coefficient of the brain tissue and skull were set to 0.15 cm{sup -1} and 0.22 cm{sup -1} respectively. A ray-driven projector which accounted for non-uniform attenuation was used to simulate projection data from 128 views. The detector response and scatter were not simulated. It was observed that reconstructions processed with uniform attenuation compensation (i.e., where it was assumed that the brain tissue and the skull had the same attenuation coefficient) provided errors of 6-20%, whereas those processed with the non-uniform Bellini algorithm were biased by only 0-5%.

  19. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, S.R.

    1987-05-29

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

  20. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  1. Mapping DNA-Lac repressor interaction with ultra-fast optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monico, Carina; Tempestini, Alessia; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco S.; Capitanio, Marco

    2015-03-01

    The lac operon is a well-known example of gene expression regulation, based on the specific interaction of Lac repressor protein (LacI) with its target DNA sequence (operator). We recently developed an ultrafast force-clamp laser trap technique capable of probing molecular interactions with sub-ms temporal resolution, under controlled pN-range forces. With this technique, we tested the interaction of LacI with different DNA constructs. Based on position along the DNA sequence, the observed interactions can be interpreted as specific binding to operator sequences and transient interactions with nonspecific sequences.

  2. Cell cycle analysis of F'lac replication in Escherichia coli B/r.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, M; Helmstetter, C E

    1977-01-01

    The timing and control of replication of an F'lac plasmid was investigated in two substrains of Escherichia coli B/r lac/F'lac growing at a variety of rates. The cellular content of covalently closed circular F'lac deoxyribonucleic acid and the cellular mass at the time of F'lac replication both increased as a function of growth rate. The timing of plasmid replication during the division cycle was determined by measuring the inducibility of beta-galactosidase in cells of different ages in exponentially growing cultures. At all growth rates, the rate of induced beta-galactosidase synthesis increased in a step-wise fashion during the division cycle, indicating that the F'lac plasmid replicated at a discrete time in the cycle. At growth rates greater than one doubling per h, the cell age at F'lac replication was indistinguishable from the cell age at chromosomal lac+ replication in an isogenic F- parent. The ratio of plasmids to chromosomal origins decreased from about 0.7 to 0.4 between growth rates of 1.0 to 2.5 doublings per h. These observations are all consistent with replication of F'lac at about the same time in the division cycle as replication of the homologous chromosomal region at these growth rates. This similarity in timing of replication of homologous deoxyribonucleic acid regions was not evident in slower-growing cells. PMID:411785

  3. IFN-?-receptor signaling ameliorates transplant vasculopathy through attenuation of CD8+ T-cell-mediated injury of vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bolinger, Beatrice; Engeler, Daniel; Krebs, Philippe; Miller, Simone; Firner, Sonja; Hoffmann, Matthias; Palmer, Douglas C.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Tian, Yinghua; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    Occlusive transplant vasculopathy (TV) is the major cause for chronic graft rejection. Since endothelial cells (EC) are the first graft cells encountered by activated host lymphocytes, it is important to delineate the molecular mechanisms that coordinate the interaction of EC with activated T cells. Here, the interaction of CD8+ T cells with Ag-presenting EC in vivo was examined using a transgenic heart transplantation model with ?-galactosidase (?-gal) expression exclusively in EC (Tie2-LacZ hearts). We found that priming with ?-gal peptide-loaded DC failed to generate a strong systemic IFN-? response, but elicited pronounced TV in both IFN-? receptor (IFNGR)-competent, and ifngr?/? Tie2-LacZ hearts. In contrast, stimulation of EC-specific CD8+ T cells with ?-gal-recombinant mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV-LacZ) in recipients of ifngr+/+ Tie2-LacZ hearts did not precipitate significant TV. However, MCMV-LacZ infection of recipients of ifngr?/? Tie2-LacZ hearts led to massive activation of ?-gal-specific CD8 T cells, and led to development of fulminant TV. Further analyses revealed that the strong systemic IFN-? “storm” associated with MCMV infection induced upregulation of programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) on EC, and subsequent attenuation of programmed death-1 (PD-1)-expressing EC-specific CD8+ T cells. Thus, IFNGR signaling in ECs activates a potent peripheral negative feedback circuit that protects vascularized grafts from occlusive TV. PMID:20049875

  4. Optical polarimetry of quasi-stellar and BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, D.; Wills, B.J.; Breger, M.; Hsu, J.

    1980-12-01

    We report observations of 39 extragalactic objects, using a new polarimeter at McDonald Observatory. Most of the observations were made in January and June 1980. Some new BL Lac objects were found, and some of the previously known members of this class were also observed. Polarization exceeding 3--4 times the formal rms uncertainties was found in about ten QSO's. Rapid changes of polarization and/or position angle occurred in some of the BL Lacertae objects, usually with <0.1-mag change in the total light.

  5. Time domain attenuation estimation method from ultrasonic backscattered signals

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Goutam; Oelze, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation is important not only as a parameter for characterizing tissue but also for compensating other parameters that are used to classify tissues. Several techniques have been explored for estimating ultrasonic attenuation from backscattered signals. In the present study, a technique is developed to estimate the local ultrasonic attenuation coefficient by analyzing the time domain backscattered signal. The proposed method incorporates an objective function that combines the diffraction pattern of the source/receiver with the attenuation slope in an integral equation. The technique was assessed through simulations and validated through experiments with a tissue mimicking phantom and fresh rabbit liver samples. The attenuation values estimated using the proposed technique were compared with the attenuation estimated using insertion loss measurements. For a data block size of 15 pulse lengths axially and 15 beamwidths laterally, the mean attenuation estimates from the tissue mimicking phantoms were within 10% of the estimates using insertion loss measurements. With a data block size of 20 pulse lengths axially and 20 beamwidths laterally, the error in the attenuation values estimated from the liver samples were within 10% of the attenuation values estimated from the insertion loss measurements. PMID:22779499

  6. Comparative genomics and evolution of regulons of the LacI-family transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Ravcheev, Dmitry A.; Khoroshkin, Matvei S.; Laikova, Olga N.; Tsoy, Olga V.; Sernova, Natalia V.; Petrova, Svetlana A.; Rakhmaninova, Aleksandra B.; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

    2014-01-01

    DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) are essential components of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria. LacI-family TFs (LacI-TFs) are broadly distributed among certain lineages of bacteria. The majority of characterized LacI-TFs sense sugar effectors and regulate carbohydrate utilization genes. The comparative genomics approaches enable in silico identification of TF-binding sites and regulon reconstruction. To study the function and evolution of LacI-TFs, we performed genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of their regulons. For over 1300 LacI-TFs from over 270 bacterial genomes, we predicted their cognate DNA-binding motifs and identified target genes. Using the genome context and metabolic subsystem analyses of reconstructed regulons, we tentatively assigned functional roles and predicted candidate effectors for 78 and 67% of the analyzed LacI-TFs, respectively. Nearly 90% of the studied LacI-TFs are local regulators of sugar utilization pathways, whereas the remaining 125 global regulators control large and diverse sets of metabolic genes. The global LacI-TFs include the previously known regulators CcpA in Firmicutes, FruR in Enterobacteria, and PurR in Gammaproteobacteria, as well as the three novel regulators—GluR, GapR, and PckR—that are predicted to control the central carbohydrate metabolism in three lineages of Alphaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of regulators combined with the reconstructed regulons provides a model of evolutionary diversification of the LacI protein family. The obtained genomic collection of in silico reconstructed LacI-TF regulons in bacteria is available in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov). It provides a framework for future structural and functional classification of the LacI protein family and identification of molecular determinants of the DNA and ligand specificity. The inferred regulons can be also used for functional gene annotation and reconstruction of sugar catabolic networks in diverse bacterial lineages. PMID:24966856

  7. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  8. A direct measurement of skull attenuation for quantitative SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Turkington, T.G.; Gilland, D.R.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Smith, M.F. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    The attenuation of 140 keV photons was measured in three empty skulls by placing a [sup 99m]Tc line source inside each one and acquiring projection data. These projections were compared to projections of the line source alone to determine the transmission through each point in the skull surrounding the line source. The effective skull thickness was calculated for each point using an assumed dense bone attenuation coefficient. The relative attenuation for this thickness of bone was compared to that of an equivalent amount of soft tissue to evaluate the increased attenuation of photons in brain SPECT relative to a uniform soft tissue approximation. For the skull regions surrounding most of the brain, the effective bone thickness varied considerably, but was generally less than 6 mm, resulting in a relative attenuation increases of less than 6%.

  9. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND ELEMENT FRACTIONATION IN EV Lac

    SciTech Connect

    Laming, J. Martin [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7674L, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Hwang, Una, E-mail: Una.Hwang-1@nasa.go [NASA/GSFC Code 662, Greenbelt MD 20771, and Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2009-12-10

    We present a 100 ks Suzaku observation of the dMe flare star EV Lac, in which the star was captured undergoing a moderate 1500 s flare. During the flare, the count rate increased by about a factor of 50 and the spectrum showed overall enhanced element abundances relative to quiescence. While the quiescent element abundances confirm the inverse first ionization potential (FIP) effect previously documented for EV Lac, with relatively higher depletions for low FIP elements, abundances during the flare spectra show a composition closer to that of the stellar photosphere. We discuss these results in the context of models that explain abundance fractionation in the stellar chromosphere as a result of the ponderomotive force due to Alfven waves. Stars with FIP or inverse FIP effects arising from differently directed ponderomotive forces may have quite different abundance signatures in their evaporated chromospheric plasma during flares, if the same ponderomotive force also affects thermal conduction downward from the corona. The regulation of the thermal conductivity by the ponderomotive force requires a level of turbulence that is somewhat higher than is normally assumed, but plausible in filamentary conduction models.

  10. Looking for the least luminous BL Lac objects

    E-print Network

    Capetti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Among active galactic nuclei, BL Lac objects show extreme properties that have been interpreted as the effect of relativistic beaming on the emission from a plasma jet oriented close to the line of sight. The Doppler amplification of the jet emission makes them ideal targets for studying jet physics. In particular, low-power BL Lacs (LPBL) are very interesting because they probe the jet formation and emission processes at the lowest levels of accretion. However, they are difficult to identify since their emission is swamped by the radiation from the host galaxy in most observing bands. In this paper we propose a new LPBL selection method based on the mid-infrared emission, in addition to the traditional optical indices. We considered the radio-selected sample of Best & Heckman (2012, MNRAS, 421, 1569) and cross-matched it with the WISE all-sky survey. In a new diagnostic plane including the W2-W3 color and the Dn(4000) index, LPBL are located in a region scarcely populated by other sources. By filtering o...

  11. Selection of lac gene fusions in vivo: ompR-lacZ fusions that define a functional domain of the ompR gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, M L; Jackson, D E

    1984-01-01

    We describe a simple method for selecting Escherichia coli mutants that carry gene fusions between a cloned gene and lacZ. We test this technique with the ompR gene, which codes for a positive regulatory factor in porin synthesis. A number of OmpR-LacZ hybrid proteins are examined, and several unusual phenotypes associated with these protein fusions are described. Evidence is presented to support the two-domain model for ompR proposed previously (Hall and Silhavy, J. Mol. Biol. 151:1-15). In addition, one of the ompR-lacZ fusions exhibits a dominant OmpR- phenotype. The utility of isolating a series of lacZ gene fusions to any target gene is discussed. Images PMID:6086585

  12. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

    1980-05-01

    The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  13. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  14. Attenuator And Conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R. (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (Albuquerque, NM); Carson, Richard F. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM); Duckett, III, Edwin B. (Albuquerque, NM); Kemme, Shanalyn Adair (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick B. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, David W. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2006-04-04

    An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

  15. The Physics Analysis of a Gas Attenuator with Argon as a Working Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov,, D.D.

    2010-12-07

    A gas attenuator is an important element of the LCLS facility. The attenuator must operate in a broad range of x-ray energies, provide attenuation coefficient between 1 and 10{sup 4} with the accuracy of 1% and, at the same time, be reliable and allow for many months of un-interrupted operation. S. Shen has recently carried out a detailed design study of the attenuator based on the use of nitrogen as a working gas. In this note we assess the features of the attenuator based on the use of argon. We concentrate on the physics issues, not the design features.

  16. Fiber Optic Attenuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Mike Buzzetti designed a fiber optic attenuator while working at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, intended for use in NASA's Deep Space Network. Buzzetti subsequently patented and received an exclusive license to commercialize the device, and founded Nanometer Technologies to produce it. The attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss, and is relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  17. Structural and Enzymatic characterization of the lactonase SisLac from Sulfolobus islandicus

    PubMed Central

    Chabriere, Eric; Elias, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Background A new member of the Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonases (PLL) family from the hyperthermophilic archeon Sulfolobus islandicus (SisLac) has been characterized. SisLac is a native lactonase that exhibits a high promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity. SisLac thus represents a promising target for engineering studies, exhibiting both detoxification and bacterial quorum quenching abilities, including human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we describe the substrate specificity of SisLac, providing extensive kinetic studies performed with various phosphotriesters, esters, N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) and other lactones as substrates. Moreover, we solved the X-ray structure of SisLac and structural comparisons with the closely related SsoPox structure highlighted differences in the surface salt bridge network and the dimerization interface. SisLac and SsoPox being close homologues (91% sequence identity), we undertook a mutational study to decipher these structural differences and their putative consequences on the stability and the catalytic properties of these proteins. Conclusions/Significance We show that SisLac is a very proficient lactonase against aroma lactones and AHLs as substrates. Hence, data herein emphasize the potential role of SisLac as quorum quenching agent in Sulfolobus. Moreover, despite the very high sequence homology with SsoPox, we highlight key epistatic substitutions that influence the enzyme stability and activity. PMID:23071703

  18. The lac Operon Section of DNA that acts as an ON/OFF

    E-print Network

    Robbiano, Lorenzo

    feedback mechanism. Their model assumed · transcription/translation require 1 time unit · mRNA/protein the 3 structural genes, whose mRNA is translated into proteins that aid in lactose metabolism. Source binds to initiate transcription of the lac genes. The lac Operon Section of DNA that acts as an ON

  19. Modular 3-D FRP Reinforcing System for a Bridge Deck in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin

    E-print Network

    Bank, Lawrence C.

    Modular 3-D FRP Reinforcing System for a Bridge Deck in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin by Mack J. Conachen Engineering) at the UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON 2005 #12;Modular 3-D FRP Reinforcing System for a Bridge Deck in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin APPROVED BY: ________________________________ _______________ Dr

  20. Use of lac regulatory elements for gene expression in Lactobacillus casei

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Proteome Use of lac regulatory elements for gene expression in Lactobacillus casei María José, Spain Abstract -- The lactose operon, lacTEGF, of Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei ATCC393 [pLZ15 of the lactose operon. Lactobacillus / lactose expression system / replicative vector / integrative vector Résumé

  1. Heat flow and deep lithospheric thermal structure at Lac de Gras, Slave Province, Canada

    E-print Network

    Long, Bernard

    Heat flow and deep lithospheric thermal structure at Lac de Gras, Slave Province, Canada J. C holes near Lac de Gras in the Slave Province of the Canadian Shield yield heat flow values of 43 ± 5 generation account for %50K differences in Moho temperatures within the Slave Province. INDEX TERMS: 5134

  2. The Solitario is a large, combination lac-colith and caldera (herein termed "lacco-

    E-print Network

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    ABSTRACT The Solitario is a large, combination lac- colith and caldera (herein termed "lacco- caldera"), with a 16-km-diameter dome over which developed a 6 × 2 km caldera. This lac- cocaldera; doming with em- placement of a main laccolith; ash-flow erup- tion and caldera collapse; intracaldera

  3. Search for correlation of UHECRs and BL Lacs in Pierre Auger Observatory data

    E-print Network

    Diego Harari; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2007-06-12

    Several analyses of the data collected by other experiments have found an excess of cosmic rays in correlation with subclasses of BL Lacs. Data from the Pierre Auger Observatory do not support previously reported excesses. The number of events correlated with BL Lac positions is compatible with that expected for an isotropic flux.

  4. Attenuation of millimeter wavelength radiation by gaseous water.

    PubMed

    Hall, J T

    1967-08-01

    A theoretical computation and absorption by water vapor of radiation within the millimeter and submillimeter region of the electromagnetic spectrum permits the determination of attenuation coefficients for given vapor densities, pressures, and temperatures. The rigid asymmetrical top rotor approximation for all angular momentum quantum numbers J attenuation coefficients to pressures and temperatures other than those for which calculations were performed. PMID:20062211

  5. Exam problem E06-1. ES2502, c'12 AC 0.75 in LAC 4 LCD 8

    E-print Network

    Furlong, Cosme

    Exam problem E06-1. ES2502, c'12 AC 0.75 in LAC 4 LCD 8 CB 1.5 in LDB 10 JAC 2 AC 2 4 0 TA TB Tapplied= Equilibrium TA LAC JAC Gbr TA LCD JCB Gst TB LDB JCB Gst = Compatibility a Find TA-diagram: Define step function: S x z( ) if x z 1 0( ) x 0 0.001 LAC LCD LDB( ) Torque function: T x( ) TA S x LAC

  6. Absorption Ångström exponents of aerosols and light absorbing carbon (LAC) obtained from in situ data in Covilhã, central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mogo, S; Cachorro, V E; de Frutos, A; Rodrigues, A

    2012-12-01

    A field campaign was conducted from October 2009 to July 2010 at Covilhã, a small town located in the region of Beira Interior (Portugal) in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula. The ambient light-absorption coefficient, ?(a) (522 nm), obtained from a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), presented a daily mean value of 12.1 Mm?¹ (StD = 7.3 Mm?¹). The wavelength dependence of aerosol light absorption is investigated through the Ångström parameter, ?(a). The ?(a) values for the pair of wavelengths 470-660 nm ranged from 0.86 to 1.47 during the period of measurements. The PSAP data were used to infer the mass of light absorbing carbon (LAC) and the daily mean varied from 0.1 to 6.8 ?g m?³. A detailed study of special events with different aerosol characteristics is carried out and, to support data interpretation, air masses trajectory analysis is performed. PMID:23138695

  7. Adaptive Evolution of the Streptococcus pyogenes Regulatory Aldolase LacD.1

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    In the human-pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, the tagatose bisphosphate aldolase LacD.1 likely originated through a gene duplication event and was adapted to a role as a metabolic sensor for regulation of virulence gene transcription. Although LacD.1 retains enzymatic activity, its ancestral metabolic function resides in the LacD.2 aldolase, which is required for the catabolism of galactose. In this study, we compared these paralogous proteins to identify characteristics correlated with divergence and novel function. Surprisingly, despite the fact that these proteins have identical active sites and 82% similarity in amino acid sequence, LacD.1 was less efficient at cleaving both fructose and tagatose bisphosphates. Analysis of kinetic properties revealed that LacD.1's adaptation was associated with a decrease in kcat and an increase in Km. Construction and analysis of enzyme chimeras indicated that non-active-site residues previously associated with the variable activities of human aldolase isoenzymes modulated LacD.1's affinity for substrate. Mutant LacD.1 proteins engineered to have LacD.2-like levels of enzymatic efficiency lost the ability to function as regulators, suggesting that an alteration in efficiency was required for adaptation. In competition under growth conditions that mimic a deep-tissue environment, LacD.1 conferred a significant gain in fitness that was associated with its regulatory activity. Taken together, these data suggest that LacD.1's adaptation represents a form of neofunctionalization in which duplication facilitated the gain of regulatory function important for growth in tissue and pathogenesis. PMID:23316044

  8. Partial charge transfer in the shortest possible metallofullerene peapod, La@C82 ?[11]cycloparaphenylene.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Takahiro; Slanina, Zdenek; Mizorogi, Naomi; Guo, Jingdong; Akasaka, Takeshi; Nagase, Shigeru; Takaya, Hikaru; Yasuda, Nobuhiro; Kato, Tatsuhisa; Yamago, Shigeru

    2014-10-27

    [11]Cycloparaphenylene ([11]CPP) selectively encapsulates La@C82 to form the shortest possible metallofullerene-carbon nanotube (CNT) peapod, La@C82 ?[11]CPP, in solution and in the solid state. Complexation in solution was affected by the polarity of the solvent and was 16?times stronger in the polar solvent nitrobenzene than in the nonpolar solvent 1,2-dichlorobenzene. Electrochemical analysis revealed that the redox potentials of La@C82 were negatively shifted upon complexation from free La@C82 . Furthermore, the shifts in the redox potentials increased with polarity of the solvent. These results are consistent with formation of a polar complex, (La@C82 )(?-) ?[11]CPP(?+) , by partial electron transfer from [11]CPP to La@C82 . This is the first observation of such an electronic interaction between a fullerene pea and CPP pod. Theoretical calculations also supported partial charge transfer (0.07) from [11]CPP to La@C82 . The structure of the complex was unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis, which showed the La atom inside the C82 near the periphery of the [11]CPP. The dipole moment of La@C82 was projected toward the CPP pea, nearly perpendicular to the CPP axis. The position of the La atom and the direction of the dipole moment in La@C82 ?[11]CPP were significantly different from those observed in La@C82 ?CNT, thus indicating a difference in orientation of the fullerene peas between fullerene-CPP and fullerene-CNT peapods. These results highlight the importance of pea-pea interactions in determining the orientation of the metallofullerene in metallofullerene-CNT peapods. PMID:25224281

  9. Properties of sound attenuation around a two-dimensional underwater vehicle with a large cavitation number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Peng-Cheng; Pan, Guang

    2015-06-01

    Due to the high speed of underwater vehicles, cavitation is generated inevitably along with the sound attenuation when the sound signal traverses through the cavity region around the underwater vehicle. The linear wave propagation is studied to obtain the influence of bubbly liquid on the acoustic wave propagation in the cavity region. The sound attenuation coefficient and the sound speed formula of the bubbly liquid are presented. Based on the sound attenuation coefficients with various vapor volume fractions, the attenuation of sound intensity is calculated under large cavitation number conditions. The result shows that the sound intensity attenuation is fairly small in a certain condition. Consequently, the intensity attenuation can be neglected in engineering. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51279165 and 51479170) and the National Defense Basic Scientific Research Program of China (Grant No. B2720133014).

  10. Electrical Breakdown in Lightning Arrestor Connector (LAC) Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Kambour, Kenneth; Pineda, Andrew C.

    2011-03-01

    Lightning arrestor connector (LAC) devices protect electronic devices by providing a conductive path to ground for electrical power surges caused by lightning. Such devices consist of an insulating material between electrodes. This insulation region is composed of an air gap and a high permittivity dielectric. In this presentation, the physics of the phenomena active in the early stages of the flow of transient electrical current will be described. The conditions that lead to thermal breakdown of the dielectric will also be discussed.--Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. SPECTROSCOPY OF BROAD-LINE BLAZARS FROM 1LAC

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.; Healey, Stephen E.; Michelson, Peter F. [Department of Physics/KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cotter, Garret; Potter, William J. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; King, Oliver G. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-03-20

    We report on optical spectroscopy of 165 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the Fermi 1LAC sample, which have helped allow a nearly complete study of this population. Fermi FSRQs show significant evidence for non-thermal emission even in the optical; the degree depends on the {gamma}-ray hardness. They also have smaller virial estimates of hole mass than the optical quasar sample. This appears to be largely due to a preferred (axial) view of the {gamma}-ray FSRQ and non-isotropic (H/R {approx} 0.4) distribution of broad-line velocities. Even after correction for this bias, the Fermi FSRQs show higher mean Eddington ratios than the optical population. A comparison of optical spectral properties with Owens Valley Radio Observatory radio flare activity shows no strong correlation.

  12. Kinematics of the parsec-scale jet in BL Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C.; Cawthorne, T.; Gabuzda, D.

    2003-10-01

    An analysis has been made of the three-dimensional trajectories of two components in the parsec-scale jet of BL Lac, constructed using centimetre-wavelength VLBI data at multiple epochs. The 3-D trajectory of each of these components has first been reconstructed assuming that they move with constant speeds. The only plausible trajectories consistent with the observed paths make small angles to the line of sight (less than 15°) everywhere along their paths. The flux density variations predicted by variations in Doppler beaming do not agree with the component light curves. We suggest models involving expansion or deceleration in addition to changes in direction to account for the observed flux density changes.

  13. Is the Radio Core of BL Lac Precessing?

    E-print Network

    R. L. Mutel; G. R. Denn

    2004-12-17

    Stirling et al. (2003) reported the discovery of a 2.3 year periodic variation in the structural position angle of the parsec-scale radio core of the blazar BL Lac. We searched for independent confirmation of this periodic behavior using 43 GHz images of the radio core during ten epochs overlapping those of Stirling et al. Our maps are consistent with several periodicities, including one near the period reported by Stirling et al. By comparing our position angle measurements with those of Stirling et al., we find strong consistent evidence for position angle variations of the inner core during the observed epochs. However, the claim for periodic variation is not convincing, especially when the most recent epochs (2000.60 - 2003.78) are included. A definitive resolution will require continued monitoring of the core structure over several periods.

  14. BVI Microvariability in BL LAC during the summer 1997 outburst

    E-print Network

    R. Speziali; G. Natali

    1998-09-09

    BL Lac has been observed during the outburst occurred in the 1997 summer (Noble et al. 1997; Bloom et al. 1997) in three optical bands (BVI), with the aim of studying the intranight colour variations on very short timescales. Due to the high luminosity of the source we could perform quasi-simultaneous measurements in the three bands with a resolving time of about 5 minutes using one single telescope. We have detected several microvariability events occurring on timescales ranging from 30 min up to 3.5 hours. The magnitude changes had different amplitudes in the three bands being larger for shorter wavelenghts, and the source showed a marked trend to became bluer when brigther. There was no evidence of quasi-periodic oscillations in our multicolour light curves.

  15. Effective x-ray attenuation measurements with full field digital mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, John J.; Behera, Madhusmita [The H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612-4799 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This work shows that effective x-ray attenuation coefficients may be estimated by applying Beer's Law to phantom image data acquired with the General Electric Senographe 2000D full field digital mammography system. Theoretical developments are provided indicating that an approximate form of the Beer's relation holds for polychromatic x-ray beams. The theoretical values were compared with experimentally determined measured values, which were estimated at various detector locations. The measured effective attenuation coefficients are in agreement with those estimated with theoretical developments and numerical integration. The work shows that the measured quantities show little spatial variation. The main ideas are demonstrated with polymethylmethacrylate and breast tissue equivalent phantom imaging experiments. The work suggests that the effective attenuation coefficients may be used as known values for radiometric standardization applications that compensate for the image acquisition influences. The work indicates that it is possible to make quantitative attenuation coefficient measurements from a system designed for clinical purposes.

  16. Lead attenuation characteristics models.

    PubMed

    Lee, K L; Schick, D

    2009-12-01

    Lead attenuation characteristic curves are often consulted in premises radiation shielding assessments employing the non-destructive testing (NDT) method. This study developed lead attenuation characteristics mathematical models for the radionuclide Co-57. These models take into account the statistical variation of the attenuation characteristics. The results are a set of equations that a NDT assessor can use to predict the range of transmission factors for the NDT measurement or, using the inverse functions, to gauge the lead equivalence (with the associated uncertainty) of a radiation barrier. This study showed that the combined effect of types of statistical variations can form an uncertainty region on the transmission characteristics such that the relative uncertainty decreases for values of lead mass per unit area up to approximately 20 kg/m2 and 15 kg/m2 for the Ludlum 18 and Ludlum 2241-2 survey meters respectively but thereafter increases. PMID:20169840

  17. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Hall, Simon B. (Palmerston North, NZ)

    2009-11-10

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  18. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Hall, Simon B. (Palmerston North, NZ)

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  19. Structural dynamics of the lac repressor-DNA complex revealed by a multiscale simulation.

    PubMed

    Villa, Elizabeth; Balaeff, Alexander; Schulten, Klaus

    2005-05-10

    A multiscale simulation of a complex between the lac repressor protein (LacI) and a 107-bp-long DNA segment is reported. The complex between the repressor and two operator DNA segments is described by all-atom molecular dynamics; the size of the simulated system comprises either 226,000 or 314,000 atoms. The DNA loop connecting the operators is modeled as a continuous elastic ribbon, described mathematically by the nonlinear Kirchhoff differential equations with boundary conditions obtained from the coordinates of the terminal base pairs of each operator. The forces stemming from the looped DNA are included in the molecular dynamics simulations; the loop structure and the forces are continuously recomputed because the protein motions during the simulations shift the operators and the presumed termini of the loop. The simulations reveal the structural dynamics of the LacI-DNA complex in unprecedented detail. The multiple domains of LacI exhibit remarkable structural stability during the simulation, moving much like rigid bodies. LacI is shown to absorb the strain from the looped DNA mainly through its mobile DNA-binding head groups. Even with large fluctuating forces applied, the head groups tilt strongly and keep their grip on the operator DNA, while the remainder of the protein retains its V-shaped structure. A simulated opening of the cleft of LacI by 500-pN forces revealed the interactions responsible for locking LacI in the V-conformation. PMID:15863616

  20. High-energy cosmic neutrinos from spine-sheath BL Lac jets

    E-print Network

    Tavecchio, F

    2014-01-01

    We recently proposed that structured (spine-sheath) jets associated to BL Lac objects offer a suitable environment for the production of the extragalactic high-energy ($E>100$ TeV) neutrino recently revealed by IceCube. Our previous analysis was limited to low-power BL Lac objects. We extend our preliminary study to the entire BL Lac population. We assume that the power of cosmic rays as well as the radiative luminosity of the sheath depend linearly on the the jet power. In turn, we assume that the latter is well traced by the $\\gamma$-ray luminosity. We exploit the BL Lac $\\gamma$-ray luminosity function and its cosmic evolution as recently inferred from Fermi-LAT data to derive the expected neutrino cumulative intensity from the entire BL Lac population. When considering only the low-power BL Lacs, a large cosmic ray power for each source is required to account for the neutrino flux. Instead, if BL Lacs of all powers produce neutrinos, the power demand decreases, and the required cosmic ray power becomes of...

  1. Attenuation law of planar shock waves propagating through dust-gas suspensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Aizik; G. Ben-Dor; T. Elperin; O. Igra; M. Mond; H. Gronig

    1995-01-01

    Olim et al. has proposed a general law for describing the instantaneous shock wave Mach number as it attenuates while propagating through dust-gas suspensions. Owing to the inadequacy of Olim's proposal, this study is aimed at finding the functional dependence of both the attenuation coefficient and Mach number on the initial shock wave Mach number, the diameter of the solid

  2. Fuzzy clustering-based segmented attenuation correction in whole-body PET imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Zaidi; M. Diaz-Gomez; A. Boudraa; D. O. Slosman

    2002-01-01

    Segmented attenuation correction is now a widely accepted technique to reduce noise propagation from transmission scanning in positron emission tomography (PET). In this paper, we present a new method for segmenting transmission images in whole-body scanning. This reduces the noise in the correction maps while still correcting for differing attenuation coefficients of specific tissues. Based on the fuzzy C-means (FCM)

  3. X-Ray Attenuation and Absorption for Materials of Dosimetric Interest

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 126 X-Ray Attenuation and Absorption for Materials of Dosimetric Interest (Web, free access)   Tables and graphs of the photon mass attenuation coefficient and the mass energy-absorption coefficient are presented for all of the elements Z = 1 to 92, and for 48 compounds and mixtures of radiological interest. The tables cover energies of the photon (x-ray, gamma ray, bremsstrahlung) from 1 keV to 20 MeV.

  4. Crystal structure of a depsipeptide, Boc-(Leu-Leu-Lac)3-Leu-Leu-OEt.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, T; Oku, H; Yoshida, M; Katakai, R

    2001-06-01

    A sequential polydepsipeptide, Boc-(Leu-Leu-Lac)3-Leu-Leu-OEt (1) (Lac = L-lactic acid residue) has been synthesized by the segment condensation method. The sequential unit of 1, -Leu-Leu-Lac-, is consisted of two amino acid residues and one hydroxy acid residue. X-ray diffraction measurement with an imaging plate detector and a direct-methods procedure of Shake-and-Bake successfully revealed the crystal structure of 1. In the solid state, the 11-mer depsipeptide, 1, have clear alpha-helical conformation even with the three ester linkages. PMID:11285559

  5. Modeling, evaluation, and asymptotic analysis of attenuation anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekar, Bharath Chandra

    Seismic attenuation is sensitive to the physical properties of the subsurface, which makes attenuation analysis a useful tool for reservoir characterization. In this thesis, I present algorithms for estimating directionally dependent attenuation coefficients and perform asymptotic and numerical analysis of wave propagation in attenuative anisotropic media. First, I introduce a methodology to estimate the S-wave interval attenuation coefficient by extending the layer-stripping method of Behura and Tsvankin (2009) to mode-converted (PS) waves. Kinematic reconstruction of pure shear (SS) events in the target layer and the overburden is performed by combining velocity-independent layer stripping with the PP+PS=SS method. Then, application of the spectral-ratio method and the dynamic version of velocity-independent layer stripping to the constructed SS reflections yields the S-wave interval attenuation coefficient in the target layer. The attenuation coefficient estimated for a range of source-receiver offsets can be inverted for the interval attenuation-anisotropy parameters. The method is tested on synthetic data generated with the anisotropic reflectivity method for layered VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media and vertical symmetry planes of orthorhombic media. Then, I analyze a cross-hole data set generated by perforation shots set off in a horizontal borehole to induce hydraulic fracturing in a tight gas reservoir. The spectral-ratio method is applied to pairs of traces to set up a system of equations for directionally-dependent effective attenuation. Although the inversion provides clear evidence of attenuation anisotropy, the narrow range of propagation directions impairs the accuracy of anisotropy analysis. The observed variations of the attenuation coefficient between different perforation stages appear to be related to changes in the medium due to hydraulic fracturing and stimulation. Important insights into point-source radiation in attenuative anisotropic media can be gained by applying asymptotic methods. I derive the asymptotic Green's function in homogeneous, attenuative, arbitrarily anisotropic media using the steepest-descent method. The saddle-point condition helps describe the behavior of the far field slowness and group-velocity vectors and evaluate the inhomogeneity angle (the angle between the real and imaginary parts of the slowness vector). The results from the asymptotic analysis are compared with those from the ray-perturbation method for P-waves in TI media. Finally, I address the problem of efficient viscoelastic modeling in heterogeneous anisotropic media. The Kirchhoff scattering integral is employed to generate reflected P-waves, with the required Green's functions computed by summation of Gaussian beams. The influence of attenuation on the Gaussian beams is incorporated using ray-perturbation theory. The method is applied to generate synthetic data from a highly attenuative VTI medium above a horizontal reflector and a structurally complex acoustic model with a salt body.

  6. Sustaining the natural and economical resources of the Lac Courte Oreilles, Leslie Isham; Jason Weaver

    SciTech Connect

    Isham, Leslie; Weaver, Jason

    2013-09-30

    The Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, located in northwest Wisconsin has developed a project, entitled Sustaining the Natural and Economic Resources of the LCO Ojibwe. This technical report is a summary of the project.

  7. Observations on the formation of clones containing araB-lacZ cistron fusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Shapiro

    1984-01-01

    Casadaban (1976) developed a technique for isolating E. coli clones containing fusions of the amino terminal-encoding portion of any cistron with the carboxy terminal-encoding portion of lacZ. The technique utilizes prophage Mu homology to bring the two cistrons into proximity. I have followed the appearance over time of colonies containing araB-lacZ fusions from a strain where the begining of the

  8. Regulation of Endothelial-Specific Transgene Expression by the LacI Repressor Protein In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, Brett K.; Hill, Caryl E.; Matthaei, Klaus I.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified mice have played an important part in elucidating gene function in vivo. However, conclusions from transgenic studies may be compromised by complications arising from the site of transgene integration into the genome and, in inducible systems, the non-innocuous nature of inducer molecules. The aim of the present study was to use the vascular system to validate a technique based on the bacterial lac operon system, in which transgene expression can be repressed and de-repressed by an innocuous lactose analogue, IPTG. We have modified an endothelium specific promoter (TIE2) with synthetic LacO sequences and made transgenic mouse lines with this modified promoter driving expression of mutant forms of connexin40 and an independently translated reporter, EGFP. We show that tissue specificity of this modified promoter is retained in the vasculature of transgenic mice in spite of the presence of LacO sequences, and that transgene expression is uniform throughout the endothelium of a range of adult systemic and cerebral arteries and arterioles. Moreover, transgene expression can be consistently down-regulated by crossing the transgenic mice with mice expressing an inhibitor protein LacIR, and in one transgenic line, transgene expression could be de-repressed rapidly by the innocuous inducer, IPTG. We conclude that the modified bacterial lac operon system can be used successfully to validate transgenic phenotypes through a simple breeding schedule with mice homozygous for the LacIR protein. PMID:24755679

  9. Regulation of endothelial-specific transgene expression by the LacI repressor protein in vivo.

    PubMed

    Morton, Susan K; Chaston, Daniel J; Baillie, Brett K; Hill, Caryl E; Matthaei, Klaus I

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified mice have played an important part in elucidating gene function in vivo. However, conclusions from transgenic studies may be compromised by complications arising from the site of transgene integration into the genome and, in inducible systems, the non-innocuous nature of inducer molecules. The aim of the present study was to use the vascular system to validate a technique based on the bacterial lac operon system, in which transgene expression can be repressed and de-repressed by an innocuous lactose analogue, IPTG. We have modified an endothelium specific promoter (TIE2) with synthetic LacO sequences and made transgenic mouse lines with this modified promoter driving expression of mutant forms of connexin40 and an independently translated reporter, EGFP. We show that tissue specificity of this modified promoter is retained in the vasculature of transgenic mice in spite of the presence of LacO sequences, and that transgene expression is uniform throughout the endothelium of a range of adult systemic and cerebral arteries and arterioles. Moreover, transgene expression can be consistently down-regulated by crossing the transgenic mice with mice expressing an inhibitor protein LacI(R), and in one transgenic line, transgene expression could be de-repressed rapidly by the innocuous inducer, IPTG. We conclude that the modified bacterial lac operon system can be used successfully to validate transgenic phenotypes through a simple breeding schedule with mice homozygous for the LacI(R) protein. PMID:24755679

  10. Statistics of optical intraday variability in a complete sample of radio-selected BL Lac objects

    E-print Network

    Jochen Heidt; Stefan J. Wagner

    1995-06-06

    We present a study of the intraday variability behaviour of a complete sample of radio-selected BL Lac objects taken from the 1 Jy catalogue. In 28 out of 34 BL Lac objects (82\\%) we detected intraday variability. 7 objects were observed during several campaigns. None of them changed its variability behaviour. The duty cycle in radio-loud BL Lac objects is very high, i.e. at least 0.8. The typical peak-to-peak amplitudes of the variability were 30\\%. By means of structure function and autocorrelation analyses we investigated the typical time-scales of the variability and determined the activity of the BL Lac objects. In 21 of the variable BL Lac objects we were able to measure a typical time-scale, which lies in the range between 0.5 and 3 days. In general, the results can be explained by the standard model, where shocks are propagating down a relativistic jet. However, in the two most densely sampled observations we found variability characteristics, which cannot easily be explained by the standard model alone, demonstrating that at least in these objects alternative models should be taken into account. Nevertheless, all models, which are able to explain variability on time-scales of days must be able to consider the high duty cycle of these BL Lac objects.

  11. Preparation, characterization, and properties of monoclonal antibodies against the lac carrier protein from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, N; Tahara, S M; Patel, L; Goldkorn, T; Kaback, H R

    1982-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against the lac carrier protein purified from the membrane of Escherichia coli were prepared by somatic cell fusion of mouse myeloma cells with splenocytes from an immunized mouse. Several clones produce antibodies that react with the purified protein as demonstrated by solid-phase radioimmunoassay and by immunoblotting experiments; culture supernatants from the clones inhibit active transport of lactose in isolated membrane vesicles. Five stable clones were selected for expansion, formal cloning, and production of ascites fluid, and the antibodies secreted in vivo by each clone also were found to inhibit lactose transport. Antibody from hybridoma 4B1, an IgG2a immunoglobulin, inhibits active transport of lactose in proteoliposomes reconstituted with purified lac carrier and in right-side-out membrane vesicles. In contrast, the antibody has no effect on the generation of the proton electrochemical gradient by membrane vesicles nor does it alter the ability of vesicles containing the lac carrier to bind p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside. In order to achieve 50% inhibition of transport activity, a 2- to 3-fold molar excess of antibody to lac carrier is required, regardless of the amount of lac carrier in the membrane. Thus, the concentration of antibody required for a given degree of inhibition is proportional to the amount of lac carrier in the membrane. Finally, antibody-induced inhibition occurs within seconds, an observation suggesting that the epitope is accessible on the surface of the membrane. Images PMID:6757923

  12. Genotype to Phenotype Mapping of the E. coli lac Promoter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otwinowski, Jakub; Nemenman, Ilya

    2014-03-01

    Genotype-to-phenotype maps and the related fitness landscapes that include epistatic interactions are difficult to measure because of their high dimensional structure. Here we construct such a map using the recently collected corpora of high-throughput sequence data from the 75 base pairs long mutagenized E. coli lac promoter region, where each sequence is associated with induced transcriptional activity measured by a fluorescent reporter. We find that the additive (non-epistatic) contributions of individual mutations account for about two-thirds of the explainable phenotype variance, while pairwise epistasis explains about 7% of the variance for the full mutagenized sequence and about 15% for the subsequence associated with protein binding sites. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for third order epistatic contributions, and our inferred fitness landscape is essentially single peaked, with a small amount of antagonistic epistasis. We identify transcription factor (CRP) and RNA polymerase binding sites in the promotor region and their interactions. We conclude with a cautionary note that inferred properties of fitness landscapes may be severely influenced by biases in the sequence data. Funded in part by HFSP and James S. McDonnell Foundation.

  13. eLac - Conceptual Model for Flood Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rata, Marius; Florentin Draghia, Aurelian; Drobot, Radu; Matreata, Marius; Corbus, Ciprian

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the conceptual model of the decision support system (DSS) for flood management activities introduced in the scope of e-LAC project. Following the general system architecture which has an emphasize on the water management decision processes, hydrologic and hydraulic models are introduced and discussed according to their specific DSS integration potential. Three directions are discussed in dedicated sections corresponding to the main modules defined in the conceptual model : the Water Basin Management Module (mainly implements the management decision flow, but manages also data exchange between hydrologic modeling module and hydraulic modeling module, allow real time visualization for hydrological data), the Hydrologic Modeling Module (manages all the modeling functionalities of rainfalls - runoff processes, providing continuous hydrologic forecasts with a variable time-step depending on the actual basin situation) and the Hydraulic Modeling Module (computes the flood's waves routing having as boundary upstream conditions the discharge hydrographs, generated both by catchment's upper area, river tributaries and inter-basins, respectively the rating curves, water level hydrograph or water surface slope as downstream condition). The GIS concepts are contextually reviewed based on their use as geospatial database for water management modeling, integration within hydrologic time courses, hydraulic modeling (from both software and management perspective), expert knowledge or mathematical modeling results (knowledge database, rules).

  14. Plans of lightning and airglow measurements with LAC/Akatsuki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yukihiro; Hoshino, Naoya; Sato, Mitsuteru; Yair, Yoav; Galand, Marina; Fukuhara, Tetsuya

    Though there are extensive researches on the existence of lightning discharge in Venus over few decades, this issue is still under controversial. Recently it is reported that the magnetometer on board Venus Express detected whistler mode waves whose source could be lightning discharge occurring well below the spacecraft. However, it is too early to determine the origin of these waves. On the other hand, night airglow is expected to provide essential information on the atmospheric circulation in the upper atmosphere of Venus. But the number of consecutive images of airglow obtained by spacecraft is limited and even the variations of most enhanced location is still unknown. In order to identify the discharge phenomena in the atmosphere of Venus separating from noises and to know the daily variation of airglow distribution in night-side disk, we plan to observe the lightning and airglow optical emissions with high-speed and high-sensitivity optical detector with narrow-band filters on board Akatsuki. We are ready to launch the flight model of lightning and airglow detector, LAC (Lightning and Airglow Camera). Main difference from other previous equipments which have provided evidences of lightning existence in Venus is the high-speed sampling rate at 32 us interval for each pixel, enabling us to distinguish the optical lightning flash from other pulsing noises. In this presentation the observation strategies, including ground-based support with optical telescopes, are shown and discussed.

  15. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not require a priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current modulation) without increasing peak variance. The 15-element piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator reduces dose by an average of 42%, and the perfect attenuator reduces dose by an average of 50%. Improvements in peak variance are several times larger than improvements in mean variance. Heuristic control eliminates the need for a prescan. For the piecewise-linear attenuator, the cost of heuristic control is an increase in dose of 9%. The proposed iterated WMV minimization produces results that are within a few percent of the true solution. Conclusions: Dynamic attenuators show potential for significant dose reduction. A wide class of dynamic attenuators can be accurately controlled using the described methods. PMID:24877818

  16. Fluid dynamic bowtie attenuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Hermus, James

    2015-03-01

    Fluence field modulated CT allows for improvements in image quality and dose reduction. To date, only 1-D modulators have been proposed, the extension to 2-D modulation is difficult with solid-metal attenuation-based modulators. This work proposes to use liquids and gas to attenuate the x-ray beam which can be arrayed allowing for 2-D fluence modulation. The thickness of liquid and the pressure for a given path length of gas were determined that provided the same attenuation as 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Gaseous Xenon and liquid Iodine, Zinc Chloride, and Cerium Chloride were studied. Additionally, we performed some proof-of-concept experiments in which (1) a single cell of liquid was connected to a reservoir which allowed the liquid thickness to be modulated and (2) a 96 cell array was constructed in which the liquid thickness in each cell was adjusted manually. Liquid thickness varied as a function of kV and chemical composition, with Zinc Chloride allowing for the smallest thickness; 1.8, 2.25, 3, and 3.6 cm compensated for 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV respectively. The 96 cell Iodine attenuator allowed for a reduction in both dynamic range to the detector and scatter to primary ratio. Successful modulation of a single cell was performed at 0, 90, and 130 degrees using a simple piston/actuator. The thickness of liquids and the Xenon gas pressure seem logistically implementable within the constraints of CBCT and diagnostic CT systems.

  17. RegR, a Global LacI/GalR Family Regulator, Modulates Virulence and Competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Ogunniyi, A. David; Diallo, Nicole; Huet, Yvette; Desnottes, Jean-François; Paton, James C.; Escaich, Sonia; Trombe, Marie-Claude

    2003-01-01

    The homolactic and catalase-deficient pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is not only tolerant to oxygen but requires the activity of its NADH oxidase, Nox, to develop optimal virulence and competence for genetic transformation. In this work, we show that the global regulator RegR is also involved in these traits. Genetic dissection revealed that RegR regulates competence and the expression of virulence factors, including hyaluronidase. In bacteria grown in vitro, RegR represses hyaluronidase. At neutral pH, it increases adherence to A549 epithelial cells, and at alkaline pH, it acts upstream of the CiaRH two-component signaling system to activate competence. These phenotypes are not associated with changes in antibiotic resistance, central metabolism, and carbohydrate utilization. Although the RegR0 (where 0 indicates the loss of the protein) mutation is sufficient to attenuate experimental virulence of strain 23477 in mice, the introduction of an additional hyl0 (where 0 indicates the loss of function) mutation in the RegR0 strain 23302 dramatically reduces its virulence. This indicates that residual virulence of the RegR0 Hyl+ derivative is due to hyaluronidase and supports the dual role of RegR in virulence. This LacI/GalR regulator, not essential for in vitro growth in rich media, is indeed involved in the adaptive response of the pneumococcus via its control of competence, adherence, and virulence. PMID:12704136

  18. Downhole pressure attenuation apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ricles, T.D.; Barton, J.A.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes a process for preventing damage to tool strings and other downhole equipment in a well caused by pressures produced during detonation of one or more downhole explosive devices. It comprises adding to a tool string at least one pressure attenuating apparatus for attenuating the peak pressure wave and quasi-static pressure pulse produced by the explosive devices, the pressure attenuating apparatus including an initially closed relief vent including tubing means supporting a plurality of charge port assemblies each including an explosive filled shaped charge and a prestressed disc, the shaped charges interconnected by a detonating cord, the amount of explosive in each shaped charge being sufficient to rupture its associated disc without damaging surrounding tubular bodies in the well, and a vent chamber defined by the tubing means and providing a liquid free volume, and opening the relief vent substantially contemporaneously with downhole explosive device detonation by detonating the shaped charges to rupture the discs of the charge port assemblies.

  19. First attenuation study at Usu volcano (Hokkaido, Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudencio, Janire; Taira, Taka'aki; De Siena, Luca; Onizawa, Shin'ya; Ibañez, Jesús; Hellweg, Margaret; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Aoyama, Hiroshi; García-Yeguas, Araceli; Oshima, Hiromitsu; Díaz-Moreno, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    2D and 3D attenuation structures of Usu volcano has been obtained with measurements of diffusion model and coda-normalization method, respectively, with the same data-set used to develop the 3D velocity tomography by Onizawa et al., (2007). We have obtained intrinsic and scattering 2D maps applying the diffusion model which is an approximation of the general energy transport theory developed by Wegler and Lühr (2001) and Wegler (2003). As a result of the theoretical curves with the energy envelopes of the seismograms, we have obtained intrinsic attenuation coefficient and diffusivity coefficient values in the frequency range of 4-16 Hz. Then, We have quantified the contribution of intrinsic and scattering attenuation by inverse quality factor because is more representative. Finally, with a new representation method based in the Gaussian probability function distribution, we have represented the inverse quality factors obtained into 2D contour maps. To obtain 3D attenuation tomography of Deception Island, we have used more than 2000 waveforms recorded at over 288 on land seismic stations. The rays were traced in a 3D velocity model. We have inverted the spectral ratios obtained with the coda normalization method to obtain total-Q values. We resolve 1 km cubic cells. Both results, 2D maps and 3D attenuation structure, have shown that there is likewise agreement with the velocity tomography: the low velocity zones being consistent with regions featuring high attenuation effects and the high velocity zones with regions featuring low attenuation effects. This new models will be a complement to the better understanding of velocity anomalies and will allow remove some grades of uncertainty of the other studies.

  20. [Gene knockout and knockin on the Escherichia coli lac operon loci using pBR322-red system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yu, Mei; Li, Shan-Hu; Wang, Ming-Gang; Zhou, Jian-Guang

    2005-03-01

    pBR322-Red is a newly constructed recombineering plasmid, which contains a part of the pBR322 vector, a series of regulatory elements of lambda-prophage and Red recombination genes. In the beginning, we studied the best working conditions of pBR322-Red, and then modified lac operon in E. coli W3110 chromosome using the plasmid as follow: Firstly, we knockout the lacI gene using Red-mediated recombineering with overlapping single stranded DNA oligonucleotides. Secondly, we substituded the lacA and lacY genes with lacZ, a report gene, by Red-mediated linearized double strands DNA homologous recombination. Finally, we detected the expression of lacZ on these loci for the first time. The results suggested that pBR322-Red system is suitable for modifying W3110 chromosome with various recombination strategies. PMID:16013474

  1. The effects of acoustic attenuation in optoacoustic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luís Deán-Ben, X.; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated that the effects of acoustic attenuation may play a significant role in establishing the quality of tomographic optoacoustic reconstructions. Accordingly, spatially dependent reduction of signal amplitude leads to quantification errors in the reconstructed distribution of the optical absorption coefficient while signal broadening causes loss of image resolution. Here we propose a correction algorithm for accounting for attenuation effects, which is applicable in both the time and frequency domains. It is further investigated which part of the optoacoustic signal spectrum is practically affected by those effects in realistic imaging scenarios. The validity and benefits of the suggested modelling and correction approaches are experimentally validated in phantom measurements.

  2. Ultrasonic attenuation in superconducting molybdenum-rhenium alloys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkin, M.; Deis, D. W.; Gottlieb, M.; Jones, C. K.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of longitudinal sound attenuation in superconducting Mo-Re alloys as a function of temperature, magnetic field, and frequency. Evaporated thin film CdS transducers were used for the measurements at frequencies up to 3 GHz. The normal state attenuation coefficient was found to be proportional to the square of frequency over this frequency range. Measurements in zero magnetic field yielded a value of the energy gap parameter close to the threshold value of 3.56 kTc, appropriate to a weakly coupled dirty limit superconductor.

  3. Inversion for the attenuated radon transform with constant attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.I.; Bizais, Y.; Rowe, R.W.; Tewarson, R.P.

    1984-02-01

    An exact form of the inversion formula for the attenuated Radon transform with constant attenuation in a convex domain for use in Single-Photon Computerized Tomography is presented. This problem is reduced to solving a generalized Abel integral equation and the conditions for the existence of a unique continuous solution are given. Implementation of this method involves a preprocessing step (modified attenuated Radon transform), a convolution by an attenuation-dependent function and a weighted backprojection. Therefore, only slight modifications of existing reconstruction algorithms are needed. If the attenuation is zero, this formula reduces to Radon's original inversion formula. When attenuation is not constant, the conditions for a unique continuous solution can be established with a similar approach. Many results found empirically by previous authors are consistent with this theory.

  4. Inversion for the attenuated radon transform with constant attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.I.; Tewarson, R.P.; Bizais, Y.; Rowe, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    An exact form of the inversion formula for the attenuated Radon transform with constant attenuation in a convex domain for use in Single-Photon Computerized Tomography is presented. This problem is reduced to solving a generalized Abel integral equation and the conditions for the existence of a unique continuous solution are given. Implementation of this method involves a preprocessing step (modified attenuated Radon transform), a convolution by an attenuation-dependent function and a weighted backprojection. Therefore, only slight modifications of existing reconstruction algorithms are needed. If the attenuation is zero, this formula reduces to Radon's original inversion formula. When attenuation is not constant, the conditions for a unique continuous solution can be established with a similar approach. Many results found empirically by previous authors are consistent with this theory.

  5. X-ray Selected BL Lacs and Blazars

    E-print Network

    Eric S. Perlman

    1999-10-18

    With their rapid, violent variability and broad featureless continuum emission, blazars have puzzled astronomers for over two decades. Today blazars represent the only extragalactic objects detected in high-energy gamma-rays. Their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are characteristically double-humped, with lower-energy emission originating as synchrotron radiation in a relativistically beamed jet, and higher-energy emission due to inverse-Compton processes. This has accentuated the biases inherent in any survey to favor objects which are bright in the survey band, and should serve as a cautionary note both to those designing new surveys as well as theorists attempting to model blazar properties. The location of the synchrotron peak determines which blazar population is dominant at GeV and TeV energies. At GeV energies, low-energy peaked, high luminosity objects, which have high $L_C/L_S$ ratios, dominate, while at TeV energies, high-energy peaked objects are all that is seen. I review the differences between low-energy peaked and high-energy peaked blazars, and models to explain those differences. I also look at efforts to bridge the gap between these classes with new surveys. Two new surveys have detected a large population of high-energy peaked emission line blazars (FSRQ), with properties somewhat different from previously known objects. This discovery has the potential to revolutionize blazar physics in a way comparable to the discovery of X-ray selected BL Lacs ten years ago by {\\it Einstein}. I cull from the new and existing surveys a list of $z<0.1$ high-energy peaked blazars which should be targets for new TeV telescopes. Among these are several high-energy peaked FSRQ.

  6. YidC Protein, a Molecular Chaperone for LacY Protein Folding via the SecYEG Protein Machinery*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lu; Kaback, H. Ronald; Dalbey, Ross E.

    2013-01-01

    To understand how YidC and SecYEG function together in membrane protein topogenesis, insertion and folding of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY), a 12-transmembrane helix protein LacY that catalyzes symport of a galactoside and an H+, was studied. Although both the SecYEG machinery and signal recognition particle are required for insertion of LacY into the membrane, YidC is not required for translocation of the six periplasmic loops in LacY. Rather, YidC acts as a chaperone, facilitating LacY folding. Upon YidC depletion, the conformation of LacY is perturbed, as judged by monoclonal antibody binding studies and by in vivo cross-linking between introduced Cys pairs. Disulfide cross-linking also demonstrates that YidC interacts with multiple transmembrane segments of LacY during membrane biogenesis. Moreover, YidC is strictly required for insertion of M13 procoat protein fused into the middle cytoplasmic loop of LacY. In contrast, the loops preceding and following the inserted procoat domain are dependent on SecYEG for insertion. These studies demonstrate close cooperation between the two complexes in membrane biogenesis and that YidC functions primarily as a foldase for LacY. PMID:23928306

  7. Viscothermal Coupling Effects on Sound Attenuation in Concentrated Colloidal Dispersions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei

    1995-11-01

    This thesis describes a Unified Coupled Phase Continuum (UCPC) model to analyze sound propagation through aerosols, emulsions and suspensions in terms of frequency dependent attenuation coefficient and sound speed. Expressions for the viscous and thermal coupling coefficients explicitly account for the effects of particle size, shape factor, orientation as well as concentration and the sound frequency. The UCPC model also takes into account the intrinsic acoustic absorption within the fluid medium due to its viscosity and heat conductivity. The effective complex wave number as a function of frequency is derived. A frequency- and concentration-dependent complex Nusselt number for the interfacial thermal coupling coefficient is derived using an approximate similarity between the 'viscous skin drag' and 'heat conduction flux' associated with the discontinuous suspended phase, on the basis of a cell model. The theoretical predictions of attenuation spectra provide satisfactory agreement with reported experimental data on two concentrated suspensions (polystyrene latex and kaolin pigment), two concentrated emulsions (toluene -in-water, n-hexadecane-in-water), and two aerosols (oleic acid droplets-in-nitrogen, alumina-in-air), covering a wide range of relative magnitudes (from 10^ {-3} to 10^{3}) of thermal versus viscous contributions, for dispersed phase volume fractions as high as 50%. The relative differences between the additive result of separate viscous and thermal loss estimates and combined viscothermal absorption results are also presented. Effects of particle shape on viscous attenuation of sound in concentrated suspensions of non-spherical clay particles are studied. Attenuation spectra for 18 frequencies from 3 to 100 MHz are measured and analyzed for eleven kaolin clay slurries with solid concentrations ranging from 0.6% to 35% (w/w). A modified viscous drag coefficient that considers frequency, concentration, particle size, shape and orientation of spheroids, is developed and applied to estimate the viscous attenuation coefficients. With incorporation of particle size and shape distributions (PSSD), predictions agree quantitatively with observed attenuation coefficients. The effects of particle aspect ratio and orientation become more evident as particle concentrations and frequencies are increased. The UCPC model combined with the ultrasonic spectroscopy techniques can provide for theoretical and experimental frameworks in characterization of concentrated colloidal dispersions.

  8. THE ATTENUATED RADON TRANSFORM: APPLICATION TO SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE PRESENCE OF A VARIABLE ATTENUATING MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Gullberg, Grant T.

    1980-03-01

    The properties of the attenuated Radon transform and its application to single-photon emission computed tomography (ECT) are analyzed in detail. In nuclear medicine and biological research, the objective of ECT is to describe quantitatively the position and strengths of internal sources of injected radiopharmaceuticals and radionuclides where the attenuation between the sources and detector is unknown. The problem is mathematically and practically quite different from well-known methods in transmission computed tomography (TCT) where only the attenuation is unknown. A mathematical structure using function theory and the theory of linear operators on Hilbert spaces is developed to better understand the spectral properties of the attenuated Radon transform. The continuous attenuated Radon transform is reduced to a matrix operator for discrete angular and lateral sampling, and the reconstruction problem reduces to a system of linear equations. For variable attenuation coefficients frequently found in imaging internal organs, the numerical methods developed in this paper involve iterative techniques of performing the generalized inverse. Its application to nuclear medicine is demonstrated by reconstructions of transverse sections of the brain, heart, and liver.

  9. Outward-facing conformers of LacY stabilized by nanobodies

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Irina; Kasho, Vladimir; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY), a highly dynamic polytopic membrane protein, catalyzes stoichiometric galactoside/H+ symport by an alternating access mechanism and exhibits multiple conformations, the distribution of which is altered by sugar binding. We have developed single-domain camelid nanobodies (Nbs) against a LacY mutant in an outward (periplasmic)-open conformation to stabilize this state of the WT protein. Twelve purified Nbs inhibit lactose transport in right-side–out membrane vesicles, indicating that the Nbs recognize epitopes on the periplasmic side of LacY. Stopped-flow kinetics of sugar binding by WT LacY in detergent micelles or reconstituted into proteoliposomes reveals dramatic increases in galactoside-binding rates induced by interaction with the Nbs. Thus, WT LacY in complex with the great majority of the Nbs exhibits varied increases in access of sugar to the binding site with an increase in association rate constants (kon) of up to ?50-fold (reaching 107 M?1?s?1). In contrast, with the double-Trp mutant, which is already open on the periplasmic side, the Nbs have little effect. The findings are clearly consistent with stabilization of WT conformers with an open periplasmic cavity. Remarkably, some Nbs drastically decrease the rate of dissociation of bound sugar leading to increased affinity (greater than 200-fold for lactose). PMID:25512549

  10. IFN-gamma-receptor signaling ameliorates transplant vasculopathy through attenuation of CD8+ T-cell-mediated injury of vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bolinger, Beatrice; Engeler, Daniel; Krebs, Philippe; Miller, Simone; Firner, Sonja; Hoffmann, Matthias; Palmer, Douglas C; Restifo, Nicholas P; Tian, Yinghua; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2010-03-01

    Occlusive transplant vasculopathy (TV) is the major cause for chronic graft rejection. Since endothelial cells (EC) are the first graft cells encountered by activated host lymphocytes, it is important to delineate the molecular mechanisms that coordinate the interaction of EC with activated T cells. Here, the interaction of CD8(+) T cells with Ag-presenting EC in vivo was examined using a transgenic heart transplantation model with beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) expression exclusively in EC (Tie2-LacZ hearts). We found that priming with beta-gal peptide-loaded DC failed to generate a strong systemic IFN-gamma response, but elicited pronounced TV in both IFN-gamma receptor (IFNGR)-competent, and ifngr(-/-) Tie2-LacZ hearts. In contrast, stimulation of EC-specific CD8(+) T cells with beta-gal-recombinant mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV-LacZ) in recipients of ifngr(+/+) Tie2-LacZ hearts did not precipitate significant TV. However, MCMV-LacZ infection of recipients of ifngr(-/-) Tie2-LacZ hearts led to massive activation of beta-gal-specific CD8 T cells, and led to development of fulminant TV. Further analyses revealed that the strong systemic IFN-gamma "storm" associated with MCMV infection induced upregulation of programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) on EC, and subsequent attenuation of programmed death-1 (PD-1)-expressing EC-specific CD8(+) T cells. Thus, IFNGR signaling in ECs activates a potent peripheral negative feedback circuit that protects vascularized grafts from occlusive TV. PMID:20049875

  11. Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Gustafsson, L.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemming, N.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Knops, S.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Lehmann, R.; Lennarz, D.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Matusik, M.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Tur?an, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; IceCube Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been analyzed and give consistent results. The method with the smallest systematic uncertainties yields an amplitude attenuation coefficient ? = 3.20 ± 0.57 km-1 between 10 and 30 kHz, considerably larger than previous theoretical estimates. Expressed as an attenuation length, the analyses give a consistent result for ? ? 1/? of ˜300 m with 20% uncertainty. No significant depth or frequency dependence has been found.

  12. INFRARED SPECTRAL OBSERVATION OF EIGHT BL LAC OBJECTS FROM THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P. S.; Shan, H. G., E-mail: iraspsc@yahoo.com.cn [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory and Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2011-05-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) low-resolution spectra for eight BL Lac objects are presented in this paper. It can be seen that the infrared spectrum of S5 0716+714 shows in the IRS region many emission features that would be from a nearby galaxy. It is also shown that, except for the silicate absorptions around 10 {mu}m for some sources, emission lines in the infrared spectra for the other seven BL Lac objects are indeed very weak or absent. In addition, ignoring the silicate feature, all spectra can be well fitted by a power-law distribution indicative of the emission mechanism of the synchrotron radiation for these BL Lac objects in the IRS region.

  13. Spectroscopy of optically selected BL Lac objects and their ?-ray emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A.; Farina, E. P.; Landoni, M. [Università degli Studi dell'Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Falomo, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Foschini, L.; Sbarufatti, B., E-mail: angela.sandrinelli@brera.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    We present Very Large Telescope optical spectroscopy of nine BL Lac objects of unknown redshift belonging to the list of optically selected radio-loud BL Lac candidates. We explore their spectroscopic properties and possible link with gamma-ray emission. From the new observations we determine the redshifts of four objects from faint emission lines or from absorption features of their host galaxies. In three cases we find narrow intervening absorptions from which a lower limit to the redshift is inferred. For the remaining two featureless sources, lower limits to the redshift are deduced from the absence of spectral lines. A search for ? counterpart emission shows that six out of the nine candidates are Fermi ?-ray emitters and we find two new detections. Our analysis suggests that most of the BL Lac objects still lacking redshift information are most likely located at high redshifts.

  14. A lacZ reporter gene expression atlas for 313 adult KOMP mutant mouse lines.

    PubMed

    West, David B; Pasumarthi, Ravi K; Baridon, Brian; Djan, Esi; Trainor, Amanda; Griffey, Stephen M; Engelhard, Eric K; Rapp, Jared; Li, Bowen; de Jong, Pieter J; Lloyd, K C Kent

    2015-04-01

    Expression of the bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter gene (lacZ) in the vector used for the Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) is driven by the endogenous promoter of the target gene. In tissues from KOMP mice, histochemical staining for LacZ enzyme activity can be used to determine gene expression patterns. With this technique, we have produced a comprehensive resource of gene expression using both whole mount (WM) and frozen section (FS) LacZ staining in 313 unique KOMP mutant mouse lines. Of these, ? 80% of mutants showed specific staining in one or more tissues, while ? 20% showed no specific staining, ? 13% had staining in only one tissue, and ? 25% had staining in >6 tissues. The highest frequency of specific staining occurred in the brain (? 50%), male gonads (42%), and kidney (39%). The WM method was useful for rapidly identifying whole organ and some substructure staining, while the FS method often revealed substructure and cellular staining specificity. Both staining methods had >90% repeatability in biological replicates. Nonspecific LacZ staining occurs in some tissues due to the presence of bacteria or endogenous enzyme activity. However, this can be effectively distinguished from reporter gene activity by the combination of the WM and FS methods. After careful annotation, LacZ staining patterns in a high percentage of mutants revealed a unique structure-function not previously reported for many of these genes. The validation of methods for LacZ staining, annotation, and expression analysis reported here provides unique insights into the function of genes for which little is currently known. PMID:25591789

  15. Determinants of bistability in induction of the Escherichia coli lac operon.

    PubMed

    Dreisigmeyer, D W; Stajic, J; Nemenman, I; Hlavacek, W S; Wall, M E

    2008-09-01

    The authors have developed a mathematical model of regulation of expression of the Escherichia coli lac operon, and have investigated bistability in its steady-state induction behaviour in the absence of external glucose. Numerical analysis of equations describing regulation by artificial inducers revealed two natural bistability parameters that can be used to control the range of inducer concentrations over which the model exhibits bistability. By tuning these bistability parameters, the authors found a family of biophysically reasonable systems that are consistent with an experimentally determined bistable region for induction by thio-methylgalactoside (TMG) (in Ozbudak et al. Nature, 2004, 427; p. 737). To model regulation by lactose, the authors developed similar equations in which allolactose, a metabolic intermediate in lactose metabolism and a natural inducer of lac, is the inducer. For biophysically reasonable parameter values, these equations yield no bistability in response to induction by lactose - only systems with an unphysically small permease-dependent export effect can exhibit small amounts of bistability for limited ranges of parameter values. These results cast doubt on the relevance of bistability in the lac operon within the natural context of E. coli, and help shed light on the controversy among existing theoretical studies that address this issue. The results also motivate a deeper experimental characterisation of permease-independent transport of lac inducers, and suggest an experimental approach to address the relevance of bistability in the lac operon within the natural context of E. coli. The sensitivity of lac bistability to the type of inducer emphasises the importance of metabolism in determining the functions of genetic regulatory networks. PMID:19045824

  16. Radar attenuation in desert soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Koh

    2008-01-01

    Soil properties make a significant impact in the observed responses of various sensors for subsurface target detection. Ground penetrating radars (GPRs) have been extensively researched as a tool for subsurface target detection. A key soil parameter of interest for evaluating GPR performance is the soil attenuation rate. The information about the soil attenuation rate coupled with target properties (size, shape,

  17. Low-energy gamma ray attenuation characteristics of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Shen, Chih-Ping; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1990-01-01

    Am241 (59.5 keV) gamma ray attenuation characteristics were investigated in 270 aviation fuel (Jet A and Jet A-1) samples from 76 airports around the world as a part of world wide study to measure the variability of aviation fuel properties as a function of season and geographical origin. All measurements were made at room temperature which varied from 20 to 27 C. Fuel densities (rho) were measured concurrently with their linear attenuation coefficients (mu), thus providing a measure of mass attenuation coefficient (mu/rho) for the test samples. In 43 fuel samples, rho and mu values were measured at more than one room temperature, thus providing mu/rho values for them at several temperatures. The results were found to be independent of the temperature at which mu and rho values were measured. It is noted that whereas the individual mu and rho values vary considerably from airport to airport as well as season to season, the mu/rho values for all samples are constant at 0.1843 + or - 0.0013 cu cm/gm. This constancy of mu/rho value for aviation fuels is significant since a nuclear fuel quantity gauging system based on low energy gamma ray attenuation will be viable throughout the world.

  18. Inverse problems of ultrasound tomography in models with attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharsky, Alexander V.; Romanov, Sergey Y.

    2014-04-01

    We develop efficient methods for solving inverse problems of ultrasound tomography in models with attenuation. We treat the inverse problem as a coefficient inverse problem for unknown coordinate-dependent functions that characterize both the speed cross section and the coefficients of the wave equation describing attenuation in the diagnosed region. We derive exact formulas for the gradient of the residual functional in models with attenuation, and develop efficient algorithms for minimizing the gradient of the residual by solving the conjugate problem. These algorithms are easy to parallelize when implemented on supercomputers, allowing the computation time to be reduced by a factor of several hundred compared to a PC. The numerical analysis of model problems shows that it is possible to reconstruct not only the speed cross section, but also the properties of the attenuating medium. We investigate the choice of the initial approximation for iterative algorithms used to solve inverse problems. The algorithms considered are primarily meant for the development of ultrasound tomographs for differential diagnosis of breast cancer.

  19. Low-Frequency Sound Absorption and Attenuation in Marine Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadov, R. A.

    2000-09-01

    Original experimental data are analyzed on the low-frequency sound attenuation in the Mediterranean, Black, and Baltic Seas, Sea of Japan, and the north-western region of the Pacific Ocean. In these regions, waters significantly differ in their temperatures and salinities. The analysis is aimed at obtaining an expression for calculating the low-frequency absorption coefficient in sea water. The analysis uses the previously published data on the measured (by the temperature discontinuity method) low-frequency relaxation times associated with boron present in sea water. The dependence of the absorption on the pH value (which was revealed in the 1970s) and the experimental data on sound absorption at frequencies higher than 5 10 kHz are also taken into account. As a result of the analysis based on the assumption that low-frequency relaxation takes place, an expression is proposed that relates the low-frequency absorption to the temperature, salinity, and pH value and equally well describes the experimental frequency dependences of attenuation for the four regions at hand (except for the Baltic Sea). Increased attenuation coefficients are noticed for shallow seas and deep-water regions where waters are influenced by intense currents, strait zones, and zones of mixing waters of different origin, i.e., for the ocean areas where, in addition to the attenuation, sound scattering by inhomogeneities of the marine medium and sound energy leakage into the sea floor are significant.

  20. Mutant lac repressors with new specificities hint at rules for protein--DNA recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Lehming, N; Sartorius, J; Kisters-Woike, B; von Wilcken-Bergmann, B; Müller-Hill, B

    1990-01-01

    Proteins which recognize specific sequences of DNA play a fundamental role in the regulation of protein synthesis in all organisms. A particular helix of the bacterial protein lac repressor recognizes the bases in the major groove of the lac operator. We show that the first two residues of this recognition helix interact independently with two base pairs. This allows us in many cases to predict repression as an indicator of strength of the repressor-operator complex. Rules of recognition can be derived for 16 symmetric operators. They also apply to the gal repressor and possibly to other bacterial repressors. Images Fig. 2. PMID:2178920

  1. Attenuation of an air shock wave by perforated baffles

    SciTech Connect

    Klapovskii, V.E.; Grigor'ev, G.S.; Logvenov, A.Y.; Mineev, V.N.; Vershinin, V.Y.

    1984-03-01

    One of the ways of attenuating an air shock wave (ASW) is to use a perforated shield; the parameters of the ASW behind a perforated baffle in the form of a steel sheet with holes are determined by the amplitude of the incident ASW and the sheet perforation coefficient. The authors examine the effects of the perforated shield structure on the ASW behind it and examples are given where the results can be used in the design of test chambers.

  2. Low-frequency sound absorption and attenuation in marine medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Vadov

    2000-01-01

    Original experimental data are analyzed on the low-frequency sound attenuation in the Mediterranean, Black, and Baltic Seas,\\u000a Sea of Japan, and the north-western region of the Pacific Ocean. In these regions, waters significantly differ in their temperatures\\u000a and salinities. The analysis is aimed at obtaining an expression for calculating the low-frequency absorption coefficient\\u000a in sea water. The analysis uses the

  3. Low-Frequency Sound Absorption and Attenuation in Marine Medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Vadov

    2000-01-01

    Original experimental data are analyzed on the low-frequency sound attenuation in the Mediterranean, Black, and Baltic Seas, Sea of Japan, and the north-western region of the Pacific Ocean. In these regions, waters significantly differ in their temperatures and salinities. The analysis is aimed at obtaining an expression for calculating the low-frequency absorption coefficient in sea water. The analysis uses the

  4. Theoretical prediction of the source-detector separation distance suited to the application of the spatially resolved spectroscopy from the near-infrared attenuation data cube of tissues

    E-print Network

    Ri, Yong-Wu; Im, Song-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The modified Beer-Lambert law (MBL) and the spatially resolved spectroscopy are used to measure the tissue oxidation in muscles and brains by the continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy. The spatially resolved spectroscopy predicts the change in the concentration of the absorber by measuring the slope of attenuation data according to the separation and calculating the absorption coefficients of tissue on the basis of the slop in attenuation at the separation distance satisfying the linearity of this slop. This study analyzed the appropriate source-detector separation distance by using the diffuse approximation resolution for photon migration when predicting the absorption coefficient by the spatially resolved spectroscopy on the basis of the reflective image of the tissue. We imagine the 3 dimensional attenuation image with the absorption coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and separation distance as its axes and obtained the attenuation data cube by calculating the attenuation on a certain interva...

  5. Analysis of the migration of instantaneously injected cesium in artificial fractures of Lac du Bonnet granite, Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Yoko; Fukui, Masami; Drew, Doug J.; Vandergraaf, Tjalle T.

    1993-11-01

    Breakthrough curves of 137Cs and tritiated water injected instantaneously into artificial fractures in Lac du Bonnet granite were analyzed using the analytical solution for a single rock-fracture system and assuming the linear sorption isotherm of the solute. Parameters of nuclide diffusion and sorption in rock matrices, obtained by fitting, varied depending on the flow velocity in the fractures. According to theoretical calculations, different fracture flow velocities lead to different diffusion distances of nuclides in matrices at the same injection volume. As microscopic inhomogeneity is considered to exist in the rock matrix, the average diffusion-sorption characteristics of the matrix within the diffusion distance may have varied with the fracture flow velocity. Surface sorption was marked in fractures that had relatively high matrix sorption-diffusion capacities. The phenomenon was interpreted using the theoretical relationships developed between the surface sorption, matrix sorption and pore diffusion coefficient, and the porosity of matrices. The effect of the nonlinear sorption of solute was examined by numerically solving model equations that incorporate the nonlinear isotherm. This incorporation may contribute to the reduction of deviations between theoretical and experimental BTC's.

  6. Direct interaction, instrumental for signaling processes, between LacCer and Lyn in the lipid rafts of neutrophil-like cells.

    PubMed

    Chiricozzi, Elena; Ciampa, Maria Grazia; Brasile, Giuseppina; Compostella, Federica; Prinetti, Alessandro; Nakayama, Hitoshi; Ekyalongo, Roudy C; Iwabuchi, Kazuhisa; Sonnino, Sandro; Mauri, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Lactosylceramide [LacCer; ?-Gal-(1-4)-?-Glc-(1-1)-Cer] has been shown to contain very long fatty acids that specifically modulate neutrophil properties. The interactions between LacCer and proteins and their role in cell signaling processes were assessed by synthesizing two molecular species of azide-photoactivable tritium-labeled LacCer having acyl chains of different lengths. The lengths of the two acyl chains corresponded to those of a short/medium and very long fatty acid, comparable to the lengths of stearic and lignoceric acids, respectively. These derivatives, designated C18-[(3)H]LacCer-(N3) and C24-[(3)H]LacCer-(N3), were incorporated into the lipid rafts of plasma membranes of neutrophilic differentiated HL-60 (D-HL-60) cells. C24-[(3)H]LacCer-(N3), but not C18-[(3)H]LacCer-(N3), induced the phosphorylation of Lyn and promoted phagocytosis. Incorporation of C24-[(3)H]LacCer-(N3) into plasma membranes, followed by illumination, resulted in the formation of several tritium-labeled LacCer-protein complexes, including the LacCer-Lyn complex, into plasma membrane lipid rafts. Administration of C18-[(3)H]LacCer-(N3) to cells, however, did not result in the formation of the LacCer-Lyn complex. These results suggest that LacCer derivatives mimic the biological properties of natural LacCer species and can be utilized as tools to study LacCer-protein interactions, and confirm a specific direct interaction between LacCer species containing very long fatty acids, and Lyn protein, associated with the cytoplasmic layer via myristic/palmitic chains. PMID:25418321

  7. Seismic attenuation in fractured media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Ying; Wang, Yanghua

    2015-02-01

    The prime objective of this paper is to quantitatively estimate seismic attenuation caused by fractures with different physical parameters. In seismic wave simulation, the fractured media are treated as the anisotropic media and fractures are represented by frequency-dependent elastic constants. Based on numerical experiments with three different parameters, namely viscosity, porosity and the Lamé parameters, this paper has the following observations. First, seismic attenuation is not affected by the viscosity within fractures, although it increases with the increase of porosity and decreases with the increase of the Lamé parameters within fractures. Among the latter two parameters, seismic attenuation is more sensitive to the Lamé parameters than to the porosity. Second, for the attenuation anisotropy, low frequencies have more anisotropic effect than high frequencies. For example, a 50?Hz wavefield has the strongest anisotropy effect if compared to 100 and 150?Hz wavefields. The attenuation anisotropy for low frequency (say 50?Hz) is more sensitive to the viscosity than the porosity and the Lamé parameters have the weakest effect among these three parameters. These observations suggest that low-frequency seismic attenuation, and especially the attenuation anisotropy in low frequency, would have great potential for fluid discrimination within fractured media.

  8. Use of EDTA in modified kinetic testing for contaminated drainage prediction from waste rocks: case of the Lac Tio mine.

    PubMed

    Plante, Benoît; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Bussière, Bruno; Kandji, El-Hadji-Babacar; Chopard, Aurélie; Bouzahzah, Hassan

    2015-05-01

    The tools developed for acid mine drainage (AMD) prediction were proven unsuccessful to predict the geochemical behavior of mine waste rocks having a significant chemical sorption capacity, which delays the onset of contaminated neutral drainage (CND). The present work was performed in order to test a new approach of water quality prediction, by using a chelating agent solution (0.03 M EDTA, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in kinetic testing used for the prediction of the geochemical behavior of geologic material. The hypothesis underlying the proposed approach is that the EDTA solution should chelate the metals as soon as they are released by sulfide oxidation, inhibiting their sorption or secondary precipitation, and therefore reproduce a worst-case scenario where very low metal attenuation mechanisms are present in the drainage waters. Fresh and weathered waste rocks from the Lac Tio mine (Rio tinto, Iron and Titanium), which are known to generate Ni-CND at the field scale, were submitted to small-scale humidity cells in control tests (using deionized water) and using an EDTA solution. Results show that EDTA effectively prevents the metals to be sorbed or to precipitate as secondary minerals, therefore enabling to bypass the delay associated with metal sorption in the prediction of water quality from these materials. This work shows that the use of a chelating agent solution is a promising novel approach of water quality prediction and provides general guidelines to be used in further studies, which will help both practitioners and regulators to plan more efficient management and disposal strategies of mine wastes. PMID:25604563

  9. Adaptive mutation: General mutagenesis is not a programmed response to stress but results from rare coamplification of dinB with lac

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Susan Slechta; Kim L. Bunny; Elisabeth Kugelberg; Eric Kofoid; Dan I. Andersson; John R. Roth

    2003-01-01

    In a particular genetic system, selection stimulates reversion of a lac mutation and causes genome-wide mutagenesis (adaptive mutation). Selection allows rare plated cells with a duplication of the leaky lac allele to initiate clones within which further lac amplification improves growth rate. Growth and amplification add mutational targets to each clone and thereby increase the likelihood of reversion. We suggest

  10. The BL-Lac gamma-ray blazar PKS 0447-439 as a probable member of a group of galaxies at z = 0.343

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muriel, H.; Donzelli, C.; Rovero, A. C.; Pichel, A.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The BL-Lac blazar PKS 0447-439 is one of the brightest HE gamma-ray sources that were first detected by Fermi-LAT. It was also detected by H.E.S.S. at VHE gamma-rays, which allowed constraining the redshift of PKS 0447-439 by considering the attenuation caused by gamma-ray interactions with ambient photons in the extragalactic background light (EBL). This constraint agreed with color-magnitude and spectroscopic redshift constraints (0.179 1.2). This value was debated because if true, it would imply either that the relevant absorption processes of gamma-rays are not well understood or that the EBL is dramatically different from what is believed today. This high redshift was not confirmed by three independent new spectroscopic observations at high signal-to-noise ratios. The scenario is clear evidence of the difficulties in estimating the redshift of BL-Lac objects, whose optical spectra are typically featureless. Neither of the estimated redshifts for PKS 0447-439 are confirmed as yet. Aims: Given that BL-Lac are typically hosted by elliptical galaxies, which in turn are associated with groups, we aim to find the host group of galaxies of PKS 0447-439. The ultimate goal is to estimate a redshift for this blazar. Methods: Spectra of twenty-one objects in the field of view of PKS 0447-439 were obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph. Based on the redshifts and coordinates of these galaxies, we searched for groups of galaxies. Using a deep catalog of groups, we studied the probability of finding by chance a group of galaxies in the line of sight of PKS 0447-439. Results: We identified a group of galaxies that was not previously cataloged at z = 0.343 with seven members, a virial radius of 0.42 Mpc, and a velocity dispersion of 622 km s-1. We found that the probability of the host galaxy of PKS 0447-439 to be a member of the new group is ?97%. Therefore, we propose to adopt z = 0.343 ± 0.002 as the most likely redshift for PKS 0447-439.

  11. Ecological Characteristics of Streams in the Barrenlands near Lac de Gras, N.W.T., Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NICHOLAS E. JONES; WILLIAM M. TONN; GARRY J. SCRIMGEOUR; CHRIS KATOPODIS

    2003-01-01

    We examined spatiotemporal variation in the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of pristine streams that represent a range of conditions near Lac de Gras in the Barrenlands region of the Northwest Territories, Canada. Principal component analysis organized streams into four groups on the basis of seven physical characteristics. Despite broad differences among groups in physical characteristics, variation in chemical and

  12. Intensive monitoring of the strongly variable BL Lac S5 0716+714

    E-print Network

    K. Otterbein; M. J. Hardcastle; S. J. Wagner; D. M. Worrall

    1998-01-24

    The BL Lac object S5 0716+714 was monitored during a multifrequency campaign in 1996. Preliminary analysis of the optical, ROSAT and RXTE data are presented. Strong variability on short time scales was observed. The data suggest an interpretation within a multi-component model.

  13. Topology of the lac carrier protein in the membrane of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Goldkorn, T; Rimon, G; Kaback, H R

    1983-01-01

    Proteolysis of topologically sealed right-side-out and inside-out membrane vesicles from Escherichia coli with chymotrypsin, trypsin, or papain inactivates lac carrier function in a symmetrical manner. Concomitantly, the electrophoretic mobility of lac carrier protein photoaffinity labeled in situ with p-nitro[2-3H]phenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside is altered from a relative Mr of 33,000 to 20,000, and the time course of proteolysis is almost identical in vesicles of opposite polarities. In contrast, solubilization of the vesicles in NaDodSO4 followed by proteolysis causes fragmentation of the Mr 33,000 band into material that electrophoreses at the solvent front. Notably, proteolysis has no effect whatsoever on the ability of the lac carrier protein to bind substrate, as judged by photoaffinity-labeling experiments. Furthermore, the electrophoretic patterns of samples proteolyzed prior to photoaffinity labeling are the same as those observed when the procedures are reversed. These results show that the lac carrier protein spans the membrane and indicate that the binding site resides within a segment that is embedded in the bilayer. Images PMID:6344081

  14. Direct imaging of LacI repressor protein sliding along DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Mei

    2005-03-01

    LacI repressor protein was observed in 1970 to bind to its operator site 100 times faster than allowed by diffusion [1]. A facilitated diffusion model incorporating1-D sliding and 3-D diffusion of the nonspecifically bound protein has been suggested to explain this phenomenon [2]. We have imaged the nonspecific binding of GFP-LacI monomers to elongated DNA molecules using single molecule imaging techniques. Upon binding to DNA, LacI proteins were observed to either be stationary, or slide along DNA. The characteristics of the sliding motion fit that of 1-D Brownian motion (with and without drift). The 1-D diffusion constant of the sliding proteins is 104 nm2/s, and it is 104 times lower than a typical protein's 3- D diffusion constant, 108 nm2/s. The characteristic dissociation time for both the stationary and the sliding proteins is 6s, and it is 100 times longer than the known dissociation time of 0.08s. The sliding length (DNA length scanned by the protein, not counting repeatedly scanned bases) ranges from 300 bp to 3000 bp, and it is significantly higher than the calculated optimal sliding length of 100 bp. We will discuss how these abnormal parameters alter the LacI specific binding speed. [1] A. D Riggs, S. Bougeois and M Cohn, J. Mol. Biol. 53, 401- 417 (1970). [2] O. G. Berg and C. Blomberg, Biophys. Chem., 4, 367-381 (1976).

  15. HOST PLANT RANGE OF LOBATE LAC SCALE, PARATACHARDINA LOBATA, IN FLORIDA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lobate lac scale (Paratacharidina lobata) is a serious pest of woody native and ornamental plants in Florida and the Bahamas. This insect, which is native to India and Sri Lanka, was known to attack many plants the number of plants it attacked in Florida was unknown. Field observation and field ...

  16. Ultrasonic assisted dyeing. IV. Dyeing of cationised cotton with lac natural dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Kamel; Reda M. El-Shishtawy; B. M. Youssef; H. Mashaly

    2007-01-01

    The dyeing of cationised cotton fabrics with lac natural dye has been studied using both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. The effects of dye bath pH, salt concentration, ultrasonic power, dyeing time and temperature were studied and the resulting shades obtained by dyeing with ultrasonic and conventional techniques were compared. Colour strength values obtained were found to be higher with ultrasonic

  17. Predicted structure of the sugar-binding site of the lac repressor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clarence F. Sams; Nand K. Vyas; Florante A. Quiocho; Kathleen Shive Matthews

    1984-01-01

    The lactose repressor protein from Escherichia coli binds sugars, primarily galactosides, which modulate its interactions with operator DNA and thereby affect synthesis of the lac metabolic enzymes1. The affinity of the repressor for operator DNA is decreased by binding inducer sugars and increased by binding anti-inducer sugars2. Based on regions of the primary structure implicated by genetic methods to be

  18. Variable sources in BL Lac objects: Energy distribution in the optical range deduced from multicolor photometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Gagen-Torn; S. G. Marchenko; O. B. Mikolaichuk

    1990-01-01

    Photometric variability is one of the manifestations of the activiny of =a~ ~lac~ nuclei. The establishment of the nature of variable sources is intimately related to clarification of the mechanisms of their emission~ Here, determination for these sources of the energy distribution in the continuum plays an important part. In our paper [i], which was based on analysis [2] of

  19. SPECTROSCOPY OF THE LARGEST EVER {gamma}-RAY-SELECTED BL LAC SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.; Healey, Stephen E.; Michelson, Peter F. [Department of Physics/KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)] [Department of Physics/KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cotter, Garret; Potter, William J. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)] [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; King, Oliver G. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    We report on spectroscopic observations covering most of the 475 BL Lacs in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Including archival measurements (correcting several erroneous literature values) we now have spectroscopic redshifts for 44% of the BL Lacs. We establish firm lower redshift limits via intervening absorption systems and statistical lower limits via searches for host galaxies for an additional 51% of the sample leaving only 5% of the BL Lacs unconstrained. The new redshifts raise the median spectroscopic z-tilde from 0.23 to 0.33 and include redshifts as large as z = 2.471. Spectroscopic redshift minima from intervening absorbers have z-tilde = 0.70, showing a substantial fraction at large z and arguing against strong negative evolution. We find that detected BL Lac hosts are bright ellipticals with black hole masses M {sub .} {approx} 10{sup 8.5} - 10{sup 9}, substantially larger than the mean of optical AGNs and LAT Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar samples. A slow increase in M {sub .} with z may be due to selection bias. We find that the power-law dominance of the optical spectrum extends to extreme values, but this does not strongly correlate with the {gamma}-ray properties, suggesting that strong beaming is the primary cause of the range in continuum dominance.

  20. Progressive microcrack development in tests on Lac du Bonnet granite—II. Ultrasonic tomographic imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Chow; I. L. Meglis; R. P. Young

    1995-01-01

    Thorough three-dimensional raypath coverage of transmitted ultrasonic waves was used to assess the development of microcrack damage in a cylinder of Lac du Bonnet grey granite subjected to uniaxial cyclic loading. The peak load for each cycle was increased gradually until volumetric strain reversal occurred during the 9th cycle. For the remaining 19 cycles, the peak load corresponded approximately to

  1. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-04-01

    Wave-induced variations of pore pressure in a partially-saturated reservoir result in oscillatory liquid flow. The viscous losses during this flow are responsible for wave attenuation. The same viscous effects determine the changes in the dynamic bulk modulus of the system versus frequency. These changes are necessarily linked to attenuation via the causality condition. We analytically quantify the frequency dependence of the bulk modulus of a partially saturated rock by assuming that saturation is patchy and then link these changes to the inverse quality factor. As a result, the P-wave attenuation is quantitatively linked to saturation and thus can serve as a saturation indicator.

  2. Coefficients of univalent functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. Duren

    1977-01-01

    analytic and univalent in the unit disk \\\\z\\\\ < 1. This is the class of all univalent functions normalized by the conditions \\/(O) = 0 and \\/'(O) = 1. We shall concentrate on coefficient problems for the class S and for related classes, with emphasis on recent results and open problems. Most of the methods we shall describe have wide

  3. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of lac insects (Hemiptera: Kerriidae) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hang; Chen, Xiaoming; Feng, Ying; Yang, Hui; He, Rui; Zhang, Wenfeng; Yang, Zixiang

    2013-10-01

    Lac insects are commercial scale insects with high economic value. The combined molecular phylogeny of 20 lac insect populations was generated using elongation factor 1 alpha, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene loci. The 20 populations of lac insects clustered into four distinct clades supported by high bootstrap values in maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Clade A at the base of the dendrogram comprises Kerria ruralis and two populations of Kerria lacca and is the branch with most primitive species. Clade B includes K. lacca, Kerria sindica and the three populations P, V and Z from India. They clustered with high bootstrap support and have evolved later than those in Clade A. The three unidentified populations P, V and Z exhibited a close relationship with K. lacca and are the same species. In Clade C, three populations of Kerria yunnanensis (Ym, Yj and Yl), population Ys from Thailand and population H from India clustered as a group, in which population H clustered with Ym with 100 % bootstrap in all three analysis methods. In Clade D, Kerria chinensis, Kerria pusana and three populations of K. yunnanensis clustered together with strong support, and are located in the upper branches of the dendrogram and are recently evolved taxa. The majority of populations from the Indian subcontinent clade are more closely related to outgroup taxa from the primitive family Pseudococcidae, as compared to the Eurasian populations. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the Indian subcontinent is the centre of original of lac insects which have translocated to the Eurasian Continent. Based on the theory of continental drift and existing fossil records, it is suggested that lac insect evolved from ancient scale insects during the late Cretaceous period when the Indian subcontinent drifted towards the Eurasian Continent. Changes in the global environment have impacted on the distribution and evolution of lac insects during the mid-Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. With increasing temperatures lac insects are likely to translocate to subtropical areas. PMID:24078090

  4. Comprehensive study of photon attenuation through different construction matters by Monte Carlo Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhat, M. E.

    2015-02-01

    The main goal of this work is focused on testing the applicability of Geant4 electromagnetic models for studying mass attenuations for different types of composite materials at 59.5, 80, 356, 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The simulated results of mass attenuation coefficients were compared with the experimental and theoretical data for the same samples and a good agreement has been observed. The results indicate that this process can be followed to determine the data on the attenuation of gamma-rays with the several energies in different materials.

  5. Dual energy CT for attenuation correction with PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Ting [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105 (United States)] [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105 (United States); Alessio, Adam M. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105 (United States); Kinahan, Paul E., E-mail: kinahan@uw.edu [Departments of Radiology and Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The authors evaluate the energy dependent noise and bias properties of monoenergetic images synthesized from dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisitions. These monoenergetic images can be used to estimate attenuation coefficients at energies suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This is becoming more relevant with the increased use of quantitative imaging by PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners. There are, however, potential variations in the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images as a function of energy. Methods: The authors used analytic approximations and simulations to estimate the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images of water-filled cylinders with different shapes and the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom from 40 to 520 keV, the range of SPECT and PET energies. The dual-kVp spectra were based on the GE Lightspeed VCT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp with added filtration of 0.5 mm Cu. The authors evaluated strategies of noise suppression with sinogram smoothing and dose minimization with reduction of tube currents at the two kVp settings. The authors compared the impact of DECT-based attenuation correction with single-kVp CT-based attenuation correction on PET quantitation for the NCAT phantom for soft tissue and high-Z materials of bone and iodine contrast enhancement. Results: Both analytic calculations and simulations displayed the expected minimum noise value for a synthesized monoenergetic image at an energy between the mean energies of the two spectra. In addition the authors found that the normalized coefficient of variation in the synthesized attenuation map increased with energy but reached a plateau near 160 keV, and then remained constant with increasing energy up to 511 keV and beyond. The bias was minimal, as the linear attenuation coefficients of the synthesized monoenergetic images were within 2.4% of the known true values across the entire energy range. Compared with no sinogram smoothing, sinogram smoothing can dramatically reduce noise in the DECT-derived attenuation map. Through appropriate selection of tube currents for high and low kVp scans, DECT can deliver roughly the same amount of radiation dose as that of a single kVp CT scan, but could be used for PET attenuation correction with reduced bias in contrast agent regions by a factor of ?2.6 and slightly reduced RMSE for the total image. Conclusions: When DECT is used for attenuation correction at higher energies, there is a noise amplification that is dependent on the energy of the synthesized monoenergetic image of linear attenuation coefficients. Sinogram smoothing reduces the noise amplification in DECT-derived attenuation maps without increasing bias. With an appropriate selection of CT techniques, a DECT scan with the same radiation dose as a single CT scan can result in a PET image with improved quantitative accuracy.

  6. Substrate-induced changes in the structural properties of LacY

    PubMed Central

    Serdiuk, Tetiana; Madej, M. Gregor; Sugihara, Junichi; Kawamura, Shiho; Mari, Stefania A.; Kaback, H. Ronald; Müller, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli, a paradigm for the major facilitator superfamily, catalyzes the coupled stoichiometric translocation of a galactopyranoside and an H+ across the cytoplasmic membrane. To catalyze transport, LacY undergoes large conformational changes that allow alternating access of sugar- and H+-binding sites to either side of the membrane. Despite strong evidence for an alternating access mechanism, it remains unclear how H+- and sugar-binding trigger the cascade of interactions leading to alternating conformational states. Here we used dynamic single-molecule force spectroscopy to investigate how substrate binding induces this phenomenon. Galactoside binding strongly modifies kinetic, energetic, and mechanical properties of the N-terminal 6-helix bundle of LacY, whereas the C-terminal 6-helix bundle remains largely unaffected. Within the N-terminal 6-helix bundle, the properties of helix V, which contains residues critical for sugar binding, change most radically. Particularly, secondary structures forming the N-terminal domain exhibit mechanically brittle properties in the unbound state, but highly flexible conformations in the substrate-bound state with significantly increased lifetimes and energetic stability. Thus, sugar binding tunes the properties of the N-terminal domain to initiate galactoside/H+ symport. In contrast to wild-type LacY, the properties of the conformationally restricted mutant Cys154?Gly do not change upon sugar binding. It is also observed that the single mutation of Cys154?Gly alters intramolecular interactions so that individual transmembrane helices manifest different properties. The results support a working model of LacY in which substrate binding induces alternating conformational states and provides insight into their specific kinetic, energetic, and mechanical properties. PMID:24711390

  7. Are many radio-selected BL Lacs radio quasars in disguise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Elia, V.; Padovani, P.; Giommi, P.; Turriziani, S.

    2015-06-01

    We show that a blazar classification in BL Lacs and flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) may not be adequate when it relies solely on the equivalent widths (EWs) of optical lines. In fact, depending on redshift, some strong emission lines can fall in the infrared window and be missed. We selected a sample of BL Lacs with firm redshift identification and good visibility from Paranal. We targeted with the X-shooter spectrograph the five BL Lacs with z > 0.7, i.e. those for which the H? line, one of the strongest among blazars, falls outside the optical window and determined the EW of emission lines in both the infrared and optical bands. Two out of five sources show an observed H? EW >5 Å (one has rest frame EW > 5 Å) and could be classified as FSRQs by one of the classification schemes used in the literature. A third object is border-line with an observed EW of 4.4 ± 0.5 Å. In all these cases, H? is the strongest emission line detected. The H? line of the other two blazars is not detected, but in one case it falls in a region strongly contaminated by sky lines and in the other one the spectrum is featureless. We conclude that a blazar classification based on EW width only can be inaccurate and may lead to an erroneous determination of blazar evolution. This effect is more severe for the BL Lac class, since FSRQs can be misclassified as BL Lacs especially at high redshifts (z > 0.7), where the latter are extremely rare.

  8. Enhanced Natural Attenuation of MTBE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Schirmer; Marion Martienssen

    MTBE contamination in groundwater is an increasing environmental problem and treatment costs using\\u000a conventional remediation technologies will increase if water is contaminated by MTBE. Generally, natural\\u000a attenuation (NA) and enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) are possible low-cost alternatives to conventional\\u000a techniques. Since biodegradation of MTBE is comparably slow under field conditions and often limited by\\u000a the environmental conditions, optimizing these conditions

  9. Measurement of Ligand-Induced Activation in Single Viable T Cells Using the lacZ Reporter Gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karttunen, Jaana; Shastri, Nilabh

    1991-05-01

    We have used the bacterial ?-galactosidase gene (lacZ) as a reporter gene for the rapid measurement of T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of individual T cells. The reporter construct contained the lacZ gene under the control of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) element of the human interleukin 2 enhancer [Fiering, S., Northrop, J. P., Nolan, G. P., Matilla, P., Crabtree, G. R. & Herzenberg, L. A. (1990) Genes Dev. 4, 1823-1834]. The activity of the intracellular lacZ enzyme was analyzed by flow cytometric measurement of fluorescein accumulation in cells loaded with the fluorogenic ?-galactosidase substrate fluorescein di-?-D-galactopyranoside. As a model system, the T-cell hybridoma BO4H9.1, which is specific for the lysozyme peptide (amino acids 74-88)/A^b complex, was transfected with the NF-AT-lacZ construct. lacZ activity was induced in 50-100% of the transfectant cells following exposure to pharmacological agents, to the physiological peptide/major histocompatibility complex ligand, or to other TCR-specific stimuli. Interestingly, increasing concentrations of the stimulus increased the fraction of lacZ^+ cells, but not the level of lacZ activity per cell. Even under widely varying levels of stimulus, the level of lacZ activity in individual lacZ^+ cells remained within a remarkably narrow range. These results demonstrate that TCR-mediated activation can be readily measured in single T cells and strongly suggest that, once committed to activation, the level of NF-AT transcriptional activity in individual T cells is independent of the form or concentration of stimulus. This assay is likely to prove useful for the study of early activation events in individual T cells and of TCR ligands.

  10. On the apparent attenuation in the spatial coherence estimated from seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Ravishankar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S.

    2014-04-01

    Several recent studies have used the coherence of seismic noise between stations to retrieve the phase slowness and attenuation. However, there is considerable debate on the feasibility of attenuation retrieval, its interpretation, and its dependence on the noise directionality and has been the subject of several analytical and numerical studies. In this article, we perform a detailed analysis of the various factors that play a role in the estimation of spatial coherence and attenuation from seismic arrays using data from the Southern California Seismic Network. For instance, certain common preprocessing steps such as averaging neighboring frequencies to improve the estimate are sufficient to introduce attenuation-like effects. The presence of first-mode surface Rayleigh wave and P waves in addition to the fundamental mode in Southern California (at frequencies 0.05-0.2 Hz) suggests that the underlying spatial coherence is better modeled as a linear combination of the above wave types. Although this describes the observed coherence better than a simple zeroth-order Bessel function, the resulting phase cancelations due to the multiple seismic waves can be misconstrued as attenuation if not taken into consideration. Using simulations, we show that due to the slowness inhomogeneity, azimuthally averaging the coherence is not equivalent to homogenizing the medium and instead introduces apparent attenuation in the coherence due to interference. Trying to fit an exponential decay model to this apparent attenuation results in an attenuation coefficient which is similar to previously published results.

  11. Time-reverse modelling of acoustic wave propagation in attenuating media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tieyuan

    2014-04-01

    Time-reverse modelling (TRM) of acoustic wave propagation has been widely implemented in seismic migration and time-reversal source imaging. The basic assumption of this modelling is that the wave equation is time-invariant in non-attenuating media. In the Earth, attenuation often invalidates this assumption of time-invariance. To overcome this problem, I propose a TRM approach that compensates for attenuation and dispersion effects during the wave propagation in attenuating media. This approach is based on a viscoacoustic wave equation which explicitly separates attenuation and dispersion following a constant-Q model. Compensating for attenuation and dispersion during TRM is achieved by reversing the sign of the attenuation operator coefficient while leaving the counterpart dispersion parameter unchanged in this viscoacoustic wave equation. A low-pass filter is included to avoid amplifying high-frequency noise during TRM. I demonstrate the effects of the filter on the attenuation and the phase velocity by comparing with theoretical solutions in a 1-D Pierre shale homogeneous medium. Three synthetic examples are used to demonstrate the feasibility of attenuation compensation during TRM. The first example uses a 1-D homogeneous model to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical implementation of the methodology. The second example shows the applicability of source location using a 2-D layering model. The last example uses a 2-D cross-well synthetic experiment to show that the methodology can also be implemented in conjunction with reverse-time migration to image subsurface reflectors. When attenuation compensation is included, I find improved estimation of the source location, the excitation timing of the point source, the magnitude of the focused source wavelet and the reflectivity image of reflectors, particularly for deep structures underneath strongly attenuating zones.

  12. Prediction of spectral acceleration response ordinates based on PGA attenuation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graizer, V.; Kalkan, E.

    2009-01-01

    Developed herein is a new peak ground acceleration (PGA)-based predictive model for 5% damped pseudospectral acceleration (SA) ordinates of free-field horizontal component of ground motion from shallow-crustal earthquakes. The predictive model of ground motion spectral shape (i.e., normalized spectrum) is generated as a continuous function of few parameters. The proposed model eliminates the classical exhausted matrix of estimator coefficients, and provides significant ease in its implementation. It is structured on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database with a number of additions from recent Californian events including 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes. A unique feature of the model is its new functional form explicitly integrating PGA as a scaling factor. The spectral shape model is parameterized within an approximation function using moment magnitude, closest distance to the fault (fault distance) and VS30 (average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m) as independent variables. Mean values of its estimator coefficients were computed by fitting an approximation function to spectral shape of each record using robust nonlinear optimization. Proposed spectral shape model is independent of the PGA attenuation, allowing utilization of various PGA attenuation relations to estimate the response spectrum of earthquake recordings.

  13. The changes in acoustic attenuation due to in vitro heating.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R L; Bush, N L; Ter Haar, G R

    2003-01-01

    The effects of heat-generated changes on the attenuation of ultrasound (US) by porcine liver tissue have been studied over a frequency range of 2.0 to 5.0 MHz. Samples of fresh tissue, 4- to 5-mm thick, were pressurized and cooled before measurement. The insertion loss was measured at room temperature, using a broadband 3.5-MHz transducer of focal length 10 cm, employing a pulse-reflection technique. Fourier analysis of the results gave the frequency-dependence of the insertion loss. Samples were then heated in a water bath to a temperature in the range of 40 to 80 degrees C, for between 30 and 500 s. The insertion loss was then re-measured at room temperature. The frequency-dependence of the change in insertion loss, expressed as a coefficient, in dB/cm, was fitted by linear regression, from which the attenuation change at 3.5 MHz was determined. This change was attributed to protein coagulation. Increases of up to 2.4 dB/cm, (80 degrees C, 300 s) were found. The averaged data were fitted to a single step exponential model, resulting in a time constant on the order of 118 +/- 5 s, and an asymptotic limit to the increase of attenuation coefficient of 2.67 +/- 0.5 dB/cm. PMID:12604124

  14. VERITAS observations and spectral energy distribution of H 1426+428 BL Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khassen, Y.

    2014-07-01

    The VERITAS array of 12-m atmospheric-Cherenkov telescopes in southern Arizona is one of the world's most sensitive detectors of astrophysical very high energy (VHE) ?-rays above 100 GeV. We present results from VERITAS observations of the BL Lac object H 1426+428. The VERITAS array has been monitoring this source since 2007 and has accumulated over 35 hours of data. The source was first detected in the VHE range by the Whipple 10-m ?-ray telescope in 2002 during a flaring state. It is classified as an extreme high-frequency peaked BL Lac (HBL), with the peak of the synchrotron emission lying above 100 keV, even during low states. The spectral energy distribution of H 1426+428, including contemporaneous VERITAS, Fermi-LAT, Swift XRT/UVOT and optical data, will be presented.

  15. Hot absorbers and the x-ray spectra of BL Lac objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. Megan

    1994-01-01

    This is the final report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) concerning NASA grant NAG5-1671. This grant was awarded to Dr. C. Megan Urry of the Space Telescope Science Institute in response to a proposal, entitled 'Hot Absorbers and the X-Ray Spectra of BL Lac Objects.' The grant was originally awarded in October 1991 and expired in February 1994. The purpose of this project was to detect spectral features in high signal-to-noise Rosat PSPC spectra of X-ray-bright BL Lac objects. We were granted observations of three targets: PKS2155-304, Mrk421, and Mrk501. All three were bright and yielded 5,000-30,000 photons in the good PSPC data.

  16. Very high energy observations of the BL Lac objects 3C 66A and OJ 287

    E-print Network

    T. Lindner; D. S. Hanna; J. Kildea; J. Ball; D. A. Bramel; J. Carson; C. E. Covault; D. Driscoll; P. Fortin; D. M. Gingrich; A. Jarvis; C. Mueller; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. A. Williams; J. Zweerink

    2007-07-18

    Using the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), we have observed the BL Lac objects 3C 66A and OJ 287. These are members of the class of low-frequency-peaked BL Lac objects (LBLs) and are two of the three LBLs predicted by Costamante and Ghisellini to be potential sources of very high energy (>100 GeV) gamma-ray emission. The third candidate, BL Lacertae, has recently been detected by the MAGIC collaboration. Our observations have not produced detections; we calculate a 99% CL upper limit of flux from 3C 66A of 0.15 Crab flux units and from OJ 287 our limit is 0.52 Crab. These limits assume a Crab-like energy spectrum with an effective energy threshold of 185 GeV.

  17. Prolonged Intranight Optical Quiescence of the Classical BL Lac Object PKS 0735+178

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, A.; Gopal-Krishna; Anupama, G. C.; Sahu, D. K.; Sagar, R.; Britzen, S.; Karouzos, M.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.

    2009-09-01

    We report our extensive intranight optical monitoring of the well known low-energy peaked (LBL) BL Lac object PKS 0735+178. This long-term follow-up consists of R-band monitoring for a minimum duration of ˜ 4 hours, on 17 nights spanning the past 11 years (1998-2008). Intra-night optical variability (INOV) amplitude of ? 3% on hour-like time scale was not observed in any of the nights even though the likelihood of seeing such INOV levels in a single session of ? 4 hours is known to be high (˜50%) for LBLs. Our observations thus establish a peculiar long-term INOV quiescence of this radio-selected BL Lac.

  18. Sound attenuation in magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-López, J.; Elvira, L.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the attenuation of ultrasonic elastic waves propagating through magnetorheological (MR) fluids is analysed as a function of the particle volume fraction and the magnetic field intensity. Non-commercial MR fluids made with iron ferromagnetic particles and two different solvents (an olive oil based solution and an Araldite-epoxy) were used. Particle volume fractions of up to 0.25 were analysed. It is shown that the attenuation of sound depends strongly on the solvent used and the volume fraction. The influence of a magnetic field up to 212 mT was studied and it was found that the sound attenuation increases with the magnetic intensity until saturation is reached. A hysteretic effect is evident once the magnetic field is removed.

  19. Influence of a dichlophenyl group on the geometric structure, electronic properties, and static linear polarizability of La@C74

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunmei Tang; Kaiming Deng; Weishi Tan; Yongbo Yuan; Yuzhen Liu; Haiping Wu; Decai Huang; Fenglan Hu; Jinlong Yang; Xin Wang

    2007-01-01

    The generalized gradient approximation based on density functional theory is used to study which effects are brought by the dichlophenyl group C6H3Cl2 on the geometric structure, electronic properties, and static linear polarizability of La@C74 . It is found that the most favorable endohedral site of a La atom in La@C74 , similar to the cases of Ca@C74 and Eu@C74 ,

  20. Developmental Behavior of Embryonic Myogenic Progenitors Transplanted into Adult Muscle as Revealed by Desmin LacZ Recombinant Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwenola Auda-Boucher; Thierry Rouaud; Josiane Fontaine-Pérus; Fabien Le Grand; Marie-France Gardahaut

    2003-01-01

    We studied the behavior of myogenic progenitors from donor desmin+\\/– LacZ embryos after implantation into tibialis anterior muscle of 2-month-old mouse hosts. Myogenic progenitors were collected from 10-day post-coital mouse embryo somite dermomyotomes (DMs), forelimb buds (LBs), and trunks. The replacement of desmin by the LacZ coding sequence allowed specific monitoring of ?-galactosidase expression in donor myogenic cells. Immunostaining for

  1. RpoS-Regulated Genes of Escherichia coli Identified by Random lacZ Fusion Mutagenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Somalinga R. V. Vijayakumar; Mark G. Kirchhof; Cheryl L. Patten; Herb E. Schellhorn

    2004-01-01

    RpoS is a conserved alternative sigma factor that regulates the expression of many stress response genes in Escherichia coli. The RpoS regulon is large but has not yet been completely characterized. In this study, we report the identification of over 100 RpoS-dependent fusions in a genetic screen based on the differential expression of an operon-lacZ fusion bank in rpoS mutant

  2. A source of artifact in the lacZ reversion assay in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, George R; Gray, Carol L; Lange, Paulina B; Marando, Christie I

    2015-06-01

    The lacZ reversion assay in Escherichia coli measures point mutations that occur by specific base substitutions and frameshift mutations. The tester strains cannot use lactose as a carbon source (Lac(-)), and revertants are easily detected by growth on lactose medium (Lac(+)). Six strains identify the six possible base substitutions, and five strains measure +G, -G, -CG, +A and -A frameshifts. Strong mutagens give dose-dependent increases in numbers of revertants per plate and revertant frequencies. Testing compounds that are arguably nonmutagens or weakly mutagenic, we often noted statistically significant dose-dependent increases in revertant frequency that were not accompanied by an absolute increase in numbers of revertants. The increase in frequency was wholly ascribable to a declining number of viable cells owing to toxicity. Analysis of the conditions revealed that the frequency of spontaneous revertants is higher when there are fewer viable cells per plate. The phenomenon resembles "adaptive" or "stress" mutagenesis, whereby lactose revertants accumulate in Lac(-) bacteria under starvation conditions in the absence of catabolite repression. Adaptive mutation is observed after long incubation and might be expected to be irrelevant in a standard assay using 48-h incubation. However, we found that elevated revertant frequencies occur under typical assay conditions when the bacterial lawn is thin, and this can cause increases in revertant frequency that mimic chemical mutagenesis when treatments are toxic but not mutagenic. Responses that resemble chemical mutagenesis were observed in the absence of mutagenic treatment in strains that revert by different frameshift mutations. The magnitude of the artifact is affected by cell density, dilution, culture age, incubation time, catabolite repression and the age and composition of media. Although the specific reversion assay is effective for quickly distinguishing classes of mutations induced by potent mutagens, its utility for discerning effects of weak mutagens may be compromised by the artifact. PMID:26046973

  3. Small-scale field test of the genetically engineered lacZY marker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Hattemer-Frey; E. J. Brandt; C. C. Travis

    1990-01-01

    Commercial genetic engineering is advancing into areas that require the small-scale introduction of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to better quantify variables that affect microorganism distribution and survival and to document potential long-term consequences. A recombinant DNA marker system, the lacZY marker, developed by the Monsanto Agricultural Co., enables the distribution and fate of marked fluorescent pseudomonad organisms to be monitored

  4. Model for the possible origin of anorthosite-syenite associations like the Laramie anorthosite complex (lac)

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsley, D.H.; Kolker, A.; Fuhrman, M.; Frost, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Proterozoic massif anorthosites (ANT) have several unique attributes. Compared to typical tholeiitic layered mafic intrusions, they are distinctly evolved, with low mg numbers and high Ab/An ratios, and are also more potassic, with 1-2 wt% K/sub 2/O - 5-10% normative Or that occurs as antiperthite. They are closely associated in time and space with still more potassic rocks (MSY: monzonites, syenites, mangerites, etc.) considered by some to be comagmatic with the ANT and by others to be partial melts of the country rock. If the MSY are comagmatic, the parent magma is must be relatively potassic. Such a magma might pond and fractionate at the base of thin continental crust, with olivines and pyroxenes sinking and plagioclase floating, thereby depleting the magma in Mg and Eu. Crystal mushes of plagioclase would then intrude the crust diapirically to depths of 8-15 km, forming ANT. With continued fractionation the K- and Fe-enriched liquid would begin crystallizing ternary feldspars (as found at LAC); these too would float, forming crystal mushes (MSY) that would rise diapirically and intrude the ANT. The cumulate MSY would have no Eu anomaly (or a small positive one) as found at LAC; the liquid would have a strong negative Eu anomaly. Some contamination of the MSY suite by partial melts from the country rock is likely. This model can explain the virtual continuum in mineral compositions from ANT to MSY reported for LAC by Fuhrman and others (this volume). Parent magmas might be trachyandesitic; another candidate is the biotite gabbro found throughout the LAC.

  5. Thermodynamics of the interactions of lac repressor with variants of the symmetric lac operator: effects of converting a consensus site to a non-specific site.

    PubMed

    Frank, D E; Saecker, R M; Bond, J P; Capp, M W; Tsodikov, O V; Melcher, S E; Levandoski, M M; Record, M T

    1997-04-18

    What are the thermodynamic consequences of the stepwise conversion of a highly specific (consensus) protein-DNA interface to one that is nonspecific? How do the magnitudes of key favorable contributions to complex stability (burial of hydrophobic surfaces and reduction of DNA phosphate charge density) change as the DNA sequence of the specific site is detuned? To address these questions we investigated the binding of lac repressor (LacI) to a series of 40 bp fragments carrying symmetric (consensus) and variant operator sequences over a range of temperatures and salt concentrations. Variant DNA sites contained symmetrical single and double base-pair substitutions at positions 4 and/or 5 [sequence: see text] in each 10 bp half site of the symmetric lac operator (Osym). Non-specific interactions were examined using a 40 bp non-operator DNA fragment. Disruption of the consensus interface by a single symmetrical substitution reduces the observed equilibrium association constant (K(obs)) for Osym by three to four orders of magnitude; double symmetrical substitutions approach the six orders in magnitude difference between specific and non-specific binding to a 40 bp fragment. At these adjacent positions in the consensus site, the free energy effects of multiple substitutions are non-additive: the first reduces /deltaG(obs)o/ by 3 to 5 kcal mol(-1), approximately halfway to the non-specific level, whereas the second is less deleterious, reducing /deltaG(obs)o/ by less than 3 kcal mol(-1). Variant-specific dependences of K(obs) on temperature and salt concentration characterize these LacI-operator interactions. In general, binding constants and standard free energies of binding both exhibit characteristic extrema near 290 K. As a consequence, both the enthalpic and entropic contributions to stability of Osym and variant complexes change from positive (i.e. entropy driven) at lower temperatures to negative (i.e. enthalpy driven) at higher temperatures, indicating that the heat capacity change upon binding, deltaC(obs)o, is large and negative. In general, /deltaC(obs)o/ decreases as the specificity and stability of the variant complex decreases. Stabilities of complexes of LacI with Osym and all variant operators are strongly [salt]-dependent. Binding constants for the variant complexes exhibit a power-dependence on [salt] that is larger in magnitude (i.e. more negative) than for Osym, but no obvious trend relates changes in contributions from the polyelectrolyte effect and the observed reductions in stability (delta deltaG(obs)o). These variant-specific thermodynamic signatures provide novel insights into the consequences of converting a consensus interface to a less specific one; such insights are not obtained from comparisons at the level of delta deltaG(obs)o. We propose that this variant-specific behavior arises from a strong effect of operator sequence on the extent of induced conformational changes in the protein (and possibly also in the DNA site) which accompany binding. PMID:9150406

  6. Variability on Decaparsec scales of a number of BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, R.; Gabuzda, D.

    We present 18cm Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) polarisation observations of the 4 BL Lac objects 0735+178, 0954+658, 1803+784 and BL Lac at two epochs 4 1 years apart ( Jul 1999 and 2 Jan 2004). These results are part of an ongoing analysis of 18cm VLBA observations of the 34 1 Jy BL Lac objects in the complete sample defined by Kühr & Schmidt[4]. The 2004 observations were made at four distinct wavelengths between 18 and 22cm, allowing for the investigation of the intrinsic Faraday rotation in each source. The 4 sources each display a spine-sheath polarisation structure in the VLBI jet, consistent with the presence of helical magnetic (B) fields [2]. The jet morphology, polarisation structure and degree of linear polarisation are compared for the two epochs and shown to be very stable on the scales probed by these observations. Some rotation measure (RM) maps from the 2004 data display transverse gradients in the inner jet, interpreted as further evidence for the presence of helical B fields in the jet. The fractional polarisation maps also display gradients increasing away from the core and towards the jet edges, again consistent with helical jet B fields [5].

  7. Monzonites (MZ) and monzosyenites (MSY) associated with the Laramie anorthoside complex (LAC), Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrman, M.; Kolker, A.; Lindsley, D.H.; Frost, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between Proterozoic massif anorthosites and the associated syenitic rocks remains controversial. Unlike most such complexes, the LAC is unmetamorphosed and hence is ideally suited to petrologic and geochemical tests of a possible comagmatic origin. The authors detailed mapping and petrologic studies of the MZ and MSY show that these rocks were nearly anhydrous and crystallized at 3-5 kbar, 950-1050/sup 0/C, and oxygen fugacities several log units below FMQ buffer. They intrude the anorthosite, although the radiometric ages are identical within error. They have found strong petrologic evidence for a close genetic relationship between the anorthositic rocks and the MZ and MSY: mineral-chemical trends - as expressed by feldspars; augites, and low-Ca pyroxenes - are virtually continuous from the anorthosite through MZ to MSY. In contrast, recent geochemical studies of the LAC indicate that the MSY cannot represent a liquid complementary to the anorthosite. Their studies suggest a possible explanation: the MSY, like the anorthosite, may be a cumulate rather than a liquid. Fine-grained MZ that forms a border facies of the MSY probably represents a liquid. The authors are also considering several other highly evolved units as possible liquids residual to the MSY; such liquids should show strong negative Eu anomalies. Rare-earth studies on the fine-grained MZ and on other rocks are under way. A model for the possible comagmatic formation of the LAC is given by Lindsley and others.

  8. The use of lacZ marker in enumeration of Azotobacter chroococcum in carrier based inoculants.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Manu; Garg, Faquir C

    2014-01-01

    A transconjugant of Azotobacter chroococcum Mac 27 tagged with lac Z(A. chroococcum Mac27 L) was found to possess high levels of ?-galactosidase activity constitutively. Further, the lac Z marker was found to be stably integrated into the chromosome of the A. chroococcum Mac 27 and did not have any adverse effect on growth, nitrogen fixation and excretion of ammonia. A quick method to determine the viable cell number in broth culture and carrier based inoculants has been developed on the basis of ?-galactosidase assay. It was found that there was a direct relationship between the number of cell as determined by standard plate count and intensity of colour that developed upon degradation of ONPG due to ?-galactosidase activity. The method was found to be sensitive enough to determine 1.7 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1) in broth culture as well as carrier based Azotobacter inoculants. Further, it was observed that when A. chroococcum Mac27 L was inoculated on Brassica campestris, it could be detected in the presence of other bacteria capable of growing on Burks agar medium containing X-gal on the basis of lac Z genetic marker. PMID:25242946

  9. The LCLS Gas Attenuator Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D

    2005-06-07

    In the report ''X-ray attenuation cell'' [1] a preliminary analysis of the gas attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) was presented. This analysis was carried out for extremely stringent set of specifications. In particular, a very large diameter for the unobstructed beam was set (1 cm) to accommodate the spontaneous radiation; the attenuator was supposed to cover the whole range of energies of the coherent radiation, from 800 eV to 8000 eV; the maximum attenuation was set at the level of 10{sup 4}; the use of solid attenuators was not allowed, as well as the use of rotating shutters. The need to reach a sufficient absorption at the high-energy end of the spectrum predetermined the choice of Xe as the working gas (in order to have a reasonable absorption at a not-too-high pressure). A sophisticated differential pumping system that included a Penning-type ion pump was suggested in order to minimize the gas leak into the undulator/accelerator part of the facility. A high cost of xenon meant also that an efficient (and expensive) gas-recovery system would have to be installed. The main parameter that determined the high cost and the complexity of the system was a large radius of the orifice. The present viewpoint allows for much smaller size of the orifice, r{sub 0} = 1.5 mm. (1) The use of solid attenuators is also allowed (R.M. Bionta, private communication). It is, therefore, worthwhile to reconsider various parameters of the gas attenuator for these much less stringent conditions. This brief study should be considered as a physics input for the engineering design. As a working gas we consider now the argon, which, on the one hand, provides a reasonable absorption lengths and, on the other hand, is inexpensive enough to be exhausted into the atmosphere (no recovery). The absorption properties of argon are illustrated by Fig.1 where the attenuation factor A is shown for various beam energies, based on Ref. [2]. The other relevant parameters for argon are presented in Table 1.

  10. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-04-01

    In this report we will show results of seismic and well log derived attenuation attributes from a deep water Gulf of Mexico data set. This data was contributed by Burlington Resources and Seitel Inc. The data consists of ten square kilometers of 3D seismic data and three well penetrations. We have computed anomalous seismic absorption attributes on the seismic data and have computed Q from the well log curves. The results show a good correlation between the anomalous absorption (attenuation) attributes and the presence of gas as indicated by well logs.

  11. The effects of acoustic attenuation in optoacoustic signals.

    PubMed

    Deán-Ben, X Luís; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-09-21

    In this paper, it is demonstrated that the effects of acoustic attenuation may play a significant role in establishing the quality of tomographic optoacoustic reconstructions. Accordingly, spatially dependent reduction of signal amplitude leads to quantification errors in the reconstructed distribution of the optical absorption coefficient while signal broadening causes loss of image resolution. Here we propose a correction algorithm for accounting for attenuation effects, which is applicable in both the time and frequency domains. It is further investigated which part of the optoacoustic signal spectrum is practically affected by those effects in realistic imaging scenarios. The validity and benefits of the suggested modelling and correction approaches are experimentally validated in phantom measurements. PMID:21873768

  12. Coefficients of associated Legendre functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peasley, Q. D.

    1976-01-01

    The exact coefficients for the explicit forms of the associated Legendre functions Pm for integer values of m,n=0,1,2,...25 are presented in tabular form together with two cross-referenced listings of the zeroes for these functions rounded to five decimal places. The unfactored coefficients and the interger coefficients are presented in adjacent columns for each function. The greatest common factor and divisor have been removed and listed separately for the integer coefficients.

  13. Full wave-field reflection coefficient inversion.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Jan; Dosso, Stan E; Holland, Charles W

    2007-12-01

    This paper develops a Bayesian inversion for recovering multilayer geoacoustic (velocity, density, attenuation) profiles from a full wave-field (spherical-wave) seabed reflection response. The reflection data originate from acoustic time series windowed for a single bottom interaction, which are processed to yield reflection coefficient data as a function of frequency and angle. Replica data for inversion are computed using a wave number-integration model to calculate the full complex acoustic pressure field, which is processed to produce a commensurate seabed response function. To address the high computational cost of calculating short range acoustic fields, the inversion algorithms are parallelized and frequency averaging is replaced by range averaging in the forward model. The posterior probability density is interpreted in terms of optimal parameter estimates, marginal distributions, and credibility intervals. Inversion results for the full wave-field seabed response are compared to those obtained using plane-wave reflection coefficients. A realistic synthetic study indicates that the plane-wave assumption can fail, producing erroneous results with misleading uncertainty bounds, whereas excellent results are obtained with the full-wave reflection inversion. PMID:18247743

  14. Stability of RNA virus attenuation approaches.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Joan L; Volk, Sara M; Pandya, Jyotsna; Wang, Eryu; Liang, Xiaodong; Weaver, Scott C

    2011-03-01

    The greatest risk from live-attenuated vaccines is reversion to virulence. Particular concerns arise for RNA viruses, which exhibit high mutation frequencies. We examined the stability of 3 attenuation strategies for the alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV): a traditional, point mutation-dependent attenuation approach exemplified by TC-83; a rationally designed, targeted-mutation approach represented by V3526; and a chimeric vaccine, SIN/TC/ZPC. Our findings suggest that the chimeric strain combines the initial attenuation of TC-83 with the greater phenotypic stability of V3526, highlighting the importance of the both initial attenuation and stability for live-attenuated vaccines. PMID:21288800

  15. Similarity coefficients for binary data: properties of coefficients, coefficient matrices, multi-way metrics and multivariate coefficients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthijs Joost Warrens

    2008-01-01

    In data analysis, an important role is played by similarity coefficients. A similarity coefficient is a measure of resemblance or association of two entities or variables. Similarity coefficients for binary data are used, for example, in biological ecology for measuring the degree of coexistence between two species type over different locations, or in psychology for a 2×2 reliability study where

  16. The attenuation of solar UV radiation in lakes and the role of dissolved organic carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DONALD P. MORRIS; HORACIO ZAGARESE; CRAIG E. WILLIAMSON; ESTEBAN G. BALSEIRO; BRUCE R. HARGREAVES; BEATRIZ MODENUTTI; ROBERT MOELLER; CLAUDIA QUEIMALINOS

    1995-01-01

    Diffuse attenuation coefficients (&) for solar UV radiation (UVR) (305, 320, 340, 380 nm, and PAR) were measured in the mixed layer of 65 lake sites in Alaska, Colorado, and Pennsylvania and the Bariloche region of Argentina. Integrated mixed layer samples of lake water were concurrently collected, and a multivariate approach was used to model Kd with a number of

  17. Characterization of plastically deformed steel utilizing ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Panetta; G. A. Alers

    2001-01-01

    There is a desire to detect plastically deformed regions in structures to monitor their integrity. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop an ultrasonic technique that can serve as a tool to detect and characterize plastically deformed regions in large structures. It is well known that the velocity and attenuation coefficient of propagating ultrasonic waves are sensitive to

  18. Factors affecting the in vivo precision of broad-band ultrasonic attenuation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Evans; E. A. Jones; G. M. Owen

    1995-01-01

    The in vivo precision of broad-band ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) was measured in one normal male volunteer over periods of one day and six weeks and in a group of 10 volunteers over a period of two weeks using a Walker Sonix UBA 1001 bone mineral analyser in which the foot is immersed in a water tank. Coefficients of variation ranged

  19. Estimation of Ultrasound Tissue Attenuation Along the Propagation Path by Applying Multiple Filters to

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    the attenuation along the propagation path. Some have restricted their analysis to time domain methods yielding an effective scatterer diameter and acoustic concentration which can be used to quantify included, then the backscatter coefficients and subsequent estimates of scatterer diameter and acoustic

  20. Self-attenuation of TL light from LiF—a comparison of different experimental methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bilski; M. Budzanowski

    2001-01-01

    Three different experimental methods of determination of TL light attenuation coefficients were compared using a specially prepared set of LiF detectors with different thickness. The three methods were: (1) a two-detector method in which an irradiated detector is covered during readout by another one; (2) a surface irradiation method in which a detector is twice irradiated with alpha particles and

  1. Origin of temperature dependence of microbending attenuation in fiber optic cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric G. Hanson

    1980-01-01

    Temperature-induced changes in the attenuation of multimode optical fiber cables are shown to be caused by mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of the fiber and the cabling materials. A quantitative theoretical model of low temperature loss, based on the formation of fiber microbends by microvariations in the jacket concentricity, is described. This model applies to tightly jacketed, soft buffered

  2. Effect of DNA looping on the induction kinetics of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Narang, Atul

    2007-08-21

    The induction of the lac operon follows cooperative kinetics. The first mechanistic model of these kinetics is the de facto standard in the modeling literature [Yagil, G., Yagil, E., 1971. On the relation between effector concentration and the rate of induced enzyme synthesis. Biophys. J. 11, 11-17]. Yet, subsequent studies have shown that the model is based on incorrect assumptions. Specifically, the repressor is a tetramer with four (not two) inducer-binding sites, and the operon contains two auxiliary operators (in addition to the main operator). Furthermore, these structural features are crucial for the formation of DNA loops, the key determinants of lac repression and induction. Indeed, the repression is determined almost entirely (>95%) by the looped complexes [Oehler, S., Eismann, E.R., Krämer, H., Müller-Hill, B., 1990. The three operators of the lac operon cooperate in repression. EMBO J. 9(4), 973-979], and the pronounced cooperativity of the induction curve hinges upon the existence of the looped complexes [Oehler, S., Alberti, S., Müller-Hill, B., 2006. Induction of the lac promoter in the absence of DNA loops and the stoichiometry of induction. Nucleic Acids Res. 34(2), 606-612]. Here, we formulate a model of lac induction taking due account of the tetrameric structure of the repressor and the existence of looped complexes. We show that: (1) The kinetics are significantly more cooperative than those predicted by the Yagil and Yagil model. The cooperativity is higher because the formation of looped complexes is easily abolished by repressor-inducer binding. (2) The model provides good fits to the repression data for cells containing wild-type tetrameric or mutant dimeric repressor, as well as the induction curves for 6 different strains of Escherichia coli. It also implies that the ratios of certain looped and non-looped complexes are independent of inducer and repressor levels, a conclusion that can be rigorously tested by gel electrophoresis. (3) Repressor overexpression dramatically increases the cooperativity of the induction curve. This suggests that repressor overexpression can induce bistability in systems, such as growth of E. coli on lactose, that are otherwise monostable. PMID:17490688

  3. Nonlinear Acoustics FDTD method including Frequency Power Law Attenuation for Soft Tissue Modeling

    E-print Network

    Jiménez, Noé; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Camarena, Francisco; Hou, Yi; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a model for nonlinear acoustic wave propagation through absorbing and weakly dispersive media, and its numerical solution by means of finite differences in time domain method (FDTD). The attenuation is based on multiple relaxation processes, and provides frequency dependent absorption and dispersion without using computational expensive convolutional operators. In this way, by using an optimization algorithm the coefficients for the relaxation processes can be obtained in order to fit a frequency power law that agrees the experimentally measured attenuation data for heterogeneous media over the typical frequency range for ultrasound medical applications. Our results show that two relaxation processes are enough to fit attenuation data for most soft tissues in this frequency range including the fundamental and the first ten harmonics. Furthermore, this model can fit experimental attenuation data that do not follow exactly a frequency power law over the frequency range of interest. The main...

  4. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-07-01

    In fully-saturated rock and at ultrasonic frequencies, the microscopic squirt flow induced between the stiff and soft parts of the pore space by an elastic wave is responsible for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation. In the seismic frequency range, it is the macroscopic cross-flow between the stiffer and softer parts of the rock. We use the latter hypothesis to introduce simple approximate equations for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation in a fully water saturated reservoir. The equations are based on the assumption that in heterogeneous rock and at a very low frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the fully-saturated rock can be estimated by applying a fluid substitution procedure to the averaged (upscaled) dry frame whose effective porosity is the mean porosity and the effective elastic modulus is the Backus-average (geometric mean) of the individual dry-frame elastic moduli of parts of the rock. At a higher frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the saturated rock is the Backus-average of the individual fully-saturated-rock elastic moduli of parts of the rock. The difference between the effective elastic modulus calculated separately by these two methods determines the velocity-frequency dispersion. The corresponding attenuation is calculated from this dispersion by using (e.g.) the standard linear solid attenuation model.

  5. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protocol will simply describe in detail, with references and illustrations, the approach currently used by staff of the SPRD to evaluate natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents in ground water. Staff of SPRD, and staff of the Air Force Center for environmental excellence...

  6. Flagella overexpression attenuates Salmonella pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinghong; Thornburg, Theresa; Suo, Zhiyong; Jun, SangMu; Robison, Amanda; Li, Jinquan; Lim, Timothy; Cao, Ling; Hoyt, Teri; Avci, Recep; Pascual, David W

    2012-01-01

    Flagella are cell surface appendages involved in a number of bacterial behaviors, such as motility, biofilm formation, and chemotaxis. Despite these important functions, flagella can pose a liability to a bacterium when serving as potent immunogens resulting in the stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Previous work showing appendage overexpression, referred to as attenuating gene expression (AGE), was found to enfeeble wild-type Salmonella. Thus, this approach was adapted to discern whether flagella overexpression could induce similar attenuation. To test its feasibility, flagellar filament subunit FliC and flagellar regulon master regulator FlhDC were overexpressed in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium wild-type strain H71. The results show that the expression of either FliC or FlhDC alone, and co-expression of the two, significantly attenuates Salmonella. The flagellated bacilli were unable to replicate within macrophages and thus were not lethal to mice. In-depth investigation suggests that flagellum-mediated AGE was due to the disruptive effects of flagella on the bacterial membrane, resulting in heightened susceptibilities to hydrogen peroxide and bile. Furthermore, flagellum-attenuated Salmonella elicited elevated immune responses to Salmonella presumably via FliC's adjuvant effect and conferred robust protection against wild-type Salmonella challenge. PMID:23056473

  7. Drag Coefficient of Hexadecane Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Yoshinobu; Hishida, Makoto; Kajimoto, Sadaaki; Tanaka, Gaku

    This paper deals with the drag coefficient of solidified hexadecane particles and their free rising velocity in liquid. The drag coefficient was experimentally investigated in Reynolds number range of about 40-300. The present experimental results are summarized in the following; (1) the drag coefficient of solidified hexadecane particles formed in liquid coolant by direct contact cooling is higher than that of a smooth surface sphere, this high drag coefficient seems to be attributed to the non-smooth surface of the solidified hexadecane particles, (2) experimental correlation for the drag coefficient of the solidified hexadecane particles was proposed, (3 ) the measured rising velocity of the solidified hexadecane particle agrees well with the calculated one, (4) the drag coefficients of hexadecane particles that were made by pouring hexadecane liquid into a solid hollow sphere agreed well with the drag coefficient of smooth surface sphere.

  8. Ferrite attenuator modulation improves antenna performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, J. C.; Larson, S. G.; Shorkley, F. H.; Williams, B. T.

    1970-01-01

    Ferrite attenuator inserted into appropriate waveguide reduces the gain of the antenna element which is causing interference. Modulating the ferrite attenuator to change the antenna gain at the receive frequency permits ground tracking until the antenna is no longer needed.

  9. Neutron attenuation characteristics of polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and heavy aggregate concrete and mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Majid, S.; Othman, F. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    1994-03-01

    Polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride pellets were introduced into concrete to improve its neutron attenuation characteristics while several types of heavy coarse aggregates were used to improve its gamma ray attenuation properties. Neutron and gamma ray attenuation were studied in concrete samples containing coarse aggregates of barite, pyrite, basalt, hematite, and marble as well as polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride pellets in narrow-beam geometry. The highest neutron attenuation was shown by polyethylene mortar, followed by polyvinyl chloride mortar; barite and pyrite concrete showed higher gamma ray attenuation than ordinary concrete. Broad-beam and continuous (infinite) medium geometries were used to study the neutron attenuation of samples containing polymers at different concentrations with and without heavy aggregates, the fitting equations were established, and from these the neutron removal coefficients were deduced. In a radiation field of neutrons and gamma rays, the appropriate concentration of polymer and heavy aggregate can be selected to give the optimum total dose attenuation depending on the relative intensities of each type of radiation. This would give much better design flexibility over ordinary concrete. The compressive strength tests performed on mortar and concrete samples showed that their value, in general, decreases as polymer concentration increases and that the polyvinyl chloride mortar showed higher values than the polyethylene mortar. For general construction purposes, the compression strength was considered acceptable in these samples. 34 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Neutron attenuation characteristics of polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and heavy aggregate concrete and mortars.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Majid, S; Othman, F

    1994-03-01

    Polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride pellets were introduced into concrete to improve its neutron attenuation characteristics while several types of heavy coarse aggregates were used to improve its gamma ray attenuation properties. Neutron and gamma ray attenuation were studied in concrete samples containing coarse aggregates of barite, pyrite, basalt, hematite, and marble as well as polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride pellets in narrow-beam geometry. The highest neutron attenuation was shown by polyethylene mortar, followed by polyvinyl chloride mortar; barite and pyrite concrete showed higher gamma ray attenuation than ordinary concrete. Broad-beam and continuous (infinite) medium geometries were used to study the neutron attenuation of samples containing polymers at different concentrations with and without heavy aggregates, the fitting equations were established, and from these the neutron removal coefficients were deduced. In a radiation field of neutrons and gamma rays, the appropriate concentration of polymer and heavy aggregate can be selected to give the optimum total dose attenuation depending on the relative intensities of each type of radiation. This would give much better design flexibility over ordinary concrete. The compressive strength tests performed on mortar and concrete samples showed that their value, in general, decreases as polymer concentration increases and that the polyvinyl chloride mortar showed higher values than the polyethylene mortar. For general construction purposes, the compression strength was considered acceptable in these samples. PMID:8106253

  11. Study on laser and infrared attenuation performance of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang-cui; Liu, Qing-hai; Dai, Meng-yan; Cheng, Xiang; Fang, Guo-feng; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Haifeng

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, the weapon systems of laser and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. However, military smoke, a rapid and effective passive jamming method, can effectively counteract the attack of precision-guided weapons by their scattering and absorbing effects. The traditional smoke has good visible light (0.4-0.76?m) obscurant performance, but hardly any effects to other electromagnetic wave bands while the weapon systems of laser and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including the near-infrared (1-3?m), middle-infrared (3-5?m), far-infrared (8-14?m), and so on. Accordingly, exploiting new effective obscurant materials has attracted tremendous interest worldwide nowadays. As is known, the nano-structured materials have lots of unique properties comparing with the traditional materials suggesting that they might be the perfect alternatives to solve the problems above. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are well-ordered, all-carbon hollow graphitic nano-structured materials with a high aspect ratio, lengths from several hundred nanometers to several millimeters. CNTs possess many unique intrinsic physical-chemical properties and are investigated in many areas reported by the previous studies. However, no application research about CNTs in smoke technology field is reported yet. In this paper, the attenuation performances of CNTs smoke to laser and IR were assessed in 20m3 smoke chamber. The testing wavebands employed in experiments are 1.06?m and 10.6?m laser, 3-5?m and 8-14?m IR radiation. The main parameters were obtained included the attenuation rate, transmission rate, mass extinction coefficient, etc. The experimental results suggest that CNTs smoke exhibits excellent attenuation ability to the broadband IR radiation. Their mass extinction coefficients are all above 1m2·g-1. Nevertheless, the mass extinction coefficients vary with the sampling time and smoke particles concentrations, even in the same testing waveband. With the time going the mass extinction coefficients will increase gradually. Based on the above results, theoretical calculations are also carried out for further exploitations. In general, CNTs smoke behaves excellent attenuation ability toward laser and IR under the experimental conditions. Therefore, they have great potentials to develop new smoke obscurant materials which could effectively interfere with broadband IR radiation including 1.06?m, 10.6?m, 3-5?m and 8-12?m IR waveband.

  12. LacR Mutations Are Frequently Observed in Streptococcus intermedius and Are Responsible for Increased Intermedilysin Production and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Imaki, Hidenori; Masuda, Sachiko; Okamoto, Ayumi; Kim, Hyejin; Waite, Richard D.; Whiley, Robert A.; Kikuchi, Ken; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Tabata, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius secretes a human-specific cytolysin, intermedilysin (ILY), which is considered to be the major virulence factor of this pathogen. We screened for a repressor of ily expression by using random gene disruption in a low-ILY-producing strain (PC574). Three independent high-ILY-producing colonies that had plasmid insertions within a gene that has high homology to lacR were isolated. Validation of these observations was achieved through disruption of lacR in strain PC574 with an erythromycin cassette, which also led to higher hemolytic activity, increased transcription of ily, and higher cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, compared to the parental strain. The direct binding of LacR within the ily promoter region was shown by a biotinylated DNA probe pulldown assay, and the amount of ILY secreted into the culture supernatant by PC574 cells was increased by adding lactose or galactose to the medium as a carbon source. Furthermore, we examined lacR nucleotide sequences and the hemolytic activity of 50 strains isolated from clinical infections and 7 strains isolated from dental plaque. Of the 50 strains isolated from infections, 13 showed high ILY production, 11 of these 13 strains had one or more point mutations and/or an insertion mutation in LacR, and almost all mutations were associated with a marked decline in LacR function. These results strongly suggest that mutation in lacR is required for the overproduction of ILY, which is associated with an increase in pathogenicity of S. intermedius. PMID:23798532

  13. The functional stability of the lacZ transcript is sensitive towards sequence alterations immediately downstream of the ribosome binding site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carsten Petersen

    1987-01-01

    Various synthetic DNA sequences were inserted downstream of the fourth codon of the Escherichia coli lacZ gene on plasmids containing a hybrid lacZ-galK operon. Several different sequences, one as short as 10 bp, reduced the functional stability of the lacZ message three- to fourfold, whereas others had little or no effect. Introduction of synthetic sequences into a plasmid containing the

  14. The SASS scattering coefficient algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracalente, E. M.; Grantham, W. L.; Boggs, D. H.; Sweet, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    This paper describes the algorithms used to convert engineering unit data obtained from the Seasat-A satellite scatterometer (SASS) to radar scattering coefficients and associated supporting parameters. A description is given of the instrument receiver and related processing used by the scatterometer to measure signal power backscattered from the earth's surface. The applicable radar equation used for determining scattering coefficient is derived. Sample results of SASS data processed through current algorithm development facility (ADF) scattering coefficient algorithms are presented which include scattering coefficient values for both water and land surfaces. Scattering coefficient signatures for these two surface types are seen to have distinctly different characteristics. Scattering coefficient measurements of the Amazon rain forest indicate the usefulness of this type of data as a stable calibration reference target.

  15. The SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Horneck, G.

    In the 21 st century, an increasing number of astronauts will visit the International Space Station (ISS) for prolonged times. Therefore it is of utmost importance to provide necessary basic knowledge concerning risks to their health and their ability to work on the station and during extravehicular activities (EVA) in free space. It is the aim of one experiment of the German project TRIPLE-LUX (to be flown on the ISS) to provide an estimation of health risk resulting from exposure of the astronauts to the radiation in space inside the station as well as during extravehicular activities on one hand, and of exposure of astronauts to unavoidable or as yet unknown ISS-environmental genotoxic substances on the other. The project will (i) provide increased knowledge of the biological action of space radiation and enzymatic repair of DNA damage, (ii) uncover cellular mechanisms of synergistic interaction of microgravity and space radiation and (iii) examine the space craft milieu with highly specific biosensors. For these investigations, the bacterial biosensor SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test will be used, combining the SOS-LUX-Test invented at DLR Germany (Patent) with the commercially available LAC-FLUORO-Test. The SOS-LUX-Test comprises genetically modified bacteria transformed with the pBR322-derived plasmid pPLS-1. This plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as a reporter element under control of the DNA-damage dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element. This system reacts to radiation and other agents that induce DNA damages with a dose dependent measurable emission of bioluminescence of the transformed bacteria. The analogous LAC-FLUORO-Test has been developed for the detection of cellular responses to cytotoxins. It is based on the constitutive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by the bacterial protein expression vector pGFPuv (Clontech, Palo Alto, USA). In response to cytotoxic agents, this system reacts with a dose-dependent reduction of GFP-fluorescence. Currently, a fully automated miniaturized hardware system for the bacterial set up, which includes measurements of luminescence and fluorescence or absorption and the image analysis based evaluation is under development. During the first mission of the SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-Test on the ISS, a standardized, DNA-damaging radiation source still to be determined will be used as a genotoxic inducer. A panel of recombinant Salmonella typhimurium strains carrying either the SOS-LUX plasmid or the fluorescence-mediating lac-GFPuv plasmid will be used to determine in parallel on one microplate the genotoxic and the cytotoxic action of the applied radiation in combination with microgravity. Either in addition to or in place of the fluorometric measurements of the cytotoxic agents, photometric measurements will simultaneously monitor cell growth, giving additional data on survival of the cells. The obtained data will be available on line during the TRIPLE-LUX mission time. Though it is the main goal during the TRIPLE-LUX mission to measure the radiation effect in microgravity, the SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test in principle is also applicable as a biomonitor for the detection and measurement of genotoxic substances in air or in the (recycled) water system on the ISS or on earth in general.

  16. Flexible Gates Generate Occluded Intermediates in the Transport Cycle of LacY?

    PubMed Central

    Stelzl, Lukas S.; Fowler, Philip W.; Sansom, Mark S.P.; Beckstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter lactose permease (LacY) alternates between cytoplasmic and periplasmic open conformations to co-transport a sugar molecule together with a proton across the plasma membrane. Indirect experimental evidence suggested the existence of an occluded transition intermediate of LacY, which would prevent leaking of the proton gradient. As no experimental structure is known, the conformational transition is not fully understood in atomic detail. We simulated transition events from a cytoplasmic open conformation to a periplasmic open conformation with the dynamic importance sampling molecular dynamics method and observed occluded intermediates. Analysis of water permeation pathways and the electrostatic free-energy landscape of a solvated proton indicated that the occluded state contains a solvated central cavity inaccessible from either side of the membrane. We propose a pair of geometric order parameters that capture the state of the pathway through the MFS transporters as shown by a survey of available crystal structures and models. We present a model for the occluded state of apo-LacY, which is similar to the occluded crystal structures of the MFS transporters EmrD, PepTSo, NarU, PiPT and XylE. Our simulations are consistent with experimental double electron spin–spin distance measurements that have been interpreted to show occluded conformations. During the simulations, a salt bridge that has been postulated to be involved in driving the conformational transition formed. Our results argue against a simple rigid-body domain motion as implied by a strict “rocker-switch mechanism” and instead hint at an intricate coupling between two flexible gates. PMID:24513108

  17. Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2011-01-01

    Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…

  18. Transformation of spherical harmonic coefficients to ellipsoidal harmonic coefficients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Dechambre; D. J. Scheeres

    2002-01-01

    Analytical expressions linking spherical harmonics gravity field expansions with ellipsoidal harmonics gravity field expansions are developed. Certain symmetries and simplifications for the transformation between the two are noted. Using the expressions, a numerical approach is developed and applied for the computation of ellipsoidal harmonic gravity coefficients using spherical harmonics coefficients as inputs. This method can be used to transform a

  19. Attenuation of landfill leachate by clay liner materials in laboratory columns: 2. Behaviour of inorganic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Thornton, S F; Lerner, D N; Tellam, J H

    2001-02-01

    The chemical attenuation of inorganic contaminants in methanogenic landfill leachate, spiked with heavy metals (Cd, Cd, Ni and Zn), by two UK clay liner materials was compared in laboratory columns over 15 months. Ammonium was attenuated by ion-exchange but this attenuation was finite and when exhausted, NH4 passed through the liners at concentrations found in the leachate. The breakthrough behaviour of NH4 could be described by a simple distribution coefficient. Heavy metals were attenuated by sorption and precipitation of metal sulphide and carbonate compounds near the top of the liner. Adequate SO4 and CaCO3 in the liner is necessary to ensure the long term retention of heavy metals, and pH buffering agents added to stabilise reactive metal fractions should be admixed with the liner. Some metals may not be chemically attenuated by clay liners due to the formation of stable complexes with organic and/or colloidal fractions in leachate. Flushing of the liners with oxygenated water after leachate caused mobilisation of attenuated contaminants. Sorbed NH4 was released by the liners but groundwater loadings were manageable. Re-oxidation of metal sulphides under these conditions resulted in the release of heavy metals from the liners when the pH buffering capacity was poor. Contaminant attenuation by the clay liners was similar and the attenuation of NH4 and heavy metals could be predicted from the geochemical properties of the liner using simple tests. A conceptual model of clay liner performance is presented. Chemical attenuation of inorganic pollutants can be included in containment liner design to produce a dual reactive-passive barrier for landfills. PMID:11525477

  20. Evaluation of critical indicators in the process of acquiring supplies and services LAC-UFPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caetano, V. F.; Ferreira, C. V.; dos Santos, M. J.; Honorato, F. A.

    2015-01-01

    In laboratories linked to public universities and accredited by the NBR ISO/IEC 17025, to meet efficiently item 4.6 (procurement of supplies and services) is a challenge that can be accomplished by programming based on historical purchases and services. In this study, we evaluated the critical procurement items to meet the quality management system of the LAC-UFPE: reagents, certified reference material, of equipment parts, maintenance and calibration of equipment and instruments. It was found that the most critical item is the certified reference material, the purchase or repair of which must be expedited within 125 days prior to the receipt to occur within the desired period.

  1. VSOP monitoring of the compact BL Lac object AO 0235+164

    E-print Network

    Frey, S; Gabuzda, D C; Salter, C J; Altschüler, D R; Perillat, P; Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Hirabayashi, H; Davis, M M

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the highly compact and variable BL Lac object AO 0235+164 was identified as the highest brightness temperature active galactic nucleus observed with the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP), with T_B > 5.8 x 10^{13} K. The sub-milliarcsecond radio structure of this source has been studied with dual-frequency (1.6 and 5 GHz), polarization-sensitive VSOP observations during 2001 and 2002. Here we present the results of this monitoring campaign. At the time of these observations, the source was weakly polarized and characterized by a radio core that is clearly resolved on space-ground baselines.

  2. VSOP monitoring of the compact BL Lac object AO 0235+164

    E-print Network

    S. Frey; L. I. Gurvits; D. C. Gabuzda; C. J. Salter; D. R. Altschuler; P. Perillat; M. F. Aller; H. D. Aller; H. Hirabayashi; M. M. Davis

    2005-09-19

    In 1999, the highly compact and variable BL Lac object AO 0235+164 was identified as the highest brightness temperature active galactic nucleus observed with the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP), with T_B > 5.8 x 10^{13} K. The sub-milliarcsecond radio structure of this source has been studied with dual-frequency (1.6 and 5 GHz), polarization-sensitive VSOP observations during 2001 and 2002. Here we present the results of this monitoring campaign. At the time of these observations, the source was weakly polarized and characterized by a radio core that is clearly resolved on space-ground baselines.

  3. New statistical results on the optical IDV data of BL Lac S5 0716+714

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, D?nil?; Alexandru, Marcu; Raluca, Mocanu Gabriela

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the statistical behavior of the optical Intraday Variability of BL Lac S5 0716+714. Available Intraday Variability data in the optical are tested to see whether or not the magnitude is lognormally distributed. Our results consistently indicate that this is not the case. This is in agreement with a previous discussion about data for the same object but in a different observational period. Simultaneously, the spectral slope of the light curves is calculated. The implications of these findings on models that describe both the location and source of Intraday Variability are presented.

  4. Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan Hoover

    2009-11-16

    This plan discusses the current energy use on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, the current status of the Tribe's energy program, as well as the issues and concerns with energy on the reservation. This plan also identifies and outlines energy opportunities, goals, and objectives for the Tribe to accomplish. The overall goal of this plan is to address the energy situation of the reservation in a holistic manner for the maximum benefit to the Tribe. This plan is an evolving document that will be re-evaluated as the Tribe's energy situation changes.

  5. Assessment of early demineralization in teeth using the signal attenuation in optical coherence tomography images

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Dan P.; Sowa, Michael G.; Hewko, Mark D.; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography imaging is used to improve the detection of incipient carious lesions in dental enamel. Measurements of signal attenuation in images acquired with an 850-nm light source were performed on 21 extracted molars from eight human volunteers. Stronger attenuation was observed for the optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal in healthy enamel than in carious lesions. The measured attenuation coefficients from the two groups form distinct statistical populations. The coefficients obtained from sound enamel fall within the range of 0.70 to 2.14 mm?1 with a mean value of 1.35 mm?1, while those in carious regions range from 0.47 to 1.88 mm?1, with a mean value of 0.77 mm?1. Three values are selected as the lower threshold for signal attenuation in sound enamel: 0.99, 0.94, and 0.88 mm?1. These thresholds were selected to provide detection of sound enamel with fixed specificities of 90%, 95%, and 97.5%, respectively. The corresponding sensitivities for the detection of carious lesions are 92.8%, 90.4%, and 87%, respectively, for the sample population used in this study. These findings suggest that attenuation of OCT signal at 850 nm could be an indicator of tooth demineralization and could be used as a marker for early caries detection. PMID:19021433

  6. GPR data noise attenuation on the curvelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Qian-Zong; Li, Qing-Chun; Chen, Wen-Chao

    2014-09-01

    Signal extraction is critical in GRP data processing and noise attenuation. When the target depth is shallow, its reflection echo signal will overlap with the background noise, affecting the detection of arrival time and localization of the target. Thus, we propose a noise attenuation method based on the curvelet transform. First, the original signal is transformed into the curvelet domain, and then the curvelet coefficients of the background noise are extracted according to the distribution features that differ from the effective signal. In the curvelet domain, the coarse-scale curvelet atom is isotropic. Hence, a two-dimensional directional filter is designed to estimate the high-energy background noise in the coarsescale domain, and then, attenuate the background noise and highlight the effective signal. In this process, we also use a subscale threshold value of the curvelet domain to filter out random noise. Finally, we compare the proposed method with the average elimination and 2D continuous wavelet transform methods. The results show that the proposed method not only removes the background noise but also eliminates the coherent interference and random noise. The numerical simulation and the real data application suggest and verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Underwater optical wireless communications: depth dependent variations in attenuation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Laura J; Green, Roger J; Leeson, Mark S

    2013-11-20

    Depth variations in the attenuation coefficient for light in the ocean were calculated using a one-parameter model based on the chlorophyll-a concentration C(c) and experimentally-determined Gaussian chlorophyll-depth profiles. The depth profiles were related to surface chlorophyll levels for the range 0-4??mg/m², representing clear, open ocean. The depth where C(c) became negligible was calculated to be shallower for places of high surface chlorophyll; 111.5 m for surface chlorophyll 0.8attenuation for underwater ocean communication links, calculated to be 0.0092??m?¹ at a wavelength of 430 nm. By combining this with satellite surface-chlorophyll data, it is possible to quantify the attenuation between any two locations in the ocean, with applications for low-noise or secure underwater communications and vertical links from the ocean surface. PMID:24513735

  8. Controlling frontal photopolymerization with optical attenuation and mass diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessy, Matthew G.; Vitale, Alessandra; Matar, Omar K.; Cabral, João T.

    2015-06-01

    Frontal photopolymerization (FPP) is a versatile directional solidification process that can be used to rapidly fabricate polymer network materials by selectively exposing a photosensitive monomer bath to light. A characteristic feature of FPP is that the monomer-to-polymer conversion profiles take on the form of traveling waves that propagate into the unpolymerized bulk from the illuminated surface. Practical implementations of FPP require detailed knowledge about the conversion profile and speed of these traveling waves. The purpose of this theoretical study is to (i) determine the conditions under which FPP occurs and (ii) explore how optical attenuation and mass transport can be used to finely tune the conversion profile and propagation kinetics. Our findings quantify the strong optical attenuation and slow mass transport relative to the rate of polymerization required for FPP. The shape of the traveling wave is primarily controlled by the magnitude of the optical attenuation coefficients of the neat and polymerized material. Unexpectedly, we find that mass diffusion can increase the net extent of polymerization and accelerate the growth of the solid network. The theoretical predictions are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data acquired for representative systems.

  9. A method for monitoring nuclear absorption coefficients of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1989-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  10. Prediction in random coefficient regression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolf Beran

    1995-01-01

    Random coefficient regression and autoregressive models are important in diverse applications such as the classical statistical analysis of random and mixed effects models, the modelling of certain econometric and biological time series, and as a means for image compression. This paper develops nonparametric prediction intervals for a random coefficient regression model. The construction of these intervals requires a consistent estimate

  11. The Percentage Bend Correlation Coefficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    1994-01-01

    The percentage bend correlation coefficient is introduced as one way to address the problem that the usual correlation coefficient is highly nonrobust. While this method is not a replacement for the usual test, it can offer advantages in terms of power and Type I errors. (SLD)

  12. Abundance Gradients in Cooling Flow Clusters: Ginga Lac & Einstein SSS Spectra of A496, A1795, A2142 & A2199

    E-print Network

    Raymond E. White III; C. S. R. Day; Isamu Hatsukade; John P. Hughes

    1994-04-26

    We analyze the Ginga LAC and Einstein SSS spectra of four cooling flow clusters, A496, A1795, A2142 and A2199, each of which shows firm evidence of a relatively cool component. The inclusion of such cool spectral components in joint fits of SSS and LAC data leads to somewhat higher global temperatures than are derived from the high energy LAC data alone. We find little evidence of cool emission outside the SSS field of view. Metal abundances appear to be centrally enhanced in all four cluster, with varying degrees of model dependence and statistical significance: the evidence is statistically strongest for A496 and A2142, somewhat weaker for A2199 and weakest for A1795. We also explore the model-dependence in the amount of cold, X-ray absorbing matter discovered in these clusters by White et al. (1991).

  13. Creep-Induced Evolution of Ultrasonic Attenuation in a Martensite Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, T.

    2008-02-01

    Electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR) is a contactless resonance method using an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). In this study, EMAR was applied to detect the creep damage process in a martensite stainless steel (JIS-SUS403). We used a bulk-wave EMAT and measured ultrasonic attenuation and velocity as creep progressed. Attenuation coefficient exhibits a much larger sensitivity to the damage accumulation than the velocity. It shows a maximum peak at approximately 20% and a minimum peak at 50% of the creep life.

  14. Centimeter and millimeter wave attenuation and brightness temperature due to atmospheric oxygen and water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. K.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations are presented for atmospheric absorption and radiation emission for several atmospheric conditions and elevation angles. The calculations are for frequencies in the 1 to 340 GHz frequency range. The calculations are compared to those from other models. Agreement is found to within 15% for absorption coefficient (7.5 g/m/cubed water vapor at 290 K) and approximately the same for total zenithal attenuation. The attenuation and gaseous emission noise curves defined by the International Radio Consultative Committee are found to have minor inconsistencies.

  15. The relationship between phytoplankton concentration and light attenuation in ocean waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, David A.; Yentsch, Charles S.

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy of chlorophyll estimates by ocean color algorithms is affected by the variability of particulate attenuation; the presence of dissolved organic matter; and the nonlinear inverse relationship between the attenuation coefficient, K, and chlorophyll. Data collected during the Warm Core Rings Program were used to model the downwelling light field and determine the impact of these errors. A possible mechanism for the nonlinearity of K and chlorophyll is suggested; namely, that changing substrate from nitrate-nitrogen to ammonium causes enhanced blue absorption by photosynthetic phytoplankton in oligotrophic surface waters.

  16. Functional molecular weight of the lac carrier protein from Escherichia coli as studied by radiation inactivation analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldkorn, T; Rimon, G; Kempner, E S; Kaback, H R

    1984-01-01

    Cytoplasmic membrane vesicles prepared from Escherichia coli containing multiple copies of the lac y gene were frozen in liquid nitrogen before or after generation of a proton electrochemical gradient (interior negative and alkaline) and irradiated with a high-energy electron beam at -135 degrees C. Subsequently, the lac carrier protein was extracted into octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, reconstituted into proteoliposomes, and assayed for transport activity. Under all conditions tested, activity decreased as a single exponential function of radiation dosage, allowing straightforward application of target theory for determination of functional molecular mass. When lac carrier activity solubilized from nonenergized vesicles was assayed, the results obtained were consistent with a functional molecular size of 45-50 kDa, a value similar to the size of the protein as determined by other means. Similar values were obtained when the octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside extract was irradiated, and the target size observed for D-lactate dehydrogenase was in good agreement with the molecular size of this enzyme. Strikingly, when the same procedures were carried out with vesicles that were energized with appropriate electron donors prior to freezing and irradiation, a functional molecular size of 85-100 kDa was obtained for the lac carrier with no change in the target size of D-lactate dehydrogenase. In contrast, when the vesicles were energized under conditions in which the proton electrochemical gradient was collapsed, the target mass of the lac carrier returned to 45-50 kDa. The results indicate that the functional mass of the lac carrier protein is no greater than a dimer and suggest that the proton electrochemical gradient may cause an alteration in subunit interactions. PMID:6230670

  17. Small-scale field test of the genetically engineered lacZY marker

    SciTech Connect

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Brandt, E.J.; Travis, C.C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Commercial genetic engineering is advancing into areas that require the small-scale introduction of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to better quantify variables that affect microorganism distribution and survival and to document potential long-term consequences. A recombinant DNA marker system, the lacZY marker, developed by the Monsanto Agricultural Co., enables the distribution and fate of marked fluorescent pseudomonad organisms to be monitored under actual field conditions. Critical evaluation of GEMs under field conditions is imperative if plant-beneficial effects are to be correlated with organism release. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this marker system and its ability to facilitate the assessment of risks associated with deliberate environmental introductions of genetically engineered microorganisms. Results of prerelease contained growth chamber and field experiments demonstrated that: (1) the scientific risk assessment methodology adopted by Monsanto and approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was appropriate and comprehensive; (2) the deliberate introduction of a GEM did not pose unacceptable or unforeseen risks to human health or the environment; (3) the lacZY marker is an effective environmental tracking tool; and (4) regulatory oversight should reflect the expected risk and not be excessively burdensome for all GEMs.

  18. In vitro transcription accurately predicts lac repressor phenotype in vivo in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A multitude of studies have looked at the in vivo and in vitro behavior of the lac repressor binding to DNA and effector molecules in order to study transcriptional repression, however these studies are not always reconcilable. Here we use in vitro transcription to directly mimic the in vivo system in order to build a self consistent set of experiments to directly compare in vivo and in vitro genetic repression. A thermodynamic model of the lac repressor binding to operator DNA and effector is used to link DNA occupancy to either normalized in vitro mRNA product or normalized in vivo fluorescence of a regulated gene, YFP. An accurate measurement of repressor, DNA and effector concentrations were made both in vivo and in vitro allowing for direct modeling of the entire thermodynamic equilibrium. In vivo repression profiles are accurately predicted from the given in vitro parameters when molecular crowding is considered. Interestingly, our measured repressor–operator DNA affinity differs significantly from previous in vitro measurements. The literature values are unable to replicate in vivo binding data. We therefore conclude that the repressor-DNA affinity is much weaker than previously thought. This finding would suggest that in vitro techniques that are specifically designed to mimic the in vivo process may be necessary to replicate the native system. PMID:25097824

  19. Calculations of radar backscattering coefficient of vegetation-covered soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, T.; Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J. (principal investigators)

    1983-01-01

    A model for simulating the measured backscattering coefficient of vegetation-covered soil surfaces includes both coherent and incoherent components of the backscattered radar pulses from a rough sil surface. The effect of vegetation canopy scattering is also incorporated into the model by making the radar pulse subject to two-way attenuation and volume scattering when it passes through the vegetation layer. Model results agree well with the measured angular distributions of the radar backscattering coefficient for HH polarization at the 1.6 GHz and 4.75 GHz frequencies over grass-covered fields. It was found that the coherent scattering component is very important at angles near nadir, while the vegetation volume scattering is dominant at incident angles 30 degrees.

  20. A method for estimating radiation interaction coefficients for tissues from single energy CT.

    PubMed

    Midgley, S M

    2014-12-01

    A parametric model for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient is used to describe the compositional dependence of Hounsfield numbers measured by medical CT scanners. Measurements with materials of known density and composition, that span and evenly sample the compositional range of tissues, are written as linear simultaneous equations and solved for model coefficients. An algorithm is identified for this purpose. Results are expressed as atomic cross-sections in units of barn per electron divided by the attenuation coefficient for water. With the CT scanner characterised, a virtual CT scan can be simulated to predict HN for tissues based upon their known density and composition. Similar calculations using the tabulations and mixture rule deliver attenuation coefficients and mass energy absorption coefficients for mono-energetic radiation 10 keV to 20 MeV. Results are presented for measurements with a radiotherapy CT simulator, the RMI-467 phantom with tissue substitute materials, plus common polymer materials and silicon. Published measurements with earlier generations of the phantom and tissue substitutes using different CT scanners are also considered. Measured atomic cross-sections differ from expectations for mono-energetic radiation due to the use of a filtered spectrum and energy integrating detection system. The cross-sections for different CT scanners are similar, without large variations with kVp. Results are presented showing the relationship between predicted HN for tissues, electron density and photon interaction coefficients for healthy tissues and mono-energetic radiation. A strategy is suggested for accommodating strongly attenuating materials such as calculi and metallic implants. PMID:25393760

  1. GB6 J1058+5628: A NEW QUASI-PERIODIC BL LAC OBJECT FROM THE ASIAGO PLATE ARCHIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Nesci, R., E-mail: roberto.nesci@uniroma1.i [Physics Department, University of Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    We present the historic photographic light curves of three little known blazars (two BL Lac objects and one FSRQ), GB6 J1058+5628, GB6 J1148+5254, and GB6 J1209+4119, spanning a time interval of about 50 years, mostly built using the Asiago plate archive. All objects show evident long-term variability, over which short-term variations are superposed. One source, GB6 J1058+5628, showed a marked quasi-periodic variability of 1 mag on timescale of about 6.3 years, making it one of the few BL Lac objects with a quasi-periodic behavior.

  2. Multi-Wave Luminosity of High-Synchrotron-Peaked TeV BL Lacs Detected by Fermi LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Dingrong; Zhang, Xiong; Zheng, Yonggang

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the correlations between luminosities ( L R, L IR, L ?) in the radio, near-infrared and ?-ray wave bands for HSP TeV BL Lacs. The results show that there are significant intrinsic correlations between L R and L ? and between L IR and L ? in all states (high/average/low), and suggest that for HSP TeV BL Lacs, the Synchrotron Self-Compton radiation (SSC) is the main mechanism of high energy ?-ray emission, and the inverse Compton scattering of circum-nuclear dust is likely to be an important complementary mechanism.

  3. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility versus lattice-and shape-preferred orientation in the Lac Tio hemo-ilmenite ore body

    E-print Network

    Bascou, Jérôme

    Keywords: Magnetic fabric EBSD Image analysis Iron­titanium ore Anorthosite The Lac Tio hemo-ilmenite ore body crops out in the outer portion of the 1.06 Ga Lac Allard anorthosite, a member of the Havre-Saint-Pierre anorthosite suite from the Grenville province of North America. It is made up of ilmenitite (commonly

  4. Three hundred years of human-induced change in an urban lake: paleolimnological analysis of Lac Saint-Augustin, Québec City, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Pienitz; Karine Roberge; Warwick F. Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Lac Saint-Augustin provides a unique record of anthropogenic change during the settlement and evolution of Quebec City, one of North America's oldest cities. Lac Saint-Augustin is an urban lake that has been subject to three cen- turies of direct human impacts, with the most pronounced changes in trophic status and chemistry occurring within the last few decades. This accelerated eutrophication

  5. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-04-01

    In this report we will show some new Q related seismic attributes on the Burlington-Seitel data set. One example will be called Energy Absorption Attribute (EAA) and is based on a spectral analysis. The EAA algorithm is designed to detect a sudden increase in the rate of exponential decay in the relatively higher frequency portion of the spectrum. In addition we will show results from a hybrid attribute that combines attenuation with relative acoustic impedance to give a better indication of commercial gas saturation.

  6. Attenuating gene expression (AGE) for vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, David W; Suo, Zhiyong; Cao, Ling; Avci, Recep; Yang, Xinghong

    2013-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines are adept in stimulating protective immunity. Methods for generating such vaccines have largely adopted strategies used with Salmonella enterica. Yet, when similar strategies were tested in other gram-negative bacteria, the virulence factors or genes responsible to incapacitate Salmonella often failed in providing the desired outcome. Consequently, conventional live vaccines rely on prior knowledge of the pathogen’s virulence factors to successfully attenuate them. This can be problematic since such bacterial pathogens normally harbor thousands of genes. To circumvent this problem, we found that overexpression of bacterial appendages, e.g., fimbriae, capsule, and flagella, could successfully attenuate wild-type (wt) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Further analysis revealed these attenuated Salmonella strains conferred protection against wt S. Typhimurium challenge as effectively as genetically defined Salmonella vaccines. We refer to this strategy as attenuating gene expression (AGE), a simple efficient approach in attenuating bacterial pathogens, greatly facilitating the construction of live vaccines. PMID:23652809

  7. Negative coefficient of normal restitution.

    PubMed

    Müller, Patric; Krengel, Dominik; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2012-04-01

    This paper shows that negative coefficients of normal restitution occur inevitably when the interaction force between colliding particles is finite. We derive an explicit criterion showing that for any set of material properties there is always a collision geometry leading to negative restitution coefficients. While from a phenomenological point of view, negative coefficients of normal restitution appear rather artificial, this phenomenon is generic and implies an important overlooked limitation of the widely used hard sphere model. The criterion is explicitly applied to two paradigmatic situations: for the linear dashpot model and for viscoelastic particles. In addition, we show that for frictional particles the phenomenon is less pronounced than for smooth spheres. PMID:22680468

  8. Negative coefficient of normal restitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Patric; Krengel, Dominik; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2012-04-01

    This paper shows that negative coefficients of normal restitution occur inevitably when the interaction force between colliding particles is finite. We derive an explicit criterion showing that for any set of material properties there is always a collision geometry leading to negative restitution coefficients. While from a phenomenological point of view, negative coefficients of normal restitution appear rather artificial, this phenomenon is generic and implies an important overlooked limitation of the widely used hard sphere model. The criterion is explicitly applied to two paradigmatic situations: for the linear dashpot model and for viscoelastic particles. In addition, we show that for frictional particles the phenomenon is less pronounced than for smooth spheres.

  9. Generalized exclusion processes: Transport coefficients.

    PubMed

    Arita, Chikashi; Krapivsky, P L; Mallick, Kirone

    2014-11-01

    A class of generalized exclusion processes with symmetric nearest-neighbor hopping which are parametrized by the maximal occupancy, k?1, is investigated. For these processes on hypercubic lattices we compute the diffusion coefficient in all spatial dimensions. In the extreme cases of k=1 (symmetric simple exclusion process) and k=? (noninteracting symmetric random walks) the diffusion coefficient is constant, while for 2?kcoefficient of self-diffusion. PMID:25493741

  10. Generalized exclusion processes: Transport coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arita, Chikashi; Krapivsky, P. L.; Mallick, Kirone

    2014-11-01

    A class of generalized exclusion processes with symmetric nearest-neighbor hopping which are parametrized by the maximal occupancy, k ?1 , is investigated. For these processes on hypercubic lattices we compute the diffusion coefficient in all spatial dimensions. In the extreme cases of k =1 (symmetric simple exclusion process) and k =? (noninteracting symmetric random walks) the diffusion coefficient is constant, while for 2 ?k coefficient of self-diffusion.

  11. Microwave Phonon Attenuation in Magnesium Aluminate Spinel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Lewis; E. Patterson

    1968-01-01

    Measurements are reported of the attenuation of microwave phonons of various modes in magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4). The attenuation of certain modes is lower than in any other material measured and permits the observation of 9000 MHz echo patterns at room temperature. Some possible applications of this discovery are discussed. The attenuation at room temperature is interpreted in terms of

  12. Monitored Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvent Plumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Wilson

    \\u000a As specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1999), the term “monitored natural attenuation … refers to\\u000a the reliance on natural attenuation processes … to achieve site-specific remediation objectives within a time frame that is\\u000a reasonable compared to that offered by other more active methods. The ‘natural attenuation processes’ that are at work in\\u000a such a remediation approach include

  13. The Physics of the Gas Attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D.D.; Bionta, R.M.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; Kishiyama, K.I.; McMahon, D.; Roeben, M.D.; Shen, S.; /LLNL, Livermore; Stefan, P.M.; /SLAC; ,

    2011-02-07

    A systematic assessment of a variety of physics issues affecting the performance of the LCLS X-ray beam attenuator is presented. Detailed analysis of the gas flow in the gas attenuator and in the apertures is performed. A lot of attention is directed towards the gas ionization and heating by intense X-ray pulses. The role of these phenomena in possible deviations of the attenuation coefficient from its 'dialed in' value is evaluated and found small in most cases. Other sources of systematic and statistical errors are also discussed. The regimes where the errors may reach a few percent correspond to the lower X-ray energies (less than 2 keV) and highest beam intensities. Other effects discussed include chemical interaction of the gas with apertures, shock formation in the transonic flow in the apertures of the attenuator, generation of electromagnetic wakes in the gas, and head-to-tail variation of the attenuation caused by the ionization of gas or solid. Possible experimental tests of the consistency of the physics assumptions used in the concept of the gas attenuator are discussed. Interaction of X-rays with the solid attenuator (that will be used at higher X-ray energies, from 2.5 to 8 keV) is considered and thermo-mechanical effects caused by the beam heating are evaluated. Wave-front distortions induced by non-uniform heating of both the solid and the gas are found to be small. An overall conclusion drawn from the analysis presented is that the attenuator will be a reliable and highly versatile device, provided that some caution is exercised in its use for highest beam intensities at lowest X-ray energies.

  14. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  15. Dust Attenuation at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Danielle; Anderson, Lauren M.; Quinn, Thomas R.; Governato, Fabio; Tremmel, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the dust distribution of the 100 most massive systems in the Vulcan simulation, a new state of the art cosmological simulation of a 25 Mpc per side volume, with unprecedented spatial resolution. The galaxies in our sample have typical stellar masses of 10**8.5-10.5 solar masses and star formation rates in the range 1-100 solar masses per year, typical of galaxies observed in the CANDELS survey. Interstellar dust remarkably affects how we observe galaxies - it comprises only ~ 0.1% of the total mass in a galaxy yet absorbs nearly 50% of it's starlight and reradiates it as far infrared continuum emission. Here we use a complete set of resolved systems to study how this attenuation varies with halo mass and metallicity, as well as star formation history, and orientation at high redshift. To measure the effects of dust we use Sunrise, a 3D radiative transfer code, which processes stellar light through dust in arbitrary geometries, and calculates the SED of every resolution element, from the far-UV to far-infrared. Using Sunrise, we can realistically calculate the attenuation of each resolved galaxy to quantify its variation with physical quantities. In addition, with these 'simulated observations', we compare our sample to the high redshift IRX-beta relationship observed in Lyman break galaxies, and investigate the cause of its intrinsic scatter.

  16. Assessment of satellite derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Optical data collected in coastal waters off South Florida and in the Caribbean Sea between January 2009 and December 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied to MOIDS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. Th...

  17. Diffusion Coefficients in White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saumon, D.; Starrett, C. E.; Daligault, J.

    2015-06-01

    Models of diffusion in white dwarfs universally rely on the coefficients calculated by Paquette et al. (1986). We present new calculations of diffusion coefficients based on an advanced microscopic theory of dense plasmas and a numerical simulation approach that intrinsically accounts for multiple collisions. Our method is validated against a state-of-the-art method and we present results for the diffusion of carbon ions in a helium plasma.

  18. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  19. The Seebeck coefficient of iodine

    E-print Network

    Perez-Fernandez, Domingo Miguel

    1968-01-01

    THE SEEBECK COEFFICIENT OF IODINE A Thesis By DOMINGO M. PEREZ-F~EZ Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1968 Major Subject...; Physics THE SEEBECK COEFFICIENT OF IODINE A Thesis By DOMINGO M. PEREZ-FERNANDEZ Approved as to style and content by: ( airman of Co ittee) (Member) (Head of Depa ment) (Member) ( ember) (Member) (Member) January 1968 ACKNONLEDGEMENTS...

  20. Decadal to millennial scale geomagnetic field variations in the Levantine archaeointensity curve (LAC): methodology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaar, Ron; Tauxe, Lisa; Ron, Hagai; Agnon, Amotz; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Finkelstein, Israel; Zuckerman, Sharon; Levy, Thomas E.

    2014-05-01

    Recovering the absolute intensity of the geomagnetic field on historical and archaeological timescale (archaeointensity) in a sufficient resolution is a fundamental effort in the paleomagnetic research. However, it is a complicated task hampered by some serious methodological difficulties. First, paleointensity experiments should be carefully designed using sufficient number of specimens, and accurate correction for remanence anisotropy, cooling rate effects, and non-linear TRM (NLT). Second, the basic assumption of the paleointensity method - that the natural remanence magnetization (NRM) is a stable thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) carried by single domain (SD) like particles - is hard to test using non-destructive methods. Third, the interpretation of the experimental results is non-unique leading to uncertainty in the final paleointensity calculation. These experimental difficulties compound with dating problems, which are not always easy to overcome. Here, we address each of the issues pointed above in order to construct a high-resolution archaeointensity curve of the Levant using a comprehensive dataset consisting of more than 2000 specimens from over 400 samples. The experimental difficulties are overcome by applying the same treatments to all specimens: Thellier-type IZZI protocol with pTRM checks every second step, and additional anisotropy, cooling rate, and NLT experiments. To ensure consistency, comparability, and objectivity of the interpretations we apply an automatic data analysis technique using a recently published open code computer program (PmagPy Thellier-GUI). We use strict selection criteria for the specimens/samples level and for the correction to screen out any unreliable data. For transparency, we make all the raw data, which include over 80,000 individual measurements, available in the MagIC database for the use of other researchers. We treat the dating problems by assigning a six-level quality scale (form controversial to excellent) according to the dating method employed (archaeological, historical, radiocarbon). In addition, we cross check results from multiple archaeological sites using different source materials dated using different methodologies. The results of this effort are summarized in a regional compilation namely Levantine Archaeomagnetic Curve - LAC. The initial version of the LAC includes recently published data from ancient copper production sites, and new data from two important biblical archaeological mounds in Israel - Tel Megiddo ("Armageddon") and Tel Hazor. In this talk we review our working methodologies, report the current status of the LAC, and discuss its implications on our understanding of geomagnetic secular variations.

  1. Study of ultrasonic attenuation in f-electron systems in the paramagnetic limit of Coulomb interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadangi, Asit Ku.; Rout, G. C.

    2015-05-01

    We report here a microscopic model study of ultrasonic attenuation in f-electron systems based on Periodic Anderson Model in which Coulomb interaction is considered within a mean-field approximation for a weak interaction. The Phonon is coupled to the conduction band and f-electrons. The phonon Green's function is calculated by Zubarev's technique of the Green's function method. The temperature dependent ultrasonic attenuation co-efficient is calculated from the imaginary part of the phonon self-energy in the dynamic and long wave length limit. The f-electron occupation number is calculated self-consistently in paramagnetic limit of Coulomb interaction. The effect of the Coulomb interaction on ultrasonic attenuation is studied by varying the phonon coupling parameters to the conduction and f-electrons, hybridization strength, the position of f-level and the Coulomb interaction Strength. Results are discussed on the basis of experimental results.

  2. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Ripon City Landfill, Fond du Lac County, Ripon, WI, March 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Ripon FF/LN landfill Superfund site is located at the intersection of Highways FF and NN in the Town of Ripon, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin. The selected source control remedy is Alternative O, Composite Landfill Cap and Passive Gas Venting in conjunction with a groundwater monitoring plan.

  3. Chemical modification, characterization and bioactivity of Chinese lacquer polysaccharides from lac tree Rhus vernicifera against leukopenia induced by cyclophosphamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhong Yang; Yumin Du

    2003-01-01

    Lacquer polysaccharide (LP) was isolated from the sap of lac tree (Rhus vernicifera). Its derivatives, carboxymethyl LP, sulfated LP and debranching LP were prepared. Their structure was analyzed by GPC, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. The sugar components of carboxymethyl and sulfated LPs hardly changed, but the molecular weight of the former decreased. The side chains of LPs were partially removed

  4. 78 FR 45556 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Lac du Flambeau...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...Acquisition and Casino Project in Shullsburg, Wisconsin AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...casino project in the City of Shullsburg, Wisconsin, proposed by the Lac du Flambeau Band...444 N. Judgement Street, Shullsburg, Wisconsin. You may mail, hand deliver, or...

  5. Probing the LYAlpha Forest at 0.5 < z < 1.6 Using Flaring Quasars and BL Lacs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Stocke

    1995-01-01

    We propose spectroscopic observations of flaring quasars and BL Lacs with the FOS + high resolution gratings to study the line density and clustering of LyAlpha lines in the hitherto inaccessible redshift range 0.5

  6. Evidence for the pulsational origin of the Long Secondary Periods: The red supergiant star V424 Lac (HD 216946)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Sergio

    2007-10-01

    The results of a long-term UBV photometric monitoring of the red supergiant (RSG) star V424 Lac are presented. V424 Lac shows multiperiodic brightness variations which can be attributed to pulsational oscillations. A much longer period ( P = 1601 d), that allows us to classify this star as a long secondary period variable star (LSPV) has been also detected. The B - V and U - B color variations related to the long secondary period (LSP) are similar to those related to the shorter periods, supporting the pulsational nature of LSP. The long period brightness variation of V424 Lac is accompanied by a near-UV (NUV) excess, which was spectroscopically detected in a previous study [Massey, P., Plez, B., Levesque, E.M., et al., 2005. ApJ 634, 1286] and which is now found to be variable from photometry. On the basis of the results found for V424 Lac, the NUV excess recently found in a number of RSGs may be due not solely to circumstellar dust but may also have a contribution from a still undetected LSP variability.

  7. Host acceptance tests of parasitoids from Indian Paratachardina lobata on the invasive lobate lac scale in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive lobate lac scale identified as Paratachardina lobata (Hemiptera: Keriidae), native to southern India and Sri Lanka, is a severe threat to native and economic plants in southern Florida. Four parasitoid species, from southern India associated with Paratachardina lobata, were tested in qu...

  8. Local elastic constants of LacI and implications for allostery.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andre A S T; Ortiz, Vanessa

    2015-04-01

    Allostery connects subtle changes in a protein's potential energy surface, induced by perturbations like ligand-binding, to significant changes in its function. Understanding this phenomenon and predicting its occurrence are major goals of current research in biophysics and molecular biology. In this paper we introduce a novel approach for studying complex structural transformations such as those typical for allostery. We show that the calculation and analysis of atomic elastic constants of a known allosterically regulated protein, lac repressor, highlights regions that are particularly prone to suffer structural deformation and are experimentally linked to allosteric function. The calculations are based on a high resolution, all-atom description of the protein. We also show that, for the present system, modifying the description of the system from an all-atom forcefield to an elastic network model yields qualitatively different results, indicating the importance of adequately describing the local environment surrounding the different parts of the protein. PMID:25700189

  9. Unidentified Active Galactic Nuclei in the Fermi-2LAC catalogue: identification of candidate sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klindt, L.; van Soelen, B.; Meintjes, P. J.

    Blazars constitute the most violent astronomical objects with jet emitting radiation at all frequencies. In order to fully understand and model blazars and in particular the accretion-black hole system and superluminal jet structure, multi-wavelength observations are required. In the search for Very High Energy (VHE) sources a target sample of twenty unidentified sources with possible blazar characteristics has been constructed from sources listed in the Fermi-2LAC catalogue. The selected targets are all at high galactic latitude (|b| > 10°) with optical/radio counterparts within the Fermi 95% error circle. The selection criteria, which are based on source properties including radio brightness, photon spectral indices, undetermined redshifts, observability and variability, are presented along with the twenty identified sources.

  10. p21-LacZ reporter mice reflect p53-dependent toxic insult

    SciTech Connect

    Vasey, Douglas B. [Division of Gene Function and Development, Roslin Institute, Roslin, Midlothian, EH25 9PS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: douglas.vasey@bbsrc.ac.uk; Wolf, C. Roland [University of Dundee Biomedical Research Centre, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, DD1 9SY (United Kingdom); CXR Biosciences Limited, James Lindsay Place, Dundee Technopole, Dundee, DD1 5JJ (United Kingdom); MacArtney, Thomas; Brown, Ken [CXR Biosciences Limited, James Lindsay Place, Dundee Technopole, Dundee, DD1 5JJ (United Kingdom); Whitelaw, C. Bruce A. [Division of Gene Function and Development, Roslin Institute, Roslin, Midlothian, EH25 9PS (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    There is an urgent need to discover less toxic and more selective drugs to treat disease. The use of transgenic mice that report on toxic insult-induced transcription can provide a valuable tool in this regard. To exemplify this strategy, we have generated transgenic mice carrying a p21-LacZ transgene. Transgene activity reflected endogenous p21 gene activation in various tissues, displayed compound-specific spatial expression signatures in the brain and immune tissues and enabled p53-dependent and p53-independent responses to be identified. We discuss the application of these mice in delineating the molecular events in normal cellular growth and disease and for the evaluation of drug toxicity.

  11. 4U1722 + 11 - The discovery of an X-ray selected BL Lac object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, R. E.; Wilson, A. S.; Ward, M. J.; Tapia, S.; Ulvestad, J. S.

    1989-09-01

    The Uhuru X-ray source 4U1722 + 11 was observed using the microchannel-plate detector (High Resolution Imager) on the Einstein Observatory, and its coordinates measured to a precision of about 5 arcsec. A 16th-magnitude stellar object within the error circle was observed spectroscopically at CTIO, and at the AAT, and found to have a featureless continuum. Subsequent radio observations at the VLA have established that the object is a radio source at the level of 60 mJy, and optical polarization measurements have determined that the source exhibits variable polarization at the level of 10 percent. On the basis of these observations, it is concluded that 4U1722 + 11 is a member of the class of objects known as X-ray selected blazars of BL Lac objects.

  12. 4U1722 + 11 - The discovery of an X-ray selected BL Lac object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffiths, R. E.; Wilson, A. S.; Ward, M. J.; Tapia, S.; Ulvestad, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    The Uhuru X-ray source 4U1722 + 11 was observed using the microchannel-plate detector (High Resolution Imager) on the Einstein Observatory, and its coordinates measured to a precision of about 5 arcsec. A 16th-magnitude stellar object within the error circle was observed spectroscopically at CTIO, and at the AAT, and found to have a featureless continuum. Subsequent radio observations at the VLA have established that the object is a radio source at the level of 60 mJy, and optical polarization measurements have determined that the source exhibits variable polarization at the level of 10 percent. On the basis of these observations, it is concluded that 4U1722 + 11 is a member of the class of objects known as X-ray selected blazars of BL Lac objects.

  13. Observations of the BL Lac Object 3C 66A with STACEE

    E-print Network

    D. A. Bramel; J. Carson; C. E. Covault; P. Fortin; D. M. Gingrich; D. S. Hanna; A. Jarvis; J. Kildea; T. Lindner; R. Mukherjee; C. Mueller; R. A. Ong; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. A. Williams; J. Zweerink

    2005-04-23

    We present the analysis and results of recent high-energy gamma-ray observations of the BL Lac object 3C 66A conducted with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE). During the 2003-2004 observing season, STACEE extensively observed 3C 66A as part of a multiwavelength campaign on the source. A total of 33.7 hours of data was taken on the source, plus an equivalent-duration background observation. After cleaning the data set a total of 16.3 hours of live time remained, and a net on-source excess of 1134 events was seen against a background of 231742 events. At a significance of 2.2 standard deviations this excess is insufficient to claim a detection of 3C 66A, but is used to establish flux upper limits for the source.

  14. Rapid variability of BL Lac 0925+504: interstellar scintillation induced?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Liu, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of rapid variability at 4.85 GHz for the BL Lac object 0925+504 is presented and discussed. The structure functions (SF) are investigated with both refractive and weak interstellar scintillation (RISS/WISS) models analytically. Parameters obtained with these models are quantitatively compared, suggesting that the emission region of IDV is remarkably compact and the responsible interstellar scintillation medium (ISM) lies very close to the observer. Furthermore possible evidence of annual modulation of the variability timescales is detected in this source. Our findings indicate that the observed rapid variability in 0925+504 is predominantly caused by a scattering screen located along the line of sight to the source, at a distance of ˜110 pc to the observer.

  15. Noncontact measurement of ultrasonic attenuation during rotating fatigue test of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ogi, H.; Hirao, M.; Minoura, K. [Faculty of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-3, Toyonaka, Osaka 560 (Japan)] [Faculty of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-3, Toyonaka, Osaka 560 (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    Acoustic resonance technique has been applied to monitor the fatigue damage process of steel pipes exposed to rotating bending fatigue. The technique incorporates a superheterodyne spectrometer and an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). The EMAT was newly developed for this purpose, and uses the magnetostrictive mechanism of ferromagnetic metals and excites and detects axial shear waves traveling around the sample pipe with axial polarization. Noncontact ultrasonic spectroscopy permits the accurate determination of the resonant frequency and the attenuation coefficient throughout the fatigue life. The attenuation coefficient shows a sharp peak around 80{percent}{endash}90{percent} of the life. The evolution is interpreted as reflecting dislocation multiplication, depinning, and formation of cell structures, which is supported by transmission electron microscopy observations. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Fos-tau-LacZ mice expose light-activated pathways in the visual system.

    PubMed

    Greferath, Ursula; Nag, Nupur; Zele, Andrew J; Bui, Bang V; Wilson, Yvette; Vingrys, Algis J; Murphy, Mark

    2004-11-01

    We have employed fos-tau-LacZ (FTL) transgenic mice to examine functional activation in the visual areas of the nervous system. The FTL mice express the marker gene lacZ in neurons and their processes following many different stimuli, and allow the imaging of activation from the level of the entire brain surface through individual neurons and their projections. Analysis of FTL expression in the retinas of mice following diurnal exposure to light shows that bipolar cells, specific classes of amacrine cells, ganglion cells, and a dense network of processes in the inner plexiform layer are functionally activated. In animals deprived of light, there is almost no activity in the retina. In the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), light exposure appears responsible for FTL expression in dorsal nuclei, but not for expression in the ventral nuclei or the intergeniculate leaflet. In the superficial layers of the superior colliculus, FTL expression is highly dependent on light exposure. Similarly, light exposure is required for FTL expression in primary visual cortex (area 17), but some expression remains in area 18 of dark-adapted animals. Finally, using mice with one or both eyes missing, we have determined which parts of the visual system are dependent on the presence of a functional connectivity from the eye. These data demonstrate the usefulness of the FTL mice to map functional activation within the entire visual system. Furthermore, we can capture visual activation in a conscious animal. Our findings give an insight into the architecture of activity within the retina and throughout the visual system. PMID:15528103

  17. Interplay of Protein and DNA Structure Revealed in Simulations of the lac Operon

    PubMed Central

    Czapla, Luke; Grosner, Michael A.; Swigon, David; Olson, Wilma K.

    2013-01-01

    The E. coli Lac repressor is the classic textbook example of a protein that attaches to widely spaced sites along a genome and forces the intervening DNA into a loop. The short loops implicated in the regulation of the lac operon suggest the involvement of factors other than DNA and repressor in gene control. The molecular simulations presented here examine two likely structural contributions to the in-vivo looping of bacterial DNA: the distortions of the double helix introduced upon association of the highly abundant, nonspecific nucleoid protein HU and the large-scale deformations of the repressor detected in low-resolution experiments. The computations take account of the three-dimensional arrangements of nucleotides and amino acids found in crystal structures of DNA with the two proteins, the natural rest state and deformational properties of protein-free DNA, and the constraints on looping imposed by the conformation of the repressor and the orientation of bound DNA. The predicted looping propensities capture the complex, chain-length-dependent variation in repression efficacy extracted from gene expression studies and in vitro experiments and reveal unexpected chain-length-dependent variations in the uptake of HU, the deformation of repressor, and the folding of DNA. Both the opening of repressor and the presence of HU, at levels approximating those found in vivo, enhance the probability of loop formation. HU affects the global organization of the repressor and the opening of repressor influences the levels of HU binding to DNA. The length of the loop determines whether the DNA adopts antiparallel or parallel orientations on the repressor, whether the repressor is opened or closed, and how many HU molecules bind to the loop. The collective behavior of proteins and DNA is greater than the sum of the parts and hints of ways in which multiple proteins may coordinate the packaging and processing of genetic information. PMID:23457581

  18. LacZ ?-galactosidase: Structure and function of an enzyme of historical and molecular biological importance

    PubMed Central

    Juers, Douglas H; Matthews, Brian W; Huber, Reuben E

    2012-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the structure, function, and catalytic mechanism of lacZ ?-galactosidase. The protein played a central role in Jacob and Monod's development of the operon model for the regulation of gene expression. Determination of the crystal structure made it possible to understand why deletion of certain residues toward the amino-terminus not only caused the full enzyme tetramer to dissociate into dimers but also abolished activity. It was also possible to rationalize ?-complementation, in which addition to the inactive dimers of peptides containing the “missing” N-terminal residues restored catalytic activity. The enzyme is well known to signal its presence by hydrolyzing X-gal to produce a blue product. That this reaction takes place in crystals of the protein confirms that the X-ray structure represents an active conformation. Individual tetramers of ?-galactosidase have been measured to catalyze 38,500 ± 900 reactions per minute. Extensive kinetic, biochemical, mutagenic, and crystallographic analyses have made it possible to develop a presumed mechanism of action. Substrate initially binds near the top of the active site but then moves deeper for reaction. The first catalytic step (called galactosylation) is a nucleophilic displacement by Glu537 to form a covalent bond with galactose. This is initiated by proton donation by Glu461. The second displacement (degalactosylation) by water or an acceptor is initiated by proton abstraction by Glu461. Both of these displacements occur via planar oxocarbenium ion-like transition states. The acceptor reaction with glucose is important for the formation of allolactose, the natural inducer of the lac operon. PMID:23011886

  19. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-10-01

    RSI has access to two synthetic seismic programs: Osiris seismic modeling system provided by Odegaard (Osiris) and synthetic seismic program, developed by SRB, implementing the Kennett method for normal incidence. Achieving virtually identical synthetic seismic traces from these different programs serves as cross-validation for both. The subsequent experiments have been performed with the Kennett normal incidence code because: We have access to the source code, which allowed us to easily control computational parameters and integrate the synthetics computations with our graphical and I/O systems. This code allows to perform computations and displays on a PC in MatLab or Octave environment, which is faster and more convenient. The normal incidence model allows us to exclude from the synthetic traces some of the physical effects that take place in 3-D models (like inhomogeneous waves) but have no relevance to the topic of our investigation, which is attenuation effects on seismic reflection and transmission.

  20. Attenuated Fractional Wave Equations With Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Meerschaert, Mark M; McGough, Robert J

    2014-10-01

    This paper develops new fractional calculus models for wave propagation. These models permit a different attenuation index in each coordinate to fully capture the anisotropic nature of wave propagation in complex media. Analytical expressions that describe power law attenuation and anomalous dispersion in each direction are derived for these fractional calculus models. PMID:25278739

  1. Definition, Objectives, and Evaluation of Natural Attenuation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce E. Rittmann

    2004-01-01

    Natural attenuation offers large benefits to owners and managers of contaminated sites, but often raises strong objections from those who live and work near a site and are asked to assume most of the long-term risks. Part of the controversy comes about because published definitions of natural attenuation do not identify a realistic end-point objective, and they also are ambiguous

  2. LONG TERM MONITORING FOR NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have good statistical methods to: (1) determine whether concentrations of a contaminant are attenuating over time, (2) determine the rate of attenuation and confidence interval on the rate, and (3) determine whether concentrations have met a particular clean up goal. We do no...

  3. Performance Assessment of Bioremediation and Natural Attenuation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter A. Illman; Pedro J. Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    Bioremediation and monitored natural attenuation are among the most cost-effective approaches to manage soil and groundwater contamination by hazardous organic pollutants. However, these remediation alternatives are not universally applicable and may be marginally effective for recalcitrant pollutants if the necessary microbial catabolic capacity is not present or expressed. Thus, regulatory and public approval of bioremediation and natural attenuation requires documentation

  4. Light attenuation on Chlorella vulgaris cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Tadeusz; Lotocka, Maria

    1993-12-01

    The laboratory measurements of spectrum of light attenuation on phytoplankton particles i.e. monoculture of unicellural green algae Chlorella vulgaris are presented. The measurements were carried out for alive culture and the cultures subjected to chemical (NaOH) or physical (ultrasounds) modification. The distinct changes in the light attenuation spectrum were a result of modification of the internal cell structures.

  5. Dependence of light attenuation and backscattering on collagen concentration and chondrocyte density in agarose scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puhakka, P. H.; Ylärinne, J. H.; Lammi, M. J.; Saarakkala, S.; Tiitu, V.; Kröger, H.; Virén, T.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Töyräs, J.

    2014-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been applied for high resolution imaging of articular cartilage. However, the contribution of individual structural elements of cartilage on OCT signal has not been thoroughly studied. We hypothesize that both collagen and chondrocytes, essential structural components of cartilage, act as important light scatterers and that variation in their concentrations can be detected by OCT through changes in backscattering and attenuation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we established a controlled model system using agarose scaffolds embedded with variable collagen concentrations and chondrocyte densities. Using OCT, we measured the backscattering coefficient (µb) and total attenuation coefficient (µt) in these scaffolds. Along our hypothesis, light backscattering and attenuation in agarose were dependent on collagen concentration and chondrocyte density. Significant correlations were found between µt and chondrocyte density (? = 0.853, p < 0.001) and between µt and collagen concentration (? = 0.694, p < 0.001). µb correlated significantly with chondrocyte density (? = 0.504, p < 0.001) but not with collagen concentration (? = 0.103, p = 0.422) of the scaffold. Thus, quantitation of light backscattering and, especially, attenuation could be valuable when evaluating the integrity of soft tissues, such as articular cartilage with OCT.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided attenuation and scatter corrections in three-dimensional brain positron emission tomography

    E-print Network

    Zaidi, H; Slosman, D O

    2003-01-01

    Reliable attenuation correction represents an essential component of the long chain of modules required for the reconstruction of artifact-free, quantitative brain positron emission tomography (PET) images. In this work we demonstrate the proof of principle of segmented magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided attenuation and scatter corrections in 3D brain PET. We have developed a method for attenuation correction based on registered T1-weighted MRI, eliminating the need of an additional transmission (TX) scan. The MR images were realigned to preliminary reconstructions of PET data using an automatic algorithm and then segmented by means of a fuzzy clustering technique which identifies tissues of significantly different density and composition. The voxels belonging to different regions were classified into air, skull, brain tissue and nasal sinuses. These voxels were then assigned theoretical tissue-dependent attenuation coefficients as reported in the ICRU 44 report followed by Gaussian smoothing and additio...

  7. Precision of Raman depolarization and optical attenuation measurements of sound tooth enamel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Sowa; Dan P. Popescu; Jeffrey Werner; Mark Hewko; Alex C.-T. Ko; Jeri Payette; Cecilia C. S. Dong; Blaine Cleghorn; Lin-P’ing Choo-Smith

    2007-01-01

    The demineralization of enamel that is associated with early caries formation affects the optical properties of the enamel.\\u000a Polarized Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography have been used to detect these changes and potentially offer\\u000a a means to detect and monitor early caries development. The total optical attenuation coefficient as measured by optical coherence\\u000a tomography and the polarization anisotropy of

  8. Magnetic Moment of Sm145 and Attenuation Following the Decay of Oriented Sm145

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morton Kaplan; J. Blok; D. A. Shirley

    1969-01-01

    Samarium-145 nuclei were oriented at low temperatures in neodymium ethylsulfate (NES) and cerium magnesium nitrate (CMN) lattices. From the temperature-dependent angular distribution of the 61-keV gamma ray in Pm145, a magnetic moment mu=0.92+\\/-0.06muN was deduced for the ground state of Sm145. The ratio of attenuation coefficients in the 61-keV state of Pm145 in the two lattices was found to be

  9. High-frequency attenuation and backscatter measurements of rat blood between 30 and 60 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Chung

    2010-10-01

    There has recently been a great deal of interest in noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound imaging of small animals such as rats due to their being the preferred animal model for gene therapy and cancer research. Improving the interpretation of the obtained images and furthering the development of the imaging devices require a detailed knowledge of the ultrasound attenuation and backscattering of biological tissue (e.g. blood) at high frequencies. In the present study, the attenuation and backscattering coefficients of the rat red blood cell (RBC) suspensions and whole blood with hematocrits ranging from 6% to 40% were measured between 30 and 60 MHz using a modified substitution approach. The acoustic parameters of porcine blood under the same conditions were also measured in order to compare differences in the blood properties between these two animals. For porcine blood, both whole blood and RBC suspension were stirred at a rotation speed of 200 rpm. Three different rotation speeds of 100, 200 and 300 rpm were carried out for rat blood experiments. The attenuation coefficients of both rat and porcine blood were found to increase linearly with frequency and hematocrit (the values of coefficients of determination (r2) are around 0.82-0.97 for all cases). The average attenuation coefficient of rat whole blood with a hematocrit of 40% increased from 0.26 Nepers mm-1 at 30 MHz to 0.47 Nepers mm-1 at 60 MHz. The maximum backscattering coefficients of both rat and porcine RBC suspensions were between 10% and 15% hematocrits at all frequencies. The fourth-power dependence of backscatter on frequency was approximately valid for rat RBC suspensions with hematocrits between 6% and 40%. However, the frequency dependence of the backscatter estimate deviates from a fourth-power law for porcine RBC suspension with hematocrit higher than 20%. The backscattering coefficient plateaued for hematocrits higher than 15% in porcine blood, but for rat blood it was maximal around a hematocrit of 20% at the same rotation speed, and shifted to a hematocrit of 10% at a higher speed. The backscattering properties of rat RBCs in plasma are similar to those of RBCs in saline at a higher rotation speed. The differences in attenuation and backscattering between rat and porcine blood may be attributed to RBCs' being smaller and the RBC aggregation level being lower for rat blood than for porcine blood.

  10. FREQUENCY DEPENDENT ATTENUATION ANALYSIS OF GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR DATA

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    FREQUENCY DEPENDENT ATTENUATION ANALYSIS OF GROUND- PENETRATING RADAR DATA John H. Bradford, CGISS, Boise State University, Boise, ID Abstract I investigate the frequency dependence of attenuation materials attenuation is approximately linear with frequency over the bandwidth of the GPR signal

  11. Conversion coefficients for superheavy elements

    E-print Network

    T. Kibédi; M. B. Trzhaskovskaya; M. Gupta; A. E. Stuchbery

    2011-03-10

    In this paper we report on internal conversion coefficients for Z = 111 to Z = 126 superheavy elements obtained from relativistic Dirac-Fock (DF) calculations. The effect of the atomic vacancy created during the conversion process has been taken into account using the so called "Frozen Orbital" approximation. The selection of this atomic model is supported by our recent comparison of experimental and theoretical conversion coefficients across a wide range of nuclei. The atomic masses, valence shell electron configurations, and theoretical atomic binding energies required for the calculations were adopted from a critical evaluation of the published data. The new conversion coefficient data tables presented here cover all atomic shells, transition energies from 1 keV up to 6000 keV, and multipole orders of 1 to 5. A similar approach was used in our previous calculations [1] for Z = 5 - 110.

  12. Conversion coefficients for superheavy elements

    E-print Network

    Kibédi, T; Gupta, M; Stuchbery, A E

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report on internal conversion coefficients for Z = 111 to Z = 126 superheavy elements obtained from relativistic Dirac-Fock (DF) calculations. The effect of the atomic vacancy created during the conversion process has been taken into account using the so called "Frozen Orbital" approximation. The selection of this atomic model is supported by our recent comparison of experimental and theoretical conversion coefficients across a wide range of nuclei. The atomic masses, valence shell electron configurations, and theoretical atomic binding energies required for the calculations were adopted from a critical evaluation of the published data. The new conversion coefficient data tables presented here cover all atomic shells, transition energies from 1 keV up to 6000 keV, and multipole orders of 1 to 5. A similar approach was used in our previous calculations [1] for Z = 5 - 110.

  13. Inversion of the broken ray transform in the case of energy-dependent attenuation.

    PubMed

    Krylov, R; Katsevich, A

    2015-06-01

    Broken Ray transform (BRT) arises when one considers a narrow x-ray beam propagating through medium under the assumption of single scattering. Previous algorithms for inverting the BRT assumed that the medium is characterized by a single attenuation coefficient ?. However x-rays lose their energy after Compton scattering and the energy loss depends on the scattering angle. Since the attenuation coefficient depends on energy, the ?'s before and after scattering are different. When there are three or more detectors one should distinguish not only between ?'s that are 'seen' by x-rays before and after scattering, but also between ?'s that are 'seen' by x-rays traveling towards different detectors.The main thrust of this paper is inversion of the BRT with N ? 3 detectors under the assumption that the attenuation coefficient can be accurately approximated by a linear function of energy within the window of relevant energies. When the number of detectors is four or greater, we derive a family of inversion formulas. If N > 4, we find the optimal formula, which provides the best stability with respect to noise in the data. If N = 4, the family collapses into a single formula and no optimization is possible. If ? is independent of energy, N = 3 is sufficient for inversion. We also develop iterative reconstruction algorithms that can use global and local data. The results of testing the algorithms are presented. PMID:25974246

  14. Inversion of the broken ray transform in the case of energy-dependent attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, R.; Katsevich, A.

    2015-06-01

    Broken Ray transform (BRT) arises when one considers a narrow x-ray beam propagating through medium under the assumption of single scattering. Previous algorithms for inverting the BRT assumed that the medium is characterized by a single attenuation coefficient ?. However x-rays lose their energy after Compton scattering and the energy loss depends on the scattering angle. Since the attenuation coefficient depends on energy, the ?’s before and after scattering are different. When there are three or more detectors one should distinguish not only between ?’s that are ‘seen’ by x-rays before and after scattering, but also between ?’s that are ‘seen’ by x-rays traveling towards different detectors. The main thrust of this paper is inversion of the BRT with N ? 3 detectors under the assumption that the attenuation coefficient can be accurately approximated by a linear function of energy within the window of relevant energies. When the number of detectors is four or greater, we derive a family of inversion formulas. If N > 4, we find the optimal formula, which provides the best stability with respect to noise in the data. If N = 4, the family collapses into a single formula and no optimization is possible. If ? is independent of energy, N = 3 is sufficient for inversion. We also develop iterative reconstruction algorithms that can use global and local data. The results of testing the algorithms are presented.

  15. Asymptotics of LQG fusion coefficients

    E-print Network

    Emanuele Alesci; Eugenio Bianchi; Elena Magliaro; Claudio Perini

    2008-10-05

    The fusion coefficients from SO(3) to SO(4) play a key role in the definition of spin foam models for the dynamics in Loop Quantum Gravity. In this paper we give a simple analytic formula of the EPRL fusion coefficients. We study the large spin asymptotics and show that they map SO(3) semiclassical intertwiners into $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ semiclassical intertwiners. This non-trivial property opens the possibility for an analysis of the semiclassical behavior of the model.

  16. Transport coefficients of gluonic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Santosh K.; Alam, Jan-e [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2011-06-01

    The shear ({eta}) and bulk ({zeta}) viscous coefficients have been evaluated for a gluonic fluid. The elastic, gg{yields}gg and the inelastic, number nonconserving, gg{yields}ggg processes have been considered as the dominant perturbative processes in evaluating the viscous coefficients to entropy density (s) ratios. Recently the processes: gg{yields}ggg has been revisited and a correction to the widely used Gunion-Bertsch (GB) formula has been obtained. The {eta} and {zeta} have been evaluated for gluonic fluid with the formula recently derived. At large {alpha}{sub s} the value of {eta}/s approaches its lower bound, {approx}1/4{pi}.

  17. Eddy mixing coefficient on Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    Data on the composition, thermal structure, and Lyman-alpha dayglow of Saturn, when analyzed in conjunction with photochemical models of the hydrocarbons and the atomic hydrogen production, yield the homopause value of the eddy diffusion coefficient to be approximately 100 million/sq cm per sec. The equatorial value of the eddy diffusion coefficient at the homopause of Saturn is thus found to be approximately 100 times greater than on Jupiter. The mesosphere (and presumably, troposphere) of Saturn appears to be considerably more turbulent than the upper atmosphere of Jupiter.

  18. An inversion of site response and Lg attenuation using Lg waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xin-Yun; Chen, Yun-Tai

    2007-11-01

    Based on spectral ratio method, a joint inversion method was used to obtain parameters of Lg wave attenuation and site response. The inversion method allows simple and direct (two-parameter) determination of Lg wave attenuation and site response from sparse spectral data, which are not affected by radiation pattern factor and different response of same instrument after geometrical spreading. The method was used successfully for estimating site response of stations of Zhejiang Seismic Network and measuring Lg wave attenuation. The study is based on 20 earthquakes occurred in northeast of Taiwan with magnitude M S5.0-6.7 and 960 seismic wave records from 16 stations in Zhejiang area from 2002 to 2005. The parameters of site response and Lg attenuation were calculated with a frequency interval of 0.2 Hz in the range of 0.5 Hz to 10 Hz. Lg wave attenuation coefficient corresponding to U-D, E-W and N-S components are ?( f)=0.00175 f 0.43485, ?( f)=0.00145 f 0.48467 and ?( f)=0.0021 f 0.41241, respectively. It is found that the site response is component-independent. It is also found that the site response of QIY station is significant above the frequency of 1.5 Hz, and that the site response of NIB station is low for most frequency

  19. Radiation attenuation characteristics of pyrolysis volatiles of solid fuels and their effect for radiant ignition model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yupeng; Yang, Lizhong; Dai, Jiakun; Wang, Yafei; Deng, Zhihua [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, Anhui Province (China)

    2010-01-15

    Radiation attenuation characteristics of pyrolysis volatiles from heated solid fuels, a neglected physical effect in radiant ignition process, are studied by simulated experiment and mathematical models. Firstly, it is experimentally found the radiation attenuation of an incident heat flux when pine or Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) is heated occurs before flaming ignition (6-14%), especially for the one in the experiment of the Cone Calorimeter style apparatus with a shorter test radiation distance (D < 100 mm). Then, a more reasonable parameter using Beer's law for determining the radiation absorptivity of pyrolysis volatiles of different fuels is presented. It is found the radiation absorptivity of pyrolysis volatiles of PMMA is actually larger than the one of pine and the ignition of PMMA more depends on the gas-phase heating by radiation absorption. Finally, the calculated results with the experimental radiation attenuation data illustrates that consideration of the radiation attenuation by pyrolysis volatiles in radiant ignition models is necessary. A constant radiation attenuation coefficient G = 0.1 is approximately accepted for the general calculation of radiant ignition model. (author)

  20. Measurements of frequency dependent shear wave attenuation in sedimentary basins using induced earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Tom; Wegler, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Modeling of peak ground velocity caused by induced earthquakes requires detailed knowledge about seismic attenuation properties of the subsurface. Especially shear wave attenuation is important, because shear waves usually show the largest amplitude in high frequency seismograms. We report intrinsic and scattering attenuation coefficients of shear waves near three geothermal reservoirs in Germany for frequencies between 2 Hz and 50 Hz. The geothermal plants are located in the sedimentary basins of the upper Rhine graben (Insheim and Landau) and the Molasse basin (Unterhaching). The method optimizes the fit between Green's functions for the acoustic, isotropic radiative transfer theory and observed energy densities of induced earthquakes. The inversion allows the determination of scattering and intrinsic attenuation, site corrections, and spectral source energies for the investigated frequency bands. We performed the inversion at the three sites for events with a magnitude between 0.7 and 2. We determined a transport mean free path of 70 km for Unterhaching. For Landau and Insheim the transport mean free path depends on frequency. It ranges from 2 km (at 2 Hz) to 30 km (at 40 Hz) for Landau and from 9 km to 50 km for Insheim. The quality factor for intrinsic attenuation is constant for frequencies smaller than 10 Hz at all three sites. It is around 100 for Unterhaching and 200 for Landau and Insheim with higher values above 10 Hz.

  1. Attenuation Tomography of the Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenis, A.; Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y. R.

    2014-12-01

    We present a 3-D model of surface wave attenuation in the upper mantle. The model is constrained by a large data set of fundamental and higher Rayleigh mode observations. This data set consists of about 1,800,000 attenuation curves measured in the period range 50-300s by Debayle and Ricard (2012). A careful selection allows us to reject data for which measurements are likely biased by the poor knowledge of the scalar seismic moment or by a ray propagation too close to a node of the source radiation pattern. For each epicenter-station path, elastic focusing effects due to seismic heterogeneities are corrected using DR2012 and the data are turned into log(1/Q). The selected data are then combined in a tomographic inversion using the non-linear least square formalism of Tarantola and Valette (1982). The obtained attenuation maps are in agreement with the surface tectonic for periods and modes sensitive to the top 200km of the upper mantle. Low attenuation regions correlate with continental shields while high attenuation regions are located beneath young oceanic regions. The attenuation pattern becomes more homogeneous at depths greater than 200 km and the maps are dominated by a high quality factor signature beneath slabs. We will discuss the similarities and differences between the tomographies of seismic velocities and of attenuations.

  2. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed. PMID:22734767

  3. Sublimation Coefficient of Water Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossacki, K. J.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Skorov, Y.; Koemle, N. I.

    1999-09-01

    In simulations of evolution of cometary nuclei it is commonly assumed that the coefficients of sublimation and condensation of the volatiles are both equal to one. However, the laboratory investigation of water ice samples under cometary-like conditions (Kossacki et al., 1997) suggests, that the sublimation flux calculated with the Hertz-Knudsen formula and the above assumption is nearly an order of magnitude too high. A similar conclusion can be drawn from the results of various experiments on growth from vapour phase and sublimation of ice crystals (Lamb and Scott, 1972; Beckmann and Lacmann, 1982; Sei and Gonda, 1989). These results imply that the sublimation coefficient can be as low as 0.1. The above coefficients depend on various parameters such as temperature, concentration of surface impurities as well as deviation of the vapour pressure from that of the phase equilibrium. In this work we discuss the temperature dependence of both of these coefficients. We also propose an empirical formula to fit the temperature dependence. This new formulation is also used to analyse the implications for the thermal conductivity of a porous cometary-like ice.

  4. Prediction of stream volatilization coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    Equations are developed for predicting the liquid-film and gas-film reference-substance parameters for quantifying volatilization of organic solutes from streams. Molecular weight and molecular-diffusion coefficients of the solute are used as correlating parameters. Equations for predicting molecular-diffusion coefficients of organic solutes in water and air are developed, with molecular weight and molal volume as parameters. Mean absolute errors of prediction for diffusion coefficients in water are 9.97% for the molecular-weight equation, 6.45% for the molal-volume equation. The mean absolute error for the diffusion coefficient in air is 5.79% for the molal-volume equation. Molecular weight is not a satisfactory correlating parameter for diffusion in air because two equations are necessary to describe the values in the data set. The best predictive equation for the liquid-film reference-substance parameter has a mean absolute error of 5.74%, with molal volume as the correlating parameter. The best equation for the gas-film parameter has a mean absolute error of 7.80%, with molecular weight as the correlating parameter.

  5. Microwave photonic filters using low-cost sources featuring tunability, reconfigurability and negative coefficients.

    PubMed

    Capmany, José; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Pastor, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate two configurations of photonic filters for the processing of microwave signals featuring tunability, reconfigurability and negative coefficients based on the use of low cost optical sources. The first option is a low power configuration based on spectral slicing of a broadband source. The second is a high power configuration based on fixed lasers. Tunability, reconfigurability and negative coefficients are achieved by means of a MEMS cross-connect, a variable optical attenuator array and simple 2x2 switches respectively. PMID:19495017

  6. A Microwave Interferometer for Wide-Band Measurements of Complex Transmission Coefficients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Gehre

    1970-01-01

    A wide-band (8.2-12 GHz) microwave interferometer was developed to measure the complex transmission coefficient of samples inserted in a waveguide system. Amplitude A and phase shift ¿ of a signal are presented either as A sin ¿, A cos ¿ versus frequency, or in polar coordinate form Aei¿ as frequency is swept. The attenuation range of measurement is 0-50 dB;

  7. Live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Montinaro, Valentina; Groppali, Elena; Tenconi, Rossana; Semino, Margherita; Principi, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Annual vaccination is the most effective means of preventing and controlling influenza epidemics, and the traditional trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) is by far the most widely used. Unfortunately, it has a number of limitations, the most important of which is its poor immunogenicity in younger children and the elderly, the populations at greatest risk of severe influenza. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has characteristics that can overcome some of these limitations. It does not have to be injected because it is administered intranasally. It is very effective in children and adolescents, among whom it prevents significantly more cases of influenza than the traditional TIV. However, its efficacy in adults has not been adequately documented, which is why it has not been licensed for use by adults by the European health authorities. LAIV is safe and well tolerated by children aged > 2 y and adults, but some concerns arisen regarding its safety in younger children and subjects with previous asthma or with recurrent wheezing. Further studies are needed to solve these problems and to evaluate the possible role of LAIV in the annual vaccination of the general population. PMID:22251995

  8. Attenuation of diacylglycerol second messengers

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, W.R.; Ganong, B.R.; Bell, R.M.

    1986-05-01

    Diacylglycerol(DAG) derived from phosphatidylinositol activates protein kinase C in agonist-stimulated cells. At least two pathways may contribute to the attenuation of the DAG signal: (1) phosphorylation to phosphatidic acid(PA) by DAG kinase(DGK), and (2) deacylation by DAG and monoacylglycerol lipases. A number of DAG analogs were tested as substrates and inhibitors of partially purified pig brain DGK. Two analogs were potent inhibitors in vitro, 1-monooleoylglycerol(MOG,K/sub I/ = 91 ..mu..M) and diotanoylethyleneglycol (diC/sub 8/EG, K/sub I/ = 58 ..mu..M). These compounds were tested in human platelets. DiC/sub 8/EG inhibited (70 - 100%) (/sup 32/P/sub i/) incorporation into PA in thrombin-stimulated platelets. Under these conditions the DAG signal was somewhat long-lived but was still metabolized, presumably by the lipase pathway. MOG treatment elevated DAG levels up to 4-fold in unstimulated platelets. The DAG formed was in a pool where it did not activate protein kinase C. Thrombin-stimulation of MOG-treated platelets resulted in DAG levels 10-fold higher than control platelets. This appears to be due to the inability of these platelets to metabolize agonist-linked DAG via the lipase pathway. The development of specific inhibitors of DAG kinase and DAG lipase, in conjunction with mass quantification of DAG levels as used here, will provide further insights into the regulation of DAG second messengers.

  9. An Empirical Assessment of Exposure Measurement Error and Effect Attenuation in Bipollutant Epidemiologic Models

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Lisa K.; Chang, Howard H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using multipollutant models to understand combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants is becoming more common. However, complex relationships between pollutants and differing degrees of exposure error across pollutants can make health effect estimates from multipollutant models difficult to interpret. Objectives: We aimed to quantify relationships between multiple pollutants and their associated exposure errors across metrics of exposure and to use empirical values to evaluate potential attenuation of coefficients in epidemiologic models. Methods: We used three daily exposure metrics (central-site measurements, air quality model estimates, and population exposure model estimates) for 193 ZIP codes in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area from 1999 through 2002 for PM2.5 and its components (EC and SO4), as well as O3, CO, and NOx, to construct three types of exposure error: ?spatial (comparing air quality model estimates to central-site measurements), ?population (comparing population exposure model estimates to air quality model estimates), and ?total (comparing population exposure model estimates to central-site measurements). We compared exposure metrics and exposure errors within and across pollutants and derived attenuation factors (ratio of observed to true coefficient for pollutant of interest) for single- and bipollutant model coefficients. Results: Pollutant concentrations and their exposure errors were moderately to highly correlated (typically, > 0.5), especially for CO, NOx, and EC (i.e., “local” pollutants); correlations differed across exposure metrics and types of exposure error. Spatial variability was evident, with variance of exposure error for local pollutants ranging from 0.25 to 0.83 for ?spatial and ?total. The attenuation of model coefficients in single- and bipollutant epidemiologic models relative to the true value differed across types of exposure error, pollutants, and space. Conclusions: Under a classical exposure-error framework, attenuation may be substantial for local pollutants as a result of ?spatial and ?total with true coefficients reduced by a factor typically < 0.6 (results varied for ?population and regional pollutants). Citation: Dionisio KL, Baxter LK, Chang HH. 2014. An empirical assessment of exposure measurement error and effect attenuation in bipollutant epidemiologic models. Environ Health Perspect 122:1216–1224;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307772 PMID:25003573

  10. Adaptive mutation: general mutagenesis is not a programmed response to stress but results from rare coamplification of dinB with lac.

    PubMed

    Slechta, E Susan; Bunny, Kim L; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Kofoid, Eric; Andersson, Dan I; Roth, John R

    2003-10-28

    In a particular genetic system, selection stimulates reversion of a lac mutation and causes genome-wide mutagenesis (adaptive mutation). Selection allows rare plated cells with a duplication of the leaky lac allele to initiate clones within which further lac amplification improves growth rate. Growth and amplification add mutational targets to each clone and thereby increase the likelihood of reversion. We suggest that general mutagenesis occurs only in clones whose lac amplification includes the nearby dinB+ gene (for error-prone DNA polymerase IV). Thus mutagenesis is not a programmed response to stress but a side effect of amplification in a few clones; it is not central to the effect of selection on reversion. PMID:14559967

  11. Isolation of lacZ fusions to Proteus mirabilis genes regulated by intercellular signaling: potential role for the sugar phosphotransferase (Pts) system in regulation.

    PubMed

    Sturgill, Gwen M; Siddiqui, Soofia; Ding, Xuedong; Pecora, Nicole D; Rather, Philip N

    2002-11-19

    Using a mini-Tn5lacZ1 reporter transposon, lacZ fusions have been identified in Proteus mirabilis that are activated by the accumulation of self-produced extracellular signals. Genes identified by this approach include putative homologs of pgm, nlpA and two genes of unknown function. The extracellular signal(s) involved in activation were resistant to the effects of acid and alkali. The signal required for activation of (nlpA) cma482::lacZ was sensitive to protease, suggesting the signal is a peptide or small protein. The signals behaved as polar molecules and were not extractable with ethyl acetate. A mini-Tn5Cm insertion was identified in a probable ptsI homolog that blocked activation of the cma134::lacZ fusion by an extracellular signal. The ptsI mutation did not alter extracellular signal production and may have a role in signal response. PMID:12445644

  12. A novel method to assay herpes simplex virus neutralizing antibodies using BHKICP6LacZ-5 (ELVIS) cells.

    PubMed

    Ashley, R L; Dalessio, J; Sekulovich, R E

    1997-01-01

    A novel method for determining neutralizing serum antibody titers to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was developed based on reduction of infectivity in BHKICP6LacZ-5 (ELVIS) cells; baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells that have been genetically engineered to contain the Escherichia coli LacZ gene under the control of an inducible herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) promoter. The test has a semiautomated, colorimetric readout resulting in rapid, objective readings of infectivity reduction. Extent of neutralization is calculated against a calibration curve of virus infectivity generated in each run. HSV-2 neutralizing activity can be detected with serum dilutions in excess of 1:5120. PMID:9473152

  13. A highly sensitive and specific electrochemical sensing method for robust detection of Escherichia coli lac Z gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengqin; Yu, Zhigang; Qu, Haichao; Zhang, Guiling; Yan, Hong; Liu, Xin; He, Xunjun

    2015-06-15

    Based on the interaction mode of capture probe-target-signal probe (CP-T-SP), a simple but efficient electrochemical sensing method is developed for robust detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) lac Z gene sequence. The sensing system is simply composed of two probes with CP attached to the surface of gold electrode and methylene blue (MB)-labeled SP free in the detecting solution. Two duplexes are formed with the target DNA, an E. coli lac Z gene sequence, hybridizing with two ends of CP and SP separately. This structure can position the MB labels near to the electrode surface, thereby resulting in the change of detecting current. The proposed sensor exhibits a high sensitivity with a detection limit of ?30 fM for target DNA and good mismatch discrimination ability (MDA). This method can also be applied to the construction of other sensors for the analysis of similar designated pathogenic bacteria gene sequence (PBGS). PMID:25562734

  14. Pressure-Viscosity Coefficients of Liquid Lubricants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lowrie B. Sargent Jr

    1983-01-01

    The Barus equation relating viscosity to pressure includes a pressure-viscosity coefficient used widely by investigators even though that coefficient is grossly inaccurate at elevated pressures. A new empirical equation was developed relating viscosity to pressure. The equation is mathematically simple and provides two coefficients that are satisfactory over a wide pressure range. These coefficients are temperature dependent and produce a

  15. Nature of optical remote sensing coefficient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir I. Haltrin

    2004-01-01

    The remote sensing coefficient or radiance reflection coefficient is a principal product of atmospheric correction algorithms applied to the remotely measured optical images of the ocean. This coefficient contains information about angular structure of light radiance, roughness of the ocean surface, and optical properties of the water. This presentation analyses remote sensing coefficient and presents it as a product of

  16. Immobilized glycosylated Fmoc-amino acid for SPR: comparative studies of lectin-binding to linear or biantennary diLacNAc structures.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Sakagami, Hiromi; Asanuma-Date, Kimie; Nagasawa, Nao; Nakahara, Yoshiaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Haruko

    2013-12-15

    A method to immobilize glycan-linked amino acids with protected ?-amino groups, which are key intermediates to produce the desired neoglycoprotein, to a Biacore sensor chip was developed and its utility for interaction analyses was demonstrated. Two types of diN-acetyllactosamine (diLacNAc)-containing glycans, a core 2 hexasaccharide involving linear diLacNAc that is O-linked to N-(9-fluorenyl)methoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-Thr and a biantennary diLacNAc that is N-linked to Fmoc-Asn, were used as ligands. For immobilization, the free carboxyl groups of the amino acid residues were activated with EDC/NHS, then reacted with the ethylenediamine-derivatized carboxymethyldextran sensor chip to obtain the desired ligand concentrations. Interactions of the ligands with five plant lectins were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance, and the bindings were compared. The resonance unit of each lectin was corrected by subtracting that of the reference cell on which the Fmoc-Thr-core 1 or Fmoc-Asn was immobilized as a ligand. The carbohydrate specificities of interactions were verified by preincubating lectins with their respective inhibitory sugar before injection. By steady state analysis, the Lycopersicon esculentum lectin showed a 27-fold higher affinity to linear diLacNAc than to biantennary diLacNAc, while Datura stramonium and Solanum tuberosum lectins both showed low Ka,apps of 10(6)M(-1) for these two ligands. In contrast, Ricinus communis agglutinin-120 showed a 3.2-fold higher Ka,app to biantennary LacNAc than to linear diLacNAc. A lectin purified from Pleurocybella porrigens mushroom interacted at the high affinity of 10(8)M(-1) with both linear and biantennary diLacNAcs, which identified it as a unique probe. This method provides a useful and sensitive system to analyze interactions by simulating the glycans on the cell surface. PMID:24211369

  17. Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium HilA-LacZY Fusion Gene Response to Iron Chelation or Supplementation in Rich and Minimal Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Rishi; C. L. Woodward; W.-K. Kim; S. C. Ricke

    2004-01-01

    Virulence expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under iron limited condition was measured by ?-galactosidase (?-gal) assay using a hilA-lacZY fusion strain and calculated as Miller units. hilA-lacZY?-galactosidase assays were performed in brain heart infusion (BHI) and minimal media (M9), after iron chelation with 2, 2-dipridyl and iron-supplementation respectively. Before performing virulence assays, concentrations of iron in the media were

  18. Inhalation of benzene leads to an increase in the mutant frequencies of a lacI transgene in lung and spleen tissues of mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann H. Mullin; Roy Rando; Fred Esmundo; David A. Mullin

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if inhalation of benzene leads to an increase in the mutant frequencies in the tissues of male C57BL6 mice. Mutant frequencies were measured using a previously described assay in which bacteriophage lambda lacI transgenes are rescued from mouse genomic DNA as infectious phage and scored for their LacI phenotype. Eight experimental mice

  19. Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  20. Bulk attenuation in a polycrystalline Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Dion; Jeanloz, Raymond; O'Connell, Richard J.

    1982-09-01

    Bulk attenuation occurs in the solid, polycrystalline regions of the earth due to the local mismatch of the elastic moduli of neighboring grains. A ratio of bulk to shear attenuation which is consistent with seismological whole earth models,QK-1/Q?-1˜1% is predicted for typical mineral assemblages of the mantle, based on viscoelastic theory. The resultingQ derived for the normal mode 0S0, 6000, is within the observed range.

  1. Live Attenuated Cholera Vaccines: Flagella and Reactogenicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ewen Cameron; John J. Mekalanos

    \\u000a The rational design of attenuated Vibrio cholerae strains has been an attractive method for live cholera vaccine development because the major mechanisms of V. cholerae virulence are well defined and convalescence from cholera, the disease it causes, is a strongly immunizing process. After\\u000a decades of effort to develop safe live attenuated cholera vaccines, however, the appearance of reactogenicity, defined as

  2. Transgenic LacZ under control of Hec-6st regulatory sequences recapitulates endogenous gene expression on high endothelial venules

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Shan; Bentley, Kevin; Lebrun, Marielle; Lesslauer, Werner; Ruddle, Frank H.; Ruddle, Nancy H.

    2007-01-01

    Hec-6st is a highly specific high endothelial venule (HEV) gene that is crucial for regulating lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes (LN). The enzyme is also expressed in HEV-like vessels in tertiary lymphoid organs that form in chronic inflammation in autoimmunity, graft rejection, and microbial infection. Understanding the molecular nature of Hec-6st regulation is crucial for elucidating its function in development and disease. However, studies of HEV are limited because of the difficulties in isolating and maintaining the unique characteristics of these vessels in vitro. The novel pClasper yeast homologous recombination technique was used to isolate from a BAC clone a 60-kb DNA fragment that included the Hec-6st (Chst4) gene with flanking sequences. Transgenic mice were generated with the ?-galactosidase (LacZ) reporter gene inserted in-frame in the exon II of Hec-6st within the isolated BAC DNA fragment. LacZ was expressed specifically on HEV in LN, as indicated by its colocalization with peripheral node vascular addressin. LacZ was increased in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue during development and was reduced in LN and nasal-associated lymphoid tissue by LT?R-Ig (lymphotoxin-? receptor human Ig fusion protein) treatment in a manner identical to the endogenous gene. The transgene was expressed at high levels in lymphoid accumulations with characteristics of tertiary lymphoid organs in the salivary glands of aged mice. Thus, the Hec-6s-LacZ construct faithfully reproduces Hec-6st tissue-specific expression and can be used in further studies to drive expression of reporter or effector genes, which could visualize or inhibit HEV in autoimmunity. PMID:17360566

  3. Genetic and biochemical characterization of some missense mutations in the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Truman, P; Bergquist, P L

    1976-01-01

    Some preparations of beta-galactosidase from strains of Escherichia coli carrying point mutations in their lacZ genes did not precipitate with antibody as effectively as wild-type enzyme, but did not appear to be chain-terminating mutations as judged by polarity measurements and suppression. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of crude extracts of induced Lac+ strains revealed that the monomer of beta-galactosidase ran as a band uncontaminated by other cellular proteins. This method was used to identify missense mutations in the alpha and beta portions of the lacZ gene. Six of 13 mutations investigated were judged to be missense by this criterion. Measurement of the degree of polarity, the ability to complement a nonsense mutation at the operator-distal extremity of the gene (omega-complementation), and suppressibility by 12 nonsense suppressors allowed the assignment of six other mutations as either number or ochre. The protein figments produced by these six nonsense mutations appeared to be degraded in vivo. One mutation that could not be classified was either a missense mutation whose protein product was degraded or a very leak nonsense mutation. Two lacZ alleles were suppressed by the ochre suppressors supM and supN, although they were missense by other criteria. The ability of supM to suppress both nonsense and missense mutations can be explained if it is derived from a tyrosine transfer ribonucleic acid with a modified base in the first position of the anticodon. The mutations assigned to the missense class were not suppressed by the missense suppressors supH, supQ, glyV, glyU, or glyT. Our results suggest that the criteria used in the past to distinguish between nonsense and missense mutations may not be conclusive even when used together. PMID:780338

  4. Biochemical characteristics and genetic diversity of Vibrio spp. and Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from the Lac of Bizerte (Tunisia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Snoussi Mejdi; Noumi Emira; Messaoud Ali; Hajlaoui Hafedh; Bakhrouf Amina

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized the phenotypic and genetic properties of Vibrio spp. and Aeromonas\\u000a hydrophila strains isolated from seawater and mussels (Mytilus\\u000a edulis and Crassostrea\\u000a gigas) cultured in mollusc farm localized in the lac of Bizerte. The 37 strains (31 strains of V.\\u000a alginolyticus, one strain of V. fluvialis, one strain of V. parahaemolyticus and four strains of A.\\u000a hydrophila) typed

  5. Resolution of the fluorescence decay of the two tryptophan residues of lac repressor using single tryptophan mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Royer, C A; Gardner, J A; Beechem, J M; Brochon, J C; Matthews, K S

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the time-resolved intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the lac repressor (a symmetric tetramer containing two tryptophan residues per monomer) and two single-tryptophan mutant repressors obtained by site-directed mutagenesis, lac W201Y and lac W220Y. These mutant repressor proteins have tyrosine substituted for tryptophan at positions 201 and 220, respectively, leaving a single tryptophan residue per monomeric subunit at position 220 for the W201Y mutant and at position 201 in the W220Y mutant. It was found that the two decay rates recovered from the analysis of the wild type data do not correspond to the rates recovered from the analysis of the decays of the mutant proteins. Each of these residues in the mutant repressors displays at least two decay rates. Global analysis of the multiwavelength data from all three proteins, however, yielded results consistent with the fluorescence decay of the wild type lac repressor corresponding simply to the weighted linear combination of the decays from the mutant proteins. The effect of ligation by the antagonistic ligands, inducer and operator DNA, was similar for all three proteins. The binding of the inducer sugar resulted in a quenching of the long-lived species, while binding by the operator decreased the lifetime of the short components. Investigation of the time-resolved anisotropy of the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence in these three proteins revealed that the depolarization of fluorescence resulted from a fast motion and the global tumbling of the macromolecule. Results from the simultaneous global analysis of the frequency domain data sets from the three proteins revealed anisotropic rotations for the macromolecule, consistent with the known elongated shape of the repressor tetramer. In addition, it appears that the excited-state dipole of tryptophan 220 is alighed with the long axis of the repressor. PMID:2207244

  6. Transport coefficients of gluonic fluid

    E-print Network

    Santosh K Das; Jan-e Alam

    2011-06-14

    The shear ($\\eta$) and bulk ($\\zeta$) viscous coefficients have been evaluated for a gluonic fluid. The elastic, $gg \\rightarrow gg$ and the inelastic, number non-conserving, $gg\\rightarrow ggg$ processes have been considered as the dominant perturbative processes in evaluating the viscous co-efficients to entropy density ($s$) ratios. Recently the processes: $gg \\rightarrow ggg$ has been revisited and a correction to the widely used Gunion-Bertsch (GB) formula has been obtained. The $\\eta$ and $\\zeta$ have been evaluated for gluonic fluid with the formula derived recently. The sensitivity of the quantity, $\\eta/s$ on the running coupling constant is also discussed. At $\\alpha_s=0.3$ we get $\\eta/s=0.24$ which is close to the value obtained from the analysis of the elliptic flow at RHIC experiments.

  7. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  8. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Tritt, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Uher, C. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  9. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, Ctirad

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential propertymeasurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectricmaterials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectricmeasurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  10. The Production Coefficients of Feeds

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1916-01-01

    STATION pp - -- - - BULLETIN NO. 185 FEBRUARY, 1916 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Production Coefficients of Feeds G. S. FRAPS, Ph. D. CHEMIST IN CHARGE; STATE CHEMIST POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS AUSTIN, TEXAS VON BOECKMANN... OF VETERINARY SCIENCE w. M WICKGS ~nspector M. FRANCIS, D. V. S., Veterinarian in T. B. REESE, &spector Charge H. SCHMIDT, D. V. M., Veterinarian SUBSTATION NO. 1: Beeville Bee County DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY E. E. BINFORD, B. S., ~rlperhtendenl G. S FRAPS...

  11. Super-b4 coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArthur, I. N.

    1983-08-01

    For a class of supersymmetric theories coupled to background Yang-Mills superfields and on a curved superspace background, the superfield analogue of the heat kernel is defined and the corresponding b4 superfields are computed. In specific cases, these super-b4 coefficients are shown to determine the one loop trace supermultiplet and the logarithmically divergent part of the effective action. Supported in part by a Hackett Studentship from the University of Western Australia.

  12. Investigating Global Shear-Wave Attenuation and Radial Anisotropy in the Earth's Mantle using Free Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulik, P.; Ekstrom, G.

    2011-12-01

    A self-consistent radial and lateral description of the Earth's elastic and anelastic heterogeneity has implications for understanding the internal geodynamic processes with their thermal, chemical and compositional contexts. We investigate the extent and amplitude of radial anisotropy and attenuation in the Earth's mantle using observations of eigenfrequencies, quality factors (Q) and splitting functions of free oscillations collected from the literature. We observe that the convergence to a best-fit 1-D shear attenuation model using the Q data requires an iterative framework of recalculating the sensitivity kernels. This non-linearity is due to the dependence of the anelastic kernels on the intrinsic attenuation structure of the reference model in addition to the expected theoretical dependence on the elastic structure. We perform forward modeling of the splitting coefficients while accounting for shear-wave anisotropy (Mochizuki 1986) and using the 3-D anisotropic mantle model S362ANI (Kustowski et al., 2008), which was constrained using surface-wave phase anomalies, long-period waveforms, and body-wave travel times. We use these calculations to investigate the sensitivity of the mode splitting functions to radial anisotropy at different depths in the Earth. The differences in the synthetic predictions of the 2-D splitting functions while including and excluding the anisotropic part of S362ANI are observed to be significant for some modes, indicating that splitting functions can provide useful additional constraints on mantle anisotropy. Corrections to the splitting coefficients are implemented to remove the effects of the lateral heterogeneities in the crust using the spherical harmonic expansion of the different layers and discontinuities in CRUST 2.0 (Bassin et al., 2000). An iterative inversion is being developed using the eigenfrequencies and quality factors as constraints on the spherically averaged radial (1-D) elastic and attenuation structure and the splitting coefficients as additional constraints on the lateral (3-D) variations in elastic structure.

  13. Dual energy CT-based characterization of x-ray attenuation properties of breast equivalent material plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geeraert, N.; Klausz, R.; Giudici, P.; Muller, S.; Cockmartin, L.; Bosmans, H.

    2012-03-01

    Breast density is more and more considered as an important risk factor for breast cancer and several quantitative breast density evaluation methods have been proposed. The reference material for simulation of the breast attenuation properties of glandular and adipose breast tissues is manufactured by a single provider. In order to characterize the attenuation properties of these materials, measurements in Hounsfield Units (HU) have been performed using a CT-scanner. Breastequivalent plates have been imaged in different configurations (plates in and orthogonal to image planes), providing consistent results (+/- 1.3 HU). Breast density equivalent plates of different nominal breast density equivalences and sizes were measured, demonstrating both a good homogeneity within the plates (+/- 1.8 HU) and a good consistency between plates of the same nominal breast density equivalence (+/- 1.5 HU). In addition, dual energy CT provided mono-energetic HU from which mono-energetic linear attenuation coefficients of water and glandular and adipose equivalent materials were computed. The values for these coefficients were found in good agreement with results from literature, respectively direct mono-energetic measurements of breast samples, and computation by combining published breast tissue atomic compositions and linear attenuation coefficient tables. In conclusion, CT was found effective for the verification of the breast equivalent material, and the homogeneity and consistency of the plates were found satisfactory. Furthermore, the most recent spectral CT technology allowed demonstrating a good agreement of the attenuation properties of breastequivalent material plates with state-of-the-art knowledge of real breast tissue attenuation.

  14. The interpretation of selection coefficients.

    PubMed

    Barton, N H; Servedio, M R

    2015-05-01

    Evolutionary biologists have an array of powerful theoretical techniques that can accurately predict changes in the genetic composition of populations. Changes in gene frequencies and genetic associations between loci can be tracked as they respond to a wide variety of evolutionary forces. However, it is often less clear how to decompose these various forces into components that accurately reflect the underlying biology. Here, we present several issues that arise in the definition and interpretation of selection and selection coefficients, focusing on insights gained through the examination of selection coefficients in multilocus notation. Using this notation, we discuss how its flexibility-which allows different biological units to be identified as targets of selection-is reflected in the interpretation of the coefficients that the notation generates. In many situations, it can be difficult to agree on whether loci can be considered to be under "direct" versus "indirect" selection, or to quantify this selection. We present arguments for what the terms direct and indirect selection might best encompass, considering a range of issues, from viability and sexual selection to kin selection. We show how multilocus notation can discriminate between direct and indirect selection, and describe when it can do so. PMID:25790030

  15. Transport Coefficients of Hadronic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Nasser; Bass, Steffen A.

    2007-10-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC are thought to have created a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) with a very low shear viscosity in the deconfined phase. However, as the QGP hadronizes it will evolve through a hadronic phase with rapidly increasing viscosity. In order to fully characterize the QGP state, one has to separately determine the viscosity of the hadronic phase. We present a calculation of transport coefficients such as the shear viscosity, the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio ?s, and the diffusion coefficient as a function of T and ?B for nuclear densities in the range (?0- 2 ?0). The hadronic medium is simulated using the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Green-Kubo theory enables us to compute linear transport coefficients of such a medium by examining near-equilibrium fluctuations. We outline a scheme combining the Green-Kubo formalism and our microscopic transport model to extract the time-dependence of the shear viscosity of the matter created in an ultrarelativistic heavy ion collision.

  16. An emerging population of BL Lacs with extreme properties: towards a class of EBL and cosmic magnetic field probes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnoli, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Sbarrato, T.

    2015-07-01

    High-energy observations of extreme BL Lac objects, such as 1ES 0229+200 or 1ES 0347-121, recently focused interest both for blazar and jet physics and for the implication on the extragalactic background light and intergalactic magnetic field estimate. However, the number of these extreme highly peaked BL Lac objects (EHBL) is still rather small. Aiming at increase their number, we selected a group of EHBL candidates starting from the BL Lac sample of Plotkin et al. (2011), considering those undetected (or only barely detected) by the Large Area Telescope onboard Fermi and characterized by a high X-ray versus radio flux ratio. We assembled the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of the resulting nine sources, profiting of publicly available archival observations performed by Swift, GALEX, and Fermi satellites, confirming their nature. Through a simple one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model we estimate the expected very high energy flux, finding that in the majority of cases it is within the reach of present generation of Cherenkov arrays or of the forthcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array.

  17. Unusual optical quiescence of the classical BL Lac object PKS 0735+178 on intranight time-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Arti; Gopal-Krishna; Anupama, G. C.; Sahu, D. K.; Sagar, R.; Britzen, S.; Karouzos, M.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.

    2009-11-01

    We present the result of our extensive intranight optical monitoring of the well-known low-energy peaked BL Lac (LBL) object PKS 0735+178. This long-term follow-up consists of R-band monitoring for a minimum duration of ~4 hours, on 17 nights spanning 11 years (1998-2008). Using the CCD as an N-star photometer, a detection limit of around 1 per cent was attained for the intranight optical variability (INOV). Remarkably, an INOV amplitude of >=3 per cent on hour-like time-scale was not observed on any of the 17 nights, even though the likelihood of a typical LBL showing such INOV levels in a single session of >~4 hours duration is known to be high (~50 per cent). Our observations have thus established a peculiar long-term INOV quiescence of this radio-selected BL Lac object. Moreover, the access to unpublished optical monitoring data of similarly high sensitivity, acquired in another programme, has allowed us to confirm the same anomalous INOV quiescence of this LBL all the way back to 1989, the epoch of its historically largest radio outburst. Here, we present observational evidence revealing the very unusual INOV behaviour of this classical BL Lac object and discuss this briefly in the context of its other known exceptional properties.

  18. THE 2001-2003 LOW STATE OF NOVA LACERTAE 1950 (DK LAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Jacobson, H.; Hoffman, D.; Maxwell, T.; Croxall, K. [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Swain Hall West, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Kafka, S. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Rd. NW, Washington, DC 2001 (United States); Henden, A. A. [American Association of Variable Star Observers, 49 Bay State Rd., Cambridge, MA 02138-1203 (United States); Robertson, J. W., E-mail: honey@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: jacob189@msu.edu, E-mail: dhoffman@nmsu.edu, E-mail: tmaxwell@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: kevin.croxall@utoledo.edu, E-mail: skafka@dtm.ciw.edu, E-mail: arne@aavso.org, E-mail: Jeff.Robertson@atu.edu [Arkansas Tech University, Department of Physical Sciences, 1701 N. Boulder, Russellville, AR 72801-2222 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    We report on extensive photometry of DK Lac obtained during the interval 1990-2009, which includes a 2 mag low state during 2001-2003. Much of the photometry consists of exposures obtained with a typical spacing of several days, but also includes 26 sequences of continuous photometry each lasting 2-7 hr. We find no evidence for periodicities in our data. We do find that the random variations in the low state are approximately twice those in the high state, when expressed in magnitudes. The lack of orbital-timescale variations is attributed to the nearly face-on presentation of the disk. There is a 0.2 mag decline in the high-state brightness of the system over 19 years, which is consistent with the behavior of other old novae in the decades following outburst. High-state spectra are also presented and discussed. We find that the equivalent width of H{alpha} falls by about double from 1991 to 2008. The photometric properties are discussed in the context of the hibernation scenario for the behavior of novae between outbursts, in which we conclude that low states in old novae are probably unrelated to their possible entrance into hibernation.

  19. A LacI-Family Regulator Activates Maltodextrin Metabolism of Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinglin; Rogers, Malbert; Bierschenk, Damien; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; van Schaik, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a gut commensal of humans and animals. In the intestinal tract, E. faecium will have access to a wide variety of carbohydrates, including maltodextrins and maltose, which are the sugars that result from the enzymatic digestion of starch by host-derived and microbial amylases. In this study, we identified the genetic determinants for maltodextrin utilization of E. faecium E1162. We generated a deletion mutant of the mdxABCD-pulA gene cluster that is homologous to maltodextrin uptake genes in other Gram-positive bacteria, and a deletion mutant of the mdxR gene, which is predicted to encode a LacI family regulator of mdxABCD-pulA. Both mutations impaired growth on maltodextrins but had no effect on the growth on maltose and glucose. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that eight genes (including mdxABCD-pulA) were expressed at significantly lower levels in the isogenic ?mdxR mutant strain compared to the parental strain when grown on maltose. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR confirmed the results of transcriptome analysis and showed that the transcription of a putative maltose utilization gene cluster is induced in a semi-defined medium supplemented with maltose but is not regulated by MdxR. Understanding the maltodextrin metabolism of E. faecium could yield novel insights into the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the gut commensal lifestyle of E. faecium. PMID:23951303

  20. BL LAC OBJECT PKS B1144-379: AN EXTREME SCINTILLATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R. J.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Shabala, S. S.; Blanchard, J.; Lovell, J. E. J.; McCallum, J. N. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Cimo, G. [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Rapid variability in the radio flux density of the BL Lac object PKS B1144-379 has been observed at four frequencies, ranging from 1.5 to 15 GHz, with the Very Large Array and the University of Tasmania's Ceduna antenna. Intrinsic and line-of-sight effects were examined as possible causes of this variability, with interstellar scintillation best explaining the frequency dependence of the variability timescales and modulation indices. This scintillation is consistent with a compact source 20-40 {mu}as or 0.15-0.3 pc in size. The inferred brightness temperature for PKS B1144-379 (assuming that the observed variations are due to scintillation) is 6.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} K at 4.9 GHz, with approximately 10% of the total flux in the scintillating component. We show that scintillation surveys aimed at identifying variability timescales of days to weeks are an effective way to identify the active galactic nuclei with the highest brightness temperatures.

  1. The Lac Des Iles Palladium Deposit, Ontario, Canada. Part II. Halogen variations in apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schisa, Paul; Boudreau, Alan; Djon, Lionnel; Tchalikian, Arnaud; Corkery, John

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of apatite from the Mine Block Intrusion (MBI) of the Lac des Iles Igneous Complex shows two pronounced trends in the halogens. Apatite from relatively fresh norite and melanorites from the Pd-sulfide zone contain up to 57 mol% chlorapatite endmember with significant hydroxyapatite component. In contrast, in altered rock (amphibolite and greenschist assemblages) the chlorapatite component is typically less than 10 mol% with wide variation in the F- and OH-endmember components. The latter trend is attributed to Cl loss to degassing and alteration, whereas the former is attributed to Cl enrichment in the ore-bearing rocks. It is suggested that the relatively H2O-rich and intermediate Cl content of the early igneous fluids degassed from the deeper levels of the MBI can explain the high Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios of the deposit. A model is presented in which disseminated Pd-rich sulfides are initially introduced by a high-temperature magmatic fluid that also influenced crystallization to produce the gross modal variations of the igneous host rock. This high-temperature mineralization event was subsequently modified by the influx of late igneous and country fluids at amphibolite to greenschist conditions.

  2. Search for X-ray Spectral Features in Two BL Lac Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This grant covered the analysis and interpretation of astrophysical data obtained with the XMM-Newton satellite mission. BL Lac objects are active galactic nuclei that exhibit unusually strong polarization and variability, and are also missing the usual strong optical/ultraviolet emission lines. They are typically strong X-ray sources, but this is the first survey gathering high-quality spectral data from a significant number of these objects. The observations were successful, and all data (for objects in this proposal as well as that of Dr. Perlman s) were of very good quality, as expected. We find that the X-ray spectra of most of these objects are well described by a power-law after allowing for low-energy absorption that can be attributed to neutral gas in the line of sight, presumably located in our own Galaxy. However, in some cases we see indications of a deviation from power-law behavior in the sense that the spectrum appears to be steepening (softening) to higher energies. We are developing a theoretical model in which the steepening is a result of energy-dependent cooling of the radiating particles.We searched for discrete spectral features that might be intrinsic to the objects or their host galaxies, but we found none at the level of sensitivity provided by these data. These are interestingly strong upper bounds.

  3. Modular, multi-input transcriptional logic gating with orthogonal LacI/GalR family chimeras.

    PubMed

    Shis, David L; Hussain, Faiza; Meinhardt, Sarah; Swint-Kruse, Liskin; Bennett, Matthew R

    2014-09-19

    In prokaryotes, the construction of synthetic, multi-input promoters is constrained by the number of transcription factors that can simultaneously regulate a single promoter. This fundamental engineering constraint is an obstacle to synthetic biologists because it limits the computational capacity of engineered gene circuits. Here, we demonstrate that complex multi-input transcriptional logic gating can be achieved through the use of ligand-inducible chimeric transcription factors assembled from the LacI/GalR family. These modular chimeras each contain a ligand-binding domain and a DNA-binding domain, both of which are chosen from a library of possibilities. When two or more chimeras have the same DNA-binding domain, they independently and simultaneously regulate any promoter containing the appropriate operator site. In this manner, simple transcriptional AND gating is possible through the combination of two chimeras, and multiple-input AND gating is possible with the simultaneous use of three or even four chimeras. Furthermore, we demonstrate that orthogonal DNA-binding domains and their cognate operators allow the coexpression of multiple, orthogonal AND gates. Altogether, this work provides synthetic biologists with novel, ligand-inducible logic gates and greatly expands the possibilities for engineering complex synthetic gene circuits. PMID:25035932

  4. Discovery of VHE gamma-rays from the BL Lac object PKS 0548-322

    E-print Network

    Akhperjanian, A G; de Almeida, U Barres; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Behera, B; Benbow, W; Bernlöhr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bühler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L -M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Förster, A; Fontaine, G; Füssling, M; Gabici, S; Gallant, Y A; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göring, D; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; deJager, O C; Jahn, C; Jung, I; Katarzy?ski, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhagg, M; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Keogh, D; Klu?niak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J -P; Lohse, T; Marandon, V; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann-Godo, M; deNaurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; Wilhelm, E de Oña; Orford, K J; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P -O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Renaud, M; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schröder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Superina, G; Szostek, A; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; vanEldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Venter, L; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volp, F; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A

    2010-01-01

    PKS 0548-322 (z=0.069) is a ``high-frequency-peaked'' BL Lac object and a candidate very high energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter, due to its high X-ray and radio flux. Observations at the VHE band provide insights into the origin of very energetic particles present in this source and the radiation processes at work. We report observations made between October 2004 and January 2008 with the H.E.S.S. array, a four imaging atmospheric-Cherenkov telescopes. Contemporaneous UV and X-ray observations with the Swift satellite in November 2006 are also reported. PKS 0548-322 is detected for the first time in the VHE band with H.E.S.S. We measure an excess of 216 gamma-rays corresponding to a significance of 5.6 standard deviations. The photon spectrum of the source is described by a power-law, with a photon index of Gamma=2.86 +/- 0.34 (stat) +/- 0.10 (sys). The integral flux above 200 GeV is 1.3 % of the flux of the Crab Nebula, and is consistent with being constant in time. Contemporaneous Swift/XRT observat...

  5. The Gamma-Ray Bright BL Lac Object RX J1211+2242

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckmann, V.; Favre, P.; Tavecchio, F.; Bussien, T.; Fliri, J.; Wolter, A.

    2004-01-01

    RX J1211+2242 is an optically faint (B approximately equal to 19.2mag) but X-ray bright (f2-10kev = 5 x l0(exp -12)erg per square centimeter per second) AGN, which has been shown to be a BL Lac object at redshift z = 0.455. The ROSAT X-ray, Calar Alto optical, and NVSS radio data suggest that the peak of the synchrotron emission of this object is at energies as high as several keV. BeppoSAX observations have been carried out simultaneously with optical observations in order to extend the coverage to higher energies. The new data indeed indicate a turn-over in the 2 - 10keV energy region. We propose that RX J1211+2242 is the counterpart of the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1212+2304, making it a gamma-ray emitter with properties similar to, for example, Markarian 501 in its bright state, though being at a much larger distance.

  6. Mutagenesis by asbestos in the lung of lambda-lacI transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Topinka, J; Loli, P; Georgiadis, P; Dusinská, M; Hurbánková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Kazimírová, A; Barancoková, M; Tatrai, E; Oesterle, D; Wolff, T; Kyrtopoulos, S A

    2004-09-01

    In order to get more insight into the mechanism of asbestos-related lung cancer, the mutagenic potential of asbestos was examined in vivo in rat lung. Groups of five transgenic lambda-lacI (Big Blue) rats were intratracheally instilled with single doses of 1 or 2mg, or with four weekly doses of 2mg, per animal of the amosite asbestos. Sixteen weeks after instillation, the mutation frequency was found to be increased in lung DNA by 2-fold at doses of 2 mg (P = 0.035) and of 4 x 2 mg (P = 0.007) amosite. No significant changes were observed after 4 weeks of exposure. In separate experiments, wild-type F344 rats were treated by the same regimen as described above and markers of inflammation, genotoxicity, cell proliferation and lung tissue damage were analysed. Our results indicate a weak but persistent inflammation and cell proliferation which possibly plays a major role in the observed mutagenic effect. PMID:15288534

  7. Attenuation and velocity dispersion in the exploration seismic frequency band

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Langqiu Sun

    2009-01-01

    In an anelastic medium, seismic waves are distorted by attenuation and velocity dispersion, which depend on petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks. The effective attenuation and velocity dispersion is a combination of intrinsic attenuation and apparent attenuation due to scattering, transmission response, and data acquisition system. Velocity dispersion is usually neglected in seismic data processing partly because of insufficient observations in

  8. Attenuation of ground-motion spectral amplitudes in southeastern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, T.I.; Cummins, P.R.; Dhu, T.; Schneider, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    A dataset comprising some 1200 weak- and strong-motion records from 84 earthquakes is compiled to develop a regional ground-motion model for southeastern Australia (SEA). Events were recorded from 1993 to 2004 and range in size from moment magnitude 2.0 ??? M ??? 4.7. The decay of vertical-component Fourier spectral amplitudes is modeled by trilinear geometrical spreading. The decay of low-frequency spectral amplitudes can be approximated by the coefficient of R-1.3 (where R is hypocentral distance) within 90 km of the seismic source. From approximately 90 to 160 km, we observe a transition zone in which the seismic coda are affected by postcritical reflections from midcrustal and Moho discontinuities. In this hypocentral distance range, geometrical spreading is approximately R+0.1. Beyond 160 km, low-frequency seismic energy attenuates rapidly with source-receiver distance, having a geometrical spreading coefficient of R-1.6. The associated regional seismic-quality factor can be expressed by the polynomial: log Q(f) = 3.66 - 1.44 log f + 0.768 (log f)2 + 0.058 (log f)3 for frequencies 0.78 ??? f ??? 19.9 Hz. Fourier spectral amplitudes, corrected for geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation, are regressed with M to obtain quadratic source scaling coefficients. Modeled vertical-component displacement spectra fit the observed data well. Amplitude residuals are, on average, relatively small and do not vary with hypocentral distance. Predicted source spectra (i.e., at R = 1 km) are consistent with eastern North American (ENA) Models at low frequencies (f less than approximately 2 Hz) indicating that moment magnitudes calculated for SEA earthquakes are consistent with moment magnitude scales used in ENA over the observed magnitude range. The models presented represent the first spectral ground-motion prediction equations develooed for the southeastern Australian region. This work provides a useful framework for the development of regional ground-motion relations for earthquake hazard and risk assessment in SEA.

  9. Small Scale Seismic Attenuation within D"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. L.; Wysession, M. E.

    2001-12-01

    An ScS-S differential attenuation study with data from the Missouri to Massachusetts Seismic Experiment (MOMA) produces Q? (D'') estimates. Similarities between S and ScS paths through the upper mantle reduce the elastic and anelastic upper mantle effects. Differential t*ScS-S is highly correlated with t*ScS and not t*S, indicating that differential attenuation results from lower mantle interactions with the ScS phase. Theoretical calculations show that Q{ ? }(D'') variations comparable to those found in the upper mantle may account for -0.65 to 4 seconds of ScS attenuation relative to PREM. The shear quality factor, Q{ ? }(D"), is assumed to be constant between 0.01 and 0.15 Hz. Comparison between the slope of the transfer function and difference between the slopes of the linearized amplitude spectra allows for quality control. Individual spectra are similar to stacked spectra from similar ray paths, suggesting good representation in the frequency domain. The differences between attenuated and non-attenuated travel time analyses is minimal. High attenuation (Q? (D'') =70) is correlated with a D" low velocity region beneath the Caribbean. This is consistent with a thermal anomaly, but does not preclude chemical, phase, or structural variations. Convection and conduction make lateral thermal variations likely near a thermal boundary such as the core-mantle boundary. Extreme melt (Q? (D'') = 10) is required if the attenuation is accumulated in the bottom 20-25 km of the mantle as a result of an ultra low velocity layer at the core-mantle boundary. The observation of many low t*ScS values may indicate the presence of a higher Q? in the lower mantle than exists in reference models like PREM or QL6. >http://epsc.wustl.edu/seismology/jfisher/t_star/

  10. Lg Attenuation Modeling in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Matzel, E. M.; Walter, W. R.; Rodgers, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    We present a broadband tomographic model of Lg attenuation in the Middle East derived from source- and site-corrected amplitudes. The study region spans from Turkey through the Arabian Peninsula and Iran to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and northwest India. Absolute amplitude measurements are made on hand-selected and carefully windowed seismograms for tens of stations and thousands of crustal earthquakes resulting in excellent coverage of the region. We have modified the standard attenuation tomography technique to more explicitly define the earthquake source expression in terms of the seismic moment. This facilitates the use of the model to predict the expected amplitudes of new events, an important consideration for earthquake hazard or explosion monitoring applications. We will discuss the updated method and implications of this parameterization. A conjugate gradient method is used to tomographically invert the amplitude dataset of over 8000 paths. We solve for Q variation, as well as site and source terms, for a wide range of frequencies ranging from 0.5 -- 10 Hz. The attenuation results have a strong correlation to tectonics. Shields have low attenuation, while tectonic regions have high attenuation, with the highest attenuation at 1 Hz found in eastern Turkey. The results also compare favorably to other studies in the region made using Lg propagation efficiency, Lg/Pg amplitude ratios and two-station methods. We tomographically invert the amplitude measurements for each frequency independently. In doing so, it appears the frequency-dependence of attenuation is not compatible with the power law representation of Q(f). This research was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract number DE-AC52-07NA27344. This is LLNL contribution LLNL-ABS-406761.

  11. Analysis of the evaporation coefficient and the condensation coefficient of water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Marek; J. Straub

    2001-01-01

    The evaporation and condensation coefficients of water are extensively analyzed considering also data hitherto not taken into account. From the performed evaluation, a decline of both coefficients with increasing temperature and pressure is derived. For water, the condensation coefficients is generally higher than the evaporation coefficient. Evaporation and condensation coefficients exceed 0.1 for dynamically renewing water surfaces, while the analysis

  12. Lidar calibration and extinction coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klett, J. D.

    1983-02-01

    Klett (1981) has presented an optical radar inversion scheme which utilizes only relative changes in the backscattered signal to produce estimates of atmospheric extinction as a function of range. It was also pointed out that better results could be obtained if use could be made of calibration information and/or other independent measurements to determine reference or boundary values of extinction sigma(m) more accurately. The present investigation is concerned with some characteristic features of a particular boundary value model for estimating sigma(m) based on knowledge of optical radar system constants, relative signal strength, and the relationship between the backscatter and extinction coefficients.

  13. Electron excitation coefficients in xenon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Strinic; G. Malovic; J. Bozin; Z. Lj. Petrovic

    1999-01-01

    We have performed measurements of excitation coefficients for electron swarms in xenon for the range of E\\/N from 90 Td to 10 kTd. The measurements were performed for 2p_1, 2p_2, 2p_3, 2p_4, 2p_5, 2p_6, 3p_5, 3p_6, 3p_7, 3p_8, and 3p_10 levels of neutral xenon and for 6p^4D^0 and 6p^4P^0 of xenon ion. The results were obtained in self-sustained low current

  14. Enabling photon counting detectors with dynamic attenuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-03-01

    Photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) are being investigated as a replacement for conventional x-ray detectors because they promise several advantages, including better dose efficiency, higher resolution and spectral imaging. However, many of these advantages disappear when the x-ray flux incident on the detector is too high. We recently proposed a dynamic, piecewise-linear attenuator (or beam shaping filter) that can control the flux incident on the detector. This can restrict the operating range of the PCXD to keep the incident count rate below a given limit. We simulated a system with the piecewise-linear attenuator and a PCXD using raw data generated from forward projected DICOM files. We investigated the classic paralyzable and nonparalyzable PCXD as well as a weighted average of the two, with the weights chosen to mimic an existing PCXD (Taguchi et al, Med Phys 2011). The dynamic attenuator has small synergistic benefits with the nonparalyzable detector and large synergistic benefits with the paralyzable detector. Real PCXDs operate somewhere between these models, and the weighted average model still shows large benefits from the dynamic attenuator. We conclude that dynamic attenuators can reduce the count rate performance necessary for adopting PCXDs.

  15. MODIS Solar Diffuser Attenuation Screen Modeling Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xuong, Xiaoxiong; Guenther, Bruce; Barnes, William

    2004-01-01

    On-orbit calibration of the reflected solar bands on the EOS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is accomplished by have the instrument view a high reflectance diffuse surface illuminated by the sun. For some of the spectral bands this proves to be much too bright a signal that results in the saturation of detectors designed for measuring low reflectance (ocean) surfaces signals. A mechanical attenuation device in the form of a pin hole screen is used to reduce the signals to calibrate these bands. The sensor response to solar illumination of the SD with and without the attenuation screen in place will be presented. The MODIS detector response to the solar diffuser is smooth when the attenuation screen is absent, but has structures up to a few percent when the attenuation screen is present. This structure corresponds to non-uniform illumination from the solar diffuser. Each pin hole produces a pin-hole image of the sun on the solar diffuser, and there are very many pin hole images of the sun on the solar diffuser for each MODIS detector. Even though there are very many pin-hole images of the sun on the solar diffuser, it is no longer perfectly uniformly illuminated. This non-uniformly illuminated solar diffuser produces intensity variation on the focal planes. The results of a very detailed simulation will be discussed which show how the illumination of the focal plane changes as a result of the attenuation, and the impacts on the calibration will be discussed.

  16. Insulating epoxy/barite and polyester/barite composites for radiation attenuation.

    PubMed

    El-Sarraf, M A; El-Sayed Abdo, A

    2013-09-01

    A trial has been made to create insulating Epoxy/Barite (EP/Brt) (?=2.85 g cm(-3)) and Crosslinked Unsaturated Polyester/Barite (CUP/Brt) (?=3.25 g cm(-3)) composites with radiation attenuation and shielding capabilities. Experimental work regarding mechanical and physical properties was performed to study the composites integrity for practical applications. The properties were found to be reasonable. Radiation attenuation properties have been carried out using emitted collimated beam from a fission (252)Cf (100 µg) neutron source, and the neutron-gamma spectrometer with stilbene scintillator. The pulse shape discriminating (P.S.D) technique based on the zero cross-over method was used to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray pulses. Thermal neutron fluxes, measured using the BF3 detector and thermal neutron detection system, were used to plot the attenuation relations. The fast neutron macroscopic effective removal cross-section ?R, gamma ray total attenuation coefficient µ and thermal neutron macroscopic cross-section ? have been evaluated. Theoretical calculations have been achieved using MCNP-4C2 code to calculate ?R, µ and ?. Also, MERCSF-N program was used to calculate macroscopic effective removal cross-section ?R. Measured and calculated results have been compared and were found to be in reasonable agreement. PMID:23722071

  17. VERITAS Observations of the BL Lac Object PG 1553+113

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliu, E.; Archer, A.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Nieto, D.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rajotte, J.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Wakely, S. P.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2015-01-01

    We present results from VERITAS observations of the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 spanning the years 2010, 2011, and 2012. The time-averaged spectrum, measured between 160 and 560 GeV, is well described by a power law with a spectral index of 4.33 ± 0.09. The time-averaged integral flux above 200 GeV measured for this period was (1.69 ± 0.06) × 10-11 photons cm-2 s-1, corresponding to 6.9% of the Crab Nebula flux. We also present the combined ?-ray spectrum from the Fermi Large Area Telescope and VERITAS covering an energy range from 100 MeV to 560 GeV. The data are well fit by a power law with an exponential cutoff at 101.9 ± 3.2 GeV. The origin of the cutoff could be intrinsic to PG 1553+113 or be due to the ?-ray opacity of our universe through pair production off the extragalactic background light (EBL). Given lower limits to the redshift of z > 0.395 based on optical/UV observations of PG 1553+113, the cutoff would be dominated by EBL absorption. Conversely, the small statistical uncertainties of the VERITAS energy spectrum have allowed us to provide a robust upper limit on the redshift of PG 1553+113 of z <= 0.62. A strongly elevated mean flux of (2.50 ± 0.14) × 10-11 photons cm-2 s-1 (10.3% of the Crab Nebula flux) was observed during 2012, with the daily flux reaching as high as (4.44 +/- 0.71) × 10-11 {photons} {cm}-2 {s}-1 (18.3% of the Crab Nebula flux) on MJD 56048. The light curve measured during the 2012 observing season is marginally inconsistent with a steady flux, giving a ?2 probability for a steady flux of 0.03%.

  18. Validation of Microcosms for Examining the Survival of Pseudomonas aureofaciens (lacZY) in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Angle, J. S.; Levin, M. A.; Gagliardi, J. V.; McIntosh, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    Evaluating the safety and efficacy of a recombinant bacterium prior to its release into the terrestrial environment requires that risk assessment data be collected in the laboratory. Much of this information is obtained with the use of microcosms. The design of the microcosm significantly affects the ability of the recombinant microorganism to survive in soil and, thus, complicates the risk assessment process. To standardize microcosms for future use, we evaluated the survival of Pseudomonas aureofaciens 3732 RN-L11 (lacZY Rif(supr) Nal(supr)) in intact soil cores (5.0 by 15 cm; polyvinyl chloride core) and disturbed soil microcosms (50 g of fresh, sieved soil). Survival data were compared with those obtained during a field release. The intact soil core microcosm was shown to closely simulate results obtained in the field. The intact soil core microcosm closely predicts survival in bulk soil and in the rhizosphere of wheat. Data obtained with the microcosm were also similar when evaluated in separate studies in two different years. In 1993, P. aureofaciens survived for approximately 63 days in bulk soil and 96 days in the rhizosphere. The disturbed soil microcosm exhibited a much more rapid decline in population size (34 days to zero) than the intact core microcosm. We speculate that drying and sieving of soil for the disturbed soil microcosm affected the ability of the soil to support the survival of P. aureofaciens. These results demonstrate that a small, inexpensive, and simple intact soil core microcosm may be appropriate for risk assessment. PMID:16535091

  19. Jacob's lac operon drawing, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    small image of Francois Jacob's lac operon drawing. So by comparing the system of the viruses, the lysogenic bacteria on the one hand and the induced synthesis of galactosidase, it was clear that it was two very similar system, and by comparing this system we came to a model which I am trying to describe now, the idea what you had a gene controlling the structure of proteins, which we called structural gene, and we can call that SG-1, SG-2, cloned to each other, for instance the Z gene of galactosidase and the Y gene permease. And somewhere else, which could be either far or close to the other, a regulatory gene, that is a gene, which control the expression of these two structural genes. So the idea were that from this you had a messenger, that the gene which is, it's DNA, a messenger which was RNA, and from this messenger proteins were done. So that goes like that. Now the regulation was by, what we call this negative system, that is a regulatory gene made a product, which at first we thought was RNA but finally was protein, so it made a protein which we called a repressor. And this repressor was acting on a small sequence of DNA adjacent to the structure, which we called the operator. So there was here, so the regulatory gene produced a repressor, a protein, which binds to a specific sequence, which is the operator, which control the initiation of messenger production. And the lactose that is the inducer, was supposed to interact with the repressor and prevent him from attaching to the operator. So the repressor was a double-sided structure, one which recognize the operator and the other which recognize the small molecule, the lactose. And this we call the negative system because it blocked, so that was the model, which we call operon, 'ron', with 'on'.

  20. Predictions of the High-Energy Emission from BL Lac objects: The Case of W Comae

    E-print Network

    M. Boettcher; R. Mukherjee; A. Reimer

    2002-08-07

    Spectral fitting of the radio through hard X-ray emission of BL Lac objects has previously been used to predict their level of high-energy (GeV - TeV) emission. In this paper, we point out that such spectral fitting can have very large uncertainties with respect to predictions of the VHE emission. This is demonstrated with the example of W Comae. We show that the best currently available contemporaneous optical - X-ray spectrum of W Comae still allows for a large range of possible parameters, resulting in drastically different > 40 GeV fluxes. We find that all acceptable leptonic-model fits to the optical - X-ray emission of W Comae predict a cut-off of the high-energy emission around ~ 100 GeV. We suggest that detailed measurements and analysis of the soft X-ray variability of W Comae may be used to break the degeneracy in the choice of possible fit parameters, and thus allow a more reliable prediction of the VHE emission from this object. Using the available soft X-ray variability measured by BeppoSAX, we predict a > 40 GeV flux from W Comae of ~ (0.4 - 1) * 10^{-10} photons/(cm^2 s) with no significant emission at E > 100 GeV for a leptonic jet model. We compare our results concerning leptonic jet models with detailed predictions of the hadronic Synchrotron-Proton Blazar model. This hadronic model predicts > 40 GeV fluxes very similar to those found for the leptonic models, but results in > 100 GeV emission which should be clearly detectable with future high-sensitivity instruments like VERITAS. Thus, we suggest this object as a promising target for VHE gamma-ray and co-ordinated broadband observations to distinguish between leptonic and hadronic jet models for blazars.

  1. COEFFICIENTS FOR THE FARRELL-JONES CONJECTURE

    E-print Network

    Bartels, Arthur

    COEFFICIENTS FOR THE FARRELL-JONES CONJECTURE ARTHUR BARTELS AND HOLGER REICH Abstract.We introduce the Farrell-Jones Conjecture with coefficients in * *an additive category with G-action. This is a variant of the Farrell-Jones

  2. Variability of the propagation coefficients due to rain for microwave links in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulangu, C. T.; Afullo, T. J.

    2009-06-01

    We use the Mie scattering approach and the dielectric model of Liebe to determine the propagation coefficients and rain attenuation distribution for four locations in Botswana, southern Africa, using R0.01 = 68.9 mm/h for Gaborone, R0.01 = 137.06 mm/h for Selebi-Phikwe, R0.01 = 86.87 mm/h for Francistown, and R0.01 = 64.4 mm/h for Kasane over the frequency range of 1-1000 GHz. The results show that the extinction coefficients depend more strongly on temperature at lower frequencies than at higher frequencies for lognormal distribution. The absorption coefficient is significant but decreases exponentially with rain temperature at lower microwave frequencies. The application of the proposed model with various distributions is corroborated using practical results for Durban in South Africa.

  3. The effect of metal artefact reduction on CT-based attenuation correction for PET imaging in the vicinity of metallic hip implants: A phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Harnish, Roy; Prevrhal, Sven; Alavi, Abass; Zaidi, Habib; Lang, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine if metal artefact reduction (MAR) combined with a priori knowledge of prosthesis material composition can be applied to obtain CT-based attenuation maps with sufficient accuracy for quantitative assessment of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in lesions near metallic prostheses. Methods A custom hip prosthesis phantom with a lesion-sized cavity filled with 0.2 ml 18F-FDG solution having an activity of 3.367 MBq adjacent to a prosthesis bore was imaged twice with a chrome-cobalt steel hip prosthesis and a plastic replica, respectively. Scanning was performed on a clinical hybrid PET/CT system equipped with an additional external 137Cs transmission source. PET emission images were reconstructed from both phantom configurations with CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) and with CT-based attenuation correction using MAR (MARCTAC). To compare results with the attenuation-correction method extant prior to the advent of PET/CT, we also carried out attenuation correction with 137Cs transmission-based attenuation correction (TXAC). CTAC and MARCTAC images were scaled to attenuation coefficients at 511 keV using a tri-linear function that mapped the highest CT values to the prosthesis alloy attenuation coefficient. Accuracy and spatial distribution of the lesion activity was compared between the three reconstruction schemes. Results Compared to the reference activity of 3.37 MBq, the estimated activity quantified from the PET image corrected by TXAC was 3.41 MBq. The activity estimated from PET images corrected by MARCTAC was similar in accuracy at 3.32 MBq. CTAC corrected PET images resulted in nearly 40% overestimation of lesion activity at 4.70 MBq. Comparison of PET images obtained with the plastic and metal prostheses in place showed that CTAC resulted in a marked distortion of the 18F-FDG distribution within the lesion, whereas application of MARCTAC and TXAC resulted in lesion distributions similar to those observed with the plastic replica. Conclusions MAR combined with a tri-linear CT number mapping for PET attenuation correction resulted in estimates of lesion activity comparable in accuracy to that obtained with 137Cs transmission-based attenuation correction, and far superior to estimates made without attenuation correction or with a standard CT attenuation map. The ability to use CT images for attenuation correction is a potentially important development because it obviates the need for a 137Cs transmission source, which entails extra scan time, logistical complexity and expense. PMID:24710757

  4. Metric and Euclidean properties of dissimilarity coefficients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Gower; P. Legendre

    1986-01-01

    We assemble here properties of certain dissimilarity coefficients and are specially concerned with their metric and Euclidean status. No attempt is made to be exhaustive as far as coefficients are concerned, but certain mathematical results that we have found useful are presented and should help establish similar properties for other coefficients. The response to different types of data is investigated,

  5. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  6. Compression of Surface Registration using Beltrami Coefficients

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    1 Compression of Surface Registration using Beltrami Coefficients L.M. Lui, T.W. Wong, P diffeomorphisms using Beltrami coefficients, which are complex-valued functions defined on surfaces with supreme the set of surface diffeomorphisms between them and the set of Beltrami coefficients on the source domain

  7. Prediction of aircraft sideline noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A computational study is made using the recommended ground effect theory by Pao, Wenzel, and Oncley. It is shown that this theory adequately predicts the measured ground attenuation data by Parkin and Scholes, which is the only available large data set. It is also shown, however, that the ground effect theory does not predict the measured lateral attenuations from actual aircraft flyovers. There remain one or more important lateral effects on aircraft noise, such as sideline shielding of sources, which must be incorporated in the prediction methods. Experiments at low elevation angles (0 deg to 10 deg) and low-to-intermediate frequencies are recommended to further validate the ground effect theory.

  8. Photoacoustic computed tomography correcting for heterogeneity and attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao; Nie, Liming; Schoonover, Robert W.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We report an investigation of image reconstruction in photoacoustic tomography for objects that possess heterogeneous material and acoustic attenuation distributions. When the object contains materials, such as bone and soft-tissue, that are modeled using power law attenuation models with distinct exponents, we demonstrate that the effects of acoustic attenuation due to the most strongly attenuating material can be compensated for if the attenuation of the other less attenuating material(s) are neglected. Experiments with phantom objects are presented to validated our findings. PMID:22734741

  9. Modeling of the Infrasound Propagation in the Atmosphere: With Gravitational Effect and Attenuation Considered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang

    2014-05-01

    For modeling the propagation of infrasound below 5 Hz, the high frequency approximation is no longer valid and the effect of gravity needs to be taken into account. Damping of infrasound in the realistic atmosphere is another important ingredient. With the impacts of gravitational field and realistic atmospheric attenuation considered, an acoustic ray tracing model and a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) model are developed. The ray tracing equations are deduced from the real part of the dissipative dispersion relation of acoustic wave, while the acoustic attenuation coefficient and growth rate in a stratified moving atmosphere are deduced from the imaginary part of the dispersion relation.The buoyancy frequency and the cut-off frequency of acoustic wave are set to be the values in a nonisothermal atmosphere, and the attenuation coefficient is corrected by the realistic absorption. In the FDTD model, the governing equations of acoustic wave in a dissipative gravitational-stratified atmosphere is solved by combing a dispersion relation preserving scheme in space and a Runge-Kutta scheme in time. The results show that the ray trajectory obtained by the ray tracing model agrees well with that simulated by the FDTD model. The simulation of the ray tracing model illustrate that the gravitational effect plays a dominant role in the stratospheric ducting and the attenuation effect could be neglected. However, the contribution of the absorption becomes more important and can't be ignored in the thermospheric ducting. By taking the gravity into consideration, the acoustic frequency in our models is no longer constrained by the high frequency approximation. Consideration of the dissipation effect can also improve the computation accuracy of ray trajectories and the efficiency of wave amplitude evaluation.

  10. Measurements of the optical absorption coefficient of Ar8+ ion implanted silicon layers using the photothermal radiometry and the modulated free carrier absorption methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrobak, ?.; Mali?ski, M.; Pawlak, M.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a method of the measurement of the optical absorption coefficient of the Ar8+ ions implanted layers in the p-type silicon substrate. The absorption coefficient is calculated using a value of the attenuation of amplitudes of a photothermal radiometry (PTR) and/or a modulation free carrier absorption (MFCA) signals and the implanted layer thickness calculated by means of the TRIM program. The proposed method can be used to indicate the amorphization of the ions implanted layers.

  11. Lac Repressor Mediated DNA Looping: Monte Carlo Simulation of Constrained DNA Molecules Complemented with Current Experimental Results

    PubMed Central

    Biton, Yoav Y.; Kumar, Sandip; Dunlap, David; Swigon, David

    2014-01-01

    Tethered particle motion (TPM) experiments can be used to detect time-resolved loop formation in a single DNA molecule by measuring changes in the length of a DNA tether. Interpretation of such experiments is greatly aided by computer simulations of DNA looping which allow one to analyze the structure of the looped DNA and estimate DNA-protein binding constants specific for the loop formation process. We here present a new Monte Carlo scheme for accurate simulation of DNA configurations subject to geometric constraints and apply this method to Lac repressor mediated DNA looping, comparing the simulation results with new experimental data obtained by the TPM technique. Our simulations, taking into account the details of attachment of DNA ends and fluctuations of the looped subsegment of the DNA, reveal the origin of the double-peaked distribution of RMS values observed by TPM experiments by showing that the average RMS value for anti-parallel loop types is smaller than that of parallel loop types. The simulations also reveal that the looping probabilities for the anti-parallel loop types are significantly higher than those of the parallel loop types, even for loops of length 600 and 900 base pairs, and that the correct proportion between the heights of the peaks in the distribution can only be attained when loops with flexible Lac repressor conformation are taken into account. Comparison of the in silico and in vitro results yields estimates for the dissociation constants characterizing the binding affinity between O1 and Oid DNA operators and the dimeric arms of the Lac repressor. PMID:24800809

  12. Residues in the H+ Translocation Site Define the pKa for Sugar Binding to LacY†

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Irina; Kasho, Vladimir; Sugihara, Junichi; Choe, Jun-Yong; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A remarkably high pKa of approximately 10.5 has been determined for sugar-binding affinity to the lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY), indicating that, under physiological conditions, substrate binds to fully protonated LacY. We have now systematically tested site-directed replacements for the residues involved in sugar binding, as well as H+ translocation and coupling, in order to determine which residues may be responsible for this alkaline pKa. Mutations in the sugar-binding site (Glu126, Trp151, Glu269) markedly decrease affinity for sugar but do not alter the pKa for binding. In contrast, replacements for residues involved in H+ translocation (Arg302, Tyr236, His322, Asp240, Glu325, Lys319) exhibit pKa values for sugar binding that are either shifted toward neutral pH or independent of pH. Values for the apparent dissociation constant for sugar binding (Kdapp) increase greatly for all mutants except neutral replacements for Glu325 or Lys319, which are characterized by remarkably high affinity sugar binding (i.e., low Kdapp) from pH 5.5 to pH 11. The pH dependence of the on- and off-rate constants for sugar binding measured directly by stopped-flow fluorometry implicates koff as a major factor for the affinity change at alkaline pH and confirms the effects of pH on Kdapp inferred from steady-state fluorometry. These results indicate that the high pKa for sugar binding by wild-type LacY cannot be ascribed to any single amino acid residue but appears to reside within a complex of residues involved in H+ translocation. There is structural evidence for water bound in this complex, and the water could be the site of protonation responsible for the pH dependence of sugar binding. PMID:19689129

  13. Effect of plasmid copy number and lac operator sequence on antibiotic-free plasmid selection by operator-repressor titration in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cranenburgh, Rocky M; Lewis, Kathryn S; Hanak, Julian A J

    2004-01-01

    The Escherichia coli strain DH1lacdapD enables plasmid selection and maintenance that is free from antibiotics and selectable marker genes. This is achieved by using only the lac operator sequence as a selectable element. This strain is currently used to generate high copy number plasmids with no antibiotic resistance genes for use as DNA vaccines and for expression of recombinant proteins. Until now these have been limited to pUC-based plasmids containing a high copy number pMB1-derived origin of replication, and the principle lacO(1) and auxiliary lacO(3) operators. In this study we have shown that this system can also be used to select and maintain pBR322-based plasmids with the lower copy number pMB1 origin of replication, and that lacO(1) alone or a palindromic version of lacO(1) can provide a sufficient level of repressor titration for plasmid selection. This is advantageous for recombinant protein production, where low copy number plasmids are often used and plasmid maintenance is important. The degree of repressor titration due to these plasmids was measured using the natural lactose operon in E. coli DH1 as a model. PMID:15383717

  14. Pre-induced Lac Operon Effect on Non Specific Sugars: Pre-culture Effect is Dependent on Strength of Induction, Exponential Phase and Substrate Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Malakar, Pushkar

    2015-01-01

    The source and history of the cell plays an important role in influencing the phenotypic properties of the organism in a particular environmental condition. Pre-induced lac operon provides benefit on lactose environment. During metabolism lactose is broken down into glucose and galactose. The fate of cells with pre-induced lac operon on glucose and galactose milieu is not known. The influence of nutritional status of the medium, level of pre-induction and growth phase on pre-culture effect is not investigated. Effect of pre-induced lac operon on non specific sugars along with the factors that influence this effect was enumerated in the present study. Results of this present study indicate that pre-induced lac operon provide benefit in terms of growth on galactose milieu. This study also suggests that Pre induced lac operon effect depends on the (i) strength of induction in the pre-culture, (ii) nutritional content of the environment and (iii) exponential growth phase of the organism. The above study will help in the better characterization of the pre culture effect. It will also help in the better understanding of the relation between gene expression and growth physiology. PMID:26161153

  15. Transgenic mice with p53-responsive lacZ: p53 activity varies dramatically during normal development and determines radiation and drug sensitivity in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, E A; Chernov, M V; Franks, R; Wang, K; Armin, G; Zelnick, C R; Chin, D M; Bacus, S S; Stark, G R; Gudkov, A V

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the involvement of p53-dependent transcriptional activation in normal development and in response to DNA damage in vivo, we created transgenic mice with a lacZ reporter gene under the control of a p53-responsive promoter. Five independent strains showed similar patterns of transgene expression. In untreated animals, lacZ expression was limited to the developing nervous system of embryos and newborn mice and was strongly decreased in the adult brain. gamma-irradiation or adriamycin treatment induced lacZ expression in the majority of cells of early embryos and in the spleen, thymus and small intestine in adult mice. Transgene expression was p53 dependent and coincided with the sites of strong p53 accumulation. The lacZ-expressing tissues and early embryos, unlike other adult tissues and late embryos, are characterized by high levels of p53 mRNA expression and respond to DNA damage by massive apoptotic cell death. Analysis of p53-null mice showed that this apoptosis is p53 dependent. These data suggest that p53 activity, monitored by the reporter lacZ transgene, is the determinant of radiation and drug sensitivity in vivo and indicate the importance of tissue and stage specificity of p53 regulation at the level of mRNA expression. PMID:9135154

  16. A comparison of the genotoxicity of ethylnitrosourea and ethyl methanesulfonate in lacZ transgenic mice (Muta Mouse).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Hayashi, M; Wang, X; Yamamoto, K; Ono, T; Myhr, B C; Sofuni, T

    1997-12-01

    We compared the induction of gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations by ethylating agents in lacZ transgenic mice (Muta Mouse). Chromosomal aberrations were detected by the peripheral blood micronucleus assay. Gene mutations were detected in the lacZ transgene. A small amount of blood was sampled from a tail vessel during the expression time for fixation of gene mutations in vivo; this enabled us to detect and compare clastogenicity and gene mutations in the identical mouse. Single intraperitoneal injections of ENU (50-200 mg/kg) and EMS (100-400 mg/kg) strongly induced micronucleated reticulocytes (MN) detectable in peripheral blood 48 h after treatment. The maximum MN frequencies induced were 6.6% and 3.3% for ENU (100 mg/kg) and EMS (400 mg/kg), respectively (the control value was 0.3%). lacZ mutant frequency (MF) was analyzed in bone marrow and liver 7 days after treatment. Spontaneous MFs were 2.0-4.6 x 10(-6). MF in bone marrow was increased by ENU to 3.4 x 10(-5) at 200 mg/kg and induced by EMS to 1.8 x 10(-5) at 400 mg/kg. In liver, however, both chemicals at their highest doses induced only slight increases in MF. The induction of both micronuclei and lacZ mutations in bone marrow by both ENU and EMS correlated better with O6-ethylguanine adducts than with N7-ethylguanine adducts. The mutants (19 for ENU and 12 for EMS) were subjected to DNA sequence analysis. Among EMS-induced mutations, 75% were GC to AT transitions, which were probably caused by O6-ethylguanine. Among ENU-induced mutations, in contrast, 40% occurred as AT base pair substitutions (6 AT to TA transversions and 2 AT to GC transitions) (no such mutations were induced by EMS). These results, together with the known reactivity of ENU to thymine suggest that thymine adducts play a significant role in the ENU mutagenesis. PMID:9465915

  17. In situ Detection of ? -Galactosidase in Lenses of Transgenic Mice with a ? -Crystallin/lacZ Gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goring, D. R.; Rossant, J.; Clapoff, S.; Breitman, M. L.; Tsui, L.-C.

    1987-01-01

    Transgenic mice carrying the ? 2-crystallin promoter fused to the coding region of the bacterial lacZ gene were generated. The offspring of three founder mice expressed high levels of the enzyme solely in the central nuclear fiber cells of the lens as measured by an in situ assay for the detection of ? -galactosidase activity. These results suggest that ? 2-crystallin sequences between -759 to +45 contain essential information required for appropriate tissue-specific and temporal regulation of the mouse ? 2-crystallin gene. In a broader context, this study also demonstrates the utility of ? -galactosidase hybrid gene constructs for monitoring the activity of gene regulatory elements in transgenic mice.

  18. Coordinated TeV gamma-ray and optical polarization study of BL Lac object Mkn 501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, U. C.; Baliyan, K. S.; Ganesh, S.; Deshpande, M. R.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Kaul, R. K.; Kaul, C. L.; Bhat, C. L.

    2000-06-01

    Coordinated TeV gamma-ray and optical polarization observations of the BL Lac object Mkn 501, carried out during 1997 with the TACTIC imaging Cerenkov telescope of the BARC and the 1.2 m Gurushikhar optical/IR telescope at Mt. Abu, have revealed a significant increase in the degree of polarization of the optical radiation in association with a Tev gamma-ray flare. The observations indicate a possible leptonic origin of the TeV gamma-ray signal as against a hadronic origin proposed in some models.

  19. Measurement of ultrasonic scattering attenuation in austenitic stainless steel welds: realistic input data for NDT numerical modeling.

    PubMed

    Ploix, Marie-Aude; Guy, Philippe; Chassignole, Bertrand; Moysan, Joseph; Corneloup, Gilles; El Guerjouma, Rachid

    2014-09-01

    Multipass welds made of 316L stainless steel are specific welds of the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors in nuclear power plants. Because of their strong heterogeneous and anisotropic nature due to grain growth during solidification, ultrasonic waves may be greatly deviated, split and attenuated. Thus, ultrasonic assessment of the structural integrity of such welds is quite complicated. Numerical codes exist that simulate ultrasonic propagation through such structures, but they require precise and realistic input data, as attenuation coefficients. This paper presents rigorous measurements of attenuation in austenitic weld as a function of grain orientation. In fact attenuation is here mainly caused by grain scattering. Measurements are based on the decomposition of experimental beams into plane-wave angular spectra and on the modeling of the ultrasonic propagation through the material. For this, the transmission coefficients are calculated for any incident plane wave on an anisotropic plate. Two different hypotheses on the welded material are tested: first it is considered as monoclinic, and then as triclinic. Results are analyzed, and validated through comparison to theoretical predictions of related literature. They underline the great importance of well-describing the anisotropic structure of austenitic welds for UT modeling issues. PMID:24759567

  20. Brucellosis: The Case for Live, Attenuated Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ficht, Thomas A.; Kahl-McDonagh, Melissa M.; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M.; Rice-Ficht, Allison C.

    2009-01-01

    The successful control of animal brucellosis and associated reduction in human exposure has limited the development of human brucellosis vaccines. However, the potential use of Brucella in bioterrorism or biowarfare suggests that direct intervention strategies are warranted. Although the dominant approach has explored the use of live attenuated vaccines, side-effects associated with their use has prevented widespread use in humans. Development of live, attenuated Brucella vaccines that are safe for use in humans has focused on the deletion of important genes required for survival. However, the enhanced safety of deletion mutants is most often associated with reduced efficacy. For this reason recent efforts have sought to combine the optimal features of a attenuated live vaccine that is safe, free of side effects and efficacious in humans with enhanced immune stimulation through microencapsulation. The competitive advantages and innovations of this approach are: (1) use of a highly attenuated, safe, gene knockout, live Brucella mutants; (2) manufacturing with unique disposable closed system technologies, and (3) oral/intranasal delivery in a novel microencapsulation-mediated controlled release formula to optimally provide the long term mucosal immunostimulation required for protective immunity. Based upon preliminary data, it is postulated that such vaccine delivery systems can be storage stable, administered orally or intranasally, and generally applicable to a number of agents. PMID:19837284

  1. Evaluation of Monitoring Approaches for Natural Attenuation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Roll; E. M. Labolle; G. E. Fogg

    2008-01-01

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) can be a useful alternative to active remediation, however, firm conclusions regarding effectiveness of MNA may be elusive because of multiple processes that can produce similar, apparent trends in chemical concentrations in the heterogeneous subsurface. Current monitoring approaches need to be critically evaluated for typical field settings, such as heterogeneous alluvial aquifer systems, because spatially varying

  2. Attenuation correction for small animal PET tomographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Patrick L.; Rannou, Fernando R.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

    2005-04-01

    Attenuation correction is one of the important corrections required for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET). This work will compare the quantitative accuracy of attenuation correction using a simple global scale factor with traditional transmission-based methods acquired either with a small animal PET or a small animal x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. Two phantoms (one mouse-sized and one rat-sized) and two animal subjects (one mouse and one rat) were scanned in CTI Concorde Microsystem's microPET® Focus™ for emission and transmission data and in ImTek's MicroCAT™ II for transmission data. PET emission image values were calibrated against a scintillation well counter. Results indicate that the scale factor method of attenuation correction places the average measured activity concentration about the expected value, without correcting for the cupping artefact from attenuation. Noise analysis in the phantom studies with the PET-based method shows that noise in the transmission data increases the noise in the corrected emission data. The CT-based method was accurate and delivered low-noise images suitable for both PET data correction and PET tracer localization.

  3. Seismic attenuation from recordings of ambient noise

    E-print Network

    only a few days of recordings by broad-band ocean bottom seismometers we are able to retrieve empiricalSeismic attenuation from recordings of ambient noise Cornelis Weemstra Lapo Boschi, Alexander ABSTRACT We apply seismic interferometry to data from an OBS survey offshore Norway and show that ambient

  4. Copper deficiency attenuates endothelial nitric oxide release

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attenuation of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation is a consistent finding in both conduit and resistance vessels during dietary copper deficiency. While the effect is well established, evidence for the mechanism is still circumstantial. This study was designed to deter...

  5. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  6. Attenuation in invasive blood pressure measurement systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ercole

    2006-01-01

    Equations are presented relating measured and actual arterial blood pressures in terms of the model impedances. The reactive properties of such a partial obstruction may lead to an IABP trace that is superficially similar in appearance to the case of an over-damped measur- ement system. However, this phenomenon should be termed 'attenuation' rather than 'damping' and is probably more common.

  7. Adjustments to the Correction for Attenuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetcher-Hendricks, Debra

    2006-01-01

    With respect to the often-present covariance between error terms of correlated variables, D. W. Zimmerman and R. H. Williams's (1977) adjusted correction for attenuation estimates the strength of the pairwise correlation between true scores without assuming independence of error scores. This article focuses on the derivation and analysis of…

  8. Ultrasound attenuation measurement the presence scatterer variation

    E-print Network

    Drummond, Tom

    Ultrasound attenuation measurement the presence scatterer variation for reduction shadowing.cam.ac.uk #12; #12; Abstract Pulse­echo ultrasound display relies many assumptions which known incorrect. De­ parture these makes interpretation conventional ultrasound images di#cult, and visu­ alisations harder

  9. Monitored Natural Attenuation Case Study Evaluations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been selected as a component of groundwater remedies at several sites with metals and/or radionuclide contamination. An overview of the site characterization effort and remedy performance will be provided for several sites where MNA was se...

  10. Contaminant Attenuation Processes at Mining Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation is sometimes used in combination with active treatment technologies to achieve site-specific remediation objectives. The global imprint of acid drainage problems at mining sites, however, is a clear reminder that in most cases natural processes are ...

  11. Evaluation of the impact of backscatter intensity variations on ultrasound attenuation estimation

    PubMed Central

    Omari, Eenas A; Varghese, Tomy; Madsen, Ernest L.; Frank, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Quantitative ultrasound based approaches such as attenuation slope estimation can be used to determine underlying tissue properties and eventually used as a supplemental diagnostic technique to B-mode imaging. The authors investigate the impact of backscatter intensity and frequency dependence variations on the attenuation slope estimation accuracy. Methods: The authors compare three frequency domain based attenuation slope estimation algorithms, namely, a spectral difference method, the reference phantom method, and two spectral shift methods: a hybrid method and centroid downshift method. Both the reference phantom and hybrid method use a tissue-mimicking phantom with well-defined acoustic properties to reduce system dependencies and diffraction effects. The normalized power spectral ratio obtained is then filtered by a Gaussian filter centered at the transmit center frequency in the hybrid method. A spectral shift method is then used to estimate the attenuation coefficient from the normalized and filtered spectrum. The centroid downshift method utilizes the shift in power spectrum toward lower frequencies with depth. Numerical phantoms that incorporate variations in the backscatter intensity from ?3 to 3 dB, by varying the scatterer number density and variations in the scatterer diameters ranging from 10 to 100 ?m are simulated. Experimental tissue mimicking phantoms with three different scatterer diameter ranges (5–40, 75–90, and 125–150 ?m) are also used to evaluate the accuracy of the estimation methods. Results: The reference phantom method provided accurate results when the acoustical properties of the reference and the sample are well matched. Underestimation occurs when the reference phantom possessed a higher sound speed than the sample, and overestimation occurs when the reference phantom had a lower sound speed than the sample. The centroid downshift method depends significantly on the bandwidth of the power spectrum, which in turn depends on the frequency dependence of the backscattering. The hybrid method was the least susceptible to changes in the sample's acoustic properties and provided the lowest standard deviation in the numerical simulations and experimental evaluations. Conclusions: No significant variations in the estimation accuracy of the attenuation coefficient were observed with an increase in the scatterer number density in the simulated numerical phantoms for the three methods. Changes in the scatterer diameters, which result in different frequency dependence of backscatter, do not significantly affect attenuation slope estimation with the reference phantom and hybrid approaches. The centroid method is sensitive to variations in the scatterer diameter due to the frequency shift introduced in the power spectrum. PMID:23927359

  12. Predictions of nitrate diffusion in sediment using horizontal attenuated total reflection (HATR) by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. P. Fang; M. Zhang; T. Zhang; J. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Using a novel and simple method based on horizontal attenuated total reflection (HATR) by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, the effective diffusion coefficient, De, of nitrate in a contaminated anthropogenic sediment was estimated as 7.34×10?6cm2s?1. This method, which requires as little as 1mL of sediment sample, was able to measure the De of a chemical species with a reproducibility of

  13. A magnetic investigation of the Ile Rouleau impact structure, Lac Mistassini, Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelatos, John

    Ile Rouleau was categorized as an impact structure following the discovery of shatter cones on Ile Mintunikus Misaupinanuch, a sub-circular ˜1 km diameter island situated in Lac Mistassini, Quebec. The structure is hosted in the Proterozoic dolomite-rich Lower Albanel Formation of the Mistassini Group. The size of the structure, albeit uncertain, is speculated to be near the simple-to-complex boundary, thus providing an excellent opportunity to study this transition. As the structure is partially submerged, magnetics provide a cost-effective means of probing Ile Rouleau. In June, 2006, bathymetric and marine magnetic data were acquired in a 6.5 by 10 km area surrounding Ile Mintunikus Misaupinanuch. The magnetometer, an Overhauser-type proton precession model, was towed ˜30 m behind the boat. The configuration of the survey lines allowed for proper resolution of circular anomalies and dense sampling near the island, while adequately resolving the regional field. The magnetic field was generally measured every 4--5 m along the lines. Short wavelength and linear NNE-SSW trending anomalies that pervade the survey area are argued to reflect the presence of magnetic rocks in glacial till, originating from the nearby igneous-metamorphic provinces. Forward modelling suggests that this is plausible. The most prominent magnetic feature is a high-amplitude anomaly that wraps round the western side of the island and correlates with an abrupt change in lake floor depths. To the east of the island, a disjointed arcuate anomaly parallels the island 100 m from shore. This anomaly is interpreted to reflect (1) a locally thickened layer of magnetic glaciofluvial deposits, or (2) post-impact chemical magnetization along faults. Based on evidence that Ile Mintunikus Misaupinanuch corresponds to the central uplift of a complex crater, it is argued that the arcuate anomaly coincides with the fault-bounded perimeter of the central-peak. Two possible reconstructions for the original crater diameter, based on speculated sizes for the central-peak and using morphometric relationships, are 4.4 km and 6.8 km. The former is more realistic due to the lack of impact-related deformation on adjacent Ile Manitounouc.

  14. Intensity attenuation in the Pannonian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gy?ri, Erzsébet; Gráczer, Zoltán; Szanyi, Gyöngyvér

    2015-04-01

    Ground motion prediction equations play a key role in seismic hazard assessment. Earthquake hazard has to be expressed in macroseismic intensities in case of seismic risk estimations where a direct relation to the damage associated with ground shaking is needed. It can be also necessary for shake map generation where the map is used for prompt notification to the public, disaster management officers and insurance companies. Although only few instrumental strong motion data are recorded in the Pannonian Basin, there are numerous historical reports of past earthquakes since the 1763 Komárom earthquake. Knowing the intensity attenuation and comparing them with relations of other areas - where instrumental strong motion data also exist - can help us to choose from the existing instrumental ground motion prediction equations. The aim of this work is to determine an intensity attenuation formula for the inner part of the Pannonian Basin, which can be further used to find an adaptable ground motion prediction equation for the area. The crust below the Pannonian Basin is thin and warm and it is overlain by thick sediments. Thus the attenuation of seismic waves here is different from the attenuation in the Alp-Carpathian mountain belt. Therefore we have collected intensity data only from the inner part of the Pannonian Basin and defined the boundaries of the studied area by the crust thickness of 30 km (Windhoffer et al., 2005). 90 earthquakes from 1763 until 2014 have sufficient number of macroseismic data. Magnitude of the events varies from 3.0 to 6.6. We have used individual intensity points to eliminate the subjectivity of drawing isoseismals, the number of available intensity data is more than 3000. Careful quality control has been made on the dataset. The different types of magnitudes of the used earthquake catalogue have been converted to local and momentum magnitudes using relations determined for the Pannonian Basin. We applied the attenuation formula by Sorensen et al. (2009) using a least-squares regression method. This expression is comparable with the common type of strong-motion attenuation equations (e.g., Joyner and Boore, 1993). Joyner, W. B. and Boore, D. M. (1993). Methods for regression analysis of strong-motion data. BSSA, 83(2), 469-487. Sørensen, M. B., Stromeyer, D., Grünthal, G. (2009). Attenuation of macroseismic intensity: a new relation for the Marmara Sea region, northwest Turkey. BSSA, 99(2A), 538-553. Windhoffer, G., Dombrádi, E., Horváth, F., Székely, B., Bada, G., Szafián, P., Dövényi, P., Tóth, L., Grenerczy, Gy. and G. Timár (2005) Geodynamic Atlas of the Pannonian Basin and the Surrounding Orogens. 7th Workshop on Alpine Geological Studies, Abstract Book, p. 109.

  15. Active inference, sensory attenuation and illusions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Harriet; Adams, Rick A; Parees, Isabel; Edwards, Mark; Friston, Karl

    2013-11-01

    Active inference provides a simple and neurobiologically plausible account of how action and perception are coupled in producing (Bayes) optimal behaviour. This can be seen most easily as minimising prediction error: we can either change our predictions to explain sensory input through perception. Alternatively, we can actively change sensory input to fulfil our predictions. In active inference, this action is mediated by classical reflex arcs that minimise proprioceptive prediction error created by descending proprioceptive predictions. However, this creates a conflict between action and perception; in that, self-generated movements require predictions to override the sensory evidence that one is not actually moving. However, ignoring sensory evidence means that externally generated sensations will not be perceived. Conversely, attending to (proprioceptive and somatosensory) sensations enables the detection of externally generated events but precludes generation of actions. This conflict can be resolved by attenuating the precision of sensory evidence during movement or, equivalently, attending away from the consequences of self-made acts. We propose that this Bayes optimal withdrawal of precise sensory evidence during movement is the cause of psychophysical sensory attenuation. Furthermore, it explains the force-matching illusion and reproduces empirical results almost exactly. Finally, if attenuation is removed, the force-matching illusion disappears and false (delusional) inferences about agency emerge. This is important, given the negative correlation between sensory attenuation and delusional beliefs in normal subjects--and the reduction in the magnitude of the illusion in schizophrenia. Active inference therefore links the neuromodulatory optimisation of precision to sensory attenuation and illusory phenomena during the attribution of agency in normal subjects. It also provides a functional account of deficits in syndromes characterised by false inference and impaired movement--like schizophrenia and Parkinsonism--syndromes that implicate abnormal modulatory neurotransmission. PMID:23744445

  16. INDIRECT MEASUREMENT OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY TO MONITOR NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The remediation of ground water contamination by natural attenuation, specifically biodegradation, requires continual monitoring. This research is aimed at improving methods for evaluating the long-term performance of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA), specifically changes in ...

  17. Monitored natural attenuation forum: MNA of metals and radionuclides

    EPA Science Inventory

    While the natural attenuation of many organic compounds is established and accepted by the regulated and regulatory communities, there is some debate whether monitored natural attenuation (MNA) of metals and radionuclides is a reasonable remedial alternative to consider. Do you...

  18. Attenuation of Low-Energy Electrons by Solids: Results from X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Steinhardt; J. Hudis; M. L. Perlman

    1972-01-01

    The scattering half-thickness for electrons has been experimentally determined to be ~ 0.25 mug\\/cm2 (~ 13 Å carbon) for 1169-eV electrons and ~ 0.21 mug\\/cm2 (~ 10 Å carbon) for 920-eV electrons. The corresponding mass-scattering coefficients are 2.75 +\\/- 0.19 and 3.32+\\/-0.37 cm2\\/mug. Other useful and related attenuation parameters are defined and calculated. These results were obtained from measurements of

  19. A live attenuated turkey rhinotracheitis virus vaccine. 1. Stability of the attenuated strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane K. A. Cook; Marjorie M. Ellis; Christine A. Dolby; Harvey C. Holmes; Paul M. Finney; Michael B. Huggins

    1989-01-01

    Compared with the severe clinical disease caused by two virulent strains of turkey rhinotracheitis virus (TRTV), an attenuated strain has been shown to cause only slight respiratory infection in 7?day?old TRT?free turkey poults, yet still to be capable of stimulating TRT antibodies and of protecting the poults against challenge with virulent TRTV 21 days later. The stability of the attenuation

  20. Study of unsteady natural convection induced by absorption of radiation based on a three-waveband attenuation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, T.; Patterson, J. C.; Lei, C.

    2014-08-01

    The present study considers unsteady natural convection induced by the absorption of radiation for possible applications in the water quality management for the shallow regions of lakes and reservoirs. The direct absorption of the incoming radiation by the water body forms a stable thermal stratification, whilst residual radiation reaching the bottom bathymetry is re-emitted as a boundary flux, forming an unstable thermal stratification, which is a potential source for a Rayleigh-Benard type instability. The bottom boundary layer instability drives intermittent vertical convection in the form of rising plumes. The plume rise is, however, limited by the stable thermal stratification due to the direct absorption, which is controlled by the attenuation coefficient of water. The attenuation coefficient is therefore an important parameter in determining the plume rise and the associated vertical mixing. The wavelength dependency of the attenuation coefficient of water is accounted for by using a three-waveband model. A theoretical prediction is made for the plume rise distance, which represents the region of vigorous mixing. Two-dimensional numerical simulation provides verification for the accuracy of the theoretical prediction.

  1. Goniometric measurements of thick tissue using Monte Carlo simulations to obtain the single scattering anisotropy coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Gunnsteinn; Jacques, Steven L.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    The scattering anisotropy, g, of tissue can be a powerful metric of tissue structure, and is most directly measured via goniometry and fitting to the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. We present a method based on an independent attenuation measurement of the scattering coefficient along with Monte Carlo simulations to account for multiple scattering, allowing the accurate determination of measurement of g for tissues of thickness within the quasi-ballistic regime. Simulations incorporating the experimental geometry and bulk optical properties show that significant errors occur in extraction of g values, even for tissues of thickness less than one scattering length without modeling corrections. Experimental validation is provided by determination of g in mouse muscle tissues and it is shown that the obtained values are independent of thickness. In addition we present a simple deconvolution-based method and show that it provides excellent estimates for high anisotropy values (above 0.95) when coupled with an independent attenuation measurement. PMID:23162710

  2. Gas-film coefficients for streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for predicting the gas-film coefficient for the volatilization of organic solutes from streams are developed. The film coefficient is a function of windspeed and water temperature. The dependence of the coefficient on windspeed is determined from published information on the evaporation of water from a canal. The dependence of the coefficient on temperature is determined from laboratory studies on the evaporation of water. Procedures for adjusting the coefficients for different organic solutes are based on the molecular diffusion coefficient and the molecular weight. The molecular weight procedure is easiest to use because of the availability of molecular weights. However, the theoretical basis of the procedure is questionable. The diffusion coefficient procedure is supported by considerable data. Questions, however, remain regarding the exact dependence of the film coefficint on the diffusion coefficient. It is suggested that the diffusion coefficient procedure with a 0.68-power dependence be used when precise estimate of the gas-film coefficient are needed and that the molecular weight procedure be used when only approximate estimates are needed.

  3. Ion transport mediated by the valinomycin analogue cyclo(L-Lac-L-Val-D- Pro-D-Val)3 in lipid bilayer membranes

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Cyclo(L-Lac-L-Val-D-Pro-D-Val)3 (PV-Lac) a structural analogue of the ion-carrier valinomycin, increases the cation permeability of lipid bilayer membranes by forming a 1:1 ion-carrier complex. The selectively sequence for PV-Lac is identical to that of valinomycin; i.e., Rb+ greater than K+ greater than Cs+ greater than or equal to NH+4 greater than Na+ greater than Li+. The steady-state zero-voltage conductance, G(0), is a saturating function of KCl concentration. A similar behavior was found for Rb+, Cs+, and NH+4. However, the ion concentration at which G(0) reaches a plateau strongly depends on membrane composition. The current-voltage curves present saturating characteristics, except at low ion concentrations of Rb+, K+, or Cs+. The ion concentration at which the saturating characteristics appear depends on membrane composition. These and other results presented in this paper agree with a model that assumes complexation between carrier and ion at the membrane-water interface. Current relaxation after voltage-jump studies were also performed for PV-Lac. Both the time constant and the amplitude of the current after a voltage jump strongly depend on ion concentration and membrane composition. These results, together with the stationary conductance data, were used to evaluate the rate constants of the PV-Lac-mediated K+ transport. In glycerolmonooleate they are: association rate constant, 2 x 10(6) M-1 s-1; dissociation rate constant, 4 x 10(5) s-1; translocation rate constant for complex, 5 x 10(4) s-1; and the rate of translocation of the free carrier (ks), 55 s-1. ks is much smaller for PV-Lac than for valinomycin and thus limits the efficiency with which the carrier is able to translocate cations across the membrane. PMID:7241088

  4. Adhesion and Incorporation of lacZ-Transduced Endothelial Cells into the Intact Capillary Wall in the Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Louis M.; Podrazik, Rachel M.; Whitehill, Thomas A.; Ekhterae, Daryoush; Brothers, Thomas E.; Wilson, James M.; Burkel, William E.; Stanley, James C.

    1992-12-01

    Use of the capillary bed of skeletal muscle as an in vivo recipient site to transplant autologous endothelial cells that have undergone gene transfer ex vivo has considerable potential as a technique of somatic gene therapy. Here we document a previously unrecognized capacity of endothelial cells to adhere and incorporate spontaneously into confluent endothelial cell monolayers in vitro and in vivo. This spontaneous adhesion and incorporation of endothelial cells enabled us to seed lacZ-transduced endothelial cells into the wall of skeletal muscle capillaries of the hindlimb of the rat. Certain transduced endothelial cells became incorporated within the capillary wall, whereas others remained within the capillary lumen where they formed focal, electron-dense, contacts with host endothelium. lacZ expression in the capillary bed was documented for up to 1 month after transplantation. Use of the intact capillary bed of skeletal muscle as an in vivo recipient site for transduced, autologous endothelial cells holds promise as a strategy for somatic gene therapy to treat various genetic and acquired human diseases.

  5. Screening for receptor ligands using large libraries of peptides linked to the C terminus of the lac repressor.

    PubMed Central

    Cull, M G; Miller, J F; Schatz, P J

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed a large library of random peptides fused to the C terminus of the lac repressor. The DNA binding activity of the repressor protein physically links the peptides to the plasmid encoding them by binding to lac operator sequences on the plasmid. This linkage allows efficient enrichment for specific peptide ligands in the random population of peptides by affinity purification of the peptide-repressor-plasmid complexes with an immobilized receptor. After transformation of Escherichia coli with recovered plasmids, the library can be amplified for additional rounds of affinity enrichment or specific plasmids can be sequenced to determine the primary structure of the peptides. We used a monoclonal antibody specific for the peptide dynorphin B as a model receptor to screen a random dodecamer library. After only two rounds of enrichment, the majority of the plasmids in the selected population encoded fusion peptides that bound specifically to the antibody. These peptides contain a consensus sequence similar to a segment of dynorphin B (RQFKVV). This technique should be useful to find peptide ligands for a variety of biological receptors. Images PMID:1347427

  6. Hybrid nature of 0846+51W1: a BL Lac object with a narrow line Seyfert 1 nucleus

    E-print Network

    Hong-Yan Zhou; Ting-Gui Wang; Xiao-Bo Dong; Cheng Li; Xue-Guang Zhang

    2004-11-10

    We have found a NLS1 nucleus in the extensively studied eruptive BL Lac, 0846+51W1, out of a large sample of NLS1 compiled from the spectroscopic dataset of SDSS DR1. Its optical spectrum can be well decomposed into three components, a power law component from the relativistic jet, a stellar component from the host galaxy, and a component from a typical NLS1 nucleus. The emission line properties of 0846+51W1, FWHM(Hbeta) ~ 1710 km s^-1 and [OIII]5007/Hbeta ~ 0.32 when it was in faint state, fulfil the conventional definition of NLS1. Strong FeII emission is detected in the SDSS spectrum, which is also typical of NLS1s. We try to estimate its central black hole mass using various techniques and find that 0846+51W1 is very likely emitting at a few times 10% L_Edd. We speculate that Seyfert-like nuclei, including NLS1s, might be concealed in a significant fraction of BL Lacs but have not been sufficiently explored due to the fact that, by definition, the optical-UV continuum of such kind of objects are often overwhelmed by the synchrotron emission.

  7. Connection between inner jet kinematics and broadband flux variability in the BL Lac object S5 0716+714

    E-print Network

    Rani, B; Marscher, A P; Hodgson, J A; Fuhrmann, L; Angelakis, E; Britzen, S; Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-frequency very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) kinematical study of the BL Lac object S5 0716+714 over the time period of September 2008 to October 2010. The aim of the study is to investigate the relation of the jet kinematics to the observed broadband flux variability. We find significant non-radial motions in the jet outflow of the source. In the radial direction, the highest measured apparent speed is \\sim37 c, which is exceptionally high, especially for a BL Lac object. Patterns in the jet flow reveal a roughly stationary feature \\sim0.15 mas downstream of the core. The long-term fits to the component trajectories reveal acceleration in the sub-mas region of the jet. The measured brightness temperature, T_{B}, follows a continuous trend of decline with distance, T_B \\propto r_{jet}^{-(2.36\\pm0.41)}, which suggests a gradient in Doppler factor along the jet axis. Our analysis suggest that a moving disturbance (or a shock wave) from the base of the jet produces the high-energy (optica...

  8. Inactivation in vivo of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 by specific chromosomal insertion of reporter gene lacZ.

    PubMed

    Conquet, F

    1995-08-01

    Two main classes of glutamate receptors have been characterized, the ionotropic (iGluRs) and the metabotropic (mGluRs) glutamate receptors. In order to better understand the function of the latter, we have used the technique of gene targeting to generate mice in which the mGluR1 subtype has been inactivated. The disruption was carried out by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells at the level of the seven-membrane domain, leaving the extracellular part of the receptor untouched. In addition, the reporter gene lacZ was inserted in frame with mGluR1 coding sequence within the second intracellular loop of the receptor. The transmission of the mutation to the germ line showed first that the fusion protein was functional and second that mGluR1 was inactivated. Therefore, the way homologous recombination was performed in ES cells demonstrated that gene replacement of mGluR1 by lacZ could be a powerful technique to disrupt a gene and at the same time study its endogenous expression. PMID:8532168

  9. On the excess attenuation of sound in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1975-01-01

    The attenuation suffered by an acoustic plane wave propagating from an elevated source to the ground, in excess of absorption losses, was studied. Reported discrepancies between attenuation measurements made in the field and theories which only account for absorption losses are discussed. It was concluded that the scattering of sound by turbulence results in a nonnegligible contribution to the total attenuation.

  10. Determination of seismic attenuation from surface and downhole measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengjie Sun

    2000-01-01

    Attenuation is a potentially very important seismic attribute for seismic exploration and reservoir characterization. In order for attenuation to be utilized successfully as an attribute, it must first be reliably extracted from the seismic data and separated from scattering effects. Existing methods meet fatal difficulties in measuring attenuation from both surface seismic data and vertical seismic profile (VSP) data. Intrinsic

  11. IRON PRECIPITATION AND ARSENIC ATTENUATION - ASSESSMENT OF ARSENIC NATURAL ATTENUATION OF THE SUBSURFACE USING A GEOCHEMICAL MODEL (PHREEQC): ABSTRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-ADA-01310 Chen, J., Lin, Z, and Azadpour-Keeley**, A. "Iron Precipitation and Arsenic Attenuation - Assessment of Arsenic Natural Attenuation of the Subsurface Using a Geochemical Model (PHRE...

  12. Site response and attenuation analyses using strong motion and short-period data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangyin

    Site amplification and seismic attenuation are analyzed in this study using strong ground motion records and short period records. Site amplification factors at instrumented free-field sites are inferred from recorded motions using: (1) Generalized Inversion of S-waves; (2) the H/V method (i.e., the ratio of the spectral amplitudes of the horizontal and vertical components of motion); (3) Coda-wave Inversion; (4) the Standard Spectral Ratio method; and (5) the Coda Normalization method. The site amplification factors inferred from the above methods are compared to each other. The amplification factors obtained from the Generalized Inversion are validated by the other four methods. The correlation of site amplification to site condition is also analyzed and the results demonstrate that site amplification appears to be stronger for the geologically younger (and thus softer) sediments, and the site classification in conformance with UBC provisions provides smaller scatter than the classification based on geological formation. The site amplification factors for the different site classes of the NEHRP classification (i.e., site class C, D and E), which is important for engineering application, are provided and compared with the values proposed by Borcherdt (1994) and adopted in the 1997 UBC and 2003 IBC design codes. The agreement between the site amplification obtained in this study and those proposed by Borcherdt (1994) and adopted by the design codes is good. The nonlinearity of site amplification, resulting from the intensity of ground motion, is clearly identified at selected station where this is feasible. The intrinsic and scattering attenuation are analyzed at stations SML and TYC using the Multiple Lapse Time Window (MLTW) method. The total attenuation is derived from the intrinsic and scattering attenuation. The coda attenuation is analyzed for 14 stations from coda decay curves using linear regression. The S-wave attenuation is analyzed using the coda normalization method at the stations SML and TYC. The coda attenuation estimated from the coda decay curves is close to the intrinsic attenuation. The intrinsic attenuation is the dominant component in the total attenuation. The total attenuation, estimated using the MLTW method, closely agrees with the results from the Coda Normalization Method. The scattering coefficient is estimated to be 3--8 x 10 -3km-1, consistent with estimates of this parameter for other tectonically active regions (see figure 3.10 in Sato and Fehler, 1998). The data sets used in this study are collected from a strong motion network and a short period network in Taiwan province, China. The strong motion data set contains: (1) 2751 motions recorded at 407 stations from 33 aftershocks ranging from ML = 4.11--6.80 and depths from 1.05km to 21.28km, following 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake; and (2) 410 motions recorded at 410 stations from the main event of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The short period data set contains 5499 records recorded by 71 stations instrumented with the Teledyne S-13 seismometers. The 108 events have a magnitude ranging from ML = 2.90--4.97, and depths from 2.21km to 30.82km; these events occurred over a period of time from 2000 to 2003.

  13. Evaluation and automatic correction of metal-implant-induced artifacts in MR-based attenuation correction in whole-body PET/MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, G.; Maus, J.; Hofheinz, F.; Petr, J.; Lougovski, A.; Beuthien-Baumann, B.; Platzek, I.; van den Hoff, J.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a new automatic method for compensation of metal-implant-induced segmentation errors in MR-based attenuation maps (MRMaps) and to evaluate the quantitative influence of those artifacts on the reconstructed PET activity concentration. The developed method uses a PET-based delineation of the patient contour to compensate metal-implant-caused signal voids in the MR scan that is segmented for PET attenuation correction. PET emission data of 13 patients with metal implants examined in a Philips Ingenuity PET/MR were reconstructed with the vendor-provided method for attenuation correction (MRMaporig, PETorig) and additionally with a method for attenuation correction (MRMapcor, PETcor) developed by our group. MRMaps produced by both methods were visually inspected for segmentation errors. The segmentation errors in MRMaporig were classified into four classes (L1 and L2 artifacts inside the lung and B1 and B2 artifacts inside the remaining body depending on the assigned attenuation coefficients). The average relative SUV differences (\\varepsilon _{rel}^{av}) between PETorig and PETcor of all regions showing wrong attenuation coefficients in MRMaporig were calculated. Additionally, relative SUVmean differences (?rel) of tracer accumulations in hot focal structures inside or in the vicinity of these regions were evaluated. MRMaporig showed erroneous attenuation coefficients inside the regions affected by metal artifacts and inside the patients' lung in all 13 cases. In MRMapcor, all regions with metal artifacts, except for the sternum, were filled with the soft-tissue attenuation coefficient and the lung was correctly segmented in all patients. MRMapcor only showed small residual segmentation errors in eight patients. \\varepsilon _{rel}^{av} (mean ± standard deviation) were: ( - 56 ± 3)% for B1, ( - 43 ± 4)% for B2, (21 ± 18)% for L1, (120 ± 47)% for L2 regions. ?rel (mean ± standard deviation) of hot focal structures were: ( - 52 ± 12)% in B1, ( - 45 ± 13)% in B2, (19 ± 19)% in L1, (51 ± 31)% in L2 regions. Consequently, metal-implant-induced artifacts severely disturb MR-based attenuation correction and SUV quantification in PET/MR. The developed algorithm is able to compensate for these artifacts and improves SUV quantification accuracy distinctly.

  14. Teleseismic Body Wave Attenuation and Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yong Keun

    Using available digital seismic stations deployed since the 1980's, the largest data set based on broadband waveforms among studies on body-wave attenuation (t*) and quality factor (Q) are used in this thesis. The use of nearly 300,000 measurements of body-wave spectral ratio from globally distributed stations renders better constraints of t* and Q variations with higher spatial and depth resolutions in the mantle than have been previously available. The maps of body-wave t* correlate well with the variations of t* computed from the most recent surface-wave Q model QRFSI12 indicating that body-wave and surface-wave t* reflect the same intrinsic attenuation even though these waves sample the upper mantle entirely differently. The high correlation between body-wave t* maps and the t* inferred from a thermal interpretation of shear-wave velocity tomography S20RTS suggests that temperature controls both variations in attenuation and velocity in the upper mantle. The distance variations of P- and S-wave t* (t*P and t*S) are inverted for a radial profile of the quality factor Qmu in the lower mantle. On average, t* P and t*S increase by about 0.2 s and 0.7 s, respectively, between epicentral distances of 30° and 97°. The body-wave spectra are explained best if Qmu, increases in the lower mantle with the rate of 0.1/km. The relatively strong increase of t*S compare to t*P (t*S ? 4 t*P) suggests that intrinsic attenuation is the cause of the overall trend in our data. The ratio of P- and S-wave quality factor determined in this thesis (QP/Qmu = 2.27) confirms that intrinsic attenuation occurs mostly in shear and that bulk attenuation is negligible in the mantle. Finally, the delay of seismic waves which traversed numerical mantle plumes are calculated in this thesis for the first time. High-resolution numerical simulations of mantle plume are used to investigate the effects of numerical plumes on waveforms. The measurements of wave front delay demonstrate that the delay of shear-waves by plume tails at depths larger than 1000 km are immeasurably small (< 0.2 s) at seismic periods commonly used in waveform analysis.

  15. Attenuation of seismic waves in Central Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsy, Mamdouh Abbas; Abed, Azza M.

    2013-06-01

    Attenuation of seismic waves in central Egypt had never been studied before. The results of the research on the seismic attenuation are based upon the information collected by the seismological network from 1998 to 2011. 855 earthquakes were selected from the Egyptian seismological catalog, with their epicenter distances between 15 and 150 km, their magnitudes ranging from 2 and 4.1 and focal depths reaching up to 30 km. The first systematic study of attenuation derived from the P-, S- and coda wave in the frequency range 1-24 Hz is presented. In the interpretation of the results both single and multiple scattering in a half space are considered. The single scattering model proposed by Sato (1977) was used. Two methods, the coda (Qc) and the Multiple Lapse Time Window (MLTW) method are used. The aim of this study is to validate these interpretations in the region and to try to identify the effects of attenuation due to intrinsic (Qi) and scattering attenuation (Qsc). The mean Qc value calculated was Qc = (39 ± 1)f1.0±0.009. The average Qc at 1.5 Hz is (53 ± 6) and Qc = (900 ± 195) at 24 Hz with Qo ranging between 23 and 107, where ? ranging between 0.9 and 1.3. The quality factor (Q) was estimated from spectra of P- and S-waves by applying a spectral ratio technique. The results show variations in Qp and QS as a function of frequency, according to the power law Q = 56?1.1. The seismic albedo is 0.7 at all stations and it mean that the earthquake activity is due to tectonic origin. The attenuation and frequency dependency for different paths and the correlation of the results with the geotectonic of the region are presented. The Qc values were calculated and correlated with the geology and tectonics of the area. The relatively low Qo and the high frequency dependency agree with the values of a region characterized by a low tectonic activity and vise versa.

  16. CALCULATION AND USE OF FIRST-ORDER RATE CONSTANTS FOR MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This issue paper explains when and how to apply first order attenuation rate constant calculations in monitored natural attenuation (MNA) studies. First-order attenuation rate constant calculations can be an important tool for evaluating natural attenuation processes at groundwat...

  17. Improvement of Attenuation Correction in Time-of-Flight PET/MR Imaging with a Positron-Emitting Source

    PubMed Central

    Mollet, Pieter; Keereman, Vincent; Bini, Jason; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Fayad, Zahi A.; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative PET imaging relies on accurate attenuation correction. Recently, there has been growing interest in combining state-of-the-art PET systems with MR imaging in a sequential or fully integrated setup. As CT becomes unavailable for these systems, an alternative approach to the CT-based reconstruction of attenuation coefficients (? values) at 511 keV must be found. Deriving ? values directly from MR images is difficult because MR signals are related to the proton density and relaxation properties of tissue. Therefore, most research groups focus on segmentation or atlas registration techniques. Although studies have shown that these methods provide viable solutions in particular applications, some major drawbacks limit their use in whole-body PET/MR. Previously, we used an annulus-shaped PET transmission source inside the field of view of a PET scanner to measure attenuation coefficients at 511 keV. In this work, we describe the use of this method in studies of patients with the sequential time-of-flight (TOF) PET/MR scanner installed at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Methods Five human PET/MR and CT datasets were acquired. The transmission-based attenuation correction method was compared with conventional CT-based attenuation correction and the 3-segment, MR-based attenuation correction available on the TOF PET/MR imaging scanner. Results The transmission-based method overcame most problems related to the MR-based technique, such as truncation artifacts of the arms, segmentation artifacts in the lungs, and imaging of cortical bone. Additionally, the TOF capabilities of the PET detectors allowed the simultaneous acquisition of transmission and emission data. Compared with the MR-based approach, the transmission-based method provided average improvements in PET quantification of 6.4%, 2.4%, and 18.7% in volumes of interest inside the lung, soft tissue, and bone tissue, respectively. Conclusion In conclusion, a transmission-based technique with an annulus-shaped transmission source will be more accurate than a conventional MR-based technique for measuring attenuation coefficients at 511 keV in future whole-body PET/MR studies. PMID:24434291

  18. Equations for Annular-Heat-Transfer Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, B.

    1986-01-01

    Tables of coefficients converted to algebraic expressions. Plot of Equation for Nusselt number agrees closely with points from tabulated data. Equation for Nusselt number and those for coefficients A and B obtained by regression analysis of data. Other plots also show close agreement for radius of 0.1 and 0.2. In equation form, coefficients incorporated into mathematical models more readily than as tabular data. Equations simplify design and analysis of heat exchangers.

  19. Self Attenuation of Gamma Rays in Titanite, Zircon and Apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, C. N.; Baskaran, M.; Brownlee, S. J.; Eakin, M.

    2013-12-01

    Several of the gamma-emitting U-Th series, cosmogenic and anthropogenic radionuclides (210Pb, 234Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 7Be, 137Cs, etc) have been widely utilized as tracers and chronometers in environmental studies. Precise measurements of these nuclides using gamma-ray spectrometry in environmental matrices require that the proper correction factors for self- and external-absorption be applied. In this study, we examine factors associated with absorption and self attenuation of gamma-rays of 210Pb (46.5 keV), 234Th (63 keV), 226Ra (via 214Pb and 214Bi, 351.9 and 609 keV) and 228Ra (via 228Ac, 338.3 and 911.2 keV) using a well-type germanium gamma-ray detector. Samples of three naturally occurring minerals (titanite, apatite and zircon) were separated into 5 size fractions (<63 ?m, 63-125 ?m, 125-250 ?m, 250-500 ?m, and >500 ?m) and analyzed for 210Pb, 234Th, 226Ra, and 228Ra. We also analyzed two synthetic silica standards (RGU-1, RGTH-1) that have a relatively uniform grain size of 63 ?m. These minerals were chosen based on their varying chemical compositions and densities. Chosen samples are of an age that isotopes of 238U and 232Th are expected to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter products. However, the measured activity ratios between members of the family vary widely. In the case of titanite, the 210Pb/226Ra ratios in 5 size fractions varied between 0.44×0.03 and 0.53×0.03, while in apatite it varied between 0.54×0.03 and 0.67×0.04, without applying any self- and external-absorption correction factors. Using the attenuation coefficients of constituent elements at different energies, we estimate the attenuation coefficient for each of these 4 minerals and determine the self- and external-absorption correction factors. The self- and external-absorption corrected activities agree with the expected activities in these minerals. Our data suggests that variations in the activity levels are dependent on chemical composition, density, and grain-size fraction. The ratios of activities in the < 63 ?m size-fraction to that in the > 500 ?m size-fraction for gamma energies between 46 and 609 keV varied between 1.67 and 1.75 for titanite, while this ratio varied between 5.23 and 6.99 for apatite. These results demonstrate that self- and external-absorption for apatite is much stronger than for titanite. We will present our method of quantification of the self- and external-absorption corrections for a suite of gamma-ray energies for titanite, apatite, and zircon.

  20. Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes

    E-print Network

    Price, P B

    2005-01-01

    Two classes of natural solid media (glacial ice and salt domes) are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos with energy >1e18 eV. Though insensitive to 1e11 to 1e16 eV neutrinos for which observatories (e.g., AMANDA and IceCube) that utilize optical Cherenkov radiation detectors are designed, radio and acoustic methods are suited for searches for the very low fluxes of neutrinos with energies >1017 eV. This is because, due to the very long attenuation lengths of radio and acoustic waves in ice and salt, detection modules can be spaced very far apart. In this paper, I calculate the absorption and scattering coefficients as a function of frequency and grain size for acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes and show that experimental measurements on laboratory samples and in glacial ice and salt domes are consistent with theory. For South Pole ice with grain size 0.2 cm at -51 degrees C, scattering lengths are calculated to be 2000 km and 25 km at 10 kHz and 30 ...