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Sample records for attitude controlling system

  1. Attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L.; Rupp, C. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An attitude control system is described in which angular rate signals are generated by rate gyros mounted closely adjacent to gimbaled engines at the rear of a vehicle. Error signals representative of a commanded change in vehicle angle or attitude are obtained from a precision inertial platform located in the nose region of the vehicle. The rate gyro derived signals dominate at high frequencies where dynamic effects become significant, and platform signals dominate at low frequencies where precision signals are required for a steady vehicle attitude. The blended signals are applied in a conventional manner to control the gimbaling of vehicle engines about control axes.

  2. Skylab thruster attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmer, G. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Preflight activities and the Skylab mission support effort for the thruster attitude control system (TACS) are documented. The preflight activities include a description of problems and their solutions encountered in the development, qualification, and flight checkout test programs. Mission support effort is presented as it relates to system performance assessment, real-time problem solving, flight anomalies, and the daily system evaluation. Finally, the detailed flight evaluation is presented for each phase of the mission using system telemetry data. Data assert that the TACS met or exceeded design requirements and fulfilled its assigned mission objectives.

  3. Modular design attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid multilevel linear quadratic regulator (ML-LQR) approach was developed and applied to the attitude control of models of the rotational dynamics of a prototype flexible spacecraft and of a typical space platform. Three axis rigid body flexible suspension models were developed for both the spacecraft and the space platform utilizing augmented body methods. Models of the spacecraft with hybrid ML-LQR attitude control and with LQR attitude control were simulated and their response with the two different types of control were compared.

  4. Noise screen for attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodden, John J. (Inventor); Stevens, Homer D. (Inventor); Hong, David P. (Inventor); Hirschberg, Philip C. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An attitude control system comprising a controller and a noise screen device coupled to the controller. The controller is adapted to control an attitude of a vehicle carrying an actuator system that is adapted to pulse in metered bursts in order to generate a control torque to control the attitude of the vehicle in response to a control pulse. The noise screen device is adapted to generate a noise screen signal in response to the control pulse that is generated when an input attitude error signal exceeds a predetermined deadband attitude level. The noise screen signal comprises a decaying offset signal that when combined with the attitude error input signal results in a net attitude error input signal away from the predetermined deadband level to reduce further control pulse generation.

  5. Three axis attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A three-axis attitude control system for an orbiting body comprised of a motor driven flywheel supported by a torque producing active magnetic bearing is described. Free rotation of the flywheel is provided about its central axis and together with limited angular torsional deflections of the flywheel about two orthogonal axes which are perpendicular to the central axis. The motor comprises an electronically commutated DC motor, while the magnetic bearing comprises a radially servoed permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing capable of producing cross-axis torques on the flywheel. Three body attitude sensors for pitch, yaw and roll generate respective command signals along three mutually orthogonal axes (x, y, z) which are coupled to circuit means for energizing a set of control coils for producing torques about two of the axes (x and y) and speed control of the flywheel about the third (z) axis. An energy recovery system, which is operative during motor deceleration, is also included which permits the use of a high-speed motor to perform effectively as a reactive wheel suspended in the magnetic bearing.

  6. Seasat-A attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, R.; Rodden, J. J.; Hendricks, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Seasat-A attitude control system controls the attitude of the satellite system during injection into final circular orbit after Atlas boost, during orbit adjust and trim phases, and throughout the 3-year mission. Ascent and injection guidance and attitude control are provided by the Agena spacecraft with a gyrocompassed mass expulsion system. On-orbit attitude control functions are performed by a system that has its functional roots in the gravity-gradient momentum bias technology. The paper discusses hardware, control laws, and simulation results.

  7. Attitude Determination and Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starin, Scott R.; Eterno, John

    2010-01-01

    The importance of accurately pointing spacecraft to our daily lives is pervasive, yet somehow escapes the notice of most people. In this section, we will summarize the processes and technologies used in designing and operating spacecraft pointing (i.e. attitude) systems.

  8. Space Station Freedom Attitude Determination and Control System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penrod, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom attitude determination and control system overview are presented. Topics covered include: highly dynamic plant; SSF flight attitudes; effectors; inertial attitude sensors; control system performance requirements; control system functional requirements; and controller architecture.

  9. Miniaturized attitude control system for nanosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candini, Gian Paolo; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Santoni, Fabio

    2012-12-01

    A miniaturized attitude control system suitable for nanosatellites, developed using only commercial off-the-shelf components, is described in the paper. It is a complete and independent system to be used on board nanosatellites, allowing automated attitude control. To integrate this system into nanosatellites such as Cubesats its size has been reduced down to a cube of side about 5 cm. The result is a low cost attitude control system built with terrestrial components, integrating three micro magnetotorquers, three micro reaction wheels, three magnetometers and redundant control electronics, capable of performing automatics operations on request from the ground. The system can operate as a real time maneuvering system, executing commands sent from the ground or as a standalone attitude control system receiving the solar array status from a hosting satellite and the satellite ephemeris transmitted from the ground station. The main characteristics of the developed system and test results are depicted in this paper.

  10. Adaptive mass expulsion attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodden, John J. (Inventor); Stevens, Homer D. (Inventor); Carrou, Stephane (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An attitude control system and method operative with a thruster controls the attitude of a vehicle carrying the thruster, wherein the thruster has a valve enabling the formation of pulses of expelled gas from a source of compressed gas. Data of the attitude of the vehicle is gathered, wherein the vehicle is located within a force field tending to orient the vehicle in a first attitude different from a desired attitude. The attitude data is evaluated to determine a pattern of values of attitude of the vehicle in response to the gas pulses of the thruster and in response to the force field. The system and the method maintain the attitude within a predetermined band of values of attitude which includes the desired attitude. Computation circuitry establishes an optimal duration of each of the gas pulses based on the pattern of values of attitude, the optimal duration providing for a minimal number of opening and closure operations of the valve. The thruster is operated to provide gas pulses having the optimal duration.

  11. Modular design attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    A sequence of single axismodels and a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order are used to reconstruct inaccessible variables pertaining to the modular attitude control of a rigid body flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft. The single axis models consist of two, three, four, and five rigid bodies, each interconnected by a flexible shaft passing through the mass centers of the bodies. Modal damping is added to each model. Reduced state linear observers are developed for synthesizing the inaccessible modal state variables for each modal model.

  12. Attitude Determination and Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starin, Scott R.; Eterno, John

    2011-01-01

    designing and operating spacecraft pointing (i.e. attitude) systems.

  13. Low cost attitude control system scanwheel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialke, William; Selby, Vaughn

    1991-01-01

    In order to satisfy a growing demand for low cost attitude control systems for small spacecraft, development of low cost scanning horizon sensor coupled to a low cost/low power consumption Reaction Wheel Assembly was initiated. This report addresses the details of the versatile design resulting from this effort. Tradeoff analyses for each of the major components are included, as well as test data from an engineering prototype of the hardware.

  14. TRMM On Orbit Attitude Control System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Placanica, Sam; Morgenstern, Wendy

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Attitude Control System (ACS) along with detailed in-flight performance results for each operational mode. The TRMM spacecraft is an Earth-pointed, zero momentum bias satellite launched on November 27, 1997 from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall and the associated release of energy. Launched to provide a validation for poorly known rainfall data sets generated by global climate models, TRMM has demonstrated its utility by reducing uncertainties in global rainfall measurements by a factor of two. The ACS is comprised of Attitude Control Electronics (ACE), an Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA), Digital Sun Sensors (DSS), Inertial Reference Units (IRU), Three Axis Magnetometers (TAM), Coarse Sun Sensors (CSS), Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTB), Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWA), Engine Valve Drivers (EVD) and thrusters. While in Mission Mode, the ESA provides roll and pitch axis attitude error measurements and the DSS provide yaw updates twice per orbit. In addition, the TAM in combination with the IRU and DSS can be used to provide pointing in a contingency attitude determination mode which does not rely on the ESA. Although the ACS performance to date has been highly successful, lessons were learned during checkout and initial on-orbit operation. This paper describes the design, on-orbit checkout, performance and lessons learned for the TRMM ACS.

  15. Adaptive Attitude Control System For Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Bayard, David S.; Wang, Shyh J.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents theoretical foundation for attitude control system for proposed Space Station Freedom in orbit around Earth. Intended to maintain space station in torque equilibrium with designated axes of its structure aligned with local vertical, local along-trajectory horizontal, and local across-trajectory horizontal axes, respectively. System required to provide desired combination of control performance and stability in presence of disturbances (e.g., variations in masses of payloads, movements of astronauts and equipment, atmospheric drag, gravitational anomalies, and interactions with docking spacecraft).

  16. MAP Attitude Control System Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, S. F.; Campbell, C. E.; Ericsson-Jackson, A. J.; Markley, F. L.; ODonnell, J. R., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft. The MAP spacecraft will perform its mission in a Lissajous orbit around the Earth-Sun L(sub 2) Lagrange point to suppress potential instrument disturbances. To make a full-sky map of cosmic microwave background fluctuations, a combination fast spin and slow precession motion will be used. MAP requires a propulsion system to reach L(sub 2), to unload system momentum, and to perform stationkeeping maneuvers once at L(sub 2). A minimum hardware, power and thermal safe control mode must also be provided. Sufficient attitude knowledge must be provided to yield instrument pointing to a standard deviation of 1.8 arc-minutes. The short development time and tight budgets require a new way of designing, simulating, and analyzing the Attitude Control System (ACS). This paper presents the design and analysis of the control system to meet these requirements.

  17. Adaptive control applied to Space Station attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Quang M.; Chipman, Richard; Hu, Tsay-Hsin G.; Holmes, Eric B.; Sunkel, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive control approach to enhance the performance of current attitude control system used by the Space Station Freedom. The proposed control law was developed based on the direct adaptive control or model reference adaptive control scheme. Performance comparisons, subject to inertia variation, of the adaptive controller and the fixed-gain linear quadratic regulator currently implemented for the Space Station are conducted. Both the fixed-gain and the adaptive gain controllers are able to maintain the Station stability for inertia variations of up to 35 percent. However, when a 50 percent inertia variation is applied to the Station, only the adaptive controller is able to maintain the Station attitude.

  18. MSFC Skylab attitude and pointing control system mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The results of detailed performance analyses of the attitude and pointing control system in-orbit hardware and software on Skylab are reported. Performance is compared with requirements, test results, and prelaunch predictions. A brief history of the altitude and pointing control system evolution leading to the launch configuration is presented. The report states that the attitude and pointing system satisfied all requirements.

  19. The Spartan attitude control system - Control electronics assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The Spartan attitude control system (ACS) represents an evolutionary development of the previous STRAP-5 ACS through the use of state-of-the-art microprocessors and hardware. Despite a gyro rate signal noise problem that caused the early depletion of argon gas, the Spartan 101 experiment was able to collect several hours of data from two targets. Attention is presently given to the ACS sequencer module, sensor interface box, valve driver box, control electronics software, jam tables, and sequencer programs.

  20. Spacecraft attitude control using a smart control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Brian; Wheatcraft, Louis

    1992-01-01

    Traditionally, spacecraft attitude control has been implemented using control loops written in native code for a space hardened processor. The Naval Research Lab has taken this approach during the development of the Attitude Control Electronics (ACE) package. After the system was developed and delivered, NRL decided to explore alternate technologies to accomplish this same task more efficiently. The approach taken by NRL was to implement the ACE control loops using systems technologies. The purpose of this effort was to: (1) research capabilities required of an expert system in processing a classic closed-loop control algorithm; (2) research the development environment required to design and test an embedded expert systems environment; (3) research the complexity of design and development of expert systems versus a conventional approach; and (4) test the resulting systems against the flight acceptance test software for both response and accuracy. Two expert systems were selected to implement the control loops. Criteria used for the selection of the expert systems included that they had to run in both embedded systems and ground based environments. Using two different expert systems allowed a comparison of the real-time capabilities, inferencing capabilities, and the ground-based development environment. The two expert systems chosen for the evaluation were Spacecraft Command Language (SCL), and NEXTPERT Object. SCL is a smart control system produced for the NRL by Interface and Control Systems (ICS). SCL was developed to be used for real-time command, control, and monitoring of a new generation of spacecraft. NEXPERT Object is a commercially available product developed by Neuron Data. Results of the effort were evaluated using the ACE test bed. The ACE test bed had been developed and used to test the original flight hardware and software using simulators and flight-like interfaces. The test bed was used for testing the expert systems in a 'near-flight' environment

  1. Spacecraft Attitude and Orbit Control Systems testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenschein, F. J.; Schoomade, M.; Zwartbol, T.

    1995-03-01

    Contemporary AOCS are equipped with local Attitude Control Computers which provide sophisticated Attitude and Orbit Control functions, automatic Failure Detection and Isolation functions and extensive Telemetry and Telecommand handling functions. Generic models of the design, development and test life cycle approaches for such intelligent AOCS are emerging. Also knowledge of the activities to be performed and the generic design, development and test environments to be used during the different phases is accumulating. Lessons learned can be used to improve AOCS development life cycle approaches and to define new development and test environments which improve the efficiency of the design, development and test life cycle and quality of the product. The SAX (Satellite per Astronomia a raggi X) satellite is equipped with a contemporary AOCS providing the above mentioned functions. In this paper the SAX AOCS software design, development and test life cycle is described as an example of AOCS software development. Lessons learned and suggestions for possible improvements are given.

  2. Design study for LANDSAT D attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwens, R. P.; Bernier, G. E.; Hofstadter, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    A design and performance evaluation is presented for the LANDSAT D attitude control system (ACS). Control and configuration of the gimballed Ku-band antenna system for communication with the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS). Control of the solar array drive considered part of the ACS is also addressed.

  3. The SAS-3 attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, F. F.; Konigsberg, R.; Fountain, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    SAS-3 uses a reaction wheel to provide torque to control the spin rate. If the wheel speed becomes too great or too small, it must be restored to its nominal rate by momentum dumping which is done by magnetic torquing against the earth's magnetic field by the satellite's magnetic coils. A small rate-integrating gyro is used to sense the spin rate so that closed loop control of the spin rate can be achieved. These various systems are described in detail including the reaction wheel system, the gyro system, along with control modes (spin rate control and the star lock mode).

  4. Advanced Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.; Eisenhaure, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of simultaneously satisfying the demands of energy storage and attitude control through the use of rotating flywheels. It was demonstrated that, for a wide spectrum of applications, such a system possessed many advantages over contemporary energy storage and attitude control approaches. More recent technology advances in composite material rotors, magnetic suspension systems, and power control electronics have triggered new optimism regarding the applicability and merits of this concept. This study is undertaken to define an advanced IPACS and to evaluate its merits for a space station application. System and component designs are developed to establish the performance of this concept and system trade studies conducted to examine the viability of this approach relative to conventional candidate systems. It is clearly demonstrated that an advanced IPACS concept is not only feasible, but also offers substantial savings in mass and life-cycle cost for the space station mission.

  5. A system for spacecraft attitude control and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A conceptual design for a double-gimbal reaction-wheel energy-wheel device which has three-axis attitude control and electrical energy storage capability is given. A mathematical model for the three-axis gyroscope (TAG) was developed, and a system of multiple units is proposed for attitude control and energy storage for a class of spacecraft. Control laws were derived to provide the required attitude-control torques and energy transfer while minimizing functions of TAG gimbal angles, gimbal rates, reaction-wheel speeds, and energy-wheel speed differences. A control law is also presented for a magnetic torquer desaturation system. A computer simulation of a three-TAG system for an orbiting telescope was used to evaluate the concept. The results of the study indicate that all control and power requirements can be satisfied by using the TAG concept.

  6. Applications software supporting the Spartan Attitude Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The native software supporting a single mission for the Spartan Attitude Control System can require up to 40,000 lines of code. Most of this must be rewritten for each mission. Control system engineers use an array of Applications Software Packages residing in ground computers to write each mission's flight software. These Applications Packages are written in the 'C' programming language and run under the UNIX Operating System. This paper discusses each of the Attitude Control Applications Software Packages, and describes the purpose and design of each.

  7. Two Axis Pointing System (TAPS) attitude acquisition, determination, and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azzolini, John D.; Mcglew, David E.

    1990-01-01

    The Two Axis Pointing System (TAPS) is a 2 axis gimbal system designed to provide fine pointing of Space Transportation System (STS) borne instruments. It features center-of-mass instrument mounting and will accommodate instruments of up to 1134 kg (2500 pounds) which fit within a 1.0 by 1.0 by 4.2 meter (40 by 40 by 166 inch) envelope. The TAPS system is controlled by a microcomputer based Control Electronics Assembly (CEA), a Power Distribution Unit (PDU), and a Servo Control Unit (SCU). A DRIRU-II inertial reference unit is used to provide incremental angles for attitude propagation. A Ball Brothers STRAP star tracker is used for attitude acquisition and update. The theory of the TAPS attitude determination and error computation for the Broad Band X-ray Telescope (BBXRT) are described. The attitude acquisition is based upon a 2 star geometric solution. The acquisition theory and quaternion algebra are presented. The attitude control combines classical position, integral and derivative (PID) control with techniques to compensate for coulomb friction (bias torque) and the cable harness crossing the gimbals (spring torque). Also presented is a technique for an adaptive bias torque compensation which adjusts to an ever changing frictional torque environment. The control stability margins are detailed, with the predicted pointing performance, based upon simulation studies. The TAPS user interface, which provides high level operations commands to facilitate science observations, is outlined.

  8. Attitude Control System Design for the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starin, Scott R.; Bourkland, Kristin L.; Kuo-Chia, Liu; Mason, Paul A. C.; Vess, Melissa F.; Andrews, Stephen F.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, part of the Living With a Star program, will place a geosynchronous satellite in orbit to observe the Sun and relay data to a dedicated ground station at all times. SDO remains Sun- pointing throughout most of its mission for the instruments to take measurements of the Sun. The SDO attitude control system is a single-fault tolerant design. Its fully redundant attitude sensor complement includes 16 coarse Sun sensors, a digital Sun sensor, 3 two-axis inertial reference units, 2 star trackers, and 4 guide telescopes. Attitude actuation is performed using 4 reaction wheels and 8 thrusters, and a single main engine nominally provides velocity-change thrust. The attitude control software has five nominal control modes-3 wheel-based modes and 2 thruster-based modes. A wheel-based Safehold running in the attitude control electronics box improves the robustness of the system as a whole. All six modes are designed on the same basic proportional-integral-derivative attitude error structure, with more robust modes setting their integral gains to zero. The paper details the mode designs and their uses.

  9. Adaptive Jacobian Fuzzy Attitude Control for Flexible Spacecraft Combined Attitude and Sun Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chak, Yew-Chung; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2016-07-01

    Many spacecraft attitude control systems today use reaction wheels to deliver precise torques to achieve three-axis attitude stabilization. However, irrecoverable mechanical failure of reaction wheels could potentially lead to mission interruption or total loss. The electrically-powered Solar Array Drive Assemblies (SADA) are usually installed in the pitch axis which rotate the solar arrays to track the Sun, can produce torques to compensate for the pitch-axis wheel failure. In addition, the attitude control of a flexible spacecraft poses a difficult problem. These difficulties include the strong nonlinear coupled dynamics between the rigid hub and flexible solar arrays, and the imprecisely known system parameters, such as inertia matrix, damping ratios, and flexible mode frequencies. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the adaptive Jacobian tracking fuzzy control is proposed for the combined attitude and sun-tracking control problem of a flexible spacecraft during attitude maneuvers in this work. For the adaptation of kinematic and dynamic uncertainties, the proposed scheme uses an adaptive sliding vector based on estimated attitude velocity via approximate Jacobian matrix. The unknown nonlinearities are approximated by deriving the fuzzy models with a set of linguistic If-Then rules using the idea of sector nonlinearity and local approximation in fuzzy partition spaces. The uncertain parameters of the estimated nonlinearities and the Jacobian matrix are being adjusted online by an adaptive law to realize feedback control. The attitude of the spacecraft can be directly controlled with the Jacobian feedback control when the attitude pointing trajectory is designed with respect to the spacecraft coordinate frame itself. A significant feature of this work is that the proposed adaptive Jacobian tracking scheme will result in not only the convergence of angular position and angular velocity tracking errors, but also the convergence of estimated angular velocity to

  10. The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Attitude Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Andrews, Stephen F.; ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Ward, David K.; Ericsson, Aprille J.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe mission is designed to produce a map of the cosmic microwave background radiation over the entire celestial sphere by executing a fast spin and a slow precession of its spin axis about the Sun line to obtain a highly interconnected set of measurements. The spacecraft attitude is sensed and controlled using an Inertial Reference Unit, two Autonomous Star Trackers, a Digital Sun Sensor, twelve Coarse Sun Sensors, three Reaction Wheel Assemblies, and a propulsion system. This paper describes the design of the attitude control system that carries out this mission and presents some early flight experience.

  11. Flight performance of Skylab attitude and pointing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, W. B.; Kennel, H. F.; Rupp, C. C.; Seltzer, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab attitude and pointing control system (APCS) requirements are briefly reviewed and the way in which they became altered during the prelaunch phase of development is noted. The actual flight mission (including mission alterations during flight) is described. The serious hardware failures that occurred, beginning during ascent through the atmosphere, also are described. The APCS's ability to overcome these failures and meet mission changes are presented. The large around-the-clock support effort on the ground is discussed. Salient design points and software flexibility that should afford pertinent experience for future spacecraft attitude and pointing control system designs are included.

  12. Low cost attitude control system reaction wheel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialke, William

    1991-01-01

    In order to satisfy a growing demand for low cost attitude control systems for small spacecraft, development of a low power and low cost Reaction Wheel Assembly was initiated. The details of the versatile design resulting from this effort are addressed. Tradeoff analyses for each of the major components are included, as well as test data from an engineering prototype of the hardware.

  13. H∞ control option for a combined energy and attitude control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Ying Siang; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2013-10-01

    A combined energy and attitude control system (CEACS) is a hybrid system that uses flywheels to store energy and provide a simultaneous attitude control in satellites. Previous work appeared in Advances in Space Research (ASR) employing the proportional-derivative (PD) control has proven that CEACS works well and achieves its mission requirement. However, the in-orbit system performance uncertainties present a challenge to the CEACS attitude pointing capability. Thus, this paper complements the previous mentioned work, and focuses on employing the H∞ optimal attitude control solution for the CEACS attitude control enhancement. The mathematical model and numerical treatments for the CEACS H∞ control architecture are presented. Numerical results show that a better attitude pointing accuracy at least up to 0.043° can be achieved with the H∞ control method.

  14. Wheel configurations for combined energy storage and attitude control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of simultaneously storing electrical energy in wheels and utilizing the resulting momentum for spacecraft attitude control. It was shown that such a system possessed many advantages over other contemporary energy storage and attitude control systems in many applications. More recent technology advances in composite rotors, magnetic bearings, and power control electronics have triggered new optimism regarding the feasibility and merits of such a system. This paper presents the results of a recent study whose focus was to define an advanced IPACS and to evaluate its merits for the Space Station application. Emphasis is given to the selection of the wheel configuration to perform the combined functions. A component design concept is developed to establish the system performance capability. A system-level trade study, including life-cycle costing, is performed to define the merits of the system relative to two other candidate systems. It is concluded that an advanced IPACS concept is not only feasible but offers substantial savings in mass and life-cycle cost.

  15. The Attitude Control System for the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Andrews, Stephen F.; ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Ward, David K.

    2003-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe mission produces a map of the cosmic microwave background radiation over the entire celestial sphere by executing a fast spin and a slow precession of its spin axis about the Sun line to obtain a highly interconnected set of measurements. The spacecraft attitude is sensed and controlled using an inertial reference unit, two star trackers, a digital sun sensor, twelve coarse sun sensors, three reaction wheel assemblies, and a propulsion system. Sufficient attitude knowledge is provided to yield instrument pointing to a standard deviation (l sigma) of 1.3 arc-minutes per axis. In addition, the spacecraft acquires and holds the sunline at initial acquisition and in the event of a failure, and slews to the proper orbit adjust orientations and to the proper off-sunline attitude to start the compound spin. This paper presents an overview of the design of the attitude control system to carry out this mission and presents some early flight experience.

  16. Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaelis, Theodore D.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in materials, circuit integration and power switching have given the concept of dynamic energy and momentum storage important weight size, and operational advantages over the conventional momentum wheel-battery configuration. Simultaneous momentum and energy storage for a three axes stabilized spacecraft can be accomplished with a topology of at least four wheels where energy (a scalar) is stored or retrieved in such a manner as to keep the momentum vector invariant. This study, instead, considers the case of two counter-rotating wheels in one axis to more effectively portray the principles involved. General scalable system design equations are derived which demonstrate the role of momentum storage when combined with energy storage.

  17. Design and Stability of an On-Orbit Attitude Control System Using Reaction Control Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert A.; Hough, Steven; Orphee, Carolina; Clements, Keith

    2016-01-01

    NASA is providing preliminary design and requirements for the Space Launch System Exploration Upper Stage (EUS). The EUS will provide upper stage capability for vehicle ascent as well as on-orbit control capability. Requirements include performance of on-orbit burn to provide Orion vehicle with escape velocity. On-orbit attitude control is accommodated by a on-off Reaction Control System (RCS). Paper provides overview of approaches for design and stability of an attitude control system using a RCS.

  18. Nonlinear feedback model attitude control using CCD in magnetic suspension system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, CHIN-E.; Hou, Ann-San

    1994-01-01

    A model attitude control system for a CCD camera magnetic suspension system is studied in this paper. In a recent work, a position and attitude sensing method was proposed. From this result, model position and attitude of a magnetic suspension system can be detected by generating digital outputs. Based on this achievement, a control system design using nonlinear feedback techniques for magnetic suspended model attitude control is proposed.

  19. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) transfer orbit attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Placanica, Samuel J.; Flatley, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft will be launched by the Shuttle from Vandenberg AFB into a 300 km altitude, 99 deg inclination, 6 a.m. or 6 p.m. ascending node orbit. After release from the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, an on-board monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system will raise the orbit altitude to 900 km. The spacecraft continuously spins during transfer orbit operations with the spin axis nominally horizontal and in or near the orbit plane. The blowdown propulsion system consists of twelve 5 lb thrusters (3 'spin', 3 'despin', and 6 'axial') with the latter providing initially 30 lb of force parallel to the spin axis for orbit raising. The spin/despin jets provide a constant roll rate during the transfer orbit phase of the mission and the axials control pitch and yaw. The axial thrusters are pulsed on for attitude control during coast periods and are normally on- and off-modulated for control during orbit raising. Attitude sensors employed in the control loops include an array of two-axis digital sun sensors and three planar earth scanners for position measurements, as well as six gyroscopes for rate information. System redundancy is achieved by means of unique three-axes-in-a-plane geometry. This triaxial concept results in a fail-safe operational system with no performance degradation for many different component failure modes.

  20. MAP Attitude Control System Design and Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, S. F.; ODonnell, J. R.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft. To make a full-sky map of cosmic microwave background fluctuations, a combination fast spin and slow precession motion will be used that will cover the entire celestial sphere in six months. The spin rate should be an order of magnitude higher than the precession rate, and each rate should be tightly controlled. The sunline angle should be 22.5 +/- 0.25 deg. Sufficient attitude knowledge must be provided to yield instrument pointing to a standard deviation of 1.3 arc-minutes RSS three axes. In addition, the spacecraft must be able to acquire and hold the sunline at initial acquisition, and in the event of a failure. Finally. the spacecraft must be able to slew to the proper burn orientations and to the proper off-sunline attitude to start the compound spin. The design and flight performance of the Attitude Control System on MAP that meets these requirements will be discussed.

  1. Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) technology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keckler, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment is proposed that will perform the tasks associated with the control and energy storage/power generation functions attendant to space operations. It was shown in past studies that the integration of these functions into one system can result in significant weight, volume, and cost savings. The Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) concept is discussed. During orbit day, power is derived from the solar cell arrays and, after appropriate conditioning, is used to operate the spacecraft subsystems, including the control system. In conventional approaches, a part of the collected solar energy is stored in a bank of batteries to permit operation of the vehicle's systems during orbit night. In the IPACS concept, the solar energy is stored in the spinning flywheels of the control system in the form of kinetic energy. During orbit night, the wheels are despun and, through the use of a wheel-shaft mounted generator, power is generated for the onboard subsystems. Operating these flywheels over a 50-percent speed variation permits the extraction of 75 percent of the stored energy while at the same time preserving 50 percent of the momentum capacity for control of the vehicle. Batteries can therefore be eliminated and significant weight and volume savings realized.

  2. Attitude Control System Design for Fast Rest-to-Rest Attitude Maneuver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, S.-I.; Bando, N.; Hashimoto, T.; Murata, Y.; Mochizuki, N.; Nakamura, T.; Kamiya, T.; Ogura, N.; Maeda, K.

    2009-08-01

    The VSOP-2 project is a new space VLBI (very long baseline interferometer) radio astronomy mission, proposed to inherit the fruitful success of the VSOP mission with the HALCA satellite. One of the most important advances of VSOP-2 is the use of higher observation frequency, which requires fast alternating observation of a target and calibrator in order to remove the phase changes caused by the atmosphere. Typically, both sources must be observed within 60 sec, and this switching must be carried out over many hours. ``ASTRO-G" is a satellite planned for this VSOP-2 project, and one of technical challenges is to achieve such fast rest-to-rest maneuvers, and the proper hardware must be selected to account for this fast attitude maneuver. The controlled momentum gyro (CMG) is an actuator that provides high torque with small power consumption, and the fiber optical gyro is a sensor able to measure the high angular velocity with excellent accuracy. This paper first describes these components for attitude control. Another challenge of the ASTRO-G's attitude control system is to design the switching for the flexible mode of the satellite structure, containing a large deployable reflector and a large solar panel. These produce resonances with fast switching and these must be attenuated. To achieve high agility in a flexible satellite, the controller design is crucial. One design feature is a novel robust input shaper named ``nil mode exciting profiler". Another feature is the feedback controller design. The paper describes these features and other potential problems with fast switching..

  3. Attitude computation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werking, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    An attitude computation facility for the control of unmanned satellite missions is reported. The system's major components include: the ability to transfer the attitude data from the control center to the attitude computer at a rate of 2400 bps; an attitude computation center which houses communications, closed circuit TV, graphics devices and a data evaluation area; and the use of interactive graphics devices to schedule jobs and to control program flow.

  4. The instrument pointing system: Precision attitude control in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Ralf; Woelker, Albrecht

    1990-06-01

    The Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS) is a three axes gimbal system providing pointing and stabilization in the arcsec range to a variety of space experiments with a mass of up to 7000 kg. The IPS demonstrated its control performance during the maiden flight in July 1985, the Spacelab 2 mission on board the Space Shuttle Challenger. The most challenging problem for attitude control in space is the disturbance compensation in the presence of structural flexibilities. Kalman filtering based on optical sensor and gyro measurements as well as flexible mode attenuation and feedforward control were indispensable to achieve high precision. To further enhance the IPS pointing performance and versatility, a new, more autonomous computer and sensor concept has been conceived providing the capacity for a higher degree of automation as well as improved pointing and closed loop tracking control. The autonomy and control capacity of the enhanced IPS establish the basis to accommodate the IPS as long-term available tracking and pointing platform on the International Space Station Freedom (ISF).

  5. MSFC Skylab Orbital Workshop, volume 2. [design and development of electrical systems and attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design and development of the Skylab Orbital Workshop are discussed. The subjects considered are: (1) thrust attitude control system, (2) solar array system, (3) electrical power distribution system, (4) communication and data acquisition system, (5) illumination system, and (6) caution and warning system.

  6. Attitude Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to ITHACO, Inc. satisfied a Goddard Space Flight Center demand for a low cost altitude control system for small spacecraft. The SBIR-sponsored work resulted in the T-Wheel, built specifically for altitude control of small and medium-sized spacecraft. Another product, the T-SCANWHEEL, reduces overall system cost, minimizes mass and power and enhances reliability with a mixture of altitude control and control capacity. Additionally, the Type E Wheel is built for use on medium to large spacecraft. Through July 1996, ITHACO had delivered or was under contract for 95 T-Wheel, T-SCANWHEEL, and Type E Wheel units.

  7. Flight Performance of Skylab Attitude and Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, W. B.; Kennel, H. F.; Rupp, C. C.; Seltzer, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    In 1967 a paper at the AIAA Guidance, Control and Flight Dynamics Conference in Huntsville, Ala. presented for the first time the prot)osed SKYLAB Attitude and Pointing Control System (APCS) The system requirements, Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) configuration, control philosophy, and operational modes were presented and the APCS described. The Initial mission and system design requirements changed during the period of time before the SKYLAB was launched. This paper will review the Initial and final APCS requirements and goals and their relationship. The actual flight mission (and Its alterations during the flight) and known achieved APCS performance will then be presented. SKYLAB was a tremendous success in furthering man's scientific knowledge; but perhaps SKYLAB will be remembered more for the anomalies and the efforts undertaken to solve them. On May 14, 1973, the unmanned SKYLAB Orbital Workshop (OWS) was launched from Cape Kennedy. Serious hardware failures began to occur during ascent through the atmosphere and their spectre continued to haunt both the astronauts and their ground based support team. Nor were these the only surprises affecting the design and operation of the APCS. Mission requirements for pointing to various stellar targets and to nadir for earth resources experiments were added after the hardware was designed. The chance appearance of comet Kohoutek during the SKYLAB operational life-time caused NASA to add comet observation to the mission requirements and to adjust the time when the third crew would man the SKYLAB. The development of new procedures and software for the opportunity to observe this visitor to our solar system is described.

  8. Anti-sway control of tethered satellite systems using attitude control of the main satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefian, Peyman; Salarieh, Hassan

    2015-06-01

    In this study a new method is introduced to suppress libration of a tethered satellite system (TSS). It benefits from coupling between satellites and tether libration dynamics. The control concept uses the main satellite attitude maneuvers to suppress librational motion of the tether, and the main satellite's actuators for attitude control are used as the only actuation in the system. The study considers planar motion of a two body TSS system in a circular orbit and it is assumed that the tether's motion will not change it. Governing dynamic equations of motion are derived using the extended Lagrange method. Controllability of the system around the equilibrium state is studied and a linear LQG controller is designed to regulate libration of the system. Tether tension and satellite attitude are assumed as only measurable outputs of the system. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used to estimate states of the system to be used as feedback to the controller. The designed controller and observer are implemented to the nonlinear plant and simulations demonstrate that the controller lead to reduction of the tether libration propoerly. By the way, because the controller is linear, it is applicable only at low amplitudes in the vicinity of equilibrium point. To reach global stability, a nonlinear controller is demanded.

  9. Minimizing attitude control fuel in space manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubowsky, Steven; Torres, Miguel A.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques are presented for finding space manipulator motions which result in reduced spacecraft dynamic disturbances. Although a spacecraft's attitude control reaction jets can compensate for these disturbances, reaction jet fuel is a limited resource and excessive disturbances would limit the life of a space manipulator. A graphical tool called the Enhanced Disturbance Map (EDM) is presented and is demonstrated as an aid in developing planning and control algorithms to solve this complex problem.

  10. Satellite attitude control simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debra, D. B.; Powell, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Work was conducted to develop an extremely low drift rate gyroscope and a very precise star tracker. A proposed relativity satellite will measure very accurately the theoretically predicted 'relativistic' precession of the gyroscope relative to an inertial reference frame provided by the star tracker. Aspects of precision spinning attitude control are discussed together with questions of gyro operation, and the hopping mode for lunar transportation. For the attitude control system of the lunar hopper, a number of control laws were investigated. The studies indicated that some suboptimal controls should be adequate for the system.

  11. X-33 Attitude Control System Design for Ascent, Transition, and Entry Flight Regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Charles E.; Gallaher, Michael W.; Hendrix, Neal D.

    1998-01-01

    The Vehicle Control Systems Team at Marshall Space Flight Center, Systems Dynamics Laboratory, Guidance and Control Systems Division is designing under a cooperative agreement with Lockheed Martin Skunkworks, the Ascent, Transition, and Entry flight attitude control system for the X-33 experimental vehicle. Ascent flight control begins at liftoff and ends at linear aerospike main engine cutoff (NECO) while Transition and Entry flight control begins at MECO and concludes at the terminal area energy management (TAEM) interface. TAEM occurs at approximately Mach 3.0. This task includes not only the design of the vehicle attitude control systems but also the development of requirements for attitude control system components and subsystems. The X-33 attitude control system design is challenged by a short design cycle, the design environment (Mach 0 to about Mach 15), and the X-33 incremental test philosophy. The X-33 design-to-launch cycle of less than 3 years requires a concurrent design approach while the test philosophy requires design adaptation to vehicle variations that are a function of Mach number and mission profile. The flight attitude control system must deal with the mixing of aerosurfaces, reaction control thrusters, and linear aerospike engine control effectors and handle parasitic effects such as vehicle flexibility and propellant sloshing from the uniquely shaped propellant tanks. The attitude control system design is, as usual, closely linked to many other subsystems and must deal with constraints and requirements from these subsystems.

  12. Design and Stability of an On-Orbit Attitude Control System Using Reaction Control Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert A.; Hough, Steven; Orphee, Carolina; Clements, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Principles for the design and stability of a spacecraft on-orbit attitude control system employing on-off Reaction Control System (RCS) thrusters is presented. Both the vehicle dynamics and the control system actuators are inherently nonlinear, hence traditional linear control system design approaches are not directly applicable. This paper has three main aspects: It summarizes key RCS control System design principles from the Space Shuttle and Space Station programs, it demonstrates a new approach to develop a linear model of a phase plane control system using describing functions, and applies each of these to the initial development of the NASA's next generation of upper stage vehicles. Topics addressed include thruster hardware specifications, phase plane design and stability, jet selection approaches, filter design metrics, and automaneuver logic.

  13. A preliminary 6 DOF attitude and translation control system design for Starprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mak, P.; Mettler, E.; Vijayarahgavan, A.

    1981-01-01

    The extreme thermal environment near perihelion and the high-accuracy gravitational science experiments impose unique design requirements on various subsystems of Starprobe. This paper examines some of these requirements and their impact on the preliminary design of a six-degree-of-freedom attitude and translational control system. Attention is given to design considerations, the baseline attitude/translational control system, system modeling, and simulation studies.

  14. Analysis of the TDRS multiple access system for possible use as an attitude control system sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, Bruce Allyn; Sank, Victor J.

    1993-01-01

    A member of the constellation of TDR satellites (TDRS) has experienced a failure of its prime earth sensor. Failure of the remaining earth sensor could result in the inability of the satellite to control its attitude and provide user services. Loss of the satellite would be a serious event. The multiple access (MA) antenna array on the TDRS has been proposed for use as a backup sensor for the attitude control system. This paper describes our analysis of the performance of the MA array as an interferometer used for accurate attitude determination. A least squares fit of a plane to the MA phase information appears to represent the TDRS body roll and pitch within about 0.1 deg. This is sufficient for SGL pointing and MA and SSA user services. Analytic improvements that include ionospheric correction may yield sufficient accuracy for KSA user services.

  15. Design and Stability of an On-Orbit Attitude Control System Using Reaction Control Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert A.; Hough, Steven; Orphee, Carolina; Clements, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Basic principles for the design and stability of a spacecraft on-orbit attitude control system employing on-off Reaction Control System (RCS) thrusters are presented. Both vehicle dynamics and the control system actuators are inherently nonlinear, hence traditional linear control system design approaches are not directly applicable. This paper has two main aspects: It summarizes key RCS design principles from earlier NASA vehicles, notably the Space Shuttle and Space Station programs, and introduces advances in the linear modelling and analyses of a phase plane control system derived in the initial development of the NASA's next upper stage vehicle, the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS). Topics include thruster hardware specifications, phase plane design and stability, jet selection approaches, filter design metrics, and RCS rotational maneuver logic.

  16. Attitude Control System for Low-Speed CubeSat Centrifuge to Simulate Asteroid Surface Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saumil, S.; Cannady, A.; Alizadeh, I.; Thangavelautham, J.; Asphaug, E.

    2015-01-01

    AOSat is a 3U CubeSat based centrifuge that will be launched into low Earth orbit in the 2015-2016 timeframe. This unique platform poses some fundamental challenges and opportunities in attitude control system development.

  17. Attitude control study for a large flexible spacecraft using a Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolivar, A. F.; Key, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The attitude control performance of the solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) was evaluated. A thrust vector control system for powered flight control was examined along with a gas jet reaction control system, and a reaction wheel system, both of which have been proposed for nonpowered flight control. Comprehensive computer simulations of each control system were made and evaluated using a 30 mode spacecraft model. Results obtained indicate that thrust vector control and reaction wheel systems offer acceptable smooth proportional control. The gas jet control system is shown to be risky for a flexible structure such as SEPS, and is therefore, not recommended as a primary control method.

  18. The results of flight tests of an attitude control system for the Chibis-M microsatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, D. S.; Ivlev, N. A.; Karpenko, S. O.; Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Roldugin, D. S.; Tkachev, S. S.

    2014-05-01

    The attitude control system of the Chibis-M microsatellite is described. Results of flight experiments on damping the initial angular velocity (made using magnetorquers) are considered, as well as stabilization in the orbital referece frame, and orientation of solar arrays toward the Sun using reaction wheels. The operation of algorithms of satellite attitude determination on sunlit and shadow segments of the orbit is also under study. The general logic of operation of the attitude control system in automatic mode is presented and discussed.

  19. Design and simulation of satellite attitude control system based on Simulink and VR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Gan, Qingbo; Kang, Jingshu

    2016-01-01

    In order to research satellite attitude control system design and visual simulation, the simulation framework of satellite dynamics and attitude control using Simulink were established. The design of satellite earth-oriented control system based on quaternion feedback was completed. The 3D scene based on VR was created and models in the scene were driven by simulation data of Simulink. By coordinate transformation. successful observing the scene in inertial coordinate system, orbit coordinate system and body coordinate system. The result shows that application of simulation method of Simulink combined with VR in the design of satellite attitude control system field, has the advantages of high confidence level, hard real-time property, multi-perspective and multi-coordinate system observing the scene, and improves the comprehensibility and accuracy of the design.

  20. Overview of the Miniature Sensor Technology Integration (MSTI) spacecraft attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, Rob

    1994-01-01

    Msti2 is a small, 164 kg (362 lb), 3-axis stabilized, low-Earth-orbiting satellite whose mission is missile booster tracking. The spacecraft is actuated by 3 reaction wheels and 12 hot gas thrusters. It carries enough fuel for a projected life of 6 months. The sensor complement consists of a Horizon Sensor, a Sun Sensor, low-rate gyros, and a high rate gyro for despin. The total pointing control error allocation is 6 mRad (.34 Deg), and this is while tracking a target on the Earth's surface. This paper describes the Attitude Control System (ACS) algorithms which include the following: attitude acquisition (despin, Sun and Earth acquisition), attitude determination, attitude control, and linear stability analysis.

  1. A Low-Cost Attitude Determination and Control System for the UYS-1 nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, G. F.; Ishihara, J. Y.; Borges, R. A.; Ferreira, H. C.; Kulabukhov, A. M.; Larin, V. A.; Belikov, V. V.

    This paper considers the development of a Low-Cost Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem (LCADCS) for the first Ukrainian University Nanosatellite, UYS-1. For the attitude determination part, an attitude determination framework is implemented to combine all available data at each time sample using a modified Unscented Kalman Filter, based on the Unscented Quaternion Estimator (USQUE). For the attitude control part, the subsystem should rely only on magnetic actuation with magnetorquers operating in a relay mode. A proposed control strategy is presented. The choice of hardware and algorithms is addressed observing the LCADCS requirements, theoretical and practical considerations, ease of implementation, and time and cost budgets inherent to small-satellite projects. The validity and performance of the general proposed systems are evaluated using computer simulations.

  2. Precision Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) in the Presence of Dynamic Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; MacKunis, W.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Dixon, W. E.

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive robust integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS) is presented for a variable speed control moment gyroscope (VSCMG)-actuated satellite. The developed IPACS method is capable of achieving precision attitude control while simultaneously achieving asymptotic power tracking for a rigid-body satellite in the presence of uncertain friction in the VSCMG gimbals and wheels. In addition, the developed controller compensates for the effects of uncertain, time-varying satellite inertia properties. Some challenges encountered in the control design are that the control input is premultiplied by a nonsquare, time-varying, nonlinear, uncertain matrix and is embedded in a discontinuous nonlinear. Globally uniformly ultimately bounded attitude tracking and asymptotic power tracking results are proven via Lyapunov stability analyses, and simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the controller.

  3. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) system design study. Phase B, appendix E: Attitude control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A study which consisted of a series of design analyses for an Attitude Control System (ACS) to be incorporated into the Re-usable Re-entry Satellite (RRS) was performed. The main thrust of the study was associated with defining the control laws and estimating the mass and power requirements of the ACS needed to meet the specified performance goals. The analyses concentrated on the different on-orbit control modes which start immediately after the separation of the RRS from the launch vehicle. The three distinct on-orbit modes considered for these analyses are as follows: (1) Mode 1 - A Gravity Gradient (GG) three-axis stabilized spacecraft with active magnetic control; (2) Mode 2 - A GG stabilized mode with a controlled yaw rotation rate ('rotisserie') using three-axis magnetic control and also incorporating a 10 N-m-s momentum wheel along the (Z) yaw axis; and (3) Mode 3 - A spin stabilized mode of operation with the spin about the pitch (Y) axis, incorporating a 20 N-m-s momentum wheel along the pitch (Y) axis and attitude control via thrusters. To investigate the capabilities of the different controllers in these various operational modes, a series of computer simulations and trade-off analyses have been made to evaluate the achievable performance levels, and the necessary mass and power requirements.

  4. A jet controlled magnetic referenced attitude control system for spinning payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celmer, J. J.; Donohue, J. H.; Placanica, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    An attitude control system was designed permitting large angle acquisition and alignment of the principle axis of a spinning payload to within 1 degree of the earth's magnetic field. Signals from magnetometer and gyro sensors are fed to the control algorithm to generate commands for the jet thrusters. The algorithm contains a cross axis magnetometer signal to prevent a large angle magnetometer signal to prevent a large angle equilibrium solution. The acquisition will occur within 50 seconds from initial precession and nutation angles of 30 degrees. An electronic spin filter passes signals at spin and nutation frequencies and rejects bias signals due to sensor misalignment and principle axis offset. Describing function analysis and total analog simulation techniques were used. The flight ACS hardware was interfaced with the analog computer simulation for design and verification. The controller has flown on four successful missions.

  5. Attitude control system conceptual design for the X-ray timing explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Femiano, Michael D.; Mosier, Gary E.

    1992-01-01

    The X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) satellite is the next in a long series of Explorer-class missions developed by NASA. It will study the structure and dynamics of compact X-ray sources, neutron stars, white dwarfs, and other stellar objects with X-ray energy emissions. The demanding pointing requirement of XTE are driving the attitude control system design. This design is further complicated by large moving instruments which impart significant momentum on the spacecraft. The attitude control system concept to meet the XTE science objectives is discussed.

  6. Flight test evaluation of a separate surface attitude command control system on a Beech 99 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, S. W.; Jenks, G. E.; Roskam, J.; Stone, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint NASA/university/industry program was conducted to flight evaluate a potentially low cost separate surface implementation of attitude command in a Beech 99 airplane. Saturation of the separate surfaces was the primary cause of many problems during development. Six experienced professional pilots made simulated instrument flight evaluations in light-to-moderate turbulence. They were favorably impressed with the system, particularly with the elimination of control force transients that accompanied configuration changes. For ride quality, quantitative data showed that the attitude command control system resulted in all cases of airplane motion being removed from the uncomfortable ride region.

  7. Design study for LANDSAT-D attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwens, R. P.; Bernier, G. E.; Hofstadter, R. F.; Mayo, R. A.; Nakano, H.

    1977-01-01

    The gimballed Ku-band antenna system for communication with TDRS was studied. By means of an error analysis it was demonstrated that the antenna cannot be open loop pointed to TDRS by an onboard programmer, but that an autotrack system was required. After some tradeoffs, a two-axis, azimuth-elevation type gimbal configuration was recommended for the antenna. It is shown that gimbal lock only occurs when LANDSAT-D is over water where a temporary loss of the communication link to TDRS is of no consequence. A preliminary gimbal control system design is also presented. A digital computer program was written that computes antenna gimbal angle profiles, assesses percent antenna beam interference with the solar array, and determines whether the spacecraft is over land or water, a lighted earth or a dark earth, and whether the spacecraft is in eclipse.

  8. Design of a high density cold gas attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Sarah E.; Lewis, Mark J.; Akin, David L.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison of the experimental results of a nitrous oxide cold gas thruster with the predicted performance from a numerical simulation of nozzle operations is discussed. Tests were conducted in a vacuum chamber to verify analytical predictions of both nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Preliminary results indicate an Isp for N2O of 61, and an Isp of 69 for N2. Based on the results of this research, parameters are presented for a nitrous oxide-based reaction control system for a small spacecraft currently under development.

  9. Classical and higher-order sliding mode attitude control for launch vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, James Edward, Jr.

    In determining flight controls for launch vehicle systems, several things must be taken into account. Launch vehicle systems can be expendable or reusable, carry crew or cargo, etc. Each of these launch vehicles maneuvers through a wide range of flight conditions and different mission profiles. Crewed vehicles must adhere to human rating requirements which limit the angular rates. Reusable launch vehicle systems must take into account actuator saturation during entry. Wind disturbances and plant uncertainties are major perturbations to the nominal state of any launch vehicle. An ideal controller is one that is robust enough to handle these uncertainties and external disturbances with limited control authority. One major challenge that exists in the design of these vehicles is the updating of old autopilot technology to new robust designs while also taking into account the different type of launch vehicle system employed. Sliding mode control algorithms that are inherently robust to external disturbances and plant uncertainties are very good candidates for improving the robustness and accuracy of the flight control systems. This dissertation focuses on systematically studying and developing a 'toolbox' of classical and higher-order sliding mode attitude control algorithms for different types of launch vehicle systems operating in uncertain conditions, including model uncertainties, actuator malfunctions, and external perturbations such as wind gusts. The developed toolbox comprises of time-varying sliding variables, classical and higher-order sliding mode attitude control algorithms, and observer techniques that yield novel sliding mode attitude control architectures. The proposed control toolbox allows achieving even higher standards of performance, reliability, safety, operability, and cost for launch vehicles over the current state of the art. Case studies include controlling the X-33 and SLV-X Launch Vehicles studied under NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI

  10. Nonlinear observer/controller designs for spacecraft attitude control systems with uncalibrated gyros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thienel, Julie K.

    Gyroscopes, or gyros, are vital sensors in spacecraft onboard attitude control systems. Gyro measurements are corrupted, though, due to errors in alignment and scale factor, biases, and noise. This work proposes a class of adaptive nonlinear observers for calibration of spacecraft gyros. Observers for each of the calibration parameters are separately developed, then combined. Lyapunov stability analysis is used to demonstrate the stability and convergence properties of each design. First, an observer to estimate gyro bias is developed, both with and without added noise effects. The observer is shown to be exponentially stable without any additional conditions. Next a scale factor observer is developed, followed by an alignment observer. The scale factor and alignment observers are both shown to be Lyapunov stable. Additionally, if the angular velocity meets a persistency of excitation (PE) condition, the scale factor and alignment observers are exponentially stable. Finally, the three observers are combined, and the combination is shown to be stable, with exponential stability if the angular velocity is persistently exciting. The specific PE condition for each observer is given in detail. Next, the adaptive observers are combined with a class of nonlinear control algorithms designed to asymptotically track a general time-varying reference attitude. This algorithm requires feedback from rate sensors, such as gyros. The miscalibration discussed above will seriously degrade the performance of these controllers. While the adaptive observers can eliminate this miscalibration, it is not immediately clear that the observers can be safely combined with the controller in this case. There is, in general, no "separation principle" for nonlinear systems, as there is for linear systems. However, Lyapunov analysis of the coupled controller-observer dynamics shows that the closed-loop system will be stable for the class of observers proposed. With only gyro bias miscalibration

  11. Decentralized diagnosis in a spacecraft attitude determination and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, C. G.; Travé-Massuyès, L.; Chanthery, E.; Sotomayor, J.

    2015-11-01

    In model-based diagnosis (MBD), structural models can provide useful information for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control design. In particular, they are known for supporting the design of analytical redundancy relations (ARRs) which are widely used to generate residuals for diagnosis. On the other hand, systems are increasingly complex whereby it is necessary to develop decentralized architectures to perform the diagnosis task. Decentralized diagnosis is of interest for on-board systems as a way to reduce computational costs or for large geographically distributed systems that require to minimizing data transfer. Decentralized solutions allow proper separation of industrial knowledge, provided that inputs and outputs are clearly defined. This paper builds on the results of [1] and proposes an optimized approach for decentralized fault-focused residual generation. It also introduce the concept of Fault-Driven Minimal Structurally-Overdetermined set (FMSO) ensuring minimal redundancy. The method decreases communication cost involved in decentralization with respect to the algorithm proposed in [1] while still maintaining the same isolation properties as the centralized approach as well as the isolation on request capability.

  12. Development of a coupled expert system for the spacecraft attitude control problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, K.; Beale, G.; Schaffer, J.; Hsieh, B.-J.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguezmoscoso, J.; Vinz, F.; Fernandez, K.

    1987-01-01

    A majority of the current expert systems focus on the symbolic-oriented logic and inference mechanisms of artificial intelligence (AI). Common rule-based systems employ empirical associations and are not well suited to deal with problems often arising in engineering. Described is a prototype expert system which combines both symbolic and numeric computing. The expert system's configuration is presented and its application to a spacecraft attitude control problem is discussed.

  13. Simulation and simulator development of a separate surface attitude command control system for light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the simulation philosophy and process used in the development of a Separate Surface Attitude Command control system (SSAC) for a Beech Model 99 Airliner. The intent of this system is to provide complete three axes stability augmentation at low cost and without the need for system redundancy. The system, although aimed at the general aviation market, also has applications to certain military airplanes as well as to miniature submarines.

  14. Design and Integration of an All-Magnetic Attitude Control System for FASTSAT-HSV01's Multiple Pointing Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeKock, Brandon; Sanders, Devon; Vanzwieten, Tannen; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The FASTSAT-HSV01 spacecraft is a microsatellite with magnetic torque rods as it sole attitude control actuator. FASTSAT s multiple payloads and mission functions require the Attitude Control System (ACS) to maintain Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH)-referenced attitudes without spin-stabilization, while the pointing errors for some attitudes be significantly smaller than the previous best-demonstrated for this type of control system. The mission requires the ACS to hold multiple stable, unstable, and non-equilibrium attitudes, as well as eject a 3U CubeSat from an onboard P-POD and recover from the ensuing tumble. This paper describes the Attitude Control System, the reasons for design choices, how the ACS integrates with the rest of the spacecraft, and gives recommendations for potential future applications of the work.

  15. The combined energy and attitude control system for small satellites—Earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varatharajoo, Renuganth; Fasoulas, Stefanos

    2005-01-01

    Small satellites are becoming the preferred option for low-cost Earth observation missions. However, the projected requirements have increased for the missions, which require more sophisticated and additional payloads nowadays. As a result, this would most probably be cumbersome and critical for the overall satellite mass/volume budgets. In this article, the idea of combining the energy storage and attitude control systems is presented in order to reduce the number of subsystems onboard. Such a system consists of a double counterrotating flywheel unit serving simultaneously for the satellite energy and attitude management. First, numerical treatments were conducted for the rotors to determine a failure-free condition corresponding to their stresses and natural frequencies. Further, the mathematical models describing the energy and attitude control are established, and the system onboard architecture is implemented. Numerical simulations for the developed architecture were conducted taking into account the ideal and non-ideal cases. The simulation results are discussed especially from the energy and attitude standpoints. The system performance complies with the mission requirements. Thus, this end-to-end system demonstration indicates that the combined system is judiciously feasible, and is a potential combined subsystem for small satellites.

  16. Flight test evaluation of a separate surface attitude command control system on a Beech 99 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, S. W.; Jenks, G. E.; Roskam, J.; Stone, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint NASA/university/industry program was conducted to flight evaluate a potentially low cost separate surface implementation of attitude command in a Beech 99 airplane. Saturation of the separate surfaces was the primary cause of many problems during development. Six experienced professional pilots who made simulated instrument flight evaluations experienced improvements in airplane handling qualities in the presence of turbulence and a reduction in pilot workload. For ride quality, quantitative data show that the attitude command control system results in all cases of airplane motion being removed from the uncomfortable ride region.

  17. Design development of the Apollo command and service module thrust vector attitude control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Development of the Apollo thrust vector control digital autopilot (TVC DAP) was summarized. This is the control system that provided pitch and yaw attitude control during velocity change maneuvers using the main rocket engine on the Apollo service module. A list of ten primary functional requirements for this control system are presented, each being subordinate to a more general requirement appearing earlier on the list. Development process functions were then identified and the essential information flow paths were explored. This provided some visibility into the particular NASA/contractor interface, as well as relationships between the many individual activities.

  18. A ground test program to support condition monitoring of a spacecraft attitude control propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Douglas J.; Lester, Robert W.; Baroth, Edmund C.; Coleman, Arthur L.

    1991-01-01

    The Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission involves seven years of flight from 0.6 to 4.57 Astronomical Units (AU), followed by about 915 days of maneuvering around a comet. Ground testing will characterize the very critical attitude control system thrusters' fuel consumption and performance for all anticipated fuel temperatures over thruster life. The ground test program characterization will support flight condition monitoring. A commercial software application hosted on a commercial microcomputer will control ground test operations and data acquisition using a newly designed thrust stand. The data acquisition and control system uses a graphics-based language and features a visual interface to integrate data acquisition and control.

  19. Hardware and software implementation of a low power attitude control and determination system for cubesats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Jesse

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in smaller satellites. Smaller satellites are cheaper to build and launch than larger satellites. One form factor, the CubeSat, is especially popular with universities and is a 10~cm cube. Being smaller means that the mass and power budgets are tighter and as such new ways must be developed to cope with these constraints. Traditional attitude control systems often use reaction wheels with gas thrusters which present challenges on a CubeSat. Many CubeSats use magnetic attitude control which uses the Earth's magnetic field to torque the satellite into the proper orientation. Magnetic attitude control systems fall into two main categories: active and passive. Active control is often achieved by running current through a coil to produce a dipole moment, while passive control uses the dipole moment from permanent magnets that consume no power. This thesis describes a system that uses twelve hard magnetic torquers along with a magnetometer. The torquers only consume current when their dipole moment is flipped, thereby significantly reducing power requirements compared with traditional active control. The main focus of this thesis is on the design, testing and fabrication of CubeSat hardware and software in preparation for launch.

  20. Attitude control system design using a flywheel suspended by two gimbals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, R. W.; Ricci, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    This work presents the attitude control system design procedures for a three axis stabilized satellite in geostationary orbit, which contains a flywheel suspended by two gimbals. The use of a flywheel with two DOFs is an interesting option because with only one device it's possible to control the torques about vehicle's three axes; through the wheel speed control and gyrotorquing phenomenon with two DOFs. If the wheel size and speed are determined properly it's possible to cancel cyclic torques using gas jets only periodically to cancel secular disturbance torques. The system, based on a flywheel, takes only one pitch/roll (earth) sensor to maintain precise attitude, unlike mass expulsion based control systems, which uses propellants continuously, beyond roll, pitch and yaw sensors. It is considered the satellite is in nominal orbit and, therefore, that the attitude's acquisition phase has already elapsed. Control laws and system parameters are determined in order to cancel the solar pressure radiation disturbance torque and the torque due to misalignment of the thrusters. Stability is analyzed and step and cyclic responses are obtained.

  1. Coupled Attitude and Orbit Dynamics and Control in Formation Flying Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Yun-Jun; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Mason, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Formation flying systems can range from global constellations offering extended service coverage to clusters of highly coordinated vehicles that perform distributed sensing. Recently, the use of groups of micro-satellites in the areas of near Earth explorations, deep space explorations, and military applications has received considerable attention by researchers and practitioners. To date, most proposed control strategies are based on linear models (e.g., Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations) or nonlinear models that are restricted to circular reference orbits. Also, all models in the literature are uncoupled between relative position and relative attitude. In this paper, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. The reference orbit is not restricted to the circular case. In this formulation, the leader or follower satellite can be in either a circular or an elliptic orbit. In addition to maintaining a specified relative position, the satellites are also required to maintain specified relative attitudes. Thus the model presented couples vehicle attitude and orbit requirements. Orbit perturbations are also included. In particular, the J(sub 2) effects are accounted in the model. Finally, a sliding mode controller is developed and used to control the relative attitude of the formation and the simulation results are presented.

  2. A high precision attitude determination and control system for the UYS-1 nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurais, J. R.; Ferreira, H. C.; Ishihara, J. Y.; Borges, R. A.; Kulabukhov, A. M.; Larin, V. A.; Belikov, V. V.

    This paper presents the design of a high precision attitude determination and control system for the UYS-1 Ukrainian nanosatellite. Its main task is the 3-axis stabilization with less than 0.5° angle errors, so the satellite may take high precision photos of Earth's surface. To accomplish this task, this system comprises a star tracker and three reaction wheels. To avoid external disturbances and actuators faults, a PD-type and a PID-type robust controllers are simulated and the results are compared to an empirically adjusted PD controller.

  3. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  4. ATTDES: An Expert System for Satellite Attitude Determination and Control. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackison, Donald L.; Gifford, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    The design, analysis, and flight operations of satellite attitude determintion and attitude control systems require extensive mathematical formulations, optimization studies, and computer simulation. This is best done by an analyst with extensive education and experience. The development of programs such as ATTDES permit the use of advanced techniques by those with less experience. Typical tasks include the mission analysis to select stabilization and damping schemes, attitude determination sensors and algorithms, and control system designs to meet program requirements. ATTDES is a system that includes all of these activities, including high fidelity orbit environment models that can be used for preliminary analysis, parameter selection, stabilization schemes, the development of estimators covariance analyses, and optimization, and can support ongoing orbit activities. The modification of existing simulations to model new configurations for these purposes can be an expensive, time consuming activity that becomes a pacing item in the development and operation of such new systems. The use of an integrated tool such as ATTDES significantly reduces the effort and time required for these tasks.

  5. Optimality of incompletely measurable active and passive attitude control systems. [for satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiehlen, W.; Popp, K.

    1973-01-01

    Passive attitude control systems and active systems with incomplete state measurements are only suboptimal systems in the sense of optimal control theory, since optimal systems require complete state measurements or state estimations. An optimal system, then, requires additional hardware (especially in the case of flexible spacecraft) which results in higher costs. Therefore, it is a real engineering problem to determine how much an optimal system exceeds the suboptimal system, or in other words, what is the suboptimal system's degree of optimality. The problem will be treated in three steps: (1) definition of the degree of optimality for linear, time-invariant systems; (2) a computation method using the quadratic cost functional; (3) application to a gravity-gradient stabilized three-body satellite and a spinning flexible satellite.

  6. Balloon infrared astronomy platform (BIRAP). [development and characteristics of a balloon-borne attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeb, M. E.; True, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a balloon-borne attitude control system for infrared astronomy studies is discussed. The Balloon Infrared Astronomy Platform (BIRAP) is the result of the development effort. The BIRAP uses electronic gimballing for the offset pointing which eliminates a set of mechanical gimbals. Guide stars with visual magnitudes as low as plus 6 are used for fine tracking assuring that all areas of the sky can be covered. The BIRAP control concept uses a closed loop system in the airborne equipment with automatic update through a command link that can be operated either manually or automatically by a ground based computer.

  7. Development and test of the ASAT Bipropellant Attitude Control System (ACS) engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, K. F.; Allen, K. A.; Hemmings, B.

    1993-06-01

    The recent Kinetic Energy Anti-Satellite (KE ASAT) Bipropellant Attitude Control System (ACS) Engine testing demonstrated and characterized performance and operational durability. Within the ASAT mission, the bipropellant engines are used to despin the missile after shroud deployment and to provide attitude control of the Kill Vehicle (KV) during all phases of the KV free flight. These engines provide all attitude control thrust from booster separation until target intercept. The ASAT ACS engine is unique both in the amount of on-time that the engine sees during a tactical mission scenario and the high thermal loads which result from performing two diametrically opposed missions with a single thruster - long steady state burns and very short response time pulse mode operations. Two flightweight ASAT ACS Bipropellant engines were individually tested in a developmental test program. Testing was conducted at ambient conditions. Hot-fire testing consisted of steady-state, mission duty cycle (MDC), Chamber Pressure (Pc) excursion, mixture ratio excursion, and pulse performance. Testing was conducted by Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL), Systems Test Laboratory IV (STL IV), Cell 37A. Two additional engine tests are planned and will include altitude testing. This paper will summarize engine development, component development testing, valve orificing and cold flow calibration, and engine hot-fire testing approach and results.

  8. The Implementation of Satellite Attitude Control System Software Using Object Oriented Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, W. Mark; Hansell, William; Phillips, Tom; Anderson, Mark O.; Drury, Derek

    1998-01-01

    NASA established the Small Explorer (SNMX) program in 1988 to provide frequent opportunities for highly focused and relatively inexpensive space science missions. The SMEX program has produced five satellites, three of which have been successfully launched. The remaining two spacecraft are scheduled for launch within the coming year. NASA has recently developed a prototype for the next generation Small Explorer spacecraft (SMEX-Lite). This paper describes the object-oriented design (OOD) of the SMEX-Lite Attitude Control System (ACS) software. The SMEX-Lite ACS is three-axis controlled and is capable of performing sub-arc-minute pointing. This paper first describes high level requirements governing the SMEX-Lite ACS software architecture. Next, the context in which the software resides is explained. The paper describes the principles of encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism with respect to the implementation of an ACS software system. This paper will also discuss the design of several ACS software components. Specifically, object-oriented designs are presented for sensor data processing, attitude determination, attitude control, and failure detection. Finally, this paper will address the establishment of the ACS Foundation Class (AFC) Library. The AFC is a large software repository, requiring a minimal amount of code modifications to produce ACS software for future projects.

  9. Analytic investigation of the AEM-A/HCMM attitude control system performance. [Application Explorer Missions/Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, G. M.; Huang, W.; Shuster, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM), scheduled for launch in 1978, will be three-axis stabilized relative to the earth in a 600-kilometer altitude, polar orbit. The autonomous attitude control system consists of three torquing coils and a momentum wheel driven in response to error signals computed from data received from an infrared horizon sensor and a magnetometer. This paper presents a simple model of the attitude dynamics and derives the equations that determine the stability of the system during both attitude acquisition (acquisition-mode) and mission operations (mission-mode). Modifications to the proposed mission-mode control laws which speed the system's response to transient attitude errors and reduce the steady-state attitude errors are suggested. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the results obtained with the simple model.

  10. Mission management, planning, and cost: PULSE Attitude And Control Systems (AACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Pluto unmanned long-range scientific explorer (PULSE) is a probe that will do a flyby of Pluto. It is a low weight, relatively low costing vehicle which utilizes mostly off-the-shelf hardware, but not materials or techniques that will be available after 1999. A design, fabrication, and cost analysis is presented. PULSE will be launched within the first decade of the twenty-first century. The topics include: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) mission management, planning, and costing; (3) power and propulsion systems; (4) structural subsystem; (5) command, control, and communication; and (6) attitude and articulation control.

  11. Comparison of thruster configurations in attitude control systems. M.S. Thesis. Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, J. S., III; Drinkard, D. M., Jr.; White, L. R.; Chakravarthi, K. R.

    1973-01-01

    Several aspects concerning reaction control jet systems as used to govern the attitude of a spacecraft were considered. A thruster configuration currently in use was compared to several new configurations developed in this study. The method of determining the error signals which control the firing of the thrusters was also investigated. The current error determination procedure is explained and a new method is presented. Both of these procedures are applied to each of the thruster configurations which are developed and comparisons of the two methods are made.

  12. Robust momentum management and attitude control system for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, Ihnseok; Speyer, Jason L.

    1992-01-01

    A game theoretic controller is synthesized for momentum management and attitude control of the Space Station in the presence of uncertainties in the moments of inertia. Full state information is assumed since attitude rates are assumed to be very accurately measured. By an input-output decomposition of the uncertainty in the system matrices, the parameter uncertainties in the dynamic system are represented as an unknown gain associated with an internal feedback loop (IFL). The input and output matrices associated with the IFL form directions through which the uncertain parameters affect system response. If the quadratic form of the IFL output augments the cost criterion, then enhanced parameter robustness is anticipated. By considering the input and the input disturbance from the IFL as two noncooperative players, a linear-quadratic differential game is constructed. The solution in the form of a linear controller is used for synthesis. Inclusion of the external disturbance torques results in a dynamic feedback controller which consists of conventional PID (proportional integral derivative) control and cyclic disturbance rejection filters. It is shown that the game theoretic design allows large variations in the inertias in directions of importance.

  13. A robust momentum management and attitude control system for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speyer, J. L.; Rhee, Ihnseok

    1991-01-01

    A game theoretic controller is synthesized for momentum management and attitude control of the Space Station in the presence of uncertainties in the moments of inertia. Full state information is assumed since attitude rates are assumed to be very assurately measured. By an input-output decomposition of the uncertainty in the system matrices, the parameter uncertainties in the dynamic system are represented as an unknown gain associated with an internal feedback loop (IFL). The input and output matrices associated with the IFL form directions through which the uncertain parameters affect system response. If the quadratic form of the IFL output augments the cost criterion, then enhanced parameter robustness is anticipated. By considering the input and the input disturbance from the IFL as two noncooperative players, a linear-quadratic differential game is constructed. The solution in the form of a linear controller is used for synthesis. Inclusion of the external disturbance torques results in a dynamic feedback controller which consists of conventional PID (proportional integral derivative) control and cyclic disturbance rejection filters. It is shown that the game theoretic design allows large variations in the inertias in directions of importance.

  14. An approach to the design and implementation of spacecraft attitude control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Mangus, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Over 39 years and a long list of missions, the guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) groups at the Goddard Space Flight Center have gradually developed approaches to the design and implementation of successful spacecraft attitude control systems. With the recent creation of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center at Goddard, there is a desire to document some of these design practices to help to ensure their consistent application in the future. In this paper, we will discuss the beginnings of this effort, drawing primarily on the experience of one of the past attitude control system (ACS) groups at Goddard (what was formerly known as Code 712, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Branch). We will discuss the analysis and design methods and criteria used, including guidelines for linear and nonlinear analysis, as well as the use of low- and high-fidelity simulation for system design and verification of performance. Descriptions of typical ACS sensor and actuator hardware will be shown, and typical sensor/actuator suites for a variety of mission types detailed. A description of the software and hardware test effort will be given, along with an attempt to make some qualitative estimates on how much effort is involved. The spacecraft and GN&C subsystem review cycles will be discussed, giving an outline of what design reviews are typically held and what information should be presented at each stage. Finally, we will point out some of the lessons learned at Goddard.

  15. An Approach to the Design and Implementation of Spacecraft Attitude Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Mangus, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Over 39 years and a long list of missions, the guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) groups at the Goddard Space Flight Center have gradually developed approaches to the design and implementation of successful spacecraft attitude control systems. With the recent creation of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center at Goddard, there is a desire to document some of these design practices to help to ensure their consistent application in the future. In this paper, we will discuss the beginnings of this effort, drawing primarily on the experience of one of the past attitude control system (ACS) groups at Goddard (what was formerly known as Code 712, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Branch). We will discuss the analysis and design methods and criteria used, including guidelines for linear and nonlinear analysis, as well as the use of low- and high-fidelity simulation for system design and verification of performance. Descriptions of typical ACS sensor and actuator hardware will be shown, and typical sensor/actuator suites for a variety of mission types detailed. A description of the software and hardware test effort will be given, along with an attempt to make some qualitative estimates on how much effort is involved. The spacecraft and GN&C subsystem review cycles will be discussed, giving an outline of what design reviews are typically held and .what information should be presented at each stage. Finally, we will point out some of the lessons learned at Goddard.

  16. Large scale static tests of a tilt-nacelle V/STOL propulsion/attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The concept of a combined V/STOL propulsion and aircraft attitude control system was subjected to large scale engine tests. The tilt nacelle/attitude control vane package consisted of the T55 powered Hamilton Standard Q-Fan demonstrator. Vane forces, moments, thermal and acoustic characteristics as well as the effects on propulsion system performance were measured under conditions simulating hover in and out of ground effect.

  17. Linearization of Attitude-Control Error Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, Ralph; Paielli, Russell

    1993-01-01

    Direction cosines and quaternions are useful for representing rigid-body attitude because they exhibit no kinematic singularities. Each utilizes more variables than the minimum three degrees of freedom required to specify attitude. Therefore, application of a nonlinear inversion procedure to either formulation introduces singularities. Furthermore, in designing an attitude-control system, it is not appropriate to express attitude error as a difference of direction cosines (or quaternions). One should employ a measure of attitude error that not only is minimal but preserves orthogonal rotation properties as well. This note applies an inversion procedure to an appropriate measure of attitude error, so that the singularity occurs when the error reaches +/- 180 deg. This approach leads to the realization of a new model-follower attitude-control system that exhibits exact linear attitude-error dynamics.

  18. Attitude control and drag compensation propulsion system for Gravity Probe-B spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    An on board propulsion system for attitude control and drag compensation is presented which uses helium boiloff gas from an experiment package dewar as propellant. This boiloff gas would normally be vented nonpropulsively. Use of a small allowable temperature range in the dewar is exploited to store helium and accommodate incompatibilities in dewar heat leak and thruster demand flow over periods of more than one orbit. A relatively detailed thermodynamics analysis of the two phase helium dewar and simulation of pressure loss through the helium distribution system is included.

  19. Use of the MATRIXx Integrated Toolkit on the Microwave Anisotropy Probe Attitude Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, David K.; Andrews, Stephen F.; McComas, David C.; ODonnell, James R., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical software tools allow the analysis, simulation, flight code, and documentation of an algorithm to be generated from a single source, all within one integrated analytical design package. NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe project has used one such package, Integrated Systems' MATRIXx suite, in the design of the spacecraft's Attitude Control System. The project's experience with the linear analysis, simulation, code generation, and documentation tools will be presented and compared with more traditional development tools. In particular, the quality of the flight software generated will be examined in detail. Finally, lessons learned on each of the tools will be shared.

  20. Fault Detection and Correction for the Solar Dynamics Observatory Attitude Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starin, Scott R.; Vess, Melissa F.; Kenney, Thomas M.; Maldonado, Manuel D.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory is an Explorer-class mission that will launch in early 2009. The spacecraft will operate in a geosynchronous orbit, sending data 24 hours a day to a devoted ground station in White Sands, New Mexico. It will carry a suite of instruments designed to observe the Sun in multiple wavelengths at unprecedented resolution. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly includes four telescopes with focal plane CCDs that can image the full solar disk in four different visible wavelengths. The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment will collect time-correlated data on the activity of the Sun's corona. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager will enable study of pressure waves moving through the body of the Sun. The attitude control system on Solar Dynamics Observatory is responsible for four main phases of activity. The physical safety of the spacecraft after separation must be guaranteed. Fine attitude determination and control must be sufficient for instrument calibration maneuvers. The mission science mode requires 2-arcsecond control according to error signals provided by guide telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, one of the three instruments to be carried. Lastly, accurate execution of linear and angular momentum changes to the spacecraft must be provided for momentum management and orbit maintenance. In thsp aper, single-fault tolerant fault detection and correction of the Solar Dynamics Observatory attitude control system is described. The attitude control hardware suite for the mission is catalogued, with special attention to redundancy at the hardware level. Four reaction wheels are used where any three are satisfactory. Four pairs of redundant thrusters are employed for orbit change maneuvers and momentum management. Three two-axis gyroscopes provide full redundancy for rate sensing. A digital Sun sensor and two autonomous star trackers provide two-out-of-three redundancy for fine attitude determination. The use of software to maximize

  1. Attitude Control Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Daniel F.; Studer, Phillip A.

    1986-01-01

    The goals were to establish the Attitude Control System (ACS) requirements, constraints, technology assessment, technology shortfalls, expected in the year 2000. These were based upon all missions, military and civil, for LEO and GEO. The critical ACS technology issues were identified and ACS programs developed to address these critical issues.

  2. A neural network approach to fault detection in spacecraft attitude determination and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, John N.

    This thesis proposes a method of performing fault detection and isolation in spacecraft attitude determination and control systems. The proposed method works by deploying a trained neural network to analyze a set of residuals that are defined such that they encompass the attitude control, guidance, and attitude determination subsystems. Eight neural networks were trained using either the resilient backpropagation, Levenberg-Marquardt, or Levenberg-Marquardt with Bayesian regularization training algorithms. The results of each of the neural networks were analyzed to determine the accuracy of the networks with respect to isolating the faulty component or faulty subsystem within the ADCS. The performance of the proposed neural network-based fault detection and isolation method was compared and contrasted with other ADCS FDI methods. The results obtained via simulation showed that the best neural networks employing this method successfully detected the presence of a fault 79% of the time. The faulty subsystem was successfully isolated 75% of the time and the faulty components within the faulty subsystem were isolated 37% of the time.

  3. Enceladus Plume Density Modeling and Reconstruction for Cassini Attitude Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarani, Siamak

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, Cassini detected jets composed mostly of water, spouting from a set of nearly parallel rifts in the crust of Enceladus, an icy moon of Saturn. During an Enceladus flyby, either reaction wheels or attitude control thrusters on the Cassini spacecraft are used to overcome the external torque imparted on Cassini due to Enceladus plume or jets, as well as to slew the spacecraft in order to meet the pointing needs of the on-board science instruments. If the estimated imparted torque is larger than it can be controlled by the reaction wheel control system, thrusters are used to control the spacecraft. Having an engineering model that can predict and simulate the external torque imparted on Cassini spacecraft due to the plume density during all projected low-altitude Enceladus flybys is important. Equally important is being able to reconstruct the plume density after each flyby in order to calibrate the model. This paper describes an engineering model of the Enceladus plume density, as a function of the flyby altitude, developed for the Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem, and novel methodologies that use guidance, navigation, and control data to estimate the external torque imparted on the spacecraft due to the Enceladus plume and jets. The plume density is determined accordingly. The methodologies described have already been used to reconstruct the plume density for three low-altitude Enceladus flybys of Cassini in 2008 and will continue to be used on all remaining low-altitude Enceladus flybys in Cassini's extended missions.

  4. The Software Design for the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer Attitude Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark O.; Barnes, Kenneth C.; Melhorn, Charles M.; Phillips, Tom

    1998-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), currently scheduled for launch in September 1998, is the fifth of five spacecraft in the NASA/Goddard Small Explorer (SMEX) series. This paper presents the design of WIRE's Attitude Control System flight software (ACS FSW). WIRE is a momentum-biased, three-axis stabilized stellar pointer which provides high-accuracy pointing and autonomous acquisition for eight to ten stellar targets per orbit. WIRE's short mission life and limited cryogen supply motivate requirements for Sun and Earth avoidance constraints which are designed to prevent catastrophic instrument damage and to minimize the heat load on the cryostat. The FSW implements autonomous fault detection and handling (FDH) to enforce these instrument constraints and to perform several other checks which insure the safety of the spacecraft. The ACS FSW implements modules for sensor data processing, attitude determination, attitude control, guide star acquisition, actuator command generation, command/telemetry processing, and FDH. These software components are integrated with a hierarchical control mode managing module that dictates which software components are currently active. The lowest mode in the hierarchy is the 'safest' one, in the sense that it utilizes a minimal complement of sensors and actuators to keep the spacecraft in a stable configuration (power and pointing constraints are maintained). As higher modes in the hierarchy are achieved, the various software functions are activated by the mode manager, and an increasing level of attitude control accuracy is provided. If FDH detects a constraint violation or other anomaly, it triggers a safing transition to a lower control mode. The WIRE ACS FSW satisfies all target acquisition and pointing accuracy requirements, enforces all pointing constraints, provides the ground with a simple means for reconfiguring the system via table load, and meets all the demands of its real-time embedded environment (16 MHz Intel

  5. Study of a Satellite Attitude Control System Using Integrating Gyros as Torque Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John S.; Hansen, Q. Marion

    1961-01-01

    This report considers the use of single-degree-of-freedom integrating gyros as torque sources for precise control of satellite attitude. Some general design criteria are derived and applied to the specific example of the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. The results of the analytical design are compared with the results of an analog computer study and also with experimental results from a low-friction platform. The steady-state and transient behavior of the system, as determined by the analysis, by the analog study, and by the experimental platform agreed quite well. The results of this study show that systems using integrating gyros for precise satellite attitude control can be designed to have a reasonably rapid and well-damped transient response, as well as very small steady-state errors. Furthermore, it is shown that the gyros act as rate sensors, as well as torque sources, so that no rate stabilization networks are required, and when no error sensor is available, the vehicle is still rate stabilized. Hence, it is shown that a major advantage of a gyro control system is that when the target is occulted, an alternate reference is not required.

  6. Control of nonlinear systems with applications to constrained robots and spacecraft attitude stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, Hariharan

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is organized in two parts. In Part 1, control systems described by a class of nonlinear differential and algebraic equations are introduced. A procedure for local stabilization based on a local state realization is developed. An alternative approach to local stabilization is developed based on a classical linearization of the nonlinear differential-algebraic equations. A theoretical framework is established for solving a tracking problem associated with the differential-algebraic system. First, a simple procedure is developed for the design of a feedback control law which ensures, at least locally, that the tracking error in the closed loop system lies within any given bound if the reference inputs are sufficiently slowly varying. Next, by imposing additional assumptions, a procedure is developed for the design of a feedback control law which ensures that the tracking error in the closed loop system approaches zero exponentially for reference inputs which are not necessarily slowly varying. The control design methodologies are used for simultaneous force and position control in constrained robot systems. The differential-algebraic equations are shown to characterize the slow dynamics of a certain nonlinear control system in nonstandard singularly perturbed form. In Part 2, the attitude stabilization (reorientation) of a rigid spacecraft using only two control torques is considered. First, the case of momentum wheel actuators is considered. The complete spacecraft dynamics are not controllable. However, the spacecraft dynamics are small time locally controllable in a reduced sense. The reduced spacecraft dynamics cannot be asymptotically stabilized using continuous feedback, but a discontinuous feedback control strategy is constructed. Next, the case of gas jet actuators is considered. If the uncontrolled principal axis is not an axis of symmetry, the complete spacecraft dynamics are small time locally controllable. However, the spacecraft attitude

  7. Simultaneous calibrations of Voyager celestial and inertial attitude control systems in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahanshahi, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical description of the data reduction technique used to simultaneously calibrate the Voyager celestial and inertial attitude control subsystems is given. It is shown that knowledge of the spacecraft limit cycle motion, as measured by the celestial and the inertial sensors, is adequate to result in the estimates of a selected number of errors which adversely affect the spacecraft attitude knowledge.

  8. Structural control interaction for an LSS attitude control system using thrusters and reaction wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fonseca, Ijar M.; Bainum, Peter M.; da Silva, Adenilson R.

    2007-05-01

    This work provides some important information about control structure interaction (CSI) for a large space structure (LSS) attitude control subsystem (ACS) comprised of thrusters and reaction wheels. The LSS physical model is assumed as a rigid long tubular beam as the main bus with two attached long flexible solar panels. Two thrusters (one at each tip of the LSS) are used for large amplitude maneuvers and the reaction wheels for fine control. Lagrange's formulations for generalized and quasi-coordinates were used to derive the equations of motion. The gravity gradient, the solar pressure and the drag were included in the mathematical model as external perturbations. The assumed modes discretization method has been used to model the solar array elastic displacements so as to obtain a set of ordinary differential equations to describe the LSS motion. Different control strategies were implemented to analyze the CSI for two configurations, fine and coarse control. The MatLab/Simulink platform has been used for the computational simulations. The results are in agreement with the CSI theory in that thruster firings excite the solar panel vibrations and that the elastic vibration is an important issue to be taken into account for LSS ACS performance evaluation for both fine and coarse control. In spite of the CSI the maneuver objectives have been accomplished with results that meet the mission criteria.

  9. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We have learned it is conceivable that the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on board the Lunarr Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) could measure gases from surface-reflected Attitude Control System (ACS) thruster plume. At minimum altitude, the measurement would be maximized, and gravitational influence minimized ("short" time-of-flight (TOF) situation) Could use to verify aspects of thruster plume modeling Model the transient disturbance to NMS measurements due to ACS gases reflected from lunar surface Observe evolution of various model characteristics as measured by NMS Species magnitudes, TOF measurements, angular distribution, species separation effects

  10. Vega roll and attitude control system algorithms trade-off study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulino, N.; Cuciniello, G.; Cruciani, I.; Corraro, F.; Spallotta, D.; Nebula, F.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the trade-off study for the selection of the most suitable algorithms for the Roll and Attitude Control System (RACS) within the FPS-A program, aimed at developing the new Flight Program Software of VEGA Launcher. Two algorithms were analyzed: Switching Lines (SL) and Quaternion Feedback Regulation. Using a development simulation tool that models two critical flight phases (Long Coasting Phase (LCP) and Payload Release (PLR) Phase), both algorithms were assessed with Monte Carlo batch simulations for both of the phases. The statistical outcomes of the results demonstrate a 100 percent success rate for Quaternion Feedback Regulation, and support the choice of this method.

  11. Nonlinear spacecraft`s gyromoment attitude control

    SciTech Connect

    Somov, Y.I.

    1994-12-31

    Nonlinear methods of attitude control for spacecraft`s spatial rotation maneuvers through the use of gyrodynes - single gimbal control moment gyroscopes - are developed. We present new results on optimizing and dynamic synthesis of the nonlinear gyromoment attitude control system for a fast-manoeuvring spacecraft with a minimum-excessive scheme of gyrodynes.

  12. Fault tolerant attitude control for small unmanned aircraft systems equipped with an airflow sensor array.

    PubMed

    Shen, H; Xu, Y; Dickinson, B T

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by sensing strategies observed in birds and bats, a new attitude control concept of directly using real-time pressure and shear stresses has recently been studied. It was shown that with an array of onboard airflow sensors, small unmanned aircraft systems can promptly respond to airflow changes and improve flight performances. In this paper, a mapping function is proposed to compute aerodynamic moments from the real-time pressure and shear data in a practical and computationally tractable formulation. Since many microscale airflow sensors are embedded on the small unmanned aircraft system surface, it is highly possible that certain sensors may fail. Here, an adaptive control system is developed that is robust to sensor failure as well as other numerical mismatches in calculating real-time aerodynamic moments. The advantages of the proposed method are shown in the following simulation cases: (i) feedback pressure and wall shear data from a distributed array of 45 airflow sensors; (ii) 50% failure of the symmetrically distributed airflow sensor array; and (iii) failure of all the airflow sensors on one wing. It is shown that even if 50% of the airflow sensors have failures, the aircraft is still stable and able to track the attitude commands. PMID:25405953

  13. Evaluation of Assembly Simulators Used in Closed Loop Attitude Control System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunn, Jason Christopher

    1997-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft's Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem has been tested extensively at the Jet Propulsion Laboraroty in Pasadena, California. Three of the subsystem's assemblies have been tested using assembly simulators in place of actural hardware.

  14. The attitude control problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John Ting-Yung; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    A general framework for the analysis of the attitude tracking control problem for a rigid body is presented. A large family of globally stable control laws is obtained by using the globally nonsingular unit quaternion representation in a Lyapunov function candidate whose form is motivated by the consideration of the total energy of the rigid body. The controllers share the common structure of a proportional-derivative feedback plus some feedforward which can be zero (the model-independent case), the Coriolis torque compensation, or an adaptive compensation. These controller structures are compared in terms of the requirement on the a priori model information, guaranteed transient performance, and robustness. The global stability of the Luh-Walker-Paul robot end-effector controller is also analyzed in this framework.

  15. Improved ITOS attitude control system with Hall generator brushless motor and earth-splitting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, W. M.

    1971-01-01

    The ITOS with an improved attitude control system is described. A Hall generator brushless dc torque motor will replace the brush dc torque motor on ITOS-I and ITOS-A (NOAA-1). The four attitude horizon sensors will be replaced with two CO2 sensors for better horizon definition. An earth horizon splitting technique will be used to keep the earth facing side of the satellite toward earth even if the desired circular orbit is not achieved. The external appearance of the pitch control subsystem differs from TIROS-M (ITOS-1) and ITOS-A (NOAA-1) in that two instead of one pitch control electronics (PCE) boxes are used. Two instead of four horizon sensors will be used and one instead of two mirrors will be used for sensor scanning. The brushless motor will eliminate the requirement for brushes, strain gages and the telemetry for the brush wear. A single rotating flywheel, supported by a single bearing provides the gyroscopic stability and the required momentum interchange to keep one side of the satellite facing the earth. Magnetic torquing against the earth's magnetic field eliminates the requirement for expendable propellants which would limit satellite life in orbit.

  16. Attitude control of a space platform/manipulator system using internal motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Chris; Gurvits, Leonid; Li, Zexiang

    1994-08-01

    Attitude control of a space platform/manipulator system, using internal motion, is an example of a nonholonomic motion planning (NMP) problem arising from symmetry and conservation laws. Common to NMP problems are that an admissible configuration space path is constrained to a given nonholonomic distribution. We formulate the dynamic equations of a system consisting of a 3-DOF PUMA-like manipulator attached to a space platform (e.g., a space station or a satellite) as an NMP problem and discuss the cotrollability of the system. Then we describe the application of a simple algorithm for obtaining approximate optimal solutions. We conclude with a description of simulation software implementing the algorithm and simulation results for two experiments.

  17. A solenoid failure detection system for cold gas attitude control jet valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, P. A.

    1970-01-01

    The development of a solenoid valve failure detection system is described. The technique requires the addition of a radioactive gas to the propellant of a cold gas jet attitude control system. Solenoid failure is detected with an avalanche radiation detector located in the jet nozzle which senses the radiation emitted by the leaking radioactive gas. Measurements of carbon monoxide leakage rates through a Mariner type solenoid valve are presented as a function of gas activity and detector configuration. A cylindrical avalanche detector with a factor of 40 improvement in leak sensitivity is proposed for flight systems because it allows the quantity of radioactive gas that must be added to the propellant to be reduced to a practical level.

  18. Investigations of an integrated angular velocity measurement and attitude control system for spacecraft using magnetically suspended double-gimbal CMGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shiqiang; Han, Bangcheng

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents an integrated angular velocity measurement and attitude control system of spacecraft using magnetically suspended double-gimbal control moment gyros (MSDGCMGs). The high speed rotor of MSDGCMG is alleviated by a five-degree-of-freedom permanent magnet biased AMB control system. With this special rotor supported manner, the MSDGCMG has the function of attitude rate sensing as well as attitude control. This characteristic provides a new approach to a compact light-weight spacecraft design, which can combine these two functions into a single device. This paper discusses the principles and implementations of AMB-based angular velocity measurement. Spacecraft dynamics with DGMSCMG actuators, including the dynamics of magnetically suspended high-speed rotor, the dynamics of inner gimbal and outer gimbal, as well as the determination method of spacecraft angular velocity are modeled, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed integrated system is also validated numerically and experimentally.

  19. Predicted Performance of On-Off Systems for Precise Satellite Attitude Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Stuart C.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the use of on-off reaction jets for precision attitude control of a satellite. Since a symmetrical vehicle is assumed, only single-axis control needs to be considered. The responses to initial disturbances and also limit-cycle characteristics for several systems have been evaluated. Calculated results indicate that realistic values of settling time and fuel consumption for the example considered can be obtained. The performance of a given system depends on the characteristics of the error detector used. In cases where the detector output was saturated for a relatively low error input, the settling time deteriorated when a lead network was used to provide damping. This deterioration could be eliminated if a separate rate signal to produce vehicle rate limiting were available. As an alternate approach, two systems were investigated which used a timed sequence of torques and could operate with a detector output of very small linear range. Although the performance of these systems was poorer than that of the lead network system without detector saturation, the performance was better than that of the lead network system with low values of detector saturation. The effects on limit-cycle characteristics of hysteresis, lead network constants, dead zone, and thrust time delays were also investigated.

  20. Multiple degree-of-freedom tracking for attitude control of an experimental system on tether-stabilized platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angrilli, Francesco; Baglioni, Pietro; Bianchini, Gianandrea; da Forno, Roberto; Fanti, Giulio; Mozzi, Massimo

    1991-08-01

    A study has been conducted about attitude control and pointing of an optical instrument (a Schmidt-type telescope) connected to the space station via a tether 2 to 10 km long, mounted on a platform. The tether plays a multifunctional role, including elastic suspension and data and power transmission. It will insulate the platform from dynamic noise, light, and other pollution from the space station. Furthermore, stabilization and active attitude control will be achieved by moving the attachment point of the tether with respect to the platform itself. A bi- dimensional model of this system has been realized and tested in the laboratory. The measurement and control concept that works on the basis of a computer vision system is discussed. The system is used to stabilize a platform floating on an air table attached to a fixed point through a tether, via a closed loop position control circuit. This is achieved through a CCD camera (768 X 512 pixels), an image processing software, and a dc motor with encoder which controls the attitude of the platform moving its attachment point. The tracking function is realized via a multiple windows technique using an algorithm based on the linearized equations of motion of the platform. The performance of the overall system is presented. An analysis of system characteristics with respect to a real application is carried out. In particular, the possibility of achieving stabilization and active attitude control of such a system by moving the attach point of the tether has been investigated.

  1. Design, dynamics and control of an Adaptive Singularity-Free Control Moment Gyroscope actuator for microspacecraft Attitude Determination and Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Sasi Prabhakaran

    how they lead to CMG singularities, are described. General ideas on control of the angular momentum of the spacecraft using changes in the momentum variables of a finite number of ASCMGs, are provided. Control schemes for agile and precise attitude maneuvers using ASCMG cluster in the absence of external torques and when the total angular momentum of the spacecraft is zero, is presented for both constant speed and variable speed modes. A Geometric Variational Integrator (GVI) that preserves the geometry of the state space and the conserved norm of the total angular momentum is constructed for numerical simulation and microcontroller implementation of the control scheme. The GVI is obtained by discretizing the Lagrangian of the rnultibody systems, in which the rigid body attitude is globally represented on the Lie group of rigid body rotations. Hardware and software architecture of a novel spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) based on commercial smartphones and a bare minimum hardware prototype of an ASCMG using low cost COTS components is also described. A lightweight, dynamics model-free Variational Attitude Estimator (VAE) suitable for smartphone implementation is employed for attitude determination and the attitude control is performed by ASCMG actuators. The VAE scheme presented here is implemented and validated onboard an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platform and the real time performance is analyzed. On-board sensing, data acquisition, data uplink/downlink, state estimation and real-time feedback control objectives can be performed using this novel spacecraft ADCS. The mechatronics realization of the attitude determination through variational attitude estimation scheme and control implementation using ASCMG actuators are presented here. Experimental results of the attitude estimation (filtering) scheme using smartphone sensors as an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) on the Hardware In the Loop (HIL) simulator testbed are given. These

  2. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2011-05-20

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cm{sup 3}. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  3. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cu cm. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  4. Fault tolerant capabilities of the Cosmic Background Explorer attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Placanica, Samuel J.

    1992-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), which was launched November 18, 1989 from Vandenberg Air Force Base aboard a Delta rocket, has been classified by the scientific community as a major success with regards to the field of cosmology theory. Despite a number of anomalies which have occurred during the mission, the attitude control system (ACS) has performed remarkably well. This is due in large part to the fault tolerant capabilities that were designed into the ACS. A unique triaxial control system orientated in the spacecraft's transverse plane provides the ACS the ability to safely survive various sensor and actuator failures. Features that help to achieve this fail-operational system include component cross-strapping and autonomous control electronics switching. This design philosophy was of utmost importance because of the constraint placed upon the ACS to keep the spinning observatory and its cryogen-cooled science instruments pointing away from the sun. Even though the liquid helium was depleted within the expected twelve months from launch, it is still very much desirable to avoid any thermal disturbances upon the remaining functional instruments.

  5. Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) study. Volume 1: Feasibility studies. [application of flywheels for power storage and generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notti, J. E.; Cormack, A., III; Schmill, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    An Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) concept consisting of an array of spinning flywheels, with or without gimbals, capable of performing the dual function of power storage and generation, as well as attitude control has been investigated. This system provides attitude control through momentum storage, and replaces the storage batteries onboard the spacecraft. The results of the investigation are presented in two volumes. The trade-off studies performed to establish the feasibility, cost effectiveness, required level of development, and boundaries of application of IPACS to a wide variety of spacecraft are discussed. The conceptual designs for a free-flying research application module (RAM), and for a tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) are presented. Results from dynamic analyses and simulations of the IPACS conceptual designs are included.

  6. Torque equilibrium attitude control for Skylab reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, J. R.; Kennel, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    The method of torque equilibrium attitude control used to control the reentry of Skylab to an altitude below 150 km without the use of thruster fuel once the attitude was established is discussed. The Skylab attitude and pointing control system, which included rate gyros, sun sensors, star tracker, the Apollo telescope mount digital computer, control moment gyros and cold-gas attitude thrusters, is presented. The 12 torque equilibrium attitudes found at which aerodynamic, gravity gradient and gyroscopic torques would balance are indicated, and the three of those at which the solar power supply would be adequate for attitude control are illustrated. The equilibrium seeking method employed is then examined, and the operation and performance of the torque equilibrium attitude control system during the three weeks prior to Skylab reentry are discussed. It is concluded that the torque equilibrium attitude control method developed for Skylab was successful in performing its assigned mission, and will be valuable for the design of future, low-altitude spacecraft or tethered vehicles.

  7. 2-SPEED, a single-gimbal control moment gyro attitude control system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crenshaw, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    In 2-SPEED (Two Scissored Pair Ensemble, Explicit Distribution) four single-gimbal control moment gyros (SGCMGs) configured into two scissored pairs are combined with an explicit distribution of angular momentum between pairs to produce a system relatively insensitive to the singularity problems which have plagued other SGCMG concepts. In this system, the singularity surfaces in momentum space degenerate to discrete curves. Further, the system permits a smooth passage through these remaining singularities with, at worst, a temporary delay while momentum redistribution takes place. Finally, CMG-out operation is possible within the full volume of the reduced momentum envelope.

  8. Attitude Control Propulsion Components, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Effort was made to include as much engineering information on each component as possible, consistent with usefulness and catalog size limitations. The contents of this catalog contain components which were qualified for use with spacecraft monopropellant hydrazine and inert gas attitude control systems. Thrust ranges up to 44.5 N (10.0 lbf) for hydrazine and inert gas sytems were considered. Additionally, some components qualified for uses other than spacecraft attitude control are included because they are suitable for use in attitude controls systems.

  9. Study of Systems Using Inertia Wheels for Precise Attitude Control of a Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John S.; Hansen, Q. Marion

    1961-01-01

    Systems using inertia wheels are evaluated in this report to determine their suitability for precise attitude control of a satellite and to select superior system configurations. Various possible inertia wheel system configurations are first discussed in a general manner. Three of these systems which appear more promising than the others are analyzed in detail, using the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory as an example. The three systems differ from each other only by the method of damping, which is provided by either a rate gyro, an error-rate network, or a tachometer in series with a high-pass filter. An analytical investigation which consists of a generalized linear analysis, a nonlinear analysis using the switching-time method, and an analog computer study shows that all three systems are theoretically capable of producing adequate response and also of maintaining the required pointing accuracy for the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory of plus or minus 0.1 second of arc. Practical considerations and an experimental investigation show, however, that the system which uses an error-rate network to provide damping is superior to the other two systems. The system which uses a rate gyro is shown to be inferior because the threshold level causes a significant amount of limit-cycle operation, and the system which uses a tachometer with a filter is shown to be inferior because a device with the required dynamic range of operation does not appear to be available. The experimental laboratory apparatus used to investigate the dynamic performance of the systems is described, and experimental results are included to show that under laboratory conditions with relatively large extraneous disturbances, a dynamic tracking error of less than plus or minus 0.5 second of arc was obtained.

  10. Attitude control system of the Delfi-n3Xt satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijneveld, J.; Choukroun, D.

    2013-12-01

    This work is concerned with the development of the attitude control algorithms that will be implemented on board of the Delfi-n3xt nanosatellite, which is to be launched in 2013. One of the mission objectives is to demonstrate Sun pointing and three axis stabilization. The attitude control modes and the associated algorithms are described. The control authority is shared between three body-mounted magnetorquers (MTQ) and three orthogonal reaction wheels. The attitude information is retrieved from Sun vector measurements, Earth magnetic field measurements, and gyro measurements. The design of the control is achieved as a trade between simplicity and performance. Stabilization and Sun pointing are achieved via the successive application of the classical Bdot control law and a quaternion feedback control. For the purpose of Sun pointing, a simple quaternion estimation scheme is implemented based on geometric arguments, where the need for a costly optimal filtering algorithm is alleviated, and a single line of sight (LoS) measurement is required - here the Sun vector. Beyond the three-axis Sun pointing mode, spinning Sun pointing modes are also described and used as demonstration modes. The three-axis Sun pointing mode requires reaction wheels and magnetic control while the spinning control modes are implemented with magnetic control only. In addition, a simple scheme for angular rates estimation using Sun vector and Earth magnetic measurements is tested in the case of gyro failures. The various control modes performances are illustrated via extensive simulations over several orbits time spans. The simulated models of the dynamical space environment, of the attitude hardware, and the onboard controller logic are using realistic assumptions. All control modes satisfy the minimal Sun pointing requirements allowed for power generation.

  11. Attitude control system design of a satellite with a magnetically suspended momentum wheel based on two-degree-of-freedom control system theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Hamasaki, T.; Nakatani, I.; Ninomiya, K.

    By adopting as an actuator a momentum wheel with fully actively controlled magnetic bearings, abbreviated as MBMW hereafter, three-axis-attitude of a satellite can be controlled efficiently by one single wheel. This usually contributes to the system-weight reduction. However, a magnetic bearing system is inherently nonlinear and bias current is normally required to linearize the bearing characteristics, causing increased power consumption in the suspension system. In this paper, by applying the so-called two-DOF control system theory and introducing complex state-variables to seemingly reduce the dimension of the system, we formulate and propose a design method of both an attitude control system of a satellite adopting a MBMW and a control scheme of the MBMW bearing-system, for which the nonlinearity of magnetic bearings is compensated by the robust controller. The proposed approach provides an explicit design method for a high-performance pointing control system for a class of three-axis stabilized satellites. The usefulness of the design method and the effectiveness of the control system are confirmed by computer simulations for a high energy solar physics observation mission.

  12. Attitude control with active actuator saturation prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, James Richard

    2015-02-01

    Spacecraft attitude control in the presence of actuator saturation is considered. The attitude controller developed has two components: a proportional component and an angular velocity component. The proportional control has a special form that depends on the attitude parameterization. The angular velocity control is realized by a strictly positive real system with its own input nonlinearity. The strictly positive real system can filter noise in the angular velocity measurement. With this control architecture the torques applied to the body are guaranteed to be below a predetermined value, thus preventing saturation of the actuators. The closed-loop equilibrium point corresponding to the desired attitude is shown to be asymptotically stable. Additionally, the control law does not require specific knowledge of the body's inertia properties, and is therefore robust to such modelling errors.

  13. Multiagent Attitude Control System for Satellites Based in Momentum Wheels and Event-Driven Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Juan L.; Moreno, Jose Sanchez

    2012-12-01

    Attitude control is a requirement always present in spacecraft design. Several kinds of actuators exist to accomplish this control, being momentum wheels one of the most employed. Usually satellites carry redundant momentum wheels to handle any possible single failure, but the controller remains as a single centralized element, posing problems in case of failures. In this work a decentralized agent-based event-driven algorithm for attitude control is presented as a possible solution. Several agents based in momentum wheels will interact among them to accomplish the satellite control. A simulation environment has been developed to analyze the behavior of this architecture. This environment has been made available through the web page http://www.dia.uned.es.

  14. Integrated Orbit, Attitude, and Structural Control Systems Design for Space Solar Power Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    2001-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to develop an integrated orbit, attitude, and structural control systems architecture for very large Space Solar Power Satellites (SSPS) in geosynchronous orbit. This study focuses on the 1.2-GW Abacus SSPS concept characterized by a 3.2 x 3.2 km solar-array platform, a 500-m diameter microwave beam transmitting antenna, and a 500 x 700 m earth-tracking reflector. For this baseline Abacus SSPS configuration, we derive and analyze a complete set of mathematical models, including external disturbances such as solar radiation pressure, microwave radiation, gravity-gradient torque, and other orbit perturbation effects. The proposed control systems architecture utilizes a minimum of 500 1-N electric thrusters to counter, simultaneously, the cyclic pitch gravity-gradient torque, the secular roll torque caused by an offset of the center-of-mass and center-of-pressure, the cyclic roll/yaw microwave radiation torque, and the solar radiation pressure force whose average value is about 60 N.

  15. Integrated Orbit, Attitude, and Structural Control System Design for Space Solar Power Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica (Technical Monitor); Moore, Chris (Technical Monitor); Wie, Bong; Roithmayr, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to develop an integrated orbit, attitude, and structural control system architecture for very large Space Solar Power Satellites (SSPS) in geosynchronous orbit. This study focuses on the 1.2-GW Abacus SSPS concept characterized by a 3.2 x 3.2 km solar-array platform, a 500-m diameter microwave beam transmitting antenna, and a 500 700 m earth-tracking reflector. For this baseline Abacus SSPS configuration, we derive and analyze a complete set of mathematical models, including external disturbances such as solar radiation pressure, microwave radiation, gravity-gradient torque, and other orbit perturbation effects. The proposed control system architecture utilizes a minimum of 500 1-N electric thrusters to counter, simultaneously, the cyclic pitch gravity-gradient torque, the secular roll torque caused by an o.set of the center-of-mass and center-of-pressure, the cyclic roll/yaw microwave radiation torque, and the solar radiation pressure force whose average value is about 60 N.

  16. Stellar tracking attitude reference system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klestadt, B.

    1974-01-01

    A satellite precision attitude control system was designed, based on the use of STARS as the principal sensing system. The entire system was analyzed and simulated in detail, considering the nonideal properties of the control and sensing components and realistic spacecraft mass properties. Experimental results were used to improve the star tracker noise model. The results of the simulation indicate that STARS performs in general as predicted in a realistic application and should be a strong contender in most precision earth pointing applications.

  17. Placing all closed loop poles of missile attitude control systems in the sliding mode via the root locus technique.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y J; Way, H K

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a robust control method for uncertain nonminimum phase systems with external disturbances. A systematic design algorithm is developed which links the sliding mode control and the root locus technique. Complete closed-loop pole placement is achieved in addition to the placement of the reduced order equivalent system poles. An integration function is employed in the sliding variable formulation. The output tracking error is guaranteed to vanish. The proposed method was successfully applied to control the angle of attack of a missile attitude control system. PMID:11577821

  18. Development of the functional simulator for the Galileo attitude and articulation control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namiri, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation program for verifying and checking the performance of the Galileo Spacecraft's Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem's (AACS) flight software is discussed. The program, which is called Functional Simulator (FUNSIM), provides a simple method of interfacing user-supplied mathematical models coded in FORTRAN which describes spacecraft dynamics, sensors, and actuators; this is done with the AACS flight software, coded in HAL/S (High-level Advanced Language/Shuttle). It is thus able to simulate the AACS flight software accurately to the HAL/S statement level in the environment of a mainframe computer system. FUNSIM also has a command and data subsystem (CDS) simulator. It is noted that the input/output data and timing are simulated with the same precision as the flight microprocessor. FUNSIM uses a variable stepsize numerical integration algorithm complete with individual error bound control on the state variable to solve the equations of motion. The program has been designed to provide both line printer and matrix dot plotting of the variables requested in the run section and to provide error diagnostics.

  19. Enhanced Attitude Control Experiment for SSTI Lewis Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peoman G.

    1997-01-01

    The enhanced attitude control system experiment is a technology demonstration experiment on the NASA's small spacecraft technology initiative program's Lewis spacecraft to evaluate advanced attitude control strategies. The purpose of the enhanced attitude control system experiment is to evaluate the feasibility of designing and implementing robust multi-input/multi-output attitude control strategies for enhanced pointing performance of spacecraft to improve the quality of the measurements of the science instruments. Different control design strategies based on modern and robust control theories are being considered for the enhanced attitude control system experiment. This paper describes the experiment as well as the design and synthesis of a mixed H(sub 2)/H(sub infinity) controller for attitude control. The control synthesis uses a nonlinear programming technique to tune the controller parameters and impose robustness and performance constraints. Simulations are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed attitude control design strategy. Introduction

  20. Integrated Power and Attitude Control System Demonstrated With Flywheels G2 and D1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph H.

    2005-01-01

    On September 14, 2004, NASA Glenn Research Center's Flywheel Development Team experimentally demonstrated a full-power, high-speed, two-flywheel system, simultaneously regulating a power bus and providing a commanded output torque. Operation- and power-mode transitions were demonstrated up to 2000 W in charge and 1100 W in discharge, while the output torque was simultaneously regulated between plus or minus 0.8 N-m. The G2 and D1 flywheels--magnetically levitated carbon-fiber wheels with permanent magnet motors--were used for the experiment. The units were mounted on an air bearing table in Glenn's High Energy Flywheel Facility. The operational speed range for these tests was between 20,000 and 60,000 rpm. The bus voltage was regulated at 125 V during charge and discharge, and charge-discharge and discharge-charge transitions were demonstrated by changing the amount of power that the power supply provided between 300 and 0 W. In a satellite system, this would be the equivalent of changing the amount of energy that the solar array provides to the spacecraft. In addition to regulating the bus voltage, we simultaneously controlled the net torque produced by the two flywheel modules. Both modules were mounted on an air table that was restrained by a load cell. The load cell measured the force on the table, and the torque produced by the two flywheels on the table could be calculated from that measurement. This method was used to measure the torque produced by the modules, yielding net torques from -0.8 to 0.8 N-m. This was the first Glenn demonstration of the Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) at high power levels and speeds.

  1. Predicted torque equilibrium attitude utilization for Space Station attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Renjith R.; Heck, Michael L.; Robertson, Brent P.

    1990-01-01

    An approximate knowledge of the torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is shown to improve the performance of a control moment gyroscope (CMG) momentum management/attitude control law for Space Station Freedom. The linearized equations of motion are used in conjunction with a state transformation to obtain a control law which uses full state feedback and the predicted TEA to minimize both attitude excursions and CMG peak and secular momentum. The TEA can be computationally determined either by observing the steady state attitude of a 'controlled' spacecraft using arbitrary initial attitude, or by simulating a fixed attitude spacecraft flying in desired orbit subject to realistic environmental disturbance models.

  2. Tracking and data relay satellite fault isolation and correction using PACES: Power and attitude control expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erikson, Carol-Lee; Hooker, Peggy

    1989-01-01

    The Power and Attitude Control Expert System (PACES) is an object oriented and rule based expert system which provides spacecraft engineers with assistance in isolating and correcting problems within the Power and Attitude Control Subsystems of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). PACES is designed to act in a consultant role. It will not interface to telemetry data, thus preserving full operator control over spacecraft operations. The spacecraft engineer will input requested information. This information will include telemetry data, action being performed, problem characteristics, spectral characteristics, and judgments of spacecraft functioning. Questions are answered either by clicking on appropriate responses (for text), or entering numeric values. A context sensitive help facility allows access to additional information when the user has difficulty understanding a question or deciding on an answer. The major functionality of PACES is to act as a knowledge rich system which includes block diagrams, text, and graphics, linked using hypermedia techniques. This allows easy movement among pieces of the knowledge. Considerable documentation of the spacecraft Power and Attitude Control Subsystems is embedded within PACES. The development phase of TDRSS expert system technology is intended to provide NASA with the necessary expertise and capability to define requirements, evaluate proposals, and monitor the development progress of a highly competent expert system for NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Program.

  3. Integration and Testing of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Attitude Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Jim; Badgley, Jason; McCaughey, Ken; Brown, Kristen; Calhoun, Philip; Davis, Edward; Garrick, Joseph; Gill, Nathaniel; Hsu, Oscar; Jones, Noble; Oritz-Cruz, Gerardo; Raymond, Juan; Roder, Russell; Shah, Neerav; Wilson, John

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Integration and Testing (I&T) phase of the project, the Attitude Control System (ACS) team completed numerous tests on each hardware component in ever more flight like environments. The ACS utilizes a select group of attitude sensors and actuators. This paper chronicles the evolutionary steps taken to verify each component was constantly ready for flight as well as providing invaluable trending experience with the actual hardware. The paper includes a discussion of each ACS hardware component, lessons learned of the various stages of I&T, a discussion of the challenges that are unique to the LRO project, as well as a discussion of work for future missions to consider as part of their I&T plan. LRO ACS sensors were carefully installed, tested, and maintained over the 18 month I&T and prelaunch timeline. Care was taken with the optics of the Adcole Coarse Sun Sensors (CSS) to ensure their critical role in the Safe Hold mode was fulfilled. The use of new CSS stimulators provided the means of testing each CSS sensor independently, in ambient and vacuum conditions as well as over a wide range of thermal temperatures. Extreme bright light sources were also used to test the CSS in ambient conditions. The integration of the two SELEX Galileo Star Trackers was carefully planned and executed. Optical ground support equipment was designed and used often to check the performance of the star trackers throughout I&T in ambient and thermal/vacuum conditions. A late discovery of potential contamination of the star tracker light shades is discussed in this paper. This paper reviews how each time the spacecraft was at a new location and orientation, the Honeywell Miniature Inertial Measurement Unit (MIMU) was checked for data output validity. This gyro compassing test was performed at several key testing points in the timeline as well as several times while LRO was on the launch pad. Sensor alignment tests were completed several

  4. Scout fourth stage attitude and velocity control (AVC) system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byars, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating a guidance system in the Scout fourth stage to achieve a significant improvement in expected payload delivery accuracy is studied. The technical investigations included the determination of the AVC equipment performance requirements, establishment of qualification and acceptance test levels, generation of layouts illustrating design approaches for the upper D and payload transition sections to incorporate the hardware, and the preparation of a vendor bid package. Correction concepts, utilizing inertial velocity and attitude, were identified and evaluated. Fourth stage attitude adjustments as determined from inertial velocity variation through the first three stages and a final velocity correction based upon the measured in-plane component errors at injection were employed. Results show radical reductions in apogee-perigee deviations.

  5. Auto Code Generation for Simulink-Based Attitude Determination Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MolinaFraticelli, Jose Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the work done to auto generate C code from a Simulink-Based Attitude Determination Control System (ADCS) to be used in target platforms. NASA Marshall Engineers have developed an ADCS Simulink simulation to be used as a component for the flight software of a satellite. This generated code can be used for carrying out Hardware in the loop testing of components for a satellite in a convenient manner with easily tunable parameters. Due to the nature of the embedded hardware components such as microcontrollers, this simulation code cannot be used directly, as it is, on the target platform and must first be converted into C code; this process is known as auto code generation. In order to generate C code from this simulation; it must be modified to follow specific standards set in place by the auto code generation process. Some of these modifications include changing certain simulation models into their atomic representations which can bring new complications into the simulation. The execution order of these models can change based on these modifications. Great care must be taken in order to maintain a working simulation that can also be used for auto code generation. After modifying the ADCS simulation for the auto code generation process, it is shown that the difference between the output data of the former and that of the latter is between acceptable bounds. Thus, it can be said that the process is a success since all the output requirements are met. Based on these results, it can be argued that this generated C code can be effectively used by any desired platform as long as it follows the specific memory requirements established in the Simulink Model.

  6. Acoustic-Modal Testing of the Ares I Launch Abort System Attitude Control Motor Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. Benjamin; Fischbach, Sean R.

    2010-01-01

    The Attitude Control Motor (ACM) is being developed for use in the Launch Abort System (LAS) of NASA's Ares I launch vehicle. The ACM consists of a small solid rocket motor and eight actuated pintle valves that directionally allocate.thrust_- 1t.has-been- predicted-that significant unsteady. pressure.fluctuations.will.exist. inside the-valves during operation. The dominant frequencies of these oscillations correspond to the lowest several acoustic natural frequencies of the individual valves. An acoustic finite element model of the fluid volume inside the valve has been critical to the prediction of these frequencies and their associated mode shapes. This work describes an effort to experimentally validate the acoustic finite model of the valve with an acoustic modal test. The modal test involved instrumenting a flight-like valve with six microphones and then exciting the enclosed air with a loudspeaker. The loudspeaker was configured to deliver broadband noise at relatively high sound pressure levels. The aquired microphone signals were post-processed and compared to results generated from the acoustic finite element model. Initial comparisons between the test data and the model results revealed that additional model refinement was necessary. Specifically, the model was updated to implement a complex impedance boundary condition at the entrance to the valve supply tube. This boundary condition models the frequency-dependent impedance that an acoustic wave will encounter as it reaches the end of the supply tube. Upon invoking this boundary condition, significantly improved agreement between the test data and the model was realized.

  7. Geometric Attitude Controls And Estimations On The Special Orthogonal Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tse-Huai

    This dissertation is concerned with spacecraft attitude control and estimation problems from the point of view of geometric mechanics. The controllers and observers are built on the special orthogonal group without any parameterizations, where the attitude dynamics is treated in a global and unique manner. The dissertation is composed of three parts. A leader-follower attitude formation control scheme is reported such that the leader spacecraft control its absolute attitude with respect to the inertial reference frame and the follower spacecraft control relative attitude with respect to other spacecraft in the formation. The unique feature is that both the absolute attitude and the relative attitude control systems are developed directly in terms of the line-of-sight observations, where attitude determination and estimation processes are not required. Second, an angular velocity observer is developed such that the estimated angular velocity is guaranteed to converge to the true angular velocity asymptotically from almost all initial estimates. Then, the presented observer is integrated with a proportional-derivative attitude tracking controller to show a separation type property for attitude tracking in the absence of angular velocity measurements. A hybrid observer for the attitude dynamics of a rigid body is proposed to guarantee global asymptotic stability. By designing a set of attitude error functions, attitude estimates are expelled from undesired equilibria to achieve global asymptotic stability. To guarantee that the estimated attitudes evolve on the special orthogonal group, a numerical algorithm based on the Lie group method is presented.

  8. Attitude control and stabilization technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunkel, John W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on attitude control and stabilization technology discipline for the Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: attitude control technologies for multi-user accommodation; flexible dynamics and control; computational control techniques; and automatic proximity operations.

  9. End-to-end validation process for the INTA-Nanosat-1B Attitude Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, Óscar R.; Esteban, Segundo; Cercos, Lorenzo; Parra, Pablo; Angulo, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the end-to-end validation process for the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) of the satellite INTA-NanoSat-1B (NS-1B). This satellite was launched on July 2009 and it has been fully operative since then. The development of its ACS modules required an exhaustive integration and a system-level validation program. Some of the tests were centred on the validation of the drivers of sensors and actuators and were carried out over the flying model of the satellite. Others, more complex, constituted end-to-end tests where the concurrency of modules, the real-time control requirements and even the well-formedness of the telemetry data were verified. This work presents an incremental and highly automatised way for performing the ACS validation program based on two development suites and an end-to-end validation environment. The validation environment combines a Flat Satellite (FlatSat) configuration and a real-time emulator working in closed-loop. The FlatSat is built using the NS-1B Qualification Model (QM) hardware and it can run a complete version of the on-board software with the ACS modules fully integrated. The real-time emulator, running on an industrial PC, samples the actuation signals and emulates the sensors signals to close the control loop with the FlatSat. This validation environment constitutes a low-cost alternative to the classical three axes tilt table, with the advantage of being easily configured for working under specific orbit conditions, in accordance with any of the selected tests. The approach has been successfully applied to the NS-1B in order to verify different ACS modes under multiple orbit scenarios, providing an exhaustive coverage and reducing the risk of eventual errors during the satellite's lifetime. The strategy was applied also during the validation of the maintenance and reconfiguration procedures required once the satellite was launched. This paper describes in detail the complete ACS validation process that was

  10. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 9: Attitude control/mechanisms subsystems studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus mission study was conducted for a probe spacecraft and an orbiter spacecraft to be launched by either a Thor/Delta or an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle. Both spacecraft are spin stabilized. The spin speed is controlled by ground commands to as low as 5 rpm for science instrument scanning on the orbiter and as high as 71 rpm for small probes released from the probe bus. A major objective in the design of the attitude control and mechanism subsystem (ACMS) was to provide, in the interest of costs, maximum commonality of the elements between the probe bus and orbiter spacecraft configurations. This design study was made considering the use of either launch vehicle. The basic functional requirements of the ACMS are derived from spin axis pointing and spin speed control requirements implicit in the acquisition, cruise, encounter and orbital phases of the Pioneer Venus missions.

  11. A summary of the mechanical design, testing and performance of the IMP-H and J attitude control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The main aspects of the attitude control system used on both the IMP-H and J spacecraft are presented. The mechanical configuration is described. Information on all the specific components comprising the flight system is provided. The acceptance and qualification testing of both individual components and the installed system are summarized. Functional information regarding the operation and performance in relation to the orbiting spacecraft and its mission is included. Related topics which are discussed are: (1) safety requirements, (2) servicing procedures, (3) anomalous behavior, and (4) pyrotechnic devices.

  12. Experiment D010: Ion sensing attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagalyn, R. C.; Smiddy, M.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of an attitude control system that uses environmental positive ions and an electrostatic detection system to measure spacecraft pitch and yaw is studied. The secondary objective was to measure the spatial and temporal variations of ambient positively charged particles along the orbital path of the Gemini 10 and 12 spacecrafts. The results proved that the use of a horizon detector in conjunction with pitch and yaw sensors would facilitate complete description of the spacecraft position and attitude. Furthermore, with the addition of a servosystem, the unit could be used as a complete automatic attitude-control system that would be applicable from the lowest satellite altitudes up to at least 10 earth radii. Also, results established that the charge density along the trajectory of the satellite could be determined by transmission of output voltages from the individual electrometers.

  13. Spacecraft attitude control systems with dynamic methods and structures for processing star tracker signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yong (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Li, Rongsheng (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Methods are provided for dynamically processing successively-generated star tracker data frames and associated valid flags to generate processed star tracker signals that have reduced noise and a probability greater than a selected probability P.sub.slctd of being valid. These methods maintain accurate spacecraft attitude control in the presence of spurious inputs (e.g., impinging protons) that corrupt collected charges in spacecraft star trackers. The methods of the invention enhance the probability of generating valid star tracker signals because they respond to a current frame probability P.sub.frm by dynamically selecting the largest valid frame combination whose combination probability P.sub.cmb satisfies a selected probability P.sub.slctd. Noise is thus reduced while the probability of finding a valid frame combination is enhanced. Spacecraft structures are also provided for practicing the methods of the invention.

  14. Solar sail attitude dynamics and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Marsh, E. L.; Gunter, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes some results of an attitude dynamics and control study for a solar sailing vehicle. This type of vehicle is currently under study and evaluation at JPL and has very high potential for interplanetary missions in and beyond the 1980s. Crucial to the success of such a vehicle would be the performance of its onboard attitude control system. Because of the vehicle's large size and its flexibility, vehicle deformations may have a potential for causing a degradation in vehicle performance. It may therefore be necessary for the control system to take into account the vehicle deformations as well as its rigid-body motions. Distributed parameter system analysis techniques are used in the paper to study certain fundamental aspects of such a control system for the sail vehicle. The techniques can, however, be more generally applicable to other large flexible vehicles.

  15. Attitude orientation control for a spinning satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Gerald

    The Department of the Air Force, Headquarters Space Systems Division, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are currently involved in litigation with Hughes Aircraft Company over the alledged infringement of the 'Williams patent,' which describes a method for attitude control of a spin-stabilized vehicle. Summarized here is pre-1960 RAND work on this subject and information obtained from RAND personnel knowledgeable on this subject. It was concluded that there is no RAND documentation that directly parallels the 'Williams patent' concept. Also, the TIROS II magnetic torque attitude control method is reviewed. The TIROS II meteorological satellite, launched on November 23, 1960, incorporated a magnetic actuation system for spin axis orientation control. The activation system was ground controlled to orient the satellite spin axis to obtain the desired pointing direction for optical and infrared sensor subsystems.

  16. Digital attitude control for NASA sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Carlos

    1998-11-01

    Various configurations of Solar Pointing Control Systems have been used for NASA sounding rockets since an initial flight in December of 1967. Until now, these attitude control systems have used an analog controller. The demand for a more advanced attitude control system with better performance and flexibility leads to the testing of a digital control system. Computer aided design was used to develop the control equations and an embedded controller is used to implement these equations. The analog control system pointing performance was degraded by electrical noise and offsets getting into the sensor signals. The solution to this problem was to isolate the sun sensor from payload electrical nose and ground loops. To accomplish this the sun sensor output was digitized and the data was sent to the control system using a fiber optical cable. This control system was flown on Naval Research Laboratories rocket 36.140 and had less than 0.5 arc-second peak-to-peak jitter during the flight. With further refinements the digital system is expected to attain jitter of less than 0.2 arc- seconds peak-to-peak.

  17. Three-axis active magnetic attitude control asymptotical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Roldugin, D. S.; Penkov, V. I.

    2015-05-01

    Active magnetic attitude control system providing given inertial attitude is considered. Control algorithm is constructed on the basis of a planar motion model. It decreases attitude discrepancy. Alternative approach is based on the PD-controller design. System behavior is analyzed for specific motion cases and sometimes for specific inertia tensor (axisymmetrical satellite) using averaging technique. Overall satellite angular motion is covered. Necessary attitude is found to be accessible for some control parameters. Stability is proven and optimal algorithm parameters are obtained. Floquet-based analysis is performed to verify and broaden analytical results.

  18. Dynamic and attitude control characteristics of an International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Thomas R.; Cooper, Paul A.; Young, John W.; Mccutchen, Don K.

    1987-01-01

    The structural dynamic characteristics of the International Space Station (ISS), the interim reference configuration established for NASA's Space Station developmental program, are discussed, and a finite element model is described. Modes and frequencies of the station below 2.0 Hz are derived, and the dynamic response of the station is simulated for an external impulse load corresponding to a failed shuttle-docking maneuver. A three-axis attitude control system regulates the ISS orientation, with control moment gyros responding to attitude and attitude rate signals. No instabilities were found in the attitude control system.

  19. SAS Attitude Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J. L.; Meyers, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    A unique ground control system was designed and implemented to support and meet the stringent mission requirements of the SAS-1. The important features of the system are described with emphasis on the software used to control the orientation of the spacecraft. A summary of the system's operation during the SAS-1 mission is given along with a discussion of the performance of the software subsystems relative to the mission requirements.

  20. Attitude control compensator for flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An attitude control loop for a spacecraft uses a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for control about an axis. The spacecraft body has at least a primary mechanical resonance. The attitude sensors are collocated, or both on the rigid portion of the spacecraft. The flexure attributable to the resonance may result in instability of the system. A compensator for the control loop has an amplitude response which includes a component which rolls off beginning at frequencies below the resonance, and which also includes a component having a notch at a notch frequency somewhat below the resonant frequency. The phase response of the compensator tends toward zero at low frequencies, and tends toward -180.degree. as frequency increases toward the notch frequency. At frequencies above the notch frequency, the phase decreases from +180.degree., becoming more negative, and tending toward -90.degree. at frequencies far above the resonance frequency. Near the resonance frequency, the compensator phase is near zero.

  1. An Overview of the Formation and Attitude Control System for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Formation Flying Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel P.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Rahman, Zahidul H.; Shields, Joel F.; Singh, Gurkipal

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder formation flying Interferometer (TPF-I) will be a five-spacecraft, precision formation operating near a Sun-Earth Lagrange point. As part of technology development for TPF-I, a formation and attitude control system (FACS) is being developed that achieves the precision and functionality associated with the TPF-I formation. This FACS will be demonstrated in a distributed, real-time simulation environment. In this paper we present an overview of the FACS and discuss in detail its constituent formation estimation, guidance and control architectures and algorithms. Since the FACS is currently being integrated into a high-fidelity simulation environment, component simulations demonstrating algorithm performance are presented.

  2. An Overview of the Formation and Attitude Control System for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Formation Flying Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel P.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Rahman, Zahidul H.; Shields, Joel F.; Singh, Gurkipal; Wette, Matthew R.

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder formation flying Interferometer (TPF-I) will be a five-spacecraft, precision formation operating near the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. As part of technology development for TPF-I, a formation and attitude control system (FACS) is being developed that achieves the precision and functionality needed for the TPF-I formation and that will be demonstrated in a distributed, real-time simulation environment. In this paper we present an overview of FACS and discuss in detail its formation estimation, guidance and control architectures and algorithms. Since FACS is currently being integrated into a high-fidelity simulation environment, component simulations demonstrating algorithm performance are presented.

  3. Attitude Dynamics and Control of Solar Sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, Evan

    Solar sails are space vehicles that rely on solar radiation pressure in order to generate forces for thrust and attitude control torques. They exhibit characteristics such as large moments of inertia, fragility of various system components, and long mission durations that make attitude control a particularly difficult engineering problem. Thrust vector control (TVC) is a family of sailcraft attitude control techniques that is on a short list of strategies thought to be suitable for the primary attitude control of solar sails. Every sailcraft TVC device functions by manipulating the relative locations of the composite mass center (cm) of the sailcraft and the center of pressure (cp) of at least one of its reflectors. Relative displacement of these two points results in body torques that can be used to steer the sailcraft. This dissertation presents a strategy for the large-angle reorientation of a sailcraft using TVC. Two forms of TVC, namely the panel and ballast mass translation methods are well represented in the literature, while rigorous studies regarding a third form, gimballed mass rotation, are conspicuously absent. The gimballed mass method is physically realized by placing a ballast mass, commonly the sailcraft's scientific payload, at the tip of a gimballed boom that has its base fixed at some point on the sailcraft. A TVC algorithm will then strategically manipulate the payload boom's gimbal angles, thereby changing the projection of the sailcraft cm in the plane of the sail. This research demonstrates effective three-axis attitude control of a model sailcraft using numerical simulation of its nonlinear equations of motion. The particular TVC algorithm developed herein involves two phases---the first phase selects appropriate gimbal rates with the objective that the sailcraft be placed in the neighborhood of its target orientation. It was discovered, however that concomitantly minimizing attitude error as well as residual body rate was not possible using

  4. Technology for accurate surface and attitude control of a large spaceborne antenna and microwave system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlgren, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Problems associated with controlling a large diameter (200 - 300 m) spaceborne antenna and microwave system operating at frequencies in the range from 20 GHz to at least 300 GHz are addressed. Such large structures must point to any new target and settle in one hour, and have control surface accuracy to 50 microns rms. Critical technologies required to enable system development by 1990 to 2000 for radio/ radar astronomy, orbiting Deep Space rela satellite, SETI, very long base interferometry, and earth looking radiometry applications are discussed.

  5. TSS subsatellite attitude dynamics and control laws verification programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venditti, Floriano

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic model of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) and of the relevant simulation program, developed in order to provide the dynamic analysis support for the design verification of the subsatellite attitude control, is presented. Special care was spent in the satellite attitude dynamic analysis and the model was specifically conceived to this aim. The way in which the simulation results can be utilized for the verification and testing of the attitude control is also presented.

  6. Application of a microprocessor to a spacecraft attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, D. H.; Hermann, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    The attitude control system (ACS) microprocessor development work spanned three main design areas: hardware and instruction set, ACS firmware, and hardware firmware verification testing. The processor hardware utilizes two parallel 4 bit microprocessors. The firmware includes data processing for five sensors, four attitude control laws, and telemetry and commands.

  7. Some optimal considerations in attitude control systems. [evaluation of value of relative weighting between time and fuel for relay control law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, J. S., III

    1973-01-01

    The conventional six-engine reaction control jet relay attitude control law with deadband is shown to be a good linear approximation to a weighted time-fuel optimal control law. Techniques for evaluating the value of the relative weighting between time and fuel for a particular relay control law is studied along with techniques to interrelate other parameters for the two control laws. Vehicle attitude control laws employing control moment gyros are then investigated. Steering laws obtained from the expression for the reaction torque of the gyro configuration are compared to a total optimal attitude control law that is derived from optimal linear regulator theory. This total optimal attitude control law has computational disadvantages in the solving of the matrix Riccati equation. Several computational algorithms for solving the matrix Riccati equation are investigated with respect to accuracy, computational storage requirements, and computational speed.

  8. Remote Spacecraft Attitude Control by Coulomb Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Daan

    The possibility of inter-spacecraft collisions is a serious concern at Geosynchronous altitudes, where many high-value assets operate in proximity to countless debris objects whose orbits experience no natural means of decay. The ability to rendezvous with these derelict satellites would enable active debris removal by servicing or repositioning missions, but docking procedures are generally inhibited by the large rotational momenta of uncontrolled satellites. Therefore, a contactless means of reducing the rotation rate of objects in the space environment is desired. This dissertation investigates the viability of Coulomb charging to achieve such remote spacecraft attitude control. If a servicing craft imposes absolute electric potentials on a nearby nonspherical debris object, it will impart electrostatic torques that can be used to gradually arrest the object's rotation. In order to simulate the relative motion of charged spacecraft with complex geometries, accurate but rapid knowledge of the Coulomb interactions is required. To this end, a new electrostatic force model called the Multi-Sphere Method (MSM) is developed. All aspects of the Coulomb de-spin concept are extensively analyzed and simulated using a system with simplified geometries and one dimensional rotation. First, appropriate control algorithms are developed to ensure that the nonlinear Coulomb torques arrest the rotation with guaranteed stability. Moreover, the complex interaction of the spacecraft with the plasma environment and charge control beams is modeled to determine what hardware requirements are necessary to achieve the desired electric potential levels. Lastly, the attitude dynamics and feedback control development is validated experimentally using a scaled down terrestrial testbed. High voltage power supplies control the potential on two nearby conductors, a stationary sphere and a freely rotating cylinder. The nonlinear feedback control algorithms developed above are implemented to

  9. Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) and Maintenance and Diagnostic System (MDS): A maintenance and diagnostic system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toms, David; Hadden, George D.; Harrington, Jim

    1990-01-01

    The Maintenance and Diagnostic System (MDS) that is being developed at Honeywell to enhance the Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery system (FDIR) for the Attitude Determination and Control System on Space Station Freedom is described. The MDS demonstrates ways that AI-based techniques can be used to improve the maintainability and safety of the Station by helping to resolve fault anomalies that cannot be fully determined by built-in-test, by providing predictive maintenance capabilities, and by providing expert maintenance assistance. The MDS will address the problems associated with reasoning about dynamic, continuous information versus only about static data, the concerns of porting software based on AI techniques to embedded targets, and the difficulties associated with real-time response. An initial prototype was built of the MDS. The prototype executes on Sun and IBM PS/2 hardware and is implemented in the Common Lisp; further work will evaluate its functionality and develop mechanisms to port the code to Ada.

  10. Adaptive spacecraft attitude control utilizing eigenaxis rotations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, J. E., Jr.; Colburn, B. K.; Speakman, N. O.

    1975-01-01

    Conventional and adaptive attitude control of spacecraft which use control moment gyros (CMG's) as torque sources are discussed. Control laws predicated on the assumption of a linear system are used since the spacecraft equations of motion are formulated in an 'eigenaxis system' so that they are essentially linear during 'slow' maneuvers even if large angles are involved. The overall control schemes are 'optimal' in several senses. Eigenaxis rotations and a weighted pseudo-inverse CMG steering law are used and, in the adaptive case, a Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) controller based on Liapunov's Second Method is adopted. To substantiate the theory, digital simulation results obtained using physical parameters of a Large Space Telescope type spacecraft are presented. These results indicate that an adaptive control law is often desirable.

  11. Attitude controls for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauli, F. A.

    1971-01-01

    Systems consist of single duct system with two sets of reaction control nozzles, one linked mechanically to pilot's controls, and other set driven by electric servomotors commanded by preselected combinations of electrical signals.

  12. Lorentz Force Based Satellite Attitude Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Dipak Kumar; Sinha, Manoranjan

    2016-07-01

    Since the inception of attitude control of a satellite, various active and passive control strategies have been developed. These include using thrusters, momentum wheels, control moment gyros and magnetic torquers. In this present work, a new technique named Lorentz force based Coulombic actuators for the active control is proposed. This method uses electrostatic charged shells, which interact with the time varying earth's magnetic field to establish a full three axes control of the satellite. It is shown that the proposed actuation mechanism is similar to a satellite actuated by magnetic coils except that the resultant magnetic moment vanishes under two different conditions. The equation for the required charges on the the Coulomb shells attached to the satellite body axes is derived, which is in turn used to find the available control torque for actuating the satellite along the orbit. Stability of the proposed system for very high initial angular velocity and exponential stability about the origin are proved for a proportional-differential control input. Simulations are carried out to show the efficacy of the proposed system for the attitude control of the earth-pointing satellite.

  13. Linearizing feedforward/feedback attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paielli, Russell A.; Bach, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    An approach to attitude control theory is introduced in which a linear form is postulated for the closed-loop rotation error dynamics, then the exact control law required to realize it is derived. The nonminimal (four-component) quaternion form is used to attitude because it is globally nonsingular, but the minimal (three-component) quaternion form is used for attitude error because it has no nonlinear constraints to prevent the rotational error dynamics from being linearized, and the definition of the attitude error is based on quaternion algebra. This approach produces an attitude control law that linearizes the closed-loop rotational error dynamics exactly, without any attitude singularities, even if the control errors become large.

  14. Model-reference attitude control and reaction control jet engine placement for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, J. S., III

    1973-01-01

    Analytical studies on the theoretical aspects of thrust vector control of large space vehicles were conducted. A system for attitude control of the space shuttle vehicle was developed. Major accomplishments of the project are: (1) investigation of a model-reference adaptive control scheme for controlling the space shuttle attitude and (2) determination of optimum placement of reaction control jet engines on space shuttles.

  15. ISS Update: Attitude Determination and Control Officer

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks with Attitude Determination and Control Officer (ADCO) flight controller Ann Esbeck in the Mission Control Center at Johnson Space Center. They discuss th...

  16. Precision attitude control for tethered satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert J.; Powell, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Tethered spacecraft are particularly well suited to serve as isolation platforms for space-borne observatories. It has previously been shown that, due to the relatively large tether force, conventional means of performing attitude control for tethered satellites are inefficient for any mission with pointing requirements more stringent than about 1 deg. A particularly effective method of implementing attitude control for tethered satellites is to use the tether tension force to generate control moments by moving the tether attach point relative to the subsatellite center of mass. This paper presents the development of a precision pointing control algorithm for tethered satellites and the simulation of the control system with laboratory hardware. The control algorithm consists of a linear quadratic regulator feedback law and a Kalman filter. The control algorithm has been shown to regulate the vehicle orientation to within 0.60 arcsec rms. This level of precision was achieved only after including a mass center estimator and accurately modeling the effects of the nonlinear attach point motion actuator.

  17. Robustness and Actuator Bandwidth of MRP-Based Sliding Mode Control for Spacecraft Attitude Control Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, Jung-Hoon; Ra, Sung-Woong

    2009-12-01

    Nonlinear sliding surface design in variable structure systems for spacecraft attitude control problems is studied. A robustness analysis is performed for regular form of system, and calculation of actuator bandwidth is presented by reviewing sliding surface dynamics. To achieve non-singular attitude description and minimal parameterization, spacecraft attitude control problems are considered based on modified Rodrigues parameters (MRP). It is shown that the derived controller ensures the sliding motion in pre-determined region irrespective of unmodeled effects and disturbances.

  18. In-orbit performance of the ITOS improved attitude control system with Hall generator brushless motor and earth-splitting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), launched ITOS-D with an improved attitude control system. A Hall generator brushless dc torque motor replaced the brush dc torque motor on Tiros-M and ITOS-A. Two CO2 attitude horizon sensors and one mirror replaced the four wideband horizon sensors and two mirrors on ITOS-1 and NOAA-1. Redundant pitch-control electronic boxes containing additional electronic circuitry for earth-splitting and brushless motor electronics were used. A method of generating a spacecraft earth-facing side reference for comparison to the time occurrence of the earth-splitting pulse was used to automatically correct pitch-attitude error. A single rotating flywheel, supported by a single bearing, provided gyroscopic stability and the required momentum interchange to keep one side of the satellite facing the earth. Magnetic torquing against the earth's magnetic field eliminated the requirement for expendable propellants which would limit satellite life in orbit.

  19. Attitude control system synthesis for the Hoop/Column antenna using the LQG/LTR method. [loop transfer recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundararajan, N.; Joshi, S. M.; Armstrong, E. S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of the linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG)/loop transfer recovery (LTR) method to the problem of synthesizing a fine-pointing control system for a large flexible space anenna. The study is based on an antenna, which consists of three rigid-body rotational modes and the first ten elastic modes. A robust compensator design for achieving the required pointing performance in the presence of modeling uncertainties is obtained using the LQG/LTR method. For the Hoop/Column antenna, a satisfactory controller design meeting a desired bandwidth of .1 rad/sec and ensuring stability with unmodelled high frequency modes is obtained using only a collocated pair of 3-axis attitude sensors and torque actuators. This study also indicates that to achieve the desired performance bandwidth of 0.1 rad/sec. and to ensure stability in the presence of higher frequency elastic modes, the design model should include at least the first three flexible modes together with the rigid body modes.

  20. The H(sub infinity) optimal controller design and reduction for the inertial hold mode of the attitude control system of the XTE spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Zhong Ling; Zhou, Gui AN

    1994-01-01

    The Inertial Hold Mode (IHM) is one mode of the attitude control system of the X-ray Timing Explorer spacecraft that is disturbed by both parametric uncertainties and external torque disturbance. The IHM model is modified into a typical H-infinity mixed-sensitivity problem through choosing suitable weighting functions W(sub 1)(s) and W(sub 3)(s). The controller is designed by the H-infinity optimization technique with the transformation of shifting the imaginary axis. It can stabilize the plant with uncertainties from the natural frequencies of the flexible body. The gain margin and phase margin of the system are 24.03 db and 55.04 deg, respectively. The step response attenuates to zero within 150 seconds. These show that the controller satisfies the specified requirements. Since the order of the controller appears high, it is reduced to fourth order one. The results show that the stability and the performance of the system with the reduced controller are retained perfectly.

  1. The H(sub infinity) optimal controller design and reduction for the inertial hold mode of the attitude control system of the XTE spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhong Ling; Zhou, Gui An

    1994-02-01

    The Inertial Hold Mode (IHM) is one mode of the attitude control system of the X-ray Timing Explorer spacecraft that is disturbed by both parametric uncertainties and external torque disturbance. The IHM model is modified into a typical H-infinity mixed-sensitivity problem through choosing suitable weighting functions W(sub 1)(s) and W(sub 3)(s). The controller is designed by the H-infinity optimization technique with the transformation of shifting the imaginary axis. It can stabilize the plant with uncertainties from the natural frequencies of the flexible body. The gain margin and phase margin of the system are 24.03 db and 55.04 deg, respectively. The step response attenuates to zero within 150 seconds. These show that the controller satisfies the specified requirements. Since the order of the controller appears high, it is reduced to fourth order one. The results show that the stability and the performance of the system with the reduced controller are retained perfectly.

  2. Fully magnetic sliding mode control for acquiring three-axis attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Roldugin, D. S.; Penkov, V. I.; Tkachev, S. S.; Mashtakov, Y. V.

    2016-04-01

    Satellite equipped with purely magnetic attitude control system is considered. Sliding mode control is used to achieve three-axis satellite attitude. Underactuation problem is solved for transient motion. Necessary attitude is acquired by proper sliding manifold construction. Satellite motion on the manifold is executed with magnetic control system. One manifold construction approach is proposed and discussed. Numerical examples are provided.

  3. Optimal periodic control for spacecraft pointing and attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittelkau, Mark E.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach to autonomous magnetic roll/yaw control of polar-orbiting, nadir-pointing momentum bias spacecraft is considered as the baseline attitude control system for the next Tiros series. It is shown that the roll/yaw dynamics with magnetic control are periodically time varying. An optimal periodic control law is then developed. The control design features a state estimator that estimates attitude, attitude rate, and environmental torque disturbances from Earth sensor and sun sensor measurements; no gyros are needed. The state estimator doubles as a dynamic attitude determination and prediction function. In addition to improved performance, the optimal controller allows a much smaller momentum bias than would otherwise be necessary. Simulation results are given.

  4. Integrated Attitude Control Based on Momentum Management for Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li-Ni

    An integrated attitude control for attitude control, momentum management and power storage is proposed as a momentum-management-based IPACS. The integrated attitude control combines ACMM and IPACS to guarantees the momentum of CMGs and flywheels within acceptable limits as well as satisfying the requirements of attitude control and power storage. The later objective is to testify the foundation of the integrated attitude control by the fact that the momentum management of the integrated attitude control is able to keep the momentum exchange actuators including flywheels and VSCMG out of singularity. Finally, the space station attitude control task during assembly process is illustrated to testify the effectiveness of the integrated attitude control.

  5. Solar particle induced upsets in the TDRS-1 attitude control system RAM during the October 1989 solar particle events

    SciTech Connect

    Croley, D.R.; Garrett, H.B.; Murphy, G.B.; Garrard, T.L.

    1995-10-01

    The three large solar particle events, beginning on October 19, 1989 and lasting approximately six days, were characterized by high fluences of solar protons and heavy ions at 1 AU. During these events, an abnormally large number of upsets (243) were observed in the random access memory of the attitude control system (ACS) control processing electronics (CPE) on-board the geosynchronous TDRS-1 (Telemetry and Data Relay Satellite). The RAM unit affected was composed of eight Fairchild 93L422 memory chips. The Galileo spacecraft, launched on October 18, 1989 (one day prior to the solar particle events) observed the fluxes of heavy ions experienced by TDRS-1. Two solid-state detector telescopes on-board Galileo, designed to measure heavy ion species and energy, were turned on during time periods within each of the three separate events. The heavy ion data have been modeled and the time history of the events reconstructed to estimate heavy ion fluences. These fluences were converted to effective LET spectra after transport through the estimated shielding distribution around the TDRS-1 ACS system. The number of single event upsets (SEU) expected was calculated by integrating the measured cross section for the Fairchild 93L422 memory chip with average effective LET spectrum. The expected number of heavy ion induced SEU`s calculated was 176. GOES-7 proton data, observed during the solar particle events, were used to estimate the number of proton-induced SEU`s by integrating the proton fluence spectrum incident on the memory chips, with the two-parameter Bendel cross section for proton SEU`s. The proton fluence spectrum at the device level was gotten by transporting the protons through the estimated shielding distribution. The number of calculated proton-induced SEU`s was 72, yielding a total of 248 predicted SEU`s, very close to the 243 observed SEU`s.

  6. Solar Particle Induced Upsets in the TDRS-1 Attitude Control System RAM During the October 1989 Solar Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croley, D. R.; Garrett, H. B.; Murphy, G. B.; Garrard,T. L.

    1995-01-01

    The three large solar particle events, beginning on October 19, 1989 and lasting approximately six days, were characterized by high fluences of solar protons and heavy ions at 1 AU. During these events, an abnormally large number of upsets (243) were observed in the random access memory of the attitude control system (ACS) control processing electronics (CPE) on-board the geosynchronous TDRS-1 (Telemetry and Data Relay Satellite). The RAM unit affected was composed of eight Fairchild 93L422 memory chips. The Galileo spacecraft, launched on October 18, 1989 (one day prior to the solar particle events) observed the fluxes of heavy ions experienced by TDRS-1. Two solid-state detector telescopes on-board Galileo, designed to measure heavy ion species and energy, were turned on during time periods within each of the three separate events. The heavy ion data have been modeled and the time history of the events reconstructed to estimate heavy ion fluences. These fluences were converted to effective LET spectra after transport through the estimated shielding distribution around the TDRS-1 ACS system. The number of single event upsets (SEU) expected was calculated by integrating the measured cross section for the Fairchild 93L422 memory chip with average effective LET spectrum. The expected number of heavy ion induced SEU's calculated was 176. GOES-7 proton data, observed during the solar particle events, were used to estimate the number of proton-induced SEU's by integrating the proton fluence spectrum incident on the memory chips, with the two-parameter Bendel cross section for proton SEU'S. The proton fluence spectrum at the device level was gotten by transporting the protons through the estimated shielding distribution. The number of calculated proton-induced SEU's was 72, yielding a total of 248 predicted SEU'S, very dose to the 243 observed SEU'S. These calculations uniquely demonstrate the roles that solar heavy ions and protons played in the production of SEU

  7. Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Pad Abort Test Vehicle (PATV) II Attitude Control System (ACS) Integration and Pressurization Subsystem Dynamic Random Vibration Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekrami, Yasamin; Cook, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    In order to mitigate catastrophic failures on future generation space vehicles, engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have begun to integrate a novel crew abort systems that could pull a crew module away in case of an emergency at the launch pad or during ascent. The Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) is a recent test vehicle that was designed as an alternative to the baseline Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) to demonstrate the performance of a "tower-less" LAS configuration under abort conditions. The MLAS II test vehicle will execute a propulsive coast stabilization maneuver during abort to control the vehicles trajectory and thrust. To accomplish this, the spacecraft will integrate an Attitude Control System (ACS) with eight hypergolic monomethyl hydrazine liquid propulsion engines that are capable of operating in a quick pulsing mode. Two main elements of the ACS include a propellant distribution subsystem and a pressurization subsystem to regulate the flow of pressurized gas to the propellant tanks and the engines. The CAD assembly of the Attitude Control System (ACS) was configured and integrated into the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) design. A dynamic random vibration analysis was conducted on the Main Propulsion System (MPS) helium pressurization panels to assess the response of the panel and its components under increased gravitational acceleration loads during flight. The results indicated that the panels fundamental and natural frequencies were farther from the maximum Acceleration Spectral Density (ASD) vibrations which were in the range of 150-300 Hz. These values will direct how the components will be packaged in the vehicle to reduce the effects high gravitational loads.

  8. Radar Attitude Sensing System (RASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The initial design and fabrication efforts for a radar attitude sensing system (RASS) are covered. The design and fabrication of the RASS system is being undertaken in two phases, 1B1 and 1B2. The RASS system as configured under phase 1B1 contains the solid state transmitter and local oscillator, the antenna system, the receiving system, and the altitude electronics. RASS employs a pseudo-random coded cw signal and receiver correlation techniques to measure range. The antenna is a planar, phased array, monopulse type, whose beam is electronically steerable using diode phase shifters. The beam steering computer and attitude sensing circuitry are to be included in Phase 1B2 of the program.

  9. Design of an attitude control system for spin-axis control of a 3U CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westfall, Alexander J.

    This paper describes the design process of developing a spin-axis control system for a 3U CubeSat, a relatively small satellite. Design requires the CubeSat to de-spin after deployment and direct its antenna to track Earth nadir position. The one degree of freedom controller is developed for the TechEdSat, which is a CubeSat with a payload that allows for the assumption that rotation pitch and yaw rates are sufficiently close to zero. Satellite torqueing disturbances are modeled with reaction wheel noise for a more complete system analysis. Sensor noise is unmodeled. Frequency domain and time domain analyses are presented; the entire system bandwidth operates at 0.08 hertz with 43.2 decibels of gain and 67.7° of phase margin. During nominal operations, pointing accuracy with perfect state knowledge assumption maintains position with steady state error of 13.7 arc seconds and oscillates by 16.7 arc seconds at a rate of 0.7 mHertz. Artificial wheel noise is injected into the model causing the pointing accuracy to drop to +/- 15 arc seconds. Environmental disturbances are modeled extensively; the magnetic field torque is the worst disturbance, at 4.2e-7 Newton-meters. A 0.2 Amp˙m2 magnetorquer dumps the excess momentum every 7.75 hours and require 1.5 hours to complete. In the deployment simulation, a 1 rotation per minute spin is arrested with no angular offset in 60 seconds. Future plans include utilizing the model to build and fly a prototype reaction wheel on a future TechEdSat mission to verify modeled expectations.

  10. Model reference adaptive attitude control of spacecraft using reaction wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Sahjendra N.

    1986-01-01

    A nonlinear model reference adaptive control law for large angle rotational maneuvers of spacecraft using reaction wheels in the presence of uncertainty is presented. The derivation of control law does not require any information on the values of the system parameters and the disturbance torques acting on the spacecraft. The controller includes a dynamic system in the feedback path. The control law is a nonlinear function of the attitude error, the rate of the attitude error, and the compensator state. Simulation results are prsented to show that large angle rotational maneuvers can be performed in spite of the uncertainty in the system.

  11. Attitude Control Propulsion Components, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Attitude control propulsion components are described, including hydrazine thrusters, hydrazine thruster and cold gas jet valves, and pressure and temperature transducers. Component-ordered data are presented in tabular form; the manufacturer and specific space program are included.

  12. Periodic attitude control of a slowly spinning spacecraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todosiev, E. P.

    1973-01-01

    A periodic attitude control system is presented which permits control of secular errors of a slowly spinning spacecraft operating in a high disturbance environment. Attitude errors of the spin-axis are detected by sun sensors (or rate gyros) and are controlled by a periodic control law which modulates external control torques generated by mass expulsion torquers. Attitude stability during the uncontrolled periods is obtained passively via the vehicle spin momentum. Equations of motion, a system block diagram, and design parameters are presented for a typical spacecraft application. Simulation results are included which demonstrate the feasibility of the novel control concept. Salient features of the periodic control approach are implementation simplicity, excellent response, and a propellant utilization efficiency greater than 75 percent.

  13. Preliminary performance of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing, supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, A. W.; Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Domack, C. S.; Swanson, E. E.

    1985-01-01

    A performance study was made of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL), supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system. Those characteristics considered were aerodynamics, weight, balance, and performance. Preliminary results indicate that high levels of supersonic aerodynamic performance can be achieved. Further, with the assumption of an advanced (1985 technology readiness) low bypass ratio turbofan engine and advanced structures, excellent mission performance capability is indicated.

  14. ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

  15. Three-Axis Attitude Control With a Single Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Single-device attitude-control system provides stabilization along three axes. Flywheel connected to electronically controlled motor rotates on magnetic bearing. At high rotational speed, small angular displacements about x and y axes, in response to control signals enable storage of relatively large amounts of angular momentum. Angular momentum about z axis stored in changes in rotational speed.

  16. Evolution of spacecraft attitude control concepts before 1952

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The control of rotational motion of a spacecraft during its free flight regime is traced from pioneer space flight to the year 1952. Essentials of attitude control systems are reviewed and spin stabilization is examined. Other topics include passive stabilization and active closed loop control.

  17. Solar Sail Attitude Control Performance Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bladt, Jeff J.; Lawrence, Dale A.

    2005-01-01

    Performance of two solar sail attitude control implementations is evaluated. One implementation employs four articulated reflective vanes located at the periphery of the sail assembly to generate control torque about all three axes. A second attitude control configuration uses mass on a gimbaled boom to alter the center-of-mass location relative to the center-of-pressure producing roll and pitch torque along with a pair of articulated control vanes for yaw control. Command generation algorithms employ linearized dynamics with a feedback inversion loop to map desired vehicle attitude control torque into vane and/or gimbal articulation angle commands. We investigate the impact on actuator deflection angle behavior due to variations in how the Jacobian matrix is incorporated into the feedback inversion loop. Additionally, we compare how well each implementation tracks a commanded thrust profile, which has been generated to follow an orbit trajectory from the sun-earth L1 point to a sub-L1 station.

  18. Attitude motion of a non-attitude-controlled cylindrical satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    In 1985, two non-attitude-controlled satellites were each placed in a low earth orbit by the Scout Launch Vehicle. The satellites were cylindrical in shape and contained reservoirs of hydrazine fuel. Three-axis magnetometer measurements, telemetered in real time, were used to derive the attitude motion of each satellite. Algorithms are generated to deduce possible orientations (and magnitudes) of each vehicle's angular momentum for each telemetry contact. To resolve ambiguities at each contact, a force model was derived to simulate the significant long-term effects of magnetic, gravity gradient, and aerodynamic torques on the angular momentum of the vehicles. The histories of the orientation and magnitude of the angular momentum are illustrated.

  19. Design of an all-attitude flight control system to execute commanded bank angles and angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgin, G. H.; Eggleston, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    A flight control system for use in air-to-air combat simulation was designed. The input to the flight control system are commanded bank angle and angle of attack, the output are commands to the control surface actuators such that the commanded values will be achieved in near minimum time and sideslip is controlled to remain small. For the longitudinal direction, a conventional linear control system with gains scheduled as a function of dynamic pressure is employed. For the lateral direction, a novel control system, consisting of a linear portion for small bank angle errors and a bang-bang control system for large errors and error rates is employed.

  20. Integrated Attitude Control Strategy for the Asteroid Redirect Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; Price, Hoppy; San Martin, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon using a robotic vehicle, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). In this orbit, astronauts will rendezvous with the ARV using the Orion spacecraft. The integrated attitude control concept that Orion will use for approach and docking and for mated operations will be described. Details of the ARV's attitude control system and its associated constraints for redirecting the asteroid to the distant retrograde orbit around the moon will be provided. Once Orion is docked to the ARV, an overall description of the mated stack attitude during all phases of the mission will be presented using a coordinate system that was developed for this mission. Next, the thermal and power constraints of both the ARV and Orion will be discussed as well as how they are used to define the optimal integrated stack attitude. Lastly, the lighting and communications constraints necessary for the crew's extravehicular activity planned to retrieve samples from the asteroid will be examined. Similarly, the joint attitude control strategy that employs both the Orion and the ARV attitude control assets prior, during, and after each extravehicular activity will also be thoroughly discussed.

  1. The development and demonstration of hybrid programmable attitude control electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. S.; Kopf, E. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    In the course of extended life attitude control system (ELACS) research sponsored by NASA a hybrid programable attitude control electronics (HYPACE) concept was developed and demonstrated. The wide variety of future planetary missions demanded a new control approach to accommodate the automatic fault tolerance and long the life requirements of such missions. HYPACE provides an adaptable, analog/digital design approach that permits preflight and in-flight accommodation of mission changes, component performance variations, and spacecraft changes, through programing. This enabled broad multimission flexibility of application in a cost effective manner. Previously, flight control computers have not been not flown on planetary missions because of weight and power problems. These problems were resolved in the design of HYPACE. The HYPACE design, which was demonstrated in breadboard form on a single-axis gas-bearing spacecraft simulation, uses a single control channel to perform the attitude control functions sequentially, thus significantly reducing the number of component parts over hard-wired designs.

  2. A portable hydrazine attitude propulsion test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.

    1972-01-01

    The portable hydrazine attitude propulsion module is described that was designed and developed to support the attitude control pitch axis simulation tests performed on an air bearing table for the thermoelectric outer planet spacecraft program. The propulsion module was a self-contained, liquid hydrazine propulsion system from which the exhausted gases were generated within the catalyst bed of either of two nominal 0.22-N opposing thrusters. The module, which was designed for convenient assembly onto and removal from an air bearing table, was tested to establish its operational safety. This test history and the very conservative design of the module enabled it to be man-rated for operation in the presence of personnel. The report briefly summarizes the system operations during air bearing table tests, presents a detailed description of the propulsion module hardware, and discussing the system evolution.

  3. Study of tethered satellite active attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G.

    1982-01-01

    Existing software was adapted for the study of tethered subsatellite rotational dynamics, an analytic solution for a stable configuration of a tethered subsatellite was developed, the analytic and numerical integrator (computer) solutions for this "test case' was compared in a two mass tether model program (DUMBEL), the existing multiple mass tether model (SKYHOOK) was modified to include subsatellite rotational dynamics, the analytic "test case,' was verified, and the use of the SKYHOOK rotational dynamics capability with a computer run showing the effect of a single off axis thruster on the behavior of the subsatellite was demonstrated. Subroutines for specific attitude control systems are developed and applied to the study of the behavior of the tethered subsatellite under realistic on orbit conditions. The effect of all tether "inputs,' including pendular oscillations, air drag, and electrodynamic interactions, on the dynamic behavior of the tether are included.

  4. Attitude Control Performance of IRVE-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillman, Robert A.; Gsell, Valerie T.; Bowden, Ernest L.

    2013-01-01

    The Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3 (IRVE-3) launched July 23, 2012, from NASA Wallops Flight Facility and successfully performed its mission, demonstrating both the survivability of a hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator in the reentry heating environment and the effect of an offset center of gravity on the aeroshell's flight L/D. The reentry vehicle separated from the launch vehicle, released and inflated its aeroshell, reoriented for atmospheric entry, and mechanically shifted its center of gravity before reaching atmospheric interface. Performance data from the entire mission was telemetered to the ground for analysis. This paper discusses the IRVE-3 mission scenario, reentry vehicle design, and as-flown performance of the attitude control system in the different phases of the mission.

  5. Low drag attitude control for Skylab orbital lifetime extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, J. R.; Kennel, H. F.

    1981-01-01

    In the fall of 1977 it was determined that Skylab had started to tumble and that the original orbit lifetime predictions were much too optimistic. A decision had to be made whether to accept an early uncontrolled reentry with its inherent risks or try to attempt to control Skylab to a lower drag attitude in the hope that there was enough time to develop a Teleoperator Retrieval System, bring it up on the Space Shuttle and then decide whether to boost Skylab to a higher longer life orbit or to reenter it in a controlled fashion. The end-on-velocity (EOVV) control method is documented, which was successfully applied for about half a year to keep Skylab in a low drag attitude with the aid of the control moment gyros and a minimal expenditure of attitude control gas.

  6. Helium thrustor propulsion system for precise attitude control and drag compensation of the gravity Probe-B satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. H.

    1984-09-01

    This thesis is concerned with: (1) the design and test of proportional helium thrustors, and (2) the optimal configuration of the thrustors for attitude control and drag compensation of the gravity probe-B spacecraft. The propellant for the helium thrustors is the constant boiloff waste gas from cryogenic liquid helium. Differential thrust is obtained by movement of a spool located between two opposing nozzles thus differentially restricting the helium flow. The design procedure and test results of a high bandwidth, low power, good linear electromagnetic actuator for the spool movement are presented. Test of the thrustor in a vacuum chamber to evaluate its performance has also been done. Two mathematical models are used to describe the helium flow through the thrustor under difficult flow conditions. The experimental data measured in the vacuum chamber and the computational results from the mathematical models are compared.

  7. NASA Workshop on Hybrid (Mixed-Actuator) Spacecraft Attitude Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Kunz, Nans

    2014-01-01

    At the request of the Science Mission Directorate Chief Engineer, the NASA Technical Fellow for Guidance, Navigation & Control assembled and facilitated a workshop on Spacecraft Hybrid Attitude Control. This multi-Center, academic, and industry workshop, sponsored by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), was held in April 2013 to unite nationwide experts to present and discuss the various innovative solutions, techniques, and lessons learned regarding the development and implementation of the various hybrid attitude control system solutions investigated or implemented. This report attempts to document these key lessons learned with the 16 findings and 9 NESC recommendations.

  8. Precision Attitude Control for the BETTII Balloon-Borne Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Rinehart. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infrared interferometer to fly on a high altitude balloon. Operating at wavelengths of 30-90 microns, BETTII will obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets at angular resolutions down to less than half an arcsecond, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. This requires attitude control at a level ofless than a tenth of an arcsecond, a great challenge for a lightweight balloon-borne system. We have designed a precision attitude determination system to provide gondola attitude knowledge at a level of 2 milliarcseconds at rates up to 100Hz, with accurate absolute attitude determination at the half arcsecond level at rates of up to 10Hz. A mUlti-stage control system involving rigid body motion and tip-tilt-piston correction provides precision pointing stability to the level required for the far-infrared instrument to perform its spatial/spectral interferometry in an open-loop control. We present key aspects of the design of the attitude determination and control and its development status.

  9. Control and synchronization of Chaotic Attitude Control of Satellite with Backstepping controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemih, K.; Halimi, M.; Ghanes, M.; Fanit, H.; Salit, H.

    2014-06-01

    A backstepping control system is proposed to control and synchronize the attitude dynamics of a satellite subjected to deterministic external perturbations which induce chaotic motion when no control is affected in this paper. The proposed method is a systematic recursive design approach based on the choice of Lyapunov functions for constructing feedback control laws. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified by the simulated results.

  10. Dual-spin attitude control for outer planet missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, R. S.; Tauke, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    The applicability of dual-spin technology to a Jupiter orbiter with probe mission was investigated. Basic mission and system level attitude control requirements were established and preliminary mechanization and control concepts developed. A comprehensive 18-degree-of-freedom digital simulation was utilized extensively to establish control laws, study dynamic interactions, and determined key sensitivities. Fundamental system/subsystem constraints were identified, and the applicability of dual-spin technology to a Jupiter orbiter with probe mission was validated.

  11. The control of space manipulators subject to spacecraft attitude control saturation limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubowsky, S.; Vance, E. E.; Torres, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The motions of robotic manipulators mounted on spacecraft can disturb the spacecraft's positions and attitude. These disturbances can surpass the ability of the system's attitude control reaction jets to control them, for the disturbances increase as manipulator speeds increase. If the manipulator moves too quickly the resulting disturbances can exceed the saturation levels of the reaction jets, causing excessive spacecraft motions. A method for planning space manipulator's motions is presented, so that tasks can be performed as quickly as possible without saturating the system's attitude control jets.

  12. Attitude ground support system for the solar maximum mission spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, G.

    1980-01-01

    The SMM attitude ground support system (AGSS) supports the acquisition of spacecraft roll attitude reference, performs the in-flight calibration of the attitude sensor complement, supports onboard control autonomy via onboard computer data base updates, and monitors onboard computer (OBC) performance. Initial roll attitude acquisition is accomplished by obtaining a coarse 3 axis attitude estimate from magnetometer and Sun sensor data and subsequently refining it by processing data from the fixed head star trackers. In-flight calibration of the attitude sensor complement is achieved by processing data from a series of slew maneuvers designed to maximize the observability and accuracy of the appropriate alignments and biases. To ensure autonomy of spacecraft operation, the AGSS selects guide stars and computes sensor occultation information for uplink to the OBC. The onboard attitude control performance is monitored on the ground through periodic attitude determination and processing of OBC data in downlink telemetry. In general, the control performance has met mission requirements. However, software and hardware problems have resulted in sporadic attitude reference losses.

  13. System and method for correcting attitude estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josselson, Robert H. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system includes an angular rate sensor disposed in a vehicle for providing angular rates of the vehicle, and an instrument disposed in the vehicle for providing line-of-sight control with respect to a line-of-sight reference. The instrument includes an integrator which is configured to integrate the angular rates of the vehicle to form non-compensated attitudes. Also included is a compensator coupled across the integrator, in a feed-forward loop, for receiving the angular rates of the vehicle and outputting compensated angular rates of the vehicle. A summer combines the non-compensated attitudes and the compensated angular rates of the to vehicle to form estimated vehicle attitudes for controlling the instrument with respect to the line-of-sight reference. The compensator is configured to provide error compensation to the instrument free-of any feedback loop that uses an error signal. The compensator may include a transfer function providing a fixed gain to the received angular rates of the vehicle. The compensator may, alternatively, include a is transfer function providing a variable gain as a function of frequency to operate on the received angular rates of the vehicle.

  14. A novel single thruster control strategy for spacecraft attitude stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard; Kumar, Krishna Dev; Zou, An-Min

    2013-05-01

    Feasibility of achieving three axis attitude stabilization using a single thruster is explored in this paper. Torques are generated using a thruster orientation mechanism with which the thrust vector can be tilted on a two axis gimbal. A robust nonlinear control scheme is developed based on the nonlinear kinematic and dynamic equations of motion of a rigid body spacecraft in the presence of gravity gradient torque and external disturbances. The spacecraft, controlled using the proposed concept, constitutes an underactuated system (a system with fewer independent control inputs than degrees of freedom) with nonlinear dynamics. Moreover, using thruster gimbal angles as control inputs make the system non-affine (control terms appear nonlinearly in the state equation). This necessitates the control algorithms to be developed based on nonlinear control theory since linear control methods are not directly applicable. The stability conditions for the spacecraft attitude motion for robustness against uncertainties and disturbances are derived to establish the regions of asymptotic 3-axis attitude stabilization. Several numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed controller and validate the theoretical results. The control algorithm is shown to compensate for time-varying external disturbances including solar radiation pressure, aerodynamic forces, and magnetic disturbances; and uncertainties in the spacecraft inertia parameters. The numerical results also establish the robustness of the proposed control scheme to negate disturbances caused by orbit eccentricity.

  15. Mariner Mars 1971 attitude control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunds, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    The Mariner Mars 1971 attitude control subsystem (ACS) is discussed. It is comprised of a sun sensor set, a Canopus tracker, an inertial reference unit, two cold gas reaction control assemblies, two rocket engine gimbal actuators, and an attitude control electronics unit. The subsystem has the following eight operating modes: (1) launch, (2) sun acquisition, (3) roll search, (4) celestial cruise, (5) all-axes inertial, (6) roll inertial, (7) commanded turn, and (8) thrust vector control. In the celestial cruise mode, the position control is held to plus or minus 0.25 deg. Commanded turn rates are plus or minus 0.18 deg/s. The attitude control logic in conjunction with command inputs from other spacecraft subsystems establishes the ACS operating mode. The logic utilizes Sun and Canopus acquisition signals generated within the ACS to perform automatic mode switching so that dependence of ground control is minimized when operating in the sun acquisition, roll search, and celestial cruise modes. The total ACS weight is 65.7 lb, and includes 5.4 lb of nitrogen gas. Total power requirements vary from 9 W for the celestial cruise mode to 54 W for the commanded turn mode.

  16. Use of a Laser Videodisc System: Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sarah A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that assessed the attitudes of novice searchers before and after using a laser videodisk system. The discussion covers the relationships between the users' initial attitudes, prior computer experience, and success in using the videodisk system. (11 references) (Author/CLB)

  17. Nonlinear attitude control of spacecraft and momentum management of control moment gyros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hwa-Suk

    Nonlinear design procedures are presented for obtaining attitude control and momentum management laws. These are based on the Liapunov stability theorems. The Work-Energy Rate (WER) principle is extended to cover general classes of systems. It is shown that the use of the WER principle for obtaining control laws, can reduce the design efforts. The attitude control laws are designed for several types of missions, i.e., absolute attitude and relative attitude control. The momentum management as well as attitude control laws are designed for both stable and unstable spacecraft configurations which use Control Moment Gyros (CMGs) as active actuators. A large stability region is found around the local-vertical-local-horizontal (LVLH) equilibrium point, and so the designed control laws can be used even in the event of large initial attitude deviations for LVLH. In the presence of constant disturbance, the momentum is managed by seeking a Torque Equilibrium Attitude (TEA) where the disturbance torque is balanced by gravity gradient and gyroscopic torques. This is done by the use of integral feedback of the control torque, which is related to the angular momentum of the CMGs. It is shown that the unknown constant disturbance can be identified by the use of integral feedback. Cyclic disturbance rejection for the pitch axis is performed by successive stabilization and integral feedback. Theoretical results developed are verified using both experimental and numerical simulations. Experimental model of a flexible spacecraft is used to demonstrate the applicability of the WER principle and the fact that under certain conditions, a control law based on a rigid body model, can be applied to a flexible spacecraft. Using a mathematical model of the Space Station Freedom, several attitude/momentum management control laws are simulated and shown to work successfully with/without a constant disturbance torque. The control law for cyclic disturbance rejection of pitch axis attitude is

  18. Inversion Of Dynamical Equations For Control Of Attitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, Ralph; Paielli, Russell

    1995-01-01

    Method of inverting nonlinear equations of rotational dynamics of rigid body used to design feedback control of orientation of body. Applicable to both direction-cosine and quaternion formulations suitable for large-angle maneuvers. Exploiting some apparently little-known properties of direction cosine and quaternion formulations, method leads to equations for model-follower control system that exhibits exactly linear attitude-error dynamics. Quarternion system more robust in responding to large roll-angle commands.

  19. Attitude Estimation in Fractionated Spacecraft Cluster Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Blackmore, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An attitude estimation was examined in fractioned free-flying spacecraft. Instead of a single, monolithic spacecraft, a fractionated free-flying spacecraft uses multiple spacecraft modules. These modules are connected only through wireless communication links and, potentially, wireless power links. The key advantage of this concept is the ability to respond to uncertainty. For example, if a single spacecraft module in the cluster fails, a new one can be launched at a lower cost and risk than would be incurred with onorbit servicing or replacement of the monolithic spacecraft. In order to create such a system, however, it is essential to know what the navigation capabilities of the fractionated system are as a function of the capabilities of the individual modules, and to have an algorithm that can perform estimation of the attitudes and relative positions of the modules with fractionated sensing capabilities. Looking specifically at fractionated attitude estimation with startrackers and optical relative attitude sensors, a set of mathematical tools has been developed that specify the set of sensors necessary to ensure that the attitude of the entire cluster ( cluster attitude ) can be observed. Also developed was a navigation filter that can estimate the cluster attitude if these conditions are satisfied. Each module in the cluster may have either a startracker, a relative attitude sensor, or both. An extended Kalman filter can be used to estimate the attitude of all modules. A range of estimation performances can be achieved depending on the sensors used and the topology of the sensing network.

  20. Spacecraft attitude control momentum requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent P.; Heck, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between attitude and angular momentum control requirements is derived for a fixed attitude, Earth orbiting spacecraft with large area articulating appendages. Environmental effects such as gravity gradient, solar radiation pressure, and aerodynamic forces arising from a dynamic, rotating atmosphere are examined. It is shown that, in general, each environmental effect contributes to both cyclic and secular momentum requirements both within and perpendicular to the orbit plane. The gyroscopic contribution to the angular momentum control requirements resulting from a rotating, Earth oriented spacecraft is also discussed. Special conditions are described where one or more components of the angular momentum can be made to vanish, or become purely cyclical. Computer generated plots for a candidate space station configuration are presented to supplement the analytically derived results.

  1. Development of a reaction wheel attitude control system for sounding rocket experiments and small Shuttle-based free flyers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    A three-axis reaction wheel control system is currently under development. Initial emphasis is on a magnetic field reference, although the system is easily adaptable to other positional references, e.g., the gyroscopic. The system is housed in a skin section 17.25 inches in diameter and approximately 10 inches long. Current weight estimate is 75 pounds. An orthogonal triad of dc motors forms the basis of the system. Power is provided by silver-zinc cells and controlled by an 8-bit microprocessor. The control law is presented and the dynamical equations derived. Simulation results show that a payload with a roll MOI of 4.1 sl/sq ft and a transverse MOI of 20.3 sl/sq ft can typically be reoriented 90 degrees in 20-35 seconds, depending upon the initial body rates.

  2. Robust nonlinear attitude control of flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Sahjendra N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to large-angle rotational maneuvers of a spacecraft-beam-tip body configuration based on nonlinear invertibility and linear feedback stabilization. A control law u sub d is derived for the decoupled control of attitude angles, lateral elastic deflections, slopes due to bending and angular deflection due to torsion at the tip of the beam using torquers and force actuators. For the stabilization of the elastic modes, a linear feedback control law u sub s is obtained based on a linearized model augmented with a servocompensator. Simulation results are presented to show that large slewing and elastic mode stabilization can be accomplished.

  3. ATS-6 engineering performance report. Volume 2: Orbit and attitude controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, R. O. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Attitude control is reviewed, encompassing the attitude control subsystem, spacecraft attitude precision pointing and slewing adaptive control experiment, and RF interferometer experiment. The spacecraft propulsion system (SPS) is discussed, including subsystem, SPS design description and validation, orbital operations and performance, in-orbit anomalies and contingency operations, and the cesium bombardment ion engine experiment. Thruster failure due to plugging of the propellant feed passages, a major cause for mission termination, are considered among the critical generic failures on the satellite.

  4. Voyager Saturn encounter attitude and articulation control experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, G.; Hill, M.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager attitude and articulation control system is designed for a three-axis stabilized spacecraft; it uses a biasable sun sensor and a Canopus Star Tracker (CST) for celestial control, as well as a dry inertial reference unit, comprised of three dual-axis dry gryos, for inertial control. A series of complex maneuvers was required during the first of two Voyager spacecraft encounters with Saturn (November 13, 1980); these maneuvers involved rotating the spacecraft simultaneously about two or three axes while maintaining accurate pointing of the scan platform. Titan and Saturn earth occulation experiments and a ring scattering experiment are described. Target motion compensation and the effects of celestial sensor interference are also considered. Failure of the CST, which required an extensive reevaluation of the star reference and attitude control mode strategy, is discussed. Results analyzed thus far show that the system performed with high accuracy, gathering data deeper into Saturn's atmosphere than on any previous planetary encounter.

  5. Observing Mode Attitude Controller for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Garrick, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is the first of a series of lunar robotic spacecraft scheduled for launch in Fall 2008. LRO will spend at least one year in a low altitude polar orbit around the Moon, collecting lunar environment science and mapping data to enable future human exploration. The LRO employs a 3-axis stabilized attitude control system (ACS) whose primary control mode, the "Observing mode", provides Lunar Nadir, off-Nadir, and Inertial fine pointing for the science data collection and instrument calibration. The controller combines the capability of fine pointing with that of on-demand large angle full-sky attitude reorientation into a single ACS mode, providing simplicity of spacecraft operation as well as maximum flexibility for science data collection. A conventional suite of ACS components is employed in this mode to meet the pointing and control objectives. This paper describes the design and analysis of the primary LRO fine pointing and attitude re-orientation controller function, known as the "Observing mode" of the ACS subsystem. The control design utilizes quaternion feedback, augmented with a unique algorithm that ensures accurate Nadir tracking during large angle yaw maneuvers in the presence of high system momentum and/or maneuver rates. Results of system stability analysis and Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the observing mode controller can meet fine pointing and maneuver performance requirements.

  6. SSS-A attitude control prelaunch analysis and operations plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werking, R. D.; Beck, J.; Gardner, D.; Moyer, P.; Plett, M.

    1971-01-01

    A description of the attitude control support being supplied by the Mission and Data Operations Directorate is presented. Descriptions of the computer programs being used to support the mission for attitude determination, prediction, control, and definitive attitude processing are included. In addition, descriptions of the operating procedures which will be used to accomplish mission objectives are provided.

  7. Application of matrix singular value properties for evaluating gain and phase margins of multiloop systems. [stability margins for wing flutter suppression and drone lateral attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Newsom, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A stability margin evaluation method in terms of simultaneous gain and phase changes in all loops of a multiloop system is presented. A universal gain-phase margin evaluation diagram is constructed by generalizing an existing method using matrix singular value properties. Using this diagram and computing the minimum singular value of the system return difference matrix over the operating frequency range, regions of guaranteed stability margins can be obtained. Singular values are computed for a wing flutter suppression and a drone lateral attitude control problem. The numerical results indicate that this method predicts quite conservative stability margins. In the second example if the eigenvalue magnitude is used instead of the singular value, as a measure of nearness to singularity, more realistic stability margins are obtained. However, this relaxed measure generally cannot guarantee global stability.

  8. Flexible spacecraft maneuver - Inverse attitude control and modal stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Sahjendra N.

    1988-01-01

    A control law is presented for three-axis rotational maneuvers of a spacecraft (orbiter)-beam-tip body (antenna or a reflector) configuration based on nonlinear inversion and modal velocity feedback. Using invertibility and functional reproducibility results, a decoupling attitude control law is presented such that, in the closed-loop system, the attitude angles of the spacecraft are independently controlled using the control moments acting on the space vehicle. This controller asymptotically decouples the flexible dynamics from the rigid one and also allows the decomposition of the elastic dynamics into two subsystems representing the transverse deflections of the beam in two orthogonal planes. These low-order subsystems are used for derivation of a modal velocity feedback stabilizer using the force and moment actuators at the end body. Simulation results are presented to show that, in the closed-loop system, attitude control and elastic mode stabilization are accomplished in spite of the parameter uncertainty and disturbance torque input in the system.

  9. Attitude Control Subsystem for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewston, Alan W.; Mitchell, Kent A.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the on-orbit operation of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The three ACTS control axes are defined, including the means for sensing attitude and determining the pointing errors. The desired pointing requirements for various modes of control as well as the disturbance torques that oppose the control are identified. Finally, the hardware actuators and control loops utilized to reduce the attitude error are described.

  10. RTSJ Memory Areas and Their Affects on the Performance of a Flight-Like Attitude Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niessner, Albert F.; Benowitz, Edward G.

    2003-01-01

    The two most important factors in improving performance in any software system, but especially a real-time, embedded system, are knowing which components are the low performers and knowing what can be done to improve their performance. The word performance with respect to a real-time, embedded system does not necessarily mean fast execution, which is the common definition when discussing non real-time systems. It also includes meeting all of the specified execution dead-lines and executing at the correct time without sacrificing non real-time performance. Using a Java prototype of an existing control system used on Deep Space 1[1], the effects from adding memory areas are measured and evaluated with respect to improving performance.

  11. The use of real-time, hardware-in-the-loop simulation in the design and development of the new Hughes HS601 spacecraft attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slafer, Loren I.

    1989-01-01

    Realtime simulation and hardware-in-the-loop testing is being used extensively in all phases of the design, development, and testing of the attitude control system (ACS) for the new Hughes HS601 satellite bus. Realtime, hardware-in-the-loop simulation, integrated with traditional analysis and pure simulation activities is shown to provide a highly efficient and productive overall development program. Implementation of high fidelity simulations of the satellite dynamics and control system algorithms, capable of real-time execution (using applied Dynamics International's System 100), provides a tool which is capable of being integrated with the critical flight microprocessor to create a mixed simulation test (MST). The MST creates a highly accurate, detailed simulated on-orbit test environment, capable of open and closed loop ACS testing, in which the ACS design can be validated. The MST is shown to provide a valuable extension of traditional test methods. A description of the MST configuration is presented, including the spacecraft dynamics simulation model, sensor and actuator emulators, and the test support system. Overall system performance parameters are presented. MST applications are discussed; supporting ACS design, developing on-orbit system performance predictions, flight software development and qualification testing (augmenting the traditional software-based testing), mission planning, and a cost-effective subsystem-level acceptance test. The MST is shown to provide an ideal tool in which the ACS designer can fly the spacecraft on the ground.

  12. Vibration suppression of flexible spacecraft during attitude control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gangbing; Agrawal, Brij N.

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents a new approach to vibration reduction of flexible spacecraft during attitude control by using pulse width pulse frequency (PWPF) modulator for thruster firing and smart materials for active vibration suppression. The experiment was conducted on the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)'s flexible spacecraft simulator (FSS), which consists of a central rigid body and an L-shape flexible appendage. A pair of on-off thrusters are used to re-orient the FSS. To actively suppress vibrations introduced to the flexible appendage, embedded piezoelectric ceramic patches are used as both sensors and actuators to detect and counter react to the induced vibration. For active vibration suppression using the piezoelectric ceramic patches, positive position feedback (PPF) control targeting at the first two flexible modes of the FSS system is used. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategy of PWPF modulation for attitude control and PPF for active vibration suppression.

  13. Novel microsatellite control system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.R.; Frigo, J.R.; Tilden, M.W.

    1996-12-31

    The authors are developing extremely simple yet quite capable analog pulse-coded neural networks for smaller-faster-cheaper spacecraft attitude and control systems. They will demonstrate a prototype microsatellite that uses the novel control system to autonomously stabilize itself in the ambient magnetic field and point itself at the brightest available light source.

  14. Preliminary Attitude Control Studies for the ASTER Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victorino Sarli, Bruno; Luís da Silva, André; Paglione, Pedro

    2013-10-01

    This work discusses an attitude control study for the ASTER mission, the first Brazilian mission to the deep space. The study is part of a larger scenario that is the development of optimal trajectories to navigate in the 2001 SN263 asteroid system, together with the generation of orbit and attitude controllers for autonomous operation. The spacecraft attitude is defined from the orientation of the body reference system to the Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH) of a circular orbit around the Alpha asteroid. The rotational equations of motion involve the dynamic equations, where the three angular speeds are generated from a set of three reaction wheels and the gravitational torque. The rotational kinematics is represented in the Euler angles format. The controller is developed via the linear quadratic regulator approach with output feedback. It involves the generation of a stability augmentation (SAS) loop and a tracking outer loop, with a compensator of desired structure. It was chosen the feedback of the p, q and r angular speeds in the SAS, one for each reaction wheel. In the outer loop, it was chosen a proportional integral compensator. The parameters are tuned using a numerical minimization that represents a linear quadratic cost, with weightings in the tracking error and controls. Simulations are performed with the nonlinear model. For small angle manoeuvres, the linear results with reaction wheels or thrusters are reasonable, but, for larger manoeuvres, nonlinear control techniques shall be applied, for example, the sliding mode control.

  15. Autonomous Attitude Determination System (AADS). Volume 1: System description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saralkar, K.; Frenkel, Y.; Klitsch, G.; Liu, K. S.; Lefferts, E.; Tasaki, K.; Snow, F.; Garrahan, J.

    1982-01-01

    Information necessary to understand the Autonomous Attitude Determination System (AADS) is presented. Topics include AADS requirements, program structure, algorithms, and system generation and execution.

  16. Triana Safehold: A New Gyroless, Sun-Pointing Attitude Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.; Morgenstern, Wendy; Garrick, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Triana is a single-string spacecraft to be placed in a halo orbit about the sun-earth Ll Lagrangian point. The Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) hardware includes four reaction wheels, ten thrusters, six coarse sun sensors, a star tracker, and a three-axis Inertial Measuring Unit (IMU). The ACS Safehold design features a gyroless sun-pointing control scheme using only sun sensors and wheels. With this minimum hardware approach, Safehold increases mission reliability in the event of a gyroscope anomaly. In place of the gyroscope rate measurements, Triana Safehold uses wheel tachometers to help provide a scaled estimation of the spacecraft body rate about the sun vector. Since Triana nominally performs momentum management every three months, its accumulated system momentum can reach a significant fraction of the wheel capacity. It is therefore a requirement for Safehold to maintain a sun-pointing attitude even when the spacecraft system momentum is reasonably large. The tachometer sun-line rate estimation enables the controller to bring the spacecraft close to its desired sun-pointing attitude even with reasonably high system momentum and wheel drags. This paper presents the design rationale behind this gyroless controller, stability analysis, and some time-domain simulation results showing performances with various initial conditions. Finally, suggestions for future improvements are briefly discussed.

  17. Attitude-Control Algorithm for Minimizing Maneuver Execution Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Behcet

    2008-01-01

    A G-RAC attitude-control algorithm is used to minimize maneuver execution error in a spacecraft with a flexible appendage when said spacecraft must induce translational momentum by firing (in open loop) large thrusters along a desired direction for a given period of time. The controller is dynamic with two integrators and requires measurement of only the angular position and velocity of the spacecraft. The global stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed without having access to the states describing the dynamics of the appendage and with severe saturation in the available torque. Spacecraft apply open-loop thruster firings to induce a desired translational momentum with an extended appendage. This control algorithm will assist this maneuver by stabilizing the attitude dynamics around a desired orientation, and consequently minimize the maneuver execution errors.

  18. Fault tolerant programmable digital attitude control electronics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    The attitude control electronics mechanization study to develop a fault tolerant autonomous concept for a three axis system is reported. Programmable digital electronics are compared to general purpose digital computers. The requirements, constraints, and tradeoffs are discussed. It is concluded that: (1) general fault tolerance can be achieved relatively economically, (2) recovery times of less than one second can be obtained, (3) the number of faulty behavior patterns must be limited, and (4) adjoined processes are the best indicators of faulty operation.

  19. Globally stable control laws for the attitude maneuver problem - Tracking control and adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    An approach using a globally nonsingular representation is proposed for the attitude control problem of a rigid body. The attitude dynamics are described by the nonlinear Euler equation together with the nonlinear kinematic equations which relate a representation of attitude to the angular velocity of the body. When this approach is combined with an energy-motivated Lyapunov function, a large class of globally stable attitude control laws can be derived. This class includes model-independent tracking control, model-dependent tracking control, and adaptive control, allowing tradeoffs between controller complexity, attainable performance, and available model information.

  20. The attitude control of fixed-wing MAVS in turbulent environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abdulghani; Massey, Kevin; Watkins, Simon; Clothier, Reece

    2014-04-01

    The small scale and portability of fixed-wing Micro Aerial Vehicles lend them to many unique applications, however their utility is often limited by ineffective attitude control in turbulent environments. The performance of attitude control systems themselves are affected by a variety of factors. Assessment of this system’s performance needs to be viewed in relation to the MAVs’ unique constraints. Certain aspects and limitations of MAV attitude control related issues are addressed in the literature, but to fully address the degradation of utility, the entire system must be examined. These issues can only be fully addressed when considering them concurrently. There is no framework for defining the attitude control problem explicitly for MAVs. This paper attempts to (1) Define the MAV attitude control problem with respect to the unique constraints imposed by this class of Unmanned Aircraft; (2) Review current design trends of MAVs with respect to vulnerability to atmospheric turbulence.

  1. Rover Attitude and Pointing System Simulation Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanelli, Charles A.; Grinblat, Jonathan F.; Sirlin, Samuel W.; Pfister, Sam

    2009-01-01

    The MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Attitude and Pointing System Simulation Testbed Environment (RAPSSTER) provides a simulation platform used for the development and test of GNC (guidance, navigation, and control) flight algorithm designs for the Mars rovers, which was specifically tailored to the MERs, but has since been used in the development of rover algorithms for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) as well. The software provides an integrated simulation and software testbed environment for the development of Mars rover attitude and pointing flight software. It provides an environment that is able to run the MER GNC flight software directly (as opposed to running an algorithmic model of the MER GNC flight code). This improves simulation fidelity and confidence in the results. Further more, the simulation environment allows the user to single step through its execution, pausing, and restarting at will. The system also provides for the introduction of simulated faults specific to Mars rover environments that cannot be replicated in other testbed platforms, to stress test the GNC flight algorithms under examination. The software provides facilities to do these stress tests in ways that cannot be done in the real-time flight system testbeds, such as time-jumping (both forwards and backwards), and introduction of simulated actuator faults that would be difficult, expensive, and/or destructive to implement in the real-time testbeds. Actual flight-quality codes can be incorporated back into the development-test suite of GNC developers, closing the loop between the GNC developers and the flight software developers. The software provides fully automated scripting, allowing multiple tests to be run with varying parameters, without human supervision.

  2. SP-100 attitude control pathfinder study. Technical information report

    SciTech Connect

    Eke, F.O.; Graff, S.H.; Laskin, R.A.; Swan, P.A.

    1984-03-01

    This report delineates the scope of Jet Propulsion Laboratory`s FY`83 effort in the attitude control area in support of the SP-100 program. Dynamic modeling of the baseline beam configuration has been conducted and is presented herein. As a first cut, the beam is treated as rigid. Its inherent flexibility is then integrated via the hybrid coordinates method. Using the resulting dynamical equations, a preliminary look at attitude control is taken. Only one axis of rotational one flexible mode are included. An alternative to the beam configuration is one that envisions connecting basebody to user via a long, lightweight, flexible tether. A literature search has been conducted in this area and the resulting bibliography is presented. The tether option is not considered viable near term. However, it offers several potentially significant advantages and thus deserves serious consideration for the next generation space power system. This report also treats attitude control constraints imposed by the high temperature and radiation environment and addresses the issue of hardware requirements and availability. Recommendations for FY`84 tasks include assembling and exercising a simulation program for the beam configuration dynamic model and conducting a technology assessment in the area of tether dynamics and control.

  3. Integrated Orbit and Attitude Control for a Nanosatellite with Power Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naasz, Bo; Hall, Christopher; Berry, Matthew; Hy-Young, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Small satellites tend to be power-limited, so that actuators used to control the orbit and attitude must compete with each other as well as with other subsystems for limited electrical power. The Virginia Tech nanosatellite project, HokieSat, must use its limited power resources to operate pulsed-plasma thrusters for orbit control and magnetic torque coils for attitude control, while also providing power to a GPS receiver, a crosslink transceiver, and other subsystems. The orbit and attitude control strategies were developed independently. The attitude control system is based on an application of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) to an averaged system of equations, whereas the orbit control is based on orbit element feedback. In this paper we describe the strategy for integrating these two control systems and present simulation results to verify the strategy.

  4. Pulsed Plasma Thrusters for Small Spacecraft Attitude Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Myers, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    Pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT's) are a new option for attitude control of a small spacecraft and may result in reduced attitude control system (ACS) mass and cost. The primary purpose of an ACS is to orient the spacecraft configuration to the desired accuracy in inertial space. The ACS functions for which the PPT system will be analyzed include disturbance torque compensation and slewing maneuvers such as sun acquisition for which the small impulse bit and high specific impulse of the PPT offers unique advantages. The NASA Lewis Reserach Center (LeRC) currently has a contracted flight PPT system development program in place with Olin Aerospace and a delivery date of October 1997. The PPT system in this study are based upon the work being done under the NASA LeRC program. Analysis of the use of PPT's for ACS showed that the replacement of the standard momentum wheels and torque rods systems with a PTT system to perform the altitude control maneuvers on a small low Earth orbiting spacecraft reduced the ACS mass by 50 to 75 percent with no increase in required power level over comparable wheel-based systems.

  5. The design, implementation and testing of the thermal control system of the CanX-2 nanosatellite, and, The preliminary design of the attitude determination and control system for the generic nanosatellite bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarda, Karan

    The University of Toronto's Space Flight Laboratory operates the Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment program in order to develop low-cost nanosatellites for education and research. Building of the laboratory's expertise in microsatellite system design, this unique program trains highly skilled space system engineers for the Canadian public and private sectors while producing low-cost, quick-to-launch satellite platforms for the scientific and engineering communities. Major projects completed through this program include the CanX-2 nanosatellite, which stands to be one of the most advanced in its class through sophistication and capability. Master's students at the Space Flight Laboratory channel their various backgrounds into highly qualified areas of expertise by developing key subsystems for CanX missions. This thesis will describe the development of the passive thermal control subsystem for CanX-2, and the preliminary design of the attitude determination and control subsystem for the CanX-3 astronomy mission and the CanX-4 & CanX-5 formation flight mission.

  6. Attitude Control for a Solar-Sail Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Ploen, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A report discusses the attitude-control system of a proposed spacecraft that would derive at least part of its propulsion from a solar sail. The spacecraft would include a bus module containing three or more reaction wheels, a boom attached at one end to the bus module and attached at its other end to a two-degree-of-freedom (DOF) gimbal at the nominal center of mass of a sail module. Each DOF of the gimbal could be independently locked against rotation or allowed to rotate freely. By using the reaction wheels to rotate the bus when at least one gimbal DOF was in the free state, the center of mass (CM) of the spacecraft could be shifted relative to the center of pressure (CP) on the solar sail. The resulting offset between the CM and CP would result in a solar torque, which could be used to change the attitude of the spacecraft. The report discusses numerous aspects of the dynamics and kinematics of the spacecraft, along with the relationships between these aspects and the designs of such attitude-control- system components as sensors, motors, brakes, clutches, and gimbals.

  7. Spacecraft methods and structures with enhanced attitude control that facilitates gyroscope substitutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rongsheng (Inventor); Kurland, Jeffrey A. (Inventor); Dawson, Alec M. (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei A. (Inventor); Uetrecht, David S. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Methods and structures are provided that enhance attitude control during gyroscope substitutions by insuring that a spacecraft's attitude control system does not drive its absolute-attitude sensors out of their capture ranges. In a method embodiment, an operational process-noise covariance Q of a Kalman filter is temporarily replaced with a substantially greater interim process-noise covariance Q. This replacement increases the weight given to the most recent attitude measurements and hastens the reduction of attitude errors and gyroscope bias errors. The error effect of the substituted gyroscopes is reduced and the absolute-attitude sensors are not driven out of their capture range. In another method embodiment, this replacement is preceded by the temporary replacement of an operational measurement-noise variance R with a substantially larger interim measurement-noise variance R to reduce transients during the gyroscope substitutions.

  8. Attitude and vibration control of a large flexible space-based antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    Control systems synthesis is considered for controlling the rigid body attitude and elastic motion of a large deployable space-based antenna. Two methods for control systems synthesis are considered. The first method utilizes the stability and robustness properties of the controller consisting of torque actuators and collocated attitude and rate sensors. The second method is based on the linear-quadratic-Gaussian control theory. A combination of the two methods, which results in a two level hierarchical control system, is also briefly discussed. The performance of the controllers is analyzed by computing the variances of pointing errors, feed misalignment errors and surface contour errors in the presence of sensor and actuator noise.

  9. The Relationship of Pupil Control Ideology to Students' Rights Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lynn

    As a result of increased court intervention in favor of students' rights, a review of a sample of teachers concerning their attitudes about student control was examined. Taking into consideration the teachers' attitudes concerning student rights, the Pupil Control Ideology test and the Students' Rights Acceptance Scale were used as measurement…

  10. IMP-J attitude control prelaunch analysis and operations plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, H. L.; Mckendrew, J. B.; Repass, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    A description of the attitude control support being supplied for the Explorer 50 mission is given. Included in the document are descriptions of the computer programs being used to support attitude determination, prediction, and control for the mission and descriptions of the operating procedures that will be used to accomplish mission objectives.